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Sample records for global economoc crisis

  1. Analyzing Crisis in Global Financial Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Deo, Nivedita

    We apply the Random Matrix Theory and complex network techniques to 20 global financial indices and study the correlation and network properties before and during the financial crisis of 2008 respectively. We find that the largest eigenvalue deviate significantly from the upper bound which shows a strong correlation between financial indices. By using a sliding window of 25 days we find that largest eigenvalue represent the collective information about the correlation between global financial indices and its trend indicate the market conditions. It is confirmed that eigenvectors corresponding to second largest eigenvalue gives useful information about the sector formation in the global financial indices. We find that these clusters are formed on the basis of the geographical location. The correlation network is constructed using threshold method for different values of threshold θ in the range 0 to 0.9, at θ=0.2 the network is fully connected. At θ=0.6, the Americas, Europe and Asia/Pacific form different clusters before the crisis but during the crisis Americas and Europe are strongly linked. If we further increase the threshold to 0.9 we find that European countries France, Germany and UK consistently constitute the most tightly linked markets before and during the crisis. We find that the structure of Minimum Spanning Tree before the crisis is more star like whereas during the crisis it changes to be more chain like. Using the multifractal analysis, we find that Hurst exponents of financial indices increases during the period of crisis as compared to the period before the crisis. The empirical results verify the validity of measures, and this has led to a better understanding of complex financial markets.

  2. Wildlife Endangerment: A Global Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshorn, Arthur

    1981-01-01

    This essay discusses threats to wildlife posed by technological advances and human population growth. It presents evidence that habitats are being destroyed by pollution, exploitation of virgin lands, energy resource extraction, and other rapidly changing conditions. The author proposes a coordinated global effort to preserve vanishing species.…

  3. Global Health and the Global Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program. PMID:21330597

  4. Responding to the global human resources crisis.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Vasant; Brown, Hilary; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Adams, Orvill; Dussault, Gilles; Elzinga, Gijs; Nordstrom, Anders; Habte, Demissie; Jacobs, Marian; Solimano, Giorgio; Sewankambo, Nelson; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit; Evans, Timothy; Chen, Lincoln

    2004-05-01

    The global community is in the midst of a growing response to health crises in developing countries, which is focused on mobilising financial resources and increasing access to essential medicines. However, the response has yet to tackle the most important aspect of health-care systems--the people that make them work. Human resources for health--the personnel that deliver public-health, clinical, and environmental services--are in disarray and decline in much of the developing world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The reasons behind this disorder are complex. For decades, efforts have focused on building training institutions. What is becoming increasingly clear, however, is that issues of supply, demand, and mobility (transnational, regional, and local) are central to the human-resource problem. Without substantial improvements in workforces, newly mobilised funds and commodities will not deliver on their promise. The global community needs to engage in four core strategies: raise the profile of the issue of human resources; improve the conceptual base and statistical evidence available to decision makers; collect, share, and learn from country experiences; and begin to formulate and enact policies at the country level that affect all aspects of the crisis. PMID:15121412

  5. Schooling the Crisis? Education in the Aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John

    2014-01-01

    Five years on from the onset of the global financial crisis, there has been little sustained discussion of its implications for schooling. This is surprising when we consider that for the past three decades education has been shaped by assumptions about the need to prepare students for life in global capitalist economies. The consensus seems to be…

  6. Teacher Education, the Global Financial Crisis, Frogs and Bicycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Background: The extent to which the global financial crisis (GFC) has impacted upon teacher education in universities in Australia is potentially, like most other aspects of teacher education, a contested area. Purpose, aims/questions: The aim of this article is to examine the impact the GFC along with other funding constraints, has had on teacher…

  7. Monitoring the Effects of the Global Crisis on Education Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Gwang-Chol

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience and findings from the monitoring work carried out by UNESCO throughout 2009 to examine and assess the possible effects of the global financial and economic crisis on education provision in its Member States. The findings showed that although it was too early to ascertain the full extent of the impact of the…

  8. Leaders Urge Colleges to Think Globally Despite Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth; Wheeler, David

    2008-01-01

    The global economic crisis has accelerated the fear that the United States' international power is fading. It has also made clear the need for American higher education to engage more deeply with the rest of the world, not run from it. That was the consensus among a group of presidents and provosts who met in New York this month as part of "Higher…

  9. Protecting Pakistan's health during the global economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A

    2012-03-01

    The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources. PMID:22574485

  10. Australian baby boomers face retirement during the global financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Hal; Wells, Yvonne; O'Loughlin, Kate; Heese, Karla

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact in Australia of the global financial crisis on the baby boom cohort approaching later life. Data from national focus groups of people aged 50 to 64 years (N = 73), conducted in late 2008, found widespread but variable concern and uncertainty concerning work and retirement plans and experiences. A national survey (N = 1,009) of those aged 50 to 64 years in mid-2009 reported lower levels of financial satisfaction compared with other life domains; many planned to postpone retirement. Findings are interpreted in the context of policies and markets that differed significantly from those in the United States, notwithstanding the global nature of the financial crisis. PMID:23837628

  11. Making sense of the global health crisis: policy narratives, conflict, and global health governance.

    PubMed

    Ney, Steven

    2012-04-01

    Health has become a policy issue of global concern. Worried that the unstructured, polycentric, and pluralist nature of global health governance is undermining the ability to serve emergent global public health interests, some commentators are calling for a more systematic institutional response to the "global health crisis." Yet global health is a complex and uncertain policy issue. This article uses narrative analysis to explore how actors deal with these complexities and how uncertainties affect global health governance. By comparing three narratives in terms of their basic assumptions, the way they define problems as well as the solutions they propose, the analysis shows how the unstructured pluralism of global health policy making creates a wide scope of policy conflict over the global health crisis. This wide scope of conflict enables effective policy-oriented learning about global health issues. The article also shows how exclusionary patterns of cooperation and competition are emerging in health policy making at the global level. These patterns threaten effective learning by risking both polarization of the policy debate and unanticipated consequences of health policy. Avoiding these pitfalls, the analysis suggests, means creating global health governance regimes that promote openness and responsiveness in deliberation about the global health crisis. PMID:22422655

  12. Tackling the global NCD crisis: innovations in law and governance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bryan; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2013-01-01

    35 million people die annually of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), 80% of them in low- and middle-income countries - representing a marked epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases and from richer to poorer countries. The total number of NCDs is projected to rise by 17% over the coming decade, absent significant interventions. The NCD epidemic poses unique governance challenges: the causes are multifactorial, the affected populations diffuse, and effective responses require sustained multi-sectorial cooperation. The authors propose a range of regulatory options available at the domestic level, including stricter food labeling laws, regulation of food advertisements, tax incentives for healthy lifestyle choices, changes to the built environment, and direct regulation of food and drink producers. Given the realities of globalization, such interventions require global cooperation. In 2011, the UN General Assembly held a High-level meeting on NCDs, setting a global target of a 25% reduction in premature mortality from NCDs by 2025. Yet concrete plans and resource commitments for reaching this goal are not yet in the offing, and the window is rapidly closing for achieving these targets through prevention - as opposed to treatment, which is more costly. Innovative global governance for health is urgently needed to engage private industry and civil society in the global response to the NCD crisis. PMID:23581654

  13. The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Japan's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the global financial crisis on Japan's economy, especially on its higher education. The first section provides an overview of Japan's national economy with a focus on the impact of the global financial crisis on the national economy, then the author touches on the impact on the Japanese government's finances,…

  14. Sustaining Ecosystem Services in the Global Coral Reef Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, Richard B.; Precht, William F.

    2009-07-01

    Objective science is critical to understanding the relative impacts of the many putative causal agents in the global coral reef crisis. This paper provides an evidence-based scenario of causality leading to the current state of reef degradation. Contrary to revisionist narratives that emphasize the local-scale effects of fishing and nutrient loading, coral populations were and are degrading primarily due to regional-to global-scale factors. Most important among these large-scale factors are disease outbreaks and coral bleaching, both of which are related to climate change. Because policy recommendations and management strategies will differ depending on which cause(s) are perceived to exert the greatest influence, scientists must be explicit about when they are acting as advocates and when they are objectively conveying scientific results. Legitimate scientific debate is healthy and in no way diminishes the goal of creating cogent policy. Forced ideological unification, in contrast, risks obfuscation, undermining the scientific process. Science must move forward unfettered by political expediency; however, the situation is dire enough to warrant immediate action on local, regional, and global levels, based on the best scientific information at hand, in parallel with continuing research.

  15. Effects of global financial crisis on network structure in a local stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2014-08-01

    This study considers the effects of the 2008 global financial crisis on threshold networks of a local Korean financial market around the time of the crisis. Prices of individual stocks belonging to KOSPI 200 (Korea Composite Stock Price Index 200) are considered for three time periods, namely before, during, and after the crisis. Threshold networks are constructed from fully connected cross-correlation networks, and thresholds of cross-correlation coefficients are assigned to obtain threshold networks. At the high threshold, only one large cluster consisting of firms in the financial sector, heavy industry, and construction is observed during the crisis. However, before and after the crisis, there are several fragmented clusters belonging to various sectors. The power law of the degree distribution in threshold networks is observed within the limited range of thresholds. Threshold networks are fatter during the crisis than before or after the crisis. The clustering coefficient of the threshold network follows the power law in the scaling range.

  16. Global financial crisis and surgical practice: the Greek paradigm.

    PubMed

    Karidis, Nikolaos P; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2011-11-01

    Apart from the significant implications of recent financial crisis in overall health indices and mortality rates, the direct effect of health resources redistribution in everyday clinical practice is barely recognized. In the case of Greece, health sector reform and health spending cuts have already had a major impact on costly interventions, particularly in surgical practice. An increase in utilization of public health resources, lack of basic and advanced surgical supplies, salary deductions, and emerging issues in patient management have contributed to serious dysfunction of a public health system unable to sustain current needs. In this context, significant implications arise for the surgeons and patients as proper perioperative management is directly affected by reduced public health funding. The surgical community has expressed concerns about the quality of surgical care and the future of surgical progress in the era of the European Union. Greek surgeons are expected to support reform while maintaining a high level of surgical care to the public. The challenge of cost control in surgical practice provides, nevertheless, an excellent opportunity to reconsider health economics while innovation through a more traditional approach to the surgical patient should not be precluded. A Greek case study on the extent of the current situation is presented with reference to health policy reform, serving as an alarming paradigm for the global community under the pressure of a profound financial recession. PMID:21879425

  17. Defining and Acting on Global Health: The Case of Japan and the Refugee Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Leppold, Claire; Ozaki, Akihiko; Shimada, Yuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Tanimoto, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    What counts as global health? There has been limited discourse to date on the ways in which country-level contexts may shape positioning in global health agendas. By reviewing Japan’s response to the refugee crisis, we demonstrate a clash between rhetoric and action on global responsibility, and suggest that cultural and historical factors may be related to the ways of perceiving and acting upon global health.

  18. Global Crisis: Local Reality?--An International Analysis of "Crisis" in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, E. Jayne; Pramling-Samuelsson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    In a recent keynote speech Paul Standish noted "there is agreement in judgments. But how the response to those judgments is realised is always cultural" (paper presented to PESA Conference, Taiwan, 2012, p. 2). Making judgments about what constitutes "crisis" for children is not necessarily agreed universally, though clearly…

  19. Impact of global financial crisis on stylized facts between energy markets and stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Tan Kim; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the stylized facts is extremely important and has becomes a hot issue nowadays. However, recent global financial crisis that started from United States had spread all over the world and adversely affected the commodities and financial sectors of both developed and developing countries. This paper tends to examine the impact of crisis on stylized facts between energy and stock markets using ARCH-family models based on the experience over 2008 global financial crisis. Empirical results denote that there is long lasting, persists and positively significant the autocorrelation function of absolute returns and their squares in both markets for before and during crisis. Besides that, leverage effects are found in stock markets whereby bad news has a greater impact on volatility than good news for both before and during crisis. However, crisis does not indicate any impact on risk-return tradeoff for both energy and stock markets. For forecasting evaluations, GARCH model and FIAPARCH model indicate superior out of sample forecasts for before and during crisis respectively.

  20. Rhetorics of Regulation in Education after the Global Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, David

    2010-01-01

    Economic crises such as those of 1929, 1973 and 2008 appear to associate with shifts in the rhetorics of management. These dates mark the end of expansionary phases within an economic cycle, and they portend what James O'Connor has called a "fiscal crisis of the state". It is argued, speculatively, that immediately before and after an economic…

  1. The financial crisis and global health: the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) policy response.

    PubMed

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we interrogate the policy response of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to the global financial crisis, and discuss the likely global health implications, especially in low-income countries. In doing so, we ask if the IMF has meaningfully loosened its fiscal deficit targets in light of the economic challenges posed by the financial crisis and adjusted its macro-economic policy advice to this new reality; or has the rhetoric of counter-cyclical spending failed to translate into additional fiscal space for IMF loan-recipient countries, with negative health consequences? To answer these questions, we assess several post-crisis IMF lending agreements with countries requiring financial assistance, and draw upon recent academic studies and civil society reports examining policy conditionalities still being prescribed by the IMF. We also reference recent studies examining the health impacts of these conditionalities. We demonstrate that while the IMF has been somewhat more flexible in its crisis response than in previous episodes of financial upheaval, there has been no meaningful rethinking in the application of dominant neoliberal macro-economic policies. After showing some flexibility in the initial crisis response, the IMF is pushing for excessive contraction in most low and middle-income countries. We conclude that there remains a wide gap between the rhetoric and the reality of the IMF's policy and programming advice, with negative implications for global health. PMID:22504946

  2. Spatial and Financial Fixes and the Global Financial Crisis: Does Labour Have the Knowledge and Power to Meet the Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Five years after the global financial crisis, and trillions of dollars in stimulus spending later, the crisis not only remains unresolved, but risks entering a new deeper phase in southern Europe. The global turbulence, although experienced with differing degrees of intensity and dislocation around the world, manifests as high unemployment,…

  3. Impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns: An application of ARCH and GARCH methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Abdullah, Nurul Ain; Abdul Karim, Samsul Ariffin

    2013-04-01

    This paper is focusing on seeing the resilient of precious metals returns in facing the global financial crisis and provides a new guide for the investors before making investment decisions on precious metals. Four types of precious metals returns which are the variables selected in this study. The precious metals are gold, silver, bronze and platinum. All the variables are transferred to natural logarithm (ln). Daily data over the period 2 January 1995 to 30 December 2011 is used. Unit root tests that involve Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) tests have been employed in determining the stationarity of the variables. Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (ARCH) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) methods have been applied in measuring the impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns. The result shows that investing in platinum is less risky compared to the other precious metals because it is not influence by the crisis period.

  4. Rationale for Students Preparation and Entrepreneurship Education in the Face of Global Economic Crisis in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onuma, Nwite

    2016-01-01

    The rationale for students preparation in job creation through entrepreneurship education was examined. Problems of unemployment among Nigerian university graduates and challenges to entrepreneurship in the face of global economic crisis were also highlighted. The persistent problem of unemployment among University graduates and its attendant…

  5. Marx and Foucault: Subjectivity, Employability and the Crisis of Youth Unemployment in the Great Global Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the different approaches taken to the concepts of work or labour by Marx and Foucault, examining in particular the question of subjectivity in relation to youth unemployment and the current crisis of youth unemployment as part of the aftermath of the global recession of 2008.

  6. HRD Challenges Faced in the Post-Global Financial Crisis Period--Insights from the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeble-Ramsay, Diane Rose; Armitage, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to report initial empirical research that examines UK employees' perceptions of the changing nature of work since the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) to consider how the financial context may have constrained HRD practice and more sustainable approaches. Design/methodology/approach: Focus group research was facilitated…

  7. Global Environmental Crisis: Is There a Connection with Place-Based, Ecosociocultural Education in Rural Spain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental educators are challenged by how to teach children about global environmental crisis such as the Gulf oil spill, which only serves to engender children's fears and apprehensions about the negative impact of humans on ecosystems. Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article presents an interesting context from which to analyze and…

  8. The Global Economic Crisis and Educational Development: Responses and Coping Strategies in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines how Asian countries have responded to the global economic crisis which started in late 2008, with particular reference to explore what major coping strategies have been adopted by these Asian governments to continue educational development. This comparative study highlights the significant role of the state in…

  9. The Global Economic Crisis, Poverty and Education: A Perspective from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nambissan, Geetha B.

    2010-01-01

    Debates on the global economic recession have failed to draw adequate attention to the meaning of the crisis for the poor and their education, especially in later developing societies. In this paper, I focus on the education of children of the poor in India--a country that has experienced economic slowdown rather than recession. Available research…

  10. What Effect Did the Global Financial Crisis Have upon Youth Wellbeing? Evidence from Four Australian Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Jerrim, John; Anders, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has suggested significant negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on mental health and wellbeing. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental period of late adolescence may be at particular risk of economic downturns. Harmonizing 4 longitudinal cohorts of Australian youth (N = 38,017), we estimate the…

  11. The global financial crisis and health equity: Early experiences from Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely acknowledged that austerity measures in the wake of the global financial crisis are starting to undermine population health results. Yet, few research studies have focused on the ways in which the financial crisis and the ensuing ‘Great Recession’ have affected health equity, especially through their impact on social determinants of health; neither has much attention been given to the health consequences of the fiscal austerity regime that quickly followed a brief period of counter-cyclical government spending for bank bailouts and economic stimulus. Canada has not remained insulated from these developments, despite its relative success in maneuvering the global financial crisis. Methods The study draws on three sources of evidence: A series of semi-structured interviews in Ottawa and Toronto, with key informants selected on the basis of their expertise (n = 12); an analysis of recent (2012) Canadian and Ontario budgetary impacts on social determinants of health; and documentation of trend data on key social health determinants pre- and post the financial crisis. Results The findings suggest that health equity is primarily impacted through two main pathways related to the global financial crisis: austerity budgets and associated program cutbacks in areas crucial to addressing the inequitable distribution of social determinants of health, including social assistance, housing, and education; and the qualitative transformation of labor markets, with precarious forms of employment expanding rapidly in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Preliminary evidence suggests that these tendencies will lead to a further deepening of existing health inequities, unless counter-acted through a change in policy direction. Conclusions This article documents some of the effects of financial crisis and severe economic decline on health equity in Canada. However, more research is necessary to study policy choices that could mitigate this effect

  12. Cultural Identity Crisis in the Age of Globalization and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring together various elements that portray the complex conceptuality of cultural identity within technological society. It engages in a theoretical inquiry into the questions of how the wide-ranging uses young people are now making of new information and communication technologies and global media may possess the…

  13. Zika Virus: Anatomy of a Global Health Crisis.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus infection has emerged as the world's newest health threat, linked to microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. We address the rapid global spread of this disease, and the prospects for successful prevention and treatment. PMID:27069344

  14. The Education and Skills Gap: A Global Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Dave

    2011-01-01

    It is like trying to fit a triangular peg into a round hole while both the hole and the peg continually change shape and size. Sound a little crazy? That is just what industry thinks about the current global "one-size-fits-all" concept of education. The perception from business, government and education leaders of 50 nations at the Bahrain 2010…

  15. The global financial crisis: Is there any contagion between real estate and equity markets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Eddie Chi-man; Chan, Ka Kwan Kevin

    2014-07-01

    This study examines contagion across equity and securitized real estate markets of Hong Kong, US and UK during the global financial crisis by the Forbes-Rigobon, coskewness and cokurtosis tests. In particular, this is the first study to use the cokurtosis test to examine contagion between real estate and equity markets. The results show that the cokurtosis test can detect additional channels of contagion, and hence is a more powerful test. In contrary to Fry et al. (2010), we find that the cokurtosis test shows a highly significant evidence of contagion between the equity and real estate markets in both directions. In particular, the contagion between US's equity and real estate markets is the most significant. This reflects that US is the centre of shock of the global financial crisis.

  16. Stability and change in political conservatism following the global financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Milojev, Petar; Greaves, Lara; Osborne, Danny; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzes data from a national probability panel sample of New Zealanders (N = 5,091) to examine stability and change in political orientation over four consecutive yearly assessments (2009-2012) following the 2007/2008 global financial crisis. Bayesian Latent Growth Modeling identified systematic variation in the growth trajectory of conservatism that was predicted by age and socio-economic status. Younger people (ages 25-45) did not change in their political orientation. Older people, however, became more conservative over time. Likewise, people with lower socio-economic status showed a marked increase in political conservatism. In addition, tests of rank-order stability showed that age had a cubic relationship with the stability of political orientation over our four annual assessments. Our findings provide strong support for System Justification Theory by showing that increases in conservatism in the wake of the recent global financial crisis occurred primarily among the poorest and most disadvantaged. PMID:25416043

  17. The international political economy of food: a global crisis.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, H

    1995-01-01

    The largest gap between national regulation and transnational economic organization is in the agro-food sector. This gap is the legacy of the post-World War II food regime, whose implicit rules gave priority to national farm programs (including import controls and export subsidies); placed the United States at the center; generated chronic surpluses; and allowed international power to take the unusual form of subsidized exports of surplus commodities, particularly wheat. The author analyzes the emergence and contradictions of the postwar food regime as a tension between replication and integration of national agro-food sectors, often interpreted as "export of the U.S. model." By the early 1970s, replication led to international economic conflict, while transnational corporations found national regulatory frameworks to be obstacles to further integration of a potentially global agro-food sector. A new axis between Asian import countries and new agricultural countries, such as Brazil, has destabilized the Atlantic-centered food regime, without creating a new regime. Alternative future regime are identified, based on the shift from agriculture to food, employment, and land use as political issues: private global regulation or democratic regulation of nested, regional agro-food economies, federated at the international level. PMID:7591379

  18. The Global Energy Crisis: Today and Tomorrow. Developing Proactive Action Student Awareness and Understanding About Finite Fuels and Alternative Energy Sources in a Global Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    Background information and a teaching strategy are provided to help students better understand the global energy crisis and learn to take action. An overview of the energy crisis includes a discussion of the unequal distribution of natural resources throughout the world, the finite nature of fossil fuels, and problems associated with the depletion…

  19. Rapid growth in CO2 emissions after the 2008-2009 global financial crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Glen P.; Marland, Gregg; Le Quere, Corinne; Boden, Thomas A; Canadell, Josep; Raupach, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production grew 5.9% in 2010, surpassed 9 Pg of carbon (Pg C) for the first time, and more than offset the 1.4% decrease in 2009. The impact of the 2008 2009 global financial crisis (GFC) on emissions has been short-lived owing to strong emissions growth in emerging economies, a return to emissions growth in developed economies, and an increase in the fossil-fuel intensity of the world economy.

  20. Pathogens, prejudice, and politics: the role of the global health community in the European refugee crisis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mishal S; Osei-Kofi, Anna; Omar, Abbas; Kirkbride, Hilary; Kessel, Anthony; Abbara, Aula; Heymann, David; Zumla, Alimuddin; Dar, Osman

    2016-08-01

    Involuntary migration is a crucially important global challenge from an economic, social, and public health perspective. The number of displaced people reached an unprecedented level in 2015, at a total of 60 million worldwide, with more than 1 million crossing into Europe in the past year alone. Migrants and refugees are often perceived to carry a higher load of infectious diseases, despite no systematic association. We propose three important contributions that the global health community can make to help address infectious disease risks and global health inequalities worldwide, with a particular focus on the refugee crisis in Europe. First, policy decisions should be based on a sound evidence base regarding health risks and burdens to health systems, rather than prejudice or unfounded fears. Second, for incoming refugees, we must focus on building inclusive, cost-effective health services to promote collective health security. Finally, alongside protracted conflicts, widening of health and socioeconomic inequalities between high-income and lower-income countries should be acknowledged as major drivers for the global refugee crisis, and fully considered in planning long-term solutions. PMID:27339456

  1. A Framework and Methodology for Navigating Disaster and Global Health in Crisis Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jennifer L.; Burkle, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    Both ‘disasters’ and ‘global health in crisis’ research has dramatically grown due to the ever-increasing frequency and magnitude of crises around the world. Large volumes of peer-reviewed literature are not only a testament to the field’s value and evolution, but also present an unprecedented outpouring of seemingly unmanageable information across a wide array of crises and disciplines. Disaster medicine, health and humanitarian assistance, global health and public health disaster literature all lie within the disaster and global health in crisis literature spectrum and are increasingly accepted as multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary disciplines. Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners now face a new challenge; that of accessing this expansive literature for decision-making and exploring new areas of research. Individuals are also reaching beyond the peer-reviewed environment to grey literature using search engines like Google Scholar to access policy documents, consensus reports and conference proceedings. What is needed is a method and mechanism with which to search and retrieve relevant articles from this expansive body of literature. This manuscript presents both a framework and workable process for a diverse group of users to navigate the growing peer-reviewed and grey disaster and global health in crises literature. Methods: Disaster terms from textbooks, peer-reviewed and grey literature were used to design a framework of thematic clusters and subject matter ‘nodes’. A set of 84 terms, selected from 143 curated terms was organized within each node reflecting topics within the disaster and global health in crisis literature. Terms were crossed with one another and the term ‘disaster’. The results were formatted into tables and matrices. This process created a roadmap of search terms that could be applied to the PubMed database. Each search in the matrix or table results in a listed number of articles. This process was applied to

  2. Going Global? Internationalizing Australian Universities in a Time of Global Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the past decade's internationalization of Australian universities against a backdrop of increasing globalization, particularly the expansion of global capitalism. Examines international student flows, faculty, and programs, assessing the relative presence of internationalization (mutuality and reciprocal cultural relations) versus…

  3. Analysis of the effects of the global financial crisis on the Turkish economy, using hierarchical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram

    2012-04-01

    We have analyzed the topology of 50 important Turkish companies for the period 2006-2010 using the concept of hierarchical methods (the minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT)). We investigated the statistical reliability of links between companies in the MST by using the bootstrap technique. We also used the average linkage cluster analysis (ALCA) technique to observe the cluster structures much better. The MST and HT are known as useful tools to perceive and detect global structure, taxonomy, and hierarchy in financial data. We obtained four clusters of companies according to their proximity. We also observed that the Banks and Holdings cluster always forms in the centre of the MSTs for the periods 2006-2007, 2008, and 2009-2010. The clusters match nicely with their common production activities or their strong interrelationship. The effects of the Automobile sector increased after the global financial crisis due to the temporary incentives provided by the Turkish government. We find that Turkish companies were not very affected by the global financial crisis.

  4. Fractal Markets Hypothesis and the Global Financial Crisis: Wavelet Power Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    We analyze whether the prediction of the fractal markets hypothesis about a dominance of specific investment horizons during turbulent times holds. To do so, we utilize the continuous wavelet transform analysis and obtained wavelet power spectra which give the crucial information about the variance distribution across scales and its evolution in time. We show that the most turbulent times of the Global Financial Crisis can be very well characterized by the dominance of short investment horizons which is in hand with the assertions of the fractal markets hypothesis. PMID:24091386

  5. The Global Coral Reef Crisis: Trends and Solutions (Coral Reefs: Values, Threats, and the Marine Aquarium Trade)

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, Craig S.

    2003-02-05

    Second only to tropical rainforests, coral reefs support one of the world's most diverse natural habitats. Over 350 million individuals depend on coral reef resources for food and income. Unfortunately, the Earth is in the midst of a coral reef crisis. Anthropogenic impacts including overfishing, destructive fishing practices, sedimentation and pollution, as well as global climate change, have served to disrupt the natural processes that maintain the health of these ecosystems. Until recently, however, the global extent of the coral reef crisis was unknown. Reef Check was developed in 1996 as a volunteer, community-based monitoring protocol designed to measure the health of coral reefs on a global scale. With goals of education, monitoring, and management, Reef Check has activities in over 60 countries and territories. They have not only provided scientific evidence of the global extent of the coral reef crisis, but have provided the first community based steps to alleviate this urgent situation.

  6. Impact of 2008 global economic crisis on suicide: time trend study in 54 countries

    PubMed Central

    Stuckler, David; Yip, Paul; Gunnell, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of the 2008 global economic crisis on international trends in suicide and to identify sex/age groups and countries most affected. Design Time trend analysis comparing the actual number of suicides in 2009 with the number that would be expected based on trends before the crisis (2000-07). Setting Suicide data from 54 countries; for 53 data were available in the World Health Organization mortality database and for one (the United States) data came the CDC online database. Population People aged 15 or above. Main outcome measures Suicide rate and number of excess suicides in 2009. Results There were an estimated 4884 (95% confidence interval 3907 to 5860) excess suicides in 2009 compared with the number expected based on previous trends (2000-07). The increases in suicide mainly occurred in men in the 27 European and 18 American countries; the suicide rates were 4.2% (3.4% to 5.1%) and 6.4% (5.4% to 7.5%) higher, respectively, in 2009 than expected if earlier trends had continued. For women, there was no change in European countries and the increase in the Americas was smaller than in men (2.3%). Rises in European men were highest in those aged 15-24 (11.7%), while in American countries men aged 45-64 showed the largest increase (5.2%). Rises in national suicide rates in men seemed to be associated with the magnitude of increases in unemployment, particularly in countries with low levels of unemployment before the crisis (Spearman’s rs=0.48). Conclusions After the 2008 economic crisis, rates of suicide increased in the European and American countries studied, particularly in men and in countries with higher levels of job loss. PMID:24046155

  7. Global environmental crisis: is there a connection with place-based, ecosociocultural education in rural Spain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasson, George E.

    2011-06-01

    Environmental educators are challenged by how to teach children about global environmental crisis such as the Gulf oil spill, which only serves to engender children's fears and apprehensions about the negative impact of humans on ecosystems. Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article presents an interesting context from which to analyze and reflect on the connections between local and global environmental education issues. The authors' study involves student researchers in actively learning about place-based, sustainable agricultural practices in rural Spain that are passed down through generations. These ecofriendly, culturally mediated farming practices, referred to as "traditional" by the farmers, were contrasted to "modern" practices that are used throughout market-based globalized economy. The connection between local (traditional) and global (modern) practices became very important in the reflections and learning of the student participants about sustainability and ecojustice issues associated with traditional farming. Students learned from the local farmers a positive, non-dualistic approach to sustainable agriculture in which human activity and culture is connected to ecological sustainability. Further, the students' active research of sustainable and culturally medicated agricultural practices at the local level provided a frame of reference to understand global environmental crises.

  8. Assessing the global zoo response to the amphibian crisis through 20-year trends in captive collections.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jeff; Patel, Freisha; Griffiths, Richard A; Young, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Global amphibian declines are one of the biggest challenges currently facing the conservation community, and captive breeding is one way to address this crisis. Using information from the International Species Information System zoo network, we examined trends in global zoo amphibian holdings across species, zoo region, and species geographical region of origin from 1994 to 2014. These trends were compared before and after the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment to assess whether any changes occurred and whether zoo amphibian conservation effort had increased. The numbers of globally threatened species (GTS) and their proportional representation in global zoo holdings increased and this rate of increase was significantly greater after 2004. North American, European, and Oceanian GTS were best represented in zoos globally, and proportions of Oceanian GTS held increased the most since 2004. South American and Asian GTS had the lowest proportional representation in zoos. At a regional zoo level, European zoos held the lowest proportions of GTS, and this proportion did not increase after 2004. Since 1994, the number of species held in viable populations has increased, and these species are distributed among more institutions. However, as of 2014, zoos held 6.2% of globally threatened amphibians, a much smaller figure than for other vertebrate groups and one that falls considerably short of the number of species for which ex situ management may be desirable. Although the increased effort zoos have put into amphibian conservation over the past 20 years is encouraging, more focus is needed on ex situ conservation priority species. This includes building expertise and capacity in countries that hold them and tracking existing conservation efforts if the evidence-based approach to amphibian conservation planning at a global level is to be further developed. PMID:26219401

  9. Responding to the public health consequences of the Ukraine crisis: an opportunity for global health diplomacy

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Tim K; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peace and stability in Eastern Europe is now at a crossroads with the rapidly deteriorating foreign policy crisis continuing to unfold in the Ukraine. However, largely overlooked in the context of other foreign policy and diplomatic priorities are the serious public health consequences for the region following the annexation of Crimea and the subsequent decision to ban opioid substitution therapy in the disputed territory. Discussion On 1 May 2014, the Republic of Crimea officially announced it would end access to opioid substitution therapy, an essential harm reduction tool recognized by international organizations and virtually all other European countries. The policy development marks a critical reversal in the region’s fight against its growing HIV epidemic and also threatens years of public health gains aimed at providing evidence-based and integrated treatment approaches to combat drug dependence and HIV. Beyond these risks, the Ukrainian conflict could also negatively impact control of other infectious diseases that are converging with HIV and injection drug use, such as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and hepatitis C virus. The continuing conflict is also likely to have a significant negative impact on Ukraine’s fragile public health system leading to even worse population health outcomes than currently experienced by the country. Conclusions In response to this crisis, the application of global health diplomacy principles represents a possible route of advocacy to ensure that HIV prevention, humane treatment of substance using populations, and improving public health outcomes in the region are pursued among concerned international stakeholders. In order to be effective, global health diplomacy efforts must be coordinated and advocated in all forms of diplomatic engagement, including at the core, multistakeholder and informal levels and through existing channels such as the different human rights bodies of the United Nations as well as

  10. The global financial crisis and the Great Recession of 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Rajiv G

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a re-examination of the global financial crisis that began in and was accompanied by the most severe recession since the Great Depression. It builds on our earlier paper (Dore and Singh, 2009) and expands its scope. It is divided into parts. The first part deals with the ideological backdrop in which this crisis occurred, namely the belief in the rationality and stability of all markets including the capital markets, called the 'efficient market hypothesis.' The second part is a survey of the role of income distribution and its relations to aggregate spending and the growing role played by credit in the circular flow of income. The third part examines some features of the business cycle expansion phase of to . The fourth part is a brief report on a nonlinear Vector Error Correction model spanning the period to and how this expansion came to an end. The fifth part is a brief comparison of the Great Recession with the Great Depression. Finally in the sixth part, the international impact of the Great Recession is considered briefly, followed by some conclusions. PMID:20587304

  11. How severe is the modern biotic crisis?—A comparison of global change and biotic crisis between Permian-Triassic transition and modern times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongfu; He, Weihong; Xie, Shucheng

    2011-03-01

    A comparison of the modern condition with the Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) times was made to estimate how severe the modern biotic crisis is. About the global changes, the two periods are correlative in carbon dioxide concentration and carbon isotope negative excursion, UV strengthening, temperature increase, ocean acidification, and weathering enhancement. The following tendencies of biotic crises are also correlative: acceleration of extinction rates accompanied by parabolic curve of extinction with a turning interval representing the critical crisis; decline of the three main ecosystems: reefs, tropical rain forests and marine phytoplankton. It is also interesting to note that certain leading organism in both periods undergo accelerated evolution during the crisis. The comparison shows that the modern crisis is about at the turning point from decline to decimation. The extinction curve is now parabolic, and the extinction rate has been accelerated, but the decimation is not yet in real. This is also justified by the modern situation of the three main ecosystems. Modern biotic decline may worsen into decimation and mass extinction but may also get better and recover to ordinary evolution. Since human activities are the main cause of the deterioration of environments and organisms, mankind should be responsible and able to strive for the recovery of the crisis. For the future of mankind, Homo sapiens may become extinct, i.e., disappear without leaving descendants, or evolve into a new and more advanced species, i.e., disappear but leave descendants. For a better future, mankind should be conscious of the facing danger and act as a whole to save biodiversity and harmonize with the environments.

  12. What Effect Did the Global Financial Crisis Have Upon Youth Wellbeing? Evidence From Four Australian Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has suggested significant negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on mental health and wellbeing. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental period of late adolescence may be at particular risk of economic downturns. Harmonizing 4 longitudinal cohorts of Australian youth (N = 38,017), we estimate the impact of the GFC on 1 general and 11 domain specific measures of wellbeing at age 19 and 22. Significant differences in wellbeing in most life domains were found, suggesting that wellbeing is susceptible to economic shocks. Given that the GFC in Australia was relatively mild, the finding of clear negative effects across 2 ages is of international concern. PMID:26854968

  13. What effect did the global financial crisis have upon youth wellbeing? Evidence from four Australian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Parker, Philip D; Jerrim, John; Anders, Jake

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has suggested significant negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on mental health and wellbeing. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental period of late adolescence may be at particular risk of economic downturns. Harmonizing 4 longitudinal cohorts of Australian youth (N = 38,017), we estimate the impact of the GFC on 1 general and 11 domain specific measures of wellbeing at age 19 and 22. Significant differences in wellbeing in most life domains were found, suggesting that wellbeing is susceptible to economic shocks. Given that the GFC in Australia was relatively mild, the finding of clear negative effects across 2 ages is of international concern. PMID:26854968

  14. The US regulatory and pharmacopeia response to the global heparin contamination crisis.

    PubMed

    Szajek, Anita Y; Chess, Edward; Johansen, Kristian; Gratzl, Gyöngyi; Gray, Elaine; Keire, David; Linhardt, Robert J; Liu, Jian; Morris, Tina; Mulloy, Barbara; Nasr, Moheb; Shriver, Zachary; Torralba, Pearle; Viskov, Christian; Williams, Roger; Woodcock, Janet; Workman, Wesley; Al-Hakim, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The contamination of the widely used lifesaving anticoagulant drug heparin in 2007 has drawn renewed attention to the challenges that are associated with the characterization, quality control and standardization of complex biological medicines from natural sources. Heparin is a linear, highly sulfated polysaccharide consisting of alternating glucosamine and uronic acid monosaccharide residues. Heparin has been used successfully as an injectable antithrombotic medicine since the 1930s, and its isolation from animal sources (primarily porcine intestine) as well as its manufacturing processes have not changed substantially since its introduction. The 2007 heparin contamination crisis resulted in several deaths in the United States and hundreds of adverse reactions worldwide, revealing the vulnerability of a complex global supply chain to sophisticated adulteration. This Perspective discusses how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) and international stakeholders collaborated to redefine quality expectations for heparin, thus making an important natural product better controlled and less susceptible to economically motivated adulteration. PMID:27281424

  15. Out of the Frying Pan: Into the Fire of Post-Global Financial Crisis (GFC) University Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A downturn in enrolments of international students following the Global Financial Crisis is causing publicised stress among Australian universities that have come to rely on associated income. How to survive the financial consequences is currently receiving urgent attention within the sector. This paper models the problem of developing responses…

  16. The Global Economic Crisis: Setbacks to the Educational Agenda for the Minority in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingubu, Moses Shiasha

    2010-01-01

    This paper captures the impact of the Global Economic Crisis on educational programs serving minority groups in developing countries. It has been established that the most vulnerable groupings include nomadic and pastoralist communities, slum dwellers, children in war zones, and women. Various educational interventions such as mobile schooling,…

  17. The Halcyon Days Are over. Or Are They? Implications of the Global Financial Crisis for Managers' Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the implications for managers' careers of the global financial crisis. It draws on empirical research during the last period of major job cuts. Evidence comes from a mail survey of over 1000 career histories of Australian managers, with a response rate of 44%. Changes to career satisfaction, job satisfaction, job security,…

  18. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  19. A Response to: Global Security, Religion and Education Development--A Crisis for the Field of Comparative and International Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozanne, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the author's response to "Global security, religion and education development: a crisis for the field of comparative and international education?" Prof. Lynn Davies's introduction to the Forum is interesting and provocative, and the author advances his response in the spirit of dialogue by looking at Davies's arguments, the…

  20. The global snakebite crisis--a public health issue misunderstood, not neglected.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ian D; Norris, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    The global problem of venomous snakebite continues to attract attention despite it being described as a "neglected" issue. The current focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) remains anti-snake venom quality, although "availability and sustainability" of supply are consistently described as the key issues. Sustainability of antivenom supply has been elusive, with cost and pricing in developing countries being cited as the major reasons. The current WHO approach fails to explore the cost issue, but rather focuses on quality improvements, which may well adversely affect the costs of a product already perceived to be 'unaffordable.' The reference to cost and price indicates a marketing-based perspective may well give more relevant solutions to the snakebite crisis. This paper introduces a marketing model to examine global snakebite and to identify if the current approach is relevant and effective. The "4 Ps" model examines if the correct products are available, whether sufficient information exists concerning estimated market size, whether the assumptions frequently made about the costs of the product are correct and fully understood, if the product is promoted properly, and whether the method by which the product reaches the end user is optimum. The resulting analysis demonstrates that the current approach is characterized by a misunderstanding of the nature of the global snakebite problem. Further, a lack of implementation of key solutions, such as training doctors in developing countries with relevant protocols, has inevitably led to a lack of improvement in the snakebite arena over the last 30 years. PMID:19364169

  1. Potential ramifications of the global economic crisis on human-mediated dispersal of marine non-indigenous species.

    PubMed

    Floerl, Oliver; Coutts, Ashley

    2009-11-01

    The global economy is currently experiencing one of its biggest contractions on record. A sharp decline in global imports and exports since 2008 has affected global merchant vessel traffic, the principal mode of bulk commodity transport around the world. During the first quarter of 2009, 10% and 25% of global container and refrigerated vessels, respectively, were reported to be unemployed. A large proportion of these vessels are lying idle at anchor in the coastal waters of South East Asia, sometimes for periods of greater than 3 months. Whilst at anchor, the hulls of such vessels will develop diverse and extensive assemblages of marine biofouling species. Once back in service, these vessels are at risk of transporting higher-than-normal quantities of marine organisms between their respective global trading ports. We discuss the potential ramifications of the global economic crisis on the spread of marine non-indigenous species via global commercial shipping. PMID:19706355

  2. Structural changes in the minimal spanning tree and the hierarchical network in the Korean stock market around the global financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-04-01

    This paper considers stock prices in the Korean stock market during the 2008 global financial crisis by focusing on three time periods: before, during, and after the crisis. Complex networks are extracted from cross-correlation coefficients between the normalized logarithmic return of the stock price time series of firms. The minimal spanning trees (MSTs) and the hierarchical network (HN) are generated from cross-correlation coefficients. Before and after the crisis, securities firms are located at the center of the MST. During the crisis, however, the center of the MST changes to a firm in heavy industry and construction. During the crisis, the MST shrinks in comparison to that before and that after the crisis. This topological change in the MST during the crisis reflects a distinct effect of the global financial crisis. The cophenetic correlation coefficient increases during the crisis, indicating an increase in the hierarchical structure during in this period. When crisis hits the market, firms behave synchronously, and their correlations are higher than those during a normal period.

  3. Developing a Nuclear Global Health Workforce Amid the Increasing Threat of a Nuclear Crisis.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M; Dallas, Cham E

    2016-02-01

    This study argues that any nuclear weapon exchange or major nuclear plant meltdown, in the categories of human systems failure and conflict-based crises, will immediately provoke an unprecedented public health emergency of international concern. Notwithstanding nuclear triage and management plans and technical monitoring standards within the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization (WHO), the capacity to rapidly deploy a robust professional workforce with the internal coordination and collaboration capabilities required for large-scale nuclear crises is profoundly lacking. A similar dilemma, evident in the early stages of the Ebola epidemic, was eventually managed by using worldwide infectious disease experts from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and multiple multidisciplinary WHO-supported foreign medical teams. This success has led the WHO to propose the development of a Global Health Workforce. A strategic format is proposed for nuclear preparedness and response that builds and expands on the current model for infectious disease outbreak currently under consideration. This study proposes the inclusion of a nuclear global health workforce under the technical expertise of the International Atomic Energy Agency and WHO's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network leadership and supported by the International Health Regulations Treaty. Rationales are set forth for the development, structure, and function of a nuclear workforce based on health outcomes research that define the unique health, health systems, and public health challenges of a nuclear crisis. Recent research supports that life-saving opportunities are possible, but only if a rapidly deployed and robust multidisciplinary response component exists. PMID:26527407

  4. How many infants likely died in Africa as a result of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jed; Schady, Norbert

    2013-05-01

    The human consequences of the recent global financial crisis for the developing world are presumed to be severe, but few studies have quantified them. This letter estimates the human cost of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis in one critical dimension-infant mortality-for countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis pools birth-level data, as reported in female adult retrospective birth histories from all Demographic and Health Surveys collected in sub-Saharan Africa. This results in a data set of 639,000 births to 264,000 women in 30 countries. We use regression models with flexible controls for temporal trends to assess an infant's likelihood of death as a function of fluctuations in national income. We then calculate the expected number of excess deaths by combining these estimates with growth shortfalls as a result of the crisis. The results suggest 28,000-50,000 excess infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in the crisis-affected year of 2009. Notably, most of these additional deaths were concentrated among girls. Policies that protect the income of poor households and that maintain critical health services during times of economic contraction may reduce the expected increase in mortality. Interventions targeted at female infants and young girls can be particularly beneficial. PMID:22544811

  5. Efficiency and cross-correlation in equity market during global financial crisis: Evidence from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Pengcheng; Li, Daye; Li, Shuo

    2016-02-01

    Using one minute high-frequency data of the Shanghai Composite Index (SHCI) and the Shenzhen Composite Index (SZCI) (2007-2008), we employ the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the detrended cross correlation analysis (DCCA) with rolling window approach to observe the evolution of market efficiency and cross-correlation in pre-crisis and crisis period. Considering the fat-tail distribution of return time series, statistical test based on shuffling method is conducted to verify the null hypothesis of no long-term dependence. Our empirical research displays three main findings. First Shanghai equity market efficiency deteriorated while Shenzhen equity market efficiency improved with the advent of financial crisis. Second the highly positive dependence between SHCI and SZCI varies with time scale. Third financial crisis saw a significant increase of dependence between SHCI and SZCI at shorter time scales but a lack of significant change at longer time scales, providing evidence of contagion and absence of interdependence during crisis.

  6. The impact of the global economic crisis on HIV and AIDS programmes directed at women and children in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Serieux, John; Njelesani, Mwansa; Chompolola, Abson; Sepehri, Ardeshir; Guliani, Harminder

    2015-01-01

    This investigation sought to ascertain the extent to which the global economic crisis of 2008-2009 affected the delivery of HIV/AIDS-related services directed at pregnant and lactating mothers, children living with HIV and children orphaned through HIV in Zambia. Using a combined macroeconomic analysis and a multiple case study approach, the authors found that from mid-2008 to mid-2009 the Zambian economy was indeed buffeted by the global economic crisis. During that period the case study subjects experienced challenges with respect to the funding, delivery and effectiveness of services that were clearly attributable, directly or indirectly, to the global economic crisis. The source of funding most often compromised was external private flows. The services most often compromised were non-medical services (such as the delivery of assistance to orphans and counselling to HIV-positive mothers) while the more strictly medical services (such as antiretroviral therapy) were protected from funding cuts and service interruptions. Impairments to service effectiveness were experienced relatively equally by (HIV-positive) pregnant women and lactating mothers and children orphaned through HIV. Children living with AIDS were least affected because of the primacy of ARV therapy in their care. PMID:26223326

  7. Syndromes of the global water crisis - exploring the emergent dynamics through socio-hydrological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuil, Linda; Levy, Morgan; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch; Penny, Gopal; Scott, Christopher; Srinivasan, Veena; Thompson, Sally; Troy, Tara

    2014-05-01

    There is a great variety of human water systems at the global scale due to the types and timing of water supply/availability, and the high diversity in water use, management, and abstraction methods. Importantly, this is largely driven by differences in welfare, social values, institutional frameworks, and cultural traditions of communities. The observed trend of a growing world population in combination with changing habits that generally increase our water consumption per capita implies that an increasing number of communities will face water scarcity. Over the years much research has been done in order to increase our understanding of human water systems and their associated water problems, using both top-down and bottom-up approaches. Despite these efforts, the challenge has remained to generalize findings beyond the areas of interests and to establish a common framework in order to compare and learn from different cases as a basis for finding solutions. In a recent analysis of multiple interdisciplinary subnational water resources case studies, it was shown that a suite of distinct resources utilization patterns leading to a water crisis can be identified, namely: 1) groundwater depletion, 2) ecological destruction, 3) drought-driven conflicts, 4) unmet subsistence needs, 5) resource capture by elite and 6) water reallocation to nature (Srinivasan et al., 2012). The effects of these syndromes on long-lasting human wellbeing can be grouped in the following outcomes: unsustainability, vulnerability, chronic scarcity and adaptation. The aim of this group collaboration is to build on this work through the development of a socio-hydrological model that is capable of reproducing the above syndromes and outcomes, ultimately giving insight in the different pathways leading to the syndromes. The resulting model will be distinct compared to existing model frameworks for two reasons. First of all, feedback loops between the hydrological, the environmental and the human

  8. The effect of the subprime crisis on the credit risk in global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Min Jae; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Soo Yong; Ban, Joon Hwa

    2013-05-01

    Credit default swap (CDS) has become one of the most actively traded credit derivatives, and its importance in finance markets has increased after the subprime crisis. In this study, we analyzed the correlation structure of credit risks embedded in CDS and the influence of the subprime crisis on this topological space. We found that the correlation was stronger in the cluster constructed according to the location of the CDS reference companies than in the one constructed according to their industries. The correlation both within a given cluster and between different clusters became significantly stronger after the subprime crisis. The causality test shows that the lead lag effect between the portfolios (into which reference companies are grouped by the continent where each of them is located) is reversed in direction because the portion of non-investable and investable reference companies in each portfolio has changed since then. The effect of a single impulse has increased and the response time relaxation has become prolonged after the crisis as well.

  9. The Global Impact of the Financial Crisis: Main Trends in Developed and Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Heather; West, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the financial crisis on higher education has been considerable, and its effects are continuing. These effects can be discerned in a number of ways; but whereas both developed and developing countries are affected, they can be affected differently. A modifying factor is the shape and structure of the higher education system within…

  10. An examination of contemporary financing practices and the global financial crisis on nonprofit multi-hospital health systems.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Louis J; Smith, Pamela C

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on large US nonprofit health systems. We proceed from an analysis of the contemporary capital financing practices of 25 of the nation's largest nonprofit hospitals and health systems. We find that these institutions relied on operating cash flows, public issues of insured variable rate debt, and accumulated investment to meet their capital financing needs. The combined use of these three financial instruments provided these organizations with $22.4 billion of long-term capital at favorable terms and the lowest interest rates. Our analysis further indicates that the extensive utilization of bond insurance, auction rate debt, and interest rate derivatives created significant risk exposures for these health systems. These risks were realized by the broader global financial crisis of 2008. Findings indicate these health systems incurred large losses from the early retirement of their variable rate debt. In addition, many organizations were forced to post nearly $1 billion of liquid collateral due to the falling values of their interest rate derivatives. Finally, the investment portfolios of these large nonprofit health systems suffered millions of dollars of unrealized capital losses, which may minimize their ability to finance future capital investment requirements. PMID:21528830

  11. Is Greed Still Good? Was It Ever? Exploring the Emoscapes of the Global Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah

    2010-01-01

    We seek to contribute to political and policy analyses of globalisation by attending to global flows of emotions and by developing the concept global emoscapes. In so doing we build on Arjun Appadurai's theorisation of the disjunctive scapes of the global cultural economy. As a way of illustrating the benefits of our approach, we deploy it to…

  12. The global financial crisis and psychological health in a sample of Australian older adults: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-10-01

    Economic stress and uncertainty is argued to increase older adults' vulnerability to physical health decline and mental distress. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research that examines the relationship between a large historical economic event, such as the recent global financial crisis (GFC), and health outcomes for older adults. This study provides a unique opportunity to compare self-reported health status and psychological functioning (number of depression and anxiety symptoms) in 1973 older Australian adults (mean age of 66.58 years (SD = 1.5)) prior to the GFC (2005-2006), with their status four years later during the GFC period (2009-2010). Latent difference score models revealed a significant difference in depression and anxiety symptoms over the two measurement occasions, indicating poorer psychological functioning for those who reported an impact as a result of the economic slowdown. These effects were not explained by demographic or socio-economic factors. Interaction effects showed that those participants who were surveyed within the acute salience period of the GFC (April to September 2009) were significantly less likely to report poorer psychological health over time compared to those who were surveyed after September 2009. This interesting timing effect is discussed in terms of potential time-lags in the negative effects of economic stress on health outcomes, as well as the possible protective effects of social norms that may be created by a large scale economic crisis. PMID:21831493

  13. [Technology and future ways of thinking related to work from ergonomics points of views in moments of global crisis].

    PubMed

    Puentes-Lagos, David E; García-Acosta, Gabriel

    2012-06-01

    Is it possible to establish (at short, medium and long term) future work conditions or expected work conditions for Colombian people considering upcoming work technologies? Is it possible to anticipate future work desirable work conditions for Colombian people in order to plan (foresee?) work technologies? These questions guided this research and they point to an action thesis and to a reaction one in this context of work crisis. Even though a work technology establishes where, when, how, who, who with, and using what element work is done, it also establishes certain work conditions. Besides, multiple forms of considering and deconstructing past have been created from many disciplines. However, in order to foresee or construct work technologies requires a different perspective for looking further. This research has been carried out considering other disciplines points of view regarding Future Studies and Future Thinking Studies. This research has the purpose of finding future paths for Future Thinking Studies from ergonomics point of view in this moment of global work crisis we are going through. PMID:23258752

  14. The anxieties of globalization: antidepressant sales and economic crisis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lakoff, Andrew

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes the role of market research firms in shaping the actions of key players in the pharmaceutical arena. It focuses on strategies for marketing novel antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs) to doctors in Buenos Aires during the Argentine financial crisis of 2001, posing the question of whether increased antidepressant sales were due to the social situation or to promotional practices. This case demonstrates how 'pharmaceutical relations' - interactions between doctors and pharmaceutical companies - are structured by a gift economy whose effects are monitored through the sales numbers produced by database firms. It suggests that the use of these numbers takes on special importance given the distinctiveness of both the Argentine context and the antidepressant market. More generally, the case points to the interpretive flexibility of psychotropic medication. In the Argentine setting, doctors' prescription of SSRIs was dependent neither on a diagnosis of depression nor on a biological understanding of mental disorder. These drugs found a different means of entering the professionally mediated marketplace: doctors understood and used SSRIs as a treatment not for a lack of serotonin in the brain, but for the suffering caused by the social situation - the sense of insecurity and vulnerability that the economic and political crisis had wrought. PMID:15297998

  15. Sustainable engineered processes to mitigate the global arsenic crisis in drinking water: challenges and progress.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Greenleaf, John E; Gupta, Anirban; Uy, Davin; Sengupta, Arup K

    2012-01-01

    Millions of people around the world are currently living under the threat of developing serious health problems owing to ingestion of dangerous concentrations of arsenic through their drinking water. In many places, treatment of arsenic-contaminated water is an urgent necessity owing to a lack of safe alternative sources. Sustainable production of arsenic-safe water from an arsenic-contaminated raw water source is currently a challenge. Despite the successful development in the laboratory of technologies for arsenic remediation, few have been successful in the field. A sustainable arsenic-remediation technology should be robust, composed of local resources, and user-friendly as well as must attach special consideration to the social, economic, cultural, traditional, and environmental aspects of the target community. One such technology is in operation on the Indian subcontinent. Wide-scale replication of this technology with adequate improvisation can solve the arsenic crisis prevalent in the developing world. PMID:22541048

  16. Groundwater and climate change: mitigating the global groundwater crisis and adapting to climate change model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the effects of climate change on global groundwater resources, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Hydrological Programme (IHP) initiated the GRAPHIC (Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Cl...

  17. Exploring the impact of the 2008 global food crisis on food security among vulnerable households in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Robson, Kristin; Gutilla, Margaret J.; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne; Norlund, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Recurring food crises endanger the livelihoods of millions of households in developing countries around the globe. Owing to the importance of this issue, we explore recent changes in food security between the years 2004 and 2010 in a rural district in Northeastern South Africa. Our study window spans the time of the 2008 global food crises and allows the investigation of its impacts on rural South African populations. Grounded in the sustainable livelihood framework, we examine differences in food security trajectories among vulnerable sub populations. A unique panel data set of 8,147 households, provided by the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Agincourt HDSS), allows us to employ a longitudinal multilevel modeling approach to estimate adjusted growth curves for the differential change in food security across time. We observe an overall improvement in food security that leveled off after 2008, most likely resulting from the global food crisis. In addition, we discover significant differences in food security trajectories for various sub populations. For example, female-headed households and those living in areas with better access to natural resources differentially improved their food security situation, compared to male-headed households and those households with lower levels of natural resource access. However, former Mozambican refugees witnessed a decline in food security. Therefore, poverty alleviation programs for the Agincourt region should work to improve the food security of vulnerable households, such as former Mozambican refugees. PMID:26594259

  18. Carbapenemases in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Other Enterobacteriaceae: an Evolving Crisis of Global Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Tzouvelekis, L. S.; Markogiannakis, A.; Psichogiou, M.; Tassios, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The spread of Enterobacteriaceae, primarily Klebsiella pneumoniae, producing KPC, VIM, IMP, and NDM carbapenemases, is causing an unprecedented public health crisis. Carbapenemase-producing enterobacteria (CPE) infect mainly hospitalized patients but also have been spreading in long-term care facilities. Given their multidrug resistance, therapeutic options are limited and, as discussed here, should be reevaluated and optimized. Based on susceptibility data, colistin and tigecycline are commonly used to treat CPE infections. Nevertheless, a review of the literature revealed high failure rates in cases of monotherapy with these drugs, whilst monotherapy with either a carbapenem or an aminoglycoside appeared to be more effective. Combination therapies not including carbapenems were comparable to aminoglycoside and carbapenem monotherapies. Higher success rates have been achieved with carbapenem-containing combinations. Pharmacodynamic simulations and experimental infections indicate that modification of the current patterns of carbapenem use against CPE warrants further attention. Epidemiological data, though fragmentary in many countries, indicate CPE foci and transmission routes, to some extent, whilst also underlining the lack of international collaborative systems that could react promptly and effectively. Fortunately, there are sound studies showing successful containment of CPE by bundles of measures, among which the most important are active surveillance cultures, separation of carriers, and assignment of dedicated nursing staff. PMID:23034326

  19. The end of the era of generosity? Global health amid economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kammerle; Garrett, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade donor commitments to health have increased by 200 percent. Correspondingly, there has been a swell of new players in the global health landscape. The unprecedented, global response to a single disease, HIV/AIDS, has been responsible for a substantial portion of this boon. Numerous health success have followed this windfall of funding and attention, yet the food, fuel, and economic crises of 2008 have shown the vulnerabilities of health and development initiatives focused on short term wins and reliant on a constant flow of foreign funding. For too long, the international community has responded to global health and development challenges with emergency solutions that often reflect the donor's priorities, values, and political leanings, rather than funding durable health systems that can withstand crises. Progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals has stalled in many countries. Disease specific initiatives have weakened health systems and limited efforts to improve maternal and child health. As we enter this era of scarce resources, there is a need to return to the foundations of the Alma Ata Declaration signed thirty years ago with the goal of providing universal access to primary healthcare. The global health community must now objectively evaluate how we can most effectively respond to the crises of 2008 and take advantage of this moment of extraordinary attention for global health and translate it into long term, sustainable health improvements for all. PMID:19134211

  20. Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain).

    PubMed

    Arruti, A; Fernández-Olmo, I; Irabien, A

    2011-05-01

    Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. PMID:21376438

  1. Survey on the Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Education Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forum on Education Abroad, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Forum on Education Abroad is a global membership association of nearly 400 institutions and organizations that together represent approximately 90% of the U.S. students that study abroad. The Forum is the only organization devoted exclusively to representing the field of education abroad and is designated the Standards Development Organization…

  2. Global health and national borders: the ethics of foreign aid in a time of financial crisis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The governments and citizens of the developed nations are increasingly called upon to contribute financially to health initiatives outside their borders. Although international development assistance for health has grown rapidly over the last two decades, austerity measures related to the 2008 and 2011 global financial crises may impact negatively on aid expenditures. The competition between national priorities and foreign aid commitments raises important ethical questions for donor nations. This paper aims to foster individual reflection and public debate on donor responsibilities for global health. Methods We undertook a critical review of contemporary accounts of justice. We selected theories that: (i) articulate important and widely held moral intuitions; (ii) have had extensive impact on debates about global justice; (iii) represent diverse approaches to moral reasoning; and (iv) present distinct stances on the normative importance of national borders. Due to space limitations we limit the discussion to four frameworks. Results Consequentialist, relational, human rights, and social contract approaches were considered. Responsibilities to provide international assistance were seen as significant by all four theories and place limits on the scope of acceptable national autonomy. Among the range of potential aid foci, interventions for health enjoyed consistent prominence. The four theories concur that there are important ethical responsibilities to support initiatives to improve the health of the worst off worldwide, but offer different rationales for intervention and suggest different implicit limits on responsibilities. Conclusions Despite significant theoretical disagreements, four influential accounts of justice offer important reasons to support many current initiatives to promote global health. Ethical argumentation can complement pragmatic reasons to support global health interventions and provide an important foundation to strengthen

  3. Gender disparities in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia, 1991-2014: a time of civil wars and global crisis.

    PubMed

    Ilic, M; Ilic, I

    2016-09-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The aim of this descriptive epidemiological study was to analyse the trends in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia (excluding the Autonomous Province of Kosovo & Metohia) from 1991 to 2014 using joinpoint regression analysis. The mortality rates from infectious diseases were found to have increased markedly from 1991 to 1994 (+12·4% per year), followed by a significant decline from 1994 to 2009 (-4·6% per year) and then another increase from 2009 to 2014 (+4·3% per year). Throughout the study period, mortality rates were consistently higher in men than in women. Although a substantial decline was observed for young people of both sexes, no consistent pattern was evident for the middle-aged nor the elderly. Since 1991, septicaemia has emerged as a leading cause of infectious disease mortality, particularly in older men. The Yugoslav civil wars in the 1990s and the global financial crisis in 2008 corresponded with changes in the trends in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia, with the elderly showing particular vulnerability during those time periods. Data presented in this study might be useful to improve control of infectious diseases in Serbia. PMID:27483375

  4. Financial crisis, virtual carbon in global value chains, and the importance of linkage effects. The Spain-china case.

    PubMed

    López, Luis-Antonio; Arce, Guadalupe; Zafrilla, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Trade has a disproportionate environmental impact, while the international fragmentation of production promotes different patterns of intermediate inputs and final goods. Therefore, we split up the balance of domestic embodied emissions in trade (BDEET) to assess it. We find that Spain has a significant emissions deficit with China between 2005 and 2011. The Global Financial Crisis of 2008 reduced Spanish imports of pollution-intensive inputs from China and slightly improved the BDEET. China primarily exports indirect virtual carbon, representing 86% of the total, especially from Production of electricity, gas, and water sector. These linkages effects in China indicate that post-Kyoto agreements must focus not only on traded goods but also on the environmental efficiency of all domestic production chains. The methodology proposed allows us to identify the agents responsible for this trade in both Spain and China, namely the sectors importing intermediate inputs (Construction and Transport equipment) and industries and consumers importing final goods (Textiles, Other manufactures, Computers, and Machinery). The relevant sectors uncertainties found when we compare the results for BDEET and emissions embodied in bilateral trade (BEET) lead us to recommend the former methodology to evaluate the implications of environmental and energy policy for different industries and agents. PMID:24345036

  5. Crisis, What Crisis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Responding to the recent work of Andrew Gamble, the article discusses the extent to which the British situation can be described in terms of crisis. It suggests that an essential element of crisis is that of political and social contestation, and explores the terms on which contestation is taking shape in and around British education.

  6. DDT, global strategies, and a malaria control crisis in South America.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, D. R.; Laughlin, L. L.; Hsheih, P.; Legters, L. J.

    1997-01-01

    Malaria is reemerging in endemic-disease countries of South America. We examined the rate of real growth in annual parasite indexes (API) by adjusting APIs for all years to the annual blood examination rate of 1965 for each country. The standardized APIs calculated for Brazil, Peru, Guyana, and for 18 other malaria-endemic countries of the Americas presented a consistent pattern of low rates up through the late 1970s, followed by geometric growth in malaria incidence in subsequent years. True growth in malaria incidence corresponds temporally with changes in global strategies for malaria control. Underlying the concordance of these events is a causal link between decreased spraying of homes with DDT and increased malaria; two regression models defining this link showed statistically significant negative relationships between APIs and house-spray rates. Separate analyses of data from 1993 to 1995 showed that countries that have recently discontinued their spray programs are reporting large increases in malaria incidence. Ecuador, which has increased use of DDT since 1993, is the only country reporting a large reduction (61%) in malaria rates since 1993. DDT use for malaria control and application of the Global Malaria Control Strategy to the Americas should be subjects of urgent national and international debate. We discuss the recent actions to ban DDT, the health costs of such a ban, perspectives on DDT use in agriculture versus malaria control, and costs versus benefits of DDT and alternative insecticides. PMID:9284373

  7. The role of surveillance systems in confronting the global crisis of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review It is widely accepted that infection control, advanced diagnostics, and novel therapeutics are crucial to mitigate the impact of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The role of global, national and regional surveillance systems as part of the response to the challenge posed by antibiotic resistance is not sufficiently highlighted. We provide an overview of contemporary surveillance programs, with emphasis on Gram-negative bacteria. Recent Findings The World Health Organization and public health agencies in Europe and the United States recently published comprehensive surveillance reports. These highlight the emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and other multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In Israel, public health action to control CRE, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producing-Klebsiella pneumoniae, has advanced together with a better understanding of its epidemiology. Surveillance models adapted to the requirements and capacities of each country are in development. Summary Robust surveillance systems are essential to combat antibiotic resistance, and need to emphasize a “One Health” approach. Refinements in surveillance will come from advances in bioinformatics and genomics that permit the integration of global and local information about antibiotic consumption in humans and animals, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and bacterial genotyping. PMID:26098505

  8. The International Monetary Fund's effects on global health: before and after the 2008 financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, the G20 countries committed US $750 billion to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which has assumed a central role in global economic management. The IMF provides loans to financially ailing countries, but with strict conditions, typically involving a mix of privatization, liberalization, and fiscal austerity programs. These loan conditions have been extremely controversial. In principle, they are designed to help countries balance their books. In practice, they often translate into reductions in social spending, including spending on public health and health care delivery. As more countries are being exposed to IMF policies, there is a need to establish what we know and do not know about the IMF's effects on global health. This article introduces a series in which contributors review the evidence on the relationship between the IMF and public health and discuss potential ways to improve the Fund's effects on health. While more evidence is needed for some regions, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that IMF programs have been significantly associated with weakened health care systems, reduced effectiveness of health-focused development aid, and impeded efforts to control tobacco, infectious diseases, and child and maternal mortality. Reforms are urgently needed to prevent the current wave of IMF programs from further undermining public health in financially ailing countries and limiting progress toward the health Millennium Development Goals. PMID:19927414

  9. The coming health crisis: indirect health effects of global climate change

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change threatens the health of hundreds of millions of people. While much has been written about the direct impacts of climate change on health as a result of more severe storms, more intense heat stress, changes in the distribution of infectious disease, and reduced air quality, we are concerned that the indirect impacts of a disrupted climate system may be orders of magnitude more important in terms of the human suffering they cause. Because these indirect effects will result from changes in biophysical systems, which are inherently complex, there is significant uncertainty about their magnitude, timing, and location. However, the uncertainty that shrouds this issue should not be cause for complacency; rather it should serve as an organizing principle for adaptation to its ill effects. PMID:21399764

  10. Residual soil phosphorus as the missing piece in the global phosphorus crisis puzzle.

    PubMed

    Sattari, Sheida Z; Bouwman, Alexander F; Giller, Ken E; van Ittersum, Martin K

    2012-04-17

    Phosphorus (P) is a finite and dwindling resource. Debate focuses on current production and use of phosphate rock rather than on the amounts of P required in the future to feed the world. We applied a two-pool soil P model to reproduce historical continental crop P uptake as a function of P inputs from fertilizer and manure and to estimate P requirements for crop production in 2050. The key feature is the consideration of the role of residual soil P in crop production. Model simulations closely fit historical P uptake for all continents. Cumulative inputs of P fertilizer and manure for the period 1965-2007 in Europe (1,115 kg . ha(-1) of cropland) grossly exceeded the cumulative P uptake by crops (360 kg ha(-1)). Since the 1980s in much of Europe, P application rates have been reduced, and uptake continues to increase due to the supply of plant-available P from residual soil P pool. We estimate that between 2008 and 2050 a global cumulative P application of 700-790 kg . ha(-1) of cropland (in total 1,070-1,200 teragrams P) is required to achieve crop production according to the various Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios [Alcamo J, Van Vuuren D, Cramer W (2006) Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Scenarios, Vol 2, pp 279-354]. We estimate that average global P fertilizer use must change from the current 17.8 to 16.8-20.8 teragrams per year in 2050, which is up to 50% less than other estimates in the literature that ignore the role of residual soil P. PMID:22431593

  11. Evolution of Microbial Quorum Sensing to Human Global Quorum Sensing: An Insight into How Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Might Be Linked to the Global Metabolic Disease Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Trosko, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The first anaerobic organism extracted energy for survival and reproduction from its source of nutrients, with the genetic means to ensure protection of its individual genome but also its species survival. While it had a means to communicate with its community via simple secreted molecules (“quorum sensing”), the eventual shift to an aerobic environment led to multi-cellular metazoan organisms, with evolutionary-selected genes to form extracellular matrices, stem cells, stem cell niches, and a family of gap junction or “connexin” genes. These germinal and somatic stem cells responded to extracellular signals that triggered intra-cellular signaling to regulate specific genes out of the total genome. These extra-cellular induced intra-cellular signals also modulated gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in order to regulate the new cellular functions of symmetrical and asymmetrical cell division, cell differentiation, modes of cell death, and senescence. Within the hierarchical and cybernetic concepts, differentiated by neurons organized in the brain of the Homo sapiens, the conscious mind led to language, abstract ideas, technology, myth-making, scientific reasoning, and moral decision–making, i.e., the creation of culture. Over thousands of years, this has created the current collision between biological and cultural evolution, leading to the global “metabolic disease” crisis. PMID:27314399

  12. Evolution of Microbial Quorum Sensing to Human Global Quorum Sensing: An Insight into How Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Might Be Linked to the Global Metabolic Disease Crisis.

    PubMed

    Trosko, James E

    2016-01-01

    The first anaerobic organism extracted energy for survival and reproduction from its source of nutrients, with the genetic means to ensure protection of its individual genome but also its species survival. While it had a means to communicate with its community via simple secreted molecules ("quorum sensing"), the eventual shift to an aerobic environment led to multi-cellular metazoan organisms, with evolutionary-selected genes to form extracellular matrices, stem cells, stem cell niches, and a family of gap junction or "connexin" genes. These germinal and somatic stem cells responded to extracellular signals that triggered intra-cellular signaling to regulate specific genes out of the total genome. These extra-cellular induced intra-cellular signals also modulated gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in order to regulate the new cellular functions of symmetrical and asymmetrical cell division, cell differentiation, modes of cell death, and senescence. Within the hierarchical and cybernetic concepts, differentiated by neurons organized in the brain of the Homo sapiens, the conscious mind led to language, abstract ideas, technology, myth-making, scientific reasoning, and moral decision-making, i.e., the creation of culture. Over thousands of years, this has created the current collision between biological and cultural evolution, leading to the global "metabolic disease" crisis. PMID:27314399

  13. Ozone crisis: The 15 year evolution of a sudden global emergency

    SciTech Connect

    Roan, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Sharon L. Roan, a science journalist, has written an informative and insightful account of how stratospheric ozone depletion has come to be recognized as a global environmental issue of critical importance. Starting with the analytical work of Rowland and Molina in the early 1970s - their findings first identified chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) release as a threat to the ozone layer - Roan traces in a lively and highly readable fashion the ensuing 15 years of scientific research and debate, political controversy, industrial skepticism and tactics, and, finally, a reasonable degree of international consensus. The author recounts some of the milestones in the ozone story, with settings as varied as university laboratories, industrial meetings, congressional hearings, scientific expeditions to the Antarctic and Arctic, and the series of international negotiating sessions culminating in the Montreal Protocol in 1987. But, as Roan states, the ozone issue remains very much unfinished; even the 50-percent CFC reduction mandated by the Montreal agreement is believed to be wholly inadequate now. Evidence of a more rapid ozone depletion than was earlier estimated suggests that a total CFC ban is the only defensible response. Dealing with the economic burden such a ban may impose on poor countries is a policy challenge that will also confront the United States if we restrict carbon dioxide emissions to mitigate greenhouse warming.

  14. Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis) KidsHealth > For Teens > Sickle Cell ... A A A Text Size What Is a Sickle Cell Crisis? Sickle cell disease changes the shape of ...

  15. Effects of the Global Financial Crisis on Health in High-Income Oecd Countries: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Karanikolos, Marina; Heino, Pia; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence documents how economic crises impact aspects of health across countries and over time. We performed a systematic narrative review of the health effects of the latest economic crisis based on studies of high-income countries. Papers published between January 2009 and July 2015 were selected based on review of titles and abstracts, followed by a full text review conducted by two independent reviewers. Ultimately, 122 studies were selected and their findings summarized. The review finds that the 2008 financial crisis had negative effects on mental health, including suicide, and to a varying extent on some non-communicable and communicable diseases and access to care. Although unhealthy behaviors such as hazardous drinking and tobacco use appeared to decline during the crisis, there have been increases in some groups, typically those already at greatest risk. The health impact was greatest in countries that suffered the largest economic impact of the crisis or prolonged austerity. The Great Recessions in high-income countries have had mixed impacts on health. They tend to be worse when economic impacts are more severe, prolonged austerity measures are implemented, and there are pre-existing problems of substance use among vulnerable groups. PMID:27076651

  16. Hemolytic crisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003270.htm Hemolytic crisis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemolytic crisis occurs when large numbers of red blood cells ...

  17. Effects of the 2008 Global Economic Crisis on National Health Indicators: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Gyeongsil; Kim, Jun-Suk; Oh, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Keun-Seung; Hur, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between economics and health has been of great interest throughout the years. The accumulated data is not sufficient enough to carry out long-term studies from the viewpoint of morbidity, although Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) was carried out yearly since 1998 in Korea. Thus, we investigated the effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on health indicators of Korea. Methods Health indicators were selected by paired t-test based on 2007 and 2009 KNHANES data. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, education, income, working status, and stress were used as confounding factors, which were analyzed with logistic and probit analyses. Validation was done by comparing gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates and probit analyses results of 2007-2012 KNHANES data. Results Among several health indicators, the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception was higher after the economic crisis. Factors related with higher hypertension prevalence include older age, male gender, higher BMI, no current tobacco use, recent drinking, lower education levels, and stress perception. Factors related with more stress perception were younger age, female gender, current smoking, lower education levels, and lower income. GDP growth rates, a macroeconomic indicator, are inversely associated with hypertension prevalence with a one-year lag, and also inversely associated with stress perception without time lag. Conclusion The economic crisis increased the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception. In the case of GDP growth rate change, hypertension was an inversely lagging indicator and stress perception was an inversely-related coincident indicator. PMID:26217479

  18. The nature and causes of the global water crisis: Syndromes from a meta-analysis of coupled human-water studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Lambin, E. F.; Gorelick, S. M.; Thompson, B. H.; Rozelle, S.

    2012-10-01

    Freshwater scarcity has been cited as the major crisis of the 21st century, but it is surprisingly hard to describe the nature of the global water crisis. We conducted a meta-analysis of 22 coupled human-water system case studies, using qualitative comparison analysis (QCA) to identify water resource system outcomes and the factors that drive them. The cases exhibited different outcomes for human wellbeing that could be grouped into a six "syndromes": groundwater depletion, ecological destruction, drought-driven conflicts, unmet subsistence needs, resource capture by elite, and water reallocation to nature. For syndromes that were not successful adaptations, three characteristics gave cause for concern: (1) unsustainability—a decline in the water stock or ecosystem function that could result in a long-term steep decline in future human wellbeing; (2) vulnerability—high variability in water resource availability combined with inadequate coping capacity, leading to temporary drops in human wellbeing; (3) chronic scarcity—persistent inadequate access and hence low conditions of human wellbeing. All syndromes could be explained by a limited set of causal factors that fell into four categories: demand changes, supply changes, governance systems, and infrastructure/technology. By considering basins as members of syndrome classes and tracing common causal pathways of water crises, water resource analysts and planners might develop improved water policies aimed at reducing vulnerability, inequity, and unsustainability of freshwater systems.

  19. Worldwide spreading of economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garas, Antonios; Argyrakis, Panos; Rozenblat, Céline; Tomassini, Marco; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-11-01

    We model the spreading of a crisis by constructing a global economic network and applying the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model with a variable probability of infection. The probability of infection depends on the strength of economic relations between a given pair of countries and the strength of the target country. It is expected that a crisis that originates in a large country, such as the USA, has the potential to spread globally, such as the recent crisis. Surprisingly, we also show that countries with a much lower GDP, such as Belgium, are able to initiate a global crisis. Using the k-shell decomposition method to quantify the spreading power (of a node), we obtain a measure of 'centrality' as a spreader of each country in the economic network. We thus rank the different countries according to the shell they belong to, and find the 12 most central ones. These countries are the most likely to spread a crisis globally. Of these 12, only six are large economies, while the other six are medium/small ones, a result that could not have been otherwise anticipated. Furthermore, we use our model to predict the crisis spreading potential of countries belonging to different shells according to the crisis magnitude.

  20. The superpowers in crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Krickus, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses how the domestic political, economic, and socio-cultural problems afflicting the US and the USSR may threaten the security of each country and jeopardize world peace. Contents (partial): The Soviet Union in Crisis: An economy in crisis; A minority in their ''own country;'' Eastern Europe: An asset or liability; What is to be done.; The American Predicament: American liberalism; Ronald Reagan and the conservative counter-reformation; Taking stock; International Implications; Domestic strife; implications for the superpower rivalry; Global economic disorder and the American predicament; Conclusions.

  1. Internationalising Work-Integrated Learning: Creating Global Citizens to Meet the Economic Crisis and the Skills Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Natalie; Patrick, Carol-joy; Peach, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that for many multinational companies, the global skills shortage has made it difficult to attract competent workers to some international locations. In developing economies, business leaders often cite poor business acumen and little real-world experience as serious shortcomings in the domestic pool of applicants. In addition…

  2. Neo-Liberalism in Crisis? Educational Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David

    2011-01-01

    Until the global financial crisis, neo-liberalism had appeared invincible. This article examines the global rise of neo-liberalism and its impact on education, particularly its treatment of the social democratic ideal of equality. Drawing on examples from education and other socio-political factors, it considers whether the financial crisis is…

  3. Responding to climate change and the global land crisis: REDD+, market transformation and low-emissions rural development.

    PubMed

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Boyd, William; Stickler, Claudia M; Bezerra, Tathiana; Azevedo, Andrea A

    2013-06-01

    Climate change and rapidly escalating global demand for food, fuel, fibre and feed present seemingly contradictory challenges to humanity. Can greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land-use, more than one-fourth of the global total, decline as growth in land-based production accelerates? This review examines the status of two major international initiatives that are designed to address different aspects of this challenge. REDD+ is an emerging policy framework for providing incentives to tropical nations and states that reduce their GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Market transformation, best represented by agricultural commodity roundtables, seeks to exclude unsustainable farmers from commodity markets through international social and environmental standards for farmers and processors. These global initiatives could potentially become synergistically integrated through (i) a shared approach for measuring and favouring high environmental and social performance of land use across entire jurisdictions and (ii) stronger links with the domestic policies, finance and laws in the jurisdictions where agricultural expansion is moving into forests. To achieve scale, the principles of REDD+ and sustainable farming systems must be embedded in domestic low-emission rural development models capable of garnering support across multiple constituencies. We illustrate this potential with the case of Mato Grosso State in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23610173

  4. Responding to climate change and the global land crisis: REDD+, market transformation and low-emissions rural development

    PubMed Central

    Nepstad, Daniel C.; Boyd, William; Stickler, Claudia M.; Bezerra, Tathiana; Azevedo, Andrea A.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and rapidly escalating global demand for food, fuel, fibre and feed present seemingly contradictory challenges to humanity. Can greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land-use, more than one-fourth of the global total, decline as growth in land-based production accelerates? This review examines the status of two major international initiatives that are designed to address different aspects of this challenge. REDD+ is an emerging policy framework for providing incentives to tropical nations and states that reduce their GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Market transformation, best represented by agricultural commodity roundtables, seeks to exclude unsustainable farmers from commodity markets through international social and environmental standards for farmers and processors. These global initiatives could potentially become synergistically integrated through (i) a shared approach for measuring and favouring high environmental and social performance of land use across entire jurisdictions and (ii) stronger links with the domestic policies, finance and laws in the jurisdictions where agricultural expansion is moving into forests. To achieve scale, the principles of REDD+ and sustainable farming systems must be embedded in domestic low-emission rural development models capable of garnering support across multiple constituencies. We illustrate this potential with the case of Mato Grosso State in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23610173

  5. Midlife Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Mary Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that women experiencing a midlife crisis pass through five recognizable stages: (1) feeling trapped, (2) the first change, (3) multiple changes, (4) rational planning, and (5) implementing the plan. (NKA)

  6. Systematics and the biodiversity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    This article discusses the importance of systematics in evaluating the global biodiversity crisis. Topics covered include the following: what systematic biology is; the diversity of species and higher taxa; biodiversity undersiege; systematics and conservation; systematics and global climatic change. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Exposure to multiple metals from groundwater-a global crisis: geology, climate change, health effects, testing, and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Erika; Frisbie, Seth; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the global extent of naturally occurring toxic metals in groundwater. Adverse health effects attributed to the toxic metals most commonly found in groundwater are reviewed, as well as chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions between these metals. Synergistic and antagonistic effects that have been reported between the toxic metals found in groundwater and the dietary trace elements are highlighted, and common behavioural, cultural, and dietary practices that are likely to significantly modify health risks due to use of metal-contaminated groundwater are reviewed. Methods for analytical testing of samples containing multiple metals are discussed, with special attention to analytical interferences between metals and reagents. An overview is presented of approaches to providing safe water when groundwater contains multiple metallic toxins. PMID:21766119

  8. How to ensure nutrition security in the global economic crisis to protect and enhance development of young children and our common future.

    PubMed

    de Pee, Saskia; Brinkman, Henk-Jan; Webb, Patrick; Godfrey, Steve; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Alderman, Harold; Semba, Richard D; Piwoz, Ellen; Bloem, Martin W

    2010-01-01

    The global economic crisis, commodity price hikes, and climate change have worsened the position of the poorest and most vulnerable people. These crises are compromising the diet and health of up to 80% of the population in most developing countries and threaten the development of almost an entire generation of children ( approximately 250 million), because the period from conception until 24 mo of age irreversibly shapes people's health and intellectual ability. High food prices reduce diversity and nutritional quality of the diet and for many also reduce food quantity. Poor households are hit hardest, because they already spend 50-80% of expenditures on food, little on medicines, education, transport, or cooking fuel, and cannot afford to pay more. Reduced public spending, declining incomes, increased food and fuel prices, and reduced remittance thus impede and reverse progress made toward Millenium Development Goals 1, 4, and 5. Investments in nutrition are among the most cost-effective development interventions because of very high benefit:cost ratios, for individuals and for sustainable growth of countries, because they protect health, prevent disability, boost economic productivity, and save lives. To bridge the gap between nutrient requirements, particularly for groups with high needs, and the realistic dietary intake under the prevailing circumstances, the use of complementary food supplements to increase a meal's nutrient content is recommended. This can be in the form of, e.g., micronutrient powder or low-dose lipid-based nutrient supplements, which can be provided for free, in return for vouchers, at subsidized, or at commercial prices. PMID:19939998

  9. Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car accident. The…

  10. Solving the Antibiotic Crisis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gerard D

    2015-02-13

    Antibiotics are essential for both treating and preventing infectious diseases. Paradoxically, despite their importance as pillars of modern medicine, we are in danger of losing antibiotics because of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms throughout all pathogenic microbes. This fact, coupled with an inability to bring new drugs to market at a pace that matches resistance, has resulted in a crisis of global proportion. Solving this crisis requires the actions of many stakeholders, but chemists, chemical biologists, and microbiologists must drive the scientific innovation that is required to maintain our antibiotic arsenal. This innovation requires (1) a deep understanding of the evolution and reservoirs of resistance; (2) full knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic action and resistance; (3) the discovery of chemical and genetic probes of antibiotic action and resistance; (4) the integration of systems biology into antibiotic discovery; and (5) the discovery of new antimicrobial chemical matter. Addressing these pressing scientific gaps will ensure that we can meet the antibiotic crisis with creativity and purpose. PMID:27622298

  11. Crisis Paper No. 33. The Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Information Centre for Teachers, London (England).

    This Crisis Paper is thirty-third in a series which expands the analysis of the crisis under discussion to provide a multi-national view of the issue by quoting comment from a selection of newspapers and journals of several countries. A brief introduction outlines the history and background of the energy crisis, emphasizing the underestimated…

  12. Hypertensive crisis.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, E B; Escalante, C

    1989-07-01

    Hypertensive crisis is an acute emergency requiring aggressive management. Its incidence has decreased in recent years but still is prevalent in the medical community. From review of past and present treatment regimens, the following recommendations can be considered. (1) In the treatment of malignant hypertension with associated CHF, sodium nitroprusside is still an excellent agent. It has a rapid onset of action and blood pressure can be easily titrated. Nitroglycerin is also another agent that can be used in this situation. (2) In the treatment of malignant hypertension with associated aortic dissection, trimethophan camsylate is the preferred agent. An alternative choice is the combination of nitroprusside and labetalol. (3) In the treatment of malignant hypertension with associated myocardial ischemia, an excellent choice is nitroglycerin. Labetalol also should be considered in this situation. (4) In the treatment of hypertension during pregnancy, hydralazine is still a good choice. Labetalol has also been shown to be efficacious. (5) In the treatment of malignant hypertension with associated cerebral ischemia, the following drugs should be considered: nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, and labetalol. The most important attribute of these agents is that they are nonsedating and rapid in onset. (6) In the treatment of postoperative hypertension the choices best suited are labetalol, enalapril, nitroprusside, and nitroglycerin. These agents are rapid in onset and all can be administered intravenously. PMID:2670090

  13. Images for Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffan, James

    1984-01-01

    Most take canoeing, leadership, first aid, CPR and other courses to help cope when something happens, but there is more to dealing with crisis than learning proper procedures and techniques. Three areas of concern interlock to form the Crisis Management Triangle: knowledge and skill, preventive awareness, and crisis management planning. (ERB)

  14. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  15. The health effects of the global financial crisis: can we reconcile the differing views? A network analysis of literature across disciplines.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Reeves, Aaron; Karanikolos, Marina; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Why are researchers studying the health effects of economic change reaching markedly varying conclusions? To understand these differences, we first systematically searched Web of Science for the literature on recessions and health yielding 461 articles and 14,401 cited documents. We then undertook a network analysis of co-citation pattern by disciplines, journals and backgrounds of the authors, followed by a chronological review of the literature, to trace the evolution of ideas. We then examined the extent to which earlier literature predicted what has happened in the 2007-2012 crisis. Our analysis finds the literature is dominated by disciplinary silos, with economics studies predominantly citing each other and relative isolation of psychiatry and substance abuse journals. Different philosophical approaches to assessing causality appear to contribute to varying interpretations, a tendency that is unlikely to be resolved without a shift in research norms. We conclude by calling for more inter-disciplinary research that combines empirical findings with a search for plausible mechanisms. This approach would evaluate not only the effects of economic shocks but also the mechanisms that offer protection against them. PMID:25662198

  16. Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

  17. Children's Rights: Crisis and Challenge. A Global Report on the Situation of Children in View of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurkse, Dennis, Ed.; Castelle, Kay, Ed.

    The global situation of children is reported in light of the U.N. General Assembly's November, 1989 adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, an international treaty for the protection of children. The report is divided into three parts, the first of which includes an overview of the U.N. Convention, and essays on the…

  18. Learning Crisis Unit through Post-Crisis: Characteristics and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…

  19. The Book of Chemical Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sours, Floyd P.

    This book presents a crisis management model that effectively bridges the areas of substance abuse and crisis intervention. A crisis alternatives model which can be incorporated into drug counseling programs is discussed, along with a four-step crisis intervention plan for use by crisis workers that includes: (1) establishing rapport; (2)…

  20. Modeling of Economy Considering Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Lev F.

    2009-09-01

    We discuss main modeling's problems of economy dynamic processes and the reason forecast's absence of economic crisis. We present a structure of complexity level of system and models and discuss expected results concerning crisis phenomena. We formulate the basic perspective directions of the mathematical modeling of economy, including possibility of the analysis of the pre crisis, crisis and post crisis phenomena in economic systems.

  1. Casualties of the Global War on Terror and their future impact on health care and society: a looming public health crisis.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    This article is a primer to understand the medical advances and the future health care consequences of the current conflicts in the Middle East and Southwest Asia, known as the Global War on Terror. There have been significant advances in health care learned in caring for those injured by the conflict--often a polytrauma blast victim, but there are also very high incidence rates of the hidden injuries of war--traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide, and depression. These lead to disruptive behaviors, homelessness, and family violence. Global War on Terror returnees are using medical services and applying for disability at higher rates than in previous conflicts. The costs for veterans' care may peak 30 to 40 years or longer following the conflict, and will inflict an enormous burden on services and resources. The effects of the war will linger for years and impact across generations because of the stress on families and children. We must mobilize government agencies, create public-private partnerships, and invest our resources now to mitigate the approaching tsunami of veterans' health care needs, the impact on our social services, and the devastating costs to society. PMID:24690957

  2. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  3. Educational Technology in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fainholc, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of the historical epistemological path is needed to understand and reconsider the discipline of Educational Technology in articulation to contributions of rupturistic theorists in order to reach to a critical proposal and a revision of its field. This field is facing a deep crisis within a time of world crisis, specially in the…

  4. Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Susie

    Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…

  5. When Crisis Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudle, Melissa

    1994-01-01

    School crises may be categorized as emergency situations, human-made crises, natural events, medical emergencies, and mechanical crises. Central to any successful crisis-management plan are onsite and district-level crisis response teams. Plans should specify staff responsibilities; provide for communication codes, devices, and procedures;…

  6. Creativity in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Glenn

    This paper suggests that educational resources and opportunities currently in operation in rural Australia are brought forward during times of crisis. The paper discusses five aspects of education in rural Australia that are a response to the perceived sense of crisis and that have improved the general and comparative quality of rural education,…

  7. When a Crisis Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keebler, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Urges Catholic educators to develop a crisis communication plan to ensure that all communication with the press and public is handled promptly and thoroughly by a designated spokesperson. Describes workshops which simulate real-life challenges as a means of testing crisis management plans. Offers guidelines for the development of a crisis…

  8. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…

  9. Crisis Communication and Management: Surviving a Public Relations Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eramo, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis…

  10. Application of U-Pb ID-TIMS dating to the end-Triassic global crisis: testing the limits on precision and accuracy in a multidisciplinary whodunnit (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoene, B.; Schaltegger, U.; Guex, J.; Bartolini, A.

    2010-12-01

    The ca. 201.4 Ma Triassic-Jurassic boundary is characterized by one of the most devastating mass-extinctions in Earth history, subsequent biologic radiation, rapid carbon cycle disturbances and enormous flood basalt volcanism (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province - CAMP). Considerable uncertainty remains regarding the temporal and causal relationship between these events though this link is important for understanding global environmental change under extreme stresses. We present ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon geochronology on volcanic ash beds from two marine sections that span the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and from the CAMP in North America. To compare the timing of the extinction with the onset of the CAMP, we assess the precision and accuracy of ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon geochronology by exploring random and systematic uncertainties, reproducibility, open-system behavior, and pre-eruptive crystallization of zircon. We find that U-Pb ID-TIMS dates on single zircons can be internally and externally reproducible at 0.05% of the age, consistent with recent experiments coordinated through the EARTHTIME network. Increased precision combined with methods alleviating Pb-loss in zircon reveals that these ash beds contain zircon that crystallized between 10^5 and 10^6 years prior to eruption. Mineral dates older than eruption ages are prone to affect all geochronologic methods and therefore new tools exploring this form of “geologic uncertainty” will lead to better time constraints for ash bed deposition. In an effort to understand zircon dates within the framework of a magmatic system, we analyzed zircon trace elements by solution ICPMS for the same volume of zircon dated by ID-TIMS. In one example we argue that zircon trace element patterns as a function of time result from a mix of xeno-, ante-, and autocrystic zircons in the ash bed, and approximate eruption age with the youngest zircon date. In a contrasting example from a suite of Cretaceous andesites, zircon trace elements

  11. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too. PMID:26152994

  12. Vermont School Crisis Guide, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Vermont School Crisis Guide has been revised to improve its use by School Crisis Teams and Public Safety Committees. The Guide is now organized by roles so users can quickly locate their responsibilities in a crisis. The Crisis Guide pages can be used to document pertinent information (time, witnesses) immediately after an emergency…

  13. The future of the welfare state: crisis myths and crisis realities.

    PubMed

    Castles, Francis G

    2002-01-01

    Accounts of the future of the welfare state are often presented in crisis terms. Some commentators identify globalization as a force that has already led to a major retreat by the state and is likely to lead to further downsizing of the public sector. Others see the future burden of an aging population as creating huge public expenditure pressures that can be countered only by increased parsimony in most areas of spending. Although both crisis scenarios contain elements of truth, analysis of recent public expenditure trends shows that both are substantially exaggerated as general representations of likely developments over the next two or three decades. However, unnoticed by most commentators, a real, longer-term crisis is beginning to make itself felt. This crisis arises, in part, from the demographic impact of a cultural transformation in the labor market, in progress for several decades. Extreme scenarios of possible consequences over the next 50 to 100 years include population implosion, mass migration, increasingly dangerous eruptions of right-wing populism, and, possibly, territorial conflict between developed and underdeveloped nations. This is not a crisis of the welfare state but rather a crisis for which the welfare state may be an essential part of the answer. The only way Western societies can lessen the future impact of the ongoing cultural transformation of the labor market is through the redesign of welfare state institutions to confront these new challenges. PMID:12067031

  14. Acute adrenal crisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cortisol and adrenaline are released in response to stress . Cortisol production is regulated by the pituitary gland. This ... adrenal crisis include: Dehydration Infection and other physical ... medicines such as prednisone or hydrocortisone Surgery Trauma

  15. Veterans Crisis Line

    MedlinePlus

    ... also access and download the Veterans Crisis Line Branding Guidelines for guidance on how to consistently apply ... Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs | 810 ...

  16. Crisis GIS: Preparing for the Next Volcanic Crisis in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, D. W.; Robinson, J. E.; Schilling, S. P.; Schaefer, J. R.; Kimberly, P.; Trusdell, F. A.; Guffanti, M. C.; Mayberry, G. C.; Cameron, C. E.; Smith, J. G.; McIntire, J. A.; Snedigar, S.; Ewert, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) specialists from the Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), including personnel at Menlo Park, California, the Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington, the Alaska Volcano Observatory in Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in Hawaii National Park, Hawaii, and the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program in Washington, DC, are developing a GIS response plan in the event of a volcano crisis. This plan, referred to as "Crisis GIS", outlines how VHP can ensure rapid, reliable delivery of spatial and ancillary information for data analysis and visualization at any required location during a volcanic crisis or event within the United States. An effective Crisis GIS needs the capacity to store multiple, large datasets, including: base layer data, elevation data, geologic maps, hazard assessment maps, satellite data, and aerial photography for volcanoes around the U.S. It must be readily accessible by VHP GIS specialists stationed around the Nation. Such a GIS should also support installations of monitoring instruments and telemetry equipment that relay monitoring signals, and provision of updates to public officials, the media, and the public during a crisis. GIS technology has proven to be an invaluable tool for crisis response. Recently, GIS was applied as part of the response efforts to two large-scale crises: the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the Southern California wildfires of Fall 2003. In each case, GIS was used to organize large quantities of spatial data and to produce electronic and paper maps that illustrated hazards, supported decision making, and communicated developing situations to responsible emergency-management authorities and to the populace affected (Kant, 2002, and Pratt, 2003). VHP GIS specialists are currently testing the software and hardware employed in recent major crisis response efforts and are learning to adapt

  17. Dark energy crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Je-An

    2010-11-01

    In cosmology we are facing the dark energy crisis: How can we survive huge vacuum energy, meanwhile living with tiny dark energy? For the solution to this crisis, we raise several clues and hints, in particular, supersymmetry and the double hierarchy, Mp-MSM-MDE (Planck-Standard Model-dark energy scales). These two clues naturally lead to a solution with a supersymmetry-breaking brane-world. The train of thought from the clues to the solution is elucidated.

  18. Global health disparities: crisis in the diaspora.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Raymond L.

    2004-01-01

    The United States spends more than the rest of the world on healthcare. In 2000, the U.S. health bill was 1.3 trillion dollars, 14.5% of its gross domestic product. Yet, according to the WHO World Health Report 2000, the United States ranked 37th of 191 member nations in overall health system performance. Racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes are the most obvious examples of an unbalanced healthcare system. This presentation will examine health disparities in the United States and reveal how health disparities among and within countries affect the health and well-being of the African Diaspora. PMID:15101675

  19. Global Financial Crisis and Educational Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina; Paraskeva, João M.

    2015-01-01

    "Financialisation" is a term that describes an economic system or process that attempts to reduce all value that is exchanged (whether tangible, intangible, future, or present promises, etc.) either into a financial instrument or a derivative of a financial instrument. The original intent of financialization is to be able to reduce any…

  20. Afghanistan, poppies, and the global pain crisis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Sillup, George P; Capo, Joseph A

    2010-03-01

    The World Health Organization has reported that somewhere between 30-86 million people suffer from moderate to severe pain due to cancer, HIV/AIDS, burns, wounds and other illnesses annually and do not have access to proper opiate anesthetics to control the pain [1]. The vast majority of these people live in poor nations where medicinal opiates are either too expensive or not readily available. In this paper, it is argued that access to adequate healthcare is a human right and that adequate healthcare includes management of pain. The solution to this problem may be in Afghanistan, a country now overwhelmed with poverty and war. Afghanistan is the world's leading producer of heroin. The increase in heroin production in Afghanistan has caused the United States and the international community to begin to eradicate Afghanistan's poppy fields leading to increased poverty among poppy farmers. This paper proposed a paradigm that can be implemented in Afghanistan which would allow for Afghan farmers to continue growing their poppy crop for medicinal opiates like morphine for poor nations. The paradigm covers all parameters of medicinal opiates production including licensing, security, cultivation, harvest, and factory production of medicinal opiates. The paradigm proposed is less expensive than eradication, brings honest income to Afghan farmers and the new Afghan nation, and can eventually lead to Afghanistan acquiring a respectable role in the world community. In closing, a full ethical analysis of the paradigm is included to justify the arguments made in the paper. PMID:20190697

  1. Location of geographical objects in crisis situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybansky, M.; Kratochvil, V.

    2014-02-01

    This article summarizes the various expressions of object positioning using different coordinate data and different methods, such as use of maps, exploiting the properties of digital Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks, Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), Inertial Measurement Systems (IMS), hybrid methods and non-contact (remote sensing) methods; all with varying level of accuracy. Furthermore, the article describes some geographical identifiers and verbal means to describe location of geographical objects such as settlements, rivers, forest, roads, etc. All of the location methods have some advantages and disadvantages, especially in emergency situations, when usually the crisis management has a lack of time in a decision process.

  2. Crisis Management in Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsis, Thomas M.

    The way in which a school community deals with a crisis situation is a test of its sense of community. This guidebook, intended for Catholic-school principals, presents a detailed plan to help schools establish crisis-management teams and offers directions for their operation. Chapter 1 presents an overview of crisis management and focuses on how…

  3. School Crisis Preparedness and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, David J.; Newgass, Scott

    Dealing with the impact of crisis on school children and staff is not the primary mission of schools. Therefore, many schools remain unprepared to respond to a crisis affecting students and staff. Too often they respond to each successive crisis in a reflexive manner with little preplanned coordination or structure. This workshop provides an…

  4. Keeping Cool in a Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Raven

    2006-01-01

    Many schools are able to avoid disasters by creating a strong, deliberate crisis plan and knowing how to implement it effectively. Good crisis preparedness requires leadership from the top, a critical mass of trained staff members, careful planning, and excellent communication. This article discusses how to prepare for a crisis.

  5. When Crisis Strikes on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Wendy Ann, Ed.

    This handbook aids in planning for effective crisis communication at institutions of higher education. The book opens with a behind-the-scenes look at a particular crisis--the 1990 murders of five students at the University of Florida. This first section offers tested advice from a campus communicator, an account of the crisis and the…

  6. Families in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krim, Alaine S.

    1974-01-01

    A midtown New York City cooperative project which is providing a wide range of on-site and referral services to families in crisis is depicted. The program, located in the emergency relocation hotel provides a day care center, psychiatric and social services, a pediatric clinic, recreational programs, and parent discussion groups. (CS)

  7. Nursing in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Roxanne

    2007-01-01

    Both the nation's health-care and nursing education systems are in crisis. While the care provided by registered nurses (RNs) is essential to patients' recovery from acute illness and to the effective management of their chronic conditions, the United States is experiencing a nursing shortage that is anticipated to increase as baby boomers age and…

  8. Crisis, Meaning and Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amini, Bijan

    This paper suggests that all life is polar because polarity is the underlying context of life. The idea of polarity is based on two halves that originally belonged together to form a whole. These two halves are constantly trying to come together to regain their wholeness. The philosophical view of crisis presented in this paper is that the…

  9. Rape: A Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Priscilla N.; Rollins, Judith C.

    1981-01-01

    Rape is a crisis shared by the victim and her family. The family's reaction is influenced by cultural views such as viewing rape as sex rather than violence. Adaptive responses can be supported by open expression, education, and family, as well as individual counseling. (JAC)

  10. Ghosts of Crisis Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.; Champagne, Audrey B.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the history of school science curriculum reform from the Sputnik era to 1990. The relationship between the crisis in the 1950s and 1990 is addressed. A list of curriculum development programs for all levels and special needs students is included. (KR)

  11. Preparing for a Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Rosalie D.; Morrison, Shirley

    1997-01-01

    To handle unforeseen crises, Albuquerque Public Schools established a critical-incident response team with a simple, understandable chain of command. The group aims to ensure maximum safety and people' well-being, develop a districtwide crisis-response-management plan, coordinate necessary training, and collaborate with community agencies…

  12. Crisis Counseling: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…

  13. The Phony Funding Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.; Peng, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    If one relies on newspaper headlines for education funding information, one might conclude that America's schools suffer from a perpetual fiscal crisis, every year perched precariously on the brink of financial ruin, never knowing whether there will be sufficient funding to continue operating. Budgetary shortfalls, school district bankruptcies,…

  14. Wanted: Crisis President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    As the events of Virginia Tech tragedy recede in time, leaders of other colleges and universities are sure to look at Virginia Tech president Charles W. Steger's performance and question the readiness of presidents to act like corporate executives, take visible control of a campus in crisis, manage the onslaught of cameras and microphones, and…

  15. The Mythical "Boy Crisis"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Muna; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The popular press has put forth the idea that the US educational system is experiencing a "boy crisis," where boys are losing ground to girls across multiple dimensions. Here, we analyze these claims in the context of math and reading achievement during early primary school. We reach two conclusions. First, white boys outperform white girls in…

  16. Coping with Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akenhead, James; Andreani, Alan

    2002-01-01

    School officials put a crisis communications plan into action after two Ohio students died and a third became critically ill from meningitis in May 2001. A mass immunization program prevented a major outbreak, and rumor control helped calm the public's fears. Recounts things learned from the experience. (MLF)

  17. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…

  18. 'Childhood' in 'Crisis'?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scraton, Phil, Ed.

    Based on multi-disciplinary academic research and professional practice, this book is a response to the current political and policy debates in Britain that maintain that "childhood" is in a state of "crisis"; that there is a breakdown in discipline, professional, or parental guidance; and that young people lack any sense of social responsibility.…

  19. Analyzing the financial crisis using the entropy density function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Ho-yong; Ahn, Seok-Won; Kwak, Wooseop

    2015-02-01

    The risk that is created by nonlinear interactions among subjects in economic systems is assumed to increase during an abnormal state of a financial market. Nevertheless, investigating the systemic risk in financial markets following the global financial crisis is not sufficient. In this paper, we analyze the entropy density function in the return time series for several financial markets, such as the S&P500, KOSPI, and DAX indices, from October 2002 to December 2011 and analyze the variability in the entropy value over time. We find that the entropy density function of the S&P500 index during the subprime crisis exhibits a significant decrease compared to that in other periods, whereas the other markets, such as those in Germany and Korea, exhibit no significant decrease during the market crisis. These findings demonstrate that the S&P500 index generated a regular pattern in the return time series during the financial crisis.

  20. Intercultural Education and the Crisis of Globalisation: Some Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    2011-01-01

    In this essay I reflect on the role of intercultural education in an emerging global crisis. Education systems are characterised by both divergent and convergent impulses. Divergent impulses include tradition, nationalism and religion. Convergent impulses (isomorphism) include science and technology, culture (including the English language),…

  1. The Institutional Crisis of the German Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David P.; Lenhardt, Gero

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing crisis of the German university illustrates the potential difficulties with implementing the emerging global model (EGM) of the new research university in a nation where there is a long tradition of higher education, and where the university and the nation-state have developed together through a historical symbiotic relationship. To…

  2. The Asian Financial Crisis, Globalisation and Popular Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony

    1998-01-01

    Globalization is a confused and confusing term being used to explain a wide range of phenomena. It is presented as being outside anyone's control, neutral, and free of class interests. The Asian financial crisis illustrates that human agency still plays a role. Popular educators can help reinforce the idea that collective action does make a…

  3. Danish Universities in the Financial Crisis: Change and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milthers, Pernille Meyn

    2011-01-01

    Universities have always been important to national economies, but since the financial crisis of 2007-08 they have become key economic actors. Because they supply highly skilled labour and undertake basic research that enable nations to engage in global competition, they are capable of boosting production and innovation. This article explores the…

  4. Feeling the Crunch: Education Policy and Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The global capitalist crisis is impacting dramatically across nation states and their economies. Although a complete collapse of the system appears to have been avoided by decisions to take co-ordinated interventionist action to shore up short term demand, governments have generally rejected the more radical actions required to address the…

  5. Before Crisis Hits: Building a Strategic Crisis Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry L.; Millar, Dan P.

    This guide offers suggestions to college administrators for dealing with a variety of emergency or crisis situations that could affect a community college's effectiveness. The authors used the Institute for Crisis Management's (ICM) four types of crises in higher education as the framework for the guide. The four types of crises are: (1) sudden;…

  6. Crisis Communication Plans: Poor Predictors of Excellent Crisis Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Francis J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that newly developed theory in crisis public relations suggests a shift is necessary in the way practitioners view crises. Notes that the new paradigm defines excellent crisis public relations very differently from the literature of the past 20 years. (RS)

  7. School Buildings in Today's Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    To get a picture of the impact of the current economic and financial crisis on educational building programmes so far, the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) has been conducting a survey of member countries and regions. The survey focuses on three main issues: the impact of the crisis on publicly funded projects, the impact on…

  8. A Crisis of Legendary Proportions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Describes the activities of Indiana University's crisis communications team during the Bob Knight controversy. Discusses how the school's response was based on four crisis communications principles: create a plan, appoint a single spokesperson, respond with open and continuous communications, and expect the unexpected. (EV)

  9. Organizational Learning and Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

  10. The Little-Known Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckholm, Erik P.

    1975-01-01

    For one-third of the world's people, the energy crisis means the daily scramble to find the wood they need to cook. The accelerating destruction of forests throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America and the utilization of manure as a firewood substitute may produce the most profound ecological crisis of this century. (BT)

  11. Education and Our Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimas, John

    1970-01-01

    Discusses causes of our ecological crisis and suggests that in order to overcome the crisis we have to sprinkle our teaching with a sense of wonder, impress upon the youth that there is nothing difficult or mysterious about the ecological viewpoint, give youth an awareness of the diversity of things in our environment, stress interrelationships…

  12. Crisis management: some opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kupperman, R H; Wilcox, R H; Smith, H A

    1975-02-01

    Modern crises present decision makers with many agonizing management choices. Very often a crisis manager is confronted with a plethora of conflicting information and given very little time to choose an appropriate course of action. Although contemporary methods of systems analysis have been used in attempts to organize data and clarify options, they have generally been of little use in presenting an accurate picture of an opponent's values and perceptions. Thus it is clear that we must now make use of the improved communications and technological devices at our disposal if crises are to be avoided or resolved with minimum damage. Our proposal to establish international model-oriented computer-assisted conferences is designed to promote greater cooperation and understanding among scientists and crisis managers of differing nations by enabling them to share images of themselves and one another. With better information and more rational options available, the chances of catastrophic misunderstanding or miscalculation can be meaningfully reduced. We have proposed a possible scenario for the initial implementation of such a system to combat famine, and hope that the same approach might be used in other areas over time. The ultimate goal is a system by which specialists of all persuasions cooperate so that international crises will be resolved on the bases of mutual benefits without resort to armed conflict. PMID:17835296

  13. The malpractice liability crisis.

    PubMed

    Brenner, R James; Smith, John J

    2004-01-01

    Most medical malpractice cases are tried under the civil tort of negligence and are often triggered by adverse outcomes. These proceedings are aimed primarily at determining whether the conduct of a health care provider was reasonable. Such legal actions have mostly been subject to state jurisdiction. Increasingly, a number of factors are converging that are threatening the continued practice of medicine in some states and hence patients' access to care. These include higher amounts of monetary damages awarded to successful plaintiffs, consequent rising malpractice premiums, and the threatened economic insolvency of medical liability insurance carriers as a result of the broader economic downturn. The result is a serious public health dilemma. The national scope of the problem has been considered a crisis, which has prompted unprecedented federal legislative proposals directed toward providing new and preemptive parameters for capitated noneconomic damages, restrictions on certain civil procedures affecting lawsuit outcomes, and methods for attorney compensation, which some states have either not previously addressed or found unconstitutional. A survey of different states' problems and common issues should assist the reader in understanding the nature of the crisis and proposed solutions. PMID:17411514

  14. The Carbon Crisis: An Evolutionary Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.

    2013-12-01

    By the 'carbon crisis' I mean the coupled crises of the depletion of the highest-EROI sources of fossil fuels and the global warming caused by our use of those fossil fuels. (EROI means 'energy return on energy investment'; Hall 2011.) While global warming is arguably more urgent, either of these factors would sooner or later be sufficient by itself to call a halt to our global-scale, energy-intensive, high technology economy. In lethal combination, they threaten to drastically reduce the capacity of the planet to support 7+ billion talking hominids. I will pull the camera back for a very long view and characterize the carbon crisis and our possible responses to it from an evolutionary and ecological perspective. It remains unclear why sapiens emerged rather suddenly as the most successful member of the family Homo about 50 to 60 kya; some argue that this neurological explosion could be due to our ancestors having survived the rigors of the Toba population bottleneck, which presumably would have favoured high adaptability (Ambrose 1998). Whatever the cause, Paleolithic humans deployed an unprecedented combination of technological and social ingenuity (the capacity for adaptive social organization; Homer-Dixon 2001). Aided by the relatively benign climate of the Holocene and ultimately by our increasing ability to tap into the resources of the 'found' ecology, especially the vast stores of hydrocarbons bequeathed by the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, our population has grown exponentially to its present unsteady pinnacle of (possibly) temporary reproductive success. The question now is what happens next. It was human ingenuity that got us through the ice age, put footprints on the Moon, and brought us to this crisis point; now, only human ingenuity (both social and technical) can get us past it. Our species will finally achieve a sustainable mode of existence on this planet when (in E. Odum's words; 1973) 'the present-day concept of ';unlimited exploitation of

  15. Development of Information and Knowledge Architectures and an Associated Framework and Methodology for System Management of a Global Reserve Currency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardullo, Mario W.

    2013-01-01

    The global financial system appears to be heading for a major financial crisis. This crisis is being driven by a growing global debt. This crisis is not limited to nations that are heavily in debt such as Greece, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Italy or Cyprus but to such others as the United States. While there has been a great deal of emphasis on…

  16. The Asian financial crisis and women.

    PubMed

    1998-05-01

    This paper reports on the "Women's Roundtable Discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis" by the Gender Development Programme and Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN), which was held in Manila, Philippines, on April 12-14, 1998. The purpose of the Women's Roundtable was to provide a forum for regional analysis of women workers, labor migration and trade policies, women's livelihoods, food security and social development, globalization, and adverse impacts of economic recession and inflation. Among the recommendations of the forum were that the impact of globalization on women should be monitored and that the analyses and concerns raised during the roundtable discussions should be disseminated through other regional and international platforms. PMID:12322199

  17. Global Recession May Have Contributed to Cancer Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159060.html Global Recession May Have Contributed to Cancer Deaths Health- ... THURSDAY, May 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The 2008 global economic crisis has been linked to a sharp ...

  18. The Impending Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Raymond L.; Burgess, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    When you are ill and consult a physician for his or her expertise, many times laboratory testing is part of the clinical workup. This testing is critical to the physician’s ability to diagnose the patient’s condition. What if testing was not available … because there was no one to do the testing? Although seemingly far-fetched, this scenario could play itself out in the next ten years due to an impending manpower crisis in laboratory medicine. The profession of Medical Technology, also known as Clinical Laboratory Science, is experiencing a shortage of qualified individuals for a variety of reasons – not the least of which is the closure of almost 70% of the schools teaching this critical profession. Health care workers (HCW) rely on accurate and timely clinical laboratory results in order to make decisions for their patients. Because ∼ 70% of patient care decisions are based on clinical laboratory results, it is important to have a well-trained supply of laboratory professionals. This article will give an overview of the situation and the possible causes of this shortage, and pose challenges to our profession as to how this crisis can be averted. Visibility of this profession must be a prime focus of this effort in order for the population in general to be aware of the role Clinical Laboratory Scientists play in the health care consortium. This effort should begin early in the educational process, potentially as early as Middle School (junior high school), bringing awareness of the profession not only to students but to educators as well. PMID:23653714

  19. School Crisis Management: A Model of Dynamic Responsiveness to Crisis Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Yi-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze a school's crisis management and explore emerging aspects of its response to a school crisis. Traditional linear modes of analysis often fail to address complex crisis situations. The present study applied a dynamic crisis life cycle model that draws on chaos and complexity theory to a crisis management case,…

  20. Technology Education Tackles Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the solar-hydrogen technologies at the East Valley Institute of Technology, the only technology center in the nations that offers this class. Describes its focus on solving the energy crisis. (JOW)

  1. [Crisis management in emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Mizobata, Yasumitsu

    2016-02-01

    There is no "complete safety" in the medical treatment. Unavoidable events or human errors may frighten the patients' safety. Because of its characteristics, emergency medicine is one of the medical fields where treating the patients under the vast safety is difficult. It is inevitable to understand the background of human errors in the emergency medicine under the "SHEL" model. The implementation of the safety measures, such as minimum encounter, minimum probability, multiple detections, and minimum damage is helpful to prevent unfortunate outcomes. Since the emergency medicine treats the severely injured or critical ill patients, its daily works are the picture of the crisis management, and the most suitable environment to train the crisis management competence. The person in charge of crisis management of the institution should put the emergency department to practical use of medical staffs' crisis management training. PMID:26915239

  2. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions. PMID:19630256

  3. Crisis in American mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The crisis in American mining is discussed. The discussion focuses on the outlook for coal in the overall energy picture. Because of the Arab oil embargo of 1973, the Iranian disruption of 1979, and the tenfold increase in oil prices over the past decade, radical changes have taken place in energy supply and demand patterns. Two of the most important of these changes relate to investment. First, large investments have been made in energy-efficient plants, equipment, buildings, and vehicles. Their effect will restrain energy demand growth for the foreseeable future. Second, investments have been made in fuel-switching, from oil to coal and nuclear power. As a result the oil demand at the end of this century will be at approximately the same level as it is today. Natural gas demand is also likely to be flat. Coal demand, on the other hand, is expected to increase steadily over the long term. Recent conditions in the coal industry are reviewed, and a specific 10-year forecast is given.

  4. An investigation of implied volatility during financial crisis: Evidence from Australian index options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mimi Hafizah; Harun, Hanani Farhah

    2014-10-01

    Volatility implied by an option pricing model is seen as the market participants' assessment of volatility. Past studies documented that implied volatility based on an option pricing model is found to outperform the historical volatility in forecasting future realised volatility. Thus, this study examines the implied volatility smiles and term structures in the Australian S&P/ASX 200 index options from the year 2001 to 2010, which covers the global financial crisis in the mid-2007 until the end of 2008. The results show that the implied volatility rises significantly during the crisis period, which is three time the rate before crisis.

  5. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma. PMID:25085805

  6. Slope destabilization during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargani, Julien; Bache, François; Jouannic, Gwenael; Gorini, Christian

    2014-05-01

    During the Messinian Salinity Crisis, ~ 6 Myr ago, deep canyons were incised when a huge sea-level drawdown of ~ 1.5 km affected the Mediterranean Sea. Nearly contemporaneously, more than 2 km of evaporites accumulated in the basin. This event was the consequence of a complex interaction of tectonic movements and global sea-level variation associated with climatic evolution. This unusual event ended with the reflooding of the Mediterranean area. In this paper, using seismic line interpretation, we show that several landslides occurred in various parts of the Mediterranean Basin during this crisis. Three of these landslides are well preserved, and their dynamics were analyzed. Modeling of the slope stability demonstrates that these landslides may have been due to (i) the relief created by the deep erosion, and/or (ii) the reflooding, which triggered a pore pressure increase. The relatively small run-out distances of the three landslides suggest propagation in a submarine environment and triggering by sea-level rise.

  7. [Depression telephone helpline: help seeking during the financial crisis].

    PubMed

    Economou, M; Peppou, L E; Louki, E; Komporozos, A; Mellou, A; Stefanis, C

    2012-01-01

    Mental health telephone help-lines usually play a significant role in mental health services system. Their importance is substantiated during periods of financial crisis, where the mental health of the population is gravely inflicted. Media reports have documented a large increase in calls made to mental health telephone help-lines around the world as a corollary to the global economic crisis; however, a systematic investigation of this observation is still lacking. In this context, the present study endeavours to fill this gap in the literature, while it adds strength to the handful of studies which have empirically supported the impact of the financial crisis on mental health in Greece. Data were extracted from information gleaned during the calls made to the Depression Telephone Helpline of the Greek University Mental Health Research Institute. The information entailed the reason for calling, the socio-demographic and clinical profile of the person with mental health problems, his/her previous and current contacts with mental health professionals and the treatment he/she might be receiving. The results showed a steep increase in calls with direct or indirect reference to the economic crisis during the first half of 2010 and onwards. The callers who referred to the economic crisis manifested depressive symptomatology of clinical significance to a greater degree than callers who made no such reference. The latter exhibited increased levels of distress and agitation as well as drug/alcohol misuse. Concomitantly, a higher frequency of depressive symptomatology was discerned among the unemployed, whereas employed people were found to experience anxiety symptoms to a higher degree. The impact of the financial crisis on the mental health of the Greek population has been considerable, underscoring in this way the importance of mental health help-lines as emotional buffers and as guides for timely and appropriate service use in response to the emerging mental health

  8. [Crisis and future of humanity].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    We live in troubling times. The economic crisis fills us with anxiety. Young, unemployed and throes to finish living worse fear that their parents are not able to take charge of the situation. What has happened to that Spain and Europe, less than four years ago seemed to land of opportunities for native and foreign, have become hostile territories? The economic crisis does not explain everything; It is only a symptom that the basis on which we were building the future were not as firm. It is true that the crisis has brought to bare the obscenity of speculative financial capitalism. It is also true that this crisis can be the great opportunity to build the world on a human and sustainable economic basis, i.e.,just the opposite of the current submission to the dictatorship of the financial markets. But the contemporary crisis has deep and extensive roots. I will refer to other crises, as important or more than the economic one, because to glimpse the future it is essential to carefully track the present and discover the "weak signals" the latent opportunities that await we become them realities. PMID:23066563

  9. Fertility Regulation in an Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Christopher; Thomas, Duncan; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Substantial international aid is spent reducing the cost of contraception in developing countries, as part of a larger effort to reduce global fertility and increase investment per child worldwide. The importance for fertility behaviors of keeping contraceptive prices low, however, remains unclear. Targeting of subsidies and insufficient price variation have hindered prior attempts to estimate the effect of monetary and non-monetary contraceptive costs on fertility behavior. Using longitudinal survey data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we exploit dramatic variation in prices and incomes that was induced by the economic crisis in the late 1990s to pin down the effect of contraceptive availability and costs as well as household resources on contraceptive use and method choice. The results are unambiguous: monetary costs of contraceptives and levels of family economic resources have a very small (and well-determined) impact on contraceptive use and choice of method. PMID:25843969

  10. International dimensions of the environmental crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    Emphasizing that the environmental crisis is global in scope, manifest in almost every region, culture, and political and economic system, this book examines the environmental problems confronted by countries throughout the world (e.g., desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, weather modification, energy and resource shortages, and air and water pollution). It also traces the relationships between these problems and such diverse factors as economic constraints, nationalism, cultural values, international relations, and access to new technology. The authors of the 17 individual papers grapple with the practical and philosophical dilemmas attendant upon environmental degradation and preservation. They then discuss the specific concerns of Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Africa and address the roles of such processes as agricultural development, population growth and migration, and the international export of environmental degradation. 620 references, 20 figures.

  11. Human resources for health: overcoming the crisis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lincoln; Evans, Timothy; Anand, Sudhir; Boufford, Jo Ivey; Brown, Hilary; Chowdhury, Mushtaque; Cueto, Marcos; Dare, Lola; Dussault, Gilles; Elzinga, Gijs; Fee, Elizabeth; Habte, Demissie; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Jacobs, Marian; Kurowski, Christoph; Michael, Sarah; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Sewankambo, Nelson; Solimano, Giorgio; Stilwell, Barbara; de Waal, Alex; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    In this analysis of the global workforce, the Joint Learning Initiative-a consortium of more than 100 health leaders-proposes that mobilisation and strengthening of human resources for health, neglected yet critical, is central to combating health crises in some of the world's poorest countries and for building sustainable health systems in all countries. Nearly all countries are challenged by worker shortage, skill mix imbalance, maldistribution, negative work environment, and weak knowledge base. Especially in the poorest countries, the workforce is under assault by HIV/AIDS, out-migration, and inadequate investment. Effective country strategies should be backed by international reinforcement. Ultimately, the crisis in human resources is a shared problem requiring shared responsibility for cooperative action. Alliances for action are recommended to strengthen the performance of all existing actors while expanding space and energy for fresh actors. PMID:15567015

  12. Science education crisis: Problems, solutions discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolcott, John

    Public concern about the state of science education in America at the pre-college and college levels is widespread, triggered largely by the perception that we are losing ground in the global economy. Science, and particularly technology, are seen as our most likely sources of recovery. For those who recall the public reaction to the launching of Sputnik by Russia in 1957, the present mood is similar, if somewhat less intense.AGU members are in a unique position to influence debate about the science education crisis. Many of us, either as experts in some subset of physical science issues, as teachers at the college level, or even as parents observing our children's experiences in elementary or secondary school classrooms, may offer insight to this debate.

  13. Crisis stability and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.

  14. Socio economic crisis and mortality. Epidemiological testimony of the financial collapse of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gurfinkel, Enrique P; Bozovich, Gerardo E; Dabbous, Omar; Mautner, Branco; Anderson, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    Background Natural disasters, war, and terrorist attacks, have been linked to cardiac mortality. We sought to investigate whether a major financial crisis may impact on the medical management and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes. Methods We analyzed the Argentine cohort of the international multicenter Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE). The primary objective was to estimate if there was an association between the financial crisis period (April 1999 to December 2002) and in- hospital cardiovascular mortality, with the post-crisis period (January 2003 to September 2004) as the referent. Each period was defined according to the evolution of the Gross Domestic Product. We investigated the demographic characteristics, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, morbidity and mortality. Results We analyzed data from 3220 patients, 2246 (69.8%) patients in the crisis period and 974 (30.2%) in the post-crisis frame. The distribution of demographic and clinical baseline characteristics were not significantly different between both periods. During the crisis period the incidence of in-hospital myocardial infarction was higher (6.9% Vs 2.9%; p value < 0.0001), as well as congestive heart failure (16% Vs 11%; p value < 0.0001). Time to intervention with angioplasty was longer during the crisis, especially among public sites (median 190 min Vs 27 min). The incidence proportion of mortality during hospitalization was 6.2% Vs 5.1% after crisis. The crude OR for mortality was 1.2 (95% C.I. 0.87, 1.7). The odds for mortality were higher among private institutions {1.9 (95% C.I. 0.9, 3.8)} than for public centers {1.2 (95% C.I. 0.83, 1.79)}. We did not observe a significant interaction between type of hospital and crisis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the financial crisis may have had a negative impact on cardiovascular mortality during hospitalization, and higher incidence of medical complications. PMID:16351728

  15. Using Crisis Simulations in Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veil, Shari R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic setting. Courses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication.

  16. Chaotic Attractor Crisis and Climate Sensitivity: a Transfer Operator Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantet, A.; Lucarini, V.; Lunkeit, F.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The rough response to a smooth parameter change of some non-chaotic climate models, such as the warm to snowball-Earth transition in energy balance models due to the ice-albedo feedback, can be studied in the framework of bifurcation theory, in particular by analysing the Lyapunov spectrum of fixed points or periodic orbits. However, bifurcation theory is of little help to study the destruction of a chaotic attractor which can occur in high-dimensional General Circulation Models (GCM). Yet, one would expect critical slowing down to occur before the crisis, since, as the system becomes susceptible to the physical instability mechanism responsible for the crisis, it turns out to be less and less resilient to exogenous perturbations and to spontaneous fluctuations due to other types of instabilities on the attractor. The statistical physics framework, extended to nonequilibrium systems, is particularly well suited for the study of global properties of chaotic and stochastic systems. In particular, the semigroup of transfer operators governs the evolution of distributions in phase space and its spectrum characterises both the relaxation rate of distributions to a statistical steady-state and the stability of this steady-state to perturbations. If critical slowing down indeed occurs in the approach to an attractor crisis, the gap in the spectrum of the semigroup of transfer operators is expected to shrink. We show that the chaotic attractor crisis due to the ice-albedo feedback and resulting in a transition from a warm to a snowball-Earth in the Planet Simulator (PlaSim), a GCM of intermediate complexity, is associated with critical slowing down, as observed by the slower decay of correlations before the crisis (cf. left panel). In addition, we demonstrate that this critical slowing down can be traced back to the shrinkage of the gap between the leading eigenvalues of coarse-grained approximations of the transfer operators and that these eigenvalues capture the

  17. Developing a crisis response team.

    PubMed

    Zook, R

    2001-01-01

    To handle increased asaultive behavior on three psychiatric units while keeping staff and other patients safe, a Crisis Response Team was developed consisting of staff from psychiatry and officers from security. A written manual included the new policies and procedures and teaching content for verbal and physical deescalation techniques. A special inservice education program for assaultive crisis management was implemented. This model can be replicated in other areas of healthcare where it is necessary to deal with patients who lose verbal or physical control. PMID:11998671

  18. The financial crisis in Italy: implications for the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Ferrè, Francesca; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Valerio, Luca; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter

    2012-06-01

    The global economic and financial crisis is having and impact on the Italian healthcare system which is undergoing a devolution process from the central government to regions and where about one third of the regional governments (mainly in the central and southern part of the country) are facing large financial deficits. The paper briefly describes the current macro scenario and the main responses taken to face the crisis and highlights the downside risks of introducing "linear" cuts in the allocation of resources. While justified by the risk of a national debt default, present fiscal policies might increase inequalities in access to care, deteriorate overall health indicators and population wellbeing, and sharpen existing difference in the quality of care between regions. Preliminary evidence shows that the crisis is affecting the quality of nutrition and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. During this difficult financial situation Italy is also facing the risk of a major reduction in investments for preventive medicine, Evidence Based Medicine infrastructures, health information systems and physical capital renewal. This cost-cutting strategy may have negative long term consequences Also, important achievement in terms of limiting waiting lists, improving continuity of care and patients' centeredness, and promoting integration between social and health care may be negatively affected by unprecedented resources' cuts. It is essential that in such a period of public funding constraints health authorities monitor incidence of diseases and access to care of the most vulnerable groups and specifically target interventions to those who may be disproportionally hit by the crisis. PMID:22551787

  19. Crisis Intervention and Crisis Team Models in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Karen S.; Roberts, Albert R.

    2005-01-01

    The need for crisis intervention plans and programs in schools has become more evident during the past decade with the increased incidence of school violence and other traumatic situations experienced by students, educators, school personnel, parents, and relatives of those involved. This need has resulted in an increase of professional…

  20. Campus Crisis Response at Viberg College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaker, Rachel; Viars, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This fictional case study examines crisis response in higher education settings. Information about current crisis response procedures, plans, and trends was gathered from informational interviews, current crisis management literature, and multiple college and university websites. The information was synthesized into a fictional case study using…

  1. Crisis in Context Theory: An Ecological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myer, Rick A.; Moore, Holly B.

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines a theory for understanding the impact of a crisis on individuals and organizations. Crisis in context theory (CCT) is grounded in an ecological model and based on literature in the field of crisis intervention and on personal experiences of the authors. A graphic representation denotes key components and premises of CCT,…

  2. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  3. The Antimicrobial Resistance Crisis: Causes, Consequences, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Carolyn Anne; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Labbate, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis is the increasing global incidence of infectious diseases affecting the human population, which are untreatable with any known antimicrobial agent. This crisis will have a devastating cost on human society as both debilitating and lethal diseases increase in frequency and scope. Three major factors determine this crisis: (1) the increasing frequency of AMR phenotypes among microbes is an evolutionary response to the widespread use of antimicrobials; (2) the large and globally connected human population allows pathogens in any environment access to all of humanity; and (3) the extensive and often unnecessary use of antimicrobials by humanity provides the strong selective pressure that is driving the evolutionary response in the microbial world. Of these factors, the size of the human population is least amenable to rapid change. In contrast, the remaining two factors may be affected, so offering a means of managing the crisis: the rate at which AMR, as well as virulence factors evolve in microbial world may be slowed by reducing the applied selective pressure. This may be accomplished by radically reducing the global use of current and prospective antimicrobials. Current management measures to legislate the use of antimicrobials and to educate the healthcare world in the issues, while useful, have not comprehensively addressed the problem of achieving an overall reduction in the human use of antimicrobials. We propose that in addition to current measures and increased research into new antimicrobials and diagnostics, a comprehensive education program will be required to change the public paradigm of antimicrobial usage from that of a first line treatment to that of a last resort when all other therapeutic options have failed. PMID:25279369

  4. Addressing the world water crisis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...

  5. The Crisis in Extramural Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Joel

    2011-01-01

    When "crisis" and "extramural funding" are mentioned, most academics think about problems such as the low percentage of proposals funded by federal agencies (now approaching single digits in many fields) or inadequate indirect-cost recovery rates that fail to reimburse universities for all costs of research. These are great problems draining…

  6. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  7. The Ethical Crisis in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Warren Bryan

    1974-01-01

    Colleges and universities are showing signs of being affected by an emerging ethical crisis (misrepresentation of the job market to graduates, term paper companies, misallocations in financial aid); the needed cure seems to be in better conceptual organization of higher education institutions. (Author/PG)

  8. A Crisis in Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2016

    2016-01-01

    There is a crisis in American civic education. Survey after survey shows that recent college graduates are alarmingly ignorant of America's history and heritage. They cannot identify the term lengths of members of Congress, the substance of the First Amendment, or the origin of the separation of powers. They do not know the Father of the…

  9. California Faces a Curriculum Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    School administrators in California are getting greater flexibility in how they spend more than $300 million intended for instructional materials, along with encouragement to use some free digital textbooks for high school courses, as a result of cost-cutting measures brought on by the state's budget crisis. Extensive changes to the state's…

  10. Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The American Folklore Society and the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress collaborated on a conference, "Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis," held on December 1-2, 2000, and gathered experts to formulate recommendations for the preservation and access of America's folk heritage sound collections. To facilitate informed discussion…

  11. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. PMID:22520196

  12. The Crisis of the Professoriate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    The status of the academic profession is discussed: its ambivalent situation of having benefitted from postwar expansion of higher education, but of having been content to maintain the status quo. The worldwide nature of the crisis is noted. Available from AAPSS, 3937 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104. (MSE)

  13. Responsibility for the Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard T.

    1970-01-01

    Critically analyzes the thesis of Christian responsibility for the ecological crisis and leads to its rejection. Present day environmental misuse results from greed, carelessness, and ignorance." Advocates ecological strategy of corrective action, with supplementary theological strategy" for church-influenced citizens. (AL)

  14. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, S. Fred

    1970-01-01

    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  15. Key to the Environmental Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Douglas H.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Understanding the present ecological crisis by understanding its conceptual background is discussed. Assessed are early Indian, colonial, puritan, and eighteenth and nineteenth century American concepts and beliefs of man's relationship to his environment. Principles and beliefs necessary to restore and maintain the environment are developed. (BL)

  16. Hungry Kids: The Solvable Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felling, Christy

    2013-01-01

    The numbers speak for themselves in terms of the crisis of hunger among kids in the United States: More than 16 million children--one in five--live in households that struggle to put food on the table. Nearly half of all food stamp recipients are children. But, argues Felling, the battle against childhood hunger can be won; the United States has…

  17. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  18. Global Trends in Academic Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.; Finkelstein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Even before the current global economic crisis, discontent with the governance of higher education institutions was widespread among faculty in the United States and throughout the world. Drawing from the 2007 Changing Academic Profession (CAP) survey of faculty in seventeen countries, the authors examine faculty perceptions of the current state…

  19. America's looming creativity crisis.

    PubMed

    Florida, Richard

    2004-10-01

    The strength of the American economy does not rest on its manufacturing prowess, its natural resources, or the size of its market. It turns on one factor--the country's openness to new ideas, which has allowed it to attract the brightest minds from around the world and harness their creative energies. But the United States is on the verge of losing that competitive edge. As the nation tightens its borders to students and scientists and subjects federal research funding to ideological and religious litmus tests, many other countries are stepping in to lure that creative capital away. Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, and others are spending more on research and development and shoring up their universities in an effort to attract the world's best--including Americans. If even a few of these nations draw away just a small percentage of the creative workers from the U.S., the effect on its economy will be enormous. In this article, the author introduces a quantitative measure of the migration of creative capital called the Global Creative-Class Index. It shows that, far from leading the world, the United States doesn't even rank in the top ten in the percentage of its workforce engaged in creative occupations. What's more, the baby boomers will soon retire. And data showing large drops in foreign student applications to U.S. universities and in the number of visas issued to knowledge workers, along with concomitant increases in immigration in other countries, suggest that the erosion of talent from the United States will only intensify. To defend the U.S. economy, the business community must take the lead in ensuring that global talent can move efficiently across borders, that education and research are funded at radically higher levels, and that we tap into the creative potential of more and more workers. Because wherever creativity goes, economic growth is sure to follow. PMID:15559581

  20. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    PubMed

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women

  1. Crisis of Youth or Youth in Crisis? Education, Employment and Legitimation Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young…

  2. Decolonising Disability: Thinking and Acting Globally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meekosha, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that the dominance of the global North in the universalising and totalising tendencies of writings about disability has resulted in the marginalisation of these experiences in the global South. This constitutes an intellectual crisis for disability studies in the periphery. The experience of colonisation and colonialism in the…

  3. Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Henk; Looy, Cindy V; Collinson, Margaret E; Brinkhuis, Henk; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H A; Kürschner, Wolfram M; Sephton, Mark A

    2004-08-31

    During the end-Permian ecological crisis, terrestrial ecosystems experienced preferential dieback of woody vegetation. Across the world, surviving herbaceous lycopsids played a pioneering role in repopulating deforested terrain. We document that the microspores of these lycopsids were regularly released in unseparated tetrads indicative of failure to complete the normal process of spore development. Although involvement of mutation has long been hinted at or proposed in theory, this finding provides concrete evidence for chronic environmental mutagenesis at the time of global ecological crisis. Prolonged exposure to enhanced UV radiation could account satisfactorily for a worldwide increase in land plant mutation. At the end of the Permian, a period of raised UV stress may have been the consequence of severe disruption of the stratospheric ozone balance by excessive emission of hydrothermal organohalogens in the vast area of Siberian Traps volcanism. PMID:15282373

  4. Stock markets and criticality in the current economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto; Zembrzuski, Marcelo; Correa, Fabio C.; Lamb, Luis C.

    2010-12-01

    We show that the current economic crisis has led the market to exhibit a non-critical behavior. We do so by analyzing the quantitative parameters of time series from the main assets of the Brazilian Stock Market BOVESPA. By monitoring global persistence we show a deviation of power law behavior during the crisis in a strong analogy with spin systems (from where this concept was originally conceived). Such behavior is corroborated by an emergent heavy tail of absolute return distribution and also by the magnitude autocorrelation exponent. Comparisons with universal exponents obtained in the international stock markets are also performed. This suggests how a thorough analysis of suitable exponents can bring a possible way of forecasting market crises characterized by non-criticality.

  5. Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Henk; Looy, Cindy V.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Brinkhuis, Henk; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H. A.; Kürschner, Wolfram M.; Sephton, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    During the end-Permian ecological crisis, terrestrial ecosystems experienced preferential dieback of woody vegetation. Across the world, surviving herbaceous lycopsids played a pioneering role in repopulating deforested terrain. We document that the microspores of these lycopsids were regularly released in unseparated tetrads indicative of failure to complete the normal process of spore development. Although involvement of mutation has long been hinted at or proposed in theory, this finding provides concrete evidence for chronic environmental mutagenesis at the time of global ecological crisis. Prolonged exposure to enhanced UV radiation could account satisfactorily for a worldwide increase in land plant mutation. At the end of the Permian, a period of raised UV stress may have been the consequence of severe disruption of the stratospheric ozone balance by excessive emission of hydrothermal organohalogens in the vast area of Siberian Traps volcanism. PMID:15282373

  6. Analytic optimizations in crisis stability

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Second strikes are dominated by submarine launched missiles in the absence of defenses, but shift to aircraft at modest levels of defense. Defenses protect some retaliatory missiles, but not enough to retaliate strongly. With defenses, missiles should be vestigial and could be eliminated without penalty. Then aircraft could also be significantly reduced without impacting stability. The combination of parameters that maximizes cost effectiveness also maximizes midcourse effectiveness and crisis stability. 15 refs., 20 figs.

  7. Consulting to children in crisis.

    PubMed

    Looney, J; Rahe, R; Harding, R; Ward, H; Liu, W

    1979-01-01

    Although community consultation is common for psychiatrists, such activity is usually carried out on an elective rather than emergency basis. In a world troubled by community disaster situations--children are often at risk. Psychiatrists, through the use of skillful crisis consultation, can be of great help to these young people. This report describes the effort of a mental health consultation team to meet the needs of a large population of children under acute stress. PMID:467132

  8. School Crisis Management Manual: Guidelines for Administrators. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judie

    This three-part manual is intended for principals and other administrators responsible for developing and managing school crisis plans. Part 1, preparation for a school crisis, includes sections on the selection and training of members of the school crisis team, steps in developing a school crisis plan, and four crisis scenarios to train team…

  9. From Crisis to Stability: A Case Study of Presidential Leadership at a Christian College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Despite healthy growth in past decades, in a time of national and global economic instability small, private Christian colleges now find themselves in a precarious position. Leading effectively in such colleges and universities in a time of external and/or internal crisis is a great challenge. This research is about a small, Christian college with…

  10. Analysis of a National Toll Free Suicide Crisis Line in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Broom, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The first national toll free suicide crisis line for South Africa was launched in October 2003 with the aim of providing a service dedicated to the prevention of suicide in this country. The intervention was motivated by South Africa's suicide rate which had risen higher than the global suicide rate, with the majority of attempted suicides…

  11. An Evaluation of Crisis Hotline Outcomes. Part 1: Nonsuicidal Crisis Callers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John; Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of telephone crisis services/hotlines, examining proximal outcomes as measured by changes in callers' crisis state from the beginning to the end of their calls to eight centers in the U.S. and intermediate outcomes within 3 weeks of their calls, was evaluated. Between March 2003 and July 2004, 1,617 crisis callers were assessed…

  12. School-Based Crisis Intervention: Its Effectiveness and Role in Broader Crisis Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie; Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Crisis in the context of a school has many unique features related to the social structure and sense of community within schools. A school crisis exposes children and staff to threat, loss, and trauma that undermine the safety and stability of the entire school. Crisis intervention has as its explicit aim the goal of providing immediate support to…

  13. Supervision Experiences of Professional Counselors Providing Crisis Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupre, Madeleine; Echterling, Lennis G.; Meixner, Cara; Anderson, Robin; Kielty, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, the authors explored supervision experiences of 13 licensed professional counselors in situations requiring crisis counseling. Five themes concerning crisis and supervision were identified from individual interviews. Findings support intensive, immediate crisis supervision and postlicensure clinical supervision.

  14. Random matrix theory and cross-correlations in global financial indices and local stock market indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2013-02-01

    We analyzed cross-correlations between price fluctuations of global financial indices (20 daily stock indices over the world) and local indices (daily indices of 200 companies in the Korean stock market) by using random matrix theory (RMT). We compared eigenvalues and components of the largest and the second largest eigenvectors of the cross-correlation matrix before, during, and after the global financial the crisis in the year 2008. We find that the majority of its eigenvalues fall within the RMT bounds [ λ -, λ +], where λ - and λ + are the lower and the upper bounds of the eigenvalues of random correlation matrices. The components of the eigenvectors for the largest positive eigenvalues indicate the identical financial market mode dominating the global and local indices. On the other hand, the components of the eigenvector corresponding to the second largest eigenvalue are positive and negative values alternatively. The components before the crisis change sign during the crisis, and those during the crisis change sign after the crisis. The largest inverse participation ratio (IPR) corresponding to the smallest eigenvector is higher after the crisis than during any other periods in the global and local indices. During the global financial the crisis, the correlations among the global indices and among the local stock indices are perturbed significantly. However, the correlations between indices quickly recover the trends before the crisis.

  15. Medical liability reform crisis 2008.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Stuart L

    2009-02-01

    The crisis of medical liability has resulted in drastic increases in insurance premiums and reduced access for patients to specialty care, particularly in areas such as obstetrics/gynecology, neurosurgery, and orthopaedic surgery. The current liability environment neither effectively compensates persons injured from medical negligence nor encourages addressing system errors to improve patient safety. The author reviews trends across the nation and reports on the efforts of an organization called "Doctors for Medical Liability Reform" to educate the public and lawmakers on the need for solutions to the chaotic process of adjudicating medical malpractice claims in the United States. PMID:18989732

  16. [Hypertensive crisis in kidney patients].

    PubMed

    Scrivano, Jacopo; Giuliani, Anna; Pettorini, Laura; Punzo, Giorgio; Mene', Paolo; Pirozzi, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The classification and management of hypertensive crisis have been recently reviewed in the context of both European and American guidelines. The key points for proper blood pressure control in severe arterial hypertension are: 1 - Distinction between urgent intervention and emergencies 2 - Choice of the best drug(s) 3 - Choice of the correct route of administration. In patients with renal disease, beside the common causes of hypertension/ hypertensive crises, kidney-specific causes should be taken into account such as renal parenchymal hypertension, renovascular hypertension, sclerodermic crises, and preeclampsia. PMID:22028263

  17. Dangerous Opportunities: Strategic Implications of the Global Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Robert J.; McClure, William S.; Parkes, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Without question, the current economic downturn is at the forefront of conversations in continuing higher education. Yet as recently as March 2008, this was not the case for continuing education (CE) professionals, according to surveys conducted by University Continuing Education Association (UCEA). In 2007-2008, each of UCEA's four commissions…

  18. The Leading Edge: Enduring a Campus Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeser, James

    2003-01-01

    On June 2003, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) faced a frightening crisis when an employee was diagnosed with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). In this article, the author looks back and identifies four factors that enabled the university to navigate this crisis. These factors were: (1) leadership at every level; (2)…

  19. The Financial Crisis in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, John

    The author examines the financial crisis in community colleges on a national scale in this first paper in a projected long-range study of this crucial topic. Economic causes contributing to the crisis include inflation, rising enrollments, and such labor-intensive aspects as spiraling labor and security costs, and increasing demands for funds by…

  20. Cool Heads: Crisis Management for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiar, Nicholas P.

    1992-01-01

    Applies risk management models to child care administration. These models have been used by corporations to plan for crisis management. The formation of a crisis management policy and procedure is described, and features of effective communication during crises are outlined. (GLR)

  1. Creating Your School's Crisis Management Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Bruce T.

    2001-01-01

    Schools can reduce their vulnerability to violence and other hazards by analyzing foreseeable risks, assembling a broad-based crisis-management team (CMT), providing adequate staff training, and developing a crisis manual. Common response problems concerning decision-making authority, communication, and performance expectations for CMTs are…

  2. Do You Have a Crisis Management Plan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleviak, Walter; Milkevitch, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Although certain crises cannot be prevented, reactions to many can be planned. A crisis-management team should be organized for each building. Critical crisis-plan elements include telephone trees, forms, reference articles, sample letters, and processes for dealing with local media. Spokespersons should have facts straight before speaking. (MLH)

  3. Resource Guide for Crisis Management in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Richard T.; And Others

    A crisis can occur at any time, whether or not a school's staff plans for it. This resource guide is a compilation of user-friendly examples of policies, procedures, guidelines, checklists, and forms to help Virginia schools develop and implement a systematic crisis-management plan. Chapter 1 provides an introductory overview of the essential…

  4. Crisis Response Support Procedures for Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgendorf, Erik

    Developed at Missouri's Crowder College, the guidelines in this manual are designed to help educational institutions respond to and resolve crisis situations. Following an introduction describing the importance of having proactive commitments, resources, and routines in place to respond to crises, the first section provides general crisis support…

  5. School Crisis Response: Expecting the Unexpected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Robert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The typical administrator certification program does not devote specific attention to shootings, suicide, terminal illness, and natural disasters. A crisis of major proportion calls for enlightened leadership: a take-charge manner, combined with effective teamwork and delegation of vital operations. Crisis teams should exist at regional, district,…

  6. The Farm Crisis of the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Fred K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The Midwest, Plains, and Delta are among the regions hit hardest by the current farm crisis. The vulnerability of an area to the financial crisis in farming depends on the financial conditions of its farmers, its dependence on farming--especially on export-sensitive crops--and the strength of its nonfarm economy. (JHZ)

  7. School Crisis Aftermath: Care for the Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paine, Cathy Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    "Professional" crisis caregivers (e.g., emergency responders, mental health providers, medical professionals, victim assistance counselors, and faith leaders) are trained to handle exposure to images of destruction and loss and to help victims or survivors cope with the impact of a crisis. They try to help individuals, schools, and communities…

  8. A Human Rights Crisis in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a human rights crisis in Indian Country. This crisis--one of many--is the result of an almost universal lack of legal representation of Native people when they appear as defendants in tribal courts. The lack of lay advocates and attorneys representing Native defendants creates tremendous problems for tribal members who find themselves in…

  9. Miscarriage: A Special Type of Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Randal D.; Hooks, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed 102 women about their experience with miscarriage. Found that family resource variables were a much stronger predictor of level of crisis and recovery than were personal or community resource variables. Adaptation and cohesion were significant predictors of speed or recovery and level of crisis, respectively. (Author/NB)

  10. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Evolving Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medland, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a synthesis of the views of participants and counterviews of scholars concerning the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Reviews historical and analytical accounts of the crisis. Describes critical areas of conflicting interpretations by historians and participants. Includes an annotated bibliography of teaching resources. (NL)

  11. The Midlife Crisis and Educational Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Leon

    Following a brief summary of research relating to midlife crisis, a theory of the midlife crisis is presented that is based on the philosophical insights of Plato and Heidegger: The emotional pain at midlife is associated with a collapse of a person's ontic field (relationships with others, to things, and to institutions) or a stagnation of a…

  12. Crisis Communications in a Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Kenneth Trump, a school safety expert who consults with districts on how to respond to school safety crises, explains how the new prevalence of threats of violence being delivered over digital and social media creates for administrators a "communication crisis" that unfolds alongside the real or perceived crisis of school safety being…

  13. Crisis Management's New Role in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainey, Barbara S.

    2009-01-01

    From natural disasters to the financial debacle, it is clear to the educational community that crises know no boundaries. Far from a passing fad, crisis planning must be an integrated part of effective school district leadership. Two studies explore the status of crisis management in selected public school systems and offer recommendations for…

  14. Crisis and Loss: Information for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Andrea, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    During a crisis, parents can do a great deal to help their child deal with grief and anxiety. This special issue provides information and promising practices that might be helpful in dealing with various crisis situations. Provides the following articles: (1) "Children Killing Children" (Kevin Dwyer); (2) "Disaster: Helping Children Cope" (Debbie…

  15. Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and…

  16. Planning for the Next Global Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Ross, Allen G P; Crowe, Suzanne M; Tyndall, Mark W

    2015-09-01

    In order to mitigate human and financial losses as a result of future global pandemics, we must plan now. As the Ebola virus pandemic declines, we must reflect on how we have mismanaged this recent international crisis and how we can better prepare for the next global pandemic. Of great concern is the increasing frequency of pandemics occurring over the last few decades. Clearly, the window of opportunity to act is closing. This editorial discusses many issues including priority emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases; the challenges of meeting international health regulations; the strengthening of global health systems; global pandemic funding; and the One Health approach to future pandemic planning. We recommend that the global health community unites to urgently address these issues in order to avoid the next humanitarian crisis. PMID:26253461

  17. Sovereign public debt crisis in Europe. A network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matesanz, David; Ortega, Guillermo J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the evolving network structure of the quarterly public debt-to-GDP ratio from 2000 to 2014. By applying tools and concepts coming from complex systems we study the effects of the global financial crisis over public debt network connections and communities. Two main results arise from this analysis: firstly, countries public debts tend to synchronize their evolution, increasing global connectivity in the network and dramatically decreasing the number of communities. Secondly, a disruption in previous structure is observed at the time of the shock, emerging a more centralized and less diversify network topological organization which might be more prone to suffer contagion effects. This last fact is evidenced by an increasing tendency in countries of similar level of public debt to be connected between them, which we have quantified by the network assortativity.

  18. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises. PMID:24274133

  19. Impending United States energy crisis.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, R L

    1987-03-20

    The U.S. oil and gas industry has been dramatically weakened by the recent oil price collapse. Domestic drilling activity reached a new post-World War II low during the summer of 1986. Given a weak, unstable oil price outlook, U.S. capability will continue to deteriorate. In the last year U.S. imports of foreign oil have risen significantly, and if market forces alone dominate, U.S. dependence is expected to rise from 32% in 1983 to the 50 to 70% level in the not-too-distant future. The 1973 oil embargo and the subsequent attempts to improve U.S. energy security vividly demonstrated the huge costs and long periods of time required to change our energy system. These facts, coupled with the nation's generally short-term orientation, suggest a strong likelihood of a new U.S. energy crisis in the early to middle 1990s. PMID:17775008

  20. How To Prepare for and Respond to a Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Robert; And Others

    This booklet presents information on school-crisis management, based on the work of a New Haven, Connecticut, regional crisis team that was initially created to address the mental-health needs of school children during the Persian Gulf War. The goals of the regional crisis committee were to develop a school-crisis intervention model, train…

  1. Agrofuels, Food Sovereignty, and the Contemporary Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosset, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, agrofuels are examined in the context of the world food price crisis and the "food sovereignty" proposal for addressing the crisis. Both short- and long-term causes of the crisis are examined, and while agrofuels are presently not a prime causal factor they are clearly contraindicated by the crisis. Food sovereignty, including a…

  2. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  3. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  4. Communicating through Crisis: A Strategy for Organizational Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, David L.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that crisis communication should be a part of the larger issues of communication policy and strategy. Builds a case for the need to consider crisis communication in a larger context. Proposes a model of crisis communication content that may serve as a framework for research into the efficacy of communication during crisis episodes. (RS)

  5. Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and increase consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages that are low in nutritional value. Electronic games, however, may increase children’s physical activity and expose them to healthier foods. We examine the role of electronic games in the pediatric obesity crisis and their contribution to more favorable health outcomes. PMID:23483693

  6. Electronic gaming and the obesity crisis.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Sandra L; Staiano, Amanda E; Bond, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and increase consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages that are low in nutritional value. Electronic games, however, may increase children's physical activity and expose them to healthier foods. We examine the role of electronic games in the pediatric obesity crisis and their contribution to more favorable health outcomes. PMID:23483693

  7. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions. PMID:12179933

  8. The financial crisis, health and health inequities in Europe: the need for regulations, redistribution and social protection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, Europe was hit by one of the worst debt crises in history. Although the Eurozone crisis is often depicted as an effect of government mismanagement and corruption, it was a consequence of the 2008 U.S. banking crisis which was caused by more than three decades of neoliberal policies, financial deregulation and widening economic inequities. Evidence indicates that the Eurozone crisis disproportionately affected vulnerable populations in society and caused sharp increases of suicides and deaths due to mental and behavioral disorders especially among those who lost their jobs, houses and economic activities because of the crisis. Although little research has, so far, studied the effects of the crisis on health inequities, evidence showed that the 2009 economic downturn increased the number of people living in poverty and widened income inequality especially in European countries severely hit by the debt crisis. Data, however, also suggest favorable health trends and a reduction of traffic deaths fatalities in the general population during the economic recession. Moreover, egalitarian policies protecting the most disadvantaged populations with strong social protections proved to be effective in decoupling the link between job losses and suicides. Unfortunately, policy responses after the crisis in most European countries have mainly consisted in bank bailouts and austerity programs. These reforms have not only exacerbated the debt crisis and widened inequities in wealth but also failed to address the root causes of the crisis. In order to prevent a future financial downturn and promote a more equitable and sustainable society, European governments and international institutions need to adopt new regulations of banking and finance as well as policies of economic redistribution and investment in social protection. These policy changes, however, require the abandonment of the neoliberal ideology to craft a new global political economy where markets and gross

  9. The financial crisis, health and health inequities in Europe: the need for regulations, redistribution and social protection.

    PubMed

    De Vogli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, Europe was hit by one of the worst debt crises in history. Although the Eurozone crisis is often depicted as an effect of government mismanagement and corruption, it was a consequence of the 2008 U.S. banking crisis which was caused by more than three decades of neoliberal policies, financial deregulation and widening economic inequities.Evidence indicates that the Eurozone crisis disproportionately affected vulnerable populations in society and caused sharp increases of suicides and deaths due to mental and behavioral disorders especially among those who lost their jobs, houses and economic activities because of the crisis. Although little research has, so far, studied the effects of the crisis on health inequities, evidence showed that the 2009 economic downturn increased the number of people living in poverty and widened income inequality especially in European countries severely hit by the debt crisis. Data, however, also suggest favorable health trends and a reduction of traffic deaths fatalities in the general population during the economic recession. Moreover, egalitarian policies protecting the most disadvantaged populations with strong social protections proved to be effective in decoupling the link between job losses and suicides.Unfortunately, policy responses after the crisis in most European countries have mainly consisted in bank bailouts and austerity programs. These reforms have not only exacerbated the debt crisis and widened inequities in wealth but also failed to address the root causes of the crisis. In order to prevent a future financial downturn and promote a more equitable and sustainable society, European governments and international institutions need to adopt new regulations of banking and finance as well as policies of economic redistribution and investment in social protection. These policy changes, however, require the abandonment of the neoliberal ideology to craft a new global political economy where markets and gross

  10. Identity crisis modality: a technique for assessing the structure of the identity crisis.

    PubMed

    Côté, J E

    1986-12-01

    In this paper an interpretation of Erik Erikson's theoretical notions of the severity, prolongation, and aggravation of the identity crisis is presented and operationalized in terms of "identity crisis modality", a concept representing prevailing patterns of identity formation. The reliability and validity of the Identity Crisis Modality Chart (ICMC), an "objective-projective" instrument, is assessed and its various possible and unique uses, ranging from clinical applications to large scale national surveys, are discussed. PMID:3805436

  11. K-12 School Leaders and School Crisis: An Exploration of Principals' School Crisis Competencies and Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    On any given day, principals could find themselves faced with a situation that could define their roles as crisis leaders. This dissertation research offers an exploratory study in the field of crisis response and educational leadership. From experts in the field of crisis response, the author compiled a list of crisis management competencies…

  12. Are You Prepared for the Next Crisis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Offers steps to making school security equipment and emergency plans more effective through proper planning and staff training. Key components of effective communication for controlling and responding to crisis are highlighted. (GR)

  13. Energy Crisis Spurs Congress Into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses legislation recently passed by Congress in response to the energy crisis, and the Nixon Administration's proposal for creating a new Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and a Nuclear Energy Commission (NEC). (JR)

  14. The Organization's Role in Managing Midlife Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Philip I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describing some of the causes of midlife crisis and reasons why organizations should offer help to their employees, the authors suggest these actions: continuing education, retraining, mentoring, autonomy, support groups, counseling, and sabbaticals. (SK)

  15. Class Handles "Crisis" in PR Simulation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivins, Thomas H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a two-week corporate public relations simulation that allowed students, acting as media representatives, to experience the frustrations of dealing with a typical company during a crisis. (HOD)

  16. Vantage point - New response in crisis.

    PubMed

    Mallidou, Anastasia A

    2016-06-01

    THE IMPORTANCE of healthcare systems that can respond quickly in times of crisis or disaster has been highlighted by the emerging situation in Europe, where millions of immigrants and refugees are in urgent need of support. PMID:27246422

  17. Student Unrest and Crisis Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Edwin M.

    1969-01-01

    How the administrator might anticipate student-initiated reform is examined by observing present school practices, crisis condition influence on the decision process, and implications of alternative administrative action. (LN)

  18. The Nurse Leader Role in Crisis Management.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, Cole; Sumagaysay, Dio; Cueman, Marie; Chappell, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    Leaders from the American Organization of Nurse Executives describe the dynamic state of today's healthcare system related to crisis management. Adaptive leadership, driven by strong values and morality, can guide leaders and organizations through the most difficult times. PMID:27556647

  19. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  20. What kind of crisis for capitalism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    This week's meeting of the International Monetary Fund at Toronto will avoid an immediate crisis. But more international credit will not allow rich and poor to behave as if they live on different planets.

  1. The Energy Crisis: What Physicists Can Contribute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Tay Yong

    1976-01-01

    Divides the components of the energy crisis into those which demand immediate, moderate term, and long term research efforts. Delineates specific topics in each category and solicits physicists' efforts in these areas. (CP)

  2. Liquidity crisis detection: An application of log-periodic power law structures to default prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosnitza, Jan Henrik; Denz, Cornelia

    2013-09-01

    We employ the log-periodic power law (LPPL) to analyze the late-2000 financial crisis from the perspective of critical phenomena. The main purpose of this study is to examine whether LPPL structures in the development of credit default swap (CDS) spreads can be used for default classification. Based on the different triggers of Bear Stearns’ near bankruptcy during the late-2000 financial crisis and Ford’s insolvency in 2009, this study provides a quantitative description of the mechanism behind bank runs. We apply the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) positive feedback model to explain the rise of financial institutions’ CDS spreads during the global financial crisis 2007-2009. This investigation is based on CDS spreads of 40 major banks over the period from June 2007 to April 2009 which includes a significant CDS spread increase. The qualitative data analysis indicates that the CDS spread variations have followed LPPL patterns during the global financial crisis. Furthermore, the univariate classification performances of seven LPPL parameters as default indicators are measured by Mann-Whitney U tests. The present study supports the hypothesis that discrete scale-invariance governs the dynamics of financial markets and suggests the application of new and fast updateable default indicators to capture the buildup of long-range correlations between creditors.

  3. Urbanization eases water crisis in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Ji, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic development in China has resulted in rapid urbanization, which includes a large amount of people making the transition from rural areas to cities. Many have speculated that this mass migration may have worsened the water crisis in many parts of the country. However, this study shows that the water crisis would be more severe if the rural-to-urban migration did not occur.

  4. Timing crisis information release via television.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

    2010-10-01

    When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information. PMID:20572851

  5. The Impending Oral Health Crisis.

    PubMed

    Tegtmeier, Carl H; Miller, David J; Shub, Judith L

    2016-04-01

    Last May, the New York State Dental Association and the New York State Dental Foundation convened the first "Oral Health Stakeholders' Summit on the Future of Special Needs Dentistry, Hospital Dentistry and Dental Education." The summit was chaired by David J. Miller, then NYSDA President Elect, and Carl H. Tegtmeier, then chair of the NYSDA Council on Dental Health Planning and Hospital Dentistry. It brought together experts, called to frame the issues and provide information necessary for a reasoned response. And it sought input from attendees to develop recommendations to ensure that patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as an aging population with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, have access to appropriate oral health care in the years ahead. Over 100 participants, representing dentistry, hospital training programs, third-party payers, state government offices and related patient support associations, attended the two-day event in Albany. They focused on the impact of reductions in funding, the transition of Medicaid services into a managed care model, a loss of service providers and the need for expanded training programs. They heard from speakers epresenting a broad spectrum of those involved in he oral health care of patients with intellectual and evelopmental disabilities, the Alzheimer's Association, dental educators and researchers, hospital dentistry and the benefits industry, whose presentations focused on a looming oral health crisis threatening access to dental care for patients with disabilities. PMID:27348951

  6. Crisis in the Curriculum? New Counselors' Crisis Preparation, Experiences, and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carrie A. Wachter; Minton, Casey A. Barrio

    2012-01-01

    Professional counselors are responsible for providing crisis assessment, referral, and intervention (Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, 2009); however, little is known about their preparation and experiences in these areas. This study examined new professional counselors' (N= 193) crisis intervention…

  7. The Achievement Crisis Is Real: A Review of "The Manufactured Crisis."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Lawrence C.

    1996-01-01

    In "The Manufactured Crisis," D. Berliner and B. Biddle argue that there has been no decline in achievement test scores, that today's students outperform their parents and do well in international examinations, and that the supposed crisis in American education does not exist. This review refutes all these claims. (SLD)

  8. Chaos and Crisis: Propositions for a General Theory of Crisis Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeger, Matthew W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents key concepts of chaos theory (CT) as a general framework for describing organizational crisis and crisis communication. Discusses principles of predictability, sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation as system breakdown, emergent self-organization, and fractals and strange attractors as principles of organization. Explores…

  9. Helping Crisis Managers Protect Reputational Assets: Initial Tests of the Situational Crisis Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, W. Timothy; Holladay, Sherry J.

    2002-01-01

    Explains a comprehensive, prescriptive, situational approach for responding to crises and protecting organizational reputation: the situational crisis communication theory (SCCT). Notes undergraduate students read two crisis case studies from a set of 13 cases and responded to questions following the case. Validates a key assumption in SCCT and…

  10. Expanding the Crisis Planning Function: Introducing Elements of Risk Communication to Crisis Communication Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.; Olaniran, Bolanle A.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests use of elements of risk communication by crisis communication practitioners facing increasing industrial reliance on new technologies which might be associated with potential health/environment harm. Studies a small company crisis which reveals that elements of anticipation, public involvement/trust, technological comparison, and media…

  11. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The global environmental sanitation crisis cannot be denied: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world’s population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized. PMID:21572832

  12. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION CRISIS CANNOT BE DENIED: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world's population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized. PMID:21572832

  13. Reach Higher, America: Overcoming Crisis in the U.S. Workforce. Report of the National Commission on Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Adult Literacy (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Education drives the economy. Almost a decade into the 21st Century, America faces a choice: It can invest in the basic education and skills of its workforce and remain competitive in today's global economy, or it can continue to overlook glaring evidence of a national crisis and move further down the path to decline. In this report, the National…

  14. Renewable Energy Project Financing: Impacts of the Financial Crisis and Federal Legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.; Newcomb, J.

    2009-07-01

    Extraordinary financial market conditions have disrupted the flows of equity and debt investment into U.S. renewable energy (RE) projects since the fourth quarter of 2008. The pace and structure of renewable energy project finance has been reshaped by a combination of forces, including the financial crisis, global economic recession, and major changes in federal legislation affecting renewable energy finance. This report explores the impacts of these key market events on renewable energy project financing and development.

  15. The Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis.

    PubMed

    Roman, Jesse

    2015-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an organized nonincorporated territory of the United States with a population of more than 3.5 million U.S. citizens. The island has been the focus of much recent attention due to the recent default on its debt (estimated at more than $70 billion), high poverty rates, and increasing unemployment. Less attention, however, has been given to the island's healthcare system, which many believe is on the verge of collapsing. Healthcare makes up 20% of the Puerto Rican economy, and this crisis affects reimbursement rates for physicians while promoting the disintegration of the island's healthcare infrastructure. A major contributor relates to a disparity in federal funding provided to support the island's healthcare system when compared with that provided to the states in the mainland and Hawaii. Puerto Rico receives less federal funding for healthcare than the other 50 states and the District of Columbia even though it pays its share of social security and Medicare taxes. To make matters worse, the U.S. Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services is planning soon to implement another 11% cut in Medical Advantage reimbursements. This disparity in support for healthcare is considered responsible for ∼$25 billion of Puerto Rico's total debt. The impact of these events on the health of Puerto Ricans in the island cannot be entirely predicted, but the loss of healthcare providers and diminished access to care are a certainty, and quality care will suffer, leading to serious implications for those with chronic medical disorders including respiratory disease. PMID:26551268

  16. Cointegration analysis and influence rank—A network approach to global stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yanhua; Niu, Lei; Li, Qian

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, cointegration relationships among 26 global stock market indices over the periods of sub-prime and European debt crisis and their influence rank are investigated by constructing and analyzing directed and weighted cointegration networks. The obtained results are shown as follows: the crises have changed cointegration relationships among stock market indices, their cointegration relationship increased after the Lehman Brothers collapse, while the degree of cointegration gradually decreased from the sub-prime to European debt crisis. The influence of US, Japan and China market indices are entirely distinguished over different periods. Before European debt crisis US stock market is a ‘global factor’ which leads the developed and emerging markets, while the influence of US stock market decreased evidently during the European debt crisis. Before sub-prime crisis, there is no significant evidence to show that other stock markets co-move with China stock market, while it becomes more integrated with other markets during the sub-prime and European debt crisis. Among developed and emerging stock markets, the developed stock markets lead the world stock markets before European debt crisis, while due to the shock of sub-prime and European debt crisis, their influences decreased and emerging stock markets replaced them to lead global stock markets.

  17. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-13

    The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economic crisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economic crisis. PMID:23541059

  18. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  19. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  20. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-09-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima.

  1. Role of committed minorities in times of crisis

    PubMed Central

    Turalska, Malgorzata; West, Bruce J.; Grigolini, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The surprising social phenomena of the Arab Spring and the Occupy Wall Street movement posit the question of whether the active role of committed groups may produce political changes of significant importance. Under what conditions are the convictions of a minority going to dominate the future direction of a society? We address this question with the help of a Cooperative Decision Making model (CDMM) which has been shown to generate consensus through a phase-transition process. We observe that in a system of a finite size the global consensus state is not permanent and times of crisis occur when there is an ambiguity concerning a given social issue. The correlation function within the cooperative system becomes similarly extended as it is observed at criticality. This combination of independence (free will) and long-range correlation makes it possible for very small but committed minorities to produce substantial changes in social consensus. PMID:23455718

  2. Structure and dynamics of stock market in times of crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Longfeng; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu

    2016-02-01

    Daily correlations among 322 S&P 500 constituent stocks are investigated by means of correlation-based (CB) network. By using the heterogeneous time scales, we identify global expansion and local clustering market behaviors during crises, which are mainly caused by community splits and inter-sector edge number decreases. The CB networks display distinctive community and sector structures. Graph edit distance is applied to capturing the dynamics of CB networks in which drastic structure reconfigurations can be observed during crisis periods. Edge statistics reveal the power-law nature of edges' duration time distribution. Despite the networks' strong structural changes during crises, we still find some long-duration edges that serve as the backbone of the stock market. Finally the dynamical change of network structure has shown its capability in predicting the implied volatility index (VIX).

  3. Building resilience to face recurring environmental crisis in African Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Emily; Cornforth, Rosalind J.; Lamb, Peter J.; Tarhule, Aondover; Lélé, M. Issa; Brouder, Alan

    2013-07-01

    The present food shortages in the Horn of Africa and the West African Sahel are affecting 31 million people. Such continuing and future crises require that people in the region adapt to an increasing and potentially irreversible global sustainability challenge. Given this situation and that short-term weather and seasonal climate forecasting have limited skill for West Africa, the Rainwatch project illustrates the value of near real-time monitoring and improved communication for the unfavourable 2011 West African monsoon, the resulting severe drought-induced humanitarian impacts continuing into 2012, and their exacerbation by flooding in 2012. Rainwatch is now coupled with a boundary organization (Africa Climate Exchange, AfClix) with the aim of integrating the expertise and actions of relevant institutions, agencies and stakeholders to broker ground-based dialogue to promote resilience in the face of recurring crisis.

  4. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance. PMID:26040216

  5. On the Epistemological Crisis in Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2008-01-01

    There is an epistemological crisis in genomics. At issue is what constitutes scientific knowledge in genomic science, or systems biology in general. Does this crisis require a new perspective on knowledge heretofore absent from science or is it merely a matter of interpreting new scientific developments in an existing epistemological framework? This paper discusses the manner in which the experimental method, as developed and understood over recent centuries, leads naturally to a scientific epistemology grounded in an experimental-mathematical duality. It places genomics into this epistemological framework and examines the current situation in genomics. Meaning and the constitution of scientific knowledge are key concerns for genomics, and the nature of the epistemological crisis in genomics depends on how these are understood. PMID:19440447

  6. Flint Water Crisis Taking High Toll on Health, Productivity

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160307.html Flint Water Crisis Taking High Toll on Health, Productivity Michigan ... 2016 MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The water crisis in Flint, Mich., has cost $395 million ...

  7. The Importance of Having an Effective School Crisis Response Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Details the components of a public school safety plan and how to develop a crisis response plan with emergency responders. The importance of crisis response team members knowing their roles and being held accountable are stressed. (GR)

  8. Benefit of joint response in a mental health crisis.

    PubMed

    2016-07-27

    Andrew Lancaster writes in Mental Health Practice about the critical role mobile crisis teams (MCTs) can play in delivering a joint response from the police and mental health services to people in a mental health crisis. PMID:27461336

  9. Crisis Communication: The Business Communicator's Strategies for Communicating under Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vielhaber, Mary E.

    1990-01-01

    Uses the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident to illustrate the communication problems embedded in a crisis. Describes the reactions created by the stress related to crisis. Suggests business communication strategies for improving communication to the public. (SR)

  10. Social Justice and the Global Economy: New Challenges for Social Work in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polack, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    The globalization of the economy creates new challenges for social work in the arenas of social and economic justice. This article outlines social justice issues related to the debt crisis of the Global South and sweatshops. A presentation of colonial precursors is followed by a detailed examination of these global institutions with an emphasis on…

  11. Commercial speech in crisis: Crisis Pregnancy Center regulations and definitions of commercial speech.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kathryn E

    2013-02-01

    Recent attempts to regulate Crisis Pregnancy Centers, pseudoclinics that surreptitiously aim to dissuade pregnant women from choosing abortion, have confronted the thorny problem of how to define commercial speech. The Supreme Court has offered three potential answers to this definitional quandary. This Note uses the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases to demonstrate that courts should use one of these solutions, the factor-based approach of Bolger v. Youngs Drugs Products Corp., to define commercial speech in the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases and elsewhere. In principle and in application, the Bolger factor-based approach succeeds in structuring commercial speech analysis at the margins of the doctrine. PMID:23461000

  12. Analysis of cross-correlations between financial markets after the 2008 crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensoy, A.; Yuksel, S.; Erturk, M.

    2013-10-01

    We analyze the cross-correlation matrix C of the index returns of the main financial markets after the 2008 crisis using methods of random matrix theory. We test the eigenvalues of C for universal properties of random matrices and find that the majority of the cross-correlation coefficients arise from randomness. We show that the eigenvector of the largest deviating eigenvalue of C represents a global market itself. We reveal that high volatility of financial markets is observed at the same times with high correlations between them which lowers the risk diversification potential even if one constructs a widely internationally diversified portfolio of stocks. We identify and compare the connection and cluster structure of markets before and after the crisis using minimal spanning and ultrametric hierarchical trees. We find that after the crisis, the co-movement degree of the markets increases. We also highlight the key financial markets of pre and post crisis using main centrality measures and analyze the changes. We repeat the study using rank correlation and compare the differences. Further implications are discussed.

  13. Resurgent malaria at the millennium: control strategies in crisis.

    PubMed

    Baird, J K

    2000-04-01

    Completion of the Panama Canal in 1914 marked the beginning of an era of vector control that achieved conspicuous success against malaria. In 1955 the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted the controversial Global Eradication Campaign emphasising DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) spraying in homes. The incidence of malaria fell sharply where the programme was implemented, but the strategy was not applied in holoendemic Africa. This, along with the failure to achieve eradication in larger tropical regions, contributed to disillusionment with the policy. The World Health Assembly abandoned the eradication strategy in 1969. A resurgence of malaria began at about that time and today reaches into areas where eradication or control had been achieved. A global malaria crisis looms. In 1993 the WHO adopted a Global Malaria Control Strategy that placed priority in control of disease rather than infection. This formalises a policy that emphasises diagnosis and treatment in a primary healthcare setting, while de-emphasising spraying of residual insecticides. The new policy explicitly stresses malaria in Africa, but expresses the intent to bring control programmes around the world into line with the strategy. This review raises the argument that a global control strategy conceived to address the extraordinary malaria situation in Africa may not be suitable elsewhere. The basis of argument lies in the accomplishments of the Global Eradication Campaign viewed in an historical and geographical context. Resurgent malaria accompanying declining vector control activities in Asia and the Americas suggests that the abandonment of residual spraying may be premature given the tools now at hand. The inadequacy of vector control as the primary instrument of malaria control in holoendemic Africa does not preclude its utility in Asia and the Americas. PMID:10804031

  14. The limits of technology in nuclear crisis management

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    For some purposes, one may consider the roles of technology in nuclear crisis management to fall into four categories. Certain technologies, such as signals intelligence, may assist in monitoring for the emergence of crisis precursors. Other kinds of surveillance, such as that by certain satellites, are intended to detect phenomena, such as missile launches, which clearly signal the transition from pre-crisis to mid-crisis. During this phase, communications and surveillance technologies may be called upon to aid in managing the crisis. Finally, communications technologies will play a vital role in crisis resolution, preferably during the pre-crisis phase, but in mid-crisis if necessary. It has long been recognized that a large fraction of these technical means are vulnerable, both to selective, direct attack, and to the unintended, collateral effects of conflict itself. Systematic efforts are underway to make these systems more robust and survivable in crisis environments, but one must clearly recognize the limits of technology. In particular, one must weigh very seriously the implications and possible consequences of intentional, direct attack, including decapitation, on just those means which may permit timely crisis resolution. In the end, these technologies may prove so vulnerable, that nations may be forced to rely on pre-crisis planning, including force structuring, clearly defined options planning, and clear statements of intent, in order to permit any sort of mid-crisis resolution and conflict termination.

  15. Governing during an Institutional Crisis: 10 Fundamental Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    In today's world, managing a campus crisis poses special challenges for an institution's governing board, which may operate some distance removed from the immediate events giving rise to the crisis. In its most challenging form, a campus crisis--a shooting, a natural disaster, a fraternity hazing death, the arrest of a prominent campus…

  16. School-Based Crisis Intervention. A Center Quick Training Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    As used here, the term school-based crisis intervention refers to a range of responses schools can plan and implement in response to crisis events and reactions. All school-based and school-linked staff can play an important role in crisis intervention. This quick training aid presents a brief set of resources to guide those providing an…

  17. Proactive Communication in a Crisis-Driven World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinz, Karen H.

    1999-01-01

    Administrators can prepare for crisis situations by conducting safety assessments at all schools and district facilities, involving community resources, updating district and school discipline and crisis-communication plans, establishing a crisis-intervention team, providing staff training, establishing "suspicious behavior" reporting procedures,…

  18. Strengthening Schools: Involving Paraprofessionals in Crisis Prevention and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, M.; Ashbaker, B. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Two important questions arise when creating a school crisis plan: (a) Who should be trained as part of the crisis team? and (b) What type of training will be the most effective and practical? The authors suggest that paraprofessionals are a valuable resource to consider for assisting with crisis prevention and intervention. Practical suggestions…

  19. Being PREPaREd for Crisis in Northern Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kathy; Malvey, Michelle; Rastatter, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The Thompson School District recognized after the Columbine incident in the spring of 1999 that it was lacking an adequate plan for crisis response. Colorado legislation led to a mandate for having a crisis response plan so the district purchased a "canned" crisis response plan that served the needs of response in a very immediate but impersonal…

  20. Best Practices in School Crisis Prevention and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Lazarus, Philip J., Jr., Ed.; Jimerson, Shane R., Ed.

    This publication on best practices in crisis prevention and intervention is divided among the concepts of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The introductory chapter examines crisis theory and establishes a foundation for the comprehensive crisis prevention and intervention team. It also attempts to bridge the gap between theory and…

  1. When a Crisis Hits, Will Your School Be Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert H.

    This guidebook describes the components involved in proactively developing a comprehensive crisis-management plan. Chapter 1 explains the philosophical underpinnings of a crisis-management plan and discusses the importance of vision and staff development. Chapter 2 answers the questions: Why do we need a crisis-management plan? Who needs to be…

  2. Managing Organizational Legitimacy: Communication Strategies for Organizations in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Joseph Eric

    2001-01-01

    Considers how crisis situations can cause internal and external stakeholders to question the legitimacy of organizations. Notes that when faced with a crisis, organizations are compelled to communicate strategically with stakeholders to manage legitimacy. Synthesizes literature on organizational legitimacy, crisis management, and niche-width…

  3. Crisis Theory and Management: The Case of the Older Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Iscoe, Ira

    1990-01-01

    Notes that crisis and crisis management literature has devoted little attention to older persons. Discusses theoretical background and clinical implications for crisis management. Asserts that important differences for older persons warrant attention, including the type and number of stressful events that can precipitate crises. Discusses…

  4. Wilderness Crisis Management. Explore Magazine Technical Series No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffan, James

    This paper deals with managing a crisis in a wilderness situation. The terms "crisis" and "turning point" are used to describe what is more traditionally called an accident. Using these terms introduces the idea that crisis events occur as logical consequences of preceding decisions, errors, or omissions, not as the result of chance or fate.…

  5. 40 CFR 166.49 - Public notice of crisis exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public notice of crisis exemptions... PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.49 Public notice of crisis exemptions. (a) Periodic notices. At least quarterly,...

  6. 40 CFR 166.49 - Public notice of crisis exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public notice of crisis exemptions... PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.49 Public notice of crisis exemptions. (a) Periodic notices. At least quarterly,...

  7. How Should the Financial Crisis Change How We Teach Economics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Student dissatisfaction with teaching of economics--particularly with macroeconomics--during the current financial crisis mirrors dissatisfaction that was expressed during the last big crisis, the Great Depression. Then and now, a good number of students have felt that their lectures bear little relation to the economic crisis raging outside the…

  8. Write the Plan before You Have the Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the development process and essential elements of a crisis communication strategy. Key steps include: (1) selecting a spokesperson; (2) publicizing the spokesperson's identity; (3) preparing a crisis notebook; (4) providing cell phones; (5) choosing a news conference location; (6) rehearsing crisis scenarios; and (7) obtaining interview…

  9. An Analysis of Secondary Schools' Crisis Management Preparedness: National Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Cheantel M.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze crisis management plans of schools that have experienced crisis situations in the past. The plans used by these schools to manage these crisis situations will be evaluated for their effectiveness or ineffectiveness in re-establishing stability to their organization. With such information, other schools may…

  10. Responding to the Unthinkable: School Crisis Response and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Katherine C.; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mental health implications of crisis exposure have emerged as a critical and challenging facet of school safety and crisis response, expanding our focus to encompass both psychological and physical safety, as well as prevention and recovery. Best practice reflects this evolution in our understanding and encompasses the continuum of crisis and…

  11. Facing the Crisis: Third World Agriculture in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ajit; Tabatabai, Hamid

    1990-01-01

    Examines how developing nations' agrarian economy fared in the 1980s in the wake of the world economic crisis. Discusses how the economic crisis affected agricultural development and whether the performance of the agrarian economy was responsible for the economic crisis. (JOW)

  12. America's Energy Crisis: Reality or Hysteria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinrad, Bernard I.

    1971-01-01

    The American energy crisis is real in that our supplies of fuel which can meet standards imposed on utility emissions are short, and their price is high. It is artificial in that many of the standards could be partially relaxed, and cheaper fuel used by utilities without significant public insult. ...Nuclear power from fission is our best bet."…

  13. Forgotten Fundamentals of the Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    1992-01-01

    Applies exponential growth and the speed of doubling times to the energy crises. Increases comprehension of this mathematical law and the significance of findings made through its use. Examines statements from authoritative sources on energy to illustrate the lack of understanding of arithmetic's relationship to the energy crisis. Suggests ways to…

  14. Stop Rape Crisis Center: An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Debra; And Others

    An exemplary project, the Stop Rape Crisis Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which was initially funded by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), is described. Issues addressed include the following: (1) initlal start-up and continuing program assessment; (2) staffing and the use of volunteers; (3) coordination with law enforcement…

  15. Effective Crisis Management at the Smaller Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Robert C.

    Pennsylvania State University Beaver Campus developed crisis guidelines and a formal working relationship with a local community mental health center in order to be able to deal with on-campus crises and their followup. The guidelines provide each employee with a single, easy-to-follow document that outlines the decision making process to be…

  16. Confidentiality in Crisis Counseling: A Philosophical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, David J.

    1984-01-01

    Crisis interventionists frequently confront a moral dilemma when violating client trust seems necessary if self-destructive behavior is to be prevented. Concern for client welfare and respect for client rights and autonomy which are grounded in Utilitarianism and Kantian Formalism, respectively, conflict in such cases. These theories are examined,…

  17. Infertility: An Unanticipated and Prolonged Life Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Linda; Gilbert, Mary S.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on infertility with a focus on myths and misunderstandings about the causes of infertility; a description of the crisis of infertility including common psychological responses; the additional psychological complexity introduced by medical procedures and reproductive technology; and suggestions for mental health counselors.…

  18. Characteristics of the Biopsychosocial Crisis of Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1987-01-01

    Presents a framework for understanding the crisis of infertility which is characterized by extensive anxiety, damaged self-esteem, grief, uncertainty about the future, and estranged relationships with each other and with family and friends. Proposes some interventions appropriate to helpers from a variety of disciplines. (ABB)

  19. Infertility: A Crisis with No Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Robert R.; Koraleski, Stephanie

    1990-01-01

    Discusses helpful ways for mental health counselors to work with infertile clients, explaining nature of infertility, psychological crisis it provokes, common reactions of infertile clients, and strategies to help clients cope. Discusses specific strategies for assessing clients' potential for suicide or self-destructive acts and improving their…

  20. Crisis/Opportunity: 2011 WICHE Workplan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education has faced a crisis of massive proportions in the first decade of this millennium. Nevertheless, for higher education, this year represents a turning point and, yes, an opportunity. The opportunity, then, for the West is one that generations of Americans are familiar with: to do more with less. Dealing with scarcity--whether…

  1. Crisis/Opportunity: 2011 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    If there's one quality that WICHE's home region, the West, is famous for, it's endurance in the face of crisis. And if there's another, it's the ability to find--and make--opportunities even in tough times. Over the last fiscal year, WICHE has done just that. The organization has been highly successful in terms of developing new projects and…

  2. Community Health Crisis: Solving the Nurse Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Erie

    2003-01-01

    Describes how Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD), California, the major provider of nursing graduates to the Sacramento area, addressed the issue of the nursing shortage crisis. LRCCD faced the dual issues of student/faculty ratio restrictions of 10/1 and funding that accommodated a 40/1 ratio. Describes LRCCD's new off-campus,…

  3. The Racial Crisis in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the need for continued research in race-related issues on college campuses. The book examines the causes and the impact of campus racial tensions by studying some key university case studies and by investigating some of the underlying elements of the crisis. Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Racial…

  4. Male Midlife Crisis and Career Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski-daRoza, Victoria

    1984-01-01

    The author examines various aspects of male midlife crisis and its effects on the man's career, including the following: What are the implications for an organization, if behavioral changes or dissatisfaction with past patterns extends into the employee's job and leads this same individual to become a dissatisfied employee, to consider a career…

  5. Family Crisis: A Broad Spectrum Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, George E.

    This bibliography of research on family crises includes theoretical and clinical material as well as research devoted to substantive crisis areas. Over 400 entries are grouped under 15 separate categories: theoretical and clinical, alcoholism, death and dying, divorce, exceptional children, illness, mental illness, widowhood, other situational…

  6. Fortysomething: Helping Employees through the Midlife Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickle, Blair Warman; Maddox, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    Although midlife transition is an emotional crisis for an individual, it means expensive turnover for the organization. There are three approaches an organization can take in dealing with midlife transitions: education, counseling, and restructuring jobs and tasks. Education is necessary before counseling and restructuring can begin. (JOW)

  7. How to Start a Rape Crisis Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rape Crisis Center, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written in response to requests from throughout the nation about how a rape crisis center can be started, presents the history of the founding of the Washington, D.C. center. The booklet offers sections dealing with specific issues. A section discusses, for the rape victim, pros and cons of working with the police, together with the…

  8. Culture and Crisis Response in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annan, Jean; Dean, Shelley; Henry, Geoff; McGhie, Desiree; Phillipson, Roger

    2010-01-01

    New Zealand is a bicultural nation, founded on the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi by the native Maori and the British Crown. It is also home to people from many countries, cultures and ethnicities. Therefore, culturally-relevant response to crisis events has become a significant aspect of the Ministry of Education's interdisciplinary Traumatic…

  9. Crisis Management in a Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Colette

    2004-01-01

    Dunblane Primary School, Scotland, and Columbine High School, USA. Two headline tragedies that have led to trauma for their pupils and staff. Trauma that could be devastating because of the psychological impact and the practical requirements a crisis brings. Children's social and personal development can be negatively affected, their academic…

  10. Africa's New Crisis: A Dearth of Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2009-01-01

    With many professors approaching retirement. a shortage of qualified academics has reached crisis proportions at a number of African universities. The shortfall is a consequence of decades of neglect of African higher education, as donors and governments concentrated limited resources on primary and secondary schools, and young scholars who manage…

  11. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  12. SAAB Tackling the Black, Brown Male Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, dropping out of high school is a one-way ticket to prison for Black men. Recent research conducted by sociologists Becky Pettit and Bruce Western indicates that 3 percent of Whites and 20 percent of Blacks born between 1965 and 1969 had served time in prison by their early thirties. The crisis among Black and Hispanic men mobilized…

  13. Crisis Intervention Teams in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, J. R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes steps in establishing crisis intervention team in schools: determining goals, performing needs assessment, finding model programs, developing membership pool, developing training program, preparing and maintaining list of resources and plans for support services, establishing communication network, designating base of operations,…

  14. Threat Assessment Teams Target School Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the creation of a threat-assessment team to be utilized in order to analyze each threat and the usage of threat-assessment protocols for the purpose of guiding school administrators through a crisis. These are actually developed with the advice from the US Department of Education and the Secret Service. When a…

  15. Mental health in the foreclosure crisis.

    PubMed

    Houle, Jason N

    2014-10-01

    Current evidence suggests that the rise in home foreclosures that began in 2007 created feelings of stress, vulnerability, and sapped communities of social and economic resources. Minority and low SES communities were more likely to be exposed to predatory lending and hold subprime mortgages, and were the hardest hit by the foreclosure crisis. Little research has examined whether and how the foreclosure crisis has undermined population mental health. I use data from 2245 counties in 50 U.S. states to examine whether living in high foreclosure areas is associated with residents' mental health and whether the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing disparities in mental health during the recessionary period. I use county-level data from RealtyTrac and other data sources, and individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey from 2006 to 2011. I find that - net of time invariant unobserved between-county differences, national time trends, and observed confounders - a rise in a county's foreclosure rate is associated with a decline in residents' mental health. This association is especially pronounced in counties with a high concentration of low SES and minority residents, which supports the perspective that the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing social disparities in mental health. PMID:25084488

  16. Autobiographic Notes on the Identity Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erikson, Erik H.

    1970-01-01

    The author describes his training conducted by Anna Freud and the emergence of his concepts of identity and identity crisis. He recapitulates his conceptual ancestry, insofar as it originates in psychoanalysis, in order to indicate that psychoanalysis represents a very special admixture of laboratory conditions, methodological climate, and…

  17. Exploring the "Boy Crisis" in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappon, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The issue of the "boy gap" or "boy crisis" in education has been the subject of increasing attention across a number of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Given the importance of this issue and the need to better understand the situation in boys' education, this report draws on material and data from a review…

  18. Why the Economic Crisis Was Not Anticipated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    An article in the October 11 "New York Times" attributed the almost universal failure to anticipate the current economic crisis to "insanity"--more precisely, to a psychological inability to give proper weight to past events, so that if there is prosperity today people assume that it will last forever, even though they know that in the past booms…

  19. Managing a Crisis with Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, T. Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the proliferation of handheld devices and social media such as Facebook and Twitter, people can share information instantly and succinctly. The December 8, 2011, shooting on the Virginia Tech campus underscores how important it is for information to go out quickly but accurately to help school administrators effectively manage a crisis.…

  20. Crisis Paper Number 38. World Food Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Information Centre for Teachers, London (England).

    This paper is thirty-eighth in a series which expands the analysis of the crisis under discussion to provide a multinational view by quoting comment from a selection of newspapers of several countries. The issue presented here is the problem of world food shortages, which is briefly introduced in relation to the attemps at the Rome Conference to…

  1. Crisis Workers' Attributions for Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Margaret E.

    Attributions affect coping with victimization. Battered women who blame their husbands' moods are less likely to leave than are women who blame their husbands' permanent characteristics for the violence. Abused women often have repeated contacts with crisis intervention workers and the attitudes of those workers may affect the attributions made by…

  2. Regulatory T Cells: A Crisis Averted.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Deepali; Jenkins, Marc K

    2016-05-17

    Although regulatory T cells protect people from autoimmunity, two recent papers in Immunity (Malchow et al., 2016; Kieback et al., 2016) demonstrate that these cells are also a crisis averted. Without the proper education in the thymus, these cells will turn on their host and cause autoimmunity. PMID:27192571

  3. Arab-Americans and the Gulf Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noor Al-Deen, Hana S.

    A study examined the sentiment and impact of different types, channels, and forms of aggression against the Arab-American community during the Gulf Crisis. Data were selected from entries in the 1990 Anti-Arab Discrimination and Hate Crimes Log of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination (ADC) National Office. Results show that there were 129 acts of…

  4. The Cuban Missile Crisis. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Linda K.; McAuliffe, Mary

    1994-01-01

    Presents a secondary lesson plan based on primary sources recently released by the Central Intelligence Agency on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Provides a background essay on the event. Includes five maps and three documents, all of which have been declassified from top secret or secret status. (CFR)

  5. The African Orphan Crisis and International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; Shaw, Stacey A.

    2006-01-01

    The plight of Africa's AIDS orphans has reached crisis proportions, and the international community is beginning to mobilize at the family, community, national, and international levels. Despite these encouraging efforts, the response is inadequate, and increased attention and action are needed. The authors suggest that international adoption,…

  6. The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

  7. The Crisis in Air Pollution Manpower Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Dade W.

    1974-01-01

    Three studies conducted by the National Air Pollution Manpower Development Advisory Committee concluded there is a crisis in air pollution manpower development within the United States today. The studies investigated the existing federal manpower program, air pollution educational requirements and the quality of graduate level university programs.…

  8. The Identity Crisis of Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    Educational planning is presently confronted by an identity crisis. As long as it was believed that educational expansion was a principal ingredient for securing economic growth, democratic political processes, and greater equality of economics and social participation, the tenets and practice of educational planning were rarely questioned.…

  9. From Crisis to Renewal: One School's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelcher, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    This case study describes a time period of 6 years in the history of a school, a period marked by crisis recovery and organizational response to a mandated large-scale reform. Despite its challenges, when speaking of this period a number of the staff reflected on it as a kind of magical moment in time. Twenty years later, I began to wonder what…

  10. The Classical Diffusion Paradigm in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooks, Gregory

    The erosion of the credibility of the classical diffusion paradigm by recent challenges to its fundamental assumptions has resulted in a "paradigmatic crisis" as related to research on the diffusion of agricultural innovations. Such basic assumptions as that of a harmonious and cooperative society and of agricultural research guided by endogenous…

  11. Preparing to Help Students after a Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.; Cowan, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Generally, when a student or a staff member coped with the psychological aftermath of a tragedy, they did so without the involvement-or responsibility-of school personnel. But educators have come to recognize that schools play a critical role in any crisis response and care system serving children and youth. This is true whether teachers are…

  12. Teaching the Crisis Management/Communication Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, W. Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Argues that a course or unit in crisis management/communication is an excellent way of teaching public relations theory, management concepts, information management, problem solving, and communication management. Identifies course objectives, discusses main topics and student evaluation, and concludes with advice and a list of readings. (SR)

  13. Assessing Cultural Competency in School Crisis Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annandale, Neil O.; Heath, Melissa Allen; Dean, Brenda; Kemple, Ana; Takino, Yozo

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed school-based crisis planning resources and guidelines provided by 40 state departments of education and offices of safe and drug-free schools. Content was examined for indications of cultural competency. The most frequently reported topics included: (a) assisting students with mental and physical disabilities, (b) tapping into…

  14. School Leadership in Times of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry; Riley, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The leadership attributes and skills required of school leaders in times of crisis are fundamentally different from those generally required as part of the "normal" school environment. Strong school leadership generally is about positioning the school for the future, and about supporting and empowering staff and students in the pursuit of teaching…

  15. Managing a Crisis for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badzmierowski, William F.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, campus tragedies across the country have prompted leaders of education institutions to redouble their crisis planning efforts. Too often, however, these emergency plans focus almost exclusively on facilities, hardware and systems without sufficient consideration for the people they potentially affect. People, not equipment, will…

  16. Image Repair Discourse and Crisis Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the theory of image restoration discourse as an approach for understanding corporate crisis situations. States this theory can be used by practitioners to help design messages during crises and by critics or educators to critically evaluate such messages. Describes and illustrates the theory's basic concepts. Offers suggestions for…

  17. Camp Crisis Management: Responding to New Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Will

    2002-01-01

    Camps should have crisis management plans. Steps to formulating a plan include involving appropriate off-site agencies, identifying potential threats, gathering resources, crafting an appropriate response, training via role-playing, managing incoming and outgoing information, and writing it down. Sidebars present resources, successful response…

  18. Family Crisis Intervention Program. Clark County, Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Patricia S.; And Others

    This guide documents cost effective methods of providing community-based alternative court intervention services to youth. The service program was designed to assist adolescent status offenders and their families in resolving the underlying problems which bring the youths to the attention of the juvenile system. A Family Crisis Intervention Center…

  19. Parenting in homeless families: the double crisis.

    PubMed

    Hausman, B; Hammen, C

    1993-07-01

    The same factors that impede a mother's ability to maintain a stable residence are likely to impair her capacity to nurture children. This double crisis of homelessness and child rearing confronts caregivers with a special set of ethical and practical dilemmas. Psychosocial characteristics of homeless mothers and children are reviewed, and the need to support these mothers is underscored. PMID:8372903

  20. Television and the Crisis in the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    It is indeed a problem, perhaps even a crisis, that many Americans are ignorant of "The Tempest," the Civil War, the location of the Persian Gulf, the Constitution, or the chief justice of the Supreme Court. However, if conservative humanists continue to ostracize, scorn, and ignore both media studies and the media themselves, the result will not…

  1. The Major Crisis in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the past to provide a better definition of the major crisis in science education. Suggests that preparing scientifically and technologically literate citizens may be lost on such issues as teacher shortages, number of scientists/engineers produced in the Soviet Union, college entrance scores, and degree of rigor in school programs. (JN)

  2. Understanding the importance of an energy crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechtenberg, Abigail Reid

    Human development and energy, in general, and electrical energy, specifically, co-exist seamlessly in high HDI countries where reliability and availability is greater than 99%. In numerous low HDI countries, there is 2-50% electric grid availability with reliability at or below 50% due to load shedding and faults. In Africa, solar, wind, biomass and hydroelectric energy production are cited to meet growing demand and increase reliability and availability; however, the capital costs are greater than the ability-to-pay for wide scale implementation. Since the 1970s, the United States has continued to argue over the new sustainable energy infrastructure solution(s); thus resulting in no new infrastructure being built for wide scale implementation. Together the world is facing the daunting task of averting an energy crisis in developed countries and facing energy crises in developing countries. This thesis explores the importance of energy crises: from the past, current, and future. The first part entails arguing that the United States is not on a pathway to prevent an energy crisis based on an analysis of 1986 and 2004 niche and status-quo manufacturing of light-duty vehicles. The second part answers the question of what an energy crisis looks like by exploring and investigating current electrical energy crises in Fort Portal, Uganda. This part used both anthropological and physics education empowerment research to co-design and build for various energy crisis situations in hospitals, schools, and businesses all from locally available materials and expertise. Finally, looking into the US light-duty vehicle's future, I design a new hybrid vehicle powertrain (called transition mode hybrid). This third part describes my new patent as a way to avert an energy crisis in the light-duty transportation sector.

  3. Actions to alleviate the mental health impact of the economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    WAHLBECK, KRISTIAN; MCDAID, DAVID

    2012-01-01

    The current global economic crisis is expected to produce adverse mental health effects that may increase suicide and alcohol-related death rates in affected countries. In nations with greater social safety nets, the health impacts of the economic downturn may be less pronounced. Research indicates that the mental health impact of the economic crisis can be offset by various policy measures. This paper aims to outline how countries can safeguard and support mental health in times of economic downturn. It indicates that good mental health cannot be achieved by the health sector alone. The determinants of mental health often lie outside of the remits of the health system, and all sectors of society have to be involved in the promotion of mental health. Accessible and responsive primary care services support people at risk and can prevent mental health consequences. Any austerity measures imposed on mental health services need to be geared to support the modernization of mental health care provision. Social welfare supports and active labour market programmes aiming at helping people retain or re-gain jobs can counteract the mental health effects of the economic crisis. Family support programmes can also make a difference. Alcohol pricing and restrictions of alcohol availability reduce alcohol harms and save lives. Support to tackle unmanageable debt will also help to reduce the mental health impact of the crisis. While the current economic crisis may have a major impact on mental health and increase mortality due to suicides and alcohol-related disorders, it is also a window of opportunity to reform mental health care and promote a mentally healthy lifestyle. PMID:23024664

  4. Comparison of Freshmen's Cognitive Frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon Taking the Earth Science 1 in High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Park, Seon Ok

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if freshmen's cognitive frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon taking the Earth science 1I in high school reflects the school curriculum. The data was collected from 67 freshmen who'd graduated high school in formal education. They expressed 'Crisis of the Earth' as a painting with explanation and then we extracted units of meaning from paintings, respectively. We analyzed the words and frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The result is as follows; First, as every participant forms the cognitive frame for the crisis of the Earth, it is shown that they connect each part which that composes the global environment and realize it as the changing relation with interaction. Secondly, forming a cognitive frame regarding crisis of the Earth, both groups connect it with human endeavor. Especially, it seems that the group of participants who finished Earth Science 1 fully reflects the course of the formal education. It is necessary to make the students recognize it from a universal point of view, not only from the Earth. Also, much effort is required in order to enlighten about the appropriateness regarding problem-solving of the Earth and expand their mind as time changes. Keywords : Earth Science 1, cognitive frame, crisis of the earth, semantic network analysis

  5. Reversing a tree regeneration crisis in an endangered ecoregion

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Joern; Stott, Jenny; Zerger, Andre; Warren, Garth; Sherren, Kate; Forrester, Robert I.

    2009-01-01

    Global food demand is growing rapidly. Livestock grazing can provide a valuable source of protein, but conventional grazing is often unsustainable. We studied an 800,000-ha section of a threatened ecoregion in southeastern Australia. Conventional management in the region involves continuous livestock grazing with few rest periods and regular fertilizer application. By using remotely sensed data on tree cover and extensive field data on livestock grazing regimes, soil chemistry, tree diameters, and tree regeneration, we show that the region is facing a tree regeneration crisis. Under conventional management, across the region, millions of hectares of land currently supporting tens of millions of trees will be treeless within decades from now. This would have severe negative ramifications for biodiversity and key ecosystem services, including water infiltration and shade provision for livestock. However, we identified an unexpected win–win solution for tree regeneration and commercial grazing. A relatively new practice in the region is fast-rotational grazing, characterized by prolonged rest periods in between short, intensive grazing events. The probability of regeneration under fast-rotational grazing was up to 4-fold higher than under conventional grazing, and it did not differ significantly from the probability of regeneration in ungrazed areas. In addition, trees were more likely to regenerate where soil nutrient levels were low. These findings suggest that the tree regeneration crisis can be reversed by applying low-input, fast-rotational grazing. New policy settings supporting these practices could signal a turning point for the region, from ecological decline to ecological recovery. PMID:19497886

  6. Reviewing the definition of crisis in dementia care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Crisis is a term frequently used in dementia care lacking a standardized definition. This article systematically reviews existing definitions of crisis in dementia care literature to create a standardized definition that can be utilized for research, policy and clinical practice. Methods We systematically searched for articles containing definitions of crisis in the context of dementia care. We created an operational framework of crisis based on retrieved definitions. Recommendations to address crisis situations were reviewed and classified according to care settings. Results Abstracts and titles of 1,113 articles, screened from PubMed and EMBASE, were narrowed down to 27 articles. After review, crisis in dementia was defined as a process where a stressor causes an imbalance requiring an immediate decision to be made which leads to a desired outcome and therefore a resolution of the crisis. If the crisis is not resolved, the cycle continues. Recommendations for resolving crisis involving persons with dementia and their caregivers include awareness therapy after diagnosis and increased contact with general practitioners, case manager consultations, caregiver support and education. Furthermore, nursing home staff should be attuned to the environmental, physical and psychological needs of persons with dementia. Conclusions This is the first article to review the definition of crisis in the context of dementia care. A review of the literature indicated that the definition of a crisis is idiosyncratic. Therefore, it is difficult to prevent or plan for all crises. We used an operational framework to compile types of crisis stressors and recommendations from the crisis literature based on three different perspectives; the person with the dementia, the caregiver and the healthcare providers. PMID:23374634

  7. Outcome of Extended Thymectomy in Myasthenia Crisis Patient.

    PubMed

    Aftabuddin, M; Bhandari, S

    2016-07-01

    Myasthenic crisis is a life-threatening condition. We studied the demographic, frequency, causes and clinical presentation of isolated Myasthenic crisis, steps of treatment and to review our experience of extended thymectomy on patients with at least one episode myasthenic crisis. A prospective and retrospective study was conducted on patients with at least one episode of myasthenic crisis, from March 2010 to September 2014, at the Department of Cardiac Surgery, BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh who were referred for thymectomy. Eighteen patients (13.6% of the total 132 patients with myasthenia gravis were admitted with single to multiple episodes of myasthenic crisis, median crisis was 2.5 episodes. Mean age of the patient was 35.5 (18-72) years with male predominance. All eighteen patients had undergone extended thymectomy after completion of 5 cycle plasmapheresis, of which 2 had experienced postoperative respiratory crisis, required invasive ventilator support for median 14 days. One patient required invasive ventilator support after third post operative day. Six patients had thymoma and 12 had thymic hyperplasia. Three patients needed Intravenous immunoglobin. Nine patients needed post operative anti acetylcholinesterase inhibitor after median 2.5 post days. Post thymectomy remission and decreases the frequency of myasthenic crisis was seen in follow up and post operative medication requirement reduced significantly as compared to the preoperative requirement. This report highlights that the patients who had extended thymectomy after episodes of myasthenia crisis are benefitted even in the histhopathology report does not confirmed thymoma. After thymectomy, there was remission of myasthenic crisis. Patients with myasthenic crisis should have judicious drug adjustments under supervision and should be treated aggressively during impending myasthenic crisis. With modern management of myasthenia gravis, early surgery with myasthenic crisis is safe with good long

  8. Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.

    PubMed

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-02-22

    Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy. PMID:24560058

  9. Teen Depression and Suicide, A SILENT CRISIS.

    PubMed

    Kroning, Maureen; Kroning, Kayla

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent depression is a serious problem affecting 10.7% of all teens and 29.9% of high school students; 17% of high school students have contemplated suicide. Yet, depression in teens is often unrecognized. This article relays the tragic death of a 17-year-old, along with symptoms of depression and suicide in adolescents; DSM-5 criteria for depression; treatments including protective factors, psychotherapy, and medications; and imparts interventions for addressing this huge but silent crisis. PMID:27119802

  10. Favourable outcome of scleroderma renal crisis.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, D A; Patel, S; Eastwood, J B; Bourke, B E

    1996-01-01

    Severe hypertension and rapidly progressive acute renal failure is a well recognized complication of scleroderma, often referred to as the renal crisis, and widely thought to cause irreversible deterioration in renal function. With the advent of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) the outlook for patients with this condition has dramatically improved. We report here one such patient. Images Figure 1 PMID:8709086

  11. Crisis communication. Lessons from 9/11.

    PubMed

    Argenti, Paul

    2002-12-01

    The sheer enormity of last year's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon gave new meaning to the term "crisis management." Suddenly, companies near Ground Zero, as well as those more than a thousand miles away, needed a plan. Because the disasters disrupted established channels not only between businesses and customers but between businesses and employees, internal crisis-communications strategies that could be quickly implemented became a key responsibility of top management. Without these strategies, employees' trauma and confusion might have immobilized their firms and set their customers adrift. In this article, executives from a range of industries talk about how their companies, including Morgan Stanley, Oppenheimer Funds, American Airlines, Verizon, the New York Times, Dell, and Starbucks, went about restoring operations and morale. From his interviews with these individuals, author and management professor Paul Argenti was able to distill a number of lessons, each of which, he says, may "serve as guideposts for any company facing a crisis that undermines its employees' composure, confidence, or concentration." His advice to senior executives includes: Maintain high levels of visibility, so that employees are certain of top management's command of the situation and concern; establish contingency communication channels and work sites; strive to keep employees focused on the business itself, because a sense of usefulness enhances morale and good morale enhances usefulness; and ensure that employees have absorbed the firm's values, which will guide them as they cope with the unpredictable. The most forward-thinking leaders realize that managing a crisis-communications program requires the same dedication and resources they give to other dimensions of their business. More important, they realize that their employees always come first. PMID:12510542

  12. Interaction of strategic defenses with crisis stability

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Crisis stability indices calculated for two-sided strategic interactions are used to discuss the impact of boost and midcourse defenses. They largely suppress missiles, leaving bombers and cruise missiles to deliver the bulk of restrikes. Boost-phase defenses are able to attrit missile attacks, but lack the preferentiality needed to defend specific targets. Midcourse layers could protect a significant fraction of forces; combined defenses could defend more. Results are sensitive to decoys and target sets. 29 refs., 26 figs.

  13. Citizen participation in police crisis intervention activities.

    PubMed

    Baumann, D J; Schultz, D F; Brown, C; Paredes, R; Hepworth, J

    1987-08-01

    A naturalistic experiment tested the proposition that police time could be saved in nondangerous crisis intervention calls through the use of citizen participants. Results showed that police officers who used citizen intervention spent less time per call than officers who did not. However, police time was not saved in family disturbance calls. Family disturbance control group calls were rated by police as having a higher degree of physical danger present than other calls. PMID:3673956

  14. Satellites for arms control and crisis monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jasani, B.; Sakata, T.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes some of the technologies required for observation satellites for arms control and crisis monitoring, with examples to illustrate the potential of the latest technological developments, and examines the various institutional and political aspects of establishing this form of verification on an international basis. Part I of this book presents the background to the issues covered by the SIPRI-Tokai University Symposium. Parts II and III comprise the papers presented at the symposium.

  15. Hypertensive crisis during pregnancy and postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Too, Gloria T; Hill, James B

    2013-08-01

    Hypertension affects 10% of pregnancies, many with underlying chronic hypertension, and approximately 1-2% will undergo a hypertensive crisis at some point during their lives. Hypertensive crisis includes hypertensive urgency and emergency; the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists describes a hypertensive emergency in pregnancy as persistent (lasting 15 min or more), acute-onset, severe hypertension, defined as systolic BP greater than 160 mmHg or diastolic BP >110 mmHg in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. Pregnancy may be complicated by hypertensive crisis, with lower blood pressure threshold for end-organ damage than non-pregnant patients. Maternal assessment should include a thorough history. Fetal assessment should include heart rate tracing, ultrasound for growth and amniotic assessment, and Doppler evaluation if growth restriction is suspected. Initial management of hypertensive emergency (systolic BP >160 mmHg or diastolic BP >110 mmHg in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia) generally includes the rapid reduction of blood pressure through the use of intravenous antihypertensive medications, with goal systolic blood pressure between 140 mmHg and 150 mmHg and diastolic pressure between 90 mmHg and 100 mmHg. First-line intravenous drugs include labetalol and hydralazine, but other agents may be used, including esmolol, nicardipine, nifedipine, and, as a last resort, sodium nitroprusside. Among patients with hypertensive urgency, slower blood pressure reduction can be provided with oral agents. The objective of this article is to review the current understanding, diagnosis, and management of hypertensive crisis during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:23916027

  16. Resistance movement: the antibiotic crisis in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, D A

    1997-01-01

    The near-miraculous healing power of antibiotic is being undermined by the rapid evolution of drug-resistant bacteria. The costs, in human and economic terms, could be staggering for all caregivers and patients, but especially for institutional providers like hospitals. In an article adapted from the Journal of the American Medical Association, Dr. Goldmann explains why antibiotic resistance is a crisis and how the danger can be mitigated. PMID:10166180

  17. Deep roots of the Messinian salinity crisis.

    PubMed

    Duggen, Svend; Hoernle, Kaj; van den Bogaard, Paul; Rüpke, Lars; Morgan, Jason Phipps

    2003-04-10

    The Messinian salinity crisis--the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea between 5.96 and 5.33 million years (Myr) ago--was one of the most dramatic events on Earth during the Cenozoic era. It resulted from the closure of marine gateways between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the causes of which remain enigmatic. Here we use the age and composition of volcanic rocks to reconstruct the geodynamic evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean from the Middle Miocene epoch to the Pleistocene epoch (about 12.1-0.65 Myr ago). Our data show that a marked shift in the geochemistry of mantle-derived volcanic rocks, reflecting a change from subduction-related to intraplate-type volcanism, occurred between 6.3 and 4.8 Myr ago, largely synchronous with the Messinian salinity crisis. Using a thermomechanical model, we show that westward roll back of subducted Tethys oceanic lithosphere and associated asthenospheric upwelling provides a plausible mechanism for producing the shift in magma chemistry and the necessary uplift (approximately 1 km) along the African and Iberian continental margins to close the Miocene marine gateways, thereby causing the Messinian salinity crisis. PMID:12686997

  18. Germany and America: Crisis of confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Asmus, R.D.

    1991-02-01

    The paper examines the deterioration in German-American relations. The reasons for this downturn in German-American relations are quite simple. Washington views the Persian Gulf crisis as a defining moment in European-American relations and in the creation of a new world order. It is also the first diplomatic test of a unified Germany and a new German-American relationship. It is a test that Germany is thus far seen as having failed for three reasons. First, from the outset many Americans sensed that Germans did not comprehend what this crisis meant for the United States. A second and, in many ways, more worrying factor was the growing sense that the Germans were not being good Europeans. The third and most serious American concern, however, was the unsettling appearance of a very selective German definition of collective defense and common security. The result has been a crisis of confidence in the performance of the German political elite that goes beyond the problems in German-American relations during the early 1980s and the INF debate.

  19. Drug treatment of hypertensive crisis in children.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christopher A

    2011-10-01

    Hypertensive crisis is a relatively rare event and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in adults and pediatric patients alike. Rapid, safe, and effective treatment is imperative to alleviate immediate presenting clinical symptoms, prevent devastating morbidity, preserve long-term quality of life, and prevent mortality. Many medications in the hypertensive crisis arsenal have been used for nearly half a century. Nearly all treatment options have been utilized in children for decades, yet reliable data and sound clinical literature remain elusive. Every agent considered to be a first-line, second-line, or adjunctive option has yet to be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in pediatric patients. With a paucity of clinical data to form evidence-based decisions, the clinician must rely entirely on the extrapolation from adult data and small retrospective studies, case series, and case reports of medication use in pediatric patients. Although more research in the treatment of pediatric hypertensive crisis is desperately needed, current practice demands a sharp knowledge of the pediatric clinical literature and pharmacology in this area as an essential tool to consistently improve patient outcomes with respect to morbidity and mortality. PMID:21888442

  20. Spanning trees and the Eurozone crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, João

    2013-12-01

    The sovereign debt crisis in the euro area has not yet been solved and recent developments in Spain and Italy have further deteriorated the situation. In this paper we develop a new approach to analyze the ongoing Eurozone crisis. Firstly, we use Maximum Spanning Trees to analyze the topological properties of government bond rates’ dynamics. Secondly, we combine the information given by both Maximum and Minimum Spanning Trees to obtain a measure of market dissimilarity or disintegration. Thirdly, we extend this measure to include a convenient distance not limited to the interval [0, 2]. Our empirical results show that Maximum Spanning Tree gives an adequate description of the separation of the euro area into two distinct groups: those countries strongly affected by the crisis and those that have remained resilient during this period. The measures of market dissimilarity also reveal a persistent separation of these two groups and, according to our second measure, this separation strongly increased during the period July 2009-March 2012.

  1. Designing Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

    2012-12-01

    In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

  2. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  3. WATER CONSERVATION: LOCAL SOLUTIONS TO A GLOBAL PROBLEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water conservation issues are discussed. Local solutions to a global problem include changing old habits relating to the usage and abuse of water resources. While the suggested behavioral changes may not solve the world's pending water crisis, they may ease the impact of the l...

  4. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreet, Wilma S., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue contains an introduction ("The Promise and Perplexity of Globalism," by W. Longstreet) and seven articles dedicated to exploring the meaning of global education for today's schools. "Global Education: An Overview" (J. Becker) develops possible definitions, identifies objectives and skills, and addresses questions and issues in this…

  5. Global Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Approaches taken by a school science department to implement a global science curriculum using a range of available resources are outlined. Problems with current curriculum approaches, alternatives to an ethnocentric curriculum, advantages of global science, and possible strategies for implementing a global science policy are discussed. (27…

  6. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, June, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The articles in this collection deal with various methods of global education--education to prepare students to function as understanding and informed citizens of the world. Topics discussed in the 26 articles include: (1) the necessity of global education; (2) global education in the elementary school language arts curriculum; (3) science fiction…

  7. Global HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on global human resource development (HRD). "Globalization of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a global organization. "An…

  8. Defining crisis in families of individuals with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health–related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can serve as a guide in delivering service to at-risk families. This study investigated the subjective experience of crisis in 155 mothers of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Thematic analysis revealed that crisis is characterized by factors influencing four major areas: demands, internal capabilities, external resources, and subjective appraisal. Understanding what crisis means to families of individuals with autism spectrum disorder can help inform effective preventative and crisis services. PMID:24254639

  9. The Urbanization Scrapbook. A Collection of Articles on Urban Issues for Use in Secondary Schools. Global Issues Reading Kit #3: Urbanization. Revised 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Andrew, Ed.; Ockenden, Sandy, Ed.

    The articles in this scrapbook present a global perspective that is both alarming and hopeful. Drawing from Southern and Northern experiences the articles describe a world in crisis, but they don't stop there. By critically examining the status quo, the articles attempt to get to the roots of the crisis, and then move onto describing avenues for…

  10. The Food Scrapbook. A Collection of Articles on Food Issues for Use in Secondary Schools. Global Issues Reading Kit #2: Food. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Andrew, Ed.; Ockenden, Sandy, Ed.

    The articles in this scrapbook present a global perspective that is both alarming and hopeful. Drawing from Southern and Northern experiences the articles describe a world in crisis, but they don't stop there. By critically examining the status quo, the articles attempt to get to the roots of the crisis, and then move onto describing avenues for…

  11. The workforce for health in a globalized context – global shortages and international migration

    PubMed Central

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘crisis in human resources’ in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010. PMID:24560265

  12. The workforce for health in a globalized context--global shortages and international migration.

    PubMed

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W

    2014-01-01

    The 'crisis in human resources' in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010. PMID:24560265

  13. Uncommon t12 burst fracture after an epileptic crisis.

    PubMed

    Alian, Akiki

    2011-01-01

    People having an epileptic crisis present to the hospital with an altered mental status and generalised fatigue. The most common orthopaedic pathology associated to epilepsy is the undiagnosed posterior shoulder dislocation. These same patients often complain from back pain that is often neglected and misdiagnosed as muscular contracture following the epilepsy crisis. We describe here the case of a patient who presented after here epilepsy crisis with back pain. Investigations revealed an uncommon burst fracture that needed a surgical treatment. Conclusion. Back pain after an epileptic crisis should be investigated more seriously with an adequate clinical examination and a minimum of a radiography of the back. PMID:23198223

  14. Uncommon T12 Burst Fracture after an Epileptic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Alian, Akiki

    2011-01-01

    People having an epileptic crisis present to the hospital with an altered mental status and generalised fatigue. The most common orthopaedic pathology associated to epilepsy is the undiagnosed posterior shoulder dislocation. These same patients often complain from back pain that is often neglected and misdiagnosed as muscular contracture following the epilepsy crisis. We describe here the case of a patient who presented after here epilepsy crisis with back pain. Investigations revealed an uncommon burst fracture that needed a surgical treatment. Conclusion. Back pain after an epileptic crisis should be investigated more seriously with an adequate clinical examination and a minimum of a radiography of the back. PMID:23198223

  15. Impact of the 2008 economic and financial crisis on child health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rajmil, Luis; Fernandez de Sanmamed, María-José; Choonara, Imti; Faresjö, Tomas; Hjern, Anders; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lucas, Patricia J; Raat, Hein; Séguin, Louise; Spencer, Nick; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000-50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economic crisis has harmed children's health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses. PMID:25019121

  16. Severest crisis overlooked—Worst disruption of terrestrial environments postdates the Permian–Triassic mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Hochuli, Peter A.; Sanson-Barrera, Anna; Schneebeli-Hermann, Elke; Bucher, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Generally Early Triassic floras are believed to be depauperate, suffering from protracted recovery following the Permian–Triassic extinction event. Here we present palynological data of an expanded East Greenland section documenting recovered floras in the basal Triassic (Griesbachian) and a subsequent fundamental floral turnover, postdating the Permian–Triassic boundary extinction by about 500 kyrs. This event is marked by a swap in dominating floral elements, changing from gymnosperm pollen-dominated associations in the Griesbachian to lycopsid spore-dominated assemblages in the Dienerian. This turnover coincides with an extreme δ13Corg negative shift revealing a severe environmental crisis, probably induced by volcanic outbursts of the Siberian Traps, accompanied by a climatic turnover, changing from cool and dry in the Griesbachian to hot and humid in the Dienerian. Estimates of sedimentation rates suggest that this environmental alteration took place within some 1000 years. Similar, coeval changes documented on the North Indian Margin (Pakistan) and the Bowen Basin (Australia) indicate the global extent of this crisis. Our results evidence the first profound disruption of the recovery of terrestrial environments about 500kyrs after the Permian–Triassic extinction event. It was followed by another crisis, about 1myrs later thus, the Early Triassic can be characterised as a time of successive environmental crises. PMID:27340926

  17. [Trends in environmental risks in the context of the economic crisis. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Querol, Xavier; Esplugues, Ana

    2014-06-01

    This article aims to analyze the impact of the economic and financial crisis on environmental determinants of health. The World Health Organization estimates that between 13% and 27% of the disease burden in countries could be prevented by improving the environment. These effects are larger in vulnerable populations, especially among the poorest. In the last decade, outdoor air pollution (the most significant environmental health risk in most European countries) has declined, mostly due to the European policy of reducing emissions and to the decrease in activity following the economic crisis. During the last few years, this improvement in air quality has occurred simultaneously with a reduction in investment in environmental protection and could therefore be offset in the medium-term. The economic crisis has not reduced the trend for higher temperatures in Spain and Europe because climate change is a global phenomenon that is not directly related to local emissions. To reduce the risk of an increase in the health impact of environmental factors, certain key aspects should be considered, such as the need to maintain or develop adequate monitoring and control systems and the opportunity to implement policies that help improve the quality of the environment and reduce the vulnerability of different population groups in a cross-disciplinary framework of transparency and citizen participation. PMID:24863994

  18. Impact of the 2008 Economic and Financial Crisis on Child Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rajmil, Luis; Fernandez de Sanmamed, María-José; Choonara, Imti; Faresjö, Tomas; Hjern, Anders; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Lucas, Patricia J.; Raat, Hein; Séguin, Louise; Spencer, Nick; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000–50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economic crisis has harmed children’s health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses. PMID:25019121

  19. Review of crisis resource management (CRM) principles in the setting of intraoperative malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Isaak, Robert Scott; Stiegler, Marjorie Podraza

    2016-04-01

    The practice of medicine is characterized by routine and typical cases whose management usually goes according to plan. However, the occasional case does arise which involves rare catastrophic emergencies, such as intraoperative malignant hyperthermia (MH), which require a comprehensive, coordinated, and resource-intensive treatment plan. Physicians are expected to provide expert quality care for routine, typical cases, but is it reasonable to expect the same standard of expertise and comprehensive management when the emergency involves a rare entity? Although physicians would like to say yes to this question, the reality is that no physician will ever amass the amount of experience in patient care needed to truly qualify as an expert in the management of a rare emergency entity, such as MH. However, physicians can become expert in the global process of managing emergencies by using the principles of crisis resource management (CRM). In this article, we review the key concepts of CRM, using a real life example of a team who utilized CRM principles to successfully manage an intraoperative MH crisis, despite there being no one on the team who had ever previously encountered a true MH crisis. PMID:26679497

  20. Severest crisis overlooked-Worst disruption of terrestrial environments postdates the Permian-Triassic mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Hochuli, Peter A; Sanson-Barrera, Anna; Schneebeli-Hermann, Elke; Bucher, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Generally Early Triassic floras are believed to be depauperate, suffering from protracted recovery following the Permian-Triassic extinction event. Here we present palynological data of an expanded East Greenland section documenting recovered floras in the basal Triassic (Griesbachian) and a subsequent fundamental floral turnover, postdating the Permian-Triassic boundary extinction by about 500 kyrs. This event is marked by a swap in dominating floral elements, changing from gymnosperm pollen-dominated associations in the Griesbachian to lycopsid spore-dominated assemblages in the Dienerian. This turnover coincides with an extreme δ(13)Corg negative shift revealing a severe environmental crisis, probably induced by volcanic outbursts of the Siberian Traps, accompanied by a climatic turnover, changing from cool and dry in the Griesbachian to hot and humid in the Dienerian. Estimates of sedimentation rates suggest that this environmental alteration took place within some 1000 years. Similar, coeval changes documented on the North Indian Margin (Pakistan) and the Bowen Basin (Australia) indicate the global extent of this crisis. Our results evidence the first profound disruption of the recovery of terrestrial environments about 500kyrs after the Permian-Triassic extinction event. It was followed by another crisis, about 1myrs later thus, the Early Triassic can be characterised as a time of successive environmental crises. PMID:27340926

  1. Severest crisis overlooked—Worst disruption of terrestrial environments postdates the Permian–Triassic mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochuli, Peter A.; Sanson-Barrera, Anna; Schneebeli-Hermann, Elke; Bucher, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    Generally Early Triassic floras are believed to be depauperate, suffering from protracted recovery following the Permian–Triassic extinction event. Here we present palynological data of an expanded East Greenland section documenting recovered floras in the basal Triassic (Griesbachian) and a subsequent fundamental floral turnover, postdating the Permian–Triassic boundary extinction by about 500 kyrs. This event is marked by a swap in dominating floral elements, changing from gymnosperm pollen-dominated associations in the Griesbachian to lycopsid spore-dominated assemblages in the Dienerian. This turnover coincides with an extreme δ13Corg negative shift revealing a severe environmental crisis, probably induced by volcanic outbursts of the Siberian Traps, accompanied by a climatic turnover, changing from cool and dry in the Griesbachian to hot and humid in the Dienerian. Estimates of sedimentation rates suggest that this environmental alteration took place within some 1000 years. Similar, coeval changes documented on the North Indian Margin (Pakistan) and the Bowen Basin (Australia) indicate the global extent of this crisis. Our results evidence the first profound disruption of the recovery of terrestrial environments about 500kyrs after the Permian–Triassic extinction event. It was followed by another crisis, about 1myrs later thus, the Early Triassic can be characterised as a time of successive environmental crises.

  2. A dynamic factor model of the evaluation of the financial crisis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, F; Kinay, B

    2010-01-01

    Factor analysis has been widely used in economics and finance in situations where a relatively large number of variables are believed to be driven by few common causes of variation. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA) which is a combination of factor and time series analysis, involves autocorrelation matrices calculated from multivariate time series. Dynamic factor models were traditionally used to construct economic indicators, macroeconomic analysis, business cycles and forecasting. In recent years, dynamic factor models have become more popular in empirical macroeconomics. They have more advantages than other methods in various respects. Factor models can for instance cope with many variables without running into scarce degrees of freedom problems often faced in regression-based analysis. In this study, a model which determines the effect of the global crisis on Turkey is proposed. The main aim of the paper is to analyze how several macroeconomic quantities show an alteration before the evolution of the crisis and to decide if a crisis can be forecasted or not. PMID:20653182

  3. Cooling of hot bubbles by surface texture during the boiling crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Navdeep; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa

    2015-11-01

    We report the existence of maxima in critical heat flux (CHF) enhancement for pool boiling on textured hydrophilic surfaces and reveal the interaction mechanism between bubbles and surface texture that governs the boiling crisis phenomenon. Boiling is a process of fundamental importance in many engineering and industrial applications but the maximum heat flux that can be absorbed by the boiling liquid (or CHF) is limited by the boiling crisis. Enhancing the CHF of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions on a global scale. However, the fundamental mechanisms behind this enhancement are not well understood, with some previous studies indicating that CHF should increase monotonically with increasing texture density. However, using pool boiling experiments on a parametrically designed set of plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces, we show that there is an optimum intermediate texture density that maximizes CHF and further that the length scale of this texture is of fundamental significance. Using imbibition experiments and high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we reveal the fundamental mechanisms governing the CHF enhancement maxima in boiling crisis. We acknowledge funding from the Chevron corporation.

  4. Financial Bubbles, Real Estate Bubbles, Derivative Bubbles, and the Financial and Economic Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier; Woodard, Ryan

    The financial crisis of 2008, which started with an initially well-defined epicenter focused on mortgage backed securities (MBS), has been cascading into a global economic recession, whose increasing severity and uncertain duration has led and is continuing to lead to massive losses and damage for billions of people. Heavy central bank interventions and government spending programs have been launched worldwide and especially in the USA and Europe, with the hope to unfreeze credit and bolster consumption. Here, we present evidence and articulate a general framework that allows one to diagnose the fundamental cause of the unfolding financial and economic crisis: the accumulation of several bubbles and their interplay and mutual reinforcement have led to an illusion of a "perpetual money machine" allowing financial institutions to extract wealth from an unsustainable artificial process. Taking stock of this diagnostic, we conclude that many of the interventions to address the so-called liquidity crisis and to encourage more consumption are ill-advised and even dangerous, given that precautionary reserves were not accumulated in the "good times" but that huge liabilities were. The most "interesting" present times constitute unique opportunities but also great challenges, for which we offer a few recommendations.

  5. Addressing the global tragedy of needless pain: rethinking the United Nations single convention on narcotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Allyn L

    2007-01-01

    The lack of medical availability of effective pain medication is an enduring and expanding global health calamity. Despite important medical advances, pain remains severely under-treated worldwide, particularly in developing countries. This article contributes to the discussion of this global health crisis by considering international legal and institutional mechanisms to promote wider accessibility to critical narcotic drugs for pain relief. PMID:18076508

  6. Ebola crisis of 2014: are current strategies enough to meet the long-run challenges ahead?

    PubMed

    Gimm, Gilbert; Nichols, Len M

    2015-05-01

    The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in 2014 mobilized international efforts to contain a global health crisis. The emergence of the deadly virus in the United States and Europe among health care workers intensified fears of a worldwide epidemic. Market incentives for pharmaceutical firms to allocate their research and development resources toward Ebola treatments were weak because the limited number of EVD cases were previously confined to rural areas of West Africa. We discuss 3 policy recommendations to address the long-term challenges of EVD in an interconnected world. PMID:25790395

  7. Global politics in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Wulf, D; Willson, P D

    1984-01-01

    . The US denied the suggestion that the economic crisis is a global one. Data used by the US denied the suggestion that the economic crisis is a global one. Data used by the US delegation that supported an optimistic worldview were criticized for being biased and based on the fallacy of averages. US delegates were asked to consider the distribution upon which the data were founded. PMID:6500023

  8. Crisis? What crisis. Five states not experiencing crushing malpractice premium increases.

    PubMed

    Schneck, Lisa H

    2002-01-01

    Five states not experiencing crushing malpractice premium increases. As daily headlines across the nation advertise the plight of physicians, medical practices and hospitals struggling to cope with soaring medical malpractice costs, five states--California, Colorado, Indiana, New Mexico and Wisconsin--have established countermeasures that are keeping them on the sidelines of the crisis. PMID:12500748

  9. Service-Learning in Crisis Communication Education: Revisiting Coombs' Objectives for the Crisis Communication Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maresh-Fuehrer, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to revisit Coombs' suggestions for teaching the crisis communication course using service-learning as a framework. The author sought to assess the effectiveness of using this method in terms of the benefits to both students and the partnering organization and students' perceptions of whether they met the learning…

  10. Organ shortage crisis: problems and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Abouna, G M

    2008-01-01

    The demand for organ transplantation has rapidly increased all over the world during the past decade due to the increased incidence of vital organ failure, the rising success and greater improvement in posttransplant outcome. However, the unavailability of adequate organs for transplantation to meet the existing demand has resulted in major organ shortage crises. As a result there has been a major increase in the number of patients on transplant waiting lists as well as in the number of patients dying while on the waiting list. In the United States, for example, the number of patients on the waiting list in the year 2006 had risen to over 95,000, while the number of patient deaths was over 6,300. This organ shortage crisis has deprived thousands of patients of a new and better quality of life and has caused a substantial increase in the cost of alternative medical care such as dialysis. There are several procedures and pathways which have been shown to provide practical and effective solutions to this crisis. These include implementation of appropriate educational programs for the public and hospital staff regarding the need and benefits of organ donation, the appropriate utilization of marginal (extended criteria donors), acceptance of paired organ donation, the acceptance of the concept of "presumed consent," implementation of a system of "rewarded gifting" for the family of the diseased donor and also for the living donor, developing an altruistic system of donation from a living donor to an unknown recipient, and accepting the concept of a controlled system of financial payment for the donor. As is outlined in this presentation, we strongly believe that the implementation of these pathways for obtaining organs from the living and the dead donors, with appropriate consideration of the ethical, religious and social criteria of the society, the organ shortage crisis will be eliminated and many lives will be saved through the process of organ donation and

  11. Messinian salinity crisis regulated by competing tectonics and erosion at the Gibraltar arc.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Castellanos, D; Villaseñor, A

    2011-12-15

    The Messinian salinity crisis (5.96 to 5.33 million years ago) was caused by reduced water inflow from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea resulting in widespread salt precipitation and a decrease in Mediterranean sea level of about 1.5 kilometres due to evaporation. The reduced connectivity between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean at the time of the salinity crisis is thought to have resulted from tectonic uplift of the Gibraltar arc seaway and global sea-level changes, both of which control the inflow of water required to compensate for the hydrological deficit of the Mediterranean. However, the different timescales on which tectonic uplift and changes in sea level occur are difficult to reconcile with the long duration of the shallow connection between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic needed to explain the large amount of salt precipitated. Here we use numerical modelling to show that seaway erosion caused by the Atlantic inflow could sustain such a shallow connection between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean by counteracting tectonic uplift. The erosion and uplift rates required are consistent with previous mountain erosion studies, with the present altitude of marine sediments in the Gibraltar arc and with geodynamic models suggesting a lithospheric slab tear underneath the region. The moderate Mediterranean sea-level drawdown during the early stages of the Messinian salinity crisis can be explained by an uplift of a few millimetres per year counteracted by similar rates of erosion due to Atlantic inflow. Our findings suggest that the competition between uplift and erosion can result in harmonic coupling between erosion and the Mediterranean sea level, providing an alternative mechanism for the cyclicity observed in early salt precipitation deposits and calling into question previous ideas regarding the timing of the events that occurred during the Messinian salinity crisis. PMID:22170684

  12. Quantitative Assessment of Preventive Behaviors in France during the Fukushima Nuclear Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Crépey, Pascal; Pivette, Mathilde; Bar-Hen, Avner

    2013-01-01

    Background The Fukushima nuclear disaster has generated worldwide concern on the risk of exposure to nuclear radiations. In Europe, health authorities had to issue statements about the lack of usefulness of iodine based preventive treatments within their borders. However a lack of confidence in official messages has developed in various European countries due to recent perceived failures in managing public health crises. The lay population preventive behaviors in this context are largely unknown. Consequently, to examine the effects of public health crisis on lay behaviors leading to pharmaceuticals purchases, we studied the sales of iodine-based products in France before, during and after the crisis. Methods We focused our study on 58 iodine-based drugs available with and without a physician prescription. Our data came from a stratified sample of 3004 pharmacies in metropolitan France. Our study period was from January 2010 to April 2012, with a focus on March-April 2011. We differentiated sales of drugs prescribed by physicians from sales of drugs obtained without a prescription. We used a CUSUM method to detect abnormal increases in sales activity and cross-correlations to assess shifts in sales timing. Results Sales of iodine-based nutritional complements, and later sales of iodine-based homeopathic remedies, substantially increased (up to 3-fold) during a period of 20 days. Their temporal patterns were correlated to specific events during the crisis. Prescriptions for iodine-based homeopathy increased (up to 35% of all sales). Iodine pills, strictly regulated by health authorities, have also been sold but on a very small scale. Conclusion These results indicate uncontrolled preventive behaviors resulting in the potentially unjustifiable consumption of available drugs. They have implications in public policy, and demonstrate the usefulness of drug sales surveillance for instantaneous evaluation of population behavior during a global crisis. PMID:23505499

  13. Exploiting social media for Army operations: Syrian crisis use case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kase, Sue E.; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Al Amin, Tanvir; Abdelzaher, Tarek

    2014-05-01

    Millions of people exchange user-generated information through online social media (SM) services. The prevalence of SM use globally and its growing significance to the evolution of events has attracted the attention of the Army and other agencies charged with protecting national security interests. The information exchanged in SM sites and the networks of people who interact with these online communities can provide value to Army intelligence efforts. SM could facilitate the Military Decision Making Process by providing ongoing assessment of military actions from a local citizen perspective. Despite potential value, there are significant technological barriers to leveraging SM. SM collection and analysis are difficult in the dynamic SM environment and deception is a real concern. This paper introduces a credibility analysis approach and prototype fact-finding technology called the "Apollo Fact-finder" that mitigates the problem of inaccurate or falsified SM data. Apollo groups data into sets (or claims), corroborating specific observations, then iteratively assesses both claim and source credibility resulting in a ranking of claims by likelihood of occurrence. These credibility analysis approaches are discussed in the context of a conflict event, the Syrian civil war, and applied to tweets collected in the aftermath of the Syrian chemical weapons crisis.

  14. Crisis management can leave residual effects.

    PubMed

    Margolis, G L; DeMuro, P R

    1991-10-01

    A healthcare organization that once suffered from poor financial performance may fail to correct recovery methods that can cause lingering legal and accounting problems. A crisis management style is prone to creating problems with an organization's debt structure, Medicare and Medicaid payment, tax issues, labor relations, licensing and accreditation, compliance with fraud and abuse rules, and accounting for charity care. After stabilizing a worrisome financial situation, a healthcare organization should conduct an internal audit to ensure that its legal and accounting practices remain above board. PMID:10145510

  15. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage leading to adrenal crisis

    PubMed Central

    McGowan-Smyth, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A 77-year-old man presented with an acute worsening of chronic back pain. CT showed dense bilateral adrenal glands suggestive of adrenal haemorrhage which was confirmed by MRI. Despite appropriate glucocorticoid replacement for adrenal insufficiency, 7 days after admission this patient suffered an adrenal crisis. Owing to the timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment was given and the patient survived. Large bilateral adrenal haemorrhage however, can lead to cardiovascular collapse and death if not appropriately diagnosed and managed promptly. Despite its rarity, bilateral adrenal haemorrhage should always be considered as a differential for back pain in the setting of an acute illness due to its potentially fatal consequences. PMID:24969071

  16. Dark Energy: A Crisis for Fundamental Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Stubbs, Christopher [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

    2010-09-01

    Astrophysical observations provide robust evidence that our current picture of fundamental physics is incomplete. The discovery in 1998 that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (apparently due to gravitational repulsion between regions of empty space!) presents us with a profound challenge, at the interface between gravity and quantum mechanics. This "Dark Energy" problem is arguably the most pressing open question in modern fundamental physics. The first talk will describe why the Dark Energy problem constitutes a crisis, with wide-reaching ramifications. One consequence is that we should probe our understanding of gravity at all accessible scales, and the second talk will present experiments and observations that are exploring this issue.

  17. Impending conservation crisis for Southeast Asian amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jodi; Brown, Rafe; Bain, Raoul; Kusrini, Mirza; Inger, Robert; Stuart, Bryan; Wogan, Guin; Thy, Neang; Chan-ard, Tanya; Trung, Cao Tien; Diesmos, Arvin; Iskandar, Djoko T.; Lau, Michael; Ming, Leong Tzi; Makchai, Sunchai; Truong, Nguyen Quang; Phimmachak, Somphouthone

    2010-01-01

    With an understudied amphibian fauna, the highest deforestation rate on the planet and high harvesting pressures, Southeast Asian amphibians are facing a conservation crisis. Owing to the overriding threat of habitat loss, the most critical conservation action required is the identification and strict protection of habitat assessed as having high amphibian species diversity and/or representing distinctive regional amphibian faunas. Long-term population monitoring, enhanced survey efforts, collection of basic biological and ecological information, continued taxonomic research and evaluation of the impact of commercial trade for food, medicine and pets are also needed. Strong involvement of regional stakeholders, students and professionals is essential to accomplish these actions. PMID:20007165

  18. Managing a volcanic crisis using Exupery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hort, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Despite ever increasing efforts to monitor historically active volcanoes many of those are still very poorly or unmonitored, even in highly populated areas. In case of volcanic unrest or even a volcanic crisis quickly assessing the situation is therefore often very difficult due to the little information that is available for that specific volcano. With vastly increasing possibilities in communication technology and managing huge data volumes mobile systems become more and more an option to be used as a crisis management tool in volcanology. This is going to supplement different programs that have supported volcanic crisis management efforts in third world countries in the past that includes sending experts and improving or even installing new instruments around the volcano. One of the main problems especially when quickly upgrading the monitoring system during a crisis is that each instrument usually comes with its own acquisition and processing system. This makes it very difficult to manage the monitoring network and provide an interdisciplinary interpretation of the data with respect to the activity status of the volcano. Here we present a newly developed volcano fast response system which overcomes several of these shortcomings. The core of the system is a novel database (SEISHUB) that allows for the collection of data of various kinds, i.e. simple time series data like seismic data, gas measurements, GPS measurements, as well as satellite data (SO2 flux, thermal anomaly, ground deformation). Part of the collected data may also come from an already existing network. Data from new field instruments are transmitted through a wireless network that has been specifically designed for the volcano fast response system. One of the main difficulties with such a multidisciplinary data set is an easy access to the data. This is provided through a common Web based GIS interface which allows various datalayers being simultaneously accessed through a Web Browser. The

  19. Crisis in medico-legal death investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Joye M.

    2002-01-01

    There is a crisis in the field of medico-legal death investigation! This medical practice is one that most physicians do not think about until they are called in the middle of the night and informed that their patient has died and medical history is requested. Worse still, the trauma surgeon may need to explain why the patient did not survive the life-saving techniques used at his or her medical institution. The worst-case scenario is when the clinician is hit with a malpractice lawsuit. PMID:11837352

  20. Avoiding School Management Conflicts and Crisis through Formal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwogbaga, David M. E.; Nwankwo, Oliver U.; Onwa, Doris O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined how conflicts and crisis can be avoided through formal communication. It was necessitated by the observation that most of the conflicts and crisis which tend to mar school management today are functions of the inconsistencies arising from "grapevines, rumours, and gossips" generated through informal communication…

  1. Toward Successful School Crisis Intervention: 9 Key Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaksec, Charles M., III

    2007-01-01

    Despite their best and frequently heroic efforts, school crisis intervention teams often find themselves unprepared for the many types of tragedies they face. This timely text prompts crisis intervention team members to reevaluate their beliefs and practices and consider a new approach to dealing with school crises. The author, a longtime school…

  2. A Self-Insured Health Program: From Crisis to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffes, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Moberly Area Community College faced a crisis in healthcare coverage that eventually lead to enhanced benefits, greater control, plan stability, and increased flexibility through a self-insured program. Presented here is how Moberly Area Community College overcame the health care coverage crisis and how other institutions can benefit from the…

  3. School Energy Crisis: Problems and Solutions. AASA Critical Issues Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Shirley Boes

    This publication provides an overview of the energy crisis in schools. This overview has been written for school administrators who desire to understand their energy problems and to know what to do to conserve energy in their schools. Included are: (1) the impact of the energy crisis on the nation and the schools; (2) what state education agencies…

  4. Age, and Midcareer Crisis: An Empirical Study of Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entrekin, L.V.; Everett, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the midlife career/crisis transition period of academic staff surveyed in four Australian Universities. Supports a generalized career stage model and a specific career stage model of academic staff, who are shown to be particularly susceptible to the midlife crisis/transition phenomenon. (Author/JAC)

  5. World Hunger Crisis Kit. Hope for the Hungry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    This booklet introduces the problem of world hunger and provides information, facts, and perspectives about the crisis. Section one presents the reader with the basic facts of the hunger crisis through a self-survey, a statistical study of the developed Oil Producing Export Countries (OPEC), and a one-page indication of what one would have to give…

  6. A Cost Sharing Plan: Solutions for the Child Care Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.

    This booklet discusses the current child care crisis and suggests a solution to the crisis. The gap between the cost of child care and parents' ability to pay is restricting the expansion and availability of child care services and undercutting the quality of child care. The average cost of full-day child care in the Delaware Valley, Pennsylvania,…

  7. School Crisis Teams within an Incident Command System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brock, Stephen E.; Reeves, Melissa A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the increasing attention given to the need for schools to be prepared to respond in a variety of crisis situations, there is a lack of information about how to coordinate with multiple agencies following a crisis. This article describes the U. S. Department of Homeland Security's (2004) National Incident Management System and its Incident…

  8. Strengthening Rural Schools: Training Paraprofessionals in Crisis Prevention and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Stott, Kathryn A.

    The long-term effects of crisis and tragedy can be improved significantly by immediate intervention and emergency mental health services. Providing crisis intervention in rural schools poses challenges related to lack of financial resources, community resources, and trained personnel; isolation of rural schools; and long distances between school…

  9. The Philadelphia School District's Ongoing Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskey, John; Kuperberg, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the budget crisis that the School District of Philadelphia has faced for the past few years. Three specific events triggered the 2012 crisis: an abrupt reduction in federal and state funding, the inability of the district to cut many of its costs, and political pressures on the district to spend available revenues in a given…

  10. Benefits and Challenges of School-Based Crisis Response Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Marsha; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Offers a rationale for the importance of school-based intervention in crisis and emergency situations, outlining a model for crisis response policies and procedures. Discusses benefits to schools of developing a team to implement the model, obstacles that can impede full implementation, and strategies for minimizing identified obstacles. (SM)

  11. Responding to Crisis at a School. A Resource Aid Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health Schools.

    Schools are increasingly confronted with crisis events. This resource aid packet provides materials to facilitate planning and implementation of a school-based crisis response and related staff training. The packet is divided into four sections. The first offers a brief overview that can be shared with school staff to raise awareness about the…

  12. The Greek Financial Crisis: Discourses of Difference or Solidarity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickes, Hans; Otten, Tina; Weymann, Laura Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    The so-called Greek Financial Crisis, which has been the object of close attention in the German media since the end of 2009, has caused a public debate on who should be held responsible for the decline of crisis-hit Greece, the common currency and the Eurozone. The media's enduring and controversial public discussion has lately been referred to…

  13. Defining Crisis in Families of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health-related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can…

  14. Utilization of medical care following the Three Mile Island crisis.

    PubMed

    Houts, P S; Hu, T W; Henderson, R A; Cleary, P D; Tokuhata, G

    1984-02-01

    Four studies are reported on how utilization of primary health care was affected by the Three Mile Island (TMI) crisis and subsequent distress experienced by persons living in the vicinity of the plant. The studies concerned: 1) Blue Cross-Blue Shield records of claims by primary care physicians in the vicinity of TMI; 2) utilization rates in a family practice located near the facility; 3) interviews with persons living within five miles of TMI following the crisis; and 4) responses to a questionnaire by primary care physicians practicing within 25 miles of TMI. All four studies indicated only slight increases in utilization rates during the year following the crisis. One study found that persons who were upset during the crisis tended to be high practice utilizers both before and after the crisis. These results suggest that, while patterns of physician utilization prior to the TMI crisis predicted emotional response during the crisis, the impact of the TMI crisis on subsequent physician utilization was small. PMID:6691524

  15. Anorexia Nervosa--Parents in Crisis--The Parent Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hueth, Colleen Kirkpatrick

    Parents who live with and deal with anorexia nervosa in a daughter often find themselves in crisis. The parent group is one response to that crisis. This study surveyed 30 Montana treatment centers, the 13 Montana AA high schools, and the 12 Montana colleges, universities, and junior colleges to determine what, if any, parent groups existed and…

  16. The Health Care Crisis in America. Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedergang, Mark

    This guide provides a framework for study circles to use in discussing the health care crisis in the United States. The guide begins with a background section that gives an overview of the health care crisis; then it presents a two-part framework for discussion. Part 1 focuses on the ethical issues that underlie any policy decisions. It points out…

  17. Presidential Perspectives of Crisis Preparedness at Christian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Stacy M.; Heiselt, April K.

    2012-01-01

    Crises, whether human or natural, occur on all college campuses. Extensive research has been conducted on crisis preparedness at four-year, nondenominational institutions. This study examined crisis preparedness at Christian institutions of higher education. The study examined the perspectives of presidents of Christian institutions of higher…

  18. Coping with Crisis: Teaching Students Managerial and Ethical Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Laurence

    1990-01-01

    Describes a three-week section of a business communication course on the strategies of crisis communication. Provides background on the emergence of the field, a summary of several notable case studies for possible consideration, and suggestions on how crisis communication can be successfully integrated into the business communication curriculum.…

  19. Effectiveness of Blog Response Strategies to Minimize Crisis Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomsic, Louis P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of four post-crisis responses on five different variables using a blog tool. The four post-crisis responses are information only, compensation, apology, and sympathy. The five dependent variables are reputation, anger (negative emotion), negative word-of-mouth, account acceptance and state of the publics based on…

  20. A Proposed Solution to the Scholarly Communications Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatzle, Chad

    2005-01-01

    After reviewing the history and parameters of the scholarly communications crisis, particularly in regard to skyrocketing prices for journals in the natural sciences, the author reviews and rejects previously attempted solutions. He then employs the principles of game theory in proposing a new solution to the crisis.

  1. Development and Reliability of the Comprehensive Crisis Plan Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspiranti, Kathleen B.; Pelchar, Taylor K.; McCLeary, Daniel F.; Bain, Sherry K.; Foster, Lisa N.

    2011-01-01

    It is of vital importance that children are educated in a safe environment. Every school needs to have a well-developed crisis management document containing plans for prevention, intervention, and postvention. We developed the Comprehensive Crisis Plan Checklist (CCPC) to serve as a valuable tool that can be used to assist practitioners with…

  2. The Status of Crisis Management at NASPA Member Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catullo, Linda A.; Walker, David A.; Floyd, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the level of crisis preparedness in higher education from the perspective of chief student affairs administrators at residential universities post-September 11, 2001 to pre-Virginia Tech shootings in April 2007. Crisis preparedness was determined by compiling and comparing data results derived from an instrument implemented in…

  3. Mapping a Crisis, One Text Message at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauduy, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    An interactive mapping project is revolutionizing the way crises are reported and managed, and is spotlighting the value of citizen journalism. The project, called Ushahidi, which means testimony in Swahili, uses crowdsourcing (gathering information from a large number of people) to map crisis information. This crisis mapping tool has since been…

  4. The Two Cultures and the Crisis in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, David

    2007-01-01

    The debate over the crisis in the humanities has focused on several disparate problems but failed to illuminate their underlying ground. To understand the crisis we have to understand the genealogy of the university and the origin of the humanities as a distinct set of disciplines. The university has been governed by four distinct models of higher…

  5. Is There a Crisis in British Secondary Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Harry

    1989-01-01

    Advertised as a response to a secondary school's crisis in Great Britain, the Education Reform Act (1988) is actually engineering a crisis by attempting to change the nature of British society and politics. Traditional arrangements are yielding to a more centralized educational finance system, a national curriculum, and increased teacher…

  6. Classroom Crisis Counseling in the Aftermath of School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Norma Jean

    Numerous counseling needs are generated in the aftermath of school crises, particularly crises involving school violence. Meeting these needs can be assisted when school psychologists involve classroom teachers in the planning and implementation of crisis counseling. This paper provides information about a crisis counseling intervention model…

  7. Is There an Identity Crisis in Medical School Pharmacology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csaky, T. Z.

    1976-01-01

    Rudolf Buchheim's thesis on why and how to teach pharmacology to medical students is reexamined in view of the so-called identity crisis. It is suggested that the crisis is not one of identity but one of acceptance of medical school pharmacology by clinical colleagues and professional educators. (LBH)

  8. Squeezed from All Sides: The CSU Crisis and California's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2011

    2011-01-01

    California long enjoyed rapid growth, abundant jobs, and expanding college opportunity--key elements of the California dream. Now the state is struggling to recover from its worst economic crisis in generations, a demographic slowdown, a devastating collapse of the wealth of the state' families from the housing crisis, and severe cutbacks in…

  9. Crisis Begets Change: Hurricane Recovery at Gulf Coast Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Mahauganee Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature on campus crisis management and the breadth of research on organizational change, little is known about organizational changes prompted by campus crisis. The purpose of this study is to examine the changes made to the operational profiles of Gulf Coast institutions during the process of recovering from major…

  10. Crisis intervention for people with severe mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Suzanne; Irving, Claire B; Adams, Clive E; Driver, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Background A particularly difficult challenge for community treatment of people with serious mental illnesses is the delivery of an acceptable level of care during the acute phases of severe mental illness. Crisis intervention models of care were developed as a possible solution. Objectives To review the effects of crisis intervention models for anyone with serious mental illness experiencing an acute episode, compared with ‘standard care’. Search methods We updated the 1998, 2003 and 2006 searches with a search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s Register of trials (2010) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials of crisis intervention models versus standard care for people with severe mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data from these trials and we estimated risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assumed that people who left early from a trial had no improvement. Main results Three new studies have been found since the last review in 2006 to add to the five studies already included in this review. None of the previously included studies investigated crisis intervention alone; all used a form of home care for acutely ill people, which included elements of crisis intervention. However, one of the new studies focuses purely on crisis intervention as provided by Crisis Resolution Home Teams within the UK; the two other new studies investigated crisis houses i.e. residential alternatives to hospitalisation providing home-like environments. Crisis intervention appears to reduce repeat admissions to hospital after the initial ‘index’ crises investigated in the included studies, this was particularly so for mobile crisis teams supporting patients in their own homes. Crisis intervention reduces the number of people leaving the study early, reduces family burden, is a more

  11. Might Astrobiological Findings Evoke a Religious Crisis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).

  12. Malaysia urges ASEAN to tackle AIDS crisis.

    PubMed

    2000-08-01

    Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. PMID:12349742

  13. Crisis relocation and nuclear deterrence. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, J.L.

    1986-04-07

    The difficulty of providing adequate protection to the civilian population with some kind of civil defense program is magnified by the technology available in the nuclear age. The United States expanded its civil defense program in the 1950's to include a measure of protection in the event of the explosion of nuclear devices. However, the history of the United States civil defense program has been generally characterized by inadequate funding and little interest at all levels of government. Most recently, the civil defense program has been associated and considered a component of nuclear deterrence. Under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the government will rely on crisis relocation as the primary means of protecting the population in the event of a nuclear attack or detonation. This plan envisions that evacuation of the population from high-risk areas to safer host areas. Does crisis relocation provide the country with a credible component to our nuclear deterrence. Do the leaders and citizens have confidence in the nation's ability to protect the civilian population. Have the leaders been completely forthright in preparing the population for the possibility of a nuclear war. These and related issues are discussed in this essay.

  14. Community Disasters, Psychological Trauma, and Crisis Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The current issue of International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience is focused on community disasters, the impact of trauma exposure, and crisis intervention. The articles incorporated include studies ranging from the World Trade Center disaster to Hurricane Sandy. These studies are related to public attitudes and beliefs about disease outbreaks, the impact of volunteerism following the World Trade Center attacks, alcohol misuse among police officers after Hurricane Katrina, posttraumatic stress disorder after Hurricane Sandy among those exposed to the Trade Center disaster, compassion fatigue and burnout among trauma workers, crisis interventions in Eastern Europe, and police officers' use of stress intervention services. While this scope is broad, it reflects the knowledge that has emerged since the Buffalo Creek and Chernobyl catastrophes, to the more recent Hurricane Katrina and Sandy disasters. Given the current threat environment, psychologists, social workers, and other providers need to be aware of these developments and be prepared to mitigate the impact of psychological trauma following community disasters, whether natural or man-made. PMID:25983663

  15. ["Crisis"--oscillating between keyword and buzzword. On the discourse about a "crisis of medicine" in the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Geiger, Karin

    2010-01-01

    The buzzword "crisis" has not only become omnipresent since the recent financial crisis. The term that originated in Ancient Greece underwent several different usages--quantitatively as well as qualitatively; especially in the Weimar Republic, the time period that has long been considered as the crisis era par excellence. Using the discourse about the "crisis of medicine" in the 1920s and the early 1930s as an example, the article attempts to provide a critical reflection on the concept of "crisis". The focus of this article is on the idea's construction, the different semantic usages of "crisis" and the motives of the different authors for their respective rhetorical applications of this term. The analysis of the examined publications on the "crisis of medicine", how they influenced other periods and the reconstruction of their origin show that the semantics of the word "crisis" went far beyond a simply negative connotation, and with regard to its rhetorical usage have oscillated between keyword and a meaningless but catchy buzzword. PMID:21328922

  16. Oceanographic Changes through the Early Triassic Crisis Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algeo, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies of diverse paleoceanographic proxies have provided the basis for reconstructing in some detail oceanographic changes during the end-Permian mass extinction and through the ~5-million-year-long Early Triassic crisis interval. Conodont δ18O records have demonstrated strong warming, to tropical sea-surface temperatures as high as 40oC, during the Griesbachian to Dienerian substages1-2. The crisis interval also was associated with major perturbations in the marine carbon and sulfur cycles. Three episodes of strong warming coincided with decreases in marine carbonate δ13C and marine sulfate δ34S 3, as well as increases in Δδ13Cvert4 and enhanced subaerial weathering fluxes5-6. Lower δ13Ccarb and δ34Ssulf values are indicative of more limited burial of reduced C and S in organic carbon and pyrite, consistent with declines in marine productivity and bacterial sulfate reduction3. Increased Δδ13Cvert is indicative of intensified stratification of the oceanic water column4, and increased subaerial weathering fluxes probably reflect higher soil reaction rates and possibly an intensified hydrologic cycle5-6. Collectively, these patterns are indicative of the globally integrated response of marine and terrestrial regimes to episodic perturbations in the form of extreme warming events1-2,7. These warming events may have been triggered by major volcanic eruptions8, as suggested by recent studies of volcanic ash layers9-10 and rare earth elements11 in South China P-Tr boundary sections. The ~2-million-year-long Early Triassic interval of extreme sea-surface temperatures came to an abrupt end around the Smithian-Spathian boundary1-2. Cooling coincided with a sharp decline in Δδ13Cvert due to stronger vertical overturning circulation4 and a major positive excursion in δ13Ccarb due to increased marine productivity related to greater mixing of nutrients into the ocean-surface layer12. The late Spathian was characterized by a final, weaker episode of sea

  17. Poverty crisis in the Third World: the contradictions of World Bank policy.

    PubMed

    Burkett, P

    1991-01-01

    Politicians, the mainstream media, and orthodox social science have all been telling us of a final victory of capitalism over socialism, suggesting that capitalism is the only viable option for solving the world's problems. Yet, the global capitalist system is itself entering the third decade of a profound structural crisis, the costs of which have been borne largely by the exploited and oppressed peoples of the underdeveloped periphery. While the World Bank's latest World Development Report recognizes the current poverty crisis in the third world, its "two-part strategy" for alleviating poverty is based on an inadequate analysis of how peripheral capitalist development marginalizes the basic needs of the third world poor. Hence, the World Bank's assertion that free-market policies are consistent with effective antipoverty programs does not confront the class structures and global capitalist interests bound up with the reproduction of mass poverty in the third world. The World Bank's subordination of the basic needs of the poor to free-market adjustments and reforms in fact suggests that the real purpose of its "two-part strategy" is to ensure continued extraction of surplus from third world countries by maintaining the basic structure of imperialist underdevelopment. PMID:1917207

  18. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0,37, p = 0.004) of Eginition Hospital. However, the data from the 4 hospitals of the study revealed a negative correlation between average income and visits to outpatients' departments (R2 = 0.70, p = 0.02) and emergency units (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between the average income and suicide rates (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.007), as well as a positive correlation between the average income and divorce rates (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001) were found. The findings show several similarities with previous surveys in

  19. Climate change and managing water crisis: Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon manifested mainly through global warming. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported its negative consequences on natural resources, anthropogenic activities, and natural disasters. The El Nino and La Nina have affected hydrologic regimes and ecosystems. It has been observed that the average temperature in 1995 was 0.4°C higher than that in 1895. By the end of the 21st century, 10% of the area of Bangladesh is likely to be submerged by the sea. Most of the islands of Pacific Ocean will disappear. A major part of Maldives will be submerged. The sea level is expected to rise by 30-150 cm. Extreme events such as floods, cyclones, tsunamis, and droughts have become regular phenomena in many parts of the world. Other adverse impacts are proliferation of water-borne diseases, sea water intrusion, salinization of coastal areas, loss of biodiversity, eco-degradation of watersheds and global glacial decline, and haphazard snow melts/thaws. In turn, these factors have serious effect on water resources. Pakistan is confronting similar climate change. Meteorological data reveal that winter temperatures are rising and summers are getting cooler. Temperature is expected to increase by 0.9°C and 1.5°C by years 2020 and 2050, respectively. Water resources in Pakistan are affected by climate change as it impacts the behavior of glaciers, rainfall patterns, greenhouse gas emissions, recurrence of extreme events such as floods and droughts. Severe floods have occurred in the years 1950, 1956, 1957, 1973, 1976, 1978, 1988, 1992, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Pakistan has faced the worst-ever droughts during the period from 1998 to 2004. Pakistan has surface water potential of 140 million acre feet (MAF) and underground water reserve of 56 MAF. It is one of the most water-stressed countries in the world. The per capita annual availability of water has reduced from 5140 m3 in 1950 to 1000 m3 now. It is fast approaching towards water

  20. The family, crisis and chronic illness: an evolutionary model.

    PubMed

    Shaw, M C; Halliday, P H

    1992-05-01

    While chronic illness has a profound impact upon the individual, an immense burden is imposed upon the family. When the competing demands of an illness and the family escalate exponentially, there may be a crisis. Traditionally, crisis theory has been applied to acute care contexts such as emergency, intensive care and mental health nursing. Yet, clinical experience with families and chronic illness supports the notion of periodic crises from the prediagnostic phase to the long-haul of the illness. Moreover, the authors hypothesize that the family's perception of the event determines whether the crisis is perceived as a threat or a challenge. This paper thus addresses the perception of crisis within the framework of chronic illness from a biological and family systems nursing perspective. First, the theory of Humberto Maturana, a Chilean biologist, is explored and applied to clinical observations regarding family, crisis and chronic illness. Second, an evolutionary model for conceptualizing crisis and chronic illness is presented. Third, the role of beliefs in the family perceptions of crisis and chronic illness is discussed. PMID:1602067

  1. Memories of Crisis: Bohr, Kuhn, and the Quantum Mechanical ``Revolution''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Suman

    2013-04-01

    ``The history of science, to my knowledge,'' wrote Thomas Kuhn, describing the years just prior to the development of matrix and wave mechanics, ``offers no equally clear, detailed, and cogent example of the creative functions of normal science and crisis.'' By 1924, most quantum theorists shared a sense that there was much wrong with all extant atomic models. Yet not all shared equally in the sense that the failure was either terribly surprising or particularly demoralizing. Not all agreed, that is, that a crisis for Bohr-like models was a crisis for quantum theory. This paper attempts to answer four questions: two about history, two about memory. First, which sub-groups of the quantum theoretical community saw themselves and their field in a state of crisis in the early 1920s? Second, why did they do so, and how was a sense of crisis related to their theoretical practices in physics? Third, do we regard the years before 1925 as a crisis because they were followed by the quantum mechanical revolution? And fourth, to reverse the last question, were we to call into the question the existence of a crisis (for some at least) does that make a subsequent revolution less revolutionary?

  2. LENR/"Cold Fusion" and Modern Physics: A Crisis Within a Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallove, Eugene F. E.

    2004-03-01

    The primary theorists in the field of Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found, and moreover that it can be explained by hydrided metal lattice structures acting coherently. Though this was an excellent initial hypothesis, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. At the same time, compelling evidence has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were unexpected by accepted physics. The exemplars have been the work Dr. Randell Mills and his colleagues at BlackLight Power Corporation and Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa in Canada.This has led to a crisis within a crisis: Neither "cold fusion" nor "Modern Physics" will be able to explain the full range of experimental data now available---not even the data within "mainstream" cold fusion/LENR per se--- by insisting that the fundamental paradigms of Modern Physics are without significant flaw. The present crisis is of magnitude comparable to the Copernican Revolution. Neither Modern Physics nor Cold Fusion/LENR will survive in their present forms when this long delayed revolution has run its course.

  3. The other crisis: the economics and financing of maternal, newborn and child health in Asia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ian; Axelson, Henrik; Tan, B-K

    2011-07-01

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) of 2008/2009 was the largest economic slowdown since the Great Depression. It undermined the growth and development prospects of developing countries. Several recent studies estimate the impact of economic shocks on the poor and vulnerable, especially women and children. Infant and child mortality rates are still likely to continue to decline, but at lower rates than would have been the case in the absence of the GFC. Asia faces special challenges. Despite having been the fastest growing region in the world for decades, and even before the current crisis, this region accounted for nearly 34% of global deaths of children under 5, more than 40% of maternal deaths and 60% of newborn deaths. Global development goals cannot be achieved without much faster and deeper progress in Asia. Current health financing systems in much of Asia are not well placed to respond to the needs of women and their children, or the recent global financial and economic slowdown. Public expenditure is often already too low, and high levels of out-of-pocket health expenditure are an independent cause of inequity and impoverishment for women and their children. The GFC highlights the need for reforms that will improve health outcomes for the poor, protect the vulnerable from financial distress, improve public expenditure patterns and resource allocation decisions, and so strengthen health systems. This paper aims to highlight the most recent assessments of how economic shocks, including the GFC, affect the poor in developing countries, especially vulnerable women and children in Asia. It concludes that conditional cash transfers, increasing taxation on tobacco and increasing the level, and quality, of public expenditure through well-designed investment programmes are particularly relevant in the context of an economic shock. That is because these initiatives simultaneously improve health outcomes for the poor and vulnerable, protect them from further financial

  4. Global Composite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  MISR Global Images See the Light of Day     View Larger Image ... than its nadir counterpart due to enhanced reflection of light by atmospheric particulates. MISR data are processed at the ...

  5. Ukraine: Europe`s next crisis?

    SciTech Connect

    Larrabee, F.S.

    1994-07-01

    The emergence of an independent Ukraine was one of the most important geopolitical results of the collapse of the former Soviet Union. It dramatically changed the geostrategic map of Europe, creating a critical strategic buffer between Russia and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. But two years after independence, Ukraine is in the midst of a severe political and economic crisis, and engaged in a series of elections that could have major and immediate consequences not only for Ukraine`s political future and security orientation, but for Western policy. Parliamentary elections were held in March, but runoff elections are needed for about one-quarter of the seats, and presidential elections will be held June 26.

  6. Armageddon, oil, and the Middle East crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Walvoord, J.F.; Walvoord, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    This book relates the intricate subject of biblical prophecy to the current crisis in the Middle East. With the development of oil politics, Dr. Walvoord believes a new world government will emerge, centered in the Middle East, which will eclipse the United States and Russia as world powers. The world government will be subjected to catastrophic, divine judgments which precipitate a gigantic world war culminating in Armageddon. Each chapter is devoted to the scriptural explanations of events leading to the second coming of Christ. The result is a prophetic calendar summing up to the countdown to Armageddon. Some of the chapter titles include: the Arab oil blackmail; watch Jerusalen; the rising tide of world religion; the coming Middle East peace; the coming world dictator; and Armageddon: the world's death struggle.

  7. Lessons of the North Korean crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarr, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The crisis involving North Korea`s suspected nuclear weapon program is over, at least for now. Pyongyang has agreed to suspend its decision to withdraw from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and to assume its obligations allowing continued International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections of its nuclear facilities, although it has yet to accept IAEA {open_quotes}special{close_quotes} inspections of suspect nuclear sites. In exchange, North Korea obtained a few specific commitments from the United States - nuclear non-aggression, for example - as well as hints of longer-term benefits such as high-level US-North Korean talks extending to other topics, the cancellation of the US-South Korean {open_quotes}Team Spirit{close_quotes} military exercise, the right to reciprocal inspections in South Korea and an influx of South Korean and Japanese investment, provided North Korea meets its obligations under the NPT.

  8. Trauma triggering thyrotoxic crisis with lactic acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Jennifer S.; Quan, Dan K.

    2015-01-01

    Thyrotoxic crisis (TC) is defined as a life-threatening exacerbation of the hyperthyroid state that causes multiple autonomic and metabolic disturbances. It is considered to be an endocrine emergency that must be urgently diagnosed and treated. We describe a case of TC precipitated by trauma with a resultant lactic acidosis. The patient is a 24-year-old male with a history of hyperthyroidism who presented to the emergency department following a motor vehicle accident. The patient was initially tachycardic and hypertensive, however, was afebrile. Initial laboratory analysis showed an anion gap of 26, lactic acid 7.6, free T4 5.61 and thyroid stimulating hormone < 0.015. A diagnosis of TC was made, and he was treated with intravenous fluids, propranolol, and methimazole with improvement of tachycardia and lactic acidosis. We discuss the features of this case, which reviews the presentations of TC as well as its metabolic sequelae. PMID:26604530

  9. Understanding communication in counterterrorism crisis management.

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjevich, Donna D.; Barr, Pamela K.; Arnold, Jason Darrel; Johnson, Michael M.; Sa, Timothy J.; Hawley, Marilyn F.; Davis, Midge L.; Wright, Aliseya; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Wilcox, William B.; Tam, Ricky; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.

    2004-10-01

    This report describes the purpose and results of the two-year, Sandia-sponsored Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled Understanding Communication in Counterterrorism Crisis Management The purpose of this project was to facilitate the capture of key communications among team members in simulated training exercises, and to learn how to improve communication in that domain. The first section of this document details the scenario development aspects of the simulation. The second section covers the new communication technologies that were developed and incorporated into the Weapons of Mass Destruction Decision Analysis Center (WMD-DAC) suite of decision support tools. The third section provides an overview of the features of the simulation and highlights its communication aspects. The fourth section describes the Team Communication Study processes and methodologies. The fifth section discusses future directions and areas in which to apply the new technologies and study results obtained as a result of this LDRD.

  10. Infant mortality and crisis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bronfman, M

    1992-01-01

    Data derived from the Encuesta Nacional de Fecundidad y Salud (ENFES) confirm that overall levels of infant mortality in Mexico have been steadily declining. However, a more specific analysis furnishes evidence that this decline has occurred at varying rates within different social groups, reflecting an increase in social inequalities. The analytical strategy used in this article leads to three basic conclusions: (1) the impact of the economic crisis on infant mortality is reflected not in a reversal of the declining trend but an increase in social inequalities; (2) certain variables universally accepted as determinants of infant mortality, such as mother's education, seem nonsignificant for some social sectors; and (3) certain biodemographic characteristics assumed to have a uniform mortality-related behavior vary among sectors, suggesting that even these constants are determined by social factors. PMID:1735623

  11. Kesterson crisis: Sorting out the facts

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M. ); Delamore, M.; Hoffman, S. . Mid-Pacific Region)

    1990-07-01

    The Kesterson Reservoir was planned as a regulating facility to control drainage water discharges into the San Joaquin-Scaramento River Delta from the San Luis Drain'' which was to dispose of salt-ladin agricultural water. Anticipated environmental impacts of the Kesterson operations focused almost exclusively on problems related to seepage and water-logging of nearby lands. Reuse of drainage water for wetlands focused on excessive salinity. Drainage water entered the reservoir in 1978. By 1983 elevated levels of selenium were found with selenium poisoning causing deformed embryos of water birds, adult bird mortality and their poor reproductive success. An estimated 9000 kg of selenium was delivered to Kesterson between 1981 to 1986. This paper details the chronology of the Kesterson crisis and environmental remediation. 20 refs., 1 fig. (BJN)

  12. Scenario Crisis Cases in Distance Learning Sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, A.

    2013-04-01

    We discuss early results using student-lead role-play of crises and disaster scenarios to encourage engagement in distance learning sessions. The disadvantage of distance learning via web interface—the lack of face-to-face and the ease with which a student can remain quiet—is balanced by the wealth of Internet-accessible media reports of past mission disasters. Capitol College minimizes the lecture component to simply frame each session's open-ended crisis in our Mission Operations engineering course. The students are presented with a historical ‘disaster’ but not its resolution; they present their course of action, then the lecturer steps in to debrief. With a wealth of past cases available on the web, use of scenarios rather than lectures shows early signs of being viable model for encouraging discussion and interaction within distance learning for a variety of course topics.

  13. Predictability crisis in early universe cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeenk, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Inflationary cosmology has been widely accepted due to its successful predictions: for a "generic" initial state, inflation produces a homogeneous, flat, bubble with an appropriate spectrum of density perturbations. However, the discovery that inflation is "generically eternal," leading to a vast multiverse of inflationary bubbles with different low-energy physics, threatens to undermine this account. There is a "predictability crisis" in eternal inflation, because extracting predictions apparently requires a well-defined measure over the multiverse. This has led to discussions of anthropic predictions based on a measure over the multiverse, and an assumption that we are typical observers. I will give a pessimistic assessment of attempts to make predictions in this sense, emphasizing in particular problems that arise even if a unique measure can be found.

  14. Stock network stability in times of crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiberger, Raphael H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many efforts crises on financial markets are in large part still scientific black-boxes. In this paper, we use a winner-take-all approach to construct a longitudinal network of S&P 500 companies and their correlations between 2000 and 2012. A comparison to complex ecosystems is drawn, especially whether the May-Wigner theorem can describe real-world economic phenomena. The results confirm the utility of the May-Wigner theorem as a stability indicator for the US stock market, since its development matches with the two major crises of this period, the dot-com bubble and, particularly, the financial crisis. In those times of financial turmoil, the stock network changes its composition, but unlike ecological systems it tightens and the disassortative structure of prosperous markets transforms into a more centralized topology.

  15. Rate shock crisis faces completed nukes

    SciTech Connect

    Utroska, D.

    1982-05-01

    Political reluctance on the part of regulators to grant utilities a full rate base for large generating plants is a new crisis facing utilities with newly completed nuclear plants. Zero- or partial-rate treatment for large new plants will increase the financial strains of electric companies if they cannot recover their investment. Such rate decisions will affect the commitment to uncompleted and planned nuclear plants as the economic advantage is removed. Economists warn that consumer resistance to large rate increases to cover construction periods could lead to an overhaul of regulatory practices. Alternatives to sudden rate shocks could be moderated with phased-in increases or rate trending. Analysts disagree on whether consumer opposition is the beginning of a national movement or a regional response, but if other states follow Alabama's example of turning rate decisions over to the courts, it may confirm their assessment that the trending approach is unworkable. (DCK)

  16. Exploring Crisis Management in U.S. Small Businesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jon

    As a critical infrastructure, the US electricity grid supplies electricity to 340 million people within eight separate regions. The power infrastructure is vulnerable to many types of disasters capable of severing supplies of electricity. The impact on the employees and communities when small- and medium-size enterprises are shut down due to disasters can be severe. The purpose of the quantitative comparative study was to explore small- and medium-size enterprises crisis management strategies in the case of power infrastructure vulnerabilities. Perceptions of small business leaders were probed about crisis management planning relevant to three secondary factors: prior experience of crises, threat perceptions, and planning self-efficacy. Participants completed an adapted questionnaire instrument based on a five-point Likert scale for six sub-factors including resilience through planning, financial impact, operational crisis management, the perfect storm, the aftermath of survival, and atrophy. The instrument also measured three additional factors to include, prior experience of crises, threat perceptions, and planning self-efficacy, across seven types of crises. The results of this study indicated that of the 276 respondents, 104 had no crisis plans, but 172 did have crisis plans. Of those who had implemented crisis plans, 19% had specific provisions to address power outages or attacks on the electrical grid. Of the respondents who had not planned for power outages nor experienced significant losses of power, a statistically significant number acknowledged an external threat to their business. The majority of respondents indicated that long-term planning was related to resilience; however, the migration of crisis understanding into the planning process or implementation was not implemented. This heightened awareness of potential crises without the corresponding development and implementation of mitigation crisis plans requires additional research to understand

  17. Paratethys forcing of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijgsman, Wout; Van Baak, Christiaan; Flecker, Rachel; Grothe, Arjen; Marzocchi, Alice; Stoica, Marius; Vasiliev, Iuliana

    2016-04-01

    During the Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.97-5.33 Ma), there is increasing evidence for the presence of fresh water input, not only during the final Lago-mare stage but even during times of evaporite formation. Here we present new strontium isotopic data from two well-dated Messinian sections in the Black and Caspian seas, which show remarkably similar Sr-values as the ones recorded in the Mediterranean during the final phase of the salinity crisis. This strongly suggests that a major fresh water pulse in the Mediterranean originated from the Paratethys. It highlights the importance of a Mediterranean-Black Sea connection during the entire MSC, adding an enormous drainage basin to the Mediterranean water balance. The presence of Paratethyan fauna in the Mediterranean Lago-Mare deposits has fuelled long-lasting controversies over the connectivity between the Mediterranean and Paratethys and contemporary sea level drops in both basins. We furthermore use results of sub-precessional climate simulations to calculate the freshwater budget of the Mediterranean and Paratethys in the Messinian. Using these numerical constraints, we propose a Mediterranean outflow pump as an alternative scenario for the most dramatic hydrological changes in the MSC. This "pump" mechanism significantly enhanced Paratethyan inflow to the Mediterranean, creating 1) suitable conditions for gypsum to form and 2) Lago-mare fauna to migrate and thrive. When the Mediterranean sea level finally reached the height of the Gibraltar sill, Mediterranean outflow restarted there and enhanced exchange with the Atlantic. During this reorganisation of the circulation, brackish and hypersaline waters were pumped out of the Mediterranean, and open marine conditions were re-established without major flooding at the Mio-Pliocene boundary.

  18. 40 CFR 166.53 - EPA review of crisis exemption and revocation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA review of crisis exemption and... CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.53 EPA review of crisis exemption and revocation of authority. (a) Review. When a crisis exemption is about to be or has already been declared by a State or Federal agency,...

  19. 40 CFR 166.50 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for crisis exemption. 166.50 Section 166.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.50 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for crisis... a crisis exemption must be immediately reported to the Agency. (b) Final reports. (1) A...

  20. 40 CFR 166.50 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for crisis exemption. 166.50 Section 166.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.50 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for crisis... a crisis exemption must be immediately reported to the Agency. (b) Final reports. (1) A...