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Sample records for global economoc crisis

  1. Analyzing Crisis in Global Financial Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Deo, Nivedita

    We apply the Random Matrix Theory and complex network techniques to 20 global financial indices and study the correlation and network properties before and during the financial crisis of 2008 respectively. We find that the largest eigenvalue deviate significantly from the upper bound which shows a strong correlation between financial indices. By using a sliding window of 25 days we find that largest eigenvalue represent the collective information about the correlation between global financial indices and its trend indicate the market conditions. It is confirmed that eigenvectors corresponding to second largest eigenvalue gives useful information about the sector formation in the global financial indices. We find that these clusters are formed on the basis of the geographical location. The correlation network is constructed using threshold method for different values of threshold θ in the range 0 to 0.9, at θ=0.2 the network is fully connected. At θ=0.6, the Americas, Europe and Asia/Pacific form different clusters before the crisis but during the crisis Americas and Europe are strongly linked. If we further increase the threshold to 0.9 we find that European countries France, Germany and UK consistently constitute the most tightly linked markets before and during the crisis. We find that the structure of Minimum Spanning Tree before the crisis is more star like whereas during the crisis it changes to be more chain like. Using the multifractal analysis, we find that Hurst exponents of financial indices increases during the period of crisis as compared to the period before the crisis. The empirical results verify the validity of measures, and this has led to a better understanding of complex financial markets.

  2. Wildlife Endangerment: A Global Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshorn, Arthur

    1981-01-01

    This essay discusses threats to wildlife posed by technological advances and human population growth. It presents evidence that habitats are being destroyed by pollution, exploitation of virgin lands, energy resource extraction, and other rapidly changing conditions. The author proposes a coordinated global effort to preserve vanishing species.…

  3. Global Health and the Global Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program. PMID:21330597

  4. Responding to the global human resources crisis.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Vasant; Brown, Hilary; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Adams, Orvill; Dussault, Gilles; Elzinga, Gijs; Nordstrom, Anders; Habte, Demissie; Jacobs, Marian; Solimano, Giorgio; Sewankambo, Nelson; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit; Evans, Timothy; Chen, Lincoln

    2004-05-01

    The global community is in the midst of a growing response to health crises in developing countries, which is focused on mobilising financial resources and increasing access to essential medicines. However, the response has yet to tackle the most important aspect of health-care systems--the people that make them work. Human resources for health--the personnel that deliver public-health, clinical, and environmental services--are in disarray and decline in much of the developing world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The reasons behind this disorder are complex. For decades, efforts have focused on building training institutions. What is becoming increasingly clear, however, is that issues of supply, demand, and mobility (transnational, regional, and local) are central to the human-resource problem. Without substantial improvements in workforces, newly mobilised funds and commodities will not deliver on their promise. The global community needs to engage in four core strategies: raise the profile of the issue of human resources; improve the conceptual base and statistical evidence available to decision makers; collect, share, and learn from country experiences; and begin to formulate and enact policies at the country level that affect all aspects of the crisis. PMID:15121412

  5. Schooling the Crisis? Education in the Aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John

    2014-01-01

    Five years on from the onset of the global financial crisis, there has been little sustained discussion of its implications for schooling. This is surprising when we consider that for the past three decades education has been shaped by assumptions about the need to prepare students for life in global capitalist economies. The consensus seems to be…

  6. Teacher Education, the Global Financial Crisis, Frogs and Bicycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Background: The extent to which the global financial crisis (GFC) has impacted upon teacher education in universities in Australia is potentially, like most other aspects of teacher education, a contested area. Purpose, aims/questions: The aim of this article is to examine the impact the GFC along with other funding constraints, has had on teacher…

  7. Monitoring the Effects of the Global Crisis on Education Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Gwang-Chol

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience and findings from the monitoring work carried out by UNESCO throughout 2009 to examine and assess the possible effects of the global financial and economic crisis on education provision in its Member States. The findings showed that although it was too early to ascertain the full extent of the impact of the…

  8. Leaders Urge Colleges to Think Globally Despite Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth; Wheeler, David

    2008-01-01

    The global economic crisis has accelerated the fear that the United States' international power is fading. It has also made clear the need for American higher education to engage more deeply with the rest of the world, not run from it. That was the consensus among a group of presidents and provosts who met in New York this month as part of "Higher…

  9. Protecting Pakistan's health during the global economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A

    2012-03-01

    The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources. PMID:22574485

  10. Australian baby boomers face retirement during the global financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Hal; Wells, Yvonne; O'Loughlin, Kate; Heese, Karla

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact in Australia of the global financial crisis on the baby boom cohort approaching later life. Data from national focus groups of people aged 50 to 64 years (N = 73), conducted in late 2008, found widespread but variable concern and uncertainty concerning work and retirement plans and experiences. A national survey (N = 1,009) of those aged 50 to 64 years in mid-2009 reported lower levels of financial satisfaction compared with other life domains; many planned to postpone retirement. Findings are interpreted in the context of policies and markets that differed significantly from those in the United States, notwithstanding the global nature of the financial crisis. PMID:23837628

  11. Making sense of the global health crisis: policy narratives, conflict, and global health governance.

    PubMed

    Ney, Steven

    2012-04-01

    Health has become a policy issue of global concern. Worried that the unstructured, polycentric, and pluralist nature of global health governance is undermining the ability to serve emergent global public health interests, some commentators are calling for a more systematic institutional response to the "global health crisis." Yet global health is a complex and uncertain policy issue. This article uses narrative analysis to explore how actors deal with these complexities and how uncertainties affect global health governance. By comparing three narratives in terms of their basic assumptions, the way they define problems as well as the solutions they propose, the analysis shows how the unstructured pluralism of global health policy making creates a wide scope of policy conflict over the global health crisis. This wide scope of conflict enables effective policy-oriented learning about global health issues. The article also shows how exclusionary patterns of cooperation and competition are emerging in health policy making at the global level. These patterns threaten effective learning by risking both polarization of the policy debate and unanticipated consequences of health policy. Avoiding these pitfalls, the analysis suggests, means creating global health governance regimes that promote openness and responsiveness in deliberation about the global health crisis. PMID:22422655

  12. Tackling the global NCD crisis: innovations in law and governance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bryan; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2013-01-01

    35 million people die annually of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), 80% of them in low- and middle-income countries - representing a marked epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases and from richer to poorer countries. The total number of NCDs is projected to rise by 17% over the coming decade, absent significant interventions. The NCD epidemic poses unique governance challenges: the causes are multifactorial, the affected populations diffuse, and effective responses require sustained multi-sectorial cooperation. The authors propose a range of regulatory options available at the domestic level, including stricter food labeling laws, regulation of food advertisements, tax incentives for healthy lifestyle choices, changes to the built environment, and direct regulation of food and drink producers. Given the realities of globalization, such interventions require global cooperation. In 2011, the UN General Assembly held a High-level meeting on NCDs, setting a global target of a 25% reduction in premature mortality from NCDs by 2025. Yet concrete plans and resource commitments for reaching this goal are not yet in the offing, and the window is rapidly closing for achieving these targets through prevention - as opposed to treatment, which is more costly. Innovative global governance for health is urgently needed to engage private industry and civil society in the global response to the NCD crisis. PMID:23581654

  13. The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Japan's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the global financial crisis on Japan's economy, especially on its higher education. The first section provides an overview of Japan's national economy with a focus on the impact of the global financial crisis on the national economy, then the author touches on the impact on the Japanese government's finances,…

  14. Sustaining Ecosystem Services in the Global Coral Reef Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, Richard B.; Precht, William F.

    2009-07-01

    Objective science is critical to understanding the relative impacts of the many putative causal agents in the global coral reef crisis. This paper provides an evidence-based scenario of causality leading to the current state of reef degradation. Contrary to revisionist narratives that emphasize the local-scale effects of fishing and nutrient loading, coral populations were and are degrading primarily due to regional-to global-scale factors. Most important among these large-scale factors are disease outbreaks and coral bleaching, both of which are related to climate change. Because policy recommendations and management strategies will differ depending on which cause(s) are perceived to exert the greatest influence, scientists must be explicit about when they are acting as advocates and when they are objectively conveying scientific results. Legitimate scientific debate is healthy and in no way diminishes the goal of creating cogent policy. Forced ideological unification, in contrast, risks obfuscation, undermining the scientific process. Science must move forward unfettered by political expediency; however, the situation is dire enough to warrant immediate action on local, regional, and global levels, based on the best scientific information at hand, in parallel with continuing research.

  15. Effects of global financial crisis on network structure in a local stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2014-08-01

    This study considers the effects of the 2008 global financial crisis on threshold networks of a local Korean financial market around the time of the crisis. Prices of individual stocks belonging to KOSPI 200 (Korea Composite Stock Price Index 200) are considered for three time periods, namely before, during, and after the crisis. Threshold networks are constructed from fully connected cross-correlation networks, and thresholds of cross-correlation coefficients are assigned to obtain threshold networks. At the high threshold, only one large cluster consisting of firms in the financial sector, heavy industry, and construction is observed during the crisis. However, before and after the crisis, there are several fragmented clusters belonging to various sectors. The power law of the degree distribution in threshold networks is observed within the limited range of thresholds. Threshold networks are fatter during the crisis than before or after the crisis. The clustering coefficient of the threshold network follows the power law in the scaling range.

  16. Global financial crisis and surgical practice: the Greek paradigm.

    PubMed

    Karidis, Nikolaos P; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2011-11-01

    Apart from the significant implications of recent financial crisis in overall health indices and mortality rates, the direct effect of health resources redistribution in everyday clinical practice is barely recognized. In the case of Greece, health sector reform and health spending cuts have already had a major impact on costly interventions, particularly in surgical practice. An increase in utilization of public health resources, lack of basic and advanced surgical supplies, salary deductions, and emerging issues in patient management have contributed to serious dysfunction of a public health system unable to sustain current needs. In this context, significant implications arise for the surgeons and patients as proper perioperative management is directly affected by reduced public health funding. The surgical community has expressed concerns about the quality of surgical care and the future of surgical progress in the era of the European Union. Greek surgeons are expected to support reform while maintaining a high level of surgical care to the public. The challenge of cost control in surgical practice provides, nevertheless, an excellent opportunity to reconsider health economics while innovation through a more traditional approach to the surgical patient should not be precluded. A Greek case study on the extent of the current situation is presented with reference to health policy reform, serving as an alarming paradigm for the global community under the pressure of a profound financial recession. PMID:21879425

  17. Defining and Acting on Global Health: The Case of Japan and the Refugee Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Leppold, Claire; Ozaki, Akihiko; Shimada, Yuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Tanimoto, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    What counts as global health? There has been limited discourse to date on the ways in which country-level contexts may shape positioning in global health agendas. By reviewing Japan’s response to the refugee crisis, we demonstrate a clash between rhetoric and action on global responsibility, and suggest that cultural and historical factors may be related to the ways of perceiving and acting upon global health.

  18. Global Crisis: Local Reality?--An International Analysis of "Crisis" in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, E. Jayne; Pramling-Samuelsson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    In a recent keynote speech Paul Standish noted "there is agreement in judgments. But how the response to those judgments is realised is always cultural" (paper presented to PESA Conference, Taiwan, 2012, p. 2). Making judgments about what constitutes "crisis" for children is not necessarily agreed universally, though clearly…

  19. Impact of global financial crisis on stylized facts between energy markets and stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Tan Kim; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the stylized facts is extremely important and has becomes a hot issue nowadays. However, recent global financial crisis that started from United States had spread all over the world and adversely affected the commodities and financial sectors of both developed and developing countries. This paper tends to examine the impact of crisis on stylized facts between energy and stock markets using ARCH-family models based on the experience over 2008 global financial crisis. Empirical results denote that there is long lasting, persists and positively significant the autocorrelation function of absolute returns and their squares in both markets for before and during crisis. Besides that, leverage effects are found in stock markets whereby bad news has a greater impact on volatility than good news for both before and during crisis. However, crisis does not indicate any impact on risk-return tradeoff for both energy and stock markets. For forecasting evaluations, GARCH model and FIAPARCH model indicate superior out of sample forecasts for before and during crisis respectively.

  20. Rhetorics of Regulation in Education after the Global Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, David

    2010-01-01

    Economic crises such as those of 1929, 1973 and 2008 appear to associate with shifts in the rhetorics of management. These dates mark the end of expansionary phases within an economic cycle, and they portend what James O'Connor has called a "fiscal crisis of the state". It is argued, speculatively, that immediately before and after an economic…

  1. The financial crisis and global health: the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) policy response.

    PubMed

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we interrogate the policy response of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to the global financial crisis, and discuss the likely global health implications, especially in low-income countries. In doing so, we ask if the IMF has meaningfully loosened its fiscal deficit targets in light of the economic challenges posed by the financial crisis and adjusted its macro-economic policy advice to this new reality; or has the rhetoric of counter-cyclical spending failed to translate into additional fiscal space for IMF loan-recipient countries, with negative health consequences? To answer these questions, we assess several post-crisis IMF lending agreements with countries requiring financial assistance, and draw upon recent academic studies and civil society reports examining policy conditionalities still being prescribed by the IMF. We also reference recent studies examining the health impacts of these conditionalities. We demonstrate that while the IMF has been somewhat more flexible in its crisis response than in previous episodes of financial upheaval, there has been no meaningful rethinking in the application of dominant neoliberal macro-economic policies. After showing some flexibility in the initial crisis response, the IMF is pushing for excessive contraction in most low and middle-income countries. We conclude that there remains a wide gap between the rhetoric and the reality of the IMF's policy and programming advice, with negative implications for global health. PMID:22504946

  2. Spatial and Financial Fixes and the Global Financial Crisis: Does Labour Have the Knowledge and Power to Meet the Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Five years after the global financial crisis, and trillions of dollars in stimulus spending later, the crisis not only remains unresolved, but risks entering a new deeper phase in southern Europe. The global turbulence, although experienced with differing degrees of intensity and dislocation around the world, manifests as high unemployment,…

  3. Impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns: An application of ARCH and GARCH methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Abdullah, Nurul Ain; Abdul Karim, Samsul Ariffin

    2013-04-01

    This paper is focusing on seeing the resilient of precious metals returns in facing the global financial crisis and provides a new guide for the investors before making investment decisions on precious metals. Four types of precious metals returns which are the variables selected in this study. The precious metals are gold, silver, bronze and platinum. All the variables are transferred to natural logarithm (ln). Daily data over the period 2 January 1995 to 30 December 2011 is used. Unit root tests that involve Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) tests have been employed in determining the stationarity of the variables. Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (ARCH) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) methods have been applied in measuring the impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns. The result shows that investing in platinum is less risky compared to the other precious metals because it is not influence by the crisis period.

  4. The Global Economic Crisis, Poverty and Education: A Perspective from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nambissan, Geetha B.

    2010-01-01

    Debates on the global economic recession have failed to draw adequate attention to the meaning of the crisis for the poor and their education, especially in later developing societies. In this paper, I focus on the education of children of the poor in India--a country that has experienced economic slowdown rather than recession. Available research…

  5. HRD Challenges Faced in the Post-Global Financial Crisis Period--Insights from the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeble-Ramsay, Diane Rose; Armitage, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to report initial empirical research that examines UK employees' perceptions of the changing nature of work since the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) to consider how the financial context may have constrained HRD practice and more sustainable approaches. Design/methodology/approach: Focus group research was facilitated…

  6. Global Environmental Crisis: Is There a Connection with Place-Based, Ecosociocultural Education in Rural Spain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental educators are challenged by how to teach children about global environmental crisis such as the Gulf oil spill, which only serves to engender children's fears and apprehensions about the negative impact of humans on ecosystems. Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article presents an interesting context from which to analyze and…

  7. The Global Economic Crisis and Educational Development: Responses and Coping Strategies in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines how Asian countries have responded to the global economic crisis which started in late 2008, with particular reference to explore what major coping strategies have been adopted by these Asian governments to continue educational development. This comparative study highlights the significant role of the state in…

  8. Rationale for Students Preparation and Entrepreneurship Education in the Face of Global Economic Crisis in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onuma, Nwite

    2016-01-01

    The rationale for students preparation in job creation through entrepreneurship education was examined. Problems of unemployment among Nigerian university graduates and challenges to entrepreneurship in the face of global economic crisis were also highlighted. The persistent problem of unemployment among University graduates and its attendant…

  9. Marx and Foucault: Subjectivity, Employability and the Crisis of Youth Unemployment in the Great Global Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the different approaches taken to the concepts of work or labour by Marx and Foucault, examining in particular the question of subjectivity in relation to youth unemployment and the current crisis of youth unemployment as part of the aftermath of the global recession of 2008.

  10. What Effect Did the Global Financial Crisis Have upon Youth Wellbeing? Evidence from Four Australian Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Jerrim, John; Anders, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has suggested significant negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on mental health and wellbeing. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental period of late adolescence may be at particular risk of economic downturns. Harmonizing 4 longitudinal cohorts of Australian youth (N = 38,017), we estimate the…

  11. The global financial crisis and health equity: Early experiences from Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely acknowledged that austerity measures in the wake of the global financial crisis are starting to undermine population health results. Yet, few research studies have focused on the ways in which the financial crisis and the ensuing ‘Great Recession’ have affected health equity, especially through their impact on social determinants of health; neither has much attention been given to the health consequences of the fiscal austerity regime that quickly followed a brief period of counter-cyclical government spending for bank bailouts and economic stimulus. Canada has not remained insulated from these developments, despite its relative success in maneuvering the global financial crisis. Methods The study draws on three sources of evidence: A series of semi-structured interviews in Ottawa and Toronto, with key informants selected on the basis of their expertise (n = 12); an analysis of recent (2012) Canadian and Ontario budgetary impacts on social determinants of health; and documentation of trend data on key social health determinants pre- and post the financial crisis. Results The findings suggest that health equity is primarily impacted through two main pathways related to the global financial crisis: austerity budgets and associated program cutbacks in areas crucial to addressing the inequitable distribution of social determinants of health, including social assistance, housing, and education; and the qualitative transformation of labor markets, with precarious forms of employment expanding rapidly in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Preliminary evidence suggests that these tendencies will lead to a further deepening of existing health inequities, unless counter-acted through a change in policy direction. Conclusions This article documents some of the effects of financial crisis and severe economic decline on health equity in Canada. However, more research is necessary to study policy choices that could mitigate this effect

  12. Zika Virus: Anatomy of a Global Health Crisis.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus infection has emerged as the world's newest health threat, linked to microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. We address the rapid global spread of this disease, and the prospects for successful prevention and treatment. PMID:27069344

  13. Cultural Identity Crisis in the Age of Globalization and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring together various elements that portray the complex conceptuality of cultural identity within technological society. It engages in a theoretical inquiry into the questions of how the wide-ranging uses young people are now making of new information and communication technologies and global media may possess the…

  14. The Education and Skills Gap: A Global Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Dave

    2011-01-01

    It is like trying to fit a triangular peg into a round hole while both the hole and the peg continually change shape and size. Sound a little crazy? That is just what industry thinks about the current global "one-size-fits-all" concept of education. The perception from business, government and education leaders of 50 nations at the Bahrain 2010…

  15. The global financial crisis: Is there any contagion between real estate and equity markets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Eddie Chi-man; Chan, Ka Kwan Kevin

    2014-07-01

    This study examines contagion across equity and securitized real estate markets of Hong Kong, US and UK during the global financial crisis by the Forbes-Rigobon, coskewness and cokurtosis tests. In particular, this is the first study to use the cokurtosis test to examine contagion between real estate and equity markets. The results show that the cokurtosis test can detect additional channels of contagion, and hence is a more powerful test. In contrary to Fry et al. (2010), we find that the cokurtosis test shows a highly significant evidence of contagion between the equity and real estate markets in both directions. In particular, the contagion between US's equity and real estate markets is the most significant. This reflects that US is the centre of shock of the global financial crisis.

  16. Stability and change in political conservatism following the global financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Milojev, Petar; Greaves, Lara; Osborne, Danny; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzes data from a national probability panel sample of New Zealanders (N = 5,091) to examine stability and change in political orientation over four consecutive yearly assessments (2009-2012) following the 2007/2008 global financial crisis. Bayesian Latent Growth Modeling identified systematic variation in the growth trajectory of conservatism that was predicted by age and socio-economic status. Younger people (ages 25-45) did not change in their political orientation. Older people, however, became more conservative over time. Likewise, people with lower socio-economic status showed a marked increase in political conservatism. In addition, tests of rank-order stability showed that age had a cubic relationship with the stability of political orientation over our four annual assessments. Our findings provide strong support for System Justification Theory by showing that increases in conservatism in the wake of the recent global financial crisis occurred primarily among the poorest and most disadvantaged. PMID:25416043

  17. The international political economy of food: a global crisis.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, H

    1995-01-01

    The largest gap between national regulation and transnational economic organization is in the agro-food sector. This gap is the legacy of the post-World War II food regime, whose implicit rules gave priority to national farm programs (including import controls and export subsidies); placed the United States at the center; generated chronic surpluses; and allowed international power to take the unusual form of subsidized exports of surplus commodities, particularly wheat. The author analyzes the emergence and contradictions of the postwar food regime as a tension between replication and integration of national agro-food sectors, often interpreted as "export of the U.S. model." By the early 1970s, replication led to international economic conflict, while transnational corporations found national regulatory frameworks to be obstacles to further integration of a potentially global agro-food sector. A new axis between Asian import countries and new agricultural countries, such as Brazil, has destabilized the Atlantic-centered food regime, without creating a new regime. Alternative future regime are identified, based on the shift from agriculture to food, employment, and land use as political issues: private global regulation or democratic regulation of nested, regional agro-food economies, federated at the international level. PMID:7591379

  18. The Global Energy Crisis: Today and Tomorrow. Developing Proactive Action Student Awareness and Understanding About Finite Fuels and Alternative Energy Sources in a Global Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    Background information and a teaching strategy are provided to help students better understand the global energy crisis and learn to take action. An overview of the energy crisis includes a discussion of the unequal distribution of natural resources throughout the world, the finite nature of fossil fuels, and problems associated with the depletion…

  19. Rapid growth in CO2 emissions after the 2008-2009 global financial crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Glen P.; Marland, Gregg; Le Quere, Corinne; Boden, Thomas A; Canadell, Josep; Raupach, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production grew 5.9% in 2010, surpassed 9 Pg of carbon (Pg C) for the first time, and more than offset the 1.4% decrease in 2009. The impact of the 2008 2009 global financial crisis (GFC) on emissions has been short-lived owing to strong emissions growth in emerging economies, a return to emissions growth in developed economies, and an increase in the fossil-fuel intensity of the world economy.

  20. Pathogens, prejudice, and politics: the role of the global health community in the European refugee crisis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mishal S; Osei-Kofi, Anna; Omar, Abbas; Kirkbride, Hilary; Kessel, Anthony; Abbara, Aula; Heymann, David; Zumla, Alimuddin; Dar, Osman

    2016-08-01

    Involuntary migration is a crucially important global challenge from an economic, social, and public health perspective. The number of displaced people reached an unprecedented level in 2015, at a total of 60 million worldwide, with more than 1 million crossing into Europe in the past year alone. Migrants and refugees are often perceived to carry a higher load of infectious diseases, despite no systematic association. We propose three important contributions that the global health community can make to help address infectious disease risks and global health inequalities worldwide, with a particular focus on the refugee crisis in Europe. First, policy decisions should be based on a sound evidence base regarding health risks and burdens to health systems, rather than prejudice or unfounded fears. Second, for incoming refugees, we must focus on building inclusive, cost-effective health services to promote collective health security. Finally, alongside protracted conflicts, widening of health and socioeconomic inequalities between high-income and lower-income countries should be acknowledged as major drivers for the global refugee crisis, and fully considered in planning long-term solutions. PMID:27339456

  1. A Framework and Methodology for Navigating Disaster and Global Health in Crisis Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jennifer L.; Burkle, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    Both ‘disasters’ and ‘global health in crisis’ research has dramatically grown due to the ever-increasing frequency and magnitude of crises around the world. Large volumes of peer-reviewed literature are not only a testament to the field’s value and evolution, but also present an unprecedented outpouring of seemingly unmanageable information across a wide array of crises and disciplines. Disaster medicine, health and humanitarian assistance, global health and public health disaster literature all lie within the disaster and global health in crisis literature spectrum and are increasingly accepted as multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary disciplines. Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners now face a new challenge; that of accessing this expansive literature for decision-making and exploring new areas of research. Individuals are also reaching beyond the peer-reviewed environment to grey literature using search engines like Google Scholar to access policy documents, consensus reports and conference proceedings. What is needed is a method and mechanism with which to search and retrieve relevant articles from this expansive body of literature. This manuscript presents both a framework and workable process for a diverse group of users to navigate the growing peer-reviewed and grey disaster and global health in crises literature. Methods: Disaster terms from textbooks, peer-reviewed and grey literature were used to design a framework of thematic clusters and subject matter ‘nodes’. A set of 84 terms, selected from 143 curated terms was organized within each node reflecting topics within the disaster and global health in crisis literature. Terms were crossed with one another and the term ‘disaster’. The results were formatted into tables and matrices. This process created a roadmap of search terms that could be applied to the PubMed database. Each search in the matrix or table results in a listed number of articles. This process was applied to

  2. Going Global? Internationalizing Australian Universities in a Time of Global Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the past decade's internationalization of Australian universities against a backdrop of increasing globalization, particularly the expansion of global capitalism. Examines international student flows, faculty, and programs, assessing the relative presence of internationalization (mutuality and reciprocal cultural relations) versus…

  3. Analysis of the effects of the global financial crisis on the Turkish economy, using hierarchical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram

    2012-04-01

    We have analyzed the topology of 50 important Turkish companies for the period 2006-2010 using the concept of hierarchical methods (the minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT)). We investigated the statistical reliability of links between companies in the MST by using the bootstrap technique. We also used the average linkage cluster analysis (ALCA) technique to observe the cluster structures much better. The MST and HT are known as useful tools to perceive and detect global structure, taxonomy, and hierarchy in financial data. We obtained four clusters of companies according to their proximity. We also observed that the Banks and Holdings cluster always forms in the centre of the MSTs for the periods 2006-2007, 2008, and 2009-2010. The clusters match nicely with their common production activities or their strong interrelationship. The effects of the Automobile sector increased after the global financial crisis due to the temporary incentives provided by the Turkish government. We find that Turkish companies were not very affected by the global financial crisis.

  4. Fractal Markets Hypothesis and the Global Financial Crisis: Wavelet Power Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    We analyze whether the prediction of the fractal markets hypothesis about a dominance of specific investment horizons during turbulent times holds. To do so, we utilize the continuous wavelet transform analysis and obtained wavelet power spectra which give the crucial information about the variance distribution across scales and its evolution in time. We show that the most turbulent times of the Global Financial Crisis can be very well characterized by the dominance of short investment horizons which is in hand with the assertions of the fractal markets hypothesis. PMID:24091386

  5. The Global Coral Reef Crisis: Trends and Solutions (Coral Reefs: Values, Threats, and the Marine Aquarium Trade)

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, Craig S.

    2003-02-05

    Second only to tropical rainforests, coral reefs support one of the world's most diverse natural habitats. Over 350 million individuals depend on coral reef resources for food and income. Unfortunately, the Earth is in the midst of a coral reef crisis. Anthropogenic impacts including overfishing, destructive fishing practices, sedimentation and pollution, as well as global climate change, have served to disrupt the natural processes that maintain the health of these ecosystems. Until recently, however, the global extent of the coral reef crisis was unknown. Reef Check was developed in 1996 as a volunteer, community-based monitoring protocol designed to measure the health of coral reefs on a global scale. With goals of education, monitoring, and management, Reef Check has activities in over 60 countries and territories. They have not only provided scientific evidence of the global extent of the coral reef crisis, but have provided the first community based steps to alleviate this urgent situation.

  6. Impact of 2008 global economic crisis on suicide: time trend study in 54 countries

    PubMed Central

    Stuckler, David; Yip, Paul; Gunnell, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of the 2008 global economic crisis on international trends in suicide and to identify sex/age groups and countries most affected. Design Time trend analysis comparing the actual number of suicides in 2009 with the number that would be expected based on trends before the crisis (2000-07). Setting Suicide data from 54 countries; for 53 data were available in the World Health Organization mortality database and for one (the United States) data came the CDC online database. Population People aged 15 or above. Main outcome measures Suicide rate and number of excess suicides in 2009. Results There were an estimated 4884 (95% confidence interval 3907 to 5860) excess suicides in 2009 compared with the number expected based on previous trends (2000-07). The increases in suicide mainly occurred in men in the 27 European and 18 American countries; the suicide rates were 4.2% (3.4% to 5.1%) and 6.4% (5.4% to 7.5%) higher, respectively, in 2009 than expected if earlier trends had continued. For women, there was no change in European countries and the increase in the Americas was smaller than in men (2.3%). Rises in European men were highest in those aged 15-24 (11.7%), while in American countries men aged 45-64 showed the largest increase (5.2%). Rises in national suicide rates in men seemed to be associated with the magnitude of increases in unemployment, particularly in countries with low levels of unemployment before the crisis (Spearman’s rs=0.48). Conclusions After the 2008 economic crisis, rates of suicide increased in the European and American countries studied, particularly in men and in countries with higher levels of job loss. PMID:24046155

  7. Global environmental crisis: is there a connection with place-based, ecosociocultural education in rural Spain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasson, George E.

    2011-06-01

    Environmental educators are challenged by how to teach children about global environmental crisis such as the Gulf oil spill, which only serves to engender children's fears and apprehensions about the negative impact of humans on ecosystems. Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article presents an interesting context from which to analyze and reflect on the connections between local and global environmental education issues. The authors' study involves student researchers in actively learning about place-based, sustainable agricultural practices in rural Spain that are passed down through generations. These ecofriendly, culturally mediated farming practices, referred to as "traditional" by the farmers, were contrasted to "modern" practices that are used throughout market-based globalized economy. The connection between local (traditional) and global (modern) practices became very important in the reflections and learning of the student participants about sustainability and ecojustice issues associated with traditional farming. Students learned from the local farmers a positive, non-dualistic approach to sustainable agriculture in which human activity and culture is connected to ecological sustainability. Further, the students' active research of sustainable and culturally medicated agricultural practices at the local level provided a frame of reference to understand global environmental crises.

  8. Assessing the global zoo response to the amphibian crisis through 20-year trends in captive collections.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jeff; Patel, Freisha; Griffiths, Richard A; Young, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Global amphibian declines are one of the biggest challenges currently facing the conservation community, and captive breeding is one way to address this crisis. Using information from the International Species Information System zoo network, we examined trends in global zoo amphibian holdings across species, zoo region, and species geographical region of origin from 1994 to 2014. These trends were compared before and after the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment to assess whether any changes occurred and whether zoo amphibian conservation effort had increased. The numbers of globally threatened species (GTS) and their proportional representation in global zoo holdings increased and this rate of increase was significantly greater after 2004. North American, European, and Oceanian GTS were best represented in zoos globally, and proportions of Oceanian GTS held increased the most since 2004. South American and Asian GTS had the lowest proportional representation in zoos. At a regional zoo level, European zoos held the lowest proportions of GTS, and this proportion did not increase after 2004. Since 1994, the number of species held in viable populations has increased, and these species are distributed among more institutions. However, as of 2014, zoos held 6.2% of globally threatened amphibians, a much smaller figure than for other vertebrate groups and one that falls considerably short of the number of species for which ex situ management may be desirable. Although the increased effort zoos have put into amphibian conservation over the past 20 years is encouraging, more focus is needed on ex situ conservation priority species. This includes building expertise and capacity in countries that hold them and tracking existing conservation efforts if the evidence-based approach to amphibian conservation planning at a global level is to be further developed. PMID:26219401

  9. Responding to the public health consequences of the Ukraine crisis: an opportunity for global health diplomacy

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Tim K; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peace and stability in Eastern Europe is now at a crossroads with the rapidly deteriorating foreign policy crisis continuing to unfold in the Ukraine. However, largely overlooked in the context of other foreign policy and diplomatic priorities are the serious public health consequences for the region following the annexation of Crimea and the subsequent decision to ban opioid substitution therapy in the disputed territory. Discussion On 1 May 2014, the Republic of Crimea officially announced it would end access to opioid substitution therapy, an essential harm reduction tool recognized by international organizations and virtually all other European countries. The policy development marks a critical reversal in the region’s fight against its growing HIV epidemic and also threatens years of public health gains aimed at providing evidence-based and integrated treatment approaches to combat drug dependence and HIV. Beyond these risks, the Ukrainian conflict could also negatively impact control of other infectious diseases that are converging with HIV and injection drug use, such as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and hepatitis C virus. The continuing conflict is also likely to have a significant negative impact on Ukraine’s fragile public health system leading to even worse population health outcomes than currently experienced by the country. Conclusions In response to this crisis, the application of global health diplomacy principles represents a possible route of advocacy to ensure that HIV prevention, humane treatment of substance using populations, and improving public health outcomes in the region are pursued among concerned international stakeholders. In order to be effective, global health diplomacy efforts must be coordinated and advocated in all forms of diplomatic engagement, including at the core, multistakeholder and informal levels and through existing channels such as the different human rights bodies of the United Nations as well as

  10. The global financial crisis and the Great Recession of 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Rajiv G

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a re-examination of the global financial crisis that began in and was accompanied by the most severe recession since the Great Depression. It builds on our earlier paper (Dore and Singh, 2009) and expands its scope. It is divided into parts. The first part deals with the ideological backdrop in which this crisis occurred, namely the belief in the rationality and stability of all markets including the capital markets, called the 'efficient market hypothesis.' The second part is a survey of the role of income distribution and its relations to aggregate spending and the growing role played by credit in the circular flow of income. The third part examines some features of the business cycle expansion phase of to . The fourth part is a brief report on a nonlinear Vector Error Correction model spanning the period to and how this expansion came to an end. The fifth part is a brief comparison of the Great Recession with the Great Depression. Finally in the sixth part, the international impact of the Great Recession is considered briefly, followed by some conclusions. PMID:20587304

  11. How severe is the modern biotic crisis?—A comparison of global change and biotic crisis between Permian-Triassic transition and modern times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongfu; He, Weihong; Xie, Shucheng

    2011-03-01

    A comparison of the modern condition with the Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) times was made to estimate how severe the modern biotic crisis is. About the global changes, the two periods are correlative in carbon dioxide concentration and carbon isotope negative excursion, UV strengthening, temperature increase, ocean acidification, and weathering enhancement. The following tendencies of biotic crises are also correlative: acceleration of extinction rates accompanied by parabolic curve of extinction with a turning interval representing the critical crisis; decline of the three main ecosystems: reefs, tropical rain forests and marine phytoplankton. It is also interesting to note that certain leading organism in both periods undergo accelerated evolution during the crisis. The comparison shows that the modern crisis is about at the turning point from decline to decimation. The extinction curve is now parabolic, and the extinction rate has been accelerated, but the decimation is not yet in real. This is also justified by the modern situation of the three main ecosystems. Modern biotic decline may worsen into decimation and mass extinction but may also get better and recover to ordinary evolution. Since human activities are the main cause of the deterioration of environments and organisms, mankind should be responsible and able to strive for the recovery of the crisis. For the future of mankind, Homo sapiens may become extinct, i.e., disappear without leaving descendants, or evolve into a new and more advanced species, i.e., disappear but leave descendants. For a better future, mankind should be conscious of the facing danger and act as a whole to save biodiversity and harmonize with the environments.

  12. What Effect Did the Global Financial Crisis Have Upon Youth Wellbeing? Evidence From Four Australian Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has suggested significant negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on mental health and wellbeing. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental period of late adolescence may be at particular risk of economic downturns. Harmonizing 4 longitudinal cohorts of Australian youth (N = 38,017), we estimate the impact of the GFC on 1 general and 11 domain specific measures of wellbeing at age 19 and 22. Significant differences in wellbeing in most life domains were found, suggesting that wellbeing is susceptible to economic shocks. Given that the GFC in Australia was relatively mild, the finding of clear negative effects across 2 ages is of international concern. PMID:26854968

  13. What effect did the global financial crisis have upon youth wellbeing? Evidence from four Australian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Parker, Philip D; Jerrim, John; Anders, Jake

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has suggested significant negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on mental health and wellbeing. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental period of late adolescence may be at particular risk of economic downturns. Harmonizing 4 longitudinal cohorts of Australian youth (N = 38,017), we estimate the impact of the GFC on 1 general and 11 domain specific measures of wellbeing at age 19 and 22. Significant differences in wellbeing in most life domains were found, suggesting that wellbeing is susceptible to economic shocks. Given that the GFC in Australia was relatively mild, the finding of clear negative effects across 2 ages is of international concern. PMID:26854968

  14. The US regulatory and pharmacopeia response to the global heparin contamination crisis.

    PubMed

    Szajek, Anita Y; Chess, Edward; Johansen, Kristian; Gratzl, Gyöngyi; Gray, Elaine; Keire, David; Linhardt, Robert J; Liu, Jian; Morris, Tina; Mulloy, Barbara; Nasr, Moheb; Shriver, Zachary; Torralba, Pearle; Viskov, Christian; Williams, Roger; Woodcock, Janet; Workman, Wesley; Al-Hakim, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The contamination of the widely used lifesaving anticoagulant drug heparin in 2007 has drawn renewed attention to the challenges that are associated with the characterization, quality control and standardization of complex biological medicines from natural sources. Heparin is a linear, highly sulfated polysaccharide consisting of alternating glucosamine and uronic acid monosaccharide residues. Heparin has been used successfully as an injectable antithrombotic medicine since the 1930s, and its isolation from animal sources (primarily porcine intestine) as well as its manufacturing processes have not changed substantially since its introduction. The 2007 heparin contamination crisis resulted in several deaths in the United States and hundreds of adverse reactions worldwide, revealing the vulnerability of a complex global supply chain to sophisticated adulteration. This Perspective discusses how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) and international stakeholders collaborated to redefine quality expectations for heparin, thus making an important natural product better controlled and less susceptible to economically motivated adulteration. PMID:27281424

  15. Out of the Frying Pan: Into the Fire of Post-Global Financial Crisis (GFC) University Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A downturn in enrolments of international students following the Global Financial Crisis is causing publicised stress among Australian universities that have come to rely on associated income. How to survive the financial consequences is currently receiving urgent attention within the sector. This paper models the problem of developing responses…

  16. The Global Economic Crisis: Setbacks to the Educational Agenda for the Minority in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingubu, Moses Shiasha

    2010-01-01

    This paper captures the impact of the Global Economic Crisis on educational programs serving minority groups in developing countries. It has been established that the most vulnerable groupings include nomadic and pastoralist communities, slum dwellers, children in war zones, and women. Various educational interventions such as mobile schooling,…

  17. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  18. A Response to: Global Security, Religion and Education Development--A Crisis for the Field of Comparative and International Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozanne, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the author's response to "Global security, religion and education development: a crisis for the field of comparative and international education?" Prof. Lynn Davies's introduction to the Forum is interesting and provocative, and the author advances his response in the spirit of dialogue by looking at Davies's arguments, the…

  19. The Halcyon Days Are over. Or Are They? Implications of the Global Financial Crisis for Managers' Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the implications for managers' careers of the global financial crisis. It draws on empirical research during the last period of major job cuts. Evidence comes from a mail survey of over 1000 career histories of Australian managers, with a response rate of 44%. Changes to career satisfaction, job satisfaction, job security,…

  20. The global snakebite crisis--a public health issue misunderstood, not neglected.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ian D; Norris, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    The global problem of venomous snakebite continues to attract attention despite it being described as a "neglected" issue. The current focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) remains anti-snake venom quality, although "availability and sustainability" of supply are consistently described as the key issues. Sustainability of antivenom supply has been elusive, with cost and pricing in developing countries being cited as the major reasons. The current WHO approach fails to explore the cost issue, but rather focuses on quality improvements, which may well adversely affect the costs of a product already perceived to be 'unaffordable.' The reference to cost and price indicates a marketing-based perspective may well give more relevant solutions to the snakebite crisis. This paper introduces a marketing model to examine global snakebite and to identify if the current approach is relevant and effective. The "4 Ps" model examines if the correct products are available, whether sufficient information exists concerning estimated market size, whether the assumptions frequently made about the costs of the product are correct and fully understood, if the product is promoted properly, and whether the method by which the product reaches the end user is optimum. The resulting analysis demonstrates that the current approach is characterized by a misunderstanding of the nature of the global snakebite problem. Further, a lack of implementation of key solutions, such as training doctors in developing countries with relevant protocols, has inevitably led to a lack of improvement in the snakebite arena over the last 30 years. PMID:19364169

  1. Potential ramifications of the global economic crisis on human-mediated dispersal of marine non-indigenous species.

    PubMed

    Floerl, Oliver; Coutts, Ashley

    2009-11-01

    The global economy is currently experiencing one of its biggest contractions on record. A sharp decline in global imports and exports since 2008 has affected global merchant vessel traffic, the principal mode of bulk commodity transport around the world. During the first quarter of 2009, 10% and 25% of global container and refrigerated vessels, respectively, were reported to be unemployed. A large proportion of these vessels are lying idle at anchor in the coastal waters of South East Asia, sometimes for periods of greater than 3 months. Whilst at anchor, the hulls of such vessels will develop diverse and extensive assemblages of marine biofouling species. Once back in service, these vessels are at risk of transporting higher-than-normal quantities of marine organisms between their respective global trading ports. We discuss the potential ramifications of the global economic crisis on the spread of marine non-indigenous species via global commercial shipping. PMID:19706355

  2. Structural changes in the minimal spanning tree and the hierarchical network in the Korean stock market around the global financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-04-01

    This paper considers stock prices in the Korean stock market during the 2008 global financial crisis by focusing on three time periods: before, during, and after the crisis. Complex networks are extracted from cross-correlation coefficients between the normalized logarithmic return of the stock price time series of firms. The minimal spanning trees (MSTs) and the hierarchical network (HN) are generated from cross-correlation coefficients. Before and after the crisis, securities firms are located at the center of the MST. During the crisis, however, the center of the MST changes to a firm in heavy industry and construction. During the crisis, the MST shrinks in comparison to that before and that after the crisis. This topological change in the MST during the crisis reflects a distinct effect of the global financial crisis. The cophenetic correlation coefficient increases during the crisis, indicating an increase in the hierarchical structure during in this period. When crisis hits the market, firms behave synchronously, and their correlations are higher than those during a normal period.

  3. Developing a Nuclear Global Health Workforce Amid the Increasing Threat of a Nuclear Crisis.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M; Dallas, Cham E

    2016-02-01

    This study argues that any nuclear weapon exchange or major nuclear plant meltdown, in the categories of human systems failure and conflict-based crises, will immediately provoke an unprecedented public health emergency of international concern. Notwithstanding nuclear triage and management plans and technical monitoring standards within the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization (WHO), the capacity to rapidly deploy a robust professional workforce with the internal coordination and collaboration capabilities required for large-scale nuclear crises is profoundly lacking. A similar dilemma, evident in the early stages of the Ebola epidemic, was eventually managed by using worldwide infectious disease experts from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and multiple multidisciplinary WHO-supported foreign medical teams. This success has led the WHO to propose the development of a Global Health Workforce. A strategic format is proposed for nuclear preparedness and response that builds and expands on the current model for infectious disease outbreak currently under consideration. This study proposes the inclusion of a nuclear global health workforce under the technical expertise of the International Atomic Energy Agency and WHO's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network leadership and supported by the International Health Regulations Treaty. Rationales are set forth for the development, structure, and function of a nuclear workforce based on health outcomes research that define the unique health, health systems, and public health challenges of a nuclear crisis. Recent research supports that life-saving opportunities are possible, but only if a rapidly deployed and robust multidisciplinary response component exists. PMID:26527407

  4. How many infants likely died in Africa as a result of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jed; Schady, Norbert

    2013-05-01

    The human consequences of the recent global financial crisis for the developing world are presumed to be severe, but few studies have quantified them. This letter estimates the human cost of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis in one critical dimension-infant mortality-for countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis pools birth-level data, as reported in female adult retrospective birth histories from all Demographic and Health Surveys collected in sub-Saharan Africa. This results in a data set of 639,000 births to 264,000 women in 30 countries. We use regression models with flexible controls for temporal trends to assess an infant's likelihood of death as a function of fluctuations in national income. We then calculate the expected number of excess deaths by combining these estimates with growth shortfalls as a result of the crisis. The results suggest 28,000-50,000 excess infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in the crisis-affected year of 2009. Notably, most of these additional deaths were concentrated among girls. Policies that protect the income of poor households and that maintain critical health services during times of economic contraction may reduce the expected increase in mortality. Interventions targeted at female infants and young girls can be particularly beneficial. PMID:22544811

  5. Efficiency and cross-correlation in equity market during global financial crisis: Evidence from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Pengcheng; Li, Daye; Li, Shuo

    2016-02-01

    Using one minute high-frequency data of the Shanghai Composite Index (SHCI) and the Shenzhen Composite Index (SZCI) (2007-2008), we employ the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the detrended cross correlation analysis (DCCA) with rolling window approach to observe the evolution of market efficiency and cross-correlation in pre-crisis and crisis period. Considering the fat-tail distribution of return time series, statistical test based on shuffling method is conducted to verify the null hypothesis of no long-term dependence. Our empirical research displays three main findings. First Shanghai equity market efficiency deteriorated while Shenzhen equity market efficiency improved with the advent of financial crisis. Second the highly positive dependence between SHCI and SZCI varies with time scale. Third financial crisis saw a significant increase of dependence between SHCI and SZCI at shorter time scales but a lack of significant change at longer time scales, providing evidence of contagion and absence of interdependence during crisis.

  6. The impact of the global economic crisis on HIV and AIDS programmes directed at women and children in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Serieux, John; Njelesani, Mwansa; Chompolola, Abson; Sepehri, Ardeshir; Guliani, Harminder

    2015-01-01

    This investigation sought to ascertain the extent to which the global economic crisis of 2008-2009 affected the delivery of HIV/AIDS-related services directed at pregnant and lactating mothers, children living with HIV and children orphaned through HIV in Zambia. Using a combined macroeconomic analysis and a multiple case study approach, the authors found that from mid-2008 to mid-2009 the Zambian economy was indeed buffeted by the global economic crisis. During that period the case study subjects experienced challenges with respect to the funding, delivery and effectiveness of services that were clearly attributable, directly or indirectly, to the global economic crisis. The source of funding most often compromised was external private flows. The services most often compromised were non-medical services (such as the delivery of assistance to orphans and counselling to HIV-positive mothers) while the more strictly medical services (such as antiretroviral therapy) were protected from funding cuts and service interruptions. Impairments to service effectiveness were experienced relatively equally by (HIV-positive) pregnant women and lactating mothers and children orphaned through HIV. Children living with AIDS were least affected because of the primacy of ARV therapy in their care. PMID:26223326

  7. Syndromes of the global water crisis - exploring the emergent dynamics through socio-hydrological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuil, Linda; Levy, Morgan; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch; Penny, Gopal; Scott, Christopher; Srinivasan, Veena; Thompson, Sally; Troy, Tara

    2014-05-01

    There is a great variety of human water systems at the global scale due to the types and timing of water supply/availability, and the high diversity in water use, management, and abstraction methods. Importantly, this is largely driven by differences in welfare, social values, institutional frameworks, and cultural traditions of communities. The observed trend of a growing world population in combination with changing habits that generally increase our water consumption per capita implies that an increasing number of communities will face water scarcity. Over the years much research has been done in order to increase our understanding of human water systems and their associated water problems, using both top-down and bottom-up approaches. Despite these efforts, the challenge has remained to generalize findings beyond the areas of interests and to establish a common framework in order to compare and learn from different cases as a basis for finding solutions. In a recent analysis of multiple interdisciplinary subnational water resources case studies, it was shown that a suite of distinct resources utilization patterns leading to a water crisis can be identified, namely: 1) groundwater depletion, 2) ecological destruction, 3) drought-driven conflicts, 4) unmet subsistence needs, 5) resource capture by elite and 6) water reallocation to nature (Srinivasan et al., 2012). The effects of these syndromes on long-lasting human wellbeing can be grouped in the following outcomes: unsustainability, vulnerability, chronic scarcity and adaptation. The aim of this group collaboration is to build on this work through the development of a socio-hydrological model that is capable of reproducing the above syndromes and outcomes, ultimately giving insight in the different pathways leading to the syndromes. The resulting model will be distinct compared to existing model frameworks for two reasons. First of all, feedback loops between the hydrological, the environmental and the human

  8. The effect of the subprime crisis on the credit risk in global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Min Jae; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Soo Yong; Ban, Joon Hwa

    2013-05-01

    Credit default swap (CDS) has become one of the most actively traded credit derivatives, and its importance in finance markets has increased after the subprime crisis. In this study, we analyzed the correlation structure of credit risks embedded in CDS and the influence of the subprime crisis on this topological space. We found that the correlation was stronger in the cluster constructed according to the location of the CDS reference companies than in the one constructed according to their industries. The correlation both within a given cluster and between different clusters became significantly stronger after the subprime crisis. The causality test shows that the lead lag effect between the portfolios (into which reference companies are grouped by the continent where each of them is located) is reversed in direction because the portion of non-investable and investable reference companies in each portfolio has changed since then. The effect of a single impulse has increased and the response time relaxation has become prolonged after the crisis as well.

  9. The Global Impact of the Financial Crisis: Main Trends in Developed and Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Heather; West, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the financial crisis on higher education has been considerable, and its effects are continuing. These effects can be discerned in a number of ways; but whereas both developed and developing countries are affected, they can be affected differently. A modifying factor is the shape and structure of the higher education system within…

  10. An examination of contemporary financing practices and the global financial crisis on nonprofit multi-hospital health systems.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Louis J; Smith, Pamela C

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on large US nonprofit health systems. We proceed from an analysis of the contemporary capital financing practices of 25 of the nation's largest nonprofit hospitals and health systems. We find that these institutions relied on operating cash flows, public issues of insured variable rate debt, and accumulated investment to meet their capital financing needs. The combined use of these three financial instruments provided these organizations with $22.4 billion of long-term capital at favorable terms and the lowest interest rates. Our analysis further indicates that the extensive utilization of bond insurance, auction rate debt, and interest rate derivatives created significant risk exposures for these health systems. These risks were realized by the broader global financial crisis of 2008. Findings indicate these health systems incurred large losses from the early retirement of their variable rate debt. In addition, many organizations were forced to post nearly $1 billion of liquid collateral due to the falling values of their interest rate derivatives. Finally, the investment portfolios of these large nonprofit health systems suffered millions of dollars of unrealized capital losses, which may minimize their ability to finance future capital investment requirements. PMID:21528830

  11. Is Greed Still Good? Was It Ever? Exploring the Emoscapes of the Global Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah

    2010-01-01

    We seek to contribute to political and policy analyses of globalisation by attending to global flows of emotions and by developing the concept global emoscapes. In so doing we build on Arjun Appadurai's theorisation of the disjunctive scapes of the global cultural economy. As a way of illustrating the benefits of our approach, we deploy it to…

  12. The global financial crisis and psychological health in a sample of Australian older adults: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-10-01

    Economic stress and uncertainty is argued to increase older adults' vulnerability to physical health decline and mental distress. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research that examines the relationship between a large historical economic event, such as the recent global financial crisis (GFC), and health outcomes for older adults. This study provides a unique opportunity to compare self-reported health status and psychological functioning (number of depression and anxiety symptoms) in 1973 older Australian adults (mean age of 66.58 years (SD = 1.5)) prior to the GFC (2005-2006), with their status four years later during the GFC period (2009-2010). Latent difference score models revealed a significant difference in depression and anxiety symptoms over the two measurement occasions, indicating poorer psychological functioning for those who reported an impact as a result of the economic slowdown. These effects were not explained by demographic or socio-economic factors. Interaction effects showed that those participants who were surveyed within the acute salience period of the GFC (April to September 2009) were significantly less likely to report poorer psychological health over time compared to those who were surveyed after September 2009. This interesting timing effect is discussed in terms of potential time-lags in the negative effects of economic stress on health outcomes, as well as the possible protective effects of social norms that may be created by a large scale economic crisis. PMID:21831493

  13. [Technology and future ways of thinking related to work from ergonomics points of views in moments of global crisis].

    PubMed

    Puentes-Lagos, David E; García-Acosta, Gabriel

    2012-06-01

    Is it possible to establish (at short, medium and long term) future work conditions or expected work conditions for Colombian people considering upcoming work technologies? Is it possible to anticipate future work desirable work conditions for Colombian people in order to plan (foresee?) work technologies? These questions guided this research and they point to an action thesis and to a reaction one in this context of work crisis. Even though a work technology establishes where, when, how, who, who with, and using what element work is done, it also establishes certain work conditions. Besides, multiple forms of considering and deconstructing past have been created from many disciplines. However, in order to foresee or construct work technologies requires a different perspective for looking further. This research has been carried out considering other disciplines points of view regarding Future Studies and Future Thinking Studies. This research has the purpose of finding future paths for Future Thinking Studies from ergonomics point of view in this moment of global work crisis we are going through. PMID:23258752

  14. The anxieties of globalization: antidepressant sales and economic crisis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lakoff, Andrew

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes the role of market research firms in shaping the actions of key players in the pharmaceutical arena. It focuses on strategies for marketing novel antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs) to doctors in Buenos Aires during the Argentine financial crisis of 2001, posing the question of whether increased antidepressant sales were due to the social situation or to promotional practices. This case demonstrates how 'pharmaceutical relations' - interactions between doctors and pharmaceutical companies - are structured by a gift economy whose effects are monitored through the sales numbers produced by database firms. It suggests that the use of these numbers takes on special importance given the distinctiveness of both the Argentine context and the antidepressant market. More generally, the case points to the interpretive flexibility of psychotropic medication. In the Argentine setting, doctors' prescription of SSRIs was dependent neither on a diagnosis of depression nor on a biological understanding of mental disorder. These drugs found a different means of entering the professionally mediated marketplace: doctors understood and used SSRIs as a treatment not for a lack of serotonin in the brain, but for the suffering caused by the social situation - the sense of insecurity and vulnerability that the economic and political crisis had wrought. PMID:15297998

  15. Sustainable engineered processes to mitigate the global arsenic crisis in drinking water: challenges and progress.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Greenleaf, John E; Gupta, Anirban; Uy, Davin; Sengupta, Arup K

    2012-01-01

    Millions of people around the world are currently living under the threat of developing serious health problems owing to ingestion of dangerous concentrations of arsenic through their drinking water. In many places, treatment of arsenic-contaminated water is an urgent necessity owing to a lack of safe alternative sources. Sustainable production of arsenic-safe water from an arsenic-contaminated raw water source is currently a challenge. Despite the successful development in the laboratory of technologies for arsenic remediation, few have been successful in the field. A sustainable arsenic-remediation technology should be robust, composed of local resources, and user-friendly as well as must attach special consideration to the social, economic, cultural, traditional, and environmental aspects of the target community. One such technology is in operation on the Indian subcontinent. Wide-scale replication of this technology with adequate improvisation can solve the arsenic crisis prevalent in the developing world. PMID:22541048

  16. Groundwater and climate change: mitigating the global groundwater crisis and adapting to climate change model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the effects of climate change on global groundwater resources, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Hydrological Programme (IHP) initiated the GRAPHIC (Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Cl...

  17. Exploring the impact of the 2008 global food crisis on food security among vulnerable households in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Robson, Kristin; Gutilla, Margaret J.; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne; Norlund, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Recurring food crises endanger the livelihoods of millions of households in developing countries around the globe. Owing to the importance of this issue, we explore recent changes in food security between the years 2004 and 2010 in a rural district in Northeastern South Africa. Our study window spans the time of the 2008 global food crises and allows the investigation of its impacts on rural South African populations. Grounded in the sustainable livelihood framework, we examine differences in food security trajectories among vulnerable sub populations. A unique panel data set of 8,147 households, provided by the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Agincourt HDSS), allows us to employ a longitudinal multilevel modeling approach to estimate adjusted growth curves for the differential change in food security across time. We observe an overall improvement in food security that leveled off after 2008, most likely resulting from the global food crisis. In addition, we discover significant differences in food security trajectories for various sub populations. For example, female-headed households and those living in areas with better access to natural resources differentially improved their food security situation, compared to male-headed households and those households with lower levels of natural resource access. However, former Mozambican refugees witnessed a decline in food security. Therefore, poverty alleviation programs for the Agincourt region should work to improve the food security of vulnerable households, such as former Mozambican refugees. PMID:26594259

  18. Carbapenemases in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Other Enterobacteriaceae: an Evolving Crisis of Global Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Tzouvelekis, L. S.; Markogiannakis, A.; Psichogiou, M.; Tassios, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The spread of Enterobacteriaceae, primarily Klebsiella pneumoniae, producing KPC, VIM, IMP, and NDM carbapenemases, is causing an unprecedented public health crisis. Carbapenemase-producing enterobacteria (CPE) infect mainly hospitalized patients but also have been spreading in long-term care facilities. Given their multidrug resistance, therapeutic options are limited and, as discussed here, should be reevaluated and optimized. Based on susceptibility data, colistin and tigecycline are commonly used to treat CPE infections. Nevertheless, a review of the literature revealed high failure rates in cases of monotherapy with these drugs, whilst monotherapy with either a carbapenem or an aminoglycoside appeared to be more effective. Combination therapies not including carbapenems were comparable to aminoglycoside and carbapenem monotherapies. Higher success rates have been achieved with carbapenem-containing combinations. Pharmacodynamic simulations and experimental infections indicate that modification of the current patterns of carbapenem use against CPE warrants further attention. Epidemiological data, though fragmentary in many countries, indicate CPE foci and transmission routes, to some extent, whilst also underlining the lack of international collaborative systems that could react promptly and effectively. Fortunately, there are sound studies showing successful containment of CPE by bundles of measures, among which the most important are active surveillance cultures, separation of carriers, and assignment of dedicated nursing staff. PMID:23034326

  19. The end of the era of generosity? Global health amid economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kammerle; Garrett, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade donor commitments to health have increased by 200 percent. Correspondingly, there has been a swell of new players in the global health landscape. The unprecedented, global response to a single disease, HIV/AIDS, has been responsible for a substantial portion of this boon. Numerous health success have followed this windfall of funding and attention, yet the food, fuel, and economic crises of 2008 have shown the vulnerabilities of health and development initiatives focused on short term wins and reliant on a constant flow of foreign funding. For too long, the international community has responded to global health and development challenges with emergency solutions that often reflect the donor's priorities, values, and political leanings, rather than funding durable health systems that can withstand crises. Progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals has stalled in many countries. Disease specific initiatives have weakened health systems and limited efforts to improve maternal and child health. As we enter this era of scarce resources, there is a need to return to the foundations of the Alma Ata Declaration signed thirty years ago with the goal of providing universal access to primary healthcare. The global health community must now objectively evaluate how we can most effectively respond to the crises of 2008 and take advantage of this moment of extraordinary attention for global health and translate it into long term, sustainable health improvements for all. PMID:19134211

  20. Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain).

    PubMed

    Arruti, A; Fernández-Olmo, I; Irabien, A

    2011-05-01

    Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. PMID:21376438

  1. Survey on the Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Education Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forum on Education Abroad, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Forum on Education Abroad is a global membership association of nearly 400 institutions and organizations that together represent approximately 90% of the U.S. students that study abroad. The Forum is the only organization devoted exclusively to representing the field of education abroad and is designated the Standards Development Organization…

  2. Global health and national borders: the ethics of foreign aid in a time of financial crisis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The governments and citizens of the developed nations are increasingly called upon to contribute financially to health initiatives outside their borders. Although international development assistance for health has grown rapidly over the last two decades, austerity measures related to the 2008 and 2011 global financial crises may impact negatively on aid expenditures. The competition between national priorities and foreign aid commitments raises important ethical questions for donor nations. This paper aims to foster individual reflection and public debate on donor responsibilities for global health. Methods We undertook a critical review of contemporary accounts of justice. We selected theories that: (i) articulate important and widely held moral intuitions; (ii) have had extensive impact on debates about global justice; (iii) represent diverse approaches to moral reasoning; and (iv) present distinct stances on the normative importance of national borders. Due to space limitations we limit the discussion to four frameworks. Results Consequentialist, relational, human rights, and social contract approaches were considered. Responsibilities to provide international assistance were seen as significant by all four theories and place limits on the scope of acceptable national autonomy. Among the range of potential aid foci, interventions for health enjoyed consistent prominence. The four theories concur that there are important ethical responsibilities to support initiatives to improve the health of the worst off worldwide, but offer different rationales for intervention and suggest different implicit limits on responsibilities. Conclusions Despite significant theoretical disagreements, four influential accounts of justice offer important reasons to support many current initiatives to promote global health. Ethical argumentation can complement pragmatic reasons to support global health interventions and provide an important foundation to strengthen

  3. Crisis, What Crisis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Responding to the recent work of Andrew Gamble, the article discusses the extent to which the British situation can be described in terms of crisis. It suggests that an essential element of crisis is that of political and social contestation, and explores the terms on which contestation is taking shape in and around British education.

  4. Gender disparities in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia, 1991-2014: a time of civil wars and global crisis.

    PubMed

    Ilic, M; Ilic, I

    2016-09-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The aim of this descriptive epidemiological study was to analyse the trends in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia (excluding the Autonomous Province of Kosovo & Metohia) from 1991 to 2014 using joinpoint regression analysis. The mortality rates from infectious diseases were found to have increased markedly from 1991 to 1994 (+12·4% per year), followed by a significant decline from 1994 to 2009 (-4·6% per year) and then another increase from 2009 to 2014 (+4·3% per year). Throughout the study period, mortality rates were consistently higher in men than in women. Although a substantial decline was observed for young people of both sexes, no consistent pattern was evident for the middle-aged nor the elderly. Since 1991, septicaemia has emerged as a leading cause of infectious disease mortality, particularly in older men. The Yugoslav civil wars in the 1990s and the global financial crisis in 2008 corresponded with changes in the trends in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia, with the elderly showing particular vulnerability during those time periods. Data presented in this study might be useful to improve control of infectious diseases in Serbia. PMID:27483375

  5. Financial crisis, virtual carbon in global value chains, and the importance of linkage effects. The Spain-china case.

    PubMed

    López, Luis-Antonio; Arce, Guadalupe; Zafrilla, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Trade has a disproportionate environmental impact, while the international fragmentation of production promotes different patterns of intermediate inputs and final goods. Therefore, we split up the balance of domestic embodied emissions in trade (BDEET) to assess it. We find that Spain has a significant emissions deficit with China between 2005 and 2011. The Global Financial Crisis of 2008 reduced Spanish imports of pollution-intensive inputs from China and slightly improved the BDEET. China primarily exports indirect virtual carbon, representing 86% of the total, especially from Production of electricity, gas, and water sector. These linkages effects in China indicate that post-Kyoto agreements must focus not only on traded goods but also on the environmental efficiency of all domestic production chains. The methodology proposed allows us to identify the agents responsible for this trade in both Spain and China, namely the sectors importing intermediate inputs (Construction and Transport equipment) and industries and consumers importing final goods (Textiles, Other manufactures, Computers, and Machinery). The relevant sectors uncertainties found when we compare the results for BDEET and emissions embodied in bilateral trade (BEET) lead us to recommend the former methodology to evaluate the implications of environmental and energy policy for different industries and agents. PMID:24345036

  6. DDT, global strategies, and a malaria control crisis in South America.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, D. R.; Laughlin, L. L.; Hsheih, P.; Legters, L. J.

    1997-01-01

    Malaria is reemerging in endemic-disease countries of South America. We examined the rate of real growth in annual parasite indexes (API) by adjusting APIs for all years to the annual blood examination rate of 1965 for each country. The standardized APIs calculated for Brazil, Peru, Guyana, and for 18 other malaria-endemic countries of the Americas presented a consistent pattern of low rates up through the late 1970s, followed by geometric growth in malaria incidence in subsequent years. True growth in malaria incidence corresponds temporally with changes in global strategies for malaria control. Underlying the concordance of these events is a causal link between decreased spraying of homes with DDT and increased malaria; two regression models defining this link showed statistically significant negative relationships between APIs and house-spray rates. Separate analyses of data from 1993 to 1995 showed that countries that have recently discontinued their spray programs are reporting large increases in malaria incidence. Ecuador, which has increased use of DDT since 1993, is the only country reporting a large reduction (61%) in malaria rates since 1993. DDT use for malaria control and application of the Global Malaria Control Strategy to the Americas should be subjects of urgent national and international debate. We discuss the recent actions to ban DDT, the health costs of such a ban, perspectives on DDT use in agriculture versus malaria control, and costs versus benefits of DDT and alternative insecticides. PMID:9284373

  7. The role of surveillance systems in confronting the global crisis of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review It is widely accepted that infection control, advanced diagnostics, and novel therapeutics are crucial to mitigate the impact of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The role of global, national and regional surveillance systems as part of the response to the challenge posed by antibiotic resistance is not sufficiently highlighted. We provide an overview of contemporary surveillance programs, with emphasis on Gram-negative bacteria. Recent Findings The World Health Organization and public health agencies in Europe and the United States recently published comprehensive surveillance reports. These highlight the emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and other multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In Israel, public health action to control CRE, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producing-Klebsiella pneumoniae, has advanced together with a better understanding of its epidemiology. Surveillance models adapted to the requirements and capacities of each country are in development. Summary Robust surveillance systems are essential to combat antibiotic resistance, and need to emphasize a “One Health” approach. Refinements in surveillance will come from advances in bioinformatics and genomics that permit the integration of global and local information about antibiotic consumption in humans and animals, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and bacterial genotyping. PMID:26098505

  8. The International Monetary Fund's effects on global health: before and after the 2008 financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, the G20 countries committed US $750 billion to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which has assumed a central role in global economic management. The IMF provides loans to financially ailing countries, but with strict conditions, typically involving a mix of privatization, liberalization, and fiscal austerity programs. These loan conditions have been extremely controversial. In principle, they are designed to help countries balance their books. In practice, they often translate into reductions in social spending, including spending on public health and health care delivery. As more countries are being exposed to IMF policies, there is a need to establish what we know and do not know about the IMF's effects on global health. This article introduces a series in which contributors review the evidence on the relationship between the IMF and public health and discuss potential ways to improve the Fund's effects on health. While more evidence is needed for some regions, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that IMF programs have been significantly associated with weakened health care systems, reduced effectiveness of health-focused development aid, and impeded efforts to control tobacco, infectious diseases, and child and maternal mortality. Reforms are urgently needed to prevent the current wave of IMF programs from further undermining public health in financially ailing countries and limiting progress toward the health Millennium Development Goals. PMID:19927414

  9. The coming health crisis: indirect health effects of global climate change

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change threatens the health of hundreds of millions of people. While much has been written about the direct impacts of climate change on health as a result of more severe storms, more intense heat stress, changes in the distribution of infectious disease, and reduced air quality, we are concerned that the indirect impacts of a disrupted climate system may be orders of magnitude more important in terms of the human suffering they cause. Because these indirect effects will result from changes in biophysical systems, which are inherently complex, there is significant uncertainty about their magnitude, timing, and location. However, the uncertainty that shrouds this issue should not be cause for complacency; rather it should serve as an organizing principle for adaptation to its ill effects. PMID:21399764

  10. Residual soil phosphorus as the missing piece in the global phosphorus crisis puzzle.

    PubMed

    Sattari, Sheida Z; Bouwman, Alexander F; Giller, Ken E; van Ittersum, Martin K

    2012-04-17

    Phosphorus (P) is a finite and dwindling resource. Debate focuses on current production and use of phosphate rock rather than on the amounts of P required in the future to feed the world. We applied a two-pool soil P model to reproduce historical continental crop P uptake as a function of P inputs from fertilizer and manure and to estimate P requirements for crop production in 2050. The key feature is the consideration of the role of residual soil P in crop production. Model simulations closely fit historical P uptake for all continents. Cumulative inputs of P fertilizer and manure for the period 1965-2007 in Europe (1,115 kg . ha(-1) of cropland) grossly exceeded the cumulative P uptake by crops (360 kg ha(-1)). Since the 1980s in much of Europe, P application rates have been reduced, and uptake continues to increase due to the supply of plant-available P from residual soil P pool. We estimate that between 2008 and 2050 a global cumulative P application of 700-790 kg . ha(-1) of cropland (in total 1,070-1,200 teragrams P) is required to achieve crop production according to the various Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios [Alcamo J, Van Vuuren D, Cramer W (2006) Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Scenarios, Vol 2, pp 279-354]. We estimate that average global P fertilizer use must change from the current 17.8 to 16.8-20.8 teragrams per year in 2050, which is up to 50% less than other estimates in the literature that ignore the role of residual soil P. PMID:22431593

  11. Evolution of Microbial Quorum Sensing to Human Global Quorum Sensing: An Insight into How Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Might Be Linked to the Global Metabolic Disease Crisis.

    PubMed

    Trosko, James E

    2016-01-01

    The first anaerobic organism extracted energy for survival and reproduction from its source of nutrients, with the genetic means to ensure protection of its individual genome but also its species survival. While it had a means to communicate with its community via simple secreted molecules ("quorum sensing"), the eventual shift to an aerobic environment led to multi-cellular metazoan organisms, with evolutionary-selected genes to form extracellular matrices, stem cells, stem cell niches, and a family of gap junction or "connexin" genes. These germinal and somatic stem cells responded to extracellular signals that triggered intra-cellular signaling to regulate specific genes out of the total genome. These extra-cellular induced intra-cellular signals also modulated gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in order to regulate the new cellular functions of symmetrical and asymmetrical cell division, cell differentiation, modes of cell death, and senescence. Within the hierarchical and cybernetic concepts, differentiated by neurons organized in the brain of the Homo sapiens, the conscious mind led to language, abstract ideas, technology, myth-making, scientific reasoning, and moral decision-making, i.e., the creation of culture. Over thousands of years, this has created the current collision between biological and cultural evolution, leading to the global "metabolic disease" crisis. PMID:27314399

  12. Evolution of Microbial Quorum Sensing to Human Global Quorum Sensing: An Insight into How Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Might Be Linked to the Global Metabolic Disease Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Trosko, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The first anaerobic organism extracted energy for survival and reproduction from its source of nutrients, with the genetic means to ensure protection of its individual genome but also its species survival. While it had a means to communicate with its community via simple secreted molecules (“quorum sensing”), the eventual shift to an aerobic environment led to multi-cellular metazoan organisms, with evolutionary-selected genes to form extracellular matrices, stem cells, stem cell niches, and a family of gap junction or “connexin” genes. These germinal and somatic stem cells responded to extracellular signals that triggered intra-cellular signaling to regulate specific genes out of the total genome. These extra-cellular induced intra-cellular signals also modulated gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in order to regulate the new cellular functions of symmetrical and asymmetrical cell division, cell differentiation, modes of cell death, and senescence. Within the hierarchical and cybernetic concepts, differentiated by neurons organized in the brain of the Homo sapiens, the conscious mind led to language, abstract ideas, technology, myth-making, scientific reasoning, and moral decision–making, i.e., the creation of culture. Over thousands of years, this has created the current collision between biological and cultural evolution, leading to the global “metabolic disease” crisis. PMID:27314399

  13. Ozone crisis: The 15 year evolution of a sudden global emergency

    SciTech Connect

    Roan, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Sharon L. Roan, a science journalist, has written an informative and insightful account of how stratospheric ozone depletion has come to be recognized as a global environmental issue of critical importance. Starting with the analytical work of Rowland and Molina in the early 1970s - their findings first identified chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) release as a threat to the ozone layer - Roan traces in a lively and highly readable fashion the ensuing 15 years of scientific research and debate, political controversy, industrial skepticism and tactics, and, finally, a reasonable degree of international consensus. The author recounts some of the milestones in the ozone story, with settings as varied as university laboratories, industrial meetings, congressional hearings, scientific expeditions to the Antarctic and Arctic, and the series of international negotiating sessions culminating in the Montreal Protocol in 1987. But, as Roan states, the ozone issue remains very much unfinished; even the 50-percent CFC reduction mandated by the Montreal agreement is believed to be wholly inadequate now. Evidence of a more rapid ozone depletion than was earlier estimated suggests that a total CFC ban is the only defensible response. Dealing with the economic burden such a ban may impose on poor countries is a policy challenge that will also confront the United States if we restrict carbon dioxide emissions to mitigate greenhouse warming.

  14. Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis) KidsHealth > For Teens > Sickle Cell ... A A A Text Size What Is a Sickle Cell Crisis? Sickle cell disease changes the shape of ...

  15. Effects of the Global Financial Crisis on Health in High-Income Oecd Countries: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Karanikolos, Marina; Heino, Pia; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence documents how economic crises impact aspects of health across countries and over time. We performed a systematic narrative review of the health effects of the latest economic crisis based on studies of high-income countries. Papers published between January 2009 and July 2015 were selected based on review of titles and abstracts, followed by a full text review conducted by two independent reviewers. Ultimately, 122 studies were selected and their findings summarized. The review finds that the 2008 financial crisis had negative effects on mental health, including suicide, and to a varying extent on some non-communicable and communicable diseases and access to care. Although unhealthy behaviors such as hazardous drinking and tobacco use appeared to decline during the crisis, there have been increases in some groups, typically those already at greatest risk. The health impact was greatest in countries that suffered the largest economic impact of the crisis or prolonged austerity. The Great Recessions in high-income countries have had mixed impacts on health. They tend to be worse when economic impacts are more severe, prolonged austerity measures are implemented, and there are pre-existing problems of substance use among vulnerable groups. PMID:27076651

  16. Hemolytic crisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003270.htm Hemolytic crisis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemolytic crisis occurs when large numbers of red blood cells ...

  17. Effects of the 2008 Global Economic Crisis on National Health Indicators: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Gyeongsil; Kim, Jun-Suk; Oh, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Keun-Seung; Hur, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between economics and health has been of great interest throughout the years. The accumulated data is not sufficient enough to carry out long-term studies from the viewpoint of morbidity, although Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) was carried out yearly since 1998 in Korea. Thus, we investigated the effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on health indicators of Korea. Methods Health indicators were selected by paired t-test based on 2007 and 2009 KNHANES data. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, education, income, working status, and stress were used as confounding factors, which were analyzed with logistic and probit analyses. Validation was done by comparing gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates and probit analyses results of 2007-2012 KNHANES data. Results Among several health indicators, the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception was higher after the economic crisis. Factors related with higher hypertension prevalence include older age, male gender, higher BMI, no current tobacco use, recent drinking, lower education levels, and stress perception. Factors related with more stress perception were younger age, female gender, current smoking, lower education levels, and lower income. GDP growth rates, a macroeconomic indicator, are inversely associated with hypertension prevalence with a one-year lag, and also inversely associated with stress perception without time lag. Conclusion The economic crisis increased the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception. In the case of GDP growth rate change, hypertension was an inversely lagging indicator and stress perception was an inversely-related coincident indicator. PMID:26217479

  18. The nature and causes of the global water crisis: Syndromes from a meta-analysis of coupled human-water studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Lambin, E. F.; Gorelick, S. M.; Thompson, B. H.; Rozelle, S.

    2012-10-01

    Freshwater scarcity has been cited as the major crisis of the 21st century, but it is surprisingly hard to describe the nature of the global water crisis. We conducted a meta-analysis of 22 coupled human-water system case studies, using qualitative comparison analysis (QCA) to identify water resource system outcomes and the factors that drive them. The cases exhibited different outcomes for human wellbeing that could be grouped into a six "syndromes": groundwater depletion, ecological destruction, drought-driven conflicts, unmet subsistence needs, resource capture by elite, and water reallocation to nature. For syndromes that were not successful adaptations, three characteristics gave cause for concern: (1) unsustainability—a decline in the water stock or ecosystem function that could result in a long-term steep decline in future human wellbeing; (2) vulnerability—high variability in water resource availability combined with inadequate coping capacity, leading to temporary drops in human wellbeing; (3) chronic scarcity—persistent inadequate access and hence low conditions of human wellbeing. All syndromes could be explained by a limited set of causal factors that fell into four categories: demand changes, supply changes, governance systems, and infrastructure/technology. By considering basins as members of syndrome classes and tracing common causal pathways of water crises, water resource analysts and planners might develop improved water policies aimed at reducing vulnerability, inequity, and unsustainability of freshwater systems.

  19. Worldwide spreading of economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garas, Antonios; Argyrakis, Panos; Rozenblat, Céline; Tomassini, Marco; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-11-01

    We model the spreading of a crisis by constructing a global economic network and applying the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model with a variable probability of infection. The probability of infection depends on the strength of economic relations between a given pair of countries and the strength of the target country. It is expected that a crisis that originates in a large country, such as the USA, has the potential to spread globally, such as the recent crisis. Surprisingly, we also show that countries with a much lower GDP, such as Belgium, are able to initiate a global crisis. Using the k-shell decomposition method to quantify the spreading power (of a node), we obtain a measure of 'centrality' as a spreader of each country in the economic network. We thus rank the different countries according to the shell they belong to, and find the 12 most central ones. These countries are the most likely to spread a crisis globally. Of these 12, only six are large economies, while the other six are medium/small ones, a result that could not have been otherwise anticipated. Furthermore, we use our model to predict the crisis spreading potential of countries belonging to different shells according to the crisis magnitude.

  20. The superpowers in crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Krickus, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses how the domestic political, economic, and socio-cultural problems afflicting the US and the USSR may threaten the security of each country and jeopardize world peace. Contents (partial): The Soviet Union in Crisis: An economy in crisis; A minority in their ''own country;'' Eastern Europe: An asset or liability; What is to be done.; The American Predicament: American liberalism; Ronald Reagan and the conservative counter-reformation; Taking stock; International Implications; Domestic strife; implications for the superpower rivalry; Global economic disorder and the American predicament; Conclusions.

  1. Internationalising Work-Integrated Learning: Creating Global Citizens to Meet the Economic Crisis and the Skills Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Natalie; Patrick, Carol-joy; Peach, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that for many multinational companies, the global skills shortage has made it difficult to attract competent workers to some international locations. In developing economies, business leaders often cite poor business acumen and little real-world experience as serious shortcomings in the domestic pool of applicants. In addition…

  2. Neo-Liberalism in Crisis? Educational Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David

    2011-01-01

    Until the global financial crisis, neo-liberalism had appeared invincible. This article examines the global rise of neo-liberalism and its impact on education, particularly its treatment of the social democratic ideal of equality. Drawing on examples from education and other socio-political factors, it considers whether the financial crisis is…

  3. Responding to climate change and the global land crisis: REDD+, market transformation and low-emissions rural development

    PubMed Central

    Nepstad, Daniel C.; Boyd, William; Stickler, Claudia M.; Bezerra, Tathiana; Azevedo, Andrea A.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and rapidly escalating global demand for food, fuel, fibre and feed present seemingly contradictory challenges to humanity. Can greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land-use, more than one-fourth of the global total, decline as growth in land-based production accelerates? This review examines the status of two major international initiatives that are designed to address different aspects of this challenge. REDD+ is an emerging policy framework for providing incentives to tropical nations and states that reduce their GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Market transformation, best represented by agricultural commodity roundtables, seeks to exclude unsustainable farmers from commodity markets through international social and environmental standards for farmers and processors. These global initiatives could potentially become synergistically integrated through (i) a shared approach for measuring and favouring high environmental and social performance of land use across entire jurisdictions and (ii) stronger links with the domestic policies, finance and laws in the jurisdictions where agricultural expansion is moving into forests. To achieve scale, the principles of REDD+ and sustainable farming systems must be embedded in domestic low-emission rural development models capable of garnering support across multiple constituencies. We illustrate this potential with the case of Mato Grosso State in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23610173

  4. Responding to climate change and the global land crisis: REDD+, market transformation and low-emissions rural development.

    PubMed

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Boyd, William; Stickler, Claudia M; Bezerra, Tathiana; Azevedo, Andrea A

    2013-06-01

    Climate change and rapidly escalating global demand for food, fuel, fibre and feed present seemingly contradictory challenges to humanity. Can greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land-use, more than one-fourth of the global total, decline as growth in land-based production accelerates? This review examines the status of two major international initiatives that are designed to address different aspects of this challenge. REDD+ is an emerging policy framework for providing incentives to tropical nations and states that reduce their GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Market transformation, best represented by agricultural commodity roundtables, seeks to exclude unsustainable farmers from commodity markets through international social and environmental standards for farmers and processors. These global initiatives could potentially become synergistically integrated through (i) a shared approach for measuring and favouring high environmental and social performance of land use across entire jurisdictions and (ii) stronger links with the domestic policies, finance and laws in the jurisdictions where agricultural expansion is moving into forests. To achieve scale, the principles of REDD+ and sustainable farming systems must be embedded in domestic low-emission rural development models capable of garnering support across multiple constituencies. We illustrate this potential with the case of Mato Grosso State in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23610173

  5. Midlife Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Mary Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that women experiencing a midlife crisis pass through five recognizable stages: (1) feeling trapped, (2) the first change, (3) multiple changes, (4) rational planning, and (5) implementing the plan. (NKA)

  6. Systematics and the biodiversity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    This article discusses the importance of systematics in evaluating the global biodiversity crisis. Topics covered include the following: what systematic biology is; the diversity of species and higher taxa; biodiversity undersiege; systematics and conservation; systematics and global climatic change. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Exposure to multiple metals from groundwater-a global crisis: geology, climate change, health effects, testing, and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Erika; Frisbie, Seth; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the global extent of naturally occurring toxic metals in groundwater. Adverse health effects attributed to the toxic metals most commonly found in groundwater are reviewed, as well as chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions between these metals. Synergistic and antagonistic effects that have been reported between the toxic metals found in groundwater and the dietary trace elements are highlighted, and common behavioural, cultural, and dietary practices that are likely to significantly modify health risks due to use of metal-contaminated groundwater are reviewed. Methods for analytical testing of samples containing multiple metals are discussed, with special attention to analytical interferences between metals and reagents. An overview is presented of approaches to providing safe water when groundwater contains multiple metallic toxins. PMID:21766119

  8. How to ensure nutrition security in the global economic crisis to protect and enhance development of young children and our common future.

    PubMed

    de Pee, Saskia; Brinkman, Henk-Jan; Webb, Patrick; Godfrey, Steve; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Alderman, Harold; Semba, Richard D; Piwoz, Ellen; Bloem, Martin W

    2010-01-01

    The global economic crisis, commodity price hikes, and climate change have worsened the position of the poorest and most vulnerable people. These crises are compromising the diet and health of up to 80% of the population in most developing countries and threaten the development of almost an entire generation of children ( approximately 250 million), because the period from conception until 24 mo of age irreversibly shapes people's health and intellectual ability. High food prices reduce diversity and nutritional quality of the diet and for many also reduce food quantity. Poor households are hit hardest, because they already spend 50-80% of expenditures on food, little on medicines, education, transport, or cooking fuel, and cannot afford to pay more. Reduced public spending, declining incomes, increased food and fuel prices, and reduced remittance thus impede and reverse progress made toward Millenium Development Goals 1, 4, and 5. Investments in nutrition are among the most cost-effective development interventions because of very high benefit:cost ratios, for individuals and for sustainable growth of countries, because they protect health, prevent disability, boost economic productivity, and save lives. To bridge the gap between nutrient requirements, particularly for groups with high needs, and the realistic dietary intake under the prevailing circumstances, the use of complementary food supplements to increase a meal's nutrient content is recommended. This can be in the form of, e.g., micronutrient powder or low-dose lipid-based nutrient supplements, which can be provided for free, in return for vouchers, at subsidized, or at commercial prices. PMID:19939998

  9. Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car accident. The…

  10. Solving the Antibiotic Crisis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gerard D

    2015-02-13

    Antibiotics are essential for both treating and preventing infectious diseases. Paradoxically, despite their importance as pillars of modern medicine, we are in danger of losing antibiotics because of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms throughout all pathogenic microbes. This fact, coupled with an inability to bring new drugs to market at a pace that matches resistance, has resulted in a crisis of global proportion. Solving this crisis requires the actions of many stakeholders, but chemists, chemical biologists, and microbiologists must drive the scientific innovation that is required to maintain our antibiotic arsenal. This innovation requires (1) a deep understanding of the evolution and reservoirs of resistance; (2) full knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic action and resistance; (3) the discovery of chemical and genetic probes of antibiotic action and resistance; (4) the integration of systems biology into antibiotic discovery; and (5) the discovery of new antimicrobial chemical matter. Addressing these pressing scientific gaps will ensure that we can meet the antibiotic crisis with creativity and purpose. PMID:27622298

  11. Crisis Paper No. 33. The Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Information Centre for Teachers, London (England).

    This Crisis Paper is thirty-third in a series which expands the analysis of the crisis under discussion to provide a multi-national view of the issue by quoting comment from a selection of newspapers and journals of several countries. A brief introduction outlines the history and background of the energy crisis, emphasizing the underestimated…

  12. Hypertensive crisis.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, E B; Escalante, C

    1989-07-01

    Hypertensive crisis is an acute emergency requiring aggressive management. Its incidence has decreased in recent years but still is prevalent in the medical community. From review of past and present treatment regimens, the following recommendations can be considered. (1) In the treatment of malignant hypertension with associated CHF, sodium nitroprusside is still an excellent agent. It has a rapid onset of action and blood pressure can be easily titrated. Nitroglycerin is also another agent that can be used in this situation. (2) In the treatment of malignant hypertension with associated aortic dissection, trimethophan camsylate is the preferred agent. An alternative choice is the combination of nitroprusside and labetalol. (3) In the treatment of malignant hypertension with associated myocardial ischemia, an excellent choice is nitroglycerin. Labetalol also should be considered in this situation. (4) In the treatment of hypertension during pregnancy, hydralazine is still a good choice. Labetalol has also been shown to be efficacious. (5) In the treatment of malignant hypertension with associated cerebral ischemia, the following drugs should be considered: nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, and labetalol. The most important attribute of these agents is that they are nonsedating and rapid in onset. (6) In the treatment of postoperative hypertension the choices best suited are labetalol, enalapril, nitroprusside, and nitroglycerin. These agents are rapid in onset and all can be administered intravenously. PMID:2670090

  13. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  14. Images for Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffan, James

    1984-01-01

    Most take canoeing, leadership, first aid, CPR and other courses to help cope when something happens, but there is more to dealing with crisis than learning proper procedures and techniques. Three areas of concern interlock to form the Crisis Management Triangle: knowledge and skill, preventive awareness, and crisis management planning. (ERB)

  15. The health effects of the global financial crisis: can we reconcile the differing views? A network analysis of literature across disciplines.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Reeves, Aaron; Karanikolos, Marina; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Why are researchers studying the health effects of economic change reaching markedly varying conclusions? To understand these differences, we first systematically searched Web of Science for the literature on recessions and health yielding 461 articles and 14,401 cited documents. We then undertook a network analysis of co-citation pattern by disciplines, journals and backgrounds of the authors, followed by a chronological review of the literature, to trace the evolution of ideas. We then examined the extent to which earlier literature predicted what has happened in the 2007-2012 crisis. Our analysis finds the literature is dominated by disciplinary silos, with economics studies predominantly citing each other and relative isolation of psychiatry and substance abuse journals. Different philosophical approaches to assessing causality appear to contribute to varying interpretations, a tendency that is unlikely to be resolved without a shift in research norms. We conclude by calling for more inter-disciplinary research that combines empirical findings with a search for plausible mechanisms. This approach would evaluate not only the effects of economic shocks but also the mechanisms that offer protection against them. PMID:25662198

  16. Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

  17. Children's Rights: Crisis and Challenge. A Global Report on the Situation of Children in View of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurkse, Dennis, Ed.; Castelle, Kay, Ed.

    The global situation of children is reported in light of the U.N. General Assembly's November, 1989 adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, an international treaty for the protection of children. The report is divided into three parts, the first of which includes an overview of the U.N. Convention, and essays on the…

  18. Learning Crisis Unit through Post-Crisis: Characteristics and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…

  19. Modeling of Economy Considering Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Lev F.

    2009-09-01

    We discuss main modeling's problems of economy dynamic processes and the reason forecast's absence of economic crisis. We present a structure of complexity level of system and models and discuss expected results concerning crisis phenomena. We formulate the basic perspective directions of the mathematical modeling of economy, including possibility of the analysis of the pre crisis, crisis and post crisis phenomena in economic systems.

  20. The Book of Chemical Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sours, Floyd P.

    This book presents a crisis management model that effectively bridges the areas of substance abuse and crisis intervention. A crisis alternatives model which can be incorporated into drug counseling programs is discussed, along with a four-step crisis intervention plan for use by crisis workers that includes: (1) establishing rapport; (2)…

  1. Casualties of the Global War on Terror and their future impact on health care and society: a looming public health crisis.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    This article is a primer to understand the medical advances and the future health care consequences of the current conflicts in the Middle East and Southwest Asia, known as the Global War on Terror. There have been significant advances in health care learned in caring for those injured by the conflict--often a polytrauma blast victim, but there are also very high incidence rates of the hidden injuries of war--traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide, and depression. These lead to disruptive behaviors, homelessness, and family violence. Global War on Terror returnees are using medical services and applying for disability at higher rates than in previous conflicts. The costs for veterans' care may peak 30 to 40 years or longer following the conflict, and will inflict an enormous burden on services and resources. The effects of the war will linger for years and impact across generations because of the stress on families and children. We must mobilize government agencies, create public-private partnerships, and invest our resources now to mitigate the approaching tsunami of veterans' health care needs, the impact on our social services, and the devastating costs to society. PMID:24690957

  2. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  3. When a Crisis Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keebler, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Urges Catholic educators to develop a crisis communication plan to ensure that all communication with the press and public is handled promptly and thoroughly by a designated spokesperson. Describes workshops which simulate real-life challenges as a means of testing crisis management plans. Offers guidelines for the development of a crisis…

  4. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…

  5. Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Susie

    Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…

  6. When Crisis Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudle, Melissa

    1994-01-01

    School crises may be categorized as emergency situations, human-made crises, natural events, medical emergencies, and mechanical crises. Central to any successful crisis-management plan are onsite and district-level crisis response teams. Plans should specify staff responsibilities; provide for communication codes, devices, and procedures;…

  7. Educational Technology in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fainholc, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of the historical epistemological path is needed to understand and reconsider the discipline of Educational Technology in articulation to contributions of rupturistic theorists in order to reach to a critical proposal and a revision of its field. This field is facing a deep crisis within a time of world crisis, specially in the…

  8. Creativity in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Glenn

    This paper suggests that educational resources and opportunities currently in operation in rural Australia are brought forward during times of crisis. The paper discusses five aspects of education in rural Australia that are a response to the perceived sense of crisis and that have improved the general and comparative quality of rural education,…

  9. Crisis Communication and Management: Surviving a Public Relations Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eramo, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis…

  10. Application of U-Pb ID-TIMS dating to the end-Triassic global crisis: testing the limits on precision and accuracy in a multidisciplinary whodunnit (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoene, B.; Schaltegger, U.; Guex, J.; Bartolini, A.

    2010-12-01

    The ca. 201.4 Ma Triassic-Jurassic boundary is characterized by one of the most devastating mass-extinctions in Earth history, subsequent biologic radiation, rapid carbon cycle disturbances and enormous flood basalt volcanism (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province - CAMP). Considerable uncertainty remains regarding the temporal and causal relationship between these events though this link is important for understanding global environmental change under extreme stresses. We present ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon geochronology on volcanic ash beds from two marine sections that span the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and from the CAMP in North America. To compare the timing of the extinction with the onset of the CAMP, we assess the precision and accuracy of ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon geochronology by exploring random and systematic uncertainties, reproducibility, open-system behavior, and pre-eruptive crystallization of zircon. We find that U-Pb ID-TIMS dates on single zircons can be internally and externally reproducible at 0.05% of the age, consistent with recent experiments coordinated through the EARTHTIME network. Increased precision combined with methods alleviating Pb-loss in zircon reveals that these ash beds contain zircon that crystallized between 10^5 and 10^6 years prior to eruption. Mineral dates older than eruption ages are prone to affect all geochronologic methods and therefore new tools exploring this form of “geologic uncertainty” will lead to better time constraints for ash bed deposition. In an effort to understand zircon dates within the framework of a magmatic system, we analyzed zircon trace elements by solution ICPMS for the same volume of zircon dated by ID-TIMS. In one example we argue that zircon trace element patterns as a function of time result from a mix of xeno-, ante-, and autocrystic zircons in the ash bed, and approximate eruption age with the youngest zircon date. In a contrasting example from a suite of Cretaceous andesites, zircon trace elements

  11. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too. PMID:26152994

  12. Vermont School Crisis Guide, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Vermont School Crisis Guide has been revised to improve its use by School Crisis Teams and Public Safety Committees. The Guide is now organized by roles so users can quickly locate their responsibilities in a crisis. The Crisis Guide pages can be used to document pertinent information (time, witnesses) immediately after an emergency…

  13. The future of the welfare state: crisis myths and crisis realities.

    PubMed

    Castles, Francis G

    2002-01-01

    Accounts of the future of the welfare state are often presented in crisis terms. Some commentators identify globalization as a force that has already led to a major retreat by the state and is likely to lead to further downsizing of the public sector. Others see the future burden of an aging population as creating huge public expenditure pressures that can be countered only by increased parsimony in most areas of spending. Although both crisis scenarios contain elements of truth, analysis of recent public expenditure trends shows that both are substantially exaggerated as general representations of likely developments over the next two or three decades. However, unnoticed by most commentators, a real, longer-term crisis is beginning to make itself felt. This crisis arises, in part, from the demographic impact of a cultural transformation in the labor market, in progress for several decades. Extreme scenarios of possible consequences over the next 50 to 100 years include population implosion, mass migration, increasingly dangerous eruptions of right-wing populism, and, possibly, territorial conflict between developed and underdeveloped nations. This is not a crisis of the welfare state but rather a crisis for which the welfare state may be an essential part of the answer. The only way Western societies can lessen the future impact of the ongoing cultural transformation of the labor market is through the redesign of welfare state institutions to confront these new challenges. PMID:12067031

  14. Acute adrenal crisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cortisol and adrenaline are released in response to stress . Cortisol production is regulated by the pituitary gland. This ... adrenal crisis include: Dehydration Infection and other physical ... medicines such as prednisone or hydrocortisone Surgery Trauma

  15. Veterans Crisis Line

    MedlinePlus

    ... also access and download the Veterans Crisis Line Branding Guidelines for guidance on how to consistently apply ... Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs | 810 ...

  16. Crisis GIS: Preparing for the Next Volcanic Crisis in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, D. W.; Robinson, J. E.; Schilling, S. P.; Schaefer, J. R.; Kimberly, P.; Trusdell, F. A.; Guffanti, M. C.; Mayberry, G. C.; Cameron, C. E.; Smith, J. G.; McIntire, J. A.; Snedigar, S.; Ewert, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) specialists from the Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), including personnel at Menlo Park, California, the Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington, the Alaska Volcano Observatory in Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in Hawaii National Park, Hawaii, and the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program in Washington, DC, are developing a GIS response plan in the event of a volcano crisis. This plan, referred to as "Crisis GIS", outlines how VHP can ensure rapid, reliable delivery of spatial and ancillary information for data analysis and visualization at any required location during a volcanic crisis or event within the United States. An effective Crisis GIS needs the capacity to store multiple, large datasets, including: base layer data, elevation data, geologic maps, hazard assessment maps, satellite data, and aerial photography for volcanoes around the U.S. It must be readily accessible by VHP GIS specialists stationed around the Nation. Such a GIS should also support installations of monitoring instruments and telemetry equipment that relay monitoring signals, and provision of updates to public officials, the media, and the public during a crisis. GIS technology has proven to be an invaluable tool for crisis response. Recently, GIS was applied as part of the response efforts to two large-scale crises: the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the Southern California wildfires of Fall 2003. In each case, GIS was used to organize large quantities of spatial data and to produce electronic and paper maps that illustrated hazards, supported decision making, and communicated developing situations to responsible emergency-management authorities and to the populace affected (Kant, 2002, and Pratt, 2003). VHP GIS specialists are currently testing the software and hardware employed in recent major crisis response efforts and are learning to adapt

  17. Dark energy crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Je-An

    2010-11-01

    In cosmology we are facing the dark energy crisis: How can we survive huge vacuum energy, meanwhile living with tiny dark energy? For the solution to this crisis, we raise several clues and hints, in particular, supersymmetry and the double hierarchy, Mp-MSM-MDE (Planck-Standard Model-dark energy scales). These two clues naturally lead to a solution with a supersymmetry-breaking brane-world. The train of thought from the clues to the solution is elucidated.

  18. Global Financial Crisis and Educational Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina; Paraskeva, João M.

    2015-01-01

    "Financialisation" is a term that describes an economic system or process that attempts to reduce all value that is exchanged (whether tangible, intangible, future, or present promises, etc.) either into a financial instrument or a derivative of a financial instrument. The original intent of financialization is to be able to reduce any…

  19. Global health disparities: crisis in the diaspora.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Raymond L.

    2004-01-01

    The United States spends more than the rest of the world on healthcare. In 2000, the U.S. health bill was 1.3 trillion dollars, 14.5% of its gross domestic product. Yet, according to the WHO World Health Report 2000, the United States ranked 37th of 191 member nations in overall health system performance. Racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes are the most obvious examples of an unbalanced healthcare system. This presentation will examine health disparities in the United States and reveal how health disparities among and within countries affect the health and well-being of the African Diaspora. PMID:15101675

  20. Afghanistan, poppies, and the global pain crisis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Sillup, George P; Capo, Joseph A

    2010-03-01

    The World Health Organization has reported that somewhere between 30-86 million people suffer from moderate to severe pain due to cancer, HIV/AIDS, burns, wounds and other illnesses annually and do not have access to proper opiate anesthetics to control the pain [1]. The vast majority of these people live in poor nations where medicinal opiates are either too expensive or not readily available. In this paper, it is argued that access to adequate healthcare is a human right and that adequate healthcare includes management of pain. The solution to this problem may be in Afghanistan, a country now overwhelmed with poverty and war. Afghanistan is the world's leading producer of heroin. The increase in heroin production in Afghanistan has caused the United States and the international community to begin to eradicate Afghanistan's poppy fields leading to increased poverty among poppy farmers. This paper proposed a paradigm that can be implemented in Afghanistan which would allow for Afghan farmers to continue growing their poppy crop for medicinal opiates like morphine for poor nations. The paradigm covers all parameters of medicinal opiates production including licensing, security, cultivation, harvest, and factory production of medicinal opiates. The paradigm proposed is less expensive than eradication, brings honest income to Afghan farmers and the new Afghan nation, and can eventually lead to Afghanistan acquiring a respectable role in the world community. In closing, a full ethical analysis of the paradigm is included to justify the arguments made in the paper. PMID:20190697

  1. Location of geographical objects in crisis situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybansky, M.; Kratochvil, V.

    2014-02-01

    This article summarizes the various expressions of object positioning using different coordinate data and different methods, such as use of maps, exploiting the properties of digital Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks, Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), Inertial Measurement Systems (IMS), hybrid methods and non-contact (remote sensing) methods; all with varying level of accuracy. Furthermore, the article describes some geographical identifiers and verbal means to describe location of geographical objects such as settlements, rivers, forest, roads, etc. All of the location methods have some advantages and disadvantages, especially in emergency situations, when usually the crisis management has a lack of time in a decision process.

  2. Keeping Cool in a Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Raven

    2006-01-01

    Many schools are able to avoid disasters by creating a strong, deliberate crisis plan and knowing how to implement it effectively. Good crisis preparedness requires leadership from the top, a critical mass of trained staff members, careful planning, and excellent communication. This article discusses how to prepare for a crisis.

  3. When Crisis Strikes on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Wendy Ann, Ed.

    This handbook aids in planning for effective crisis communication at institutions of higher education. The book opens with a behind-the-scenes look at a particular crisis--the 1990 murders of five students at the University of Florida. This first section offers tested advice from a campus communicator, an account of the crisis and the…

  4. Crisis Management in Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsis, Thomas M.

    The way in which a school community deals with a crisis situation is a test of its sense of community. This guidebook, intended for Catholic-school principals, presents a detailed plan to help schools establish crisis-management teams and offers directions for their operation. Chapter 1 presents an overview of crisis management and focuses on how…

  5. School Crisis Preparedness and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, David J.; Newgass, Scott

    Dealing with the impact of crisis on school children and staff is not the primary mission of schools. Therefore, many schools remain unprepared to respond to a crisis affecting students and staff. Too often they respond to each successive crisis in a reflexive manner with little preplanned coordination or structure. This workshop provides an…

  6. Coping with Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akenhead, James; Andreani, Alan

    2002-01-01

    School officials put a crisis communications plan into action after two Ohio students died and a third became critically ill from meningitis in May 2001. A mass immunization program prevented a major outbreak, and rumor control helped calm the public's fears. Recounts things learned from the experience. (MLF)

  7. Ghosts of Crisis Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.; Champagne, Audrey B.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the history of school science curriculum reform from the Sputnik era to 1990. The relationship between the crisis in the 1950s and 1990 is addressed. A list of curriculum development programs for all levels and special needs students is included. (KR)

  8. Preparing for a Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Rosalie D.; Morrison, Shirley

    1997-01-01

    To handle unforeseen crises, Albuquerque Public Schools established a critical-incident response team with a simple, understandable chain of command. The group aims to ensure maximum safety and people' well-being, develop a districtwide crisis-response-management plan, coordinate necessary training, and collaborate with community agencies…

  9. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…

  10. Families in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krim, Alaine S.

    1974-01-01

    A midtown New York City cooperative project which is providing a wide range of on-site and referral services to families in crisis is depicted. The program, located in the emergency relocation hotel provides a day care center, psychiatric and social services, a pediatric clinic, recreational programs, and parent discussion groups. (CS)

  11. Nursing in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Roxanne

    2007-01-01

    Both the nation's health-care and nursing education systems are in crisis. While the care provided by registered nurses (RNs) is essential to patients' recovery from acute illness and to the effective management of their chronic conditions, the United States is experiencing a nursing shortage that is anticipated to increase as baby boomers age and…

  12. Crisis, Meaning and Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amini, Bijan

    This paper suggests that all life is polar because polarity is the underlying context of life. The idea of polarity is based on two halves that originally belonged together to form a whole. These two halves are constantly trying to come together to regain their wholeness. The philosophical view of crisis presented in this paper is that the…

  13. Rape: A Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Priscilla N.; Rollins, Judith C.

    1981-01-01

    Rape is a crisis shared by the victim and her family. The family's reaction is influenced by cultural views such as viewing rape as sex rather than violence. Adaptive responses can be supported by open expression, education, and family, as well as individual counseling. (JAC)

  14. The Mythical "Boy Crisis"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Muna; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The popular press has put forth the idea that the US educational system is experiencing a "boy crisis," where boys are losing ground to girls across multiple dimensions. Here, we analyze these claims in the context of math and reading achievement during early primary school. We reach two conclusions. First, white boys outperform white girls in…

  15. The Phony Funding Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.; Peng, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    If one relies on newspaper headlines for education funding information, one might conclude that America's schools suffer from a perpetual fiscal crisis, every year perched precariously on the brink of financial ruin, never knowing whether there will be sufficient funding to continue operating. Budgetary shortfalls, school district bankruptcies,…

  16. Wanted: Crisis President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    As the events of Virginia Tech tragedy recede in time, leaders of other colleges and universities are sure to look at Virginia Tech president Charles W. Steger's performance and question the readiness of presidents to act like corporate executives, take visible control of a campus in crisis, manage the onslaught of cameras and microphones, and…

  17. 'Childhood' in 'Crisis'?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scraton, Phil, Ed.

    Based on multi-disciplinary academic research and professional practice, this book is a response to the current political and policy debates in Britain that maintain that "childhood" is in a state of "crisis"; that there is a breakdown in discipline, professional, or parental guidance; and that young people lack any sense of social responsibility.…

  18. Crisis Counseling: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…

  19. Analyzing the financial crisis using the entropy density function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Ho-yong; Ahn, Seok-Won; Kwak, Wooseop

    2015-02-01

    The risk that is created by nonlinear interactions among subjects in economic systems is assumed to increase during an abnormal state of a financial market. Nevertheless, investigating the systemic risk in financial markets following the global financial crisis is not sufficient. In this paper, we analyze the entropy density function in the return time series for several financial markets, such as the S&P500, KOSPI, and DAX indices, from October 2002 to December 2011 and analyze the variability in the entropy value over time. We find that the entropy density function of the S&P500 index during the subprime crisis exhibits a significant decrease compared to that in other periods, whereas the other markets, such as those in Germany and Korea, exhibit no significant decrease during the market crisis. These findings demonstrate that the S&P500 index generated a regular pattern in the return time series during the financial crisis.

  20. The Institutional Crisis of the German Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David P.; Lenhardt, Gero

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing crisis of the German university illustrates the potential difficulties with implementing the emerging global model (EGM) of the new research university in a nation where there is a long tradition of higher education, and where the university and the nation-state have developed together through a historical symbiotic relationship. To…

  1. The Asian Financial Crisis, Globalisation and Popular Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony

    1998-01-01

    Globalization is a confused and confusing term being used to explain a wide range of phenomena. It is presented as being outside anyone's control, neutral, and free of class interests. The Asian financial crisis illustrates that human agency still plays a role. Popular educators can help reinforce the idea that collective action does make a…

  2. Danish Universities in the Financial Crisis: Change and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milthers, Pernille Meyn

    2011-01-01

    Universities have always been important to national economies, but since the financial crisis of 2007-08 they have become key economic actors. Because they supply highly skilled labour and undertake basic research that enable nations to engage in global competition, they are capable of boosting production and innovation. This article explores the…

  3. Feeling the Crunch: Education Policy and Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The global capitalist crisis is impacting dramatically across nation states and their economies. Although a complete collapse of the system appears to have been avoided by decisions to take co-ordinated interventionist action to shore up short term demand, governments have generally rejected the more radical actions required to address the…

  4. Intercultural Education and the Crisis of Globalisation: Some Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    2011-01-01

    In this essay I reflect on the role of intercultural education in an emerging global crisis. Education systems are characterised by both divergent and convergent impulses. Divergent impulses include tradition, nationalism and religion. Convergent impulses (isomorphism) include science and technology, culture (including the English language),…

  5. Crisis Communication Plans: Poor Predictors of Excellent Crisis Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Francis J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that newly developed theory in crisis public relations suggests a shift is necessary in the way practitioners view crises. Notes that the new paradigm defines excellent crisis public relations very differently from the literature of the past 20 years. (RS)

  6. Before Crisis Hits: Building a Strategic Crisis Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry L.; Millar, Dan P.

    This guide offers suggestions to college administrators for dealing with a variety of emergency or crisis situations that could affect a community college's effectiveness. The authors used the Institute for Crisis Management's (ICM) four types of crises in higher education as the framework for the guide. The four types of crises are: (1) sudden;…

  7. Organizational Learning and Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

  8. The Little-Known Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckholm, Erik P.

    1975-01-01

    For one-third of the world's people, the energy crisis means the daily scramble to find the wood they need to cook. The accelerating destruction of forests throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America and the utilization of manure as a firewood substitute may produce the most profound ecological crisis of this century. (BT)

  9. Education and Our Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimas, John

    1970-01-01

    Discusses causes of our ecological crisis and suggests that in order to overcome the crisis we have to sprinkle our teaching with a sense of wonder, impress upon the youth that there is nothing difficult or mysterious about the ecological viewpoint, give youth an awareness of the diversity of things in our environment, stress interrelationships…

  10. A Crisis of Legendary Proportions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Describes the activities of Indiana University's crisis communications team during the Bob Knight controversy. Discusses how the school's response was based on four crisis communications principles: create a plan, appoint a single spokesperson, respond with open and continuous communications, and expect the unexpected. (EV)

  11. School Buildings in Today's Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    To get a picture of the impact of the current economic and financial crisis on educational building programmes so far, the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) has been conducting a survey of member countries and regions. The survey focuses on three main issues: the impact of the crisis on publicly funded projects, the impact on…

  12. Crisis management: some opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kupperman, R H; Wilcox, R H; Smith, H A

    1975-02-01

    Modern crises present decision makers with many agonizing management choices. Very often a crisis manager is confronted with a plethora of conflicting information and given very little time to choose an appropriate course of action. Although contemporary methods of systems analysis have been used in attempts to organize data and clarify options, they have generally been of little use in presenting an accurate picture of an opponent's values and perceptions. Thus it is clear that we must now make use of the improved communications and technological devices at our disposal if crises are to be avoided or resolved with minimum damage. Our proposal to establish international model-oriented computer-assisted conferences is designed to promote greater cooperation and understanding among scientists and crisis managers of differing nations by enabling them to share images of themselves and one another. With better information and more rational options available, the chances of catastrophic misunderstanding or miscalculation can be meaningfully reduced. We have proposed a possible scenario for the initial implementation of such a system to combat famine, and hope that the same approach might be used in other areas over time. The ultimate goal is a system by which specialists of all persuasions cooperate so that international crises will be resolved on the bases of mutual benefits without resort to armed conflict. PMID:17835296

  13. The malpractice liability crisis.

    PubMed

    Brenner, R James; Smith, John J

    2004-01-01

    Most medical malpractice cases are tried under the civil tort of negligence and are often triggered by adverse outcomes. These proceedings are aimed primarily at determining whether the conduct of a health care provider was reasonable. Such legal actions have mostly been subject to state jurisdiction. Increasingly, a number of factors are converging that are threatening the continued practice of medicine in some states and hence patients' access to care. These include higher amounts of monetary damages awarded to successful plaintiffs, consequent rising malpractice premiums, and the threatened economic insolvency of medical liability insurance carriers as a result of the broader economic downturn. The result is a serious public health dilemma. The national scope of the problem has been considered a crisis, which has prompted unprecedented federal legislative proposals directed toward providing new and preemptive parameters for capitated noneconomic damages, restrictions on certain civil procedures affecting lawsuit outcomes, and methods for attorney compensation, which some states have either not previously addressed or found unconstitutional. A survey of different states' problems and common issues should assist the reader in understanding the nature of the crisis and proposed solutions. PMID:17411514

  14. The Carbon Crisis: An Evolutionary Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.

    2013-12-01

    By the 'carbon crisis' I mean the coupled crises of the depletion of the highest-EROI sources of fossil fuels and the global warming caused by our use of those fossil fuels. (EROI means 'energy return on energy investment'; Hall 2011.) While global warming is arguably more urgent, either of these factors would sooner or later be sufficient by itself to call a halt to our global-scale, energy-intensive, high technology economy. In lethal combination, they threaten to drastically reduce the capacity of the planet to support 7+ billion talking hominids. I will pull the camera back for a very long view and characterize the carbon crisis and our possible responses to it from an evolutionary and ecological perspective. It remains unclear why sapiens emerged rather suddenly as the most successful member of the family Homo about 50 to 60 kya; some argue that this neurological explosion could be due to our ancestors having survived the rigors of the Toba population bottleneck, which presumably would have favoured high adaptability (Ambrose 1998). Whatever the cause, Paleolithic humans deployed an unprecedented combination of technological and social ingenuity (the capacity for adaptive social organization; Homer-Dixon 2001). Aided by the relatively benign climate of the Holocene and ultimately by our increasing ability to tap into the resources of the 'found' ecology, especially the vast stores of hydrocarbons bequeathed by the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, our population has grown exponentially to its present unsteady pinnacle of (possibly) temporary reproductive success. The question now is what happens next. It was human ingenuity that got us through the ice age, put footprints on the Moon, and brought us to this crisis point; now, only human ingenuity (both social and technical) can get us past it. Our species will finally achieve a sustainable mode of existence on this planet when (in E. Odum's words; 1973) 'the present-day concept of ';unlimited exploitation of

  15. Development of Information and Knowledge Architectures and an Associated Framework and Methodology for System Management of a Global Reserve Currency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardullo, Mario W.

    2013-01-01

    The global financial system appears to be heading for a major financial crisis. This crisis is being driven by a growing global debt. This crisis is not limited to nations that are heavily in debt such as Greece, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Italy or Cyprus but to such others as the United States. While there has been a great deal of emphasis on…

  16. The Asian financial crisis and women.

    PubMed

    1998-05-01

    This paper reports on the "Women's Roundtable Discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis" by the Gender Development Programme and Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN), which was held in Manila, Philippines, on April 12-14, 1998. The purpose of the Women's Roundtable was to provide a forum for regional analysis of women workers, labor migration and trade policies, women's livelihoods, food security and social development, globalization, and adverse impacts of economic recession and inflation. Among the recommendations of the forum were that the impact of globalization on women should be monitored and that the analyses and concerns raised during the roundtable discussions should be disseminated through other regional and international platforms. PMID:12322199

  17. Global Recession May Have Contributed to Cancer Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159060.html Global Recession May Have Contributed to Cancer Deaths Health- ... THURSDAY, May 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The 2008 global economic crisis has been linked to a sharp ...

  18. The Impending Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Raymond L.; Burgess, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    When you are ill and consult a physician for his or her expertise, many times laboratory testing is part of the clinical workup. This testing is critical to the physician’s ability to diagnose the patient’s condition. What if testing was not available … because there was no one to do the testing? Although seemingly far-fetched, this scenario could play itself out in the next ten years due to an impending manpower crisis in laboratory medicine. The profession of Medical Technology, also known as Clinical Laboratory Science, is experiencing a shortage of qualified individuals for a variety of reasons – not the least of which is the closure of almost 70% of the schools teaching this critical profession. Health care workers (HCW) rely on accurate and timely clinical laboratory results in order to make decisions for their patients. Because ∼ 70% of patient care decisions are based on clinical laboratory results, it is important to have a well-trained supply of laboratory professionals. This article will give an overview of the situation and the possible causes of this shortage, and pose challenges to our profession as to how this crisis can be averted. Visibility of this profession must be a prime focus of this effort in order for the population in general to be aware of the role Clinical Laboratory Scientists play in the health care consortium. This effort should begin early in the educational process, potentially as early as Middle School (junior high school), bringing awareness of the profession not only to students but to educators as well. PMID:23653714

  19. School Crisis Management: A Model of Dynamic Responsiveness to Crisis Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Yi-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze a school's crisis management and explore emerging aspects of its response to a school crisis. Traditional linear modes of analysis often fail to address complex crisis situations. The present study applied a dynamic crisis life cycle model that draws on chaos and complexity theory to a crisis management case,…

  20. [Crisis management in emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Mizobata, Yasumitsu

    2016-02-01

    There is no "complete safety" in the medical treatment. Unavoidable events or human errors may frighten the patients' safety. Because of its characteristics, emergency medicine is one of the medical fields where treating the patients under the vast safety is difficult. It is inevitable to understand the background of human errors in the emergency medicine under the "SHEL" model. The implementation of the safety measures, such as minimum encounter, minimum probability, multiple detections, and minimum damage is helpful to prevent unfortunate outcomes. Since the emergency medicine treats the severely injured or critical ill patients, its daily works are the picture of the crisis management, and the most suitable environment to train the crisis management competence. The person in charge of crisis management of the institution should put the emergency department to practical use of medical staffs' crisis management training. PMID:26915239

  1. Technology Education Tackles Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the solar-hydrogen technologies at the East Valley Institute of Technology, the only technology center in the nations that offers this class. Describes its focus on solving the energy crisis. (JOW)

  2. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions. PMID:19630256

  3. Crisis in American mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The crisis in American mining is discussed. The discussion focuses on the outlook for coal in the overall energy picture. Because of the Arab oil embargo of 1973, the Iranian disruption of 1979, and the tenfold increase in oil prices over the past decade, radical changes have taken place in energy supply and demand patterns. Two of the most important of these changes relate to investment. First, large investments have been made in energy-efficient plants, equipment, buildings, and vehicles. Their effect will restrain energy demand growth for the foreseeable future. Second, investments have been made in fuel-switching, from oil to coal and nuclear power. As a result the oil demand at the end of this century will be at approximately the same level as it is today. Natural gas demand is also likely to be flat. Coal demand, on the other hand, is expected to increase steadily over the long term. Recent conditions in the coal industry are reviewed, and a specific 10-year forecast is given.

  4. An investigation of implied volatility during financial crisis: Evidence from Australian index options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mimi Hafizah; Harun, Hanani Farhah

    2014-10-01

    Volatility implied by an option pricing model is seen as the market participants' assessment of volatility. Past studies documented that implied volatility based on an option pricing model is found to outperform the historical volatility in forecasting future realised volatility. Thus, this study examines the implied volatility smiles and term structures in the Australian S&P/ASX 200 index options from the year 2001 to 2010, which covers the global financial crisis in the mid-2007 until the end of 2008. The results show that the implied volatility rises significantly during the crisis period, which is three time the rate before crisis.

  5. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma. PMID:25085805

  6. Slope destabilization during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargani, Julien; Bache, François; Jouannic, Gwenael; Gorini, Christian

    2014-05-01

    During the Messinian Salinity Crisis, ~ 6 Myr ago, deep canyons were incised when a huge sea-level drawdown of ~ 1.5 km affected the Mediterranean Sea. Nearly contemporaneously, more than 2 km of evaporites accumulated in the basin. This event was the consequence of a complex interaction of tectonic movements and global sea-level variation associated with climatic evolution. This unusual event ended with the reflooding of the Mediterranean area. In this paper, using seismic line interpretation, we show that several landslides occurred in various parts of the Mediterranean Basin during this crisis. Three of these landslides are well preserved, and their dynamics were analyzed. Modeling of the slope stability demonstrates that these landslides may have been due to (i) the relief created by the deep erosion, and/or (ii) the reflooding, which triggered a pore pressure increase. The relatively small run-out distances of the three landslides suggest propagation in a submarine environment and triggering by sea-level rise.

  7. [Depression telephone helpline: help seeking during the financial crisis].

    PubMed

    Economou, M; Peppou, L E; Louki, E; Komporozos, A; Mellou, A; Stefanis, C

    2012-01-01

    Mental health telephone help-lines usually play a significant role in mental health services system. Their importance is substantiated during periods of financial crisis, where the mental health of the population is gravely inflicted. Media reports have documented a large increase in calls made to mental health telephone help-lines around the world as a corollary to the global economic crisis; however, a systematic investigation of this observation is still lacking. In this context, the present study endeavours to fill this gap in the literature, while it adds strength to the handful of studies which have empirically supported the impact of the financial crisis on mental health in Greece. Data were extracted from information gleaned during the calls made to the Depression Telephone Helpline of the Greek University Mental Health Research Institute. The information entailed the reason for calling, the socio-demographic and clinical profile of the person with mental health problems, his/her previous and current contacts with mental health professionals and the treatment he/she might be receiving. The results showed a steep increase in calls with direct or indirect reference to the economic crisis during the first half of 2010 and onwards. The callers who referred to the economic crisis manifested depressive symptomatology of clinical significance to a greater degree than callers who made no such reference. The latter exhibited increased levels of distress and agitation as well as drug/alcohol misuse. Concomitantly, a higher frequency of depressive symptomatology was discerned among the unemployed, whereas employed people were found to experience anxiety symptoms to a higher degree. The impact of the financial crisis on the mental health of the Greek population has been considerable, underscoring in this way the importance of mental health help-lines as emotional buffers and as guides for timely and appropriate service use in response to the emerging mental health

  8. [Crisis and future of humanity].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    We live in troubling times. The economic crisis fills us with anxiety. Young, unemployed and throes to finish living worse fear that their parents are not able to take charge of the situation. What has happened to that Spain and Europe, less than four years ago seemed to land of opportunities for native and foreign, have become hostile territories? The economic crisis does not explain everything; It is only a symptom that the basis on which we were building the future were not as firm. It is true that the crisis has brought to bare the obscenity of speculative financial capitalism. It is also true that this crisis can be the great opportunity to build the world on a human and sustainable economic basis, i.e.,just the opposite of the current submission to the dictatorship of the financial markets. But the contemporary crisis has deep and extensive roots. I will refer to other crises, as important or more than the economic one, because to glimpse the future it is essential to carefully track the present and discover the "weak signals" the latent opportunities that await we become them realities. PMID:23066563

  9. Human resources for health: overcoming the crisis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lincoln; Evans, Timothy; Anand, Sudhir; Boufford, Jo Ivey; Brown, Hilary; Chowdhury, Mushtaque; Cueto, Marcos; Dare, Lola; Dussault, Gilles; Elzinga, Gijs; Fee, Elizabeth; Habte, Demissie; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Jacobs, Marian; Kurowski, Christoph; Michael, Sarah; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Sewankambo, Nelson; Solimano, Giorgio; Stilwell, Barbara; de Waal, Alex; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    In this analysis of the global workforce, the Joint Learning Initiative-a consortium of more than 100 health leaders-proposes that mobilisation and strengthening of human resources for health, neglected yet critical, is central to combating health crises in some of the world's poorest countries and for building sustainable health systems in all countries. Nearly all countries are challenged by worker shortage, skill mix imbalance, maldistribution, negative work environment, and weak knowledge base. Especially in the poorest countries, the workforce is under assault by HIV/AIDS, out-migration, and inadequate investment. Effective country strategies should be backed by international reinforcement. Ultimately, the crisis in human resources is a shared problem requiring shared responsibility for cooperative action. Alliances for action are recommended to strengthen the performance of all existing actors while expanding space and energy for fresh actors. PMID:15567015

  10. Fertility Regulation in an Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Christopher; Thomas, Duncan; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Substantial international aid is spent reducing the cost of contraception in developing countries, as part of a larger effort to reduce global fertility and increase investment per child worldwide. The importance for fertility behaviors of keeping contraceptive prices low, however, remains unclear. Targeting of subsidies and insufficient price variation have hindered prior attempts to estimate the effect of monetary and non-monetary contraceptive costs on fertility behavior. Using longitudinal survey data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we exploit dramatic variation in prices and incomes that was induced by the economic crisis in the late 1990s to pin down the effect of contraceptive availability and costs as well as household resources on contraceptive use and method choice. The results are unambiguous: monetary costs of contraceptives and levels of family economic resources have a very small (and well-determined) impact on contraceptive use and choice of method. PMID:25843969

  11. Science education crisis: Problems, solutions discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolcott, John

    Public concern about the state of science education in America at the pre-college and college levels is widespread, triggered largely by the perception that we are losing ground in the global economy. Science, and particularly technology, are seen as our most likely sources of recovery. For those who recall the public reaction to the launching of Sputnik by Russia in 1957, the present mood is similar, if somewhat less intense.AGU members are in a unique position to influence debate about the science education crisis. Many of us, either as experts in some subset of physical science issues, as teachers at the college level, or even as parents observing our children's experiences in elementary or secondary school classrooms, may offer insight to this debate.

  12. International dimensions of the environmental crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    Emphasizing that the environmental crisis is global in scope, manifest in almost every region, culture, and political and economic system, this book examines the environmental problems confronted by countries throughout the world (e.g., desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, weather modification, energy and resource shortages, and air and water pollution). It also traces the relationships between these problems and such diverse factors as economic constraints, nationalism, cultural values, international relations, and access to new technology. The authors of the 17 individual papers grapple with the practical and philosophical dilemmas attendant upon environmental degradation and preservation. They then discuss the specific concerns of Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Africa and address the roles of such processes as agricultural development, population growth and migration, and the international export of environmental degradation. 620 references, 20 figures.

  13. Crisis stability and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.

  14. Socio economic crisis and mortality. Epidemiological testimony of the financial collapse of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gurfinkel, Enrique P; Bozovich, Gerardo E; Dabbous, Omar; Mautner, Branco; Anderson, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    Background Natural disasters, war, and terrorist attacks, have been linked to cardiac mortality. We sought to investigate whether a major financial crisis may impact on the medical management and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes. Methods We analyzed the Argentine cohort of the international multicenter Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE). The primary objective was to estimate if there was an association between the financial crisis period (April 1999 to December 2002) and in- hospital cardiovascular mortality, with the post-crisis period (January 2003 to September 2004) as the referent. Each period was defined according to the evolution of the Gross Domestic Product. We investigated the demographic characteristics, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, morbidity and mortality. Results We analyzed data from 3220 patients, 2246 (69.8%) patients in the crisis period and 974 (30.2%) in the post-crisis frame. The distribution of demographic and clinical baseline characteristics were not significantly different between both periods. During the crisis period the incidence of in-hospital myocardial infarction was higher (6.9% Vs 2.9%; p value < 0.0001), as well as congestive heart failure (16% Vs 11%; p value < 0.0001). Time to intervention with angioplasty was longer during the crisis, especially among public sites (median 190 min Vs 27 min). The incidence proportion of mortality during hospitalization was 6.2% Vs 5.1% after crisis. The crude OR for mortality was 1.2 (95% C.I. 0.87, 1.7). The odds for mortality were higher among private institutions {1.9 (95% C.I. 0.9, 3.8)} than for public centers {1.2 (95% C.I. 0.83, 1.79)}. We did not observe a significant interaction between type of hospital and crisis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the financial crisis may have had a negative impact on cardiovascular mortality during hospitalization, and higher incidence of medical complications. PMID:16351728

  15. Using Crisis Simulations in Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veil, Shari R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic setting. Courses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication.

  16. Chaotic Attractor Crisis and Climate Sensitivity: a Transfer Operator Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantet, A.; Lucarini, V.; Lunkeit, F.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The rough response to a smooth parameter change of some non-chaotic climate models, such as the warm to snowball-Earth transition in energy balance models due to the ice-albedo feedback, can be studied in the framework of bifurcation theory, in particular by analysing the Lyapunov spectrum of fixed points or periodic orbits. However, bifurcation theory is of little help to study the destruction of a chaotic attractor which can occur in high-dimensional General Circulation Models (GCM). Yet, one would expect critical slowing down to occur before the crisis, since, as the system becomes susceptible to the physical instability mechanism responsible for the crisis, it turns out to be less and less resilient to exogenous perturbations and to spontaneous fluctuations due to other types of instabilities on the attractor. The statistical physics framework, extended to nonequilibrium systems, is particularly well suited for the study of global properties of chaotic and stochastic systems. In particular, the semigroup of transfer operators governs the evolution of distributions in phase space and its spectrum characterises both the relaxation rate of distributions to a statistical steady-state and the stability of this steady-state to perturbations. If critical slowing down indeed occurs in the approach to an attractor crisis, the gap in the spectrum of the semigroup of transfer operators is expected to shrink. We show that the chaotic attractor crisis due to the ice-albedo feedback and resulting in a transition from a warm to a snowball-Earth in the Planet Simulator (PlaSim), a GCM of intermediate complexity, is associated with critical slowing down, as observed by the slower decay of correlations before the crisis (cf. left panel). In addition, we demonstrate that this critical slowing down can be traced back to the shrinkage of the gap between the leading eigenvalues of coarse-grained approximations of the transfer operators and that these eigenvalues capture the

  17. Developing a crisis response team.

    PubMed

    Zook, R

    2001-01-01

    To handle increased asaultive behavior on three psychiatric units while keeping staff and other patients safe, a Crisis Response Team was developed consisting of staff from psychiatry and officers from security. A written manual included the new policies and procedures and teaching content for verbal and physical deescalation techniques. A special inservice education program for assaultive crisis management was implemented. This model can be replicated in other areas of healthcare where it is necessary to deal with patients who lose verbal or physical control. PMID:11998671

  18. The financial crisis in Italy: implications for the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Ferrè, Francesca; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Valerio, Luca; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter

    2012-06-01

    The global economic and financial crisis is having and impact on the Italian healthcare system which is undergoing a devolution process from the central government to regions and where about one third of the regional governments (mainly in the central and southern part of the country) are facing large financial deficits. The paper briefly describes the current macro scenario and the main responses taken to face the crisis and highlights the downside risks of introducing "linear" cuts in the allocation of resources. While justified by the risk of a national debt default, present fiscal policies might increase inequalities in access to care, deteriorate overall health indicators and population wellbeing, and sharpen existing difference in the quality of care between regions. Preliminary evidence shows that the crisis is affecting the quality of nutrition and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. During this difficult financial situation Italy is also facing the risk of a major reduction in investments for preventive medicine, Evidence Based Medicine infrastructures, health information systems and physical capital renewal. This cost-cutting strategy may have negative long term consequences Also, important achievement in terms of limiting waiting lists, improving continuity of care and patients' centeredness, and promoting integration between social and health care may be negatively affected by unprecedented resources' cuts. It is essential that in such a period of public funding constraints health authorities monitor incidence of diseases and access to care of the most vulnerable groups and specifically target interventions to those who may be disproportionally hit by the crisis. PMID:22551787

  19. Crisis Intervention and Crisis Team Models in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Karen S.; Roberts, Albert R.

    2005-01-01

    The need for crisis intervention plans and programs in schools has become more evident during the past decade with the increased incidence of school violence and other traumatic situations experienced by students, educators, school personnel, parents, and relatives of those involved. This need has resulted in an increase of professional…

  20. Crisis in Context Theory: An Ecological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myer, Rick A.; Moore, Holly B.

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines a theory for understanding the impact of a crisis on individuals and organizations. Crisis in context theory (CCT) is grounded in an ecological model and based on literature in the field of crisis intervention and on personal experiences of the authors. A graphic representation denotes key components and premises of CCT,…

  1. Campus Crisis Response at Viberg College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaker, Rachel; Viars, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This fictional case study examines crisis response in higher education settings. Information about current crisis response procedures, plans, and trends was gathered from informational interviews, current crisis management literature, and multiple college and university websites. The information was synthesized into a fictional case study using…

  2. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  3. The Antimicrobial Resistance Crisis: Causes, Consequences, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Carolyn Anne; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Labbate, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis is the increasing global incidence of infectious diseases affecting the human population, which are untreatable with any known antimicrobial agent. This crisis will have a devastating cost on human society as both debilitating and lethal diseases increase in frequency and scope. Three major factors determine this crisis: (1) the increasing frequency of AMR phenotypes among microbes is an evolutionary response to the widespread use of antimicrobials; (2) the large and globally connected human population allows pathogens in any environment access to all of humanity; and (3) the extensive and often unnecessary use of antimicrobials by humanity provides the strong selective pressure that is driving the evolutionary response in the microbial world. Of these factors, the size of the human population is least amenable to rapid change. In contrast, the remaining two factors may be affected, so offering a means of managing the crisis: the rate at which AMR, as well as virulence factors evolve in microbial world may be slowed by reducing the applied selective pressure. This may be accomplished by radically reducing the global use of current and prospective antimicrobials. Current management measures to legislate the use of antimicrobials and to educate the healthcare world in the issues, while useful, have not comprehensively addressed the problem of achieving an overall reduction in the human use of antimicrobials. We propose that in addition to current measures and increased research into new antimicrobials and diagnostics, a comprehensive education program will be required to change the public paradigm of antimicrobial usage from that of a first line treatment to that of a last resort when all other therapeutic options have failed. PMID:25279369

  4. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. PMID:22520196

  5. Responsibility for the Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard T.

    1970-01-01

    Critically analyzes the thesis of Christian responsibility for the ecological crisis and leads to its rejection. Present day environmental misuse results from greed, carelessness, and ignorance." Advocates ecological strategy of corrective action, with supplementary theological strategy" for church-influenced citizens. (AL)

  6. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, S. Fred

    1970-01-01

    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  7. Key to the Environmental Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Douglas H.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Understanding the present ecological crisis by understanding its conceptual background is discussed. Assessed are early Indian, colonial, puritan, and eighteenth and nineteenth century American concepts and beliefs of man's relationship to his environment. Principles and beliefs necessary to restore and maintain the environment are developed. (BL)

  8. The Ethical Crisis in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Warren Bryan

    1974-01-01

    Colleges and universities are showing signs of being affected by an emerging ethical crisis (misrepresentation of the job market to graduates, term paper companies, misallocations in financial aid); the needed cure seems to be in better conceptual organization of higher education institutions. (Author/PG)

  9. A Crisis in Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2016

    2016-01-01

    There is a crisis in American civic education. Survey after survey shows that recent college graduates are alarmingly ignorant of America's history and heritage. They cannot identify the term lengths of members of Congress, the substance of the First Amendment, or the origin of the separation of powers. They do not know the Father of the…

  10. California Faces a Curriculum Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    School administrators in California are getting greater flexibility in how they spend more than $300 million intended for instructional materials, along with encouragement to use some free digital textbooks for high school courses, as a result of cost-cutting measures brought on by the state's budget crisis. Extensive changes to the state's…

  11. Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The American Folklore Society and the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress collaborated on a conference, "Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis," held on December 1-2, 2000, and gathered experts to formulate recommendations for the preservation and access of America's folk heritage sound collections. To facilitate informed discussion…

  12. Hungry Kids: The Solvable Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felling, Christy

    2013-01-01

    The numbers speak for themselves in terms of the crisis of hunger among kids in the United States: More than 16 million children--one in five--live in households that struggle to put food on the table. Nearly half of all food stamp recipients are children. But, argues Felling, the battle against childhood hunger can be won; the United States has…

  13. Addressing the world water crisis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...

  14. The Crisis in Extramural Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Joel

    2011-01-01

    When "crisis" and "extramural funding" are mentioned, most academics think about problems such as the low percentage of proposals funded by federal agencies (now approaching single digits in many fields) or inadequate indirect-cost recovery rates that fail to reimburse universities for all costs of research. These are great problems draining…

  15. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  16. The Crisis of the Professoriate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    The status of the academic profession is discussed: its ambivalent situation of having benefitted from postwar expansion of higher education, but of having been content to maintain the status quo. The worldwide nature of the crisis is noted. Available from AAPSS, 3937 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104. (MSE)

  17. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  18. Global Trends in Academic Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.; Finkelstein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Even before the current global economic crisis, discontent with the governance of higher education institutions was widespread among faculty in the United States and throughout the world. Drawing from the 2007 Changing Academic Profession (CAP) survey of faculty in seventeen countries, the authors examine faculty perceptions of the current state…

  19. America's looming creativity crisis.

    PubMed

    Florida, Richard

    2004-10-01

    The strength of the American economy does not rest on its manufacturing prowess, its natural resources, or the size of its market. It turns on one factor--the country's openness to new ideas, which has allowed it to attract the brightest minds from around the world and harness their creative energies. But the United States is on the verge of losing that competitive edge. As the nation tightens its borders to students and scientists and subjects federal research funding to ideological and religious litmus tests, many other countries are stepping in to lure that creative capital away. Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, and others are spending more on research and development and shoring up their universities in an effort to attract the world's best--including Americans. If even a few of these nations draw away just a small percentage of the creative workers from the U.S., the effect on its economy will be enormous. In this article, the author introduces a quantitative measure of the migration of creative capital called the Global Creative-Class Index. It shows that, far from leading the world, the United States doesn't even rank in the top ten in the percentage of its workforce engaged in creative occupations. What's more, the baby boomers will soon retire. And data showing large drops in foreign student applications to U.S. universities and in the number of visas issued to knowledge workers, along with concomitant increases in immigration in other countries, suggest that the erosion of talent from the United States will only intensify. To defend the U.S. economy, the business community must take the lead in ensuring that global talent can move efficiently across borders, that education and research are funded at radically higher levels, and that we tap into the creative potential of more and more workers. Because wherever creativity goes, economic growth is sure to follow. PMID:15559581

  20. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    PubMed

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women

  1. Crisis of Youth or Youth in Crisis? Education, Employment and Legitimation Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young…

  2. Decolonising Disability: Thinking and Acting Globally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meekosha, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that the dominance of the global North in the universalising and totalising tendencies of writings about disability has resulted in the marginalisation of these experiences in the global South. This constitutes an intellectual crisis for disability studies in the periphery. The experience of colonisation and colonialism in the…

  3. Stock markets and criticality in the current economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto; Zembrzuski, Marcelo; Correa, Fabio C.; Lamb, Luis C.

    2010-12-01

    We show that the current economic crisis has led the market to exhibit a non-critical behavior. We do so by analyzing the quantitative parameters of time series from the main assets of the Brazilian Stock Market BOVESPA. By monitoring global persistence we show a deviation of power law behavior during the crisis in a strong analogy with spin systems (from where this concept was originally conceived). Such behavior is corroborated by an emergent heavy tail of absolute return distribution and also by the magnitude autocorrelation exponent. Comparisons with universal exponents obtained in the international stock markets are also performed. This suggests how a thorough analysis of suitable exponents can bring a possible way of forecasting market crises characterized by non-criticality.

  4. Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Henk; Looy, Cindy V; Collinson, Margaret E; Brinkhuis, Henk; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H A; Kürschner, Wolfram M; Sephton, Mark A

    2004-08-31

    During the end-Permian ecological crisis, terrestrial ecosystems experienced preferential dieback of woody vegetation. Across the world, surviving herbaceous lycopsids played a pioneering role in repopulating deforested terrain. We document that the microspores of these lycopsids were regularly released in unseparated tetrads indicative of failure to complete the normal process of spore development. Although involvement of mutation has long been hinted at or proposed in theory, this finding provides concrete evidence for chronic environmental mutagenesis at the time of global ecological crisis. Prolonged exposure to enhanced UV radiation could account satisfactorily for a worldwide increase in land plant mutation. At the end of the Permian, a period of raised UV stress may have been the consequence of severe disruption of the stratospheric ozone balance by excessive emission of hydrothermal organohalogens in the vast area of Siberian Traps volcanism. PMID:15282373

  5. Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Henk; Looy, Cindy V.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Brinkhuis, Henk; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H. A.; Kürschner, Wolfram M.; Sephton, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    During the end-Permian ecological crisis, terrestrial ecosystems experienced preferential dieback of woody vegetation. Across the world, surviving herbaceous lycopsids played a pioneering role in repopulating deforested terrain. We document that the microspores of these lycopsids were regularly released in unseparated tetrads indicative of failure to complete the normal process of spore development. Although involvement of mutation has long been hinted at or proposed in theory, this finding provides concrete evidence for chronic environmental mutagenesis at the time of global ecological crisis. Prolonged exposure to enhanced UV radiation could account satisfactorily for a worldwide increase in land plant mutation. At the end of the Permian, a period of raised UV stress may have been the consequence of severe disruption of the stratospheric ozone balance by excessive emission of hydrothermal organohalogens in the vast area of Siberian Traps volcanism. PMID:15282373

  6. Analytic optimizations in crisis stability

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Second strikes are dominated by submarine launched missiles in the absence of defenses, but shift to aircraft at modest levels of defense. Defenses protect some retaliatory missiles, but not enough to retaliate strongly. With defenses, missiles should be vestigial and could be eliminated without penalty. Then aircraft could also be significantly reduced without impacting stability. The combination of parameters that maximizes cost effectiveness also maximizes midcourse effectiveness and crisis stability. 15 refs., 20 figs.

  7. Consulting to children in crisis.

    PubMed

    Looney, J; Rahe, R; Harding, R; Ward, H; Liu, W

    1979-01-01

    Although community consultation is common for psychiatrists, such activity is usually carried out on an elective rather than emergency basis. In a world troubled by community disaster situations--children are often at risk. Psychiatrists, through the use of skillful crisis consultation, can be of great help to these young people. This report describes the effort of a mental health consultation team to meet the needs of a large population of children under acute stress. PMID:467132

  8. School Crisis Management Manual: Guidelines for Administrators. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judie

    This three-part manual is intended for principals and other administrators responsible for developing and managing school crisis plans. Part 1, preparation for a school crisis, includes sections on the selection and training of members of the school crisis team, steps in developing a school crisis plan, and four crisis scenarios to train team…

  9. From Crisis to Stability: A Case Study of Presidential Leadership at a Christian College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Despite healthy growth in past decades, in a time of national and global economic instability small, private Christian colleges now find themselves in a precarious position. Leading effectively in such colleges and universities in a time of external and/or internal crisis is a great challenge. This research is about a small, Christian college with…

  10. Analysis of a National Toll Free Suicide Crisis Line in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Broom, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The first national toll free suicide crisis line for South Africa was launched in October 2003 with the aim of providing a service dedicated to the prevention of suicide in this country. The intervention was motivated by South Africa's suicide rate which had risen higher than the global suicide rate, with the majority of attempted suicides…

  11. An Evaluation of Crisis Hotline Outcomes. Part 1: Nonsuicidal Crisis Callers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John; Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of telephone crisis services/hotlines, examining proximal outcomes as measured by changes in callers' crisis state from the beginning to the end of their calls to eight centers in the U.S. and intermediate outcomes within 3 weeks of their calls, was evaluated. Between March 2003 and July 2004, 1,617 crisis callers were assessed…

  12. School-Based Crisis Intervention: Its Effectiveness and Role in Broader Crisis Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie; Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Crisis in the context of a school has many unique features related to the social structure and sense of community within schools. A school crisis exposes children and staff to threat, loss, and trauma that undermine the safety and stability of the entire school. Crisis intervention has as its explicit aim the goal of providing immediate support to…

  13. Supervision Experiences of Professional Counselors Providing Crisis Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupre, Madeleine; Echterling, Lennis G.; Meixner, Cara; Anderson, Robin; Kielty, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, the authors explored supervision experiences of 13 licensed professional counselors in situations requiring crisis counseling. Five themes concerning crisis and supervision were identified from individual interviews. Findings support intensive, immediate crisis supervision and postlicensure clinical supervision.

  14. Random matrix theory and cross-correlations in global financial indices and local stock market indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2013-02-01

    We analyzed cross-correlations between price fluctuations of global financial indices (20 daily stock indices over the world) and local indices (daily indices of 200 companies in the Korean stock market) by using random matrix theory (RMT). We compared eigenvalues and components of the largest and the second largest eigenvectors of the cross-correlation matrix before, during, and after the global financial the crisis in the year 2008. We find that the majority of its eigenvalues fall within the RMT bounds [ λ -, λ +], where λ - and λ + are the lower and the upper bounds of the eigenvalues of random correlation matrices. The components of the eigenvectors for the largest positive eigenvalues indicate the identical financial market mode dominating the global and local indices. On the other hand, the components of the eigenvector corresponding to the second largest eigenvalue are positive and negative values alternatively. The components before the crisis change sign during the crisis, and those during the crisis change sign after the crisis. The largest inverse participation ratio (IPR) corresponding to the smallest eigenvector is higher after the crisis than during any other periods in the global and local indices. During the global financial the crisis, the correlations among the global indices and among the local stock indices are perturbed significantly. However, the correlations between indices quickly recover the trends before the crisis.

  15. [Hypertensive crisis in kidney patients].

    PubMed

    Scrivano, Jacopo; Giuliani, Anna; Pettorini, Laura; Punzo, Giorgio; Mene', Paolo; Pirozzi, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The classification and management of hypertensive crisis have been recently reviewed in the context of both European and American guidelines. The key points for proper blood pressure control in severe arterial hypertension are: 1 - Distinction between urgent intervention and emergencies 2 - Choice of the best drug(s) 3 - Choice of the correct route of administration. In patients with renal disease, beside the common causes of hypertension/ hypertensive crises, kidney-specific causes should be taken into account such as renal parenchymal hypertension, renovascular hypertension, sclerodermic crises, and preeclampsia. PMID:22028263

  16. Medical liability reform crisis 2008.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Stuart L

    2009-02-01

    The crisis of medical liability has resulted in drastic increases in insurance premiums and reduced access for patients to specialty care, particularly in areas such as obstetrics/gynecology, neurosurgery, and orthopaedic surgery. The current liability environment neither effectively compensates persons injured from medical negligence nor encourages addressing system errors to improve patient safety. The author reviews trends across the nation and reports on the efforts of an organization called "Doctors for Medical Liability Reform" to educate the public and lawmakers on the need for solutions to the chaotic process of adjudicating medical malpractice claims in the United States. PMID:18989732

  17. Dangerous Opportunities: Strategic Implications of the Global Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Robert J.; McClure, William S.; Parkes, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Without question, the current economic downturn is at the forefront of conversations in continuing higher education. Yet as recently as March 2008, this was not the case for continuing education (CE) professionals, according to surveys conducted by University Continuing Education Association (UCEA). In 2007-2008, each of UCEA's four commissions…

  18. Crisis Communications in a Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Kenneth Trump, a school safety expert who consults with districts on how to respond to school safety crises, explains how the new prevalence of threats of violence being delivered over digital and social media creates for administrators a "communication crisis" that unfolds alongside the real or perceived crisis of school safety being…

  19. Crisis Management's New Role in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainey, Barbara S.

    2009-01-01

    From natural disasters to the financial debacle, it is clear to the educational community that crises know no boundaries. Far from a passing fad, crisis planning must be an integrated part of effective school district leadership. Two studies explore the status of crisis management in selected public school systems and offer recommendations for…

  20. Crisis and Loss: Information for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Andrea, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    During a crisis, parents can do a great deal to help their child deal with grief and anxiety. This special issue provides information and promising practices that might be helpful in dealing with various crisis situations. Provides the following articles: (1) "Children Killing Children" (Kevin Dwyer); (2) "Disaster: Helping Children Cope" (Debbie…

  1. Creating Your School's Crisis Management Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Bruce T.

    2001-01-01

    Schools can reduce their vulnerability to violence and other hazards by analyzing foreseeable risks, assembling a broad-based crisis-management team (CMT), providing adequate staff training, and developing a crisis manual. Common response problems concerning decision-making authority, communication, and performance expectations for CMTs are…

  2. Do You Have a Crisis Management Plan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleviak, Walter; Milkevitch, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Although certain crises cannot be prevented, reactions to many can be planned. A crisis-management team should be organized for each building. Critical crisis-plan elements include telephone trees, forms, reference articles, sample letters, and processes for dealing with local media. Spokespersons should have facts straight before speaking. (MLH)

  3. Resource Guide for Crisis Management in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Richard T.; And Others

    A crisis can occur at any time, whether or not a school's staff plans for it. This resource guide is a compilation of user-friendly examples of policies, procedures, guidelines, checklists, and forms to help Virginia schools develop and implement a systematic crisis-management plan. Chapter 1 provides an introductory overview of the essential…

  4. Crisis Response Support Procedures for Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgendorf, Erik

    Developed at Missouri's Crowder College, the guidelines in this manual are designed to help educational institutions respond to and resolve crisis situations. Following an introduction describing the importance of having proactive commitments, resources, and routines in place to respond to crises, the first section provides general crisis support…

  5. School Crisis Response: Expecting the Unexpected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Robert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The typical administrator certification program does not devote specific attention to shootings, suicide, terminal illness, and natural disasters. A crisis of major proportion calls for enlightened leadership: a take-charge manner, combined with effective teamwork and delegation of vital operations. Crisis teams should exist at regional, district,…

  6. The Farm Crisis of the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Fred K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The Midwest, Plains, and Delta are among the regions hit hardest by the current farm crisis. The vulnerability of an area to the financial crisis in farming depends on the financial conditions of its farmers, its dependence on farming--especially on export-sensitive crops--and the strength of its nonfarm economy. (JHZ)

  7. School Crisis Aftermath: Care for the Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paine, Cathy Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    "Professional" crisis caregivers (e.g., emergency responders, mental health providers, medical professionals, victim assistance counselors, and faith leaders) are trained to handle exposure to images of destruction and loss and to help victims or survivors cope with the impact of a crisis. They try to help individuals, schools, and communities…

  8. A Human Rights Crisis in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a human rights crisis in Indian Country. This crisis--one of many--is the result of an almost universal lack of legal representation of Native people when they appear as defendants in tribal courts. The lack of lay advocates and attorneys representing Native defendants creates tremendous problems for tribal members who find themselves in…

  9. Miscarriage: A Special Type of Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Randal D.; Hooks, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed 102 women about their experience with miscarriage. Found that family resource variables were a much stronger predictor of level of crisis and recovery than were personal or community resource variables. Adaptation and cohesion were significant predictors of speed or recovery and level of crisis, respectively. (Author/NB)

  10. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Evolving Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medland, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a synthesis of the views of participants and counterviews of scholars concerning the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Reviews historical and analytical accounts of the crisis. Describes critical areas of conflicting interpretations by historians and participants. Includes an annotated bibliography of teaching resources. (NL)