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1

Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS): The World of Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) Program "provides scientifically-sound data and information on the state and trends of global inland water quality required as a basis for the sustainable management of the world's freshwater to support global environmental assessments and decision- making processes." The website offers newsletters about water quality, downloads of annual reports, links to research projects that utilize the GEMS' data, and information on education and training. Researchers can search global water quality data by location at the GEM Stat link.

2005-12-22

2

Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS): The World of Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) Program "provides scientifically-sound data and information on the state and trends of global inland water quality required as a basis for the sustainable management of the world's freshwater to support global environmental assessments and decision- making processes." The website offers newsletters about water quality, downloads of annual reports, links to research projects that utilize the GEMS' data, and information on education and training. Researchers can search global water quality data by location at the GEM Stat link.

3

The Analysis of Moonborne Cross Track Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry for Global Environment Change Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faced to the earth observation requirement of large scale global environment change, a SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) antenna system is proposed to set on Moon's surface for interferometry in this paper. With several advantages superior to low earth obit SAR, such as high space resolution, large range swath and short revisit interval, the moonborne SAR could be a potential data resource of global changes monitoring and environment change research. Due to the high stability and ease of maintenance, the novel system is competent for offering a long and continuous time series of remote sensing imagery. The Moonborne SAR system performance is discussed at the beginning. Then, the peculiarity of interferometry is analyzed in both repeat pass and single pass cases. The chief distinguishing feature which is worth to research the potentiality of repeat pass interferometry is that the revisit interval is reduced to one day in most cases, and in worst case one month. Decorrelation deriving from geometry variety is discussed in detail. It turns out that the feasibility of moonborne SAR repeat pass interferometry depends on the declination of Moon. The severity of shift effects in radar echoes increased as Moon approaches to the equatorial plane. Moreover, referring to the single pass interferometry, two antennas are assumed to set on different latitude of Moon. There is enough space on Moon to form a long baseline, which is highly related to the interferogram precision.

Yixing, Ding; Huadong, Guo; Guang, Liu; Daowei, Zhang

2014-03-01

4

Environment Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viking landers touched down on Mars equipped with a variety of systems to conduct automated research, each carrying a compact but highly sophisticated instrument for analyzing Martian soil and atmosphere. Instrument called a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) had to be small, lightweight, shock resistant, highly automated and extremely sensitive, yet require minimal electrical power. Viking Instruments Corporation commercialized this technology and targeted their primary market as environmental monitoring, especially toxic and hazardous waste site monitoring. Waste sites often contain chemicals in complex mixtures, and the conventional method of site characterization, taking samples on-site and sending them to a laboratory for analysis is time consuming and expensive. Other terrestrial applications are explosive detection in airports, drug detection, industrial air monitoring, medical metabolic monitoring and for military, chemical warfare agents.

1988-01-01

5

Global change monitoring with lichens  

SciTech Connect

Environmental monitoring involves observations and assessment of changes in ecosystems and their components caused by anthropogenetic influence. An ideal monitoring system enables quantification of the contemporary state of the environment and detect changes in it. An important function of monitoring is to assess environment quality of areas that are not affected by local anthropogenic impacts, i.e. background areas. In background areas terrestrial ecosystems are mainly affected by such anthropogenic factors as lowered air pollution and global climate change. Assessment of biotic responses to altered climatic and atmospheric conditions provides an important basis for ecosystem management and environmental decision making. Without the ability to make such assessment, sustainability of ecosystems as a support system for humans remains uncertain.

Insarov, G. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Mizpe Ramon (Israel)

1997-12-31

6

The UARS particle environment monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the particle environment monitor (PEM) is to provide comprehensive measurements of both local and global energy inputs into the earth's atmosphere by charged particles and Joule dissipation using a carefully integrated set of instruments. PEM consists of four instruments: the atmospheric X-ray imaging spectrometer (AXIS), the high-energy particle spectrometer (HEPS), the medium-energy particle spectrometer (MEPS), and

J. D. Winningham; J. R. Sharber; R. A. Frahm; J. L. Burch; N. Eaker; R. K. Black; V. A. Blevins; J. P. Andrews; J. Rudzki; M. J. Sablik; D. L. Chenette; D. W. Datlowe; E. E. Gaines; W. I. Imhof; R. W. Nightingale; J. B. Reagan; R. M. Robinson; T. L. Schumaker; E. G. Shelley; R. R. Vondrak; H. D. Voss; P. F. Bythrow; B. J. Anderson; T. A. Potemra; L. J. Zanetti; D. B. Holland; M. H. Rees; D. Lummerzheim; G. C. Reid; R. G. Roble; C. R. Clauer; P. M. Banks

1993-01-01

7

(Managing the global environment)  

SciTech Connect

The conference was stimulated by concern that policy makers increasingly have to make environmental management decisions in the absence of solidly established scientific consensus about ecological processes and the consequences of human actions. Often, as in the case of climate change, some decisions may have to be made in the absence of information that is desirable but may not be available for years to come, if ever. Six topics were identified as running throughout the Congress. These were: the epistemology and history of the sciences or disciplines concerned with the environment, including the scientific basis of rationality and modes of dealing with uncertainty and complexity; the social, economic, and institutional conditions for the production of knowledge bearing on the environment, including the politics of research and the improvement of scientific data; the structuring and institutionalization of expert assessments on national and international levels, including the global distribution of expertise; the means of establishing scientific information, the role of the media in transmitting and processing knowledge about the environment, and the organization of public environmental debate; and decision making and management under conditions of uncertainty; and, finally the relationship between science and ethics. 13 refs.

Rayner, S.F.

1989-10-03

8

Global Environment Facility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Helps developing countries fund projects and programs that protect the environment; active in the areas of biodivesity, climate change, international waters, land degradation, ozone protection, persistent organic pollutants and renewable energy. Works closely with various agencies of the United Nations.

2007-11-14

9

Global Environment Facility Evaluation Office  

E-print Network

Global Environment Facility Evaluation Office PROTECTED AREAS AND AVOIDED DEFORESTATION #12;Protected Areas and Avoided Deforestation: An Econometric Evaluation - i - TABLE OF CONTENTS 1................................................................................4 3.3 ESTIMATED EFFECTS OF PROTECTED AREAS ON DEFORESTATION

Pfaff, Alex

10

Environment surveys. [monitoring and protection of environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environment applications are concerned with the quality, protection, and improvement of water, land, and air resources and, in particular, with the pollution of these resources caused by man and his works, as well as changes to the resources due to natural phenomena (for example, drought and floods). The broad NASA objectives related to the environment are directed toward the development and demonstration of the capability to monitor remotely and assess environmental conditions related to water quality, land and vegetation quality, wildlife resources, and general environment. The contributions of ERTS-1 to these subdiscipline areas are broadly summarized.

Greenwood, L. R.

1974-01-01

11

Environment Monitoring -Robotic Sensor Agents  

E-print Network

- Integrating many sensors into one system can often use many in expensive devices to provide dataEnvironment Monitoring - Robotic Sensor Agents Emil M. Petriu, FIEEE Professor University of Ottawa REALITY ENVIRONMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORK Mobile Robotic Sensor Agent Mobile Robotic Sensor Agent

Petriu, Emil M.

12

Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University  

E-print Network

© Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University #12;© Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University The Promise and Perils of Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Lessons Institute, Tufts University Published by: Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA) Global Development

13

Development of the GlobalDevelopment of the Global EnvironmentEnvironment  

E-print Network

manifest? · Yes! Examples include: greenhouse gases, ozone holes, global warming, species extinction1 Development of the GlobalDevelopment of the Global EnvironmentEnvironment G302: Spring 2006 to the present day. · How the global environment has changed through time · Explores the processes and events

Polly, David

14

Monitoring Seasons Through Global Learning Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring Seasons through Global Learning Communities (MSTGLC) is an inquiry- and project-based project that monitors seasons, specifically their interannual variability, in order to increase K-12 students' understanding of the Earth system by providing teacher professional development in Earth system science and inquiry, and engaging K-12 students in Earth system science research relevant to their local communities that connect globally. MSTGLC

E. B. Sparrow; J. H. Robin; M. O. Jeffries; L. S. Gordon; D. L. Verbyla; E. R. Levine

2006-01-01

15

MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has conducted first studies on a Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (MEMOS). The MEMOS microsatellite (mass < 20 kg) will accommodate four scientific instruments: solar EUV/UV monitor (SEM), solar wind monitor (SWIM), magnetometer (MAG) and radiation environment monitor (REM). The payload monitors the solar conditions at Mars and characterizes the Mars environment to support other missions and science investigations. Monitoring of the solar wind parameters (velocity, density, and field) is the key for any aeronomy and solar wind interaction mission at Mars. The solar EUV / UV (HeII 30.4 nm and HII 121.6 nm) flux monitoring is required for upper atmosphere / ionosphere studies. The radiation environment monitoring is needed to study space weather effects on the near-Mars environment as well as for the preparations for man-flights. MEMOS follows the design philosophy of a detached and autonomously flying instrument for achieving the mentioned objectives. It is intended to be carried "piggy-back" to Mars on a suitable mission. Potential missions are: ESA Mars orbiters within the NEXT or Cosmic Vision programs, NASA Mars orbiters, national / bilateral Mars missions. At Mars MEMOS is separated from its carrier (parent satellite) via the release mechanism implemented in the dual formation flight mission PRISMA. The separation will take place during the orbit insertion scenario of the parent satellite at Mars thus placing MEMOS in a highly elliptical orbit guarantying sufficient observation time in the solar wind. In orbit MEMOS will autonomously detumble and spin-up to ~1 rpm for reasons of stabilization and to fulfill instrument requirements. Such a low spin-rate is sufficient for a required inertial pointing accuracy of 2.5 because of the small external disturbance torques (< 10-7 Nm) predominant at Mars responsible for nutation and precession of the spin-axis. The advances in micropropulsion systems providing ?NmN adjustable thrust levels and reducing the dry mass to ~2 kg respectively are key factors in keeping the microsatellite stabilized and sun-pointed without stressing the mass budget. The low thrust level enables precise and active nutation damping. Moreover the system offers the possibility of implementing active orbit control or formation flight demonstrations at Mars. Attitude will be determined on-board with an accuracy < 1.0 using miniaturized Horizon Crossing Indicators, a two-axis sun sensor and in support accelerometers and gyroscopes based on MEMS-technology. TM/TC will be relayed via the parent satellite in the UHF frequency range. Therefore the Electra Lite (ELT) Proximity-1 transceiver will autonomously communicate with the parent satellite at inter-satellite ranges < 10 000 km featuring adaptive bit rates > 2 kbit/s. The transceiver also implements a coherent transponding mode for orbit determination through two-way Doppler ranging between the parent satellite and MEMOS. In addition ELT is compatible with a future Martian communication and navigation network pursued by NASA, which could be taken advantage of in the future for relaying data or performing ranging via other satellites part of the network. A system design driver for inter-satellite communication at Mars is the high demand of power. This leads to a disk-shape and thus easy to accommodate spacecraft configuration of MEMOS comprising a single sun-pointing solar array favourable in terms of power and spin stability. Multi-junction solar cells, which currently have an efficiency of ~29% under laboratory conditions are a key factor to keep MEMOS solar array area of ~1.15 m2 small compared to the worst case system power requirements of ~105 W. During eclipse periods high-efficient Li-ion batteries (6 x 20 Wh) will ensure power supply. The spacecraft and payload design will incorporate new technology developments such as autonomous navigation, MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS, Micro- Opto-ElectroMechanical Sys

Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.

2007-08-01

16

Acoustic monitoring of global ocean climate  

SciTech Connect

Acoustic Monitoring of Global Ocean Climate is a program to accurately measure ocean temperature on a global scale, which can provide direct evidence of the rate of global climate change. This 30-month research and engineering initiative will use acoustic thermometry to form the basis for a global network involving many international collaborators. The specific major goals are to understand the relationship between gyre and basin-scale variability and global ocean variability; to resolve unanswered questions about acoustic propagation over such long distances; and to understand the effects (if any) of low frequency sound on marine mammals.

Forbes, A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States) Univ. of Wales (United Kingdom))

1994-05-01

17

Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system  

E-print Network

Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system Zengchao Hao, Amir AghaKouchak, Navid Nakhjiri and Alireza Farahmand Drought is by far the most costly natural disaster that can lead Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS), which provides drought information based

Kimball, Sarah

18

Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change.  

PubMed

Governments have set the ambitious target of reducing biodiversity loss by the year 2010. The scientific community now faces the challenge of assessing the progress made towards this target and beyond. Here, we review current monitoring efforts and propose a global biodiversity monitoring network to complement and enhance these efforts. The network would develop a global sampling programme for indicator taxa (we suggest birds and vascular plants) and would integrate regional sampling programmes for taxa that are locally relevant to the monitoring of biodiversity change. The network would also promote the development of comparable maps of global land cover at regular time intervals. The extent and condition of specific habitat types, such as wetlands and coral reefs, would be monitored based on regional programmes. The data would then be integrated with other environmental and socioeconomic indicators to design responses to reduce biodiversity loss. PMID:16701487

Pereira, Henrique M; David Cooper, H

2006-03-01

19

Energy, the Environment, and Global Change Energy, the Environment, and Global Change: Overview 1 2 9  

E-print Network

PART 6 Energy, the Environment, and Global Change Energy, the Environment, and Global Change that improve human welfare -- illumination, heating and cooling, communication, transporta- tion, manufacturing, and scientific and technological develop- ments have dramatically increased the global demand for energy in its

Colorado at Boulder, University of

20

Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEMS(Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) is a scanning UV-visible spectrometer to be onboard the GeoKOMPSAT-2B in geostationary orbit in 2018. The main objective of the mission is to measure concentration of ozone and aerosol with their precursors including NO2, SO2 and HCHO in high temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, GEMS passed the governmental mid-term technical review, thus is in main phase of the mission. System design review(SDR) of GEMS was completed successfully and preliminary design review(PDR) is planned in March, 2014. Spectral coverage of GEMS is 300 to 500 nm with resolution of 0.6 nm and 3 samples/band. The mission covers most of the interesting region in Asia, with occasional coverage out to Pacific for clear sector method. Algorithms are under the development. Error analysis was carried out using the optimal estimation method with TOMS climatology, GEOS-Chem and VLIDORT. For the analysis, randomly generated conditions were extracted for different time of day in 12 months with actual viewing geometry from a GEO satellite at 128.2 oE. Through the spatial and spectral coadding and flexible E-W scan to increase the SNR, the performance of GEMS is predicted to satisfy the science requirements in most of the cases. Measurements of SO2 in winter season is very challenging but can be resolved if 4 pixels are coadded and the E-W scan is reduced half to increase SNR. GEMS is a part of GEO air quality(AQ) constellation with the Sentinel-4 of ESA and the TEMPO of NASA. Harmonized efforts for the GEO AQ Constellation are underway in terms of common basic requirements, standards, data product quality and cross participation of meetings under the framework of CEOS ACC.

Kim, Jhoon

21

Hydrocarbons in the Antarctic Marine Environment: Monitoring and Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Antarctic marine ecosystem is proposed as an environment in which to monitor global hydrocarbon background levels. Hydrocarbon concentrations are probably uniform throughout the Southern Ocean and it is difficult to resolve low levels of contamination against this background. Indices for identifying anthropogenic hydrocarbons have been found to be ambiguous, but principal component analysis has successfully identified potentially polluted inshore

G. C. Cripps

1994-01-01

22

Global Environmental Change: Modelling and Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second half of the 20th century was a period of unprecedented and rapid change in the global population, the biosphere, the world economy and society. Recent inquiry related to the environmental effects has focused on the complexities of how the Earth behaves as a system, with connectivity linking its oceans, land, atmosphere, living, and non-living components. The search for delineation of natural and human causes and effects of global change has ushered in new mathematical approaches to the pursuit of a global environmental system science. Judging from the reports of several international conferencesfor example, The Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change, 2000a consistent theme has emerged, calling for the development of an effective ethical framework of global stewardship and strategies (modeling and monitoring) for Earth system management.

Kelley, John J.

23

ENVIRONMENT QUALITY MONITORING, ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENT IN THE ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existence of an environment protection department in each entity where an activity is evolving, it is necessary both for organization and evolution of control activity of internal measures for pollution reduction generated by this, and for achievement of a fast and efficiently connection with territorial agency for environment quality control. Existence of a minimal endowment for measuring and monitoring of

Georgeta ALECU; Andreea COSAC

24

8 JMBA Global Marine Environment Mermaid's Glove  

E-print Network

8 JMBA Global Marine Environment Mermaid's Glove Nowadays Faroe islanders live a very post the nineteenth century. The njararvøttur was then used as a kind of tinder when lighting fires. Mermaid's glove by Börge Pettersson. Also Published in JMBA Svanberg, I. Human usage of mermaid's glove sponge (Isodictya

Watson, Andrew

25

Science Series Aquatic Environment Monitoring Report No. 50  

E-print Network

-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group #12;#12;3 CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENT, FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE SCIENCE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT MONITORING REPORT Number 50 Marine Pollution ................................................... 12 3.6 The Sewage Effluent Monitoring Task Team

26

Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the days when John Muir walked across its campus, there has been a keen interest in the environment at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. The Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment keeps this tradition alive through its different projects and publications. Perhaps the best part of the site is the Atlas of the Biosphere, which contains numerous maps documenting environmental phenomena across the globe, such as water resources, ecosystems, land use patterns, and human impact, at a variety of scales. The Atlas also contains the data sets that were used to generate these different thematic maps. Related material on the site includes several different global ecosystem and terrestrial hydrology models that have been created by the Center, and are made publicly available here for general review. Providing engaging scholarship and general information about the relationship between humankind and the environment makes the Center's work both timely and of great interest.

1969-12-31

27

Trade, Global Policy, and the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To encourage the exchange of ideas among academics and government policy makers concerning the effects of trade liberalization on the environment, the World Bank Environment Department (discussed in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has made fifteen working papers available from the "Trade, Global Policy, and the Environment" conference held April 21-22, 1998, in Washington, DC. Contributors from the World Bank, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the International Monetary Fund, Johns Hopkins University, and Columbia University, among others, address topics ranging from trade liberalization and pollution to policy options for global environmental problems. Papers are listed as they occurred in the original program, and thereby retain the interlocutory nature of this event. Now part of of the World Bank Discussion Papers series.

1999-01-01

28

Global meteorological drought - Part 1: Probabilistic monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-real time drought monitoring can provide decision makers valuable information for use in several areas, such as water resources management, or international aid. One of the main constrains of assessing the current drought situation is associated with the lack of reliable sources of observed precipitation on a global scale available in near-real time. Furthermore, monitoring systems also need a long record of past observations to provide mean climatological conditions. To address these problems a novel probabilistic drought monitoring methodology based on ECMWF probabilistic forecasts is presented where probabilistic monthly means of precipitation were derived from short-range forecasts and merged with the long term climatology of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) dataset. From the merged dataset, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was estimated. This methodology was compared with the GPCC first guess precipitation product and also SPI calculations using the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation datasets. ECMWF probabilistic forecasts for near-real time monitoring are similar to GPCC and TRMM in terms of correlation and root mean square errors, with the added value of including an estimate of the uncertainty given by the ensemble spread. The real time availability of this product and its stability, i.e. that it does not depend directly on local rain-gauges or single satellite products, are also beneficial in light of an operational implementation.

Dutra, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Naumann, G.; Barbosa, P.; Vogt, J.; Pozzi, W.; Pappenberger, F.

2014-01-01

29

Satellite global monitoring of environmental quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The missions of two NASA satellites for the monitoring of environmental quality are described: Nimbus G, the Air Pollution and Oceanographic Observing Satellite, and the Applications Explorer Mission (AEM) satellite to be used in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE). The scientific payload of Nimbus G is described in detail with a discussion of limb infrared monitoring of the stratosphere, the stratospheric and mesospheric sounder, stratospheric aerosol measurement, the solar and backscatter UV spectrometer for ozone mapping, the earth radiation budget experiment, the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer, the coastal zone color scanner and the temperature-humidity infrared radiometer. A brief description is given of the SAGE program and future NASA plans relating to the global monitoring of environmental quality are outlined.

Schiffer, R. A.

1975-01-01

30

Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies  

E-print Network

Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies Kristine M. Larson,1 Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring an effective tool for hazard mitigation. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is well-suited for monitoring

Larson, Kristine

31

Assessment of global environment using microwave radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing countries are presently undergoing rapid industrialization and urbanization as a result numerous gases are being released into the atmosphere which affect the global environment and climate. In the present paper, we have studied the potentiality of microwave radiometers in mapping atmospheric anomalies such as air pollutants, aerosols, hydrometeors and sandstorms. The microwave attenuation and time series analysis of the dielectric constant of atmosphere are discussed for the Indian industrialized and urbanized cities to assess the climatic perturbations qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keshari, Ashok K.; Singh, Ramesh P.

1994-01-01

32

AVHRR for monitoring global tropical deforestation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data have been used to assess the dynamics of forest trnsformations in three parts of the tropical belt. A large portion of the Amazon Basin has been systematically covered by Local Area Coverage (LAC) data in the 1985-1987 period. The analysis of the vegetation index and thermal data led to the identification and measurement of large areas of active deforestation. The Kalimantan/Borneo forest fires were monitored and their impact was evaluated using the Global Area Coverage (GAC) 4 km resolution data. Finally, High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data have provided preliminary information on current activities taking place at the boundary between the savanna and the forest in the Southern part of West Africa. The AVHRR approach is found to be a highly valuable means for carrying out deforestation assessments in regional and global perspectives.

Malingreau, J. P.; Laporte, N.; Tucker, C. J.

1989-01-01

33

Using DNA damage to monitor water environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA damage of aquatic organisms living in polluted environments can be used as a biomarker of the genotoxicity of toxic agents to organisms. This technique has been playing an important role in ecotoxicological study and environmental risk assessment. In this article, main types of DNA damage caused by pollutants in water environments were reviewed; methods of detecting DNA damage were also documented for water environmental monitoring.

Zhu, Liyan; Huang, Ying; Liu, Guangxing

2005-09-01

34

Monitoring of lead in the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children living near a lead works and children of employees at the works were selected in order to analyse the lead content of their blood as the biological counterpart of a monitoring exercise for lead in the environment. The overall mean for the 262 children in the survey was 0.91 mumol\\/l and results were within the normal reference range of

I B Millar

1978-01-01

35

Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids by Space Geodesy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since its establishment on 1/1/1998 by the International Earth Rotation Service, the Coordinating Center for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids (MGGF) and its seven Special Bureaus have engaged in an effort to support and facilitate the understanding of the geophysical fluids in global geodynamics research. Mass transports in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") will cause the following geodynamic effects on a broad time scale: (1) variations in the solid Earth's rotation (in length-of-day and polar motion/nutation) via the conservation of angular momentum and effected by torques at the fluid-solid Earth interface; (2) changes in the global gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law; and (3) motion in the center of mass of the solid Earth relative to that of the whole Earth ("geocenter") via the conservation of linear momentum. These minute signals have become observable by space geodetic techniques, primarily VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS, with ever increasing precision/accuracy and temporal/spatial resolution. Each of the seven Special Bureaus within MGGF is responsible for calculations related to a specific Earth component or aspect -- Atmosphere, Ocean, Hydrology, Ocean Tides, Mantle, Core, and Gravity/Geocenter. Angular momenta and torques, gravitational coefficients, and geocenter shift will be computed for geophysical fluids based on global observational data, and from state-of-the-art models, some of which assimilate such data. The computed quantities, algorithm and data formats are standardized. The results are archived and made available to the scientific research community. This paper reports the status of the MGGF activities and current results.

Chao, Benjamin F.; Dehant, V.; Gross, R. S.; Ray, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.; Watkins, M.

1999-01-01

36

Passive Global, Real-Time TEC Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensors are being developed to provide a satellite-based VHF global lightning monitor (e.g. Suszcynsky, et al., "VHF Global Lightning and Severe Storm Monitoring from Space: Storm-level Characterization of VHF Lightning Emissions," EOS Trans. AGU 2001 Fall Mt. Prog. And Abstr. 82, No. 47, F143, 2001). Dispersive effects of propagation of the lightning electromagnetic wave through the ionospheric and plasmaspheric plasmas cause the higher frequency components to arrive at the satellite before lower frequency components. From the time-of-arrival at several frequencies we can derive the TEC between the satellite and the lightning. Using multi-satellite techniques we can geolocate the lightning and the ionospheric penetration point quite accurately. A single ground station could provide essentially real-time regional TEC coverage. Four ground stations could provide global, real-time TEC measurements to supplement existing ground-based systems, especially over broad ocean areas. We expect several lightning detections per satellite per minute. Temporal resolution will be limited only by ground segment processing. Spatial coverage and resolution will be limited by lightning occurrence, but many commercial sector TEC requirements are also correlated to lightning occurrence. With our FORTE (Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events) satellite we sense lightning over most of the globe including the oceans. We expect to determine TEC spatial gradients with tens of km resolution. This capability should be especially useful in severe convective weather to aircraft using GPS-based navigation, e.g. the FAA's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS).

Pongratz, M. B.

2002-12-01

37

Global disease monitoring and forecasting with wikipedia.  

PubMed

Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based on social internet data, such as social media and search queries, are emerging. These efforts are promising, but important challenges in the areas of scientific peer review, breadth of diseases and countries, and forecasting hamper their operational usefulness. We examine a freely available, open data source for this use: access logs from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Using linear models, language as a proxy for location, and a systematic yet simple article selection procedure, we tested 14 location-disease combinations and demonstrate that these data feasibly support an approach that overcomes these challenges. Specifically, our proof-of-concept yields models with [Formula: see text] up to 0.92, forecasting value up to the 28 days tested, and several pairs of models similar enough to suggest that transferring models from one location to another without re-training is feasible. Based on these preliminary results, we close with a research agenda designed to overcome these challenges and produce a disease monitoring and forecasting system that is significantly more effective, robust, and globally comprehensive than the current state of the art. PMID:25392913

Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y; Priedhorsky, Reid

2014-11-01

38

Global Disease Monitoring and Forecasting with Wikipedia  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based on social internet data, such as social media and search queries, are emerging. These efforts are promising, but important challenges in the areas of scientific peer review, breadth of diseases and countries, and forecasting hamper their operational usefulness. We examine a freely available, open data source for this use: access logs from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Using linear models, language as a proxy for location, and a systematic yet simple article selection procedure, we tested 14 location-disease combinations and demonstrate that these data feasibly support an approach that overcomes these challenges. Specifically, our proof-of-concept yields models with up to 0.92, forecasting value up to the 28 days tested, and several pairs of models similar enough to suggest that transferring models from one location to another without re-training is feasible. Based on these preliminary results, we close with a research agenda designed to overcome these challenges and produce a disease monitoring and forecasting system that is significantly more effective, robust, and globally comprehensive than the current state of the art. PMID:25392913

Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Priedhorsky, Reid

2014-01-01

39

A global framework for monitoring phenological responses to climate change  

E-print Network

A global framework for monitoring phenological responses to climate change Michael A. White,1, it is difficult to extract a clear signal from the usually assumed forcing: climate change. Here, using global 8, W. W. Hargrove, and R. R. Nemani (2005), A global framework for monitoring phenological responses

Hargrove, William W.

40

Monitoring, analyzing, and modeling global climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diabatic heating rate estimates as residuals of the dry thermodynamic equation were generated for May 1, 1985 to December 1989 in pentad resolution. Published results show moderate correlations (approx. .6) between heating rate and outgoing long wave radiation for periods under 90 days in the tropics and many extratropical locations. Nine years of simulation with the Community Climate Model 1 (CCM1) using R15 and observed sea surface temperatures shows that the model retains significantly more heat at the surface and in the free atmosphere than does the actual earth system. A post-processor for the CCM1, with capabilities to produce simulated microwave sounding unit (MSU) brightness temperatures was written. Techniques were refined considerably and validation studies were carried out to verify the globally distributed free atmosphere temperature anomalies derived from MSU data. The precision is such that detailed, long-term climate monitoring is well within the capability of these data.

Christy, John R.

1991-01-01

41

Monitoring Global Freshwater Resources with GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater resources include surface waters, groundwater, and seasonal snowpack. Given adequate ground based measurements, all of these can be monitored effectively, however, outside of the developed world such measurements often are not systematic and the data not centralized, and as a result reports of freshwater availability may be largely anecdotal. Even in the developed world it can be difficult to quantify changes in groundwater storage over large scales. Owing to its global coverage, satellite remote sensing has become a valuable tool for freshwater resources assessment. In particular, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has demonstrated an unequaled ability to monitor total terrestrial water storage including groundwater at regional to continental scales. In this presentation we will identify apparent trends in terrestrial water storage observed by GRACE over the past nine years and attempt to explain their origins and predict whether they are likely to continue. Trends in certain regions where groundwater extraction has significantly depleted aquifers, including northern India and California's Central Valley, will be discussed in detail.

Rodell, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Velicogna, I.; Swenson, S. C.; Chambers, D. P.

2011-12-01

42

Monitoring Global Freshwater Resources with GRACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Freshwater resources include surface waters, groundwater, and seasonal snowpack. Given adequate ground based measurements, all of these can be monitored effectively, however, outside of the developed world such measurements often are not systematic and the data not centralized, and as a result reports of freshwater availability may be largely anecdotal. Even in the developed world it can be difficult to quantify changes in groundwater storage over large scales. Owing to its global coverage, satellite remote sensing has become a valuable tool for freshwater resources assessment. In particular, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has demonstrated an unequaled ability to monitor total terrestrial water storage including groundwater at regional to continental scales. In this presentation we will identify apparent trends in terrestrial water storage observed by GRACE over the past nine years and attempt to explain their origins and predict whether they are likely to continue. Trends in certain regions where groundwater extraction has significantly depleted aquifers, including northern India and California, will be discussed in detail.

Rodell, Matt; Famiglietti, Jay; Velicogna, Isabella; Swenson, Sean; Chambers, Don

2011-01-01

43

Monitoring the environment by remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural features of ecosystems, such as leaf area index, phytomass and canopy chemical contents, are beginning to be estimated from remotely sensed data. This development, in combination with ecological modeling, is permitting the estimation of functional features of ecosystems including primary productivity and nutrient cycling. Such techniques are also being applied to the problem of monitoring the effects of air or water pollutants on biota. Sensors that obtain data at a coarse spatial scale (1 km2 or more) are also permitting the observation of biospheric patterns at a large regional or global scale for the first time. When coupled with atmospheric measurements, field data and simulation models, such data may serve to address ecological processes, including pollution effects, at large regional or global scales.

Westman, Walter E.

1987-01-01

44

Globalization Contextualized: An OrganizationEnvironment Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, changes in higher education, the emerging global economy, and other social changes all influence the environment in which community colleges operate. This article investigates leadership perceptions of adaptation to a rapidly globalizing education environment. Data were collected through a multisite case study that included leaders from five colleges. The paper applies globalization theory to leader

Robert A. Frost

2009-01-01

45

ENVISAT's capabilities for global monitoring of the hydrosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

ENVISAT's ASAR Global Monitoring mode offers exciting capabilities for monitoring highly dynamic processes of the hydrosphere. Based on examples from different ecoregions (Africa, Siberia, Spain) we highlight the potential of this sensor system for monitoring wetlands and soil moisture. The hydrosphere is often called the \\

Wolfgang Wagner; Klaus Scipal; Annett Bartsch; Carsten Pathe

2005-01-01

46

Global monitoring of wetlands--the value of ENVISAT ASAR Global mode.  

PubMed

This paper elaborates on recent advances in the use of ScanSAR technologies for wetland-related research. Applications of active satellite radar systems include the monitoring of inundation dynamics as well as time series analyses of surface soil wetness. For management purposes many wetlands, especially those in dry regions, need to be monitored for short and long-term changes. Another application of these technologies is monitoring the impact of climate change in permafrost transition zones where peatlands form one of the major land cover types. Therefore, examples from boreal and subtropical environments are presented using the analysed ENVISAT ASAR Global mode (GM, 1 km resolution) data acquired in 2005 and 2006. In the case of the ENVISAT ASAR instrument, data availability of the rather coarse Global Mode depends on request priorities of other competing modes, but acquisition frequency may still be on average fortnightly to monthly depending on latitude. Peatland types covering varying permafrost regimes of the West Siberian Lowlands can be distinguished from each other and other land cover by multi-temporal analyses. Up to 75% of oligotrophic bogs can be identified in the seasonal permafrost zone in both years. The high seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of the subtropic Okavango Delta can also be captured by GM time series. Response to increased precipitation in 2006 differs from flood propagation patterns. In addition, relative soil moisture maps may provide a valuable data source in order to account for external hydrological factors of such complex wetland ecosystems. PMID:18343560

Bartsch, A; Wagner, W; Scipal, K; Pathe, C; Sabel, D; Wolski, P

2009-05-01

47

August 2009 Inbound Logistics In today's global business environment,  

E-print Network

practices and strategies can lead to a stronger, healthier environment. To that end, the companyAugust 2009 · Inbound Logistics In today's global business environment, it's not enough simply of 40 leading U.S. companies dedicated to fostering global environmental health and safety excellence

48

Globalization Contextualized: An Organization-Environment Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past two decades, changes in higher education, the emerging global economy, and other social changes all influence the environment in which community colleges operate. This article investigates leadership perceptions of adaptation to a rapidly globalizing education environment. Data were collected through a multisite case study that

Frost, Robert A.

2009-01-01

49

The impact of global climatic changes on the aquatic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climatic change, as defined by the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (GCRA), means changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life. Climatic changes are the most drastic variables interacting with all live aspects

Alaa E. Eissa; Manal M. Zaki

2011-01-01

50

The Environment to Come: A Global Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six major reports have recently assessed the state of the world in terms of energy, food, population, natural resources, pollution, and economic development. These reports include: (1) "The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century"; (2) "Global Future: Time to Act"; (3) "World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource

Murphy, Elaine M.

51

Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change  

E-print Network

loss. The need for biodiversity monitoring The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD; http as the exploration of plausible future scenarios [3], suggests that the CBD 2010 target is unlikely to be achieved the CBD 2010 target and beyond is monitored. How this should be done is now the subject of much debate

Pereira, Henrique Miguel

52

MONETA: an embedded monitoring system for ubiquitous network environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and efficient monitoring of dynamically changing environments is one of the most important requirements for ubiquitous network environments. To exploit these ubiquitous environments, we designed and implemented a monitoring system called MONETA that can obtain sensor data transmitted from wireless sensors to hub nodes in embedded equipment. MONETA adopts Web technology for the implementation of a simple but efficient

Ji-Hye Bae; Kyung-Oh Lee; Yoon-Young Park

2006-01-01

53

Potential global fire monitoring from EOS-MODIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MEDIS) on the polarorbiting Earth Observation System (EeS) providing morning and evening global observations in 1999 and afternoon and night observations in 2000. These four MEDIS daily fire observations will advance global fire monitoring with special 1 km resolution fire channels at 4 and 11

Yoram J. Kaufman; Christopher O. Justice; Luke P. Flynn; Jackie D. Kendall; Elaine M. Prins; Louis Giglio; Darold E. Ward; W. Paul Menzel; Alberto W. Setzer

1998-01-01

54

Remote sensing of the global environment with satellite scatterometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of satellite scatterometry for remote sensing of the global environment from the tropics to polar regions. Results were derived from microwave backscatter data acquired by the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer aboard the QuikSCAT (QSCAT) satellite. QSCAT observed two successive super cyclones that hit the Orissa coastal region of India, affecting 15 million people in 1999. The extent of soil moisture change was delineated after Cyclone Nargis made landfall in Myanmar in May 2008. QSCAT detected excessive rainwater followed by a severe drought leading to widespread wildfires in California, U.S., in 2007. QSCAT tracked vegetation change in an extreme drought in Nairobi, Kenya, affecting 3 million people in 2000. QSCAT monitored snowmelt patterns over the Northern Hemisphere, which showed poleward oscillations of melt bands. QSCAT revealed a record reduction in Arctic perennial sea ice in this decade and a further drastic decline of perennial ice in 2008. At 1-km posting, QSCAT identified urban and suburban areas where backscatter was shown to correlate with population density. QSCAT delineated wind shadow areas near small islands in the Asia-Pacific region. These results demonstrate that satellite scatterometer can provide numerous crucial data products to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems.

Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

2008-12-01

55

Creating healthy food environments through global benchmarking of government nutrition policies and food industry practices  

PubMed Central

Unhealthy processed food products are increasingly dominating over healthy foods, making food and nutrition environments unhealthier. Development and implementation of strong government healthy food policies is currently being circumvented in many countries by powerful food industry lobbying. In order to increase accountability of both governments and the private sector for their actions, and improve the healthiness of food environments, INFORMAS (the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support) has recently been founded to systematically and comprehensively monitor food environments and policies in countries of varying size and income. This will enable INFORMAS to rank both governments and private sector companies globally according to their actions on food environments. Identification of those countries which have the healthiest food and nutrition policies and using them as international benchmarks against which national progress towards best practice can be assessed, should support reductions in global obesity and diet-related NCDs. PMID:24594359

2014-01-01

56

Global Ocean Monitoring: A Synthesis of Atmospheric and Oceanic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the importance of the El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on global climate variability on seasonal-to-interannual time scale, NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC) actively engages in the real-time monitoring of oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the equatorial tropical Pacific (http:\\/\\/www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov\\/products\\/precip\\/CWlink\\/MJO\\/enso.shtml). An important component of monitoring and predicting ENSO evolution is the oceanic sub-surface conditions. The subsurface ocean monitoring at

Yan Xue; Boyin Huang; Arun Kumar; Wanqui Wang

57

Global rainfall monitoring by SSM/I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant accomplishments in the last year of research are presented. During 1991, three main activities were undertaken: (1) development and testing of a preliminary global rainfall algorithm; (2) researching areas of strong surface scattering; and (3) formulation of a program of work for the WetNet PrecipWG. Focus of present research and plans for next year are briefly dismissed.

Barrett, Eric C.; Kidd, C.; Kniveton, D.

1993-01-01

58

Global Hawk monitors hurricane eye wall development  

NASA Video Gallery

The Global Hawk UAV flies over Hurricane Karl to reveal a hot tower. Red shows reflectivity that is 12 km from the surface, orange is 10 km, yellow is 7.5 km, green is 6 km, and blue is under 6 km....

59

Global routing in a rectilinear macrocell environment  

SciTech Connect

A global (topological) router has been developed which operates upon the channel topologies created by rectilinear macrocells. It is based on a graph theoretical model and incorporates both wire length and area figures of merit. Subproblems encompassed by this general purpose model and algorithm include polycell, rectangular macrocell, and gate array layout problems.

Wisniewski, J.A.; Peters, R.C.

1984-01-01

60

Using the Global Electric Circuit to monitor global climate change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global atmospheric electric circuit describes the global link between fair weather electric fields and currents measured at the Earth's surface, and the generator of these fields and currents in regions of stormy weather. Ever since the 1920s we have known about the global nature of these electric parameters, which appear to vary as a function of universal time (UT) and not local time (LT). It was also shown in the late 1920s that the "batteries" of the GEC are related to thunderstorm activity around the globe, that produce a clear global diurnal cycle due to the longitudinal distribution of the tropical landmasses. Due to the global nature of these electric fields and currents, the GEC supplies perhaps the only global geophysical index that can be measured at a single location on the Earth's surface, representing global electrical activity on the planet. The GEC can be broken down into a DC (direct current) part, and an AC (alternating current) part. Due to the global nature of the electric circuit it has been proposed by some to use geo-electric indices as proxies for changes in the global climate. If global warming results in changes in thunderstorm distribution, number and/or intensity, the GEC may allow us to monitor these changes from only a few ground stations. The advantages and disadvantages of using the GEC to monitor climate change will be presented together with some examples of how the global electric circuit has already been used to monitor changes in the Earth's climate.

Price, C. G.

2013-12-01

61

Distributed agile: project management in a global environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agile methods have been gaining acceptance in the mainstream software development community. At the same time, globally distributed\\u000a software development is another trend delivering high-quality software to global users at lower costs. Little is published\\u000a about the adoption and adaption of Agile methods in a distributed team and software globalization\\/localization project environment.\\u000a The overall performance and satisfaction with the international

Seiyoung Lee; Hwan-Seung Yong

2010-01-01

62

Distributed computing environment monitoring and user expectations  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the growing needs for distributed system monitoring and compares it to current practices. It then goes on to identify the components of distributed system monitoring and shows how they are implemented and successfully used at one site today to address the Local Area Network (LAN), network services and applications, the Wide Area Network (WAN), and host monitoring. It shows how this monitoring can be used to develop realistic service level expectations and also identifies the costs. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the future challenges in network monitoring.

Cottrell, R.L.A.; Logg, C.A.

1995-11-01

63

NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

King, Michael D.

2005-01-01

64

Global Resource Action Center for the Environment (GRACE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Resources Action Center for the Environment (GRACE) works to form new links with the research, policy, and grassroots communities to preserve the future of the planet and protect the quality of the environment. The site includes many projects involving sustainable living and serves as a great introduction for students or teachers of the topic.

2008-02-21

65

The global forum on environment and development  

SciTech Connect

The first Global Conference of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival was held in Oxford, England not to discuss world issues, but to test the ability of 100 spiritual leaders and 100 parliamentarians to work together in a world which has preferred to separate church and state. This conference, held in Moscow, attracted more than 1,000 people. The main purpose was to find common solutions to environmental quality, economic development, and human survival as citizens of planet Earth. Notable addresses were heard from Javier Perez de Cuellar, Senator Albert Gore, Carl Sagan, Lester Brown, Nafis Sadik, Evguenij Velikhov, and Mikhail Gorbachev who advocated an International Green Cross.

Not Available

1990-01-01

66

Impacts for medicine of global monitoring.  

PubMed

In his 1998 Turing Award speech, Jim Gray described a number of research goals including those of building what he referred to as a Personal Memex and a World Memex. The Personal Memex is a system for recording everything one saw, heard, or read, while the World Memex is a system to contain all professionally produced information. In this paper we discuss the consequences to medicine of an additional type of monitoring, that of movement and position via GPS devices. The paper argues that such devices will be incorporated into hand-helds, telephones, and wristwatches, and that a World Memex will (with appropriate permissions) monitor and record all personal movement. The motivation for such a development is the many uses to which the system can be put. The paper restricts itself to discussing those uses that apply to physical safety and medical research studies. Examples relating to safety include the detection of, and notification of emergency authorities about, accidents involving unusual motion, such as occur e.g. in car accidents or when people fall off ladders. Examples of medical research studies include those that involve the effects of exercise, or exposure to different environmental conditions. Precise quantitative statistics can be gathered, providing answers to such questions as what the optimum amounts of exercise are for various health-related conditions. The paper discusses these among other such applications. PMID:12085617

Pager, David

2002-01-01

67

Managing Tensions In A Globalizing Environment  

E-print Network

in order to identify the tensions that intersect with multinationalism and how they are managed. The tensions identified include: choosing a language where two are privileged, providing an intercultural environment as described by the mission statement..., and managing pedagogy/co-teaching practices. Choosing a language is often described in a dual dimension between choosing French/choosing English where language groups are sometimes seen as oppositional and vying for privileged status even though the iv...

Shoemaker, Martha McArdell

2010-10-12

68

Food and Biofuel in a Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As the human population and incomes continue to grow while the petroleum reserve is declining and the concerns about environmental\\u000a damage are increasing, the world community is challenged to supply ever-greater quantities of energy without harming the environment.\\u000a The world primary energy demand is predicted to more than double between 2006 and 2030, and yet most oil-producing countries\\u000a will reduce

Gal Hochman; Steven Sexton; David Zilberman

69

The Global Geodetic Infrastructure for Accurate Monitoring of Earth Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), two Program Offices within the National Ocean Service, NOAA, routinely collect, analyze and disseminate observations and products from several of the 17 critical systems identified by the U.S. Group on Earth Observations. Gravity, sea level monitoring, coastal zone and ecosystem management, geo-hazards and deformation monitoring and ocean surface vector winds are the primary Earth systems that have active research and operational programs in NGS and IOOS. These Earth systems collect terrestrial data but most rely heavily on satellite-based sensors for analyzing impacts and monitoring global change. One fundamental component necessary for monitoring via satellites is having a stable, global geodetic infrastructure where an accurate reference frame is essential for consistent data collection and geo-referencing. This contribution will focus primarily on system monitoring, coastal zone management and global reference frames and how the scientific contributions from NGS and IOOS continue to advance our understanding of the Earth and the Global Geodetic Observing System.

Weston, Neil; Blackwell, Juliana; Wang, Yan; Willis, Zdenka

2014-05-01

70

Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates

Kristine M. Larson; Peter Cervelli; Michael Lisowski; Asta Miklius; Paul Segall; Susan Owen

2001-01-01

71

Monitoring and benchmarking population diet quality globally: a step-wise approach.  

PubMed

INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support) aims to monitor and benchmark the healthiness of food environments globally. In order to assess the impact of food environments on population diets, it is necessary to monitor population diet quality between countries and over time. This paper reviews existing data sources suitable for monitoring population diet quality, and assesses their strengths and limitations. A step-wise framework is then proposed for monitoring population diet quality. Food balance sheets (FBaS), household budget and expenditure surveys (HBES) and food intake surveys are all suitable methods for assessing population diet quality. In the proposed 'minimal' approach, national trends of food and energy availability can be explored using FBaS. In the 'expanded' and 'optimal' approaches, the dietary share of ultra-processed products is measured as an indicator of energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets using HBES and food intake surveys, respectively. In addition, it is proposed that pre-defined diet quality indices are used to score diets, and some of those have been designed for application within all three monitoring approaches. However, in order to enhance the value of global efforts to monitor diet quality, data collection methods and diet quality indicators need further development work. PMID:24074217

Vandevijvere, S; Monteiro, C; Krebs-Smith, S M; Lee, A; Swinburn, B; Kelly, B; Neal, B; Snowdon, W; Sacks, G

2013-10-01

72

Human population and the global environment.  

PubMed

A stable ecosystem resists large, rapid changes in the sizes of its constituent populations which upset the orderly flow of energy and nutrients. An early example of such alteration was the conversion to desert of the rich Tigris and Euphrates valleys through erosion and salt accumulation resulting from faulty irrigation practices that caused the downfall of the great Mesopotamian civilization. Overgrazing and poor cultivation practices have contributed over the millennia to the expansion of the Sahara Desert. Attempts to cultivate too intensively the fragile soil of tropical rainforest areas are suspected of being in part responsible for the collapse of the Mayan civilization. The 19th century Irish potato famine because of heavy reliance of the Irish population on a single, highly productive crop led to 1.5 million deaths when the potato monoculture, a simple agricultural ecosystem, fell victim to a fungus. Modern agriculture's desire to maximize yields per acre are worrisome ecologically (increases in the use of pesticides and inorganic fertilizers). The liabilities include that as larger land areas are farmed the tracts available for reservoirs of species diversity and for natural ecosystems become smaller. Pressure to expand agriculture to steep hillsides unsuitable for cultivation has led to serious erosion in Indonesia, and increasing slash-and-burn practices are destroying tropical forests in the Philippines. The enormous expansion of wheat or rice monoculture has increased the probability of epidemic crop failure from insects or disease. 37% of the world's population is under 15 years of age which means that population will grow for 50-70 years more before leveling off. Despite a declining growth rate population would still increase 30% or more during the transition to stability. Zero global population growth is required for a prosperous and environmentally sustainable civilization. PMID:4832978

Holdren, J P; Ehrlich, P R

1974-01-01

73

Diagnostics for Dust Monitoring in Tokamak Environment  

SciTech Connect

During ITER lifetime, dusts and flakes will be produced due to the interaction of plasmas with the in-vessel materials or due to maintenance. They will be made of carbon, beryllium and tungsten and will be activated, tritiated and chemically reactive and toxic. Safety limits have been set in order to reduce dust hazards. Thus dust diagnostics and removal methods need to be developed for ITER within the constraints linked to magnetic field, radiation, vacuum and temperature. This paper reviews potential diagnostics to monitor the dust content using techniques already used for erosion or deposition monitoring or techniques specially developed for measuring dust in suspension.

Rosanvallon, S.; Grisolia, C.; Hong, S. H. [Association Euratom/CEA, DRFC/SIPP, 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Onofri, F. [IUSTI-CNRS, University of Provence, Technopole de Chateau Gomberi, 13453 Marseille (France); Worms, J. [Association Euratom/CEA, DRFC/SIPP, 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); IUSTI-CNRS, University of Provence, Technopole de Chateau Gomberi, 13453 Marseille (France)

2008-03-12

74

Acoustic monitoring in terrestrial environments using microphone arrays: applications, technological  

E-print Network

REVIEW Acoustic monitoring in terrestrial environments using microphone arrays: applications the development of autonomous cabled and wireless recording arrays, permit data collection at multiple locations by ecologists, behaviourists and conservation biologists. 3. Spatially dispersed groups of microphones (arrays

Blumstein, Daniel T.

75

Nitrate Monitoring Biosensor System for Aquatic Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbial biosensor system was developed for nitrate monitoring. The system was constructed with an immobilized microorganism (Paracoccus dinitrificans IAM 12479), a Clark-type oxygen electrode, a micro-tube pump, and a recorder. The method was based on the determination of the oxygen consumption by the microorganism with the electrode in presence of nitrate. Optimum conditions for the sensor system was established

Hideaki Endo; Yasushi Nakazawa; Yoshiyuki Nagano; Huifeng Ren; Tetsuhito Hayashi

76

Geomorphological and Biological Monitoring of Sensitive Intertidal Flat Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intertidal flats are very sensitive coastal environments. They support large communities of highly specialised fauna and flora and are subject to physical processes that combine hydrodynamic and sedimentary processes that are highly sensitive to change. An added factor to the difficulty of studying and monitoring intertidal flats and their environment is that they may be situated near a human settlement

F. Navas; G. C. Malvarez; D. W. T. Jackson; J. A. G. Cooper; A. A. Portig

2002-01-01

77

Global Environment Threats and a Divided Northern Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EU, Japan, and the US now share many environmental norms, laws, and institutions and cooperate on international environmental matters through numerous bilateral and multilateral channels. They disagree, however, on how to deal with some of the most serious issues facing the global environment and the quality of human life including wide-scale biodiversity loss, climate change, the use of genetically

Miranda A. Schreurs

2005-01-01

78

International Management: Creating a More Realistic Global Planning Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for realistic global planning environments in international business education, introducing a strategic planning model that has teams interacting with teams to strategically analyze a selected multinational company. This dynamic process must result in a single integrated written analysis that specifies an optimal strategy for

Waldron, Darryl G.

2000-01-01

79

An energy consumption technique for global healthcare monitoring applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has proposed an energy consumption algorithm in 6lowpan networks. The performance results have been analyzed mathematical and simulation compression between energy and density. We have designed global healthcare monitoring system. In this system, wearable {6lowpan + biomedical (IP-BSNs)} sensor are fixed into the patient's body area networks that would be connected to the internet based gateway. The IP-BSNs

Dhananjay Singh; Hoon-Jae Lee; Wan-Young Chung

2009-01-01

80

The Global Drought Monitor Portal - The Foundation for a Global Drought Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought monitoring, assessment, response, mitigation, adaptation, and early warning systems have been created in a number of countries around the world, and some regional and continental efforts have been successful. However, the creation of a Global Drought Early Warning System (GDEWS) remains elusive. A GDEWS incorporates forecasting and research improvements, in addition to monitoring, impact, planning, mitigation and adaptation and recovery information. At a series of workshops in 2010, the US National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) agreed to take the first step toward a GDEWS, the formation of a Global Drought Monitoring Portal (GDMP). This effort currently covers three continents - North America, Europe, and Africa - and provides global drought indicator information through satellite products and Global Historical Climate Network locations. The GDMP has benefited from coordination with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and Group on Earth Observations (GEO). Other nations have expressed interest in contributing and new regional and continental information should be online shortly. This paper presents the capabilities of the GDMP to link the monitoring, forecasting, research, and impacts aspects of international drought as well as the advantages of using common architecture through GEO to facilitate transfer and interoperability of GDEWS-related information.

Brewer, M.; Heim, R. R.; Pozzi, W.; Vogt, J.; Sheffield, J.

2011-12-01

81

Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally.  

PubMed

Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. PMID:24074213

Lee, A; Mhurchu, C N; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S; Hawkes, C; L'abb, M; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Walker, C

2013-10-01

82

Induced environment contamination monitor (IECM) cascade impactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cascade Impactor on the IECM is an aerosol sampling instrument which employs three cascade impaction-type nozzles of progressively smaller diameter. The considered approach makes it possible to achieve particle size discrimination involving three ranges (5 microns and larger, 1 to 5 microns, and 0.3 to 1 micron). In addition to the particulate measuring cascade stages, a fourth quartz crystal microbalance measures the cumulative airborne molecular nonvolatile residue (NVR) at ambient temperature. The cascade measurements provide a temporal record of the payload bay's particulate environment during ascent, descent, and immediate postlanding periods. The NVR stage functions throughout the mission. Particulates of a size greater than five microns in diameter were below 10 micrograms per cu m throughout the mission.

Duncan, B. J.

1983-01-01

83

A Seamless Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ('From Observations to Decisions') recognizes that 'water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity', and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the development of a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions, flood potential and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of water variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed. Future changes in water availability and drought risk are quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land surface models. For regions with lack of on-the-ground data we are field-testing low-cost environmental sensors and along with new satellite products for terrestrial hydrology and vegetation, integrating these into the system for improved monitoring and prediction. We provide an overview of the system and some examples of real-world applications to flood and drought events, with a focus on Africa.

Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Fisher, C. K.; Caylor, K. K.

2013-12-01

84

Glacial environments on the Tibetan Plateau and global cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glacial environments on the Tibetan Plateau and the mechanisms for glacier and snow accumulation are discussed on the basis of new evidence of global temperature fluctuations and regional biome type changes. The biome types show that extensive snow and glacier fields could develop on the Tibetan Plateau with a temperature lowering of 79C and precipitation decrease by 3070%. Considering

Tungsheng Liu; Xinshi Zhang; Shangfa Xiong; Xiaoguang Qin; Xiaoping Yang

2002-01-01

85

Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership  

SciTech Connect

This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth.

Matthews, J.T. (ed.)

1993-01-01

86

Global Level Path Planning for Mobile Robots in Dynamic Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a self-adapting approach to global level path planning in dynamic environments. The aim of this work is to minimize risk and delays in possible applications of mobile robots (e.g., in industrial processes). We introduce a hybrid system that uses case-based reasoning as well as grid-based maps for decision-making. Maps are used to suggest several alternative paths between

Maarja Kruusmaa

2003-01-01

87

Biological approaches to global environment change mitigation and remediation.  

PubMed

One of the most pressing and globally recognized challenges is how to mitigate the effects of global environment change brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO(2). In this review we evaluate the potential contribution of four biological approaches to mitigating global environment change: reducing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations through soil carbon sequestration and afforestation; reducing predicted increases in global surface temperatures through increasing the albedo of crop plants; and fertilizing the oceans to increase primary productivity and CO(2) drawdown. We conclude that none of these biological approaches are 'magic bullets' capable of reversing environmental changes brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, it is possible that increasing crop albedo and soil carbon sequestration might contribute towards mitigation on a regional scale. In the absence of legally binding international agreements to reduce CO(2) emissions, we propose that: increased efforts are made to identify novel biological mitigatory strategies; further research is conducted to minimise the uncertainties present in all four of the biological approaches described; and pilot-level field work is conducted to examine the feasibility of the most promising strategies. Finally, it is essential to engage with the public concerning strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change because the majority of the biological approaches have effects, quite possibly of a negative nature, on ecosystem services and land usage. PMID:19640500

Woodward, F Ian; Bardgett, Richard D; Raven, John A; Hetherington, Alistair M

2009-07-28

88

TEMPERATURE GRADIENT CHAMBERS FOR RESEARCH ON GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT CHANGE. I. THERMAL ENVIRONMENT IN A LARGE CHAMBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

OKADA M. HAMASAKI T. and HAYASH! T. Temperature gradient chambers for research on global environment change. I. Thermal environment in a large chamber. BIOTRONICS 24, 85-97, 1995. Simple and low-cost temperature gradient chambers (TGC) have been developed to study the effects of temperature on field crops. Providing a continuous one-way air flow along the long axis of the TGC, the

M. OKADA; T. HAMASAKI; T. HAYASHI

89

A Global Framework for Monitoring Phenological Responses to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Remote sensing of vegetation phenology is an important method with which to monitor terrestrial responses to climate change, but most approaches include signals from multiple forcings, such as mixed phenological signals from multiple biomes, urbanization, political changes, shifts in agricultural practices, and disturbances. Consequently, it is difficult to extract a clear signal from the usually assumed forcing: climate change. Here, using global 8 km 1982 to 1999 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data and an eight-element monthly climatology, we identified pixels whose wavelet power spectrum was consistently dominated by annual cycles and then created phenologically and climatically self-similar clusters, which we term phenoregions. We then ranked and screened each phenoregion as a function of landcover homogeneity and consistency, evidence of human impacts, and political diversity. Remaining phenoregions represented areas with a minimized probability of non-climatic forcings and form elemental units for long-term phenological monitoring.

White, Michael A [Utah State University (USU); Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Hargrove, William Walter [ORNL; Nemani, Ramakrishna R [NASA Ames Research Center

2005-01-01

90

A quasi-global precipitation time series for drought monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimating precipitation variations in space and time is an important aspect of drought early warning and environmental monitoring. An evolving drier-than-normal season must be placed in historical context so that the severity of rainfall deficits may quickly be evaluated. To this end, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, working closely with collaborators at the University of California, Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group, have developed a quasi-global (50S50N, 180E180W), 0.05 resolution, 1981 to near-present gridded precipitation time series: the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) data archive.

Funk, Chris C.; Peterson, Pete J.; Landsfeld, Martin F.; Pedreros, Diego H.; Verdin, James P.; Rowland, James D.; Romero, Bo E.; Husak, Gregory J.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

91

INTRODUCTION Requirements to monitor the effects of potentially environ-  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Requirements to monitor the effects of potentially environ- mentally damaging mining the boundaries of which major deposits of uranium are subject to current and proposed mining activities. Perhaps well-regulated mining activity has left a legacy of discharged acidic and metallic wastes to several

Cranston, Peter S.

92

WESTERN ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT MONITORING STUDY: PLANNING AND COORDINATION SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is a summary of the planning, coordination and implementation mechanisms which provide the framework for the Western Energy/Environment Monitoring Study. This Study involves participation by elements of EPA, NASA, NOAA, and USGS and is a segment of the Interagency Ene...

93

JOB MONITORING IN AN INTERACTIVE GRID ANALYSIS ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grid is emerging as a great computational resource but its dynamic behavior makes the Grid environment unpredictable. Systems and networks can fail, and the introduction of more users can result in resource starvation. Once a job has been submitted for execution on the grid, monitoring becomes essential for a user to see that the job is completed in an

Ashiq Anjum; Julian Bunn; Richard Cavanaugh; Frank van Lingen; Richard McClatchey; Harvey Newman; Conrad Steenberg; Michael Thomas; Ian Willers

94

Building an Application Framework for Monitoring the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Envimon project we are building prototype information systems for diverse real-world environment monitoring applications. The applications are built onto a common software framework, which will be designed and implemented in the project. The framework can be used for developing diverse applications in a straightforward and cost- efficient way. It enables employing diverse data sources, preprocessing, analyzing and preparing

Ville Kotovirta; Jenni Kanniainen; Teppo Veijonen; Simo Neuvonen

2006-01-01

95

Role of commercial aircraft in global monitoring systems.  

PubMed

The role of commercial aircraft in monitoring meteorological parameters and atmospheric constituents has been limited in the former case and virtually nonexistent in the latter. I have tried to point out that this situation can and should be changed now. The new family of wide-bodied jets such as the 747, DC-10, and L-1011 aircraft can be used to supply important global atmospheric and tropical meteorological data for which there is a pressing need. While scientists are not in total agreement on the magnitude of the effect of particulates and gases on the atmosphere, there is almost unanimous concurrence that we are severely limited in information, and that global baseline concentrations must be established for particulates and gases in the troposphere and lower stratosphere as soon as possible. Also, more synoptic meteorological information from the tropical troposphere is highly desirable. In the final analysis, commercial aircraft may offer the most inexpensive way to monitor our atmosphere in the near future. Much of the instrumentation technology is here and the rest is certainly within our grasp. The fact of the matter is that there are now over 220 Boeing 747's and Douglas DC-10's in service, flying an average of 10 hours a day. Long-range flights, such as those from Tokyo to Anchorage to London in the Northern Hemisphere and from Hawaii to Pago Pago to Sydney in the Southern Hemisphere, are commonplace. These aircraft are equipped with inertial navigation systems and central air data computers coupled to advanced data storage systems which can readily be interrogated by satellite. This means that there is now a large amount of snyoptic weather information which can be obtained with a minimum of effort and cost. Likewise, a start at obtaining measurements of atmospheric constituents on a global basis can be made now. All we need to do is make the effort. PMID:17771692

Steinberg, R

1973-04-27

96

Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments: A New GLORIA Site in Southwestern Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change is expected to have pronounced effects on the alpine environments and thus the alpine plants of western North America. Predicted responses include an upward migration of treelines, altered species compositions, changes in the percentage of land covered by vegetation, and a change in the phenology of alpine plants. To determine the effects of climate change on the alpine flora of southwestern Montana, we are installing a GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) site in order to monitor temperature, species composition, and percent cover of vascular plants, lichens, and mosses along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We are including lichens and mosses because of their importance as ecological indicator species. The abundance and spatial distribution of lichens and mosses provides essential baseline data for long-term monitoring of local and global impacts on the environment. Mt. Fleecer (9250 ft.), which is west of the continental divide and semi-isolated from other peaks in the Anaconda-Pintlar Range, is currently the most likely location for the southwestern Montana GLORIA site. Mt. Fleecer is accessible because it does not have the steep and hazardous glaciated talus cirques that characterize many of the neighboring, higher peaks. However, if an accessible and suitable higher summit is found, then it will be included as the highest summit in the GLORIA site. Interesting species at Mt. Fleecer include the whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, which is a keystone species in high mountain ecosystems of the western United States and Canada, the green gentian, Frasera speciosa, and the shooting star, Dodecatheon pulchellum. Data from this site will become part of a global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora. Information gained from this GLORIA site can also be used as a link between studies of alpine climate change and related investigations on the timing of snowmelt and its influence on riparian ecosystems in western Montana.

Apple, M. E.; Pullman, T. Y.; Mitman, G. G.

2007-12-01

97

Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) is a hands-on international environmental science and education program. GLOBE links students, teachers, and the scientific research community in an effort to learn more about our environment through student data collection and observation. The website allows students to submit and peruse data in the fields of atmosphere, hydrology, soils, and land cover/phenology. It includes a mapping/graphing area, a teacher's guide, and an educator's forum. GLOBE is a cooperative effort of schools, led in the United States by a Federal interagency program sponsored by NOAA, NASA, NSF, and EPA, in partnership with over 140 colleges and universities, state and local school systems, and non-government organizations.

2007-12-12

98

Female degus ( Octodon degus ) monitor their environment while foraging socially  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vigilance or scanning involves interruptions in foraging behavior when individuals lift their heads and conduct visual monitoring\\u000a of the environment. Theoretical considerations assume that foraging with the head down, and scanning (head up) are mutually\\u000a exclusive activities, such that foraging precludes vigilance. We tested this generalization in a socially foraging, small\\u000a mammal model, the diurnal Chilean degu (Octodon degus). We

Vernica Quirici; Rodrigo A. Castro; Javiera Oyarzn; Luis A. Ebensperger

2008-01-01

99

Metagenomic Frameworks for Monitoring Antibiotic Resistance in Aquatic Environments  

PubMed Central

Background: High-throughput genomic technologies offer new approaches for environmental health monitoring, including metagenomic surveillance of antibiotic resistance determinants (ARDs). Although natural environments serve as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes that can be transferred to pathogenic and human commensal bacteria, monitoring of these determinants has been infrequent and incomplete. Furthermore, surveillance efforts have not been integrated into public health decision making. Objectives: We used a metagenomic epidemiologybased approach to develop an ARD index that quantifies antibiotic resistance potential, and we analyzed this index for common modal patterns across environmental samples. We also explored how metagenomic data such as this index could be conceptually framed within an early risk management context. Methods: We analyzed 25 published data sets from shotgun pyrosequencing projects. The samples consisted of microbial community DNA collected from marine and freshwater environments across a gradient of human impact. We used principal component analysis to identify index patterns across samples. Results: We observed significant differences in the overall index and index subcategory levels when comparing ecosystems more proximal versus distal to human impact. The selection of different sequence similarity thresholds strongly influenced the index measurements. Unique index subcategory modes distinguished the different metagenomes. Conclusions: Broad-scale screening of ARD potential using this index revealed utility for framing environmental health monitoring and surveillance. This approach holds promise as a screening tool for establishing baseline ARD levels that can be used to inform and prioritize decision making regarding management of ARD sources and human exposure routes. Citation: Port JA, Cullen AC, Wallace JC, Smith MN, Faustman EM. 2014. Metagenomic frameworks for monitoring antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments. Environ Health Perspect 122:222228;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307009 PMID:24334622

Port, Jesse A.; Cullen, Alison C.; Wallace, James C.; Smith, Marissa N.

2013-01-01

100

Landsat: The Backbone for Mapping and Monitoring Global Ecological Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term ecological monitoring requires consistent observation of key variables, long-term measurement continuity, and open and affordable access to measurements. The Landsat series of Earth observation missions uniquely meet those criteria, and Landsat's 30m-observation scale permits the detection and differentiation of natural versus human-caused land change. Landsat is the longest and most comprehensive record of the state of the global land surface in existence. No other high-resolution satellite program is either capable or committed to the systematic monitoring of global scale human and natural land change. Beginning with Landsat 1 in 1972, six Landsat missions have continuously recorded images of the Earth. As we near the fortieth anniversary of Landsat, we now have an archive of millions of repetitive images of the Earth with multispectral properties suited to assessing both biotic and abiotic conditions and at a scale appropriate for resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Landsat archive contains nearly three million scenes and all are available to users at no cost. Furthermore, the entire Landsat record, Landsats 1-7, is now calibrated to a common radiometric standard and the majority of the data are orthorectified - enabling immediate assessment of long-term ecological conditions and land change. Landsats 5 and 7 continue to collect imagery and together they provide the potential to cover a significant portion of the Earth's land surfaces every eight days. Both of these missions now use a long-term acquisition plan designed to improve the collection of seasonal global coverage. Furthermore, recent agreements with international Landsat receiving stations are bringing previously inaccessible contemporary Landsat 5 data into the EROS archive. The amount of global coverage being acquired annually is the highest level in the history of the Landsat program. The EROS global historical archive is rapidly expanding because of the addition of 1972-present Landsat holdings from ground stations worldwide. More than three million Landsat scenes not currently found in the EROS archive exist in archives around the world and many of these data are at risk due to aging storage media and inadequate preservation practices. The repatriation of these data into the EROS archive will potentially double the number of no-cost Landsat scenes available to users. The uncertainty of future Landsat missions has challenged operational monitoring of ecological systems. However, that may be changing. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) being developed by NASA and the USGS is slated for a December 2012 launch. LDCM (which will be renamed Landsat 8 following launch) will use new imaging technology to provide improved multispectral measurements, and offers additional spectral bands and increased daily imaging capacity. While missions beyond LDCM are uncertain, the President's Fiscal Year 2012 budget requests funds for the planning and development of Landsats 9 and 10, and includes language that will make Landsat an operational program - ending the decades of uncertainty.

Loveland, T. R.

2011-12-01

101

Evaluation of global monitoring and forecasting systems at Mercator Ocan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since December 2010, the MyOcean global analysis and forecasting system has consisted of the Mercator Ocan NEMO global 1/4 configuration with a 1/12 nested model over the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The open boundary data for the nested configuration come from the global 1/4 configuration at 20 S and 80 N. The data are assimilated by means of a reduced-order Kalman filter with a 3-D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. It includes an adaptive-error estimate and a localization algorithm. A 3-D-Var scheme provides a correction for the slowly evolving large-scale biases in temperature and salinity. Altimeter data, satellite sea surface temperature and in situ temperature and salinity vertical profiles are jointly assimilated to estimate the initial conditions for numerical ocean forecasting. In addition to the quality control performed by data producers, the system carries out a proper quality control on temperature and salinity vertical profiles in order to minimise the risk of erroneous observed profiles being assimilated in the model. This paper describes the recent systems used by Mercator Ocan and the validation procedure applied to current MyOcean systems as well as systems under development. The paper shows how refinements or adjustments to the system during the validation procedure affect its quality. Additionally, we show that quality checks (in situ, drifters) and data sources (satellite sea surface temperature) have as great an impact as the system design (model physics and assimilation parameters). The results of the scientific assessment are illustrated with diagnostics over the year 2010 mainly, assorted with time series over the 2007-2011 period. The validation procedure demonstrates the accuracy of MyOcean global products, whose quality is stable over time. All monitoring systems are close to altimetric observations with a forecast RMS difference of 7 cm. The update of the mean dynamic topography corrects local biases in the Indonesian Throughflow and in the western tropical Pacific. This improves also the subsurface currents at the Equator. The global systems give an accurate description of water masses almost everywhere. Between 0 and 500 m, departures from in situ observations rarely exceed 1 C and 0.2 psu. The assimilation of an improved sea surface temperature product aims to better represent the sea ice concentration and the sea ice edge. The systems under development are still suffering from a drift which can only be detected by means of a 5-yr hindcast, preventing us from upgrading them in real time. This emphasizes the need to pursue research while building future systems for MyOcean2 forecasting.

Lellouche, J.-M.; Le Galloudec, O.; Drvillon, M.; Rgnier, C.; Greiner, E.; Garric, G.; Ferry, N.; Desportes, C.; Testut, C.-E.; Bricaud, C.; Bourdall-Badie, R.; Tranchant, B.; Benkiran, M.; Drillet, Y.; Daudin, A.; De Nicola, C.

2013-01-01

102

Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change  

SciTech Connect

The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

Risser, P.G.

1990-02-01

103

Global Monitoring of Air Pollution Using Spaceborne Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MODIS sensor onboard EOS-Terra satellite provides not only daily global coverage but also high spectral (36 channels from 0.41 to 14 microns wavelength) and spatial (250m, 500m and 1km) resolution measurements. A similar MODIS instrument will be also configured into EOS-Aqua satellite to be launched soon. Using the complementary EOS-Terra and EOS-Aqua sun-synchronous orbits (10:30 AM and 1:30 PM equator-crossing time respectively), it enables us also to study the diurnal changes of the Earth system. It is unprecedented for the derivation of aerosol properties with such high spatial resolution and daily global converge. Aerosol optical depth and other aerosol properties, e.g., Angstrom coefficient over land and particle size over ocean, are derived as standard products at a spatial resolution of 10 x 10 sq km. The high resolution results are found surprisingly useful in detecting aerosols in both urban and rural regions as a result of urban/industrial pollution and biomass burning. For long-lived aerosols, the ability to monitoring the evolution of these aerosol events could help us to establish an system of air quality especially for highly populated areas. Aerosol scenarios with city pollution and biomass burning will be presented. Also presented are the method used in the derivation of aerosol optical properties and preliminary results will be presented, and issue as well as obstacles in validating aerosol optical depth with AERONET ground-based observations.

Chu, D. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Remer, L. A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

104

Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates are valuable. Strategies have been researched for obtaining station coordinates every 15 min using a Kalman filter; these strategies have been tested on data collected by a GPS network on Kilauea Volcano. Data from this network are tracked continuously, recorded every 30 s, and telemetered hourly to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. A white noise model is heavily impacted by data outages and poor satellite geometry, but a properly constrained random walk model fits the data well. Using a borehole tiltmeter at Kilauea's summit as ground-truth, solutions using different random walk constraints were compared. This study indicates that signals on the order of 5 mm/h are resolvable using a random walk standard deviation of 0.45 cm/???h. Values lower than this suppress small signals, and values greater than this have significantly higher noise at periods of 1-6 hours. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

Larson, K. M.; Cervelli, P.; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, A.; Segall, P.; Owen, S.

2001-01-01

105

A Remote Sensing-based Global Agricultural Drought Monitoring and Forecasting System for Supporting GEOSS (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations. GEO is coordinating the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a worldwide effort to make Earth observation resources more useful to the society. As one of the important technical contributors to GEOSS, the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems (CSISS), George Mason University, is implementing a remote sensing-based global agricultural drought monitoring and forecasting system (GADMFS) as a GEOSS societal benefit areas (agriculture and water) prototype. The goals of the project are 1) to establish a system as a component of GEOSS for providing global on-demand and systematic agriculture drought information to users worldwide, and 2) to support decision-making with improved monitoring, forecasting, and analyses of agriculture drought. GADMFS has adopted the service-oriented architecture and is based on standard-compliant interoperable geospatial Web services to provide online on-demand drought conditions and forecasting at ~1 km spatial and daily and weekly temporal resolutions for any part of the world to world-wide users through the Internet. Applicable GEOSS recommended open standards are followed in the system implementation. The systems drought monitoring relies on drought-related parameters, such as surface and root-zone soil moisture and NDVI time series derived from remote sensing data, to provide the current conditions of agricultural drought. The system links to near real-time satellite remote sensing data sources from NASA and NOAA for the monitoring purpose. For drought forecasting, the system utilizes a neural-network based modeling algorithm. The algorithm is trained with inputs of current and historic vegetation-based and climate-based drought index data, biophysical characteristics of the environment, and time-series weather data. The trained algorithm will establish per-pixel model for drought forecasting. The model will produce on-demand drought prediction in ~1km or higher spatial resolution, covering whole world by using weather forecasting data as the input. The system will be implemented in multiple phases. Phase I is concentrated only on NDVI-based drought monitoring to demonstrate the concept and feasibility. In phase I, 30-year calibrated global weekly NDVI composites from AVHRR and MODIS are used to establish the baseline and dynamics of vegetation conditions for each co-registered pixel. Multiple NDVI based agricultural drought indices will be computed (e.g., normalized agricultural drought index (NADI), SVI, VegDRI) from the baseline and dynamics for drought monitoring. Phase I prototype will be demonstrated in December 2010.

di, L.; Yu, G.; Han, W.; Deng, M.

2010-12-01

106

A Geomagnetic Meridian Ring for global ionospheric studies and monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeronomers have made huge strides in understanding the detailed physics and chemistry of the upper atmosphere and in designing, constructing and operating advanced facilities to monitor, measure, and, in some cases, perturb that medium. Satellite-borne imagers and field/particle instruments, as well as ground-based instruments such as coherent scatter radars, optical imagers, and magnetometers, have already started to expose and document fundamental clues about the onset and development of the principal mechanisms of transient energy transfer from the solar wind to the Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere (AIM) system. However, the big picture, with its accompanying ability to predict the behavior of the geospace system both in response to solar and anthropogenic factors, remains somewhat elusive. This is due in part to the inherent limited spatial coverage of individual isolated instruments. Neither existing ground-based facilities, nor current or planned space missions, can provide the detailed, reliable, global coverage of geospace required to support either new and insightful scientific understanding or future operational capabilities to trace AIM weather, climate, and global change. Horizontal and vertical propagation effects quickly limit the effective interpretation of phenomena that have global impact. This limitation can be addressed with an array of instruments densely distributed along magnetic meridians and/or lines of constant latitude. Vertical sampling of the AIM system can be achieved with incoherent scatter radars, lidars and multi-spectral images while latitudinal or longitudinal tracking of propagating disturbances can be achieved by the dense distribution of these instruments. Incoherent scatter radars have developed considerably in recent years with the deployment of multiple new systems (Poker Flat, Alaska, Resolute Bay, Canada, and in development in Russia, China, and Scandinavia, as well as a second system at Resolute Bay). Operational changes now support continuous and remote measurements. For the first time, it is now practical to envisage a global ISR deployment capable of providing the precision measurements required. We will present plans to add further observational sites, built around phased array incoherent scatter radars, to cover a complete geomagnetic meridian. We elaborate on how this major initiative will illuminate new science and exploit the potential for international cooperation with other major initiatives, such as the Chinese Meridian Project, not only with regard to new radars and sites (with the potential for hardware collaboration for future incoherent scatter radar systems), but also to further integrate the routine operation of the existing radars around the globe.

Sanchez, E. R.; van Eyken, A. P.; Kelly, J. D.

2012-12-01

107

GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTE WORKING PAPER NO. 08-02  

E-print Network

GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTE WORKING PAPER NO. 08-02 Ecological Macroeconomics, USA http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae ©Copyright 2008 Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts global carbon emissions by 50-85 per cent by the year 2050, which is suggested by the Intergovernmental

Tufts University

108

GEMS: Assimilation of Satellite and In-Situ Observations to Monitor and Forecast Global and Regional Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the umbrella of European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) the Global and regional Earth-system (Atmosphere) Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data (GEMS) project has been running since March 2005. The aim of the project is to build a pre-operational system that will assimilate both satellite and in- situ observations to monitor atmospheric composition. Greenhouse gases, reactive gases, and aerosol are all monitored in a global 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system running at about 1 degree resolution. These global fields are then used as boundary conditions for regional air quality modelling on the European scale. Both the global and regional component will improve our understanding of surface fluxes, long- range transport, and in general the causes of poor air quality. We will present an overview of the project and show how we combine state-of-the-art modelling, data assimilation and retrieval techniques to support scientific research, air quality forecasters, and environmental policy makers.

Kaiser, J. W.; Engelen, R. J.; Hollingsworth, A.; Textor, C.; Benedetti, A.; Boucher, O.; Chevallier, F.; Dethof, A.; Elbern, H.; Eskes, H.; Flemming, J.; Granier, C.; Morcrette, J.; Rayner, P.; Peuch, V.; Rouil, L.; Schultz, M.; Serrar, S.; Simmons, A.

2007-12-01

109

The Node Monitoring Component of a Scalable Systems Software Environment  

SciTech Connect

This research describes Fountain, a suite of programs used to monitor the resources of a cluster. A cluster is a collection of individual computers that are connected via a high speed communication network. They are traditionally used by users who desire more resources, such as processing power and memory, than any single computer can provide. A common drawback to effectively utilizing such a large-scale system is the management infrastructure, which often does not often scale well as the system grows. Large-scale parallel systems provide new research challenges in the area of systems software, the programs or tools that manage the system from boot-up to running a parallel job. The approach presented in this thesis utilizes a collection of separate components that communicate with each other to achieve a common goal. While systems software comprises a broad array of components, this thesis focuses on the design choices for a node monitoring component. We will describe Fountain, an implementation of the Scalable Systems Software (SSS) node monitor specification. It is targeted at aggregate node monitoring for clusters, focusing on both scalability and fault tolerance as its design goals. It leverages widely used technologies such as XML and HTTP to present an interface to other components in the SSS environment.

Samuel James Miller

2006-08-09

110

Developing the Global Geodetic Observing System into a Monitoring System for the Global Water Cycle (IGCP 565 Project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geodetic observations of the Earth's gravity field, shape, and rotation and their changes in time (the three fundamental areas of geodesy) capture the signals of variation in the entire fluid envelope of the solid Earth, including the terrestrial water storage. Therefore, the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) has the capability to monitor mass transport particularly in the global water cycle.

Hans-Peter Plag; Norman Miller; Richard S. Gross; Markus Rothacher; Susanna Zerbini; Chris Rizos

111

Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

King, Michael D.

2003-01-01

112

Validation of the ASAR Global Monitoring Mode Soil Moisture Product Using the NAFE'05 Data Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) Global Monitoring (GM) mode offers an opportunity for global soil moisture (SM) monitoring at much finer spatial resolution than that provided by the currently operational Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System and future planned missions such as Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity and Soil Moisture Active Passive. Considering the difficulties in

Iliana Mladenova; Venkat Lakshmi; Jeffrey P. Walker; Rocco Panciera; Wolfgang Wagner; Marcela Doubkova

2010-01-01

113

The Global Communication Infrastructure of the International Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI) employs 6 satellites in various frequency bands distributed around the globe. Communications with the PTS (Provisional Technical Secretariat) in Vienna, Austria are achieved through VSAT technologies, international leased data circuits and Virtual Private Network (VPN) connections over the Internet. To date, 210 independent VSAT circuits have been connected to Vienna as well as special circuits connecting to the Antarctic and to independent sub-networks. Data volumes from all technologies currently reach 8 Gigabytes per day. The first level of support and a 24/7 help desk remains with the GCI contractor, but performance is monitored actively by the PTS/GCI operations team. GCI operations are being progressively introduced into the PTS operations centre. An Operations centre fully integrated with the GCI segment of the IMS network will ensure a more focused response to incidents and will maximize the availability of the IMS network. Existing trouble tickets systems are being merged to ensure the commission manages GCI incidents in the context of the IMS as a whole. A focus on a single source of data for GCI network performance has enabled reporting systems to be developed which allow for improved and automated reports. The contracted availability for each individual virtual circuit is 99.5% and this performance is regularly reviewed on a monthly basis

Lastowka, L.; Gray, A.; Anichenko, A.

2007-05-01

114

Incoherent Scatter Radars for Global Scale Ionospheric Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeronomers have made huge strides in understanding the detailed physics and chemistry of the upper atmosphere and in designing, constructing and operating advanced facilities to monitor, measure, and in some cases, perturb that medium. However, the big picture, with its accompanying ability to predict the behavior of the geospace system both in response to natural (solar) and anthropogenic factors, remains somewhat elusive. Current incoherent scatter radars (ISRs) have the ability to operate reliably, remotely, and largely autonomously for extended periods and the procedures to build, deploy, operate, and maintain them are well developed. For the first time, it is now practical to envisage a global ISR deployment capable of providing the precision measurements required. Incoherent scatter radars have developed considerably in recent years with the deployment of multiple new systems (Poker Flat, Alaska, Resolute Bay, Canada, and in development in China, Argentina, Antarctica, Scandinavia, and elsewhere, as well as a second system at Resolute Bay) and operational changes to support continuous and remote measurements. We will discuss plans to add further observational sites, built around phased array incoherent scatter radars, to cover, for example, a complete geomagnetic meridian; plans to further integrate the routine operation of many radars around the globe; and the potential for hardware collaboration for future incoherent scatter radar systems.

Van Eyken, Anthony; Heinselman, Craig; Kelly, John; Sanchez, Ennio; Stromme, Anja

2012-07-01

115

Monitoring the Earth's Atmosphere with the Global IMS Infrasound Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is tasked with monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) which bans nuclear weapon explosions underground, in the oceans, and in the atmosphere. The verification regime includes a globally distributed network of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations which collect and transmit data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria shortly after the data are recorded at each station. The infrasound network defined in the Protocol of the CTBT comprises 60 infrasound array stations. Each array is built according to the same technical specifications, it is typically composed of 4 to 9 sensors, with 1 to 3 km aperture geometry. At the end of 2000 only one infrasound station was transmitting data to the IDC. Since then, 41 additional stations have been installed and 70% of the infrasound network is currently certified and contributing data to the IDC. This constitutes the first global infrasound network ever built with such a large and uniform distribution of stations. Infrasound data at the IDC are processed at the station level using the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) method for the detection and measurement of infrasound signals. The algorithm calculates the signal correlation between sensors at an infrasound array. If the signal is sufficiently correlated and consistent over an extended period of time and frequency range a detection is created. Groups of detections are then categorized according to their propagation and waveform features, and a phase name is assigned for infrasound, seismic or noise detections. The categorization complements the PMCC algorithm to avoid overwhelming the IDC automatic association algorithm with false alarm infrasound events. Currently, 80 to 90% of the detections are identified as noise by the system. Although the noise detections are not used to build events in the context of CTBT monitoring, they represent valuable data for other civil applications like monitoring of natural hazards (volcanic activity, storm tracking) and climate change. Non-noise detections are used in network processing at the IDC along with seismic and hydroacoustic technologies. The arrival phases detected on the three waveform technologies may be combined and used for locating events in an automatically generated bulletin of events. This automatic event bulletin is routinely reviewed by analysts during the interactive review process. However, the fusion of infrasound data with the other waveform technologies has only recently (in early 2010) become part of the IDC operational system, after a software development and testing period that began in 2004. The build-up of the IMS infrasound network, the recent developments of the IDC infrasound software, and the progress accomplished during the last decade in the domain of real-time atmospheric modelling have allowed better understanding of infrasound signals and identification of a growing data set of ground-truth sources. These infragenic sources originate from natural or man-made sources. Some of the detected signals are emitted by local or regional phenomena recorded by a single IMS infrasound station: man-made cultural activity, wind farms, aircraft, artillery exercises, ocean surf, thunderstorms, rumbling volcanoes, iceberg calving, aurora, avalanches. Other signals may be recorded by several IMS infrasound stations at larger distances: ocean swell, sonic booms, and mountain associated waves. Only a small fraction of events meet the event definition criteria considering the Treaty verification mission of the Organization. Candidate event types for the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin include atmospheric or surface explosions, meteor explosions, rocket launches, signals from large earthquakes and explosive volcanic eruptions.

Brachet, Nicolas; Brown, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Bras, Ronan; Coyne, John; Given, Jeffrey

2010-05-01

116

Global monitoring of Sea Surface Salinity with Aquarius  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is a microwave remote sensing system designed to obtain global maps of the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for late in 2008. The objective of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This will provide data to address scientific questions associated with ocean circulation and its impact on climate. For example, salinity is needed to understand the large scale thermohaline circulation, driven by buoyancy, which moves large masses of water and heat around the globe. Of the two variables that determine buoyancy (salinity and temperature), temperature is already being monitored. Salinity is the missing variable needed to understand this circulation. Salinity also has an important role in energy exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, for example in the development of fresh water lenses (buoyant water that forms stable layers and insulates water below from the atmosphere) which alter the air-sea coupling. Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument,for measuring salinity is the radiometer which is able to detect salinity because of the modulation salinity produces on the thermal emission from sea water. This change is detectable at the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the greatest unknowns in the retrieval. The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6am/6pm. The antenna for these two instruments is a 3 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds arranged in pushbroom fashion looking away from the sun toward the shadow side of the orbit to minimize sunglint. The mission goal is to produce maps of the salinity field globally once each month with an accuracy of 0.2 psu and a spatial resolution of 100 km. This will be adequate to address l&ge scale features of the salinity field of the open ocean. The temporal resolution is sufficient to address seasonal changes and a three year mission is planned to-collect sufficient data to look for interannual variation. Aquarius is being developed by NASA as part of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The SAC-D mission is being developed by CONAE and will include the space craft and several additional instruments, including visible and infrared cameras and a microwave radiometer to monitor rain and wind velocity over the oceans, and sea ice.

Lagerloef, G. S. E.; LeVine, D. M.; Chao, Yi; Colomb, R.; Nollmann, I.

2005-01-01

117

Development of Data Video Base Station in Water Environment Monitoring Oriented Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consists of three parts: data monitoring nodes, date video base station and remote monitoring center. For the sake of realizing to monitor large range waters such as reservoir, wetland, lake, river and ocean etc, the monitoring system has the function of perception, acquisition, processing and transmission for video-information in key

Kong Yifan; Jiang Peng

2008-01-01

118

Global Monitoring of Martian Surface Albedo Changes from Orbital Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Martian surface changes were first observed from orbit during the Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter missions. They were found to be caused by eolian processes, produced by deposition of dust during regional and global dust storms and subsequent darkening of the surface through erosion and transportation of dust and sand. The albedo changes accumulated in the 20 years between Viking and Mars Global Surveyor were sufficient to alter the global circulation of winds and the climate of Mars according to model calculations (Fenton et al., Nature 2007), but little was known about the timing or frequency of the changes. Since 1999, we have had the benefit of continuous monitoring by a series of orbiting spacecraft that continues today with Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express. Daily synoptic observations enable us to determine whether the surface albedo changes are gradual or episodic in nature and to record the seasons that the changes take place. High resolution images of surface morphology and atmospheric phenomena help identify the physical mechanisms responsible for the changes. From these data, we hope to learn the combinations of atmospheric conditions and sediment properties that produce surface changes on Mars and possibly predict when they will take place in the future. Martian surface changes are particularly conspicuous in low albedo terrain, where even a thin layer of bright dust brightens the surface drastically. Equatorial dark areas are repeatedly coated and recoated by dust, which is later shed from the surface by a variety of mechanisms. An example is Syrtis Major, suddenly buried in bright dust by the global dust storm of 2001. Persistent easterly winds blew much of the dust cover away over the course of the next Martian year, but episodic changes continue today, particularly during southern summer when regional dust storms are rife. Another such region is Solis Planum, south of the Valles Marineris, where changes take place relentlessly in all seasons as bright dust and dark sand battle to dominate the landscape. Elsewhere, gradual processes steadily shift albedo boundaries between bright and dark terrain. Dark terrain near the Spirit rover landing site is gradually spreading to the north, driven by seasonal southerly winds. A bright fringe of newly deposited dust appears ahead of the moving boundary, populated by wind streaks and dust avalanches. Dark terrain at higher latitudes gradually creeps towards the equator by the dust cleaning action of dust devils, for example at Nilosytis (43N, 85E). Much less obvious is the deposition and erosion of dust on already bright, dust-covered terrain. Changes in the distribution of fresh dust take place frequently in the region surrounding the Tharsis Montes. Dust in this high altitude zone is constantly on the move as faint dark streaks mark the removal of recently deposited dust that is only slightly brighter than the dust already settled on the surface. Dramatic deposition of dust onto dusty terrain took place at much lower elevations in northwestern Amazonis between 2002 and 2005. Since then, the dust has been energetically eroded by towering dust devils that cluster here each summer.

Geissler, P.; Enga, M.; Mukherjee, P.

2013-12-01

119

Surface Emissivity Retrieved with Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements for Monitoring Global Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface and atmospheric thermodynamic parameters retrieved with advanced ultraspectral remote sensors aboard Earth observing satellites are critical to general atmospheric and Earth science research, climate monitoring, and weather prediction. Ultraspectral resolution infrared radiance obtained from nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud information. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity retrieved from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements under "clear-sky" conditions. Fast radiative transfer models, applied to the cloud-free (or clouded) atmosphere, are used for atmospheric profile and surface parameter (or cloud parameter) retrieval. The inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface (or cloud microphysical) parameters. Rapidly produced surface emissivity is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted atmospheric and surface parameters. Surface emissivity and surface skin temperature from the current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information on the Earth s ecosystem and land surface type properties, which can be utilized as part of long-term monitoring for the Earth s environment and global climate change.

Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter

2009-01-01

120

Ionospheric monitoring by the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ionosphere reacts to geophysical events, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, surface explosions, underground nuclear explosions (UNE), etc. The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote sensing (RS) enables monitoring of the ionospheric disturbances excited by these events. The purpose of this dissertation is to use GNSS RS to detect, discriminate, model and monitor ionospheric disturbances induced by earthquakes and UNEs. Ionospheric delay, which can be derived from dual frequency GNSS signals, is converted to the total electron contents (TEC) along the signal path. After eliminating the main trend of TEC by taking the numerical third order horizontal 3-point derivatives, the traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are isolated. Since a TID can be generated due to various events, the source of TID must be verified. In this dissertation, the characteristics of the TID waves induced by an earthquake and an UNE are examined. The case studies are: (1) M9.0 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake, (2) 2006 North Korean UNE, and (3) 2009 North Korean UNE. From these experiments, the TIDs resulting from different types of events were characterized and discriminated due to the different waveform properties. In addition, the epicenter of the point source can be determined by TID observations. In experiment (2), the 2009 North Korean UNE was examined, using data from eleven nearby GNSS stations. Within a few hours from the explosion, the GNSS stations detected the TIDs, whose arrival time for each station formulated the linear model with respect to the distance to the station. TIDs were observed to propagate with speeds of roughly 150 - 400 m/s at stations about 365 km to 1330 km from the explosion site. Considering the wind effect, the wind-adjusted TIDs located the UNE to within about 2.7 km of its seismically determined epicenter. Through the case studies, the distinctive signatures of different events were demonstrated, which suggests the uniqueness of TIDs excited by different types of events. The major contributions of this dissertation is a demonstration of the applicability of GNSS RS to detect and discriminate geophysical events causing TIDs, and its ability to determine the epicenter of the point source.

Park, Jihye

121

The GlobalEd Project: Gender Differences in a Problem-Based Learning Environment of International Negotiations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the GlobalEd project, which employs a technology-rich environment for high school students to participate in a simulation of international relations and negotiation via the Internet. Reports participants' changes in academic and technology self-efficacy skills and the use of educational technology and discusses results in terms of

Brown, Scott W.; Boyer, Mark A.; Mayall, Hayley J.; Johnson, Paula R.; Meng, Lin; Butler, Michael J.; Weir, Kimberly; Florea, Natalie; Hernandez, Magnolia; Reis, Sally

2003-01-01

122

Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) for Monitoring Long Suspension Bridges  

E-print Network

, Nanjing, China 1 A Brief Introduction to the Global Positioning System 1 2 GPS for Structural Health 16 1 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM 1.1 GPS constellation The full term of the well-known acronym GPS is NAVSTAR global positioning system, where NAVSTAR stands for NAVigation System

Santerre, Rock

123

Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

King, Michael D.

2001-01-01

124

NOVAC - A global network for volcanic gas monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the global network, NOVAC (Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change), aiming at automatic gas emission monitoring at active volcanoes worldwide. Data from the network will primarily be used for volcanic risk assessment but also for geophysical research, studies of atmospheric change and ground validation of satellite instruments. A novel type of instrument, the Scanning miniaturized Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mini-DOAS) instrument, is applied in the network to measure volcanic gas emissions by UV absorption spectroscopy. The instrument is set up 5-10 km downwind of the volcano under study and typically 2-4 instruments are deployed at each volcano in order to cover different wind directions and facilitate measurements of plume height and plume direction. Two different versions of the instrument have been developed. Version I was designed to be a robust and simple instrument for measurement of volcanic SO2 emissions at high time-resolution with minimal power consumption. Version II was designed to allow the best possible spectroscopy, and enhanced flexibility in regard to measurement geometry at the cost of larger complexity, power consumption and price. In the paper the project is described as well as the developed software, the hardware of the two instrument versions, measurement strategies, data communication and archiving routines. As of December 2008 a total of 46 instruments have been installed at 18 volcanoes worldwide. As a typical example the installation at Tungurahua Volcano in Ecuador is described, together with some results from the first 21 months of operation at this volcano.

Galle, B.

2010-03-01

125

Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment.  

PubMed

Achieving sustainable global food security is one of humanity's contemporary challenges. Here we present an analysis identifying key "global leverage points" that offer the best opportunities to improve both global food security and environmental sustainability. We find that a relatively small set of places and actions could provide enough new calories to meet the basic needs for more than 3 billion people, address many environmental impacts with global consequences, and focus food waste reduction on the commodities with the greatest impact on food security. These leverage points in the global food system can help guide how nongovernmental organizations, foundations, governments, citizens' groups, and businesses prioritize actions. PMID:25035492

West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; Engstrom, Peder M; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Brauman, Kate A; Carlson, Kimberly M; Cassidy, Emily S; Johnston, Matt; MacDonald, Graham K; Ray, Deepak K; Siebert, Stefan

2014-07-18

126

Female degus (Octodon degus) monitor their environment while foraging socially.  

PubMed

Vigilance or scanning involves interruptions in foraging behavior when individuals lift their heads and conduct visual monitoring of the environment. Theoretical considerations assume that foraging with the "head down", and scanning ("head up") are mutually exclusive activities, such that foraging precludes vigilance. We tested this generalization in a socially foraging, small mammal model, the diurnal Chilean degu (Octodon degus). We studied spontaneous bouts of scanning of captive degus when foraging in pairs of female sibs and non-sibs. We examined the extent to which foraging (head down postures) and scanning (head up postures) were mutually exclusive in subjects exposed to none, partial, and complete lateral visual obstruction of their partners. In addition, we monitored the orientation of their bodies to examine the target of attention while foraging and scanning. Lastly, we examined the temporal occurrence of scanning events to assess the extent of scanning coordination, and whether this coordination is kin-biased. Visual obstruction had a significant influence on degu vigilance. Focal degus increased their quadrupedal and semi-erect scanning when foraging under a partially obstructed view of their partners. Degus oriented their bodies toward partners when foraging and scanning. Despite this, degus did not coordinate scanning bouts; instead, they scanned independently from one another. Relatedness among cage mates did not influence any aspect of degu behavior. Contrary to theoretical expectations, these results indicate that foraging and vigilance are not mutually exclusive, and that kinship per se does not influence scanning behavior and coordination. PMID:18214556

Quirici, Vernica; Castro, Rodrigo A; Oyarzn, Javiera; Ebensperger, Luis A

2008-07-01

127

A New GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments Site in Southwestern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is predicted to have a major impact on the alpine environments and plants of western North America. Alpine plant species and treelines may migrate upwards due to warmer temperatures. Species composition, vegetation cover, and the phenology of photosynthesis, flowering, pollination, and seed dispersal may change. The Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a network of

M. E. Apple; J. E. Warden; C. J. Apple; T. Y. Pullman; J. H. Gallagher

2008-01-01

128

Global 2000: The Presidential Task Force on Resources and the Environment--A Series of Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of responses to "The Global 2000 Report to the President" is presented. The Global 2000 Report examines the issues and interdependencies of population, resources, and environment in the long term global perspective (ED 188 935). According to the above report, if present trends continue, serious stresses of overcrowding, pollution,

Scrofani, E. Robert; And Others

129

Harsh-environment fiber optic sensors for structural monitoring applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the work presented was to develop a suite of sensors for use in high-temperature aerospace environments, including turbine engine monitoring, hypersonic vehicle skin friction measurements, and support ground and flight test operations. A fiber optic sensor platform was used to construct the sensor suite. Successful laboratory demonstrations include calibration of a pressure sensor to 100psi at a gas temperature of 800C, calibration of an accelerometer to 2.5g at a substrate temperature of 850C. Temperature sensors have been field tested up to 1400C, and a skin friction sensor designed for 870C operation has been constructed. The key advancement that enabled the operation of these novel harsh environment sensors was a fiber optic packaging methodology that allowed the coupling of alumina and sapphire transducer components, optical fiber, and high-temperature alloy housing materials. The basic operation of the sensors and early experimental results are presented. Each of the sensors described here represent a quantifiable advancement in the state of the art in high-temperature physical sensors and will have a significant impact on the aerospace propulsion instrumentation industry.

Fielder, Robert S.; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.; Palmer, Matthew E.

2004-07-01

130

Global ocean monitoring for the World Climate Research Programme.  

PubMed

Oceanic research and modelling for the World Climate Research Program will utilize several recently-developed instruments and measuring techniques as well as well-tested, long-used instruments. Ocean-scanning satellites will map the component of the ocean-surface topography related to ocean currents and mesoscale eddies and to fluctuating water volumes caused by ocean warming and cooling. Other satellite instruments will measure the direction and magnitude of wind stress on the sea surface, surface water temperatures, the distribution of chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments, the characteristics of internal waves, and possible precipitation over the ocean. Networks of acoustic transponders will obtain a three-dimensional picture of the distribution of temperature from the surface down to mid-depth and of long-term changes in temperature at depth. Ocean research vessels will determine the distribution and fate of geochemical tracers and will also make high-precision, deep hydrographic casts. Ships of opportunity, using expendable instruments, will measure temperature, salinity and currents in the upper water layers. Drifting and anchored buoys will also measure these properties as well as those of the air above the sea surface. Tide gauges installed on islands and exposed coastal locations will measure variations in monthly and shorter-period mean sea level. These tide gauges will provide 'ground truth' for the satellite maps of sea-surface topography, and will also determine variations in ocean currents and temperature.All these instruments will be used in several major programs, the most ambitious of which is the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) designed to obtain global measurements of major currents throughout the world ocean, greater understanding of the transformation of water masses, and the role of advective, convective, and turbulent processes in exchange of properties between surface and deep-ocean layers.A five- to ten-year experiment-"Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere (TOGA)"-will be undertaken to sudy the sequence of events of air-sea interactions in the tropical oceans and their impact on climatic variations on land-for example, variations in the strength and location of the Indian Ocean monsoon, droughts in low latitudes, and climatic fluctuations in temperate latitudes.Experimental and continuing time series will be taken at fixed locations to obtain a better picture of the magnitude and causes of ocean climate variability. National and multinational systematic repeated measurements along selected ocean transects or in specific ocean areas will be taken to determine oceanic variability and teleconnections between oceanic and atmospheric processes. Examples are the long Japanese section along the meridian of 137 E and the 'Sections' program of the USSR and several other countries in Energy-Active zones.The results from this wide range of observations and experiments will be used to guide and define mathematical models of the ocean circulation and its interactions with the atmosphere.It can be shown that biogeochemical processes in the ocean play an important role in determining the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere and thus in causing long-term climatic changes. Variations in the biological productivity of sub-surface waters cause variations in the effectveness of the biological pump which carries organic carbon down into deeper waters where it is oxidized. Studies of ice cores from 20 000 to 30 000 yr before the present indicate that atmospheric carbon dioxide varied by a factor of 2 within times of the order of 100 yr, and these variations were accompanied by large excursions in atmospheric temperature. Thus, ocean climatic monitoring must take into account measurements of both biological and physical variations in the ocean. PMID:24254799

Revelle, R; Bretherton, F

1986-07-01

131

A New GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments Site in Southwestern Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change is predicted to have a major impact on the alpine environments and plants of western North America. Alpine plant species and treelines may migrate upwards due to warmer temperatures. Species composition, vegetation cover, and the phenology of photosynthesis, flowering, pollination, and seed dispersal may change. The Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a network of alpine sites established with the goal of understanding the interactions between climate change and alpine plants. The Continental Divide traverses Southwestern Montana, where the flora contains representative species from both sides of the divide. In the summer of 2008, we established a GLORIA site in southwestern Montana east of the Continental Divide with the objective of determining whether the temperature changes at the site, and if so, how temperature changes influence alpine plants. We are monitoring soil temperature along with species composition and percent cover of alpine plants at four sub-summits along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We placed the treeline, lower alpine, and upper alpine sites on Mt. Fleecer (4549'36.06"N, 11248'08.18"W, 2886.2 m (9469 ft)) and the highest sub-summit on Keokirk Mountain, (4535'37.94"N, 11257'03.89"W, 2987.3 m (9801 ft)) in the Pioneer Range. Interesting species on these mountains include Lewisia pygmaea, the Pygmy Bitterroot, Silene acaulis, the Moss Campion, Eritrichium nanum, the Alpine Forget-Me-Not, Lloydia serotina, the Alpine Lily, and Pinus albicaulis, the Whitebark Pine. This new site will remain in place indefinitely. Baseline and subsequent data from this site will be linked with the global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora.

Apple, M. E.; Warden, J. E.; Apple, C. J.; Pullman, T. Y.; Gallagher, J. H.

2008-12-01

132

Global Network Is Launched to Monitor Isotopes in Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR), launched by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2007, compiles water isotope data on rivers to complement the 45-year-old IAEA/World Meteorological Organization (WMO) global network of isotopes in precipitation (GNIP).

Vitvar, Tomas; Aggarwal, Pradeep K.; Herczeg, Andrew L.

2007-08-01

133

Global collaborative engineering environment for integrated product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization has created a situation of increased international competition, which has put companies under enormous pressure in order to sustain and improve their value added to customers based on mass customization and time-to-market opportunities. This has lead to more international collaboration within companies and their different facilities worldwide, or among different companies in global supply chains. In this scenario the

Arturo Molina; Joaqun Aca; Paul K. Wright

2005-01-01

134

Globalization Miracle or Mirage for the Economy and Business Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article aims to bring into discussion the process of globalization - as central phenomenon of the 21st century. The areas of intervention where globalization is being noticed are various, from early history to the present day, in economics, marketing, IT, the educational system, politics, business, etc. The main idea that we want to set forth is the way

Alexandra G?LBEAZ?; Cristian FLOREA; Cristina CIOVIC?

2011-01-01

135

High Mountain Environment as Indicator of Global Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent debate on global change effects on the living world is still characterized by lack of confidency as depending on rather hypothetical assumptions and predictions. This is a consequence of missing global ecological observation networks comparable to those which have been established for climate, glacier movements, atmospheric composition etc. Alpine biota such as grasslands, dwarf shrub heaths, alpine steppes,

Georg Grabherr; Michael Gottfried; Harald Pauli

136

Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and pressure via satellite. The GEMS data will be validated against reference observations provided by current weather instrumentation located at KSC. This paper will report on the results of the GEMSTONE project and discuss the challenges encountered in developing an airborne sensor system.

Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

2007-01-01

137

A Collaborative Decision Environment to Support UAV Wildfire Monitoring Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA developed the Collaborative Decision Environment (CDE), the ground-based component of its Intelligent Mission Management (IMM) technology for science missions employing long endurance unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The CDE was used to support science mission planning and decision-making for a NASA- and U.S. Forest Service-sponsored mission to monitor wildfires in the western United States using a multi- spectral imager flown onboard the General Atomics Altair UAV in summer of 2006. The CDE is a ground-based system that provides the mission/science team with situational awareness, collaboration, and decision tools. The CDE is used for pre-flight planning, mission monitoring, and visualization of acquired data. It integrates external data products used for planning and executing a mission, such as weather, large wildfire locations, satellite-derived fire detection data, temporarily restricted airspace, and satellite imagery. While a prototype CDE was developed as a Java-based client/server application in 2004-2005, the team investigated the use of Google Earth to take advantage of its 3-D visualization capabilities, friendly user interface, and enhanced graphics performance. External data is acquired via the Internet by leveraging established and emerging Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards and is re-formatted into the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) specification used by Google Earth. Aircraft flight position and sensor data products are relayed from the instrument ground station to CDE servers where they are made available to users. An instant messaging chat server is used to facilitate real-time communication between remote users. This paper will present an overview of the CDE system architecture, and discuss how science user input was crucial to shaping and developing the system. Examples from the UAV mission will be used to illustrate the presentation. Plans for future development work to improve mission operations, such as integration with autonomous planning tools, will be described.

Frost, C. R.; Enomoto, F. Y.; D'Ortenzio, M. V.; Nguyen, Q. B.

2006-12-01

138

Coordination in Collaborative Environments A Global Approach Adailton J. A. da Cruz  

E-print Network

a goal" [3]. In this sense, coordination in collaborative environments is managed by coordinationCoordination in Collaborative Environments ­ A Global Approach Adailton J. A. da Cruz 1 DCA ­ FEEC analytically and graphically the interdependencies among tasks realized in a collaborative environment

Barbosa, Alberto

139

Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.  

PubMed

Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities. PMID:24315062

Haffeld, Just

2013-11-01

140

Satellite passive microwave remote sensing for monitoring global land surface phenology  

E-print Network

direct effects on vegetation photosynthesis, carbon sequestration and land­atmosphere water and energySatellite passive microwave remote sensing for monitoring global land surface phenology Matthew O­ atmosphere water and energy exchange. We analyzed global phenology cycles over a six year record (2003

Montana, University of

141

Quantitative analysis of NOx emissions from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite image sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxides (NOx) play a very important role among the anthropogenic trace gases. They affect human health and have an impact on ozone chemistry and climatic change. Here we describe a new method for the quantification of the global NOx budget from image sequences of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) spectrometer on board the ERS 2 satellite. In contrast

C. Leue; M. Wenig; T. Wagner; Oliver Klimm; U. Platt; B. Jhne

2001-01-01

142

A Future Network for Monitoring the Driving Function of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new future network is proposed to monitor the radiative forcing of global warming by greenhouse gases. The greenhouse radiation is the downward infrared heat radiation from greenhouse gases, otherwise known as the surface forcing radiation. The increase in this radiation due to increased carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is the driving function of global warming. In an experimental

W. F. Evans

2007-01-01

143

Monitoring global land surface drought based on a hybrid evapotranspiration model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latent heat of evapotranspiration (ET) plays an important role in the assessment of drought severity as one sensitive indicator of land drought status. A simple and accurate method of estimating global ET for the monitoring of global land surface droughts from remote sensing data is essential. The objective of this research is to develop a hybrid ET model by

Yunjun Yao; Shunlin Liang; Qiming Qin; Kaicun Wang; Shaohua Zhao

2011-01-01

144

Global environment and technology of plasticity: role of technology of plasticity in addressing global environmental issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global environmental problems are very complex and provide mankind with a number of challenging themes. While the pollution problems that emerged in the 1960s had been limited to developed countries, the environmental problems confronting us today have crossed national borders and must be tackled on a global level. In addressing the global environmental issues, not only must the technology

Haruo Kubotera

1996-01-01

145

Linking Geophysical Networks to International Economic Development Through Integration of Global and National Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outside of the research community and mission agencies, global geophysical monitoring rarely receives sustained attention except in the aftermath of a humanitarian disaster. The recovery and rebuilding period focuses attention and resources for a short time on regional needs for geophysical observation, often at the national or sub-national level. This can result in the rapid deployment of national monitoring networks, but may overlook the longer-term benefits of integration with global networks. Even in the case of multinational disasters, such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, it has proved difficult to promote the integration of national solutions with global monitoring, research and operations infrastructure. More importantly, continuing operations at the national or sub-national scale are difficult to sustain once the resources associated with recovery and rebuilding are depleted. Except for some notable examples, the vast infrastructure associated with global geophysical monitoring is not utilized constructively to promote the integration of national networks with international efforts. This represents a missed opportunity not only for monitoring, but for developing the international research and educational collaborations necessary for technological transfer and capacity building. The recent confluence of highly visible disasters, global multi-hazard risk assessments, evaluations of the relationships between natural disasters and socio-economic development, and shifts in development agency policies, provides an opportunity to link global geophysical monitoring initiatives to central issues in international development. Natural hazard risk reduction has not been the first priority of international development agendas for understandable, mainly humanitarian reasons. However, it is now recognized that the so-called risk premium associated with making development projects more risk conscious or risk resilient is relatively small relative to potential losses. Thus there is an attitudinal shift emerging whereby disaster risk management can be "mainstreamed" into the sustainable development programs in many countries. Consequently, it is incumbent to demonstrate that multi-scale geophysical monitoring, comprising integration of global networks with national and sub-national operations, is a foundational component of sustainable development infrastructure. This suggests even greater emphasis on developing dynamic and adaptive multi- hazard risk assessments, encompassing valid estimates of social and physical vulnerabilities; designing multi- scale network integration strategies that consider risk as well as hazard; providing operational and flexible templates for developing national networks in a global context; emphasizing the backbone characteristics of global geophysical monitoring to nations seeking to develop their own monitoring capacity; promoting sustained international research, education and training collaborations coinciding with the development of monitoring capacity; and continuing to promote the free and open exchange of data as a necessary component of sustained intellectual interest in monitoring. A combination of these strategies may counteract the decay of interest in regional geophysical monitoring after a disaster.

Lerner-Lam, A.

2007-05-01

146

The use of differentially corrected global positioning system to monitor activities of cattle at pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global positioning system (GPS) technology is increasingly applied in livestock science to monitor pasture use and tracking routes, and is often combined with equipment for monitoring animal activity. As GPS data are referenced in time and space, it is hypothesised that parameters derived there from, such as distance travelled and aerial distance between the first and last point of a

Eva Schlecht; Christian Hlsebusch; Friedrich Mahler; Klaus Becker

2004-01-01

147

The concept of Russian fisheries industry service for satellite monitoring of fishing area in global ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strategy of the development and creation of the Russian fisheries industrial service for satellite monitoring of fisheries areas of the global ocean is described. The service intends to solve the problems concerned with oceanographic conditions monitoring, positioning of fishing fleet, marine ships safety, catch forecasting, etc

Alexei Romanov; Alexander Rodin; Valentin Mishkin

1997-01-01

148

Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus).  

PubMed

Genotoxicity of freshwater pollution was assessed by measuring DNA damage in haemocytes of caged freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus by the means of Comet assay and micronucleus test, integrated with the measurements of physiological (total protein concentration) and immunological (total haemocyte count) haemolymph parameters as biomarkers of undergone stress. Crayfish were collected at the reference site (River Mrenica) and exposed in cages for 1 week at three polluted sites along the Sava River (Zagreb, Sisak, Krapje). The long term pollution status of these locations was confirmed by chemical analyses of sediments. Statistically significant increase in DNA damage measured by the Comet assay was observed at all three polluted sites comparing to the crayfish from reference site. In addition, native crayfish from the mildly polluted site (Krapje) cage-exposed on another polluted site (Zagreb) showed lower DNA damage than crayfish from the reference site exposed at the same location indicating adaptation and acclimatisation of crayfish to lower levels of pollution. Micronuclei induction showed similar gradient of DNA damage as Comet assay, but did not reach the statistical significance. Observed increase in total haemocyte count and total protein content in crayfish from polluted environments in the Sava River also confirmed stress caused by exposure to pollution. The results of this study have proved the applicability of caging exposure of freshwater crayfish A. leptodactylus in environmental genotoxicity monitoring using Comet assay and micronucleus test. PMID:22178377

Klobu?ar, Gran I V; Malev, Olga; rut, Maja; tambuk, Anamaria; Lorenzon, Simonetta; Cvetkovi?, elimira; Ferrero, Enrico A; Maguire, Ivana

2012-03-01

149

Global Analysis of Urban Population Distributions and the Physical Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization represents a significant recent change in the human habitat. The physical environment of modern urban areas is very different from the environments in which humans evolved and from those of the modern rural settlements that serve as population catchment areas for growing cities. In this sense, migration from rural to urban areas is a form of rapid environmental change

Christopher Small

150

Global nuclear material monitoring with NDA and C/S data through integrated facility monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on a flexible, integrated demonstration of a monitoring approach for nuclear material monitoring. This includes aspects of item signature identification, perimeter portal monitoring, advanced data analysis, and communication as a part of an unattended continuous monitoring system in an operating nuclear facility. Advanced analysis is applied to the integrated nondestructive assay and containment and surveillance data that are synchronized in time. End result will be the foundation for a cost-effective monitoring system that could provide the necessary transparency even in areas that are denied to foreign nationals of both US and Russia should these processes and materials come under full-scope safeguards or bilateral agreements. Monitoring systems of this kind have the potential to provide additional benefits including improved nuclear facility security and safeguards and lower personnel radiation exposures. Demonstration facilities in this paper include VTRAP-prototype, Los Alamos Critical Assemblies Facility, Kazakhstan BM-350 Reactor monitor, DUPIC radiation monitoring, and JOYO and MONJU radiation monitoring.

Howell, J.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Argo, P.; Goulding, C.; Klosterbuer, S.; Halbig, J.

1996-09-01

151

MODVOLC: near-real-time thermal monitoring of global volcanism  

E-print Network

Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the global distribution of volcanic thermal anomalies) that uses low spatial resolution (1-km pixel-size) infrared satellite data acquired by the Moderate (location, emitted spectral radiance, time, satellite observation geometry) are written to ASCII text files

Wright, Robert

152

Using Global Positioning System techniques in landslide monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precise determination of point coordinates with conventional Global Positioning System (GPS) techniques often required observation times of one to several hours. In the last few years, new GPS methods have been developed (among them, the fast-static and real time kinematic), with higher productivity and good theoretical precision. The main objective of this paper is to ascertain the performance of

Josep A. Gili; Jordi Corominas; Joan Rius

2000-01-01

153

A major upgrade of the global Mercator Ocan ocean monitoring and forecasting system and corresponding product quality improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercator Ocan (the French ocean forecast service provider) was setup in France about 10 years ago by all the French organizations holding stakes in ocean forecasting. It has since then constantly developed and is currently operating operational ocean forecasting systems based on state-of-the-art Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCM, we use the NEMO code) assimilating the observations of the Global Ocean Observing System (remote sensing + in situ). The mandate of Mercator Ocan is to cover the global ocean at a resolution sufficient to both simulate the physics including the eddies (eddy resolving) and take the maximum benefit from the GOOS via data assimilation. To do so, Mercator Ocan is strongly connected to the ocean modeling and data assimilation research communities, at French, European and international levels. Mercator Ocan is engaged in the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European initiative and is currently coordinating a European consortium (~60 partners) gathering all the European skills in ocean monitoring and forecasting to build the Marine forecast component of the GMES service. This is currently done in the MyOcean II EU funded project (project started in 2012). Within the MyOcean consortium, among other commitments, Mercator Ocan is the operator of the global ocean forecasting system, and one of the providers of global ocean reanalysis products. In this context (MyOcean V3 service), we have implemented a major upgrade of the systems operated at Mercator Ocan ., including improvements in the model configurations, in data assimilation and product elaboration and serving. This concerns especially the global eddy resolving system (1/12 global) which is operational providing daily service. We focus our presentation on product quality, showing how these upgrades correspond to product improvements, and illustrating how the users are served with better quality products, thanks to this upgrade.

Dombrowsky, Eric; Drillet, Yann; Legalloudec, Olivier; Lellouche, Jean Michel; Regnier, Charly

2013-04-01

154

Computer science curricula in a global competitive environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Science enrollments are off nationwide, due in part to the tech downturn, and due in part to the well-publicized movement of tech jobs overseas in a global economy with instantaneous communications. Computer Science program coordinators and curriculum committee's are in a quandary: the organization and content of a science education should not be dependent upon the whims of the

Kenneth Hoganson

2004-01-01

155

A Global Overview: Trends in Environment and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conditions and trends for four clusters of global issues--the air and the sky, the fishes and the sea, the creatures and the land, and people and poverty--are presented. The topics of climate change, the ozone hole, air pollution, biological diversity, deforestation, and desertification are discussed. (KR)

Paden, Mary E.

1991-01-01

156

Canadian Solutions to Global Energy and Environment Challenges: Green Atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calls for energy conservation, and rapidly rising energy costs are gravely at odds with the needs of the energy poor in the industrial developing countries, and the global eco-system itself. A responsible answer and approach is available using Canadian CANDUtrade (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) nuclear energy technology, which meets the goals of safe, affordable, reliable energy, whilst contributing to a sustainable

R. B. Duffey; D. F. Torgerson; A. I. Miller; J. Hopwood

2006-01-01

157

Supply chain risk in an uncertain global supply chain environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breadth and scope of supply chain risks have broadened significantly in recent years. Even prior to the 2001 terrorist attacks, the creep of risks and uncertainties were widening with increased globalization, widening political reach by leading countries, and the rise of market producing and consuming economies. This article raises some essential supply chain questions as well as some that

Jack Barry

2004-01-01

158

Dances with wolves? Interdisciplinary research on the global environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last seven years or so, papers in this journal have examined the concept of sustainability from various disciplinary perspectives, and have explored some of the international implications of using sustainability as a tool for the analysis of global environmental change. These papers were written, on the whole, by social scientists, or by natural scientists with considerable experience of

Michael Redclift

1998-01-01

159

Global Trajectory Generation for Nonholonomic Robots in Dynamic Environments  

E-print Network

1@stevens.edu Weihua Sheng is with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State bound- ary conditions to connecting regional trajectories. Steering control laws are constructed of global way-points are available, and the velocities of the obstacles are obtainable real time. Simulation

Guo, Yi

160

Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer(GEMS) onboard MP-GEOSAT (Multi Purpose Geostationary Satellite) over Asia-Pacific region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Institute of Environmental Research(NIER), Ministry of Environment, Rep. of Korea is planning GEMS (Geostationary Environment Spectrometer) program to be launched in 2017-2018 onboard a geostationary satellite, MP-GEOSAT of KARI(Korea Aerospace Research Institute). GEMS is a scanning UV-Visible Spectrometer to monitor trans-boundary pollution events in Asia-Pacific region, together with ABI(Advanced Baseline Imager) and GOCI-2 (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager). GEMS is to monitor the distribution of tropospheric O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, and aerosol in Asia, which is very important region to understand the air quality problems in both regional and global scale. Furthermore, it is essential to monitor air pollution with measurements of meteorological variables for better understanding. This mission is expected to improve the monitoring capability of trans-boundary air pollution events and the accuracy of its forecasting through hourly observation from GEO. Constellation of the MP-GEOSAT with GEOCAPE in America and Sentennial-4 in Europe with launch in 2017- 2018 period can results in great synergistic outcomes including enhancing significantly our understanding in globalization of tropospheric pollution.

Lee, S.; Hong, Y.; Song, C.; Lee, M.; Ryoo, S.; Kim, J.; Yong, S.; Bhartia, P. K.; Park, R.; Woo, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, K.; Ho, C.; Park, S. K.; Lee, Y.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Eom, Y.; Hong, J.

2009-12-01

161

A WiFi based smart wireless sensor network for monitoring an agricultural environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the design and development of a smart wireless sensor network (WSN) for an agricultural environment. Monitoring agricultural environments for various factors such as temperature and humidity along with other factors can be of significance. The ability to document and detail changes in parameters of interest has become increasingly valuable. Investigations were performed for a remote monitoring system

Gerard Rudolph Mendez; Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

2012-01-01

162

Real time monitoring for Imja Glacial Lake in Himalaya global warming front monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imja Tsho Lake is one of the fastest growing in the entire Himalayan region. Regular monitoring based on scientific data and information of the lake is crucial. To initiate an early warning system, a wireless LAN has been established using innovative geo-ICT tools and technologies to connect different field monitoring devices for real time monitoring and early warning system for

Hiromichi Fukui; Ponthip Limlahapun; Takaharu Kameoka

2008-01-01

163

Monitoring fault zone environments with correlations of earthquake waveforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new technique for monitoring temporal changes in fault zone environments based on cross-correlation of earthquake waveforms recorded by pairs of stations. The method is applied to waveforms of 10 000 earthquakes observed during 100 d around the 1999 M 7.1 Duzce mainshock by a station located in the core damage zone of the North Anatolian Fault and a nearby station. To overcome clock problems, the correlation functions are realigned on a dominant peak. Consequently, the analysis focuses on measurements of coherency rather than traveltimes, and is associated with correlation coefficient of groups of events with a reference wavelet. Examination of coherency in different frequency bands reveals clear changes at a narrow band centred around 0.8 Hz. The results show a rapid drop of 1-2 per cent of the coherency at the time of the Duzce event followed by gradual recovery with several prominent oscillations over 4 d. The observed changes likely reflect evolution of permeability and fluid motion in the core damage zone of the North Anatolian Fault. Compared to noise correlation processing, our analysis of earthquake waveform correlation (i) benefits from high level of coherence with short duration recorded signals, (ii) has considerably finer temporal sampling of fault dynamics after mainshocks than is possible with noise correlation, (iii) uses the coherence level to track property variations, which may be more robust than traveltime fluctuations in the coda of noise correlations. Studies utilizing both earthquake and noise waveforms at multiple pairs of stations across fault damage zones can improve significantly the understanding of fault zone processes.

Roux, Philippe; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

2014-02-01

164

Global Environment Facility investments in the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratospheric ozone depletion threatens human health and the global environment. In 1987, the Montreal Protocol on Substances\\u000a That Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) set aggressive timelines for countries to phase-out products and organic\\u000a chemicals that were causing rapid ozone depletion in the Antarctic stratosphere. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), established\\u000a in 1991, is the largest multilateral funder of environmental

Robert K. Dixon

2011-01-01

165

Project Title: Air Quality Monitoring in the Coastal Environment of Miami Professor's name: Xinrong Ren________________________________________ ______ _  

E-print Network

Project Title: Air Quality Monitoring in the Coastal Environment of Miami Professor's name: Xinrong@rsmas.miami.edu _____________________ _ Description of project: In this project, the air quality in Miami has been monitored continuously and characterized in the laboratory prior to the deployment to monitor the air quality. The student participating

Miami, University of

166

Dynamic Control of Grid Workflows through Activities Global State Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method to design dynamic execution control in Grid workflows, which is based on predicates defined on\\u000a global states of constituent activities. This method is based on introduction of user-defined control-dedicated processes\\u000a called synchronizers. The co-operating synchronizers provide dynamic features in Grid workflows functionality. The use of\\u000a synchronizer-based control infrastructure provides also means for structured design of

Marek Tudruj; Damian Kopanski; Janusz Borkowski

2007-01-01

167

GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTE WORKING PAPER NO. 11-03  

E-print Network

, economics education, behavioral economics, stereotyping, gender, sex, finance, markets #12;GDAE WorkingGLOBAL DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTE WORKING PAPER NO. 11-03 Would Women Leaders Have Prevented the Global Financial Crisis? Implications for Teaching about Gender, Behavior, and Economics Julie

Tufts University

168

30 JMBA Global Marine Environment ISSUE 11 SPRING 2010 rapped in legend and  

E-print Network

amount of food for quite a small animal. They Predictions of global warming consequences vary from30 JMBA Global Marine Environment ISSUE 11 SPRING 2010 SEAHO around DEVON W rapped in legend to be just a creature of myth. It is indeed real and doing well in the waters around the Devon coastline. We

Watson, Andrew

169

Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Using the Local Environment to Explore Global Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that water pollution is a global problem and presents statistics indicating how much of the world's water is threatened. Presents three elementary school classroom activities on water quality and local water resources. Includes a figure describing the work of the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network. (CFR)

Simmons, Deborah

1994-01-01

170

Retrievals of sulfur dioxide from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME2) using an optimal estimation  

E-print Network

Retrievals of sulfur dioxide from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME2) using an optimal Instrument (OMI) to make global observations of sulfur dioxide from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2. Chance, Z. Cai, T. P. Kurosu, C. Lee, and R. V. Martin (2011), Retrievals of sulfur dioxide from

Martin, Randall

171

Food Systems Change and the Environment: Local and Global Connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making changes to the way food is produced, distributed, and processed is one strategy for addressing global climate change.\\u000a In this case study, we examine the forming stage of an emergent and locally-based coalition that is both participatory and\\u000a focused on promoting food security by creating food systems change. Social network analysis is used to compare network density,\\u000a centrality, and

Darcy A. FreedmanKimberly; Kimberly D. Bess

2011-01-01

172

Taiga forest stands and SAR: Monitoring for subarctic global change  

SciTech Connect

In preparation for the first European Earth Remote Sensing (ERS-1) mission, a series of multitemporal, multifrequency, multipolarization aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data sets were acquired over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska in March 1988. Significant change in radar backscatter was observed over the two-week experimental period due to changing environmental conditions. These preliminary results are presented to illustrate the opportunity afforded by the ERS-1 SAR to monitor temporal change in forest ecosystems.

Way, J.; Kwok, R.; Viereck, L.; Slaughter, C.; Dobson, C.

1992-03-01

173

Integration of drought monitoring with remote sensing into the global drought information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought occurs everywhere in the world and is one of the costliest natural hazards. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has advocated implementing a Global Drought Early Warning System (GDEWS) since 2007. Various indices have been developed and used to depict drought. According to the survey, various drought monitoring system with remote sensing at regional, national or local level are existing, but the integration with the drought system based on the weather station data, in particular at the global level is still weak. However, the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative was recognized by the G20 agricultural ministers and will enhance the linkage between GEO-GLAM and GDEWS. The capability for a component of drought monitoring with remote sensing is there in place. MODIS data have been used to globally track the distribution of crop failures due to droughts. In China, the Chinese meteorological satellite, FY is also ready to monitoring drought globally. MERSI onboard FY-3 is similar with MODIS and helpful to monitor the occurrence, development of drought at different scales. JRC MARS issues periodical bulletin on agricultural conditions. Agricultural Division of Statistics, Canada issues weekly crop condition reports. In India, the biweekly drought bulletin and monthly reports is issued under National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS). Similar program is followed in many countries world-wide. The informed information of drought is helpful for governmental officials and formers to in advance prepare for coping with the likely coming drought. The global efforts should be in place to promote the global drought information system with a remote sensing drought component.

Fan, Jinlong; Zhang, Mingwei; Cao, Guangzheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Jianjun

2012-09-01

174

Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks in Marine Environment Monitoring: A Survey  

PubMed Central

With the rapid development of society and the economy, an increasing number of human activities have gradually destroyed the marine environment. Marine environment monitoring is a vital problem and has increasingly attracted a great deal of research and development attention. During the past decade, various marine environment monitoring systems have been developed. The traditional marine environment monitoring system using an oceanographic research vessel is expensive and time-consuming and has a low resolution both in time and space. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently been considered as potentially promising alternatives for monitoring marine environments since they have a number of advantages such as unmanned operation, easy deployment, real-time monitoring, and relatively low cost. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of marine environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks. It first describes application areas, a common architecture of WSN-based oceanographic monitoring systems, a general architecture of an oceanographic sensor node, sensing parameters and sensors, and wireless communication technologies. Then, it presents a detailed review of some related projects, systems, techniques, approaches and algorithms. It also discusses challenges and opportunities in the research, development, and deployment of wireless sensor networks for marine environment monitoring. PMID:25215942

Xu, Guobao; Shen, Weiming; Wang, Xianbin

2014-01-01

175

Applications of wireless sensor networks in marine environment monitoring: a survey.  

PubMed

With the rapid development of society and the economy, an increasing number of human activities have gradually destroyed the marine environment. Marine environment monitoring is a vital problem and has increasingly attracted a great deal of research and development attention. During the past decade, various marine environment monitoring systems have been developed. The traditional marine environment monitoring system using an oceanographic research vessel is expensive and time-consuming and has a low resolution both in time and space. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently been considered as potentially promising alternatives for monitoring marine environments since they have a number of advantages such as unmanned operation, easy deployment, real-time monitoring, and relatively low cost. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of marine environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks. It first describes application areas, a common architecture of WSN-based oceanographic monitoring systems, a general architecture of an oceanographic sensor node, sensing parameters and sensors, and wireless communication technologies. Then, it presents a detailed review of some related projects, systems, techniques, approaches and algorithms. It also discusses challenges and opportunities in the research, development, and deployment of wireless sensor networks for marine environment monitoring. PMID:25215942

Xu, Guobao; Shen, Weiming; Wang, Xianbin

2014-01-01

176

Flood monitoring for ungauged rivers: the power of combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood warning systems typically rely on forecasts from national meteorological services and in-situ observations from hydrological gauging stations. This capacity is not equally developed in flood-prone developing countries. Low-cost satellite monitoring systems and global flood forecasting systems can be an alternative source of information for national flood authorities. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been develop jointly with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the Joint Research Centre, and it is running quasi operational now since June 2011. The system couples state-of-the art weather forecasts with a hydrological model driven at a continental scale. The system provides downstream countries with information on upstream river conditions as well as continental and global overviews. In its test phase, this global forecast system provides probabilities for large transnational river flooding at the global scale up to 30 days in advance. It has shown its real-life potential for the first time during the flood in Southeast Asia in 2011, and more recently during the floods in Australia in March 2012, India (Assam, September-October 2012) and Chad Floods (August-October 2012).The Joint Research Centre is working on further research and development, rigorous testing and adaptations of the system to create an operational tool for decision makers, including national and regional water authorities, water resource managers, hydropower companies, civil protection and first line responders, and international humanitarian aid organizations. Currently efforts are being made to link GloFAS to the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS). GFDS is a Space-based river gauging and flood monitoring system using passive microwave remote sensing which was developed by a collaboration between the JRC and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. GFDS provides flood alerts based on daily water surface change measurements from space. Alerts are shown on a world map, with detailed reports for individual gauging sites. A comparison of discharge estimates from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) and the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) with observations for representative climatic zones is presented. Both systems have demonstrated strong potential in forecasting and detecting recent catastrophic floods. The usefulness of their combined information on global scale for decision makers at different levels is discussed. Combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models is an innovative approach and has significant benefits for international river commissions as well as international aid organisations. This is in line with the objectives of the Hyogo and the Post-2015 Framework that aim at the development of systems which involve trans-boundary collaboration, space-based earth observation, flood forecasting and early warning.

Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Netgeka, Victor; Raynaud, Damien; Thielen, Jutta

2013-04-01

177

32 JMBA Global Marine Environment ISSUE 11 SPRING 2010 Biodiversity  

E-print Network

on the West side of the Antarctic Peninsula. The final destination after a massive 8600 nautical mile voyage completed the sampling programme for another project ­ DIVA, looking at latitudinal gradients environments. ANDEEP is a field project of the Census of Diversity of Abyssal Marine Life (CeDAMaR) and also

Watson, Andrew

178

Continuous camera-based monitoring for assistive environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camera-based monitoring is a valuable tool for assistive envi- ronments to meet the important needs of those who may have physical or cognitive impairment. It is, however, particularly difficult to continuously monitor a moving subject in a large facility where many cameras are deployed. In this paper, we propose Sensor-Integrated Camera Surveillance (SICS) to ad- dress this problem. SICS uses

Guanling Chen; Prabhu Govindaswamy; Nan Li; Jie Wang

2008-01-01

179

A Review of Global Learning & Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program is a worldwide, hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education program. GLOBE supports students, teachers, and scientists in collaborations using inquiry-based investigations of the environment and the earth system. GLOBE currently works in close

Executive Office of the President, 2010

2010-01-01

180

Space Geodesy Monitoring Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid Earth-core system (the 'global geophysical fluids') are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, oceanic and solid tides, hydrological water and idsnow redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. The temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have proven to be an effective tool in monitorihg certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in observing and understanding of these geodynamic effects. This paper will use several prominent examples to illustrate the triumphs in research over the past years under a 'Moore's law' in space geodesy. New space missions and projects promise to further advance our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as of the solid Earth's response to such changes in terms of Earth's mechanical properties.

Chao, Benjamin F.

2004-01-01

181

Large space-based systems for dealing with global environment change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased concern over the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in support for the Global Change Research Program and the Mission to Planet Earth. Research to understand Earth system processes is critical, but it falls short of providing ways of mitigating the effects of change. Geoengineering options and alternatives to interactively manage change need to be developed. Space-based concepts for dealing with changes to the environment should be considered in addition to Earth-based actions. 'Mission for Planet Earth' describes those space-based geoengineering solutions that may combine with an international global change program to stabilize the Global environment. Large space systems that may be needed for this response challenge guidance and control engineering and technology. Definition, analysis, demonstration, and preparation of geoengineering technology will provide a basis for policy response if global change consequences are severe.

Jenkins, Lyle M.

1992-01-01

182

Large space-based systems for dealing with global environment change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased concern over the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in support for the Global Change Research Program and the Mission to Planet Earth. Research to understand Earth system processes is critical, but it falls short of providing ways of mitigating the effects of change. Geoengineering options and alternatives to interactively manage change need to be developed. Space-based concepts for dealing with changes to the environment should be considered in addition to Earth-based actions. 'Mission for Planet Earth' describes those space-based geoengineering solutions that may combine with an international global change program to stabilize the Global environment. Large space systems that may be needed for this response challenge guidance and control engineering and technology. Definition, analysis, demonstration, and preparation of geoengineering technology will provide a basis for policy response if global change consequences are severe.

Jenkins, Lyle M.

183

Study on an Agricultural Environment Monitoring Server System using Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes an agricultural environment monitoring server system for monitoring information concerning an outdoors agricultural production environment utilizing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology. The proposed agricultural environment monitoring server system collects environmental and soil information on the outdoors through WSN-based environmental and soil sensors, collects image information through CCTVs, and collects location information using GPS modules. This collected information is converted into a database through the agricultural environment monitoring server consisting of a sensor manager, which manages information collected from the WSN sensors, an image information manager, which manages image information collected from CCTVs, and a GPS manager, which processes location information of the agricultural environment monitoring server system, and provides it to producers. In addition, a solar cell-based power supply is implemented for the server system so that it could be used in agricultural environments with insufficient power infrastructure. This agricultural environment monitoring server system could even monitor the environmental information on the outdoors remotely, and it could be expected that the use of such a system could contribute to increasing crop yields and improving quality in the agricultural field by supporting the decision making of crop producers through analysis of the collected information. PMID:22163520

Hwang, Jeonghwan; Shin, Changsun; Yoe, Hyun

2010-01-01

184

Low-cost long-term monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the rationale for long-term monitoring of global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks as a contribution to interpretation of long-term global temperature change. Our discussion is based on a more detailed study and workshop report (Hansenet al., 1993b). We focus on the potential contribution of a proposed series of inexpensive small satellites, but we discuss also the need for

J. Hansen; W. Rossow; B. Carlson; A. Lacis; L. Travis; A. Del Genio; I. Fung; B. Cairns; M. Mishchenko; M. Sato

1995-01-01

185

Veterinary medicine, food security and the global environment.  

PubMed

The authors focus on the role of veterinary medicine in feeding the nine billion people projected to inhabit the planet by 2050, despite the problems of global warming, political constraints and environmental destruction. Population growth, predominantly urban, will occur mainly in developing countries, at a magnitude comparable to creating a city the size of Los Angeles, the second largest city in the United States of America, every three weeks for the next 40 years. Accompanying this growth will be a greatly increased demand for animal protein. How this burgeoning demand can be met by intensive and extensive systems of animal production is discussed, with particular reference to the immensely important role that the veterinary profession and schools must play. PMID:20128458

Kelly, A M; Marshak, R R

2009-08-01

186

Video Monitoring of Vulnerable People in Home Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Video Monitoring System, which aims to achieve behavior analysis of elderly people. Real-time tracking\\u000a and posture discrimination enable to detect emergency situation (by trigging an alarm in case of fall detection for example)\\u000a and to analyze long term activity which enforces medical follow-up. These are key-issues to improve healthcare quality for\\u000a rural population. Monitoring human activity

Quoc-cuong Pham; Yoann Dhome; Laetitia Gond; Patrick Sayd

2008-01-01

187

Global monitoring of large reservoir storage from satellite remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied 34 global reservoirs for which good quality surface elevation data could be obtained from a combination of five satellite altimeters for the period from 1992 to 2010. For each of these reservoirs, we used an unsupervised classification approach using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 16-day 250 m vegetation product to estimate the surface water areas over the MODIS period of record (2000 to 2010). We then derived elevation-area relationships for each of the reservoirs by combining the MODIS-based estimates with satellite altimeter-based estimates of reservoir water elevations. Through a combination of direct observations of elevation and surface area along with documented reservoir configurations at capacity, we estimated storage time histories for each reservoir from 1992 to 2010. We evaluated these satellite-based data products in comparison with gauge observations for the five largest reservoirs in the United States (Lakes Mead, Powell, Sakakawea, Oahe, and Fort Peck Reservoir). The storage estimates were highly correlated with observations (R = 0.92 to 0.99), with values for the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) ranging from 3% to 15%. The storage mean absolute error (expressed as a percentage of reservoir capacity) for the reservoirs in this study was 4%. The multidecadal reconstructed reservoir storage variations are in accordance with known droughts and high flow periods on each of the five continents represented in the data set.

Gao, Huilin; Birkett, Charon; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

2012-09-01

188

Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment  

PubMed Central

Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infrequent surveys of the standing stock of litter on beaches provide crude estimates of debris types and abundance, but are biased by differential removal of litter items by beachcombing, cleanups and beach dynamics. Monitoring the accumulation of stranded debris provides an index of debris trends in adjacent waters, but is costly to undertake. At-sea sampling requires large sample sizes for statistical power to detect changes in abundance, given the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Another approach is to monitor the impacts of plastics. Seabirds and other marine organisms that accumulate plastics in their stomachs offer a cost-effective way to monitor the abundance and composition of small plastic litter. Changes in entanglement rates are harder to interpret, as they are sensitive to changes in population sizes of affected species. Monitoring waste disposal on ships and plastic debris levels in rivers and storm-water runoff is useful because it identifies the main sources of plastic debris entering the sea and can direct mitigation efforts. Different monitoring approaches are required to answer different questions, but attempts should be made to standardize approaches internationally. PMID:19528052

Ryan, Peter G.; Moore, Charles J.; van Franeker, Jan A.; Moloney, Coleen L.

2009-01-01

189

Global pollution monitoring of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.  

PubMed

Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters of various regions in the world (offshore waters around Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the North Pacific Ocean). OCs were detected in livers of all of the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed, supporting the thesis that there is widespread contamination of persistent OCs in the marine environment. Within a location, no significant relationship between growth-stage (body length and weight) and OC concentrations (lipid weight basis) was observed, and the OC residue levels were rather uniform among the individuals. Interestingly, the distribution of OC concentrations in skipjack tuna was similar to those in surface seawaters from which they were taken. These results suggest that OC concentrations in skipjack tuna could reflect the pollution levels in seawater from which they are collected and that this species is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of OCs in offshore waters and the open ocean. Concentrations of PCBs and CHLs in skipjack tuna were higher in offshore waters around Japan (up to 1100 and 250 ng/g lipid wt, respectively), suggesting the presence of sources of PCBs and CHLs in Japan. High concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were observed in samples from the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, and the Bay of Bengal (up to 1300 and 22 ng/g lipid wt, respectively). This result suggests recent use of technical DDT and HCH for agricultural and/or public health purposes in Russia, China, India, and some other developing Asian countries. Relatively high concentrations of PCBs, CHLs, HCHs, and HCB were also observed in samples collected from some locations in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, indicating the expansion of OC contamination on a global scale. Considering these facts, continuous studies monitoring these compounds in offshore waters and the open seas, using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator, are needed to further understand the future trend of contamination. PMID:14674591

Ueno, D; Takahashi, S; Tanaka, H; Subramanian, A N; Fillmann, G; Nakata, H; Lam, P K S; Zheng, J; Muchtar, M; Prudente, M; Chung, K H; Tanabe, S

2003-10-01

190

Monitoring of global geodynamic processes using satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study mechanisms of destructive geodynamic phenomena including determination of places of possible severe earthquakes, volcano eruptions and some other natural hazards, it is important to have means to evolve areas where maximum changes of the displacement velocities and the terrestrial crust vertical movements are possible. The previous experience has shown that the satellite geodesy techniques including global navigation systems and satellite laser ranging are the most effective for research activities in this field. Permanent control of secular movement of GPS-stations of the international geodynamic network, located in Russia, has allowed improving the reference coordinate frame for North Eurasia since Russian network stations provide representative covering of the largest stable areas (the Siberian and the East European) of the Eurasian plate. Along its southern border, there is a zone consisting of a great number of microplates surrounding the South-Eurasian stable plate. Interaction of these small plates and blocks influences distribution of seismic stresses in internal parts of the continent that is confirmed by the highest seismic activity of the triangle bordered by thrusts of the Himalayas and faults of the Pamirs, the Tien-Shan, the Baikal and the North-Eastern China. One of the active tectonic zones of Egypt located in Aswan, is characterized by regional basement rock uplift and regional faulting. In 1997, the African Regional Geodynamic Network was developed around the northern part of Lake Nasser, consists of 11 points, on both sides of the Lake. Its main goal is to study the geodynamical behavior around the northern part of the lake. The collected data were processed using the Bernese software version 5.0. From the velocity results, including also the African plate motion, it can be noticed that all stations of this network are moved to the northeast direction and it is typically the direction of the African plate motion.

Tatevian, S. K.; Attia, G. F.; Abou-Aly, N.; Ghoneim, R.; Hegazy, M.

2014-06-01

191

Achieving Satellite Instrument Calibration for Monitoring Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the most part, satellite observations of climate are not sufficiently accurate to establish a climate record that is indisputable and hence capable of determining at what rate the climate is changing. Furthermore, they are insufficient for establishing a baseline for testing long term trend predictions of climate models. The reasons for this state of affairs are many, but can be summed up in one all-encompassing statement: NOAA's operational satellite systems have been focused on short term weather observations, and NASA's research satellite systems have not had the long term continuity needed for monitoring climate change. As a result, highly accurate observations of decadal scale climate trends are generally lacking. The Workshop on Achieving Satellite Instrument Calibration for Climate Change (ASIC3) was organized to discuss the scientific issues involved and develop recommendations to improve the situation. The Workshop brought together experts in satellite instrument calibration, metrology scientists from the U.S. and U.K. national standards institutes, remote sensing specialists, and climate data analysts. The Workshop recommended a set of satellite benchmark missions to create irrefutable records traceable to International Standards (SI) and to calibrate other satellite sensors. This recommendation also includes a call to maintain continuous, overlapping missions for sea level, solar irradiance, and Earth radiation budget. The second overarching recommendation calls for establishing a U.S. National Center for Calibration (NCC). The NCC would bring together NOAA's expertise in operational missions and calibration/intercalibration of operational instruments, NIST's leadership in measurement science and standards, and NASA's capabilities in research missions and advanced calibration techniques.

Ohring, G.

2007-12-01

192

The purpose of the Sequoia 2000 project is to build a better computing environment for global change  

E-print Network

such as global warming, ozone depletion, environment toxifi- cation, and species extinction and are membersThe purpose of the Sequoia 2000 project is to build a better computing environment for global for the proj- ect appears in the Sequoia 2000 technical report "Large Capacity Object Servers to Support Global

California at Irvine, University of

193

Fiber optic acoustic emission sensors for harsh environment health monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical fiber sensors are rapidly emerging as viable alternatives to piezoelectric devices as effective means of detecting and quantifying acoustic emission (AE). Compared to traditional piezoelectric-based sensors, optical fiber sensors offer much smaller size, reduced weight, ability to operate at temperatures up to 2000 degree(s)C, immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to corrosive environments, inherent safety within flammable environments, and the

Jason W. Borinski; John C. Duke; Michael R. Horne

2001-01-01

194

Induced environment contamination monitor: Preliminary results from the Spacelab 1 flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-9/Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM) mission is briefly described. Preliminary results and analyses are given for each of the 10 instruments comprising the IECM. The final section presents a summary of the major results.

Miller, E. R. (editor)

1984-01-01

195

The ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitor program first results from PROBA-I and INTEGRAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main characteristics of the European Space Agency (ESA) Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) are outlined. First SREM results from the Project for On-Board Autonomy-I (PROBA-I) and INTEGRAL spacecraft are presented.

A. Mohammadzadeh; H. Evans; P. Nieminen; E. Daly; P. Vuilleumier; P. Buhler; C. Eggel; W. Hajdas; N. Schlumpf; A. Zehnder; J. Schneider; R. Fear

2003-01-01

196

Pluto and Charon with HST I: Monitoring Global Change and Improved Surface Properties from Lightcurves  

E-print Network

Pluto and Charon with HST I: Monitoring Global Change and Improved Surface Properties from to Astronomical Journal #12;­ 2 ­ ABSTRACT We present new lightcurve measurements of Pluto and Charon taken of Pluto show that the lightcurve amplitude has decreased since the mutual event season in the late 1980's

Young, Leslie A.

197

Oversight role of the independent monitoring board of the global polio eradication initiative.  

PubMed

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) established its Independent Monitoring Board (IMB) in 2010 to monitor and guide its progress toward stopping polio transmission globally. The concept of an IMB is innovative, with no clear analogue in the history of the GPEI or in any other global health program. The IMB meets with senior program officials every 3-6 months. Its reports provide analysis and recommendations about individual polio-affected countries. The IMB also examines issues affecting the global program as a whole. Its areas of focus have included escalating the level of priority afforded to polio eradication (particularly by recommending a World Health Assembly resolution to declare polio eradication a programmatic emergency, which was enacted in May 2012), placing greater emphasis on people factors in the delivery of the program, encouraging innovation, strengthening focus on the small number of so-called sanctuaries where polio persists, and continuous quality improvement to reach every missed child with vaccination. The IMB's true independence from the agencies and countries delivering the program has enabled it to raise difficult issues that others cannot. Other global health programs might benefit from establishing similar independent monitoring mechanisms. PMID:25316831

Rutter, Paul D; Donaldson, Liam J

2014-11-01

198

Institute of Environment & Resources Online monitoring and control  

E-print Network

monitoring system for the anaerobic process, based on headspace gas chromatography. Submitted. Paper III Boe on efficiency of full-scale biogas plants. Water Science and Technology, 52, 189-194. Paper VI Boe, K-221. International Water Association, London, UK. The papers are not included in this www-version but may be obtained

199

Introduction to Monitoring and Surveillance of the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text on monitoring and surveillance is intended for the undergraduate college student and the professional technician. The materials contained within the book are presented from both a practical and philosophical standpoint. The "reason for" and the "how to" are examined within each section, including problems at the end of each chapter which

Champlin, Robert L.; And Others

200

Mobile monitoring and embedded control system for factory environment.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones. PMID:24351642

Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

2013-01-01

201

An automated monitoring environment for the Kolar Gold Fields nucleon decay experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile and automated monitoring environment has been developed to complement the data acquisition and trigger systems employed in the Kolar Gold Fields nucleon decay experiment. This article discusses the technical aspects of this environment in detail as well as the various facilities offered by it, in terms of detector maintenance and event data calibration. Novel design features, operating characteristics and capabilities of different monitors are highlighted.

Adarkar, H.; Dugad, S. R.; Kalmani, S. D.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Mondal, N. K.; Murty, P. S.; Nagaraj, P.; Narasimham, V. S.; Reddy, L. V.; Satyanarayana, B.; Hayashi, Y.; Ito, N.; Kawakami, S.; Nakamura, T.; Tanaka, K.; Miyake, S.

1991-10-01

202

Orchestrator: An active resource orchestration framework for mobile context monitoring in sensor-rich mobile environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present Orchestrator, an active resource orchestration framework for mobile context monitoring. Emerging pervasive environments will introduce a PAN-scale sensor-rich mobile platform consisting of a mobile device and many wearable and space-embedded sensors. In such environments, it is challenging to enable multiple context-aware applications requiring continuous context monitoring to simultaneously run and share highly scarce and dynamic

Seungwoo Kang; Youngki Lee; Chulhong Min; Younghyun Ju; Jinwon Lee; Yunseok Rhee; Junehwa Song

2010-01-01

203

Keeping Scores: Audited Self-Monitoring of High-Stakes Testing Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To address a public relations problem faced by a large urban public school district in Texas, we conducted action research that resulted in an audited self-monitoring system for high-stakes testing environments. The system monitors violations of testing protocols while identifying and disseminating best practices to improve the education of

Padilla, Raymond; Richards, Michael

2006-01-01

204

Design of a Water Environment Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

A water environmental monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network is proposed. It consists of three parts: data monitoring nodes, data base station and remote monitoring center. This system is suitable for the complex and large-scale water environment monitoring, such as for reservoirs, lakes, rivers, swamps, and shallow or deep groundwaters. This paper is devoted to the explanation and illustration for our new water environment monitoring system design. The system had successfully accomplished the online auto-monitoring of the water temperature and pH value environment of an artificial lake. The system's measurement capacity ranges from 0 to 80 C for water temperature, with an accuracy of 0.5 C; from 0 to 14 on pH value, with an accuracy of 0.05 pH units. Sensors applicable to different water quality scenarios should be installed at the nodes to meet the monitoring demands for a variety of water environments and to obtain different parameters. The monitoring system thus promises broad applicability prospects. PMID:22454592

Jiang, Peng; Xia, Hongbo; He, Zhiye; Wang, Zheming

2009-01-01

205

Problems of monitoring the environment of the shallow nearshore zone of the Volga mouth  

SciTech Connect

This article describes problems involved in monitoring the environment of the Volga River delta from the standpoints of drainage and flooding behavior, pollutant concentration and transport, eutrophication, water quality, water current regimes, and bioproductivity. It also discusses monitoring strategies ranging from chemical methods to satellite surveys and calls for a comprehensive water management and planning program for the area.

Krasnozhon, G.F.; Konyushko, V.S.

1987-11-01

206

CTFS/ForestGEO: A global network to monitor forest interactions with a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are an influential component of the global carbon cycle and strongly influence Earth's climate. Climate change is altering the dynamics of forests globally, which may result in significant climate feedbacks. Forest responses to climate change entail both short-term ecophysiological responses and longer-term directional shifts in community composition. These short- and long-term responses of forest communities to climate change may be better understood through long-term monitoring of large forest plots globally using standardized methodology. Here, we describe a global network of forest research plots (CTFS/ForestGEO) of utility for understanding forest responses to climate change and consequent feedbacks to the climate system. CTFS/ForestGEO is an international network consisting of 51 sites ranging in size from 2-150 ha (median size: 25 ha) and spanning from 25S to 52N latitude. At each site, every individual > 1cm DBH is mapped and identified, and recruitment, growth, and mortality are monitored every 5 years. Additional measurements include aboveground productivity, carbon stocks, soil nutrients, plant functional traits, arthropod and vertebrates monitoring, DNA barcoding, airborne and ground-based LiDAR, micrometeorology, and weather monitoring. Data from this network are useful for understanding how forest ecosystem structure and function respond to spatial and temporal variation in abiotic drivers, parameterizing and evaluating ecosystem and earth system models, aligning airborne and ground-based measurements, and identifying directional changes in forest productivity and composition. For instance, CTFS/ForestGEO data have revealed that solar radiation and night-time temperature are important drivers of aboveground productivity in moist tropical forests; that tropical forests are mixed in terms of productivity and biomass trends over the past couple decades; and that the composition of Panamanian forests has shifted towards more drought-tolerant species. Ongoing monitoring will be vital to understanding global forest dynamics in an era of climate change.

Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Muller-Landau, H.; McMahon, S.; Davies, S. J.

2013-12-01

207

An integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines--Wireless Sensor Network subsystem with multi-parameter monitoring.  

PubMed

Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected. PMID:25051037

Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

2014-01-01

208

STS-2, -3, -4 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (ICEM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The second, third, and fourth space transportation system missions are described including the location of the IECM in the payload bay and the shuttle coordinate systems used. Measurement results from the three flights are given for each instrument with comparisons to original goals for preflight environment and induced environment contamination. These results include very low levels of molecular mass accumulation rates, absence of molecular films on optical samples, outgassing species above 50 amu undetectable generally low levels of on-orbit particulates, and decay rates for early mission water dump particulates. Results of exposure of several optical materials and coatings to atomic oxygen are also presented. From these results, it is concluded that the space shuttle met the established induced environment contamination goals.

Miller, E. R. (editor)

1983-01-01

209

How Key GEOSS Datasets Contribute to the Global Monitoring and Assessment of Glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An early and dramatic indicator of global climate change has been the recession of mountain glaciers. The potential impacts on water resources and global sea level rise has led to an increased interest in accurate monitoring and assessment of glaciers worldwide. Past glacier inventories recorded scalar information such as area and terminus location for glaciers in easily accessible regions of the Earth. A modern glacier inventory must be truly global, attempting to assess all of the Earth's estimated 160,000 glaciers, and contain actual glacier extents with area distribution by elevation. These data are required in order to begin modeling the response of this portion of the cryosphere to future climate change. Fortunately, the two key data sets required to produce this global inventory of glaciers were recently made available as contributions to GEOSS by GEO Member nations. These are the multispectral imagery in the Landsat archive, contributed by the U.S.A., and the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) jointly contributed by the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) of Japan and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This talk will describe how the Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space (GLIMS) project is utilizing these GEOSS resources by enabling GLIMS collaborators to derive detailed glacier outlines, transient snow lines, area-elevation distributions, and other pertinent information that will enhance our understanding of the current state, recent evolution, and future fate of the glaciers worldwide.

Khalsa, S. S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Armstrong, R. L.

2009-12-01

210

The Global Business concentration prepares students to manage effectively in a complex and dynamic global business environment. Building on a foundational course  

E-print Network

of the analytic tools and skills to help firms succeed in the global economy. The MBA program at Rutgers BusinessThe Global Business concentration prepares students to manage effectively in a complex and dynamic global business environment. Building on a foundational course in international business, students can

Lin, Xiaodong

211

Intelligent Video Surveillance for Monitoring Elderly in Home Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a novel method to detect and record various posture-based events of interest in a typical elderly monitoring application in a home surveillance scenario. These events include standing, sitting, bending\\/squatting, side lying and lying toward the camera. The projection histograms of segmented human body silhouette are used as the main feature vector for posture classification. k-nearest

A. H. Nasution; S. Emmanuel

2007-01-01

212

Glacial and periglacial environment monitoring in Aosta Valley - Northwestern Italian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aosta Valley is a small alpine region of about 3.300 km2 located in the NW Italy, on the southern side of the Alps and surrounded by the highest Alpine peaks such as Mont Blanc (4810m), Mont Rose (4634m) and Cervino (4478m), More than 50% of the territory has an elevation above 2000 metres asl. High mountain, glacial and periglacial environments cover a significant part of the territory. As the cryosphere is strongly sensitive to climate change, global warming effects are particularly evident in this alpine region, and they often affect environment and social and economic life, thus representing a key issue for politicians and people working and living in the valley. Among these effects, some of the most important are the decrease of water storage due to glaciers retreat and the increasing natural hazards as a consequence of rapid environmental dynamics. Hence the importance of monitoring glacial and periglacial environment, in order to quantify effects of climate change, to detect new dynamics and to manage consequences on the environment and the social life. In Aosta Valley the understanding of these phenomena is carried out by means of several actions, both at a regional scale and on specific representative sites. A multi-temporal analysis of aerial photographs, orthophotos and satellite imagery allows to detect glaciers evolution trend at a regional scale. All this information is collected in a Regional Glacier inventory, according to the World Glaciers Inventory standard and recommendations. Analysis of the information collected in the Inventory show that the total area presently covered by glaciers is about 135 km2; area changes occurred in the past has been about -44.3 km2, and -17 km2. between 1975 and 2005. Glacier inventory also gathers - for each of the about 200 glaciers - morphological data, information about events and photos both historical and present. Glacier mass balance (the difference resulting from the mass gained by the glacier through the winter/spring precipitations and the mass lost during the summer by snow and ice melting) strictly depends on climatic condition, so its long-term monitoring is a very reliable indicator. In Aosta Valley, yearly mass balance of some important glaciers that have lost significant mass since 2000 is measured. Timorion Glacier 0,5 Km , 3.100 - 3.450 m, north face, Gran Paradiso Massif) is monitored since 2001; Rutor Glacier (8 Km, 2.700 - 3.400 m, north face) since 2004. Two more glaciers, in the Mont Rose and Mont Blanc Massif respectively, have been recently added to this measurement. The traditional method (with ablation stakes and snow pits) is applied. Glacier is a fundamental water reservoir and climate change can negatively affect water availability. The temporal evolution dynamics is an issue of increasing importance. For this reasons from 2006, ARPA VdA has developed modelling activities to monitor Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) distribution and glacier evolution at the medium basin scale (120 Km) for hydro-power production optimization.

Motta, Elena; Cremonese, Edoardo; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Pogliotti, Paolo; Vagliasindi, Marco

2010-05-01

213

Intelligent Image Analysis for Environment Monitoring Froduald Kabanza *  

E-print Network

, aerosols, ocean productivity, land use, and their interactions. The prime tools for measuring and deriving and the environment over the next decade. In fact, some empirical experiments with hyperspectral sensors-resolution satellites. * Corresponding Author. #12;To illustrate, image analysis and interpretation algorithms developed

Kabanza, Froduald

214

A Mobile Sensor Network System for Monitoring of Unfriendly Environments  

PubMed Central

Observing microclimate changes is one of the most popular applications of wireless sensor networks. However, some target environments are often too dangerous or inaccessible to humans or large robots and there are many challenges for deploying and maintaining wireless sensor networks in those unfriendly environments. This paper presents a mobile sensor network system for solving this problem. The system architecture, the mobile node design, the basic behaviors and advanced network capabilities have been investigated respectively. A wheel-based robotic node architecture is proposed here that can add controlled mobility to wireless sensor networks. A testbed including some prototype nodes has also been created for validating the basic functions of the proposed mobile sensor network system. Motion performance tests have been done to get the positioning errors and power consumption model of the mobile nodes. Results of the autonomous deployment experiment show that the mobile nodes can be distributed evenly into the previously unknown environments. It provides powerful support for network deployment and maintenance and can ensure that the sensor network will work properly in unfriendly environments.

Song, Guangming; Zhou, Yaoxin; Ding, Fei; Song, Aiguo

2008-01-01

215

Specifying and monitoring economic environments using rights and obligations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a formal scripting language to capture the semantics of economic environments. The language is based on a set of well-defined design principles and makes explicit an agent's rights, as derived from property, and an agent's obligations, as derived from restrictions placed on its actions either voluntarily or as a consequence of other actions. Coupled with the language is

Loizos Michael; David C. Parkes; Avi Pfeffer

2010-01-01

216

Developing and implementing a data acquisition strategy for global agricultural monitoring: an inter-agency initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, in response to global food crises, the G20 Agricultural Ministers launched a satellite-based global agricultural monitoring initiative to develop the Group on Earth Observations Global Agriculture Monitoring (GEOGLAM) system. The GEO is aimed at enhancing the availability and use of both satellite and in situ data for societal benefit. This initiative builds on the observation requirements developed by the GEO Agricultural Community of Practice, the understanding that no one satellite system can currently provide all the data needed for agricultural monitoring and the resulting recommendation for improved acquisition and availability of data by the World's space agencies. Implicit in this recommendation is the fact that certain regions of the Earth are imagery rich while others are imagery poor, leaving knowledge gaps about agricultural processes and food supply for certain areas of the World. In order to respond to these knowledge gaps and to strengthen national, regional, and global agricultural monitoring networks, GEOGLAM is working with the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS), the space arm of GEO, to develop a coordinated global acquisition strategy. A key component of GEOGLAM is an effort to articulate the temporal and spatial Earth Observation (EO) requirements for monitoring; second, the identification of current and planned missions which are capable of fulfilling these EO requirements; and third, the development of a multi-agency, multi-mission image acquisition strategy for agricultural monitoring. CEOS engineers and GEOGLAM scientists have been collaborating on the EO requirements since 2012, and are now beginning the first implementation phase of the acquisition strategy. The goal is to put in place an operational system of systems using a virtual constellation of satellite-based sensors acquiring data to meet the needs for monitoring and early warning of shortfalls in agricultural production, a goal that was articulated in the 1970's, which has yet to be met. Although technically feasible, the challenges are largely institutional and speak to issues of coordination, data policy, data continuity and political will. The GEOGLAM initiative provides an opportunity to address and overcome these challenges to implement a global image acquisition strategy designed to meet critical societal needs.

Justice, C. O.; Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Killough, B.

2013-12-01

217

Evaluation of change detection techniques for monitoring coastal zone environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for detecting changes in Landsat multispectral scanning imagery of coastal zone environments are discussed. Four detection procedures are examined: a comparison of independently produced spectral classifications; a classification of a multispectral difference data set; a single analysis of a multidate data set; and a maximum likelihood classification using multistage decision logic. The relatively complex maximum likelihood classification technique was found to yield results closest to those obtained with the comparison of independently produced spectral classifications, the chosen standard.

Weismiller, R. A.; Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. M.

1977-01-01

218

Joint IAMAS/IAHS Symposium J1 on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventy papers were presented at the two-and-a-half-day Symposium on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. The symposium was jointly organized by the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). Global observing systems are receiving increased attention in connection with such problems as monitoring global climate change. The symposium included papers on observational requirements; measurement methodologies; descriptions of available datasets; results of analysis of observational data; plans for future observing systems, including the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS); and the programs and plans of the space agencies.

Ohring, G.; Aoki, T.; Halpern D.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; Charlock, T.; Joseph, J.; Labitzke, K.; Raschke, E.; Smith, W.

1994-01-01

219

Man in the Living Environment. A Report on Global Ecological Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings of four groups of ecologists are synthesized in chapter I of this report on global ecological problems prepared as a data base for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. The other chapters contain the reports of each group. In "Cycles of Elements" the biologically important elements, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen,

Inger, Robert F.; And Others

220

Global, Local and Individual Learning Environments: An Environmental Model Integrating Adult Learning Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of a model. The Environmental Model of Adult Learning consists of three interrelated learning environments: individual (within you), local (with you) and global (all about you). The environmental backdrop supports the purposeful effort to organize or map the research territory of adult learning.

Charmaine Ing

221

Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments: A New GLORIA Site in Southwestern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is expected to have pronounced effects on the alpine environments and thus the alpine plants of western North America. Predicted responses include an upward migration of treelines, altered species compositions, changes in the percentage of land covered by vegetation, and a change in the phenology of alpine plants. To determine the effects of climate change on the

M. E. Apple; T. Y. Pullman; G. G. Mitman

2007-01-01

222

Water in the Global Environment. Pathways in Geography Series, Title No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report deals with the importance of water to life. The physical characteristics of water, its distribution, and a number of current water-related problems are examined. The issue of water management is discussed, along with the ways water is made available for our many uses in life. The introductory essay, "Water in the Global Environment,"

Waterstone, Marvin

223

Global map building based on occupancy grids detected from dense stereo in urban environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for global map building from occupancy grids is presented in this paper. Occupancy grids provide a low-level representation of the environment, suitable for autonomous navigation tasks, in urban driving scenarios. The occupancy grids used in our approach are computed with a method that outputs an occupancy grid with three distinct cell types: road, traffic isles and obstacles. First,

Florin Oniga; Sergiu Nedevschi; Radu Danescu; Marc-Michael Meinecke

2009-01-01

224

Elastic Roadmaps: Globally Task-Consistent Motion for Autonomous Mobile Manipulation in Dynamic Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomous execution of manipulation tasks in unstructured, dynamic environments requires the consideration of various motion constraints. Any motion performed during the manipulation task has to satisfy constraints imposed by the task itself, but also has to consider kinematic and dynamic limitations of the manipulator, avoid unpredictably moving obstacles, and observe constraints imposed by the global connectivity of the workspace.

Yuandong Yang; Oliver Brock

2006-01-01

225

Secure collaboration in global design and supply chain environment: Problem analysis and literature review  

E-print Network

Information sharing and protection Collaborative product development Design and supply chain managementSecure collaboration in global design and supply chain environment: Problem analysis and literature to make a rapid response to customer needs and technology changes, collaborative and distributed product

Wang, Lingyu

226

Global Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation: History, Methods and Future Challenges  

PubMed Central

International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally-representative and internationally-comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation. PMID:25116635

Bartram, Jamie; Brocklehurst, Clarissa; Fisher, Michael B.; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hossain, Rifat; Wardlaw, Tessa; Gordon, Bruce

2014-01-01

227

The Future of Space Environment Monitoring in Low Earth Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the next decade there will be significant changes in the availability and mission effectiveness of space environmental data provided by U.S. operational environmental satellites in low-earth orbit. On the one hand, the cancelation of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) and the programmatic changes that had preceded this cancelation have had a deleterious impact on planned National space environmental monitoring capabilities across a broad spectrum of environmental parameters. However, space environmental records available from remaining and planned operational satellite systems offer some improved capabilities and reduced latencies to better serve National space weather needs. Full utilization of the capabilities offered by these system upgrades within operation centers will require careful planning investments. This talk will provide an overview of current sources of space environmental data from LEO satellites in polar orbit and planned capabilities using data from satellites in both polar and lower inclination orbits.

Denig, W. F.; Bonadonna, M.; Scro, K. D.; Green, J. C.

2010-12-01

228

Automated video screening for unattended background monitoring in dynamic environments.  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A threat of specific interest to this project is the covert placement and subsequent remote detonation of bombs (e.g., briefcase bombs) inside crowded public facilities. Different from existing video motion detection systems, the video-screening technology described in this report is capable of detecting changes in the static background of an otherwise, dynamic environment - environments where motion and human activities are persistent. Our goal was to quickly detect changes in the background - even under conditions when the background is visible to the camera less than 5% of the time. Instead of subtracting the background to detect movement or changes in a scene, we subtracted the dynamic scene variations to produce an estimate of the static background. Subsequent comparisons of static background estimates are used to detect changes in the background. Detected changes can be used to alert security forces of the presence and location of potential threats. The results of this research are summarized in two MS Power-point presentations included with this report.

Carlson, Jeffrey J.

2004-03-01

229

Coastal Louisiana Wetlands Restoration Monitoring with Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal Louisiana has experienced dramatic landscape change over the past century due to human induced changes to the environment as well as an onslaught of major coastal storms. Coastal Louisiana loses on average 25-35 square miles of land per year. The USGS has partnered with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - National Marine Fisheries Service to provide cyclical remote sensing data for selected restoration sites along the coast of Louisiana. Three of these sites are actively maintained in the GFP archive - Atchafalaya River Delta, East Timbalier Island, and Pecan Island. These three sites coincide with NOAA restoration sites that have been monitored since early 2000. The GFP has provided a consistent set of remote sensing data that has greatly benefited the long-term monitoring of these restoration sites. Long-term monitoring of these sites includes both pre- and post-hurricane season data collection used to identify landscape change along the coast. The long-term monitoring also has helped to identify areas of success in the restoration projects, as well as areas that have continued to decline in spite of restoration efforts. These three sites are significant to the program because they provide a variety of coastal landscape types: an open water barrier island environment at East Timbalier Island; coastal wetlands at Pecan Island, which have experienced subsidence of the marsh and convergence to an open water environment; and a deltaic marsh environment at Atchafalaya River Delta. Long-term monitoring of these sites has provided a wealth of knowledge about the changes occurring, as well as a valuable tool for reliable shoreline measurements. Continued monitoring is necessary to accurately assess the condition of these areas as environmental conditions continue to shape the landscape.

Fisher, G.

2012-12-01

230

A New ERA in Global Temperature Monitoring with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch of the first Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on the NOAA-15 spacecraft on 13 May 1998 marked a significant advance in our ability to monitor global temperatures. Compared to the Microwave Sounding Units (MSU) flying since 1978 on the TIROS-N series of NOAA polar orbiters, the AMSU offers better horizontal, vertical, and radiometric resolutions. It will allow routine monitoring of 1 1 (mostly) separate layers, compared to 2 or 3 with the MSU, including layers in the middle and upper stratosphere (2.5 hPa) where increasing carbon dioxide concentrations should be causing a cooling rate of about 1 deg. C per decade. More precise limb corrections combined with low noise will allow identification of subtle spatial temperature patterns associated with global cyclone activity.

Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D.; Christy, John R.

1999-01-01

231

MONITORING WASTE HEAT REJECTION TO THE ENVIRONMENT VIA REMOTE SENSING  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power plants typically use waste heat rejection systems such as cooling lakes and natural draft cooling towers. These systems are designed to reduce cooling water temperatures sufficiently to allow full power operation even during adverse meteorological conditions. After the power plant is operational, the performance of the cooling system is assessed. These assessments usually rely on measured temperatures of the cooling water after it has lost heat to the environment and is being pumped back into the power plant (cooling water inlet temperature). If the cooling system performance is not perceived to be optimal, the utility will collect additional data to determine why. This paper discusses the use of thermal imagery collected from aircraft and satellites combined with numerical simulation to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of nuclear power plant waste heat dissipation systems. The ANS meeting presentation will discuss analyses of several power plant cooling systems based on a combination of remote sensing data and hydrodynamic modeling.

Garrett, A

2009-01-13

232

Monitoring Global Food Security with New Remote Sensing Products and Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global agriculture monitoring is a crucial aspect of monitoring food security in the developing world. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has a long history of using remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pests, and climate change. In recent years, it has become apparent that FEWS NET requires the ability to apply monitoring and modeling frameworks at a global scale to assess potential impacts of foreign production and markets on food security at regional, national, and local levels. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) Climate Hazards Group have provided new and improved data products as well as visualization and analysis tools in support of the increased mandate for remote monitoring. We present our monitoring products for measuring actual evapotranspiration (ETa), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a near-real-time mode, and satellite-based rainfall estimates and derivatives. USGS FEWS NET has implemented a Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to produce operational ETa anomalies for Africa and Central Asia. During the growing season, ETa anomalies express surplus or deficit crop water use, which is directly related to crop condition and biomass. We present current operational products and provide supporting validation of the SSEB model. The expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) production system provides FEWS NET with an improved NDVI dataset for crop and rangeland monitoring. eMODIS NDVI provides a reliable data stream with a relatively high spatial resolution (250-m) and short latency period (less than 12 hours) which allows for better operational vegetation monitoring. We provide an overview of these data and cite specific applications for crop monitoring. FEWS NET uses satellite rainfall estimates as inputs for monitoring agricultural food production and driving crop water balance models. We present a series of derived rainfall products and provide an update on efforts to improve satellite-based estimates. We also present advancements in monitoring tools, namely, the Early Warning eXplorer (EWX) and interactive rainfall and NDVI time series viewers. The EWX is a data analysis and visualization tool that allows users to rapidly visualize multiple remote sensing datasets and compare standardized anomaly maps and time series. The interactive time series viewers allow users to analyze rainfall and NDVI time series over multiple spatial domains. New and improved data products and more targeted analysis tools are a necessity as food security monitoring requirements expand and resources become limited.

Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Magadzire, T.; Verdin, J. P.

2012-12-01

233

Monitoring and mapping global vegetation cover using data from meteorological satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of coarse resolution meteorological satellite data for monitoring and mapping of vegetation for global, continental and regional scales is outlined. In the NOAA products used the effects of cloud cover are reduced by the generation of temporal composites of images of the normalized difference vegetation index. Different land cover types are shown to have characteristic spectral phenological curves. Such data have the disadvantage of effectively increasing the apparent areal extent of small areas of green vegetation.

Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.; Holben, B.; Tucker, C. J.

1984-01-01

234

GLOBAL MONITORING OF URANIUM HEXIFLORIDE CYLINDERS NEXT STEPS IN DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTION PLAN  

SciTech Connect

Over 40 industrial facilities world-wide use standardized uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders for transport, storage and in-process receiving in support of uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication processes. UF{sub 6} is processed and stored in the cylinders, with over 50,000 tU of UF{sub 6} transported each year in these International Organization for Standardization (ISO) qualified containers. Although each cylinder is manufactured to an ISO standard that calls for a nameplate with the manufacturer's identification number (ID) and the owner's serial number engraved on it, these can be quite small and difficult to read. Recognizing that each facility seems to use a different ID, a cylinder can have several different numbers recorded on it by means of metal plates, sticky labels, paint or even marker pen as it travels among facilities around the world. The idea of monitoring movements of UF{sub 6} cylinders throughout the global uranium fuel cycle has become a significant issue among industrial and safeguarding stakeholders. Global monitoring would provide the locations, movements, and uses of cylinders in commercial nuclear transport around the world, improving the efficiency of industrial operations while increasing the assurance that growing nuclear commerce does not result in the loss or misuse of cylinders. It should be noted that a unique ID (UID) attached to a cylinder in a verifiable manner is necessary for safeguarding needs and ensuring positive ID, but not sufficient for an effective global monitoring system. Modern technologies for tracking and inventory control can pair the UID with sensors and secure data storage for content information and complete continuity of knowledge over the cylinder. This paper will describe how the next steps in development of an action plan for employing a global UF{sub 6} cylinder monitoring network could be cultivated using four primary UID functions - identification, tracking, controlling, and accounting.

Hanks, D.

2010-06-09

235

Design and package of a 14CO2 field analyzer: the Global Monitor Platform (GMP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is widely accepted as a means to reduce and eliminate the fossil fuel CO2 (ff- CO2) emissions from coal fired power plants. Success of CCS depends on near zero leakage rates over decadal time scales. Currently no commercial methods to determine leakage of ff-CO2 are available. The Global Monitor Platform (GMP) field analyzer provides high precision analysis of CO2 isotopes [12C (99%), 13C (<1%), 14C (1.2x10-10 %)] that can differentiate between fossil and biogenic CO2 emissions. Fossil fuels contain no 14C; their combustion should lower atmospheric amounts on local to global scales. There is a clear mandate for monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) of CCS systems nationally and globally to verify CCS integrity, treaty verification (Kyoto Protocol) and to characterize the nuclear fuel cycle. Planetary Emissions Management (PEM), working with the National Secure Manufacturing Center (NSMC), has the goal of designing, ruggedizing and packaging the GMP for field deployment. The system will conduct atmosphere monitoring then adapt to water and soil evaluations. Measuring 14CO2 in real time will provide quantitative concentration data for ff-CO2 in the atmosphere and CCS leakage detection. Initial results will be discussed along with design changes for improved detection sensitivity and manufacturability.

Marino, Bruno D. V.; Bright, Michelle; Gronniger, Glen

2011-09-01

236

Monitoring progress towards universal health coverage at country and global levels.  

PubMed

Universal health coverage (UHC) has been defined as the desired outcome of health system performance whereby all people who need health services (promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation) receive them, without undue financial hardship. UHC has two interrelated components: the full spectrum of good-quality, essential health services according to need, and protection from financial hardship, including possible impoverishment, due to out-of-pocket payments for health services. Both components should benefit the entire population. This paper summarizes the findings from 13 country case studies and five technical reviews, which were conducted as part of the development of a global framework for monitoring progress towards UHC. The case studies show the relevance and feasibility of focusing UHC monitoring on two discrete components of health system performance: levels of coverage with health services and financial protection, with a focus on equity. These components link directly to the definition of UHC and measure the direct results of strategies and policies for UHC. The studies also show how UHC monitoring can be fully embedded in often existing, regular overall monitoring of health sector progress and performance. Several methodological and practical issues related to the monitoring of coverage of essential health services, financial protection, and equity, are highlighted. Addressing the gaps in the availability and quality of data required for monitoring progress towards UHC is critical in most countries. PMID:25243899

Boerma, Ties; Eozenou, Patrick; Evans, David; Evans, Tim; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Wagstaff, Adam

2014-09-01

237

Monitoring Progress towards Universal Health Coverage at Country and Global Levels  

PubMed Central

Universal health coverage (UHC) has been defined as the desired outcome of health system performance whereby all people who need health services (promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation) receive them, without undue financial hardship. UHC has two interrelated components: the full spectrum of good-quality, essential health services according to need, and protection from financial hardship, including possible impoverishment, due to out-of-pocket payments for health services. Both components should benefit the entire population. This paper summarizes the findings from 13 country case studies and five technical reviews, which were conducted as part of the development of a global framework for monitoring progress towards UHC. The case studies show the relevance and feasibility of focusing UHC monitoring on two discrete components of health system performance: levels of coverage with health services and financial protection, with a focus on equity. These components link directly to the definition of UHC and measure the direct results of strategies and policies for UHC. The studies also show how UHC monitoring can be fully embedded in often existing, regular overall monitoring of health sector progress and performance. Several methodological and practical issues related to the monitoring of coverage of essential health services, financial protection, and equity, are highlighted. Addressing the gaps in the availability and quality of data required for monitoring progress towards UHC is critical in most countries. PMID:25243899

Boerma, Ties; Eozenou, Patrick; Evans, David; Evans, Tim; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Wagstaff, Adam

2014-01-01

238

UK-HiGEM: The New UK High Resolution Global Environment Model. Model description and basic evaluation.  

E-print Network

UK-HiGEM: The New UK High Resolution Global Environment Model. Model description and basic Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, UK 8 British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK 9 in a series describing the development and performance of the UK's first high resolution global environment

Matthews, Adrian

239

Aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment. Part III: personal monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a larger study, personal sampling of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the isomeric xylenes (BTEX) was carried out by 55 nonsmoking volunteers for a period of 14 days. Thirty-nine persons lived in a rural area near Hannover (Germany) with hardly any traffic at all, while 16 persons lived in a high-traffic city street in Hannover. The personal exposure level of the persons in the rural area (some commuting to Hannover) was: 2.9, 24.8, 2.4 and 7.7 ?g m -3 for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the sum of xylenes, respectively, while the corresponding data for the high traffic city streets were 4.0, 22.2, 2.8 and 9.7 ?g m -3 (geometric means). Four microenvironments have been monitored which contribute to the total exposure to BTEX, i.e. the home, the outdoor air, the workplace and the car cabin. The most important microenvironment for non-working persons is the private home. The concentration of most BTEX in the private home is almost equal to the personal exposure level, demonstrating that the indoor pollution in the home makes by far the highest contribution to the total exposure. For working people (mostly office workers), the workplace is the second most important microenvironment contributing to the total BTEX exposure. Taking all working persons into consideration (independent of the location of their private home) the personal exposure level is higher by a factor of 1.2-1.4 than that of the workplace (for toluene this factor is 2.2). As already found by others, very high BTEX concentrations may be found in car cabins, in particular, if the engine is gasoline-driven. In the cabin of 44 cars in the rural/urban area average benzene concentrations (geometric mean) of 12/14 ?g m -3 and a maximum value of 550 ?g m -3 were found. On average, the participating volunteers drove their car for 45 min day -1 (i.e. 3% of the day). Nevertheless, the car cabin constitutes about 10% of the total benzene exposure. Refueling of the car during the 14-day sampling period has only a small effect on the personal exposure level.

Ilgen, E.; Levsen, K.; Angerer, J.; Schneider, P.; Heinrich, J.; Wichmann, H.-E.

240

An Intelligent System for Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intelligent system for monitoring the microgravity environment quality on-board the International Space Station is presented. The monitoring system uses a new approach combining Kohonen's self-organizing feature map, learning vector quantization, and back propagation neural network to recognize and classify the known and unknown patterns. Finally, fuzzy logic is used to assess the level of confidence associated with each vibrating source activation detected by the system.

Lin, Paul P.; Jules, Kenol

2002-01-01

241

Monitoring the Ocean Acoustic Environment: A Model-Based Detection Approach  

SciTech Connect

A model-based approach is applied in the development of a processor designed to passively monitor an ocean acoustic environment along with its associated variations. The technique employs an adaptive, model-based processor embedded in a sequential likelihood detection scheme. The trade-off between state-based and innovations-based monitor designs is discussed, conceptually. The underlying theory for the innovations-based design is briefly developed and applied to a simulated data set.

Candy, J.V.; Sullivan, E.J.

2000-03-13

242

Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys  

PubMed Central

Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, environmental equity indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International best practice benchmarks will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very upstream approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative to reduce obesity and diet-related NCDs. PMID:24833697

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

2014-01-01

243

Radiation environment along the INTEGRAL orbit measured with the IREM monitor  

E-print Network

The INTEGRAL Radiation Environment Monitor (IREM) is a payload supporting instrument on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The monitor continually measures electron and proton fluxes along the orbit and provides this information to the spacecraft on board data handler. The mission alert system broadcasts it to the payload instruments enabling them to react accordingly to the current radiation level. Additionally, the IREM conducts its autonomous research mapping the Earth radiation environment for the space weather program. Its scientific data are available for further analysis almost without delay.

W. Hajdas; P. Bhler; C. Eggel; P. Favre; A. Mchedlishvili; A. Zehnder

2003-08-15

244

Protection of quantum information and optimal singlet conversion through higher dimensional quantum systems and environment monitoring  

E-print Network

We study how to protect quantum information in quantum systems subjected to local dissipation. We show that combining the use of three-level systems, environment monitoring, and local feedback can fully and deterministically protect any available quantum information, including entanglement initially shared by different parties. These results can represent a gain in resources and/or distances in quantum communication protocols such as quantum repeaters and teleportation as well as time for quantum memories. Finally, we show that monitoring local environments physically implements the optimum singlet conversion protocol, essential for classical entanglement percolation.

E. Mascarenhas; B. Marques; D. Cavalcanti; M. Terra Cunha; M. Fran\\cca Santos

2010-02-02

245

Branching Random Walks in Space-Time Random Environment: Survival Probability, Global and Local Growth Rates  

E-print Network

We study the survival probability and the growth rate for branching random walks in random environment (BRWRE). The particles perform simple symmetric random walks on the $d$-dimensional integer lattice, while at each time unit, they split into independent copies according to time-space i.i.d. offspring distributions. The BRWRE is naturally associated with the directed polymers in random environment (DPRE), for which the quantity called the free energy is well studied. We discuss the survival probability (both global and local) for BRWRE and give a criterion for its positivity in terms of the free energy of the associated DPRE. We also show that the global growth rate for the number of particles in BRWRE is given by the free energy of the associated DPRE, though the local growth rateis given by the directional free energy.

Francis Comets; Nobuo Yoshida

2009-07-03

246

Heisenberg versus standard scaling in quantum metrology with Markov generated states and monitored environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding optimal and noise robust probe states is a key problem in quantum metrology. In this paper we propose Markov dynamics as a possible mechanism for generating such states, and show how the Heisenberg scaling emerges for systems with multiple "dynamical phases" (stationary states), and noiseless channels. We model noisy channels by coupling the Markov output to "environment" ancillas, and consider the scenario where the environment is monitored to increase the quantum Fisher information of the output. In this setup we find that the survival of the Heisenberg limit depends on whether the environment receives "which phase" information about the memory system.

Catana, Catalin; Guţ?, M?d?lin

2014-07-01

247

Urban air pollution: The global perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1970s, the World Health Organization, in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme, through the Global Environment Monitoring System, has been operating a worldwide network for monitoring of air quality. In 1988, information for the period 1973-1984 was analyzed to assess global and regional trends. Data are available from about 50 countries and for the air pollutants SPM,

Ozolins

2008-01-01

248

Monitoring of Exposure to and Potential Effects of Contaminants in the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our lifetimes, much of what was once considered science fiction: space ships, monitor- ing the environment from space, satellite phones and biomedical advances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease at the molecular level have now become realities. These advances in technology have changed our perceptions and how we interact with the world around us. Also during this time,

John P. Giesy; John L. Newsted

2007-01-01

249

PAS: Prediction-based Adaptive Sleeping for Environment Monitoring in Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficiency has proven to be an important factor dominating the working period of WSN surveillance systems. Intensive studies have been done to provide energy efficient power management mechanisms. In this paper, we present PAS, a Prediction-based Adaptive Sleeping mechanism for environment monitoring sensor networks to conserve energy. PAS focuses on the diffusion stimulus (DS) scenario, which is very common

Zheng Yang; Bin Xu; Jingyao Dai; Tao Gu

2007-01-01

250

Brain Mechanisms Associated with Background Monitoring of the Environment for Potentially Significant Sensory Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background monitoring is a necessary prerequisite to detect unexpected changes in the environment, while being involved in a primary task. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms that underlie adaptive goal-directed behavior in a cued task switching paradigm during real response conflict or, more generally, when expectations on the

Gruber, Oliver; Melcher, Tobias; Diekhof, Esther K.; Karch, Susanne; Falkai, Peter; Goschke, Thomas

2009-01-01

251

STS-2 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM): Quick-Look Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-2/induced environment contamination monitor (IECM) mission is described. The IECM system performance is discussed, and IECM mission time events are briefly described. Quick look analyses are presented for each of the 10 instruments comprising the IECM on the flight of STS-2. A short summary is presented.

Miller, E. R. (editor)

1982-01-01

252

Harsh Environment Silicon Carbide Sensors for Health and Performance Monitoring of Aerospace Systems: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent increase in transportation costs and the push for cleaner emissions demands advancements in aerospace technology. The current instrumentation used in aerospace applications is costly, and indirect measurement approaches are often employed due to the inability to locate sensors in harsh environments. Health monitoring technologies for the development of a distributed sensor network can be utilized to improve engine

Debbie G. Senesky; Babak Jamshidi; Kan Bun Cheng; A. P. Pisano

2009-01-01

253

Monitoring a populated environment using single-row laser range scanners from a mobile platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we proposed a system of detecting and monitoring pedestrians' motion trajectories at a populated and wide environment, such as exhibition hall, supermarket etc., using the horizontally profiling single-row laser range scanners on a mobile platform. A simplified walking model is defined to track the rhythmic swing feet at the ground level. Pedestrians are recognized by detecting the

Huijing Zhao; Yuzhong Chen; Xiaowei Shao; Kyoichiro Katabira; Ryosuke Shibasaki

2007-01-01

254

An Inundated Wetlands Earth System Data Record: Global Monitoring of Wetland Extent and Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands exert major impacts on global biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biological diversity. The extent and seasonal, interannual, and decadal variation of inundated wetlands play key roles in ecosystem dynamics. Despite the importance of these environments in the global cycling of carbon and water and to current and future climate, the extent and dynamics of global wetlands remain poorly characterized and modeled. This is primarily because of the scarcity of suitable regional-to-global remote-sensing data for characterizing wetland distribution and dynamics. As part of a NASA MEaSUREs project, we are constructing a global-scale Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of inundated wetlands to facilitate investigations on their role in climate, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. The ESDR is being generated using legacy algorithms developed from spaceborne remote sensing data sets and is comprised of two complementary components. The first are fine resolution (100 m) maps of wetland extent, vegetation type, and seasonal inundation dynamics, derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), for continental-scale areas covering crucial wetland regions. The second are global monthly maps of inundation extent at ~25 km resolution for the period 1992- 2009, derived from multiple satellite observations. We present details of the ESDR construction including remote sensing algorithm applications, cross-product harmonization, and planned data set distribution. The status of current efforts to assemble this ESDR, including data processing, wetland classifications, and open water change mappings derived from L-band data for the state of Alaska and select basins in Eurasia are presented. This ESDR will provide the first accurate, consistent and comprehensive global-scale data set of wetland inundation and vegetation, including continental-scale multitemporal and multi-year monthly inundation dynamics at multiple scales. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Podest, E.; McDonald, K.; Chapman, B.; Hess, L.; Moghaddam, M.; Kimball, J. S.; Matthews, E.; Prigent, C.

2008-12-01

255

Nonthreshold-based event detection for 3d environment monitoring in sensor networks  

SciTech Connect

Event detection is a crucial task for wireless sensor network applications, especially environment monitoring. Existing approaches for event detection are mainly based on some predefined threshold values and, thus, are often inaccurate and incapable of capturing complex events. For example, in coal mine monitoring scenarios, gas leakage or water osmosis can hardly be described by the overrun of specified attribute thresholds but some complex pattern in the full-scale view of the environmental data. To address this issue, we propose a nonthreshold-based approach for the real 3D sensor monitoring environment. We employ energy-efficient methods to collect a time series of data maps from the sensor network and detect complex events through matching the gathered data to spatiotemporal data patterns. Finally, we conduct trace-driven simulations to prove the efficacy and efficiency of this approach on detecting events of complex phenomena from real-life records.

Li, M.; Liu, Y.H.; Chen, L. [Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Kowloon (China)

2008-12-15

256

Environments. Our Common Home: Earth. A Curriculum Strategy to Affect Student Skills Development and Exposure to Diverse Global Natural/Social Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of global education instructional units, this unit on environments was designed to be infused with existing social studies courses aimed at students in grades 5-12. Concept-based and skills-oriented, the curriculum provides opportunities for students to develop an understanding of the nature and character of diverse global natural

Peters, Richard

257

Uncovering Global Icebergs in Distributed Monitors Guanyao Huang, Ashwin Lall, Chen-Nee Chuah, and Jun Xu  

E-print Network

Uncovering Global Icebergs in Distributed Monitors Guanyao Huang, Ashwin Lall, Chen-Nee Chuah and worm detection, called distributed global icebergs. While previous work has concentrated on mea- suring local heavy-hitters using "sketches" in the non-distributed streaming case or icebergs in the non

Chuah, Chen-Nee

258

Global pollution aerosol monitoring (GPAM) in the atmospheric boundary layer using future earth observing satellite remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global pollution aerosol monitoring is a very important climatic and environmental problem. It affects not only human health but also ecological systems. Because most pollution aerosols are concentrated in the atmospheric boundary layer where human, animal and vegetation live, global pollution aerosol stuides have been an important topic since about a decade ago. Recently, many new chemistry remote sensing satellite

Jianhe Qu; Menas Kafatos; Ruixin Yang; Long S. Chiu; Allen R. Riebau

2003-01-01

259

Beyond indicators: advances in global HIV monitoring and evaluation during the PEPFAR era.  

PubMed

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is fundamental to global HIV program implementation and has been a cornerstone of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Rapid results were crucial to demonstrating feasibility and scalability of HIV care and treatment services early in PEPFAR. When national HIV M&E systems were nascent, the rapid influx of funds and the emergency expansion of HIV services contributed to the development of uncoordinated "parallel" information systems to serve donor demands for information. Close collaboration of PEPFAR with multilateral and national partners improved harmonization of indicators, standards, methods, tools, and reports. Concurrent PEPFAR investments in surveillance, surveys, program monitoring, health information systems, and human capacity development began to show signs of progress toward sustainable country-owned systems. Awareness of the need for and usefulness of data increased, far beyond discussions of indicators and reporting. Emphasis has turned toward ensuring the quality of data and using available data to improve the quality of care. Assessing progress toward an AIDS-free generation requires that the global community can measure the reduction of new HIV infections in children and adults and monitor the coverage, quality, and outcomes of highly efficacious interventions in combination. Building national M&E systems requires sustained efforts over long periods of time with effective leadership and coordination. PEPFAR, in close collaboration with its global and national partners, is well positioned to transform the successes and challenges associated with early rapid scale-up into future opportunities for sustainable, cost-effective, country-owned programs and systems. PMID:22797733

Porter, Laura E; Bouey, Paul D; Curtis, Sian; Hochgesang, Mindy; Idele, Priscilla; Jefferson, Bobby; Lemma, Wuleta; Myrick, Roger; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Prybylski, Dimitri; Souteyrand, Yves; Tulli, Tuhuma

2012-08-15

260

Global Monitoring of Clouds and Aerosols Using a Network of Micro-Pulse Lidar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term global radiation programs, such as AERONET and BSRN, have shown success in monitoring column averaged cloud and aerosol optical properties. Little attention has been focused on global measurements of vertically resolved optical properties. Lidar systems are the preferred instrument for such measurements. However, global usage of lidar systems has not been achieved because of limits imposed by older systems that were large, expensive, and logistically difficult to use in the field. Small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar systems are now currently available and overcome problems associated with older systems. The first such lidar to be developed is the Micro-pulse lidar System (MPL). The MPL has proven to be useful in the field because it can be automated, runs continuously (day and night), is eye-safe, can easily be transported and set up, and has a small field-of-view which removes multiple scattering concerns. We have developed successful protocols to operate and calibrate MPL systems. We have also developed a data analysis algorithm that produces data products such as cloud and aerosol layer heights, optical depths, extinction profiles, and the extinction-backscatter ratio. The algorithm minimizes the use of a priori assumptions and also produces error bars for all data products. Here we present an overview of our MPL protocols and data analysis techniques. We also discuss the ongoing construction of a global MPL network in conjunction with the AERONET program. Finally, we present some early results from the MPL network.

Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, V. Stanley

2000-01-01

261

Early drought detection, monitoring, and assessment of crop losses from space: global approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With nearly 30 years of the accumulated AVHRR data which were collected from NOAA operational polar-orbiting environmental satellites, the area of their applications expanded in the direction of agricultural production modeling, understanding of climate and global change, resource management, and early and more efficient monitoring of the environmental impacts (especially droughts) on economy and society. This becomes possible due to development of Vegetation Health indices (VHI). This paper discusses utility of AVHRR-based VHI for modeling crop and pasture yield with specific emphasis on early drought warning and estimation of losses in agricultural production.

Kogan, Felix

2006-12-01

262

Use of Sentinels to aid the global monitoring of snow cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observation instruments onboard Sentinel satellites provide a unique opportunity for the monitoring and investigation of global snow processes. The issue of the possible decay of seasonal snow cover is highly relevant for climate research. In addition to water cycle, the extent and amount of snow affects to surface albedo, and indirectly to carbon cycling. The latter issue includes snow-induced changes in permafrost regions (active layer characteristics), as well as the effect of snow (melt) to vegetation growth and soil respiration. Recent advances in ESA DUE GlobSnow project have shown that by combining data from optical satellite sensors and passive microwave instruments advanced Climate Data Records (CDR) on seasonal snow cover can be produced, extending to time periods of over 30 years. The combined snow cover products provide information both on Snow Extent (SE) and Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on a daily basis. The applicable instruments providing historical data for CDR generation include such microwave radiometers as SMMR, AMSR and SSMI/I, and such optical sensors as AVHRR, AATSR and VIIRS. Sentinel 3, especially its SLSTR instrument, is a prominent tool for expanding the snow CDR for forthcoming years. The developed global snow cover monitoring methodology, demonstrated and discussed here, derives the SWE information from passive microwave data (accompanied with in situ observations of snow depth at synoptic weather stations). The snow extent and fractional snow cover (FSC) on ground is derived from optical satellite data, in order to accurately map the continental line of seasonal snow cover, and to map regions of ephemeral snow cover. An advanced feature in the developed methodology is the provision of uncertainty information on snow cover characteristics associated with each individual satellite data footprint on ground and moment of time. In addition to assisting the generation and extension of the global snow cover CDR, Sentinel missions provide data that enable the improvement of snow monitoring algorithms for hydrological and NWP applications. On the other hand, Sentinel observations can be applied to enhance snow processes considerations in hydrological, climate and weather prediction models. In general, synergistic techniques that apply data from different sensors (active-passive, optical-microwave, moderate-coarse resolution) are feasible to numerous cryospheric research and end-use applications. For example, MSI of Sentinel 2 and Sentinel 1 SAR can be synergistically used to provide information on snow melt at the scale of sub-drainage basins for hydrological river discharge forecasting independently on cloud conditions. The snow melt monitoring information has also been shown to be relevant for the mapping of the start of the growing season at the conifer forests of the boreal forest zone, which is highly relevant for the global mapping of annual carbon balance.

Pulliainen, Jouni; Salminen, Miia; Luojus, Kari; Metsmki, Sari; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Takala, Matias; Cohen, Juval; Bttcher, Kristine

2014-05-01

263

Youth, Skills Development, and Work in the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2012: Learning from Asia or for Asia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article underlines the historic importance of the treatment of skills development, finally, by the Education for All Global Monitoring Report (GMR) team. Among the many challenges in its analysis are the multiple and overlapping meanings of the word skill, and the consequent difficulties of quantifying and monitoring efforts at skills

King, Kenneth

2014-01-01

264

Using Spaceborne Ku-Band Scatterometer for Global Snow Cover Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We demonstrate for the first time the utility of spaceborne Ku-band scatterometer for global snow cover monitoring. Satellite radar data were collected over the globe by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) operated at 14 GHz on board the Japanese ADEOS spacecraft from September 1996 to June 1997, spanning the 1997 seasonal snow season. First, we present backscatter signature of dry and wet snow to facilitate the interpretation of NSCAT backscatter evolution over snow cover regions. Surface field experiments indicated that dry snow backscatter at Ku band is approximately 40 times stronger than that at C band. Thus, Ku-band scatterometer measurements are sensitive to snow cover, which is typically transparent to C-band scatterometer returns. Furthermore, Ku-band backscatter does not saturate for most of natural snow depths as compared to radar responses at 19 GHz and 37 GHz or higher frequencies which have more limited penetration depths into snow. Ku-band backscatter is also sensitive to wetness in snow, which is appropriate to detect early snow melt conditions. Using the snow backscatter characteristics, we investigate NSCAT backscatter evolution over global snow cover regions throughout the 1997 snow season. The results reveal detail delineations between different regional snow areas. We show the correlation of these delineations with the boundaries of different global snow classes defined by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory snow classification system. Using in-situ snow depth data from the U.S. National Climatic Data Center, we show that Ku-band backscatter corresponds very well to the trend of snow melt while snow mapping products (U.S. Climate Prediction Center gridded snow charts) from visible sensors does not reflect the fast snow melt trend. To illustrate the practical application of global snow monitoring with spaceborne Ku-band scatterometer, we present NSCAT backscatter response corresponding to the snow event leading to the 1997 Flood of the Century over the U.S. Northern plains and the Canadian prarie region, which caused loss of lives and several billion dollars in flood related damages and cleanup costs. Finally, we show that the fixed incidence configuration of Seawinds scatterometers, to be launched on QuickSCAT and on ADEOS-2 in the near future, is better for snow monitoring and then discuss the use of future high-resolution scatterometers for global snow mapping.

Nghiem, S. V.; Tsai, W.-Y.

1999-01-01

265

Multi-Index Drought Monitoring: A Prototype Global Drought GeoServe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of reliable monitoring and prediction indices are fundamental to drought monitoring and prediction. Numerous indices have been developed for drought monitoring based on various indicator variables (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, water storage). Defining droughts based on a single variable (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture or runoff) may not be sufficient for reliable risk assessment and decision making. In this presentation, a multivariate multi-index drought monitoring framework is suggested using the concept of joint empirical probability. The suggested Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) combines Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) probabilistically for drought characterization. In other words, MSDI incorporates the meteorological and agricultural drought conditions for overall characterization of droughts. MSDI is compared with SPI and SSI for characterizing drought condition across the globe using NASA MERRA-Land data. The results revealed that MSDI indicated drought onsite and termination based on the combination of all two indices with onsite time being dominated by SPI and drought enduring being more similar to SSI behavior. Overall, MSDI seems to be a reasonable model for combining multiple indices probabilistically. This paper presents an online drought portal (GeoServer), designed to provide access to global drought data based on the MSDI. The objective of the drought GeoServer is to provide interactive access to a composite multi-index drought data.

Aghakouchak, A.; Hao, Z.; Nakhjiri, N.

2013-05-01

266

Global seamless network demonstrator: carrier grade automatic switched transport network implementation in realistic telecom field environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Seamless Network (GSN) Demonstrator is presented, a joint effort of system vendors and Deutsche Telekom Group R&D to demonstrate network functions and management integration and enable, for the first time, experiences with a carrier grade Automatically Switched Transport Network (ASTN) implementation and the envisaged main ASTN clients, IP and Ethernet. For end-to-end monitoring capability, integrating the view on the ASTN and Ethernet-MAN configuration, an UMS (Upper Monitoring System) is being developed. Furthermore broadband application were implemented to visualise the network functions. The ASTN backbone consists of four cross connects and an ULH-WDM system with 3x 10Gbit/s channels (OCh) between Berlin and Darmstadt, whereby each OCh is treated as a virtual fibre.

Foisel, Hans-Martin; Hanik, Norbert; Braun, Ralf-Peter; Lehr, Georg; Gladisch, Andreas

2004-04-01

267

Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Global Drought Monitor Portal: Adding Capabilities for Forecasting Hydrological Extremes and Early Warning Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2007) has suggested the hydrometeorological extremes of both drought and flooding may increase under climate change. Drought zones can grow over large tracts of continental area and are a global-scale phenomenon (Sheffield and Wood 2011). The Group on Earth Observations Global Drought Monitor Portal (GDMP) was established as a demonstration for the 5th Earth Observation Ministerial Summit in Beijing in 2010. The European Drought Observatory, the North American Drought Monitor, the Princeton University experimental African Drought Monitor, and the University College London experimental global drought monitor were made "interoperable" through installation of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Services (WMS) on their respective servers, allowing maps of current drought conditions to be exchanged and assembled into maps of global drought coverage on the NIDIS portal. Partners from the Republic of Argentina, the Commonwealth of Australia, China, Jordan, Brazil, and Uruguay have also joined. The GEO Global Drought Monitoring, Forecasting, and Early Warning effort involves multiple parties and institutions, including the World Meteorological Organization, the World Climate Research Program Drought Interest Group, NASA, and others. The GEO Secretariat held a launch workshop in Geneva on 4-6 May 2010 to initiate drafting the final GEO Work Plan, and, during this meeting, additional capabilities were added to the existing GDMP: 1) drought forecasting was added to drought "current conditions" monitoring, in a partnership with Joint Research Centre (and other partners) aiming at a combined platform for Hydrological Extremes (drought and flooding); 2) extending drought forecasts from the medium-range 15-day window to a 30-day window; this will be tested through pilot projects over Europe and Africa, as part of the Global Water Scarcity Information Service (GLOWASIS)and the Improved Drought Early Warning Forecasting for Africa (DEWFORA) to strengthen preparedness and adaptation; 3) setting up an Early Warning System network for drought ( to be developed through World Meteorological Organization WMO); and 4) adding global remote sensing drought monitoring capabilities (soil moisture anomalies). Flooding represents positive precipitation anomalies, whereas drought represents negative precipitation anomalies. The JRC combined Hydrologic Extremes platform will include multiple models and tools, such as; 1) JRC Global Flood Detection System and Global Flood Early Warning System; 2) the WMO Flash Flood Guidance system; 3) the Dartmouth Flood Observatory; 4) a suite of monitored and forecasted drought and water scarcity indicators through the various drought observatories accessible through the GEO Global Drought Monitor Portal. The GEO Global Drought and Flooding systems represent the "applications-side" of water activities within the GEO Work Plan and are supported by the "Research and Development (R&D) side" of water activities within the new 2012-2015 GEO Work Plan.

Pozzi, W.; de Roo, A.; Vogt, J.; Lawford, R. G.; Pappenberger, F.; Heim, R. R.; Stefanski, R.

2011-12-01

268

IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN HEALTH RISKS OF CHEMICALS IN THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT  

PubMed Central

Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:6278. 2012 SETAC PMID:23147420

Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair BA; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

2013-01-01

269

A Low-Cost Sensor Buoy System for Monitoring Shallow Marine Environments  

PubMed Central

Monitoring of marine ecosystems is essential to identify the parameters that determine their condition. The data derived from the sensors used to monitor them are a fundamental source for the development of mathematical models with which to predict the behaviour of conditions of the water, the sea bed and the living creatures inhabiting it. This paper is intended to explain and illustrate a design and implementation for a new multisensor monitoring buoy system. The system design is based on a number of fundamental requirements that set it apart from other recent proposals: low cost of implementation, the possibility of application in coastal shallow-water marine environments, suitable dimensions for deployment and stability of the sensor system in a shifting environment like the sea bed, and total autonomy of power supply and data recording. The buoy system has successfully performed remote monitoring of temperature and marine pressure (SBE 39 sensor), temperature (MCP9700 sensor) and atmospheric pressure (YOUNG 61302L sensor). The above requirements have been satisfactorily validated by operational trials in a marine environment. The proposed buoy sensor system thus seems to offer a broad range of applications. PMID:23012562

Albaladejo, Cristina; Soto, Fulgencio; Torres, Roque; Sanchez, Pedro; Lopez, Juan A.

2012-01-01

270

NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation focuses on the latest spectacular images from NASA's remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man's impact on our world's environment. Visualizations of global data currently available from Earth orbiting satellites include the Earth at night with its city lights, high resolutions of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique as well as flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001. Visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown and demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricane and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites are are presented with other topics with a dynamic theater-style , along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

King, Michael D.

2006-01-01

271

A novel technique for acoustic emission monitoring in civil structures with global fiber optic sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of acoustic emission (AE)-based damage detection is gaining interest in the field of civil structural health monitoring. Damage progress can be detected and located in real time and the recorded AEs hold information on the fracture process which produced them. One of the drawbacks for on-site application in large-scale concrete and masonry structures is the relatively high attenuation of the ultrasonic signal, which limits the detection range of the AE sensors. Consequently, a large number of point sensors are required to cover a certain area. To tackle this issue, a global damage detection system, based on AE detection with a polarization-modulated, single mode fiber optic sensor (FOS), has been developed. The sensing principle, data acquisition and analysis in time and frequency domain are presented. During experimental investigations, this AE-FOS is applied for the first time as a global sensor for the detection of crack-induced AEs in a full-scale concrete beam. Damage progress is monitored during a cyclic four-point bending test and the AE activity, detected with the FOS, is related to the subsequent stages of damage progress in the concrete element. The results obtained with the AE-FOS are successfully linked to the mechanical behavior of the concrete beam and a qualitative correspondence is found with AE data obtained by a commercial system.

Verstrynge, E.; Pfeiffer, H.; Wevers, M.

2014-06-01

272

[The marine coastal water monitoring program of the Italian Ministry of the Environment].  

PubMed

The Ministry of the Environment carries out marine and coastal monitoring programs with the collaboration of the coastal Regions. The program in progress (2001-2003), on the basis of results of the previous one, has identified 73 particulary significant areas (57 critical areas and 16 control areas). The program investigates several parameters on water, plancton, sediments, mollusks and benthos with analyses fortnightly, six-monthly and annual. The main aim of these three year monitoring programs is to assess the quality of national marine ecosystem. PMID:12820576

Di Girolamo, Irene

2003-01-01

273

Development of a global education environment to study the Equatorial Ionosphere with Cognitive Radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author has recently been awarded the NSF Career award to develop a radar with cognitive sensing capabilities to study Equatorial plasma instabilities in the Peruvian Andes. Educational research has shown that a rich learning environment contributes tremendously toward improvement in learning achievements and also attitudes toward studies. One of the benefits of this project is that it provides such an environment and a global platform to involve several students at both graduate and undergraduate levels from the US, Puerto Rico, and Peru, and who will benefit from designing, installing, and deploying a radar in multi-instrument science campaigns. In addition to working in the laboratories, students will gain invaluable real world experience building this complex instrument and making it work under challenging conditions at remote sites. The PI will describe how these components are being developed in a Freshman Seminar course and Graduate courses in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Penn State University, and how they are aligned well with the department's and university's strategy for greater global engagement through a network of Global Engagement Nodes in South America (GENSA). The issues of mentoring, recruitment, and retention become particularly important in consideration of the educational objective of this career project to involve underrepresented students with diverse backgrounds and interest them in research projects. The author is working very closely with the Office of Engineering Diversity to leverage existing programs at Penn State designed to increase the participation of women and minority students in science and engineering research: (a) WISER (Women In Science and Engineering Research), and (b) MURE (Minority Undergraduate Research Experience). The Electrical Engineering Department at Penn State is also currently an NSF REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) site. The PI will also present his efforts in connecting his career project in providing research experiences during summer to underrepresented groups as well as students from schools without extensive research environments.

Urbina, J. V.

2011-12-01

274

Joint IAMAS/IAHS symposium J1 on global monitoring and advanced observing techniques in the atmosphere and hydrosphere  

SciTech Connect

Seventy papers were presented at the two-and-a-half-day Symposium on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. The symposium was jointly organized by the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) and took place in Yokohama, Japan, 13-15 July 1993, as part of the IAMAS/IAHS Join Assembly. Global observing systems are receiving increased attention in connection with such problems as monitoring global climate change. The symposium included papers on observational requirements; measurement methodologies; descriptions of available datasets; results of analysis of observational data; plans for future observing systems, including the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS); and the programs and plans of the space agencies.

Ohring, G. (Satellite Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Aoki, T. (Fourth Research Lab. (Japan)); Halpern, D. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)); Henderson-Sellers, A. (Macquarie Univ., New South Wales (Australia)); Charlock, T. (NASA/Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)); Joseph, J. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)); Labitzke, K. (Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)); Raschke, E. (Institut fuer Physik, Geesthacht-Tesperhade (Germany)); Smith, W. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States))

1994-04-01

275

MONITORING CROP GROWTH CONDITIONS USING THE GLOBAL WATER SATISFACTION INDEX AND REMOTE SENSING  

E-print Network

Water availability is one of the limiting factors to crop growth in arid and semi-arid zones. Shortages of fresh water become very serious for different regions of the world with important consequences for food security. Early warning systems based on the integrative use of remote sensing observations and crop growth modelling have been developed and implemented for specific regions. The Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy) initiated the MARS project (Monitoring Agriculture with Remote Sensing). Nowadays, this system is used operationally to forecast crop yield across Europe. To produce global real-time water balance calculations and outputs a system has been developed called GWSI x (Global Water Satisfaction Index). The GWSI model is based on a simple soil water balance model, which is used to assess the impact of weather conditions on crop growth. The water balance used is known as the FAO Crop Specific Water Balance, CSWB. The system developed delivers actual information on crop growth conditions for the major food crops per country per decade (periods of 10 days) and per 0.1 by 0.1 degree grid cell. It was found that the developed method delivers indications for the occurrence of crop stress. The spatial distribution of available water and crop development at different scales can also be described by applying remote sensing observations. Quantitative information dealing with space-time distribution of water can be obtained through the mapping of crop surface evapotranspiration. However, application of such an approach at global scale is hardly possible. NDVI time series as derived from NOAA AVHRR satellite observations have been used extensively to monitor vegetation

G. J. A. Nieuwenhuis; A. J. W De Wit; D. W. G. Van Kraalingen; C. A. Van Diepen; H. L. Boogaard

276

"Evolution Canyon," a potential microscale monitor of global warming across life  

PubMed Central

Climatic change and stress is a major driving force of evolution. The effects of climate change on living organisms have been shown primarily on regional and global scales. Here I propose the Evolution Canyon (EC) microscale model as a potential life monitor of global warming in Israel and the rest of the world. The EC model reveals evolution in action at a microscale involving biodiversity divergence, adaptation, and incipient sympatric speciation across life from viruses and bacteria through fungi, plants, and animals. The EC consists of two abutting slopes separated, on average, by 200 m. The tropical, xeric, savannoid, African south-facing slope (AS = SFS) abuts the forested European north-facing slope (ES = NFS). The AS receives 200800% higher solar radiation than the ES. The ES represents the south European forested maquis. The AS and ES exhibit drought and shade stress, respectively. Major adaptations on the AS are because of solar radiation, heat, and drought, whereas those on the ES relate to light stress and photosynthesis. Preliminary evidence suggests the extinction of some European species on the ES and AS. In Drosophila, a 10-fold higher migration was recorded in 2003 from the AS to ES. I advance some predictions that could be followed in diverse species in EC. The EC microclimatic model is optimal to track global warming at a microscale across life from viruses and bacteria to mammals in Israel, and in additional ECs across the planet. PMID:22308456

Nevo, Eviatar

2012-01-01

277

Evaluation of Local Media Surveillance for Improved Disease Recognition and Monitoring in Global Hotspot Regions  

PubMed Central

Digital disease detection tools are technologically sophisticated, but dependent on digital information, which for many areas suffering from high disease burdens is simply not an option. In areas where news is often reported in local media with no digital counterpart, integration of local news information with digital surveillance systems, such as HealthMap (Boston Childrens Hospital), is critical. Little research has been published in regards to the specific contribution of local health-related articles to digital surveillance systems. In response, the USAID PREDICT project implemented a local media surveillance (LMS) pilot study in partner countries to monitor disease events reported in print media. This research assessed the potential of LMS to enhance digital surveillance reach in five low- and middle-income countries. Over 16 weeks, select surveillance system attributes of LMS, such as simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, timeliness, and stability were evaluated to identify strengths and weaknesses in the surveillance method. Findings revealed that LMS filled gaps in digital surveillance network coverage by contributing valuable localized information on disease events to the global HealthMap database. A total of 87 health events were reported through the LMS pilot in the 16-week monitoring period, including 71 unique reports not found by the HealthMap digital detection tool. Furthermore, HealthMap identified an additional 236 health events outside of LMS. It was also observed that belief in the importance of the project and proper source selection from the participants was crucial to the success of this method. The timely identification of disease outbreaks near points of emergence and the recognition of risk factors associated with disease occurrence continue to be important components of any comprehensive surveillance system for monitoring disease activity across populations. The LMS method, with its minimal resource commitment, could be one tool used to address the information gaps seen in global hot spot regions. PMID:25333618

Schwind, Jessica S.; Wolking, David J.; Brownstein, John S.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Smith, Woutrina A.

2014-01-01

278

Monitoring water quality in estuarine environments: lessons from the MAGEST monitoring program in the Gironde fluvial-estuarine system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gironde Estuary, one of the largest European ones, presents temporary low dissolved oxygen content in its fluvial section close to the Bordeaux urban area. In a context of population growth and of long-term environmental changes, the development of a high-frequency monitoring programme of the fluvial-estuarine system of the Gironde, called MAGEST (MArel Gironde ESTuary), had appeared essential to address current and future water-quality issues/evaluations. The objectives of the MAGEST survey program are to establish a reference database to improve the knowledge of the Gironde Estuary functioning, encompassing the aspects of hydrology, sediment dynamics and biogeochemistry. Through examples of results from intratidal to seasonal time scales, we demonstrate how such a long-term, high-frequency monitoring of a fluvio-estuarine system is of valuable interest to extract the main trends of its functioning and of the water quality in relation to external forcings (climatology, urban wastes, land use, ...) and to predict the future evolution of an estuary with global and environmental changes.

Etcheber, H.; Schmidt, S.; Sottolichio, A.; Maneux, E.; Chabaux, G.; Escalier, J.-M.; Wennekes, H.; Derriennic, H.; Schmeltz, M.; Qumner, L.; Repecaud, M.; Woerther, P.; Castaing, P.

2011-03-01

279

On the Relevance of Using Open Wireless Sensor Networks in Environment Monitoring  

PubMed Central

This paper revisits the problem of the readiness for field deployments of wireless sensor networks by assessing the relevance of using Open Hardware and Software motes for environment monitoring. We propose a new prototype wireless sensor network that fine-tunes SquidBee motes to improve the life-time and sensing performance of an environment monitoring system that measures temperature, humidity and luminosity. Building upon two outdoor sensing scenarios, we evaluate the performance of the newly proposed energy-aware prototype solution in terms of link quality when expressed by the Received Signal Strength, Packet Loss and the battery lifetime. The experimental results reveal the relevance of using the Open Hardware and Software motes when setting up outdoor wireless sensor networks. PMID:22408557

Bagula, Antoine B.; Inggs, Gordon; Scott, Simon; Zennaro, Marco

2009-01-01

280

Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response  

SciTech Connect

Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

2009-02-25

281

Real-time molecular monitoring of chemical environment in obligate anaerobes during oxygen adaptive response  

PubMed Central

Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment can elucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms that enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bond structures in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of well orchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses. PMID:19541631

Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

2009-01-01

282

On the relevance of using open wireless sensor networks in environment monitoring.  

PubMed

This paper revisits the problem of the readiness for field deployments of wireless sensor networks by assessing the relevance of using Open Hardware and Software motes for environment monitoring. We propose a new prototype wireless sensor network that fine-tunes SquidBee motes to improve the life-time and sensing performance of an environment monitoring system that measures temperature, humidity and luminosity. Building upon two outdoor sensing scenarios, we evaluate the performance of the newly proposed energy-aware prototype solution in terms of link quality when expressed by the Received Signal Strength, Packet Loss and the battery lifetime. The experimental results reveal the relevance of using the Open Hardware and Software motes when setting up outdoor wireless sensor networks. PMID:22408557

Bagula, Antoine B; Inggs, Gordon; Scott, Simon; Zennaro, Marco

2009-01-01

283

Real-time Global Flood Monitoring using an Enhanced Land Surface Model with Satellite-based Precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A community land surface model (LSM), Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, was enhanced by coupling with a hierarchical dominant river tracing-based runoff-routing model. The Dominant river tracing-Routing Integrated with VIC Environment (DRIVE) model formed the new core of an existing real-time global flood monitoring system (GFMS). It is the first time to use satellite-based real-time precipitation (with other data) to drive a state-of-the-art LSM for real-time flood monitoring for global domain at relatively high spatial (~12km) and temporal (3-hourly) resolution. In order to evaluate the new GFMS accuracy in flood event detection and flood magnitude estimation, we ran the DRIVE model for retrospective ~15 years (1998~) using both NASA TMPA research and real-time precipitation products, with the model simulations referred to as DRIVE-V7 and DRIVE-RT respectively. The DRIVE-RT and DRIVE-V7 derived very close probability of detection (0.90 vs. 0.93) and false alarm ratio (0.88 vs. 0.84) against archived flood events with duration greater than one day, which are much better than the old GFMS using a simpler hydrologic model driven by TMPA 3B42V6 research product. The DRIVE-V7 derived positive daily and monthly Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSC) for 362 (32.3%) and 675 (60.2%) gauges, out of 1,121 in total from global rivers with observed daily streamflow data, with a mean of 0.39 and 0.212 respectively. It is promising considering the model was using only a priori parameters. The model performance generally decreases from tropics toward higher latitudes at annual, seasonal and daily scales, with DRIVE-V7 generally better than DRIVE-RT. However, their performances at daily scale had no significant difference for almost all regions except the northern mid-latitudes where TMPA V7 research product has much better quality than real-time data because of gauge data based corrections. A real-time evaluation on recent flood cases for the new operational GFMS (http://flood.umd.edu) demonstrated that the new GFMS had a fairly good performance in flood occurrence detection, flood evolution and magnitude calculation according to river gauge data. The GFMS has also been developed to provide flood detection, streamflow and inundation estimation at a much higher resolution (as fine as 1 km). The evaluation also demonstrated that the delineation of floodplain inundation dynamics at the 1km resolution further significantly improved the flood estimation.

Wu, H.; Adler, R. F.; Tian, Y.

2013-12-01

284

[Hygienic evaluation of environment, morbidity among pregnant women and newborns within social hygienic monitoring system].  

PubMed

Hygienic evaluation covered health state of pregnant women and newborns, subjected to chemical pollution of environment by aluminium industrial enterprises. The data obtained helped to suggest methodic approach to selection of priority territories, environmental and health state parameters within social hygienic monitoring system, to form recommendations on creation of system supporting management decisions to lower negative influence of chemical environmental factors on health of pregnant women and newborns. PMID:25282805

Kuz'min, D V

2014-01-01

285

STS-3 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM): Quick-look report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-3/Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM) mission is described. The IECM system performance is discussed, and IECM mission time events are briefly described. Quick look analyses are presented for each of the 10 instruments comprising the IECM on the flight of STS-3. Finally, a short summary is presented and plans are discussed for future IECM flights, and opportunities for direct mapping of Orbiter effluents using the Remote manipulator System.

Miller, E. R. (editor); Fountain, J. A. (editor)

1982-01-01

286

Mental performance in extreme environments: results from a performance monitoring study during a 438-day spaceflight  

Microsoft Academic Search

During their stay in a space habitat, astronauts are exposed to many dierent stressors that may entail detrimental eects on mood and performance. In order to monitor the eects of the space environment on dierent human information processing functions during an extraordinary long-term space mission, the cognitive, visuo-motor and time-sharing performance of one Russian cosmonaut was repeatedly assessed (29 times)

DIETRICH MANZEY; BERND LORENZ; VALERI POLJAKOV

1998-01-01

287

Construction and application of an intelligent air quality monitoring system for healthcare environment.  

PubMed

Indoor air quality monitoring in healthcare environment has become a critical part of hospital management and policy. Manual air sampling and analysis are cost-inhibitive and do not provide real-time air quality data and response measures. In this month-long study over 14 sampling locations in a public hospital in Taiwan, we observed a positive correlation between CO(2) concentration and population, total bacteria, and particulate matter concentrations, thus monitoring CO(2) concentration as a general indicator for air quality could be a viable option. Consequently, an intelligent environmental monitoring system consisting of a CO(2)/temperature/humidity sensor, a digital plug, and a ZigBee Router and Coordinator was developed and tested. The system also included a backend server that received and analyzed data, as well as activating ventilation and air purifiers when CO(2) concentration exceeded a pre-set value. Alert messages can also be delivered to offsite users through mobile devices. PMID:24487985

Yang, Chao-Tung; Liao, Chi-Jui; Liu, Jung-Chun; Den, Walter; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

2014-02-01

288

Global pollution monitoring of polybrominated diphenyl ethers using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.  

PubMed

To elucidate the global distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), these chemicals were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters of various regions in the world (Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Indian Ocean, and North Pacific Ocean). PBDEs were detected in almost all the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed (from < 0.1 to 53 ng/g of lipid), indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Residue levels of PBDEs in these samples from the northern hemisphere seem to be higher than those from the southern hemisphere, which is plausibly due to larger usage of these compounds in the northern hemisphere. Higher concentrations of PBDEs were detected in the samples from waters around the East China Sea (up to 53 ng/g of lipid). Developing countries around the East China Sea are supposedly the "hot spots" releasing these chemicals into the marine environment. With regard to the composition of PBDE congeners, the percentage contribution by lower brominated congeners (BDE15, -28, and -47) showed an increasing trend with increasing latitude. On the other hand, higher brominated congeners (BDE153, -154, and -183) showed a reverse trend. These patterns suggest that lower brominated congeners of PBDEs (di-, tri-, and tetra-BDEs) were preferentially transported from pollution sources to northern colder regions through the atmosphere. PBDEs may have a high potency to cause global pollution like PCBs. PMID:15116835

Ueno, Daisuke; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Subramanian, Annamalai; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K S; Zheng, Gene J; Muchitar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2004-04-15

289

Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning  

SciTech Connect

There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

Kawanaka, Takashi [Building Research Inst., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

1993-12-31

290

A New GLORIA Target Region in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA; Alpine Plant Monitoring For Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is an international research project with the goal to assess climate change impacts on vegetation in alpine environments worldwide. Standardized protocols direct selection of each node in the network, called a target region, which consists of a set of four geographically proximal mountain summits at elevations extending from treeline to the

A. Dennis; C. I. Millar; K. E. Murrell

2004-01-01

291

A Fortran 90 Environment for Research and Prototyping of Enclosure Algorithms for Nonlinear Equations and Global Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environment for general research into and prototyping of al- gorithms for reliable constrained and unconstrained global nonlinear optimization and reliable enclosure of all roots of nonlinear systems of equations, with or without inequality constraints, is being devel- oped. This environment should be portable, easy to learn, use, and maintain, and suciently fast for some production work. The motiva- tion,

R. Baker

292

Sub-daily periodicities in the results of local monitoring using global navigation satellite systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays the more attention is focused on the continuous monitoring by using of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) in the study and control of stability of engineering structures and natural objects. The diurnal and semi-diurnal oscillations take place in high frequency GNSS observation. These waves are caused by the presence of the high frequency periodicities in changes of all geospheres, but also in systematic errors of GNSS techniques. Thus the diurnal variations are already found in the coordinates of global and regional networks of CORS stations. They are often related with the influence of Earth's diurnal tides. The purpose of this study is to examine the periodic variations in coordinate increments of local monitoring networks of engineering structures and the earth's surface. But in this case the tidal changes have a small influence because of the relative proximity of the network control points. Results of static GNSS observations in the local network with the control vectors baselines from 170 m to 4.3 km of length were used for the analysis of periodicities. The hourly time series of baseline components of the length of two months were analyzed. Three qualitatively different methods were applied: wavelet transformation (Morlet wavelet function), fast Fourier transformation (FFT), and sequential analysis of the dominant harmonics (dominant analysis) for the more sure detection of hidden periodicities. The results of determination of oscillation spectrum were obtained by the three methods mentioned above. For all baselines their good mutual agreement were obtained. Diurnal and semi-diurnal waves are mainly and the most vividly appeared in the horizontal components, in the heights component there are also other periodicity of the high and low frequencies. The oscillations amplitude reaches 4 mm. It is necessary to clarify the nature of the observed oscillations, which will be the main subject of the following more detailed studies. It is important, since the cause of the detected periodic oscillations can be the real changes, such as temperature deformation of engineering structures as well as the changes connected with the influence of systematic errors of GNSS measurements for example. The obtained results lead to the following conclusions. - In the results of GNSS geodynamic monitoring of engineering structures and objects on the earth surface the stable oscillatory components with periods of 1 and 0.5 days, and amplitudes up to 4 mm are found. - Further analysis of the reasons of identified oscillations that may be caused by the real change of monitored objects and as well as systematic errors of measurement GNSS is required.

Kaftan, Vladimir; Ustinov, Alexander

293

Endosulfan, a global pesticide: a review of its fate in the environment and occurrence in the Arctic.  

PubMed

This review investigates the fate and behaviour of endosulfan, a current-use organochlorine pesticide, in temperate environments and the Arctic. Usage data and patterns, physical-chemical properties, environmental partitioning and degradation, environmental levels, global distribution and temporal trends are evaluated and discussed in the context of criteria that designate a substance as a persistent organic pollutant. Endosulfan is one of the most abundant OC pesticides in the global atmosphere and is capable of undergoing long range transport to remote locations such as the Arctic. Degradation of the two isomers, alpha- and beta-endosulfan, does occur in temperate/tropical soil and aquatic systems, both by abiotic and biotic processes, although this is highly dependent on the prevailing environmental conditions. Endosulfan sulfate is the major metabolite and this recalcitrant compound has been detected in air and is present in remote mountain lake sediments, although in comparison to alpha-endosulfan, data for this compound in the wider environment are lacking. Temporal trends from ice/snow cores as well as mountain lake sediments reveal a marked increase in endosulfan accumulation from the 1980s onwards. Furthermore, unlike other 'legacy' OC pesticides, levels of alpha-endosulfan do not show a decline in atmospheric monitoring data, reflecting ongoing use of this pesticide in the northern hemisphere. Endosulfan is present at low concentrations (relative to the pesticide, lindane) in surface Arctic Ocean waters, with the atmosphere likely to be the major contemporary source. Residues of endosulfan have been detected in marine biota for different geographical regions of the Arctic, with higher bioaccumulation factors (>10(3)-10(7)) for zooplankton and various species of fish, compared to studies in warmer/temperate systems. Endosulfan is present in marine mammals, although there is uncertainty in the various Arctic biota datasets due to differences in analytical techniques. For some biota, biomagnification factors for alpha-endosulfan are >1, notably from fish to seal, although there is a wide variability in values between the same species for different regions of the Arctic. There is little if any evidence of trophic magnification of alpha-endosulfan in well-defined marine foodwebs, with some evidence of bio-dilution at higher trophic levels, presumably due to increased metabolism. Endosulfan does fulfil several of the criteria under the UNEP Stockholm Convention for designation as a persistent organic pollutant. The alpha- and beta-isomer have similar physical-chemical properties and environmental behaviour to some of the obsolete organochlorine pesticides, although an assessment of their persistence and toxicity should be viewed alongside endosulfan sulfate, as 'Sigmaendosulfan'. Persistence of 'Sigmaendosulfan' coupled to ongoing use of endosulfan pesticides, will ensure continued long-range transport and contamination of remote environments. PMID:19939436

Weber, Jan; Halsall, Crispin J; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Small, Jeff; Solomon, Keith; Hermanson, Mark; Hung, Hayley; Bidleman, Terry

2010-07-01

294

What is a habitable environment? -answers from observations of a global transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremophiles are specialists which colonise special niches in these extreme environments due to there adaptation capacities attained during the evolution of life. Some examples of ex-tremophiles and their potential to deal with harsh conditions as well as the characterisation of their niches will be presented. Based on observations and results obtained in the 10th German Antarctic North Victoria Land Expedition (GANOVEX X) in the area of the Transantarctic Mountains led by the German Geosciences and Resource Research Society (BGR) and during an environment characterisation campaign of the European Alps and the Spanish Mountains "Sierra de Gredos" supported by the German Ministry of Economy and Technology (BMWi) a global transect from temperate Alpine regions to Mediterranean mountains and Polar Mountain regions can be analysed. Due to a summary of these results we are able to compare different strategies of colonisation in different habitats of the global mountain transect by cosmopolitan and endemic species as there are, the colonisation of rocks, fissures, cracks, polygon forming substrates, permafrost and glaciers. Data of UV B-, PAR-and IR-radiation measurements, humidity and temperature as well as the activity of microorganisms are accomplishing with more details the habitat characterisation and may give relevant information on probably niches for life on other planets as e.g. the planet Mars and may give answers on the question what is a habitable environment. These results will also form the basis of a series of new space experiments on satellites or on the International Space Station (ISS) and furthermore may lead to progress in probes-and rover-development for particular "hardly" accessible terrains.

de Vera, Jean-Pierre; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Onofri, Silvano; Ott, Sieglinde

295

Monitoring human health behaviour in one's living environment: a technological review.  

PubMed

The electronic monitoring of human health behaviour using computer techniques has been an active research area for the past few decades. A wide array of different approaches have been investigated using various technologies including inertial sensors, Global Positioning System, smart homes, Radio Frequency IDentification and others. It is only in recent years that research has turned towards a sensor fusion approach using several different technologies in single systems or devices. These systems allow for an increased volume of data to be collected and for activity data to be better used as measures of behaviour. This change may be due to decreasing hardware costs, smaller sensors, increased power efficiency or increases in portability. This paper is intended to act as a reference for the design of multi-sensor behaviour monitoring systems. The range of technologies that have been used in isolation for behaviour monitoring both in research and commercial devices are reviewed and discussed. Filtering, range, sensitivity, usability and other considerations of different technologies are discussed. A brief overview of commercially available activity monitors and their technology is also included. PMID:24388101

Lowe, Shane A; laighin, Gearid

2014-02-01

296

NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. See the latest spectacular images from NASA remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man s impact on our world s environment. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights. Shown in high resolution are visualizations of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique. See flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, as well as satellite imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001, and how new satellite tools can be used to help fight these disasters from spreading further. See where and when lightning occurs globally, and how dramatic urbanization has been in the desert southwest since 1910. Spectacular visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. Learn when and where carbon is absorbed by vegetation on the land and ocean as the product of photosynthesis. See demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricanes and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites, and how hurricanes can modify the sea surface temperature in their wake. See massive dust storms in the Middle East as well as dust transport sweeping from north Africa across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. Learn where and how much the temperature of the Earth s surface has changed during the 20th century, as well as how sea ice has decreased over the Arctic region, how sea level has and is likely to continue to change, and how glaciers have retreated worldwide in a response to global change. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

King, michael D.

2005-01-01

297

Experiments for in-situ monitoring of dust environments in the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Dust" is present in the Solar System, from planetary surfaces to comets. The in-situ monitoring of its physical and dynamical properties is one of the main scientific tasks to be achieved in order to characterise grains and to correctly understand their role in the evolution of Solar System bodies. A new generation of methods for in-situ exploration of dusty environments in the Solar System has been studied and adopted in different instruments under development or study for future planetary space missions. Mass flux measurements by quartz crystal microbalances, optical detection of single grains and momentum monitoring by piezoelectric transducers are techniques which provide high sensitivity for grains at relatively low (below some hundreds m/s) velocities. The GIADA (Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator) experiment is part of the payload of the ESA Rosetta orbiter, targeted to a rendez-vous of 46P/Wirtanen comet. Thanks to GIADA, one of the prime scientific objectives of the mission will be fulfilled, i.e. the monitoring of the cometary coma dust environment. The dust flux from different directions vs. time and the momentum and velocity vs. mass of particles will be measured, while comet will approach the Sun. The MAGO (Martian Atmospheric Grain Observer) instrument, under study in the framework of the next Mars exploration opportunities (e.g.: Mars Surveyor Program 2003) adopts similar technical solutions and is aimed at measuring, directly for the first time, the dust mass flux in the Martian atmosphere and the dynamical properties of airborne particles vs. time. Finally, similar measurement techniques can be integrated with other detection/collection systems (e.g. aerogel collectors) to monitor the dust in the near Earth environment, e.g. from the space station.

Colangeli, L.; Bussoletti, E.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Epifani, E.; Esposito, F.; Mennella, V.; Palomba, E.; Palumbo, P.; Rotundi, A.; Vergara, S.; Jeronimo, J. M.; Lopez-Jimenez, A. C.; Molina, A.; Morales, R.; Moreno, F.; Olivares, I.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J. F.; Ruiz-Falco, A.; Sanchez, J.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Leese, M.; Lamy, P.; Perruchot, S.; Crifo, J. F.; Fulle, M.; Perrin, J. M.; Angrilli, F.; Coradini, A.; Giovane, F.; Gruen, E.; Gustafson, B.; Maag, C.; Weissman, P. R.

1999-09-01

298

Neurocognitive monitors: toward the prevention of cognitive performance decrements and catastrophic failures in the operational environment.  

PubMed

Network-centric doctrine and the proposed C41SR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) distributions to the individual warfighter require that the cognitive performance, judgment, and decision making of warfighters must be sustained and effectively managed in the forward operating environment, where various physiological and psychological stressors abound, in order to reduce human errors and catastrophic failures. The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) established the Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-Making Research Program (CPJDRP) in 2004 to direct research to this issue. A Neurophysiological Measures and Cognition Focus Team (NMFCT) was formed to work with augmented cognition investigators and to specifically address the development of neurophysiological measures as potential monitors of alertness-cognitive state in warfighters. The USAM-RMC approach complemented the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Augmented Cognition approach, which focused on the detection of workload-related impaired cognitive state, and subsequent modification of information flow through automation. In this preface, the premise for neurophysiological measures as neurocognitive monitors is explained using an example of a neurophysiological index: the oculomotor measure, saccadic velocity. The progress of the NMFCT on the development of a neurocognitive monitor is described, as well as the recommendations of a 2005 USAMRMC/Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC)-sponsored workshop. Awareness of neurocognitive monitoring is discussed, as are future endeavors related to operational testing and fieldability. Four papers are summarized in this Neurophysiological Monitoring and Augmented Cognition section involving technologies to enhance cognitive performance in the operational environment: one on dynamic cortical electroencephalography, two on oculometrics, and one on a spatial orientation enhancement system. PMID:17547315

Thomas, Maria L; Russo, Michael B

2007-05-01

299

The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.  

PubMed Central

Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems. PMID:11019460

McMichael, A. J.

2000-01-01

300

Joint IAMAS\\/IAHS symposium J1 on global monitoring and advanced observing techniques in the atmosphere and hydrosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy papers were presented at the two-and-a-half-day Symposium on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. The symposium was jointly organized by the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) and took place in Yokohama, Japan, 13-15 July 1993, as part of the IAMAS\\/IAHS Join Assembly. Global

G. Ohring; T. Aoki; D. Halpern; A. Henderson-Sellers; T. Charlock; J. Joseph; K. Labitzke; E. Raschke; W. Smith

1994-01-01

301

Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements (7 channels: 0.47-2.1 mum, 250-500 m resolutions) provide us with new insights into the characteristics of global aerosols. MODIS retrieves not only aerosol loading but also the fraction of fine mode particle. In this paper we demonstrate MODIS capability for use in monitoring global, regional, and local air pollution. Three case studies in northern

D. A. Chu; Y. J. Kaufman; G. Zibordi; J. D. Chern; Jietai Mao; Chengcai Li; B. N. Holben

2003-01-01

302

Global and time-resolved monitoring of crop photosynthesis with chlorophyll fluorescence  

PubMed Central

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harvest sunlight to produce sugars from carbon dioxide and water. It is the primary source of energy for all life on Earth; hence it is important to understand how this process responds to climate change and human impact. However, model-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP, output from photosynthesis) are highly uncertain, in particular over heavily managed agricultural areas. Recent advances in spectroscopy enable the space-based monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from terrestrial plants. Here we demonstrate that spaceborne SIF retrievals provide a direct measure of the GPP of cropland and grassland ecosystems. Such a strong link with crop photosynthesis is not evident for traditional remotely sensed vegetation indices, nor for more complex carbon cycle models. We use SIF observations to provide a global perspective on agricultural productivity. Our SIF-based crop GPP estimates are 5075% higher than results from state-of-the-art carbon cycle models over, for example, the US Corn Belt and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, implying that current models severely underestimate the role of management. Our results indicate that SIF data can help us improve our global models for more accurate projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields. Extension of our approach to other ecosystems, along with increased observational capabilities for SIF in the near future, holds the prospect of reducing uncertainties in the modeling of the current and future carbon cycle. PMID:24706867

Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Jung, Martin; Joiner, Joanna; Voigt, Maximilian; Berry, Joseph A.; Frankenberg, Christian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Lee, Jung-Eun; Moran, M. Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Beer, Christian; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Buchmann, Nina; Gianelle, Damiano; Klumpp, Katja; Cescatti, Alessandro; Baker, John M.; Griffis, Timothy J.

2014-01-01

303

[Morphophysiological monitoring of winter wheat at spring in connection with problem of global climate change].  

PubMed

Data on morphophysiological monitoring of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Mironovskaya 808 grown in Hoagland and Arnon solution in a greenhouse and transferred to natural conditions in March-April 2004 with the mean daily temperature of 0.6 +/- 0.7 degrees C within the exposure period of 42 days are presented. Water content, dry weight of plants and their organs, frost hardiness of plants, degree of tissue damage by frost, CO2 metabolism (photosynthesis and respiration), concentrations of sugars in tissues and proportions between different sugar forms, and activities of soluble and insoluble acid and alkaline phosphatases were monitored. Monitoring was carried out for three experimental variants simulating different microclimatic conditions in spring: after snow melting (experiment I), under ice crust (experiment II), and under snow cover (experiment III). Plants in experiments III and II demonstrated a higher water content in tissues, lower frost hardiness, higher rates of biomass loss, lower concentration of sugars and lower di- to monosaccharide ratio in tissues, and higher total invertase activity, particularly, cell wall-associated acid invertase activity. The dark respiration rates at 0 degrees C did not significantly differ between experimental variants. The photosynthetic capacity at this measurement temperature was maintained in all experimental variants being most pronounced in experiment II with the most intense photoinhibition under natural conditions. Comparison of experiments III and II with experiment I is used to discuss the negative effect of changes in certain microclimatic variables associated with global warming and leading to plant extortion and death from frost in spring. PMID:17022477

Klimov, S V; Burakhanova, E A; Dubinina, I M; Alieva, G P; Sal'nikova, E B; Trunova, T I

2006-01-01

304

The LHCb Online Framework for Experiment Protection, and Global Operational Control and Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity and extreme parameters of the LHC, such as the stored energy, the collision frequency, the high risk of adverse background conditions and potentially damaging beam losses have demanded an unprecedented connectivity between the operation of the accelerator and the experiments at both hardware and software level. LHCb has been at the forefront of developing a software framework and hardware which connects to all of the LHC communication interfaces for timing, control and monitoring of the machine and beam parameters, in addition to its own local systems for beam and background monitoring. The framework also includes failsafe connectivity with the beam interlock system. The framework drives the global operation of the detector and is integrated into the readout control. It provides the shifters with the tools needed to take fast and well-guided decisions to run the LHCb experiment safely and efficiently. In particular, it has allowed the detector to be operated with only two shifters already at the LHC pilot run. The requirements include reliability and clarity for the shifters, and the possibility to retrieve the past conditions for offline analysis. All essential parameters are archived and an interactive analysis tool has been developed which provides overviews of the experimental performance and which allows post-analysis of any anomaly in the operation. This paper describes the architecture and the many functions, including the basis of the automation of the LHCb operational procedure and detector controls, and the information exchange between LHCb and the LHC, and finally the shifter and expert tools for monitoring the experimental conditions.

Alessio, F.; Jacobsson, R.; Schleich, S.

2011-12-01

305

Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

2001-01-01

306

A low-power consumption device for CO2 monitoring in cave environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst systems are known to be highly heterogeneous environments with complex hydrology and transient ventilation regimes. Consequently, the subsurface pCO2 varies in space and time, and is locally significantly increased as compared to the outside atmosphere. Studying carbon dioxide fluctuations is therefore fundamental to assess dissolution and precipitation rates of calcium carbonate in caves. Unfortunately, commercially available devices rarely suite the specific criteria required for cave monitoring and many systems face severe limitations due to power supply and/or electronics failure. Here we present a new energy-efficient device for the long-term monitoring of pCO2 in cave environments. This hand-held instrument was specifically developed for extreme monitoring conditions (i.e. low temperatures, high relative humidity, muddy galleries, etc) and successfully tested for several months in alpine caves. Preliminary results demonstrate that precise measurements can be achieved with high temporal resolution (i.e. ?1h-1) over ?6 months without significant drift. The first applications therefore demonstrate the suitability of our instrument also for speleothem research, particularly in remote cave settings.

Luetscher, Marc; Ziegler, Felix

2010-05-01

307

Big Data solution for CTBT monitoring: CEA-IDC joint global cross correlation project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waveform cross-correlation when applied to historical datasets of seismic records provides dramatic improvements in detection, location, and magnitude estimation of natural and manmade seismic events. With correlation techniques, the amplitude threshold of signal detection can be reduced globally by a factor of 2 to 3 relative to currently standard beamforming and STA/LTA detector. The gain in sensitivity corresponds to a body wave magnitude reduction by 0.3 to 0.4 units and doubles the number of events meeting high quality requirements (e.g. detected by three and more seismic stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). This gain is crucial for seismic monitoring under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The International Data Centre (IDC) dataset includes more than 450,000 seismic events, tens of millions of raw detections and continuous seismic data from the primary IMS stations since 2000. This high-quality dataset is a natural candidate for an extensive cross correlation study and the basis of further enhancements in monitoring capabilities. Without this historical dataset recorded by the permanent IMS Seismic Network any improvements would not be feasible. However, due to the mismatch between the volume of data and the performance of the standard Information Technology infrastructure, it becomes impossible to process all the data within tolerable elapsed time. To tackle this problem known as "BigData", the CEA/DASE is part of the French project "DataScale". One objective is to reanalyze 10 years of waveform data from the IMS network with the cross-correlation technique thanks to a dedicated High Performance Computer (HPC) infrastructure operated by the Centre de Calcul Recherche et Technologie (CCRT) at the CEA of Bruyres-le-Chtel. Within 2 years we are planning to enhance detection and phase association algorithms (also using machine learning and automatic classification) and process about 30 terabytes of data provided by the IDC to update the world seismicity map. From the new events and those in the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin, we will automatically create various sets of master event templates that will be used for the event location globally by the CTBTO and CEA.

Bobrov, Dmitry; Bell, Randy; Brachet, Nicolas; Gaillard, Pierre; Kitov, Ivan; Rozhkov, Mikhail

2014-05-01

308

Tunable Diode Laser Sensor for Monitoring and Control of Harsh Combustion Environments  

SciTech Connect

This work represents the collaborative effort between American Air Liquide and Physical Sciences, Inc. for developing a sensor based on near-IR tunable diode lasers (TDL). The multi-species capability of the sensor for simultaneous monitoring of CO, O2, and H2O concentration as well as gas temperature is ideal for in-situ monitoring on industrial furnaces. The chemical species targeted are fundamental for controlling the combustion space for improved energy efficiency, reduced pollutants, and improved product quality, when coupling the measurement to a combustion control system. Several add-on modules developed provide flexibility in the system configuration for handling different process monitoring applications. For example, the on-Demand Power Control system for the 1.5 ?m laser is used for high particle density exhaust streams where laser transmission is problematic. For long-distance signal collection a fiber optic communication system is used to reduce noise pick-up. Finally, hardened modules to withstand high ambient temperatures, immune to EMF interference, protection from flying debris, and interfaced with pathlength control laser beam shielding probes were developed specifically for EAF process monitoring. Demonstration of these different system configurations was conducted on Charter Steel's reheat furnace, Imco Recycling, Inc. (now Aleris International, Inc.) aluminum reverberatory furnace, and Gerdau Ameristeel's EAF. Measurements on the reheat furnace demonstrated zone monitoring with the measurement performed close to the steel billet. Results from the aluminum furnace showed the benefit of measuring in-situ near the bath. In this case, low-level furnace optimization was performed and demonstrated 5% fuel savings. Monitoring tests on the EAF off-gas demonstrated the level of industrialization of the sensor to survive the harsh EAF environment. Long-term testing on the EAF has been on-going for over 6 months with essentially zero maintenance. Validation of the TDL measurement on the EAF was confirmed by comparison with extractive sampling CO measurements.

VonDrasek, William; Melsio-Pubill, Anna

2006-05-30

309

Monitoring water quality in estuarine environments: lessons from the MAGEST monitoring programme in the Gironde fluvial-estuarine system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gironde estuary, one of the largest European ones, presents temporary low dissolved oxygen content in its fluvial section close to the Bordeaux urban area. In a context of population growth and of long-term environmental changes, the development of a high-frequency monitoring programme of the fluvial-estuarine system of the Gironde, called MAGEST (MArel Gironde ESTuary), had appeared essential to address current and future water-quality issues/evaluations. The objectives of the MAGEST survey programme are to establish a reference database to improve the knowledge of the Gironde estuary functioning, encompassing the aspects of hydrology, sediment dynamics and biogeochemistry. Through examples of results from intratidal to seasonal time scales, we demonstrate how such a time-series is of valuable interest to extract the main trends of its functioning and of the water quality in relation to external forcings (climatology, urban wastes, land use, ...) and to predict the future evolution of the Gironde estuary with global and environmental changes.

Etcheber, H.; Schmidt, S.; Sottolichio, A.; Maneux, E.; Chabaux, G.; Escalier, J.-M.; Wennekes, H.; Derriennic, H.; Schmeltz, M.; Qumner, L.; Repecaud, M.; Woerther, P.; Castaing, P.

2010-12-01

310

Sensor Selection to Support Practical Use of Health-Monitoring Smart Environments  

PubMed Central

The data mining and pervasive sensing technologies found in smart homes offer unprecedented opportunities for providing health monitoring and assistance to individuals experiencing difficulties living independently at home. In order to monitor the functional health of smart home residents, we need to design technologies that recognize and track activities that people normally perform as part of their daily routines. One question that frequently arises, however, is how many smart home sensors are needed and where should they be placed in order to accurately recognize activities? We employ data mining techniques to look at the problem of sensor selection for activity recognition in smart homes. We analyze the results based on six data sets collected in five distinct smart home environments. PMID:21760755

HOLDER, Lawrence B.

2011-01-01

311

The sperm whale sonar: Monitoring and use in mitigation of anthropogenic noise effects in the marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise pollution in the marine environment is an emerging but serious concern. Its implications are less well understood than other global threats and largely undetectable to everyone but the specialist. In addition, the assessment of the acoustic impact of artificial sounds in the sea is not a trivial task, certainly because there is a lack of information on how the marine organisms process and analyse sounds and how relevant these sounds are for the balance and development of the populations. Further, this possible acoustic impact not only concerns the hearing systems but may also affect other sensory or systemic levels and result equally lethal for the animal concerned. If we add that the negative consequences of a short or long term exposure to artificial sounds may not be immediately observed one can understood how challenging it is to obtain objective data allowing an efficient control of the introduction of anthropogenic sound in the sea. To answer some of these questions, the choice to investigate cetaceans and their adaptation to an aquatic environment is not fortuitous. Cetaceans, because of their optimum use of sound as an ad-hoc source of energy and their almost exclusive dependence on acoustic information, represent not only the best bio-indicator of the effects of noise pollution in the marine environment, but also a source of data to improve and develop human underwater acoustic technology. Here, we present how the characteristics and performance of the sperm whale mid-range biosonar can be used to develop a mitigation solution based on passive acoustics and ambient noise imaging to prevent negative interactions with human activities by monitoring cetacean movements in areas of interest, e.g. deep-sea observatories.

Andr, Michel

2009-04-01

312

Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

1998-01-01

313

Opportunity and benefits of monitoring of the electromagnetic environment of a planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For monitoring and mapping of the electromagnetic (e.m.) environment of a planet, e.g. the Earth, it is necessary an advanced recording and data processing technology onboard of space vehicles and an accurate theory of the propagation of ultra-wideband (UWB) signals in inhomogeneous and magnetised media in free space and in guided modes. In this prsentation the actual application of this new remote sensing method is given by the investigation of the e.m. environment of the Earth by satellites, as Demeter, ISS-Obstanovka and the Compass-Volcano series. The recorded and interpreted new type of VLF signals, the SpWs (Spiky Whistlers) opened a way for monitoring of lightening activity and the classification of the signals origined from CC and CG sources. The combination of these satellite data with the continuous measurements of ground based automatic whistler detector system (AWDA) gives a unique possibility for continuous monitoring and mapping simultaneous the lightning (source) activity and the state of the upper atmosphere including the changings of the lower boundary of the ionised region. These measurements produce new open questions about the e.m. activity of our planet, too. Finally, in this presentation the possibility of this new technique will be demonstrated in the case of other planets, first of all in the case of the very Earth-like Venus without a strong magnetic field. The differences of the signal propagation and the detectability of the e.m. signals in the Venusian environment including the aspects of an experiment planning will be presented.

Ferencz, Cs.; Lichtenberger, J.; Ferencz, O. E.; Steinbach, P.

314

Biomedical real-time monitoring in restricted and safety-critical environments  

PubMed Central

Biomedical signal monitoring can counteract the risk of human operator error due to inattention or fatigue in safetycritical and restrictive environments, such as in aviation, space, automobile and heavy industrial machinery operation. Real-time biomedical data acquisition is changing through advances in microelectronics fabrication, bio-MEMS and power micro-generators. Such data acquisition and processing systems are becoming increasingly miniaturised, flexible and pervasive, while data is being collected from inside the human body as well as around it. In this paper we review two related research projects exploiting this technological convergence, discuss its implications and suggest future innovation prospects through further similar cross-disciplinary synergies. PMID:19048087

Astaras, A; Bamidis, P D; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Maglaveras, N

2008-01-01

315

Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling issues that must be addressed to link ground measurements to

P. T URNER; THOMAS K. M AEIRSPERGER; S TITH T. G OWER; A. K I R S C H B A U Mz; STEVE W. R UNNING; M AOSHENG; Z HAO; S TEVEN C. W OFSY; J OHN; L. C AMPBELL; H Y O J U N G K W O Nk; TILDEN P. M EYERS; A. K URC; J O H N A. G A M O N zz

2005-01-01

316

Formaldehyde columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument: Urban versus background levels and evaluation using aircraft data and a global model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine aircraft measurements (Second Texas Air Quality Study, Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations, Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: Phase B) over the United States, Mexico, and the Pacific with a 3-D model (GEOS-Chem) to evaluate formaldehyde column (?HCHO) retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and assess the information they provide on HCHO across local to regional scales

Nicholas L. Boeke; Julian D. Marshall; Sergio Alvarez; Kelly V. Chance; Alan Fried; Thomas P. Kurosu; Bernhard Rappenglck; Dirk Richter; James Walega; Petter Weibring; Dylan B. Millet

2011-01-01

317

The ERS-1 Central Africa Mosaic: a new perspective in radar remote sensing for the global monitoring of vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Africa Mosaic Project (CAMP) is an attempt to bring spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing into an entirely new perspective for tropical forest monitoring, this goal represents a drastic change in the use of radar data, as it brings high-resolution SAR from the role of gap-filler and local hot spot analysis to the role of global mapping

Gianfranco De Grandi; Jean-Paul Malingreau; Marc Leysen

1999-01-01

318

The growing pains of global cities : struggles in the urban environment of Dubai and Singapore  

E-print Network

This Master's thesis explores the validity of current theories of globalization through the analysis of two prominent second level global cities, Dubai and Singapore. The hypotheses of global homogenization and hybridization ...

Haider, Deeba, 1971-

1999-01-01

319

Abstract--Job monitoring in Grid systems presents an important challenge due to Grid environments are volatile,  

E-print Network

studied. We present the architecture of the SPA and the description of the components concerning job1 Abstract--Job monitoring in Grid systems presents an important challenge due to Grid environments that allows uniform access to job monitoring information from different virtual organizations. The presented

Corbalan, Julita

320

Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral components in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter's corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. The stationary simulation of this problem was done in the MHD and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the main significant results from the simplified two-fluid model simulations was a production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the I0 flyby that could not be explained by standard MHD models. In this paper, we develop a method of kinetic ion simulation. This method employs the fluid description for electrons and neutrals whereas for ions multilevel, drift-kinetic and particle, approaches are used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes. Our model provides much more accurate description for ion dynamics and allows us to take into account the realistic anisotropic ion distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations. The first results of such simulation of the dynamics of ions in the Io's environment are discussed in this paper.

Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

2004-01-01

321

Clapp, Jennifer , and Peter Dauvergne . 2005. Paths to a Green World: The Political Economy of the Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This intelligent, well-written and informative book provides a fresh analysis of global environmental politics and lls a soft spot in the literature by concentrating explicitly and exclusively on its political economy. Clapp and Dauvergne use a typology of four worldviewsMarket Liberals, Institutionalists, Bioenvironmentalists, and Social Greensas a framework to examine how forces in global political economy impact the environment. Each

David Downie

2006-01-01

322

A Wildland and Woodland Vision for the New England Landscape: Local Conservation, Biodiversity and the Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most arguments that start think globally\\/act locally struggle to forge a convincing connection between these two scales\\u000a of action. However, for New England and most of the eastern United States there is a direct link between effective forest\\u000a protection and management and the global environment. As a consequence of sub-continental reforestation and growth since the\\u000a 19th Century, residents across this

David R. Foster; William G. Labich

323

Global Security Rule Sets An Analysis of the Current Global Security Environment and Rule Sets Governing Nuclear Weapons Release  

SciTech Connect

America is in a unique position in its history. In maintaining its position as the world's only superpower, the US consistently finds itself taking on the role of a global cop, chief exporter of hard and soft power, and primary impetus for globalization. A view of the current global situation shows an America that can benefit greatly from the effects of globalization and soft power. Similarly, America's power can be reduced significantly if globalization and its soft power are not handled properly. At the same time, America has slowly come to realize that its next major adversary is not a near peer competitor but terrorism and disconnected nations that seek nuclear capabilities. In dealing with this new threat, America needs to come to terms with its own nuclear arsenal and build a security rule set that will establish for the world explicitly what actions will cause the US to consider nuclear weapons release. This rule set; however, needs to be established with sensitivity to the US's international interests in globalization and soft power. The US must find a way to establish its doctrine governing nuclear weapons release without threatening other peaceful nations in the process.

Mollahan, K; Nattrass, L

2004-09-30

324

Global pollution monitoring of butyltin compounds using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.  

PubMed

Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono- (MBT), di- (DBT), tri-butyltin (TBT) and total tin (sigmaSn), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from Asian offshore waters (off-Japan, the Japan Sea, off-Taiwan, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, off-Philippines, off-Indonesia, the Bay of Bengal), off-Seychelles, off-Brazil and open seas (the North Pacific). BTs were detected in all the skipjack tuna collected, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs even in offshore waters and open seas on a global scale. Considering specific accumulation, Sex-, body length- differences and migration of skipjack tuna did not seem to affect BT concentrations, indicating rapid reflection of the pollution levels in seawater where and when they were collected. Skipjack tuna is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of BTs in offshore waters and open seas. High concentrations of BTs were observed in skipjack tuna from offshore waters around Japan, a highly developed and industrialized region (up to 400 ng/g wet weight). Moreover skipjack tuna collected from offshore waters around Asian developing countries also revealed the levels comparable to those in Japan (up to 270 ng/g wet weight) which may be due to the recent improvement in economic status in Asian developing countries. High percentages (almost 90%) of BTs in total tin (sigmaSn: sum of inorganic tin+organic tin) were found in the liver of skipjack tuna from offshore waters around Asian developing countries. This finding suggests that the anthropogenic BTs represent the major source of Sn accumulation in skipjack tuna from these regions. PMID:14553989

Ueno, D; Inoue, S; Takahashi, S; Ikeda, K; Tanaka, H; Subramanian, A N; Fillmann, G; Lam, P K S; Zheng, J; Muchtar, M; Prudente, M; Chung, K; Tanabe, S

2004-01-01

325

Sample project: establishing a global forest monitoring capability using multi-resolution and multi-temporal remotely sensed data sets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying rates of forest-cover change is important for improved carbon accounting and climate change modeling, management of forestry and agricultural resources, and biodiversity monitoring. A practical solution to examining trends in forest cover change at global scale is to employ remotely sensed data. Satellite-based monitoring of forest cover can be implemented consistently across large regions at annual and inter-annual intervals. This research extends previous research on global forest-cover dynamics and land-cover change estimation to establish a robust, operational forest monitoring and assessment system. The approach integrates both MODIS and Landsat data to provide timely biome-scale forest change estimation. This is achieved by using annual MODIS change indicator maps to stratify biomes into low, medium and high change categories. Landsat image pairs can then be sampled within these strata and analyzed for estimating area of forest cleared.

Hansen, Matt; Stehman, Steve; Loveland, Tom; Vogelmann, Jim; Cochrane, Mark

2009-01-01

326

Effective Radiological Contamination Control and Monitoring Techniques In High Alpha Environments.  

PubMed

In the decommissioning of a highly contaminated alpha environment, such as the one at Hanford's 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility, one of the key elements of a successful radiological control program is an integrated safety approach. This approach begins with the job-planning phase where the scope of the work is described. This is followed by a brainstorming session involving engineering and craft to identify how to perform the work in a logical sequence of events. Once the brainstorming session is over, a Job Hazard Analysis is performed to identify any potential problems. Mockups are utilized to enable the craft to get hands on experience and provide feedback and ideas to make the job run smoother. Ideas and experience gained during mockups are incorporated into the task instruction. To assure appropriate data are used in planning and executing the job, our principal evaluation tools included lapel and workplace air sampling, plus continuous air monitors and frequent surveys to effectively monitor job progress. In this highly contaminated alpha environment, with contamination levels ranging from 0.3 Bq cm to approximately 100,000 Bq cm (2,000 dpm per 100 cm to approximately 600 million dpm per 100 cm ), with average working levels of 1,600-3,200 Bq cm (10-20 million dpm per 100 cm ) without concomitant ambient radiation levels, control of the spread of contamination is key to keeping airborne levels As Low As Reasonably Achievable. PMID:12555033

Funke, Kevin C.

2003-02-01

327

Effective radiological contamination control and monitoring techniques in high alpha environments.  

PubMed

In the decommissioning of a highly contaminated alpha environment, such as the one at Hanford's 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility, one of the key elements of a successful radiological control program is an integrated safety approach. This approach begins with the job-planning phase where the scope of the work is described. This is followed by a brainstorming session involving engineering and craft to identify how to perform the work in a logical sequence of events. Once the brainstorming session is over, a Job Hazard Analysis is performed to identify any potential problems. Mockups are utilized to enable the craft to get hands on experience and provide feedback and ideas to make the job run smoother. Ideas and experience gained during mockups are incorporated into the task instruction. To assure appropriate data are used in planning and executing the job, our principal evaluation tools included lapel and workplace air sampling, plus continuous air monitors and frequent surveys to effectively monitor job progress. In this highly contaminated alpha environment, with contamination levels ranging from 0.3 Bq cm-2 to approximately 100,000 Bq cm-2 (2,000 dpm per 100 cm2 to approximately 600 million dpm per 100 cm2), with average working levels of 1,600-3,200 Bq cm-2 (10-20 million dpm per 100 cm2) without concomitant ambient radiation levels, control of the spread of contamination is key to keeping airborne levels As Low As Reasonably Achievable. PMID:12564343

Funke, Kevin C

2003-02-01

328

Installation of a variable-angle spectrometer system for monitoring diffuse and global solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the design and installation of a spectrometer system for monitoring solar radiation in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Both the light intensity and the spectral distribution affect the power produced by a photovoltaic device. Local variations in the solar spectrum (especially compared to the AM1.5 standard) may have important implications for device optimization and energy yield estimation. The spectrometer system, based on an Ocean Optics USB4000 (300-900nm) spectrometer, was designed to increase functionality. Typically systems only record the global horizontal radiation. Our system moves a fiber-optic cable 0-90 degrees and takes measurements in 9 degree increments. Additionally, a shadow band allows measurement of the diffuse component of the radiation at each position. The electronic controls utilize an Arduino UNO microcontroller to synchronizes the movement of two PAP bipolar (stepper) motors with the activation of the spectrometer via an external trigger. The spectrometer was factory calibrated for wavelength and calibrated for absolute irradiance using a Sellarnet SL1-Cal light source. We present preliminary results from data taken March-June, 2013, and comment on implications for PV devices in Cochabamba.

Ormachea, O.; Abrahamse, A.; Tolavi, N.; Romero, F.; Urquidi, O.; Pearce, J. M.; Andrews, R.

2013-11-01

329

The monitoring system for vibratory disturbance detection in microgravity environment aboard the international space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications within the Microgravity Research Division oversee studies in important physical, chemical, and biological processes in microgravity environment. Research is conducted in microgravity environment because of the beneficial results that come about for experiments. When research is done in normal gravity, scientists are limited to results that are affected by the gravity of Earth. Microgravity provides an environment where solid, liquid, and gas can be observed in a natural state of free fall and where many different variables are eliminated. One challenge that NASA faces is that space flight opportunities need to be used effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that some of the most scientifically promising research is conducted. Different vibratory sources are continually active aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the vibratory sources include crew exercise, experiment setup, machinery startup (life support fans, pumps, freezer/compressor, centrifuge), thruster firings, and some unknown events. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMs), which acts as the hardware and carefully positioned aboard the ISS, along with the Microgravity Environment Monitoring System MEMS), which acts as the software and is located here at NASA Glenn, are used to detect these vibratory sources aboard the ISS and recognize them as disturbances. The various vibratory disturbances can sometimes be harmful to the scientists different research projects. Some vibratory disturbances are recognized by the MEMS's database and some are not. Mainly, the unknown events that occur aboard the International Space Station are the ones of major concern. To better aid in the research experiments, the unknown events are identified and verified as unknown events. Features, such as frequency, acceleration level, time and date of recognition of the new patterns are stored in an Excel database. My task is to carefully synthesize frequency and acceleration patterns of unknown events within the Excel database into a new file to determine whether or not certain information that is received i s considered a real vibratory source. Once considered as a vibratory source, further analysis is carried out. The resulting information is used to retrain the MEMS to recognize them as known patterns. These different vibratory disturbances are being constantly monitored to observe if, in any way, the disturbances have an effect on the microgravity environment that research experiments are exposed to. If the disturbance has little or no effect on the experiments, then research is continued. However, if the disturbance is harmful to the experiment, scientists act accordingly by either minimizing the source or terminating the research and neither NASA's time nor money is wasted.

Laster, Rachel M.

2004-01-01

330

Monitoring and telemedicine support in remote environments and in human space flight.  

PubMed

The common features of remote environments are geographical separation, logistic problems with health care delivery and with patient retrieval, extreme natural conditions, artificial environment, or combination of all. The exposure can have adverse effects on patients' physiology, on care providers' performance and on hardware functionality. The time to definite treatment may vary between hours as in orbital space flight, days for remote exploratory camp, weeks for polar bases and months to years for interplanetary exploration. The generic system architecture, used in any telematic support, consists of data acquisition, data-processing and storage, telecommunications links, decision-making facilities and the means of command execution. At the present level of technology, a simple data transfer and two-way voice communication could be established from any place on the earth, but the current use of mobile communication technologies for telemedicine applications is still low, either for logistic, economic and political reasons, or because of limited knowledge about the available technology and procedures. Criteria for selection of portable telemedicine terminals in remote terrestrial places, characteristics of currently available mobile telecommunication systems, and the concept of integrated monitoring of physiological and environmental parameters are mentioned in the first section of this paper. The second part describes some aspects of emergency medical support in human orbital spaceflight, the limits of telemedicine support in near-Earth space environment and mentions some open issues related to long-term exploratory missions beyond the low Earth orbit. PMID:16731572

Cermack, M

2006-07-01

331

Chapter 1 Impacts of Vegetation Fire Emissions on the Environment, Human Health, and Security: A Global Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution generated by vegetation fire smoke (VFS) is a phenomenon that has influenced the global environment in prehistoric and historic time scales. Although historic evidence of the impacts of VFS on societies is scarce, there are indications that VFS has been a factor that influenced society significantly since the Middle Ages. In recent decades, increasing application of fire as

Johann G. Goldammer; Milt Statheropoulos; Meinrat O. Andreae

2008-01-01

332

The global plasma environment of Titan as observed by Cassini Plasma Spectrometer during the first two close encounters with Titan  

E-print Network

The global plasma environment of Titan as observed by Cassini Plasma Spectrometer during the first two close encounters with Titan K. Szego,1 Z. Bebesi,1 G. Erdos,1 L. Foldy,1 F. Crary,2 D. J. Mc] The Cassini spacecraft flew by Titan on October 26, 2004 and December 13, 2004. In both cases it entered

Johnson, Robert E.

333

Endosulfan, a global pesticide: A review of its fate in the environment and occurrence in the Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review investigates the fate and behaviour of endosulfan, a current-use organochlorine pesticide, in temperate environments and the Arctic. Usage data and patterns, physicalchemical properties, environmental partitioning and degradation, environmental levels, global distribution and temporal trends are evaluated and discussed in the context of criteria that designate a substance as a persistent organic pollutant. Endosulfan is one of the most

Jan Weber; Crispin J. Halsall; Derek Muir; Camilla Teixeira; Jeff Small; Keith Solomon; Mark Hermanson; Hayley Hung; Terry Bidleman

2010-01-01

334

Space-Time Reference Systems for Monitoring Global Change and for Precise Navigation in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reference systems are an indispensable component for the description of the geometry and the kinematics of the Earth and other objects in space. Since the determination of geometrical properties of these objects has gained more and more relevance, the issues of the appropriate reference systems became even more important. For these reasons, a group of scientists in Germany, Austria and Switzerland is being funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG) since early 2012 to develop integrative methods and procedures for a consistent definition and realization of reference systems on Earth and in space. Although many realizations of reference systems exist already, they are used independently and suffer from inconsistencies. In an environment of ever increasing observing capabilities as well as of social and scientific needs, a framework of reference systems will be produced which are linked consistently with an appropriate level of accuracy to guarantee a solid basis for measuring geometric effects of Global Change and for high-precision navigation near Earth and in deep space.

Nothnagel, Axel

2013-04-01

335

Monitoring Changes in Channel Morphology in Las Vegas Wash with Global Fiducials Program Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To borrow from a popular adage, "What happens in Las Vegas [Wash], stays in Las Vegas [Wash]"but only with a lot of help. This past decade has seen a concerted effort to curb erosion and sediment transport along the 12 mile long channel between East Las Vegas and Lake Mead. Las Vegas Wash is prototypical of an urban river in an arid environment that is being impacted by increasing urban development and impervious surface runoff within its drainage area. Rapid urbanization since the 1970s has increased the flow of water into Las Vegas Wash, causing severe channel destabilization. Within two decades millions of cubic yards of rocks and sediment were scoured out of the wash and transported downstream to Lake Mead. The wetlands that once covered over 2,000 acres within Las Vegas Wash dwindled to 200 acres in the 1990s as the channel became as much as 40 feet deeper and 300 feet wider at some points. In 1999 the Las Vegas Wash Coordination Committee (LVWCC) initiated a 20-year plan to construct erosion control structures (weirs) for channel stabilization and rock riprap for stream bank protection. The hope is to design structures that will slow down the water flow, trap sediments, and to eventually restore much of the wetland environment. Using high-resolution satellite imagery from the Global Fiducials Program Library housed at the U. S. Geological Survey, this transition is being tracked from 1999 to the present. From November 1999 to July 2008 new residential and commercial development has claimed an additional 12 square kilometers (3000 acres) of land in Henderson, NV, along the south side of Las Vegas Wash. Even with the increased volume of surface and groundwater runoff entering the wash, current sediment yields are much lower than the 1999 totals. The imagery documents the construction of 14 of the 22 LVWCC planned weirs by the year 2011. It also shows many miles of stream bank stabilization by riprap, planting of riparian vegetation and placing of obstructions in the channel. The replanting of native vegetation on storm debris flats is stabilizing some of the soil in the wash and also rejuvenating much of the wetland habitat. Las Vegas Wash is a test bed for the design and implementation of innovative methods for modifying stream morphology to achieve desirable results, as some of these methods are deemed successful and some are not as effective. The lessons learned about curbing erosion and sediment transport within Las Vegas Wash may be applied to other urban streams in arid environments.

Wheeler, D. J.

2012-12-01

336

The global tobacco control 'endgame': Change the policy environment to implement the FCTC.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) has prompted major change in tobacco control globally. However, policy implementation has been uneven, making 'smoke free' outcomes possible in some countries, but not others. We identify the factors that would improve implementation. We describe an ideal type of 'comprehensive tobacco control regimes', where policy environments are conducive to the implementation of tobacco control measures designed to eradicate tobacco use. The ideal type requires that a country have certain policy processes: the department of health takes the policy lead; tobacco is 'framed' as a public health problem; public health groups are consulted at the expense of tobacco interests; socioeconomic conditions are conducive to policy change; and, the scientific evidence is 'set in stone' within governments. No country will meet all these criteria in the short term, and the gap between the ideal type and the current state is wide in many countries. However, the WHO experience provides a model for progress. PMID:24831675

Cairney, Paul; Mamudu, Hadii

2014-11-01

337

Global Monitoring of Mountain Glaciers Using High-Resolution Spotlight Imaging from the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain glaciers around the world are retreating rapidly, contributing about 20% to present-day sea level rise. Numerous studies have shown that mountain glaciers are sensitive to global environmental change. Temperate-latitude glaciers and snowpack provide water for over 1 billion people. Glaciers are a resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power, but also pose flood and avalanche hazards. Accurate mass balance assessments have been made for only 280 glaciers, yet there are over 130,000 in the World Glacier Inventory. The rate of glacier retreat or advance can be highly variable, is poorly sampled, and inadequately understood. Liquid water from ice front lakes, rain, melt, or sea water and debris from rocks, dust, or pollution interact with glacier ice often leading to an amplification of warming and further melting. Many mountain glaciers undergo rapid and episodic events that greatly change their mass balance or extent but are sparsely documented. Events include calving, outburst floods, opening of crevasses, or iceberg motion. Spaceborne high-resolution spotlight optical imaging provides a means of clarifying the relationship between the health of mountain glaciers and global environmental change. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be constructed from a series of images from a range of perspectives collected by staring at a target during a satellite overpass. It is possible to collect imagery for 1800 targets per month in the 56 latitude range, construct high-resolution DEMs, and monitor changes in high detail over time with a high-resolution optical telescope mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Snow and ice type, age, and maturity can be inferred from different color bands as well as distribution of liquid water. Texture, roughness, albedo, and debris distribution can be estimated by measuring bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) and reflectance intensity as a function of viewing angle. The non-sun-synchronous orbit of the ISS results in varying illumination angles and fix-point spotlight imaging results in varying viewing angles, ideal for viewing steep slopes on glaciers and adjacent areas. Rapid events may be observed in progress by correlating changes in images over a single pass or between passes. We present a working design, data acquisition parameters, science objectives, and data processing strategy for a conceptual instrument, MUIR (Mission to Understand Ice Retreat).

Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; Bills, B. G.; Goguen, J.; Ansar, A.; Knight, R. L.; Hallet, B.; Scambos, T. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Morin, P. J.

2013-12-01

338

Global Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is among the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disasters faced by modern society, with several major events occurring each year. In the past few years, major floods have devastated parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, Australia, and the Philippines, among others. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we have developed, and are now operating, a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours after flooding events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard. The LANCE system typically processes imagery in less than 3 hours after satellite overpass, and our flood mapping system can output flood products within hour of acquiring the LANCE products. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, every day, and more robust assessments after accumulating imagery over a longer period; the MODIS sensors are optical, so cloud cover remains an issue, which is partly overcome by using multiple looks over one or more days. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on some of these issues, and are working to develop higher resolution flood detection using alternate sensors, including Landsat and various radar sensors. Although these provide better spatial resolution, this comes at the cost of being less timely. As of late 2011, the system expanded to fully global daily flood monitoring, with free public access to the generated products. These include GIS-ready files of flood and normal water extent (KML, shapefile, raster), and small scale graphic maps (10 degrees square) showing regional flood extent. We are now expanding product distribution channels to include live web services (WMS, etc), allowing easier access via standalone apps. We are also working to bring our product into the Pacific Disaster Center's Disaster Alert system and mobile app for wider accessibility.

Smith, M.; Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M.

2012-12-01

339

GEMS(Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) onboard the GeoKOMPSAT : Requirements for instrument and sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEMS (Geostationary Environment Spectrometer) is a scanning UV-Visible Spectrometer, and is planned to be launched in 2018 onboard a geostationary satellite, GeoKOMPSAT(Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose SATellite)-2B by KARI(Korea Aerospace Research Institute), together with ABI(Advanced Baseline Imager) and GOCI-2 (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager). User requirements for the instrument and sciences are the most important basis for the successful mission. This mission is expected to improve the accuracy of air quality forecasting, emission rate database, and reduce current discrepancy between the model and observation. Furthermore, the constellation of the GeoKOMPSAT with Senteniel-4 in Europe and GEOCAPE in America in 2017- 2020 time frame can result in great synergistic outcomes including enhancing significantly our understanding in globalization of tropospheric pollution.

Lee, H.; Kim, J.; Park, R.; Lee, S.; Ko, D.; Song, C.; Hong, Y.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Woo, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, K.; Ho, C.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Choi, Y.; Jeong, M.; Chance, K.; Bhartia, P. K.; Veefkind, P.; KIM, M.; Park, S.; Yong, S.

2012-12-01

340

Teaching about the Global Environment at a Jesuit Liberal Arts University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching about global environmental issues is often reserved to courses in environmental and/or geoscience departments. Universities that do not have departments that fall into these categories may be missing out on educating both science and non-science students about these important and timely issues. Loyola University Maryland is a private Jesuit liberal arts University with no environmental or geoscience department and prior to 2008 had no courses that focused on the science of global environmental issues. Global Environment in a course offered by the Chemistry Department that fills this niche. The course is designed for a general non-science audience, though the course content is also appropriate for science students. The primary goal of the course is for students to learn the basics about how the Earth system works and how our changing climate is related to biodiversity, pollution, water availability and society. The course is designated a diversity course which is a course that fulfills the University's call "to prepare students to pursue justice by making an action-oriented response to the needs of the world." All students at Loyola University Maryland are required to take one diversity course. For this class, the diversity focus is environmental justice which is brought into the course through lectures, discussions and student projects. By bringing societal impacts into a science course the students can better understand why the environment is important and our actions affect both ourselves and others. The course has also evolved over four iterations into a course that maximizes student involvement while minimizing student angst. One way that this is accomplished is by eliminating tests and substituting daily quizzes using a student response system (clickers). Clickers are also used to poll students and to review what information the students are retaining. Students are able to self-guide their own learning in the course by creating a portfolio focusing on a topic of their choosing that fits within the course content. During class time, recent issues and examples are utilized to promote student discussion and thinking. The course also incorporates active learning such as playing games in class to demonstrate concepts, incorporating field trips into the course, and making posters to share what students have learned with the rest of the university community for Earth Day. To date, 94 students have completed the course which has an enrollment limit of 24 students per semester. These students represent primarily the business school (30%), humanities (38%) and social sciences (27%); however a few natural science majors have also taken the course. About half of the students that have taken the course have been either business (30%) or communications majors (19%). This presentation will feature the techniques and materials used in the course as well as some of the data related to the population and majors served, data from the clicker system and student responses to the course through evaluations and comments.

Dahl, E. E.

2012-12-01

341

The Asiatic clam, Corbicula spp., as a biological monitor in freshwater environments.  

PubMed

Asiatic clams, Corbicula spp., are filter-feeding freshwater bivalves that are widely distributed, abundant, and fast growing with a lifespan of 1-3 yrs. A review of the existing literature demonstrates that Asiatic clams can concentrate organic pollutants from both water and sediment and heavy metals from water. In conjunction with these traits, they exhibit a high tolerance for the effects resulting from exposure to toxic substances. While an organism must possess these traits to serve as an effective biological monitor, they have also permitted the Asiatic clam to rapidly colonize natural and industrial environments resulting in purported ecological disturbances and severe economic repurcussions, respectively. Its invasive biofouling attributes therefore restrict the use of Asiatic clams for biomonitoring purposes from Corbicula-free drainage systems. PMID:24241559

Doherty, F G

1990-09-01

342

Estimates of riparian evapotranspiration using diurnal monitoring of groundwater regime in desert environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow groundwater is mainly discharged by phreatophytes in many riparian ecosystems of arid and semiarid environment, while estimation of groundwater evapotranspiration in these regions still remains a challenge for regional water resources assessment. In this study, a simple relationship between the average standard deviation of diurnal groundwater level fluctuations and the daily evapotranspiration over relatively short periods (days or weeks) was developed for estimating groundwater consumption by phreatophytes in arid/semi-arid areas. Our approach allows estimating groundwater evapotranspiration using stable statistical characteristics of diurnal groundwater fluctuation, and it is useful for analyzing large amounts of data obtained from digital groundwater level monitoring sensors. The developed methodology was applied to two phreatophyte-dominated riparian areas (Populus euphratica and Tamarix ramosissima) in a typical Gobi desert region of northwest China to demonstrate the usefulness of the technique.

Wang, P.; Pozdniakov, S. P.; Grinevsky, S.; Yu, J.

2013-12-01

343

The role of environmental biotechnology in exploring, exploiting, monitoring, preserving, protecting and decontaminating the marine environment.  

PubMed

In light of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, environmental biotechnology could make significant contributions in the exploitation of marine resources and addressing key marine environmental problems. In this paper 14 propositions are presented focusing on (i) the contamination of the marine environment, and more particularly how to optimize the use of biotechnology-related tools and strategies for predicting and monitoring contamination and developing mitigation measures; (ii) the exploitation of the marine biological and genetic resources to progress with the sustainable, eco-compatible use of the maritime space (issues are very diversified and include, for example, waste treatment and recycling, anti-biofouling agents; bio-plastics); (iii) environmental/marine biotechnology as a driver for a sustainable economic growth. PMID:24747820

Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Arff, Johanne; Banat, Ibrahim M; Broch, Ole Jacob; Daffonchio, Daniele; Edvardsen, Torgeir; Eguiraun, Harkaitz; Giuliano, Laura; Hand, Aleksander; Lpez-de-Ipia, Karmele; Marigomez, Ionan; Martinez, Iciar; Oie, Gunvor; Rojo, Fernando; Skjermo, Jorunn; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

2015-01-25

344

Monitoring the Environment using High-Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing: Contribution to Health Information Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presence (density) of mosquitoes linked to Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in the Ferlo (Senegal) is evaluated by monitoring the environment from space. Using five SPOT-5 high-resolution images (~10m spatial resolution, on August 17th, 2006) a meridional transect of 290 x 60 km2 is analyzed for the first time. Four major ecozones are thus identified: Senegal River valley; sandy Ferlo; sandy-clayey Ferlo; and steppe/cultivated areas, from north to south, respectively. An integrated/multidisciplinary approach using remote-sensing leads to a composited Zones Potentially Occupied by Mosquitoes (or ZPOMs, with extrema). It is found that at the peak of the rainy season, the area occupied by ponds is of 12,817 ha 10% (i.e., ~ 0.8 % of the transect) with a mean ZPOM 17 times larger i.e.: 212,813 ha 10 % (or ~14 % of the transect). ZPOMs characteristics (minimum and maximum) at the ecozones levels with different hydrological mechanisms, are presented. Ponds and ZPOMs inter-annual variabilities and RVF risks, are subsequently highlighted by comparing statistics in the so-called Barkedji zone (sandy-clayey Ferlo with a hydrofossil riverbed), for the very humid year of 2003, and the near normal rainfall year of 2006. It is shown that at the end of August 2003/2006, ponds (ZPOMs) areas, were already ~22 (~5) times larger. The key roles played by isolated ponds for animals' exposure to RVF risks are thus identified. These results highlight the importance of monitoring the changing environment when linkages with public health exist. The ZPOM approach is to be adapted for other vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, in different places of the world. Results are meant to be included into Health Information Systems (HIS) on an operational basis, in order to minimize socio-economical impacts from epidemics.

Tourre, Y. M.; Lacaux, J.

2007-12-01

345

Monitoring of the natural environment by chemical speciation of elements in aerosol and sediment samples.  

PubMed

The development of a monitoring network for chemical speciation of elements of aerosol and sediment samples collected at Lake Balaton has been carried out. Sequential leaching procedures for the determination of the distribution of elements in aerosols (3 steps) and sediments (4 steps) were used. These methods were recently successfully applied to describe environmentally mobile and stable fractions of toxic metals. In aerosol matrices the partition of elements was accomplished by particle size and chemical bonding. In sediments the distribution was performed by chemical bonding. The processes are called fractionation of elements. Particular attention was paid to distinguishing between environmentally mobile and environmentally immobile fractions because these represent the two extreme modes by which the metals are bound to solid matrices. The monitoring objectives were to assess pollution effects on man and his environment and to identify any possible cause and effect relationship between pollutant concentrations and health effects. The results of dry and wet deposition rates showed that most of the toxic metals were dissolved in an aqueous phase and the wet deposition played an important role. It has been found that, while the concentration of Cd and Pb in aerosols is low (0.7 and 29 ng m(-3), respectively), environmentally mobile fractions are considerable. Based upon the data it can be concluded that the effect of the anthropogenic sources on the quality of the lake is minor. This has been the first attempt to correlate speciation results between aerosols and sediments. PMID:11253023

Hlavay, J; Polyk, K; Weisz, M

2001-02-01

346

Fast fiber Bragg grating interrogation system with scalability to support monitoring of large structures in harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optic sensor systems can alleviate certain challenges faced by electronics sensors faced when monitoring structures subject to marine and other harsh environments. Challenges in implementation of such systems include scalability, interconnection and cabling. We describe a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system architecture based that is scalable to support over 1000 electromagnetic interference immune sensors at high sampling rates for harsh environment applications. A key enabler is a high performance FBG interrogator supporting subsection sampling rates ranging from kHz to MHz. Results are presented for fast dynamic switching between multiple structural sections and the use of this sensing system for dynamic load monitoring as well as the potential for acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring on materials ranging from aluminum and composites to concrete subject to severe environments.

Moslehi, Behzad; Black, Richard J.; Costa, Joannes M.; Edwards, Elizabeth H.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Sotoudeh, Vahid

2014-04-01

347

Monitoring of chromium species and 11 selected metals in emission and immission of airborne environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of chromium species as hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and the determination of the total chromium concentration as well as the concentration of 11 selected metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Zn) in industrial emission of a foundry and immission studies of the nearby airborne environment were carried out. The samples were taken as industrial exhaust directly by the outlet and as airborne sample in the environment with distances between some hundred meters and 2 km from the industrial factoryE Wherefore two methods of sampling, sample pre-treatment and mass spectrometric measurement were developed and applied. With respect to different sampling duration different volumes of air were sampled and analysed. For the determination of Cr(VI) sampling in impingers (filled with carbonate-buffer) was used. A procedure of selective complex forming and extraction was developed and measured by double focussing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). For the determination of the total chromium concentration as well as of 11 metals sampling was done by using quartz-filters. After microwave digestion in the medium of aqua regia the samples were analysed by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS). The maximum concentration of Cr(VI)-species in emission samples was determined as 180 ng/m3 air which is about 2% of total Cr. The lowest concentration of Cr(VI)-species in immission was determined as 0.5 ng/m3 air.

Krystek, Petra; Ritsema, Rob

2007-08-01

348

High Mountain Summits as Sensitive Indicators of Climate Change Effects on Vegetation Patterns: The Multi Summit-Approach of GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments)  

Microsoft Academic Search

GLORIA, a Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments, aims to establish an urgently required global indicator network to detect climate-induced changes in high mountain regions. High mountains appear to be particularly appropriate for such a global initiative, because they still comprise low-temperature determined, natural ecosystems in a world wide distribution. Evidence of upward migrations of vascular plants was found

Harald Pauli; Michael Gottfried; Karl Reiter; Georg Grabherr

349

Global tropospheric and total ozone monitoring with a Double-Etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge of the global scale distribution of atmospheric ozone and its temporal variability can be achieved using a satellite-based nadir-viewing device making high spectral resolution measurements with high signal-to-noise ratios. This would enable observation in the pressure-broadened wings of strong O3 lines while minimizing the impact of undesirable signal contributions associated with, for example, the terrestrial surface and interfering species. The Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) provides high spectral resolution and high throughput capabilities that are essential for this measurement task. The periodic nature of the Fabry-Perot instrument function can be advantageous when observation of periodic spectra is desired. However, for most applications, additional optical elements are necessary to reduce the effect of unwanted passbands. This is frequently accomplished using additional Fabry-Perot etalons in a series configuration in conjunction with a bandpass filter. This paper discusses a Fabry-Perot interferometer conceptual instrument design to achieve tropospheric and total ozone monitoring capability from a satellite-based nadir-viewing geometry. The design involves a double-etalon fixed-gap series configuration FPI along with an ultra-narrow bandpass filter to achieve single-order operation with an overall spectral resolution of approximately .068 cm(exp -1). The impact of inter-etalon reflections has been reduced to acceptable levels by placement of a slightly attenuating medium in between the etalons. A passive device is selected for low power consumption, and continuous day/night coverage, independent of solar zenith angle, is enabled by observing within the strong 9.6 micron ozone infrared band. The IR-FPI detection will be performed through implementation of the new Circle to Line Interferometer Optical (CLIO) system, developed by researchers at the Space Physics Research Laboratory (SPRL) of the University of Michigan, to accomplish focal plane fringe detection; the CLIO system converts the circular interferometric fringes into a linear pattern which then can be detected by conventional linear array detectors. A multiplex signal advantage is achievable as all necessary frequencies can be measured simultaneously using a multichannel configuration. Through proper selection of channel spectral regions, the FPI optimized for tropospheric O3 measurements can simultaneously observe a stratospheric component and thus the total O3 column abundance.

Larar, Allen M.; Drayson, S. Roland; Hays, Paul B.

1995-01-01

350

The sperm whale sonar: Monitoring and use in mitigation of anthropogenic noise effects in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise pollution in the marine environment is an emerging but serious concern. Its implications are less well understood than other global threats and largely undetectable to everyone but the specialist. In addition, the assessment of the acoustic impact of artificial sounds in the sea is not a trivial task, certainly because there is a lack of information on how the

Michel Andr

2009-01-01

351

Implementing a New Learning Strategy: Organizational Change for a Global Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalization, new technology, and the knowledge economy are transforming the role of community colleges in learning. In an increasingly competitive and global education market community colleges in Canada and the USA are responding by changing their missions, culture, curricula, program delivery models, and organizational structures. This

Goho, James; Webb, Ken

2004-01-01

352

U.S. Interests and the Global Environment. Occasional Paper 35.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay presents an argument for policies responsive to global environmental needs by examining the causes and consequences of six critical environmental issues, and then offering specific U.S. policy recommendations. Following an explanation of the global nature of environmental problems, a summary of the salient facts regarding the following

Caldwell, Lynton K.

353

A Real-Time Robust Global Localization for Autonomous Mobile Robots in Large Environments  

E-print Network

ICARCV2010 A Real-Time Robust Global Localization for Autonomous Mobile Robots in Large remains a challenge for autonomous mobile robots especially in large-scale unstructured outdoor and reliability of the proposed approach. Keywords--global localization, SLAM, coarse-to-fine, mobile robots I

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Large space-based systems for dealing with global environment change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased concern over the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in support for the Global Change Research Program and the Mission to Planet Earth. Research to understand Earth system processes is critical, but it falls short of providing ways of mitigating the effects of change. Geoengineering options and alternatives to interactively manage change

Lyle M. Jenkins

1992-01-01

355

Analysis of the ground level enhancement on 17 May 2012 using data from the global neutron monitor network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed the data of the world neutron monitor network for the first ground level enhancement of solar cycle 24, the ground level enhancement (GLE) on 17 May 2012. A newly computed neutron monitor yield function and an inverse method are applied to estimate the energy spectrum, anisotropy axis direction, and pitch angle distribution of the high-energy solar particles in interplanetary space. The method includes the determination of the asymptotic viewing cones of neutron monitor stations through computations of trajectories of cosmic rays in a model magnetosphere. The cosmic ray particle trajectories are determined with the GEANT-based MAGNETOCOSMICS code using Tsyganenko 1989 and International Geomagnetic Reference Field models. Subsequent calculation of the neutron monitor responses with the model function is carried out, that represents an initial guess of the inverse problem. Derivation of the solar energetic particle characteristics is fulfilled by fitting the data of the global neutron monitor network using the Levenberg-Marquardt method over the nine-dimensional parameter space. The pitch angle distribution and rigidity spectrum of high-energy protons are obtained as function of time in the course of the GLE. The angular distribution appears quite complicated. It comprises a focused beam along the interplanetary magnetic field line from the Sun and a loss-cone feature around the opposite direction, possibly indicative of the particle transport in interplanetary magnetic field structures associated with previous coronal mass ejections.

Mishev, A. L.; Kocharov, L. G.; Usoskin, I. G.

2014-02-01

356

Monitoring of the Geospace Environment by Ground-based McMAC and Falcon Magnetometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground-based Mid-continent Magnetoseismic Chain (McMAC) and Falcon magnetometers were established to monitor a variety of physical processes in the Geospace environment. McMAC consists of nine magnetometers in the US and Mexico along the 330th magnetic meridian, and the six Falcon stations are strategically located in five different US time zones. In addition to the observations of magnetic field variations and the Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF) waves, a key derived data from McMAC and Falcon observations is the inferred plasma mass density through the field line resonance (FLR) sounding method. By examining the plasmaspheric mass density during several magnetic storm events, we have found that the density variations within the plasmasphere appeared to coincide with the changes in ionospheric content. Our recent results also indicate that the local time and annual variations of plasmaspheric mass density closely resemble the variations of the neutral mass density in the thermosphere, suggesting an inadequately explored connection between the thermosphere and the plasmasphere. The observations by McMAC and Falcon magnetometers can be studied in conjunction with those by other magnetic observatories in North America for broader coverage of latitude or local time. We have developed computer programs that can efficiently process a large amount of observations and generate two dimensional snapshots (in both local time and L-values) of the equatorial plasma mass density in the magnetosphere. The magnetic field observations by the McMAC and Falcon magnetometers and their derived data products can enrich the studies of the Geospace environment by the NASA RBSP Mission.

Chi, P. J.; Russell, C. T.; Engebretson, M. J.; Chun, F. K.; McHarg, M. G.; Bristow, W. A.; Cruz-Abeyro, J. L.; Goldstein, J.; Hairston, M. R.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Mynatt, D.; Petit, N.; Pfaff, R. F.; Wing, S.; Winkler, L. I.

2012-12-01

357

Research on Subwavelength Microphtonic Sensors for In-situ Monitoring with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution in Manufacturing Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Micron-sized subwavelength ,structured photonic sensors ,could ,allow critical thermo- mechanical,phenomena in manufacturing processes to be monitored, while offering tremendous advantages. To implement these novel ,sensors into real manufacturing processes, the microring sensors can be embedded at ,critical locations in metallic structures, which are heavily used in hostile manufacturing environments. Thisp aper presentso ur research progress on fabrication, embedding, and

Xiaochun Li; Brian Thomas

2006-01-01

358

Global pollution aerosol monitoring (GPAM) in the atmospheric boundary layer using future earth observing satellite remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global pollution aerosol monitoring is a very important climatic and environmental problem. It affects not only human health but also ecological systems. Because most pollution aerosols are concentrated in the atmospheric boundary layer where human, animal and vegetation live, global pollution aerosol stuides have been an important topic since about a decade ago. Recently, many new chemistry remote sensing satellite systems, such as NASA's Aura (EOS-CHEM), have been established. However, pollution aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer cannot be detected using current remote sensing technologies. George Mason University (GMU) proposes to design scientific algorithms and technologies to monitor the atmospheric boundary layer pollution aerosols, using both satellite remote sensing measurements and ground measurements, collaborating with NASA and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Forest Services (FS). Boundary layer pollution aerosols result from industrial pollution, desert dust storms, smoke from wildfires and biomass burning, volcanic eruptions, and from other trace gases. The current and next generation satellite instruments, such as The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), and High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) can be used for this study. Some surface measurements from USDA/FS and other agencies may also be used in this study. We will discuss critical issues for GPAM in the boundary layer using Earth observing satellite remote sensing in detail in this paper.

Qu, Jianhe; Kafatos, Menas; Yang, Ruixin; Chiu, Long S.; Riebau, Allen R.

2003-04-01

359

Flood monitoring in a semi-arid environment using spatially high resolution radar and optical data.  

PubMed

The geographic term "Niger Inland Delta" stands for a vast plain of approximately 40,000 km(2), which is situated in the western Sahel (Republic of Mali). The Inland Delta is affected by yearly inundation through the variable water levels of the Niger-Bani river system. Due to a good availability of (surface) water, the ecosystem at the Niger Inland Delta serves as resting place stop-over for many migrating birds and other wildlife species as well as economic base for farmers and pastoral people. To foster the sustainable usage of its natural resources and to protect this natural heritage, the entire Niger Inland Delta became RAMSAR site in 2004. This paper aims to test to which extent texture analysis can improve the quality of flood monitoring in a semi-arid environment using spatially high resolution ASAR imaging mode data. We found the Gray Level Dependence Method (GLDM) was most suitable proceeding for our data. Several statistical parameters were calculated via co-occurrence matrices and were used to classify the images in different gradation of soil moisture classes. In a second step we used additional information from spatially high resolution optical data (ASTER) to improve the separability of open water areas from moisture/vegetated areas. PMID:18554774

Seiler, Ralf; Schmidt, Jana; Diallo, Ousmane; Csaplovics, Elmar

2009-05-01

360

Insights on How NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Monitors Our World Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover and land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

King, Michael D.

2000-01-01

361

The Local Environment of Ultraluminous X-ray Sources Viewed by XMM Newton's Optical Monitor  

E-print Network

We have used XMM-Newton's Optical Monitor (OM) images to study the local environment of a sample of 27 Ultraluminous X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby galaxies. UVW1 fluxes were extracted from 100 pc regions centered on the ULX positions. We find that at least 4 ULXs (out of 10 published) have spectral types that are consistent with previous literature values. In addition the colors are similar to those of young stars. For the highest-luminosity ULXs, the UVW1 fluxes may have an important contribution from the accretion disk. We find that the majority of ULXs are associated with recent star-formation. Many of the ULXs in our sample are located inside young OB associations or star-forming regions (SFRs). Based on their colors, we estimated ages and masses for star-forming regions located within 1 kpc from the ULXs in our sample. The resolution of the OM was insufficient to detect young dense super-clusters, but some of these star-forming regions are massive enough to contain such clusters. Only three ULXs have no...

Berghea, Ciprian T

2014-01-01

362

THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES VIEWED BY XMM-NEWTON's OPTICAL MONITOR  

SciTech Connect

We have used XMM-Newton's Optical Monitor (OM) images to study the local environment of a sample of 27 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in nearby galaxies. UVW1 fluxes were extracted from 100 pc regions centered on the ULX positions. We find that at least 4 ULXs (out of 10 published) have spectral types that are consistent with previous literature values. In addition, the colors are similar to those of young stars. For the highest-luminosity ULXs, the UVW1 fluxes may have an important contribution from the accretion disk. We find that the majority of ULXs are associated with recent star formation. Many of the ULXs in our sample are located inside young OB associations or star-forming regions (SFRs). Based on their colors, we estimated ages and masses for SFRs located within 1 kpc from the ULXs in our sample. The resolution of the OM was insufficient to detect young dense superclusters, but some of these SFRs are massive enough to contain such clusters. Only three ULXs have no associated SFRs younger than ?50 Myr. The age and mass estimates for clusters were used to test runaway scenarios. The data are, in general, compatible with stellar-mass binaries accreting at super-Eddington rates and ejected by natal kicks. We also tested the hypothesis that ULXs are sub-Eddington accreting intermediate mass black holes ejected by three-body interactions; however, this is not supported well by the data.

Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P. [United States Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States); Tincher, J. [St. John's College, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Winter, L. M., E-mail: ciprian.berghea@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: rachel.dudik@usno.navy.mil [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States)

2013-10-20

363

Satellite monitoring of the global ocean surface during 1987-1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term simultaneous global coverage of AVHRR sea surface temperature, SSMI surface wind speed, GEOSAT sea surface height, and ARGOS buoy drift began in 1987. Methodology to create annual atlases of monthly mean distributions is described.

Halpern, David

1992-01-01

364

Dust storm monitoring: effects on the environment, human health, and potential security conflicts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring dust storms with recently available medium and moderate resolution satellites (Meris, Modis and SeaWiFS) is providing new global information regarding the sources, transportation tracks and affected areas. Saharan dust plumes reach the SE region of the United States and the Caribbean region in summer and the Amazon basin in winter. Generally these Saharan plumes branch off in dust tracks along the North Atlantic reaching Western Europe as far north as the Scandinavian countries. Furthermore, dust storms originating in the Eastern Sahara and Northern African deserts form dust plumes propagated by the Sirocco winds that, after crossing the Mediterranean Sea, affect Southern and Central Europe particularly during spring and summer. Dust storms originating in the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts blow in an easterly direction propagating dust plumes affecting Korea, Japan and reach the United States after crossing the Pacific Ocean. The large amount of cyclic deposition generated by dust storms produces an environmental impact that causes the decay of coral reefs in the Caribbean, the origin and distribution of red tides and the disappearance of sea grasses. The relationship of dust plumes with the increasing number of asthma and allergy cases in the Caribbean correlates well with the appearance of similar cases in Europe and elsewhere during the mid 1980s. The recurrence presence of insecticides in regions where these products were banned long ago, or where they were never used, may be partly due to Saharan dust plumes. The loss of agricultural soil, literally blown away by dust storms in the source areas, creates hardship, hunger and forced-migration. Dust storms should be considered as an important security issue.

Davara, Fernando; de la Cruz, Antonio

2004-10-01

365

Global warming, energy efficiency and the role of the built environment  

E-print Network

This thesis attempts to explore the relationships between the Buildings Sector, energy efficiency and global warming. Through a qualitative analysis the author illustrates the connection between these three areas and shows ...

DiBona, Donna K

2008-01-01

366

Ground Monitoring Neotropical Dry Forests: A Sensor Network for Forest and Microclimate Dynamics in Semi-Arid Environments (Enviro-Net)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the face of unprecedented global change driven by anthropogenic pressure on natural systems it has become imperative to monitor and better understand potential shifts in ecosystem functioning and services from local to global scales. The utilization of automated sensors technologies offers numerous advantages over traditional on-site ecosystem surveying techniques and, as a result, sensor networks are becoming a powerful tool in environmental monitoring programs. Tropical forests, renowned for their biodiversity, are important regulators of land-atmosphere fluxes yet the seasonally dry tropical forests, which account for 40% of forested ecosystems in the American tropics, have been severely degraded over the past several decades and not much is known of their capacity to recover. With less than 1% of these forests protected, our ability to monitor the dynamics and quantify changes in the remaining primary and recovering secondary tropical dry forests is vital to understanding mechanisms of ecosystem stress responses and climate feedback with respect to annual productivity and desertification processes in the tropics. The remote sensing component of the Tropi-Dry: Human and Biophysical Dimensions of Tropical Dry Forests in the Americas research network supports a network of long-term tropical ecosystem monitoring platforms which focus on the dynamics of seasonally dry tropical forests in the Americas. With over 25 sensor station deployments operating across a latitudinal gradient in Mexico, Costa Rica, Brazil, and Argentina continuously collecting hyper-temporal sensory input based on standardized deployment parameters, this monitoring system is unique among tropical environments. Technologies used in the network include optical canopy phenology towers, understory wireless sensing networks, above and below ground microclimate stations, and digital cameras. Sensory data streams are uploaded to a cyber-infrastructure initiative, denominated Enviro-Net, for data storage, management, visualization, and retrieval for further analysis. The use of tower and ground-based optical sensor networks and meteorological monitoring instrumentation has proven effective in capturing seasonal growth patterns in primary and secondary forest stands. Furthermore, the observed trends in above and below ground microclimate variables are shown to closely correlate with in-situ vegetative indices (NDVI and EVI) across study sites. These long-term environmental sensory data streams provide valuable insights as to how these threatened semi-arid ecosystems regenerate after disturbances and how they respond to environmental stress such as climate change in the tropical and sub-tropical latitudes.

Rankine, C. J.; Snchez-Azofeifa, G.

2011-12-01

367

THE GLOBAL EARTH OBSERVATION SYSTEM OF SYTEMS (GEOSS): PROACTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

Golbal secruity can be improved through strong international coopeation and using existing national monitoring systems that will provide more complete accurate and accessible data and information to users and decision-makers. Environmenatal damage is typically collateral to even...

368

Mapping Global Urban Extent and Intensity for Environmental Monitoring and Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human dimensions of global environmental change have received increased attention in policy, decision- making, research, and even the media. However, the influence of urban areas in global change processes is still often assumed to be negligible. Although local environmental conditions such as the urban heat island effect are well-documented, little or no work has focused on cross-scale interactions, or the ways in which local urban processes cumulatively impact global changes. Given the rapid rates of rural-urban migration, economic development and urban spatial expansion, it is becoming increasingly clear that the `ecological footprint' of cities may play a critical role in environmental changes at regional and global scales. Our understanding of the cumulative impacts of urban areas on natural systems has been limited foremost by a lack of reliable, accurate data on current urban form and extent at the global scale. The data sets that have emerged to fill this gap (LandScan, GRUMP, nighttime lights) suffer from a number of limitations that prevent widespread use. Building on our early efforts with MODIS data, our current work focuses on: (1) completing a new, validated map of global urban extent; and (2) developing methods to estimate the subpixel fraction of impervious surface, vegetation, and other land cover types within urbanized areas using coarse resolution satellite imagery. For the first task, a technique called boosting is used to improve classification accuracy and provides a means to integrate 500 m resolution MODIS data with ancillary data sources. For the second task, we present an approach for estimating percent cover that relies on continuous training data for a full range of city types. These exemplars are used as inputs to fuzzy neural network and regression tree algorithms to predict fractional amounts of land cover types with increased accuracy. Preliminary results for a global sample of 100 cities (which vary in population size, level of economic development, and spatial extent) show good agreement with the expected morphology in each region.

Schneider, A.; Friedl, M. A.

2007-05-01

369

The use of embedded sensors for the monitoring of adhesive joints in marine environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A copolymer incorporating polyaniline was used as a sensing medium in the construction of a resistance based humidity sensor. Aniline monomer was polymerised in the presence of poly (butyl acrylate / vinyl acetate) and a copolymer containing polyaniline emeraldine salt was obtained. The sensing medium was then developed by redissolving 1-2 w/w% of the resulting polymer residue in dichloromethane to produce a processable polymer blend solution. Some of this polymer residue was also de-doped in a solution of ammonia, and then washed with distilled water until the waste water had a neutral pH. This residue was then redissolved at 1-2 w/w% in dichloromethane to produce a second processable polymer blend this time containing polyaniline emeraldine base. The final sensor design utilised 125?m polyester insulated platinum wire as conducting electrodes that were dip coated in the emeraldine salt copolymer solution and allowed to dry in a desiccator. The sensor was then dip-coated in a protective barrier layer of the emeraldine base copolymer to prevent over-oxidation and/or de-protonation of the emeraldine salt sensing medium under this coating. The sensors had an overall final thickness of less than 150?m and showed high sensitivity to humidity, low resistance, and good reversibility without hysteresis. Sensors were monitored for 2-probe resistance changes when in contact with water. Calibration curves for each sensor were produced to convert the resistance reading to mass uptake of water. Individual sensors were embedded within Aluminium 5083 / Araldite 2015 adhesive joints to monitor mass uptake of water when exposed to marine environments. Correlations between mass uptake of water and joint strength were made. There are various advantages of such a sensor design. Polymer based thin film humidity sensors have the advantage that the high processability of the material allows for simple fabrication of a range of geometries including smaller sensor designs. The ease of processing gives a low cost sensor, whilst the small size and good mechanical properties gives a robust sensor which has the flexibility to be able to be used in applications where dynamic stresses and strains are encountered. Such sensors may find uses in a number of areas including electronic textiles, food/ electronics packaging and corrosion detection.

McGovern, Scott T.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.

2005-05-01

370

Monitoring of the Environment at the Transplant Unit--Hemato-Oncology Clinic  

PubMed Central

Aims: Aim of this study was to monitor the environment at the Transplant UnitHemato-Oncology Clinic, University Hospital Olomouc (Olomouc, Czech Republic) and identify risks for the patients. Methods and Results: Microorganisms were cultivated under standard aerobic conditions. Strains were biochemically identified using the BD Phoenix PID Panel (USA). Legionella pneumophila was identified by DNA sequencing. From the air, the most frequently isolated strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (94.3%), Micrococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. No Gram-negative strains were isolated from the air. From the surfaces, the most frequently isolated Gram-positive strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (67.4%), Bacillus spp., enterococci (5.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (2.3%) and Micrococcus spp. (1.7%). From the surfaces, the most frequently isolated Gram-negative strains were from genera Pseudomonas (28%), Enterobacter (28%), E. coli (6%), and Klebsiella spp. (5%). From the personnel, the most frequently isolated Gram-positive strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.6%), Bacillus spp. (24.1%) and Staphylococcus aureus (9.8%). From the personnel, the most frequently isolated Gram-negative strains were Enterobacter spp. (61%), Klebsiella oxytoca (18%), and E. coli (11%). Microscopic filamentous fungi were isolated in 13 cases (2.71%). Isolated strains were Aspergillus spp. (4), Trichoderma spp. (2), Penicillium spp. (2), one case of the strains Paecilomyces spp., Eurotium spp., Monilia spp. Conclusions: The study found no significant deviations in the microbial contamination of the cleanroom air. The personnel entrance of the Transplant Unit represent a high risk area, an extreme value (7270 CFU/m3) was recorded. Regime measures are fully effective, no other deficiencies were found. Significance and Impact of the Study: This epidemiological study, which was held for the duration of one year at the Transplant UnitHemato-Oncology Clinic, University Hospital Olomouc. The study monitored microbial contamination of the cleanroom air, surfaces, water, colonization of the personnel by bacterial strains of epidemiological consequence. PMID:25222472

Matouskova, Ivanka; Holy, Ondrej

2014-01-01

371

An Assessment Strategy for Rating Client\\/Server Satellite Network Performance in a Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research tested and presents an alternative technique to communicate between a client and server system in a post 911 combat environment. In order to defend the United States against enemies foreign and domestic; it is crucial that combat forces are equipped with the best communication equipment available. 21 years technology experience in a military environment supports this research and

Terry C. House

2006-01-01

372

Evaluating The Global Inventory of Planetary Analog Environments on Earth: An Ontological Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Field sites on Earth are routinely used to simulate planetary environments so that we can try to understand the evidence of processes such as sedimentary deposition, weathering, evolution of habitable environments, and behavior of spacecraft and instrumentation prior to selection of mission architectures, payload investigations and landing sites for in situ exploration of other planets. The rapid evolution of

P. G. Conrad

2010-01-01

373

Monitoring the Impact of Anthropogenic and Natural Influences on the Environment of Mesoamerica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoamerica - composed of the seven Central American countries and the five southernmost states of Mexico - is one of the richest biological regions in the world. The region is home to approximately eight percent of the planet's biodiversity. There are 14 biosphere reserves, eight world heritage sites and 589 protected areas. The human population, of over 45 million people consists of more than 50 ethnic groups. This rich biological and cultural diversity is threatened by human influence and natural disasters. Illegal logging and slash and burn agriculture are major contributors to extensive deforestation. Earthquakes, volcanoes, drought, and severe storms threaten the region. Of particular note is the massive destruction and loss of life resulting from hurricane Mitch in 1998. An international effort is underway to preserve the remaining forested regions, with its biodiversity, and to promote sustained development throughout the region. In 2002 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) joined with the World Bank and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to work with the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), to develop an advanced decision support system for Mesoamerica known as SERVIR. (SERVIR is a Spanish acronym meaning to serve.) The partners are contributing expertise in space-based observation with information management technologies and intimate knowledge of local ecosystems to create a system for use by scientists, educators, and policy makers to monitor and forecast ecological changes, respond to natural disasters, and better understand both natural and human induced effects. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) are concentrating on the preparation of data products and Information Technology applications that will integrate information from the entire region into a coherent information system that is easy to access and utilize. Already, numerous products derived from data from NASA's Earth-Sun Connection missions (formerly known as the Earth Science Enterprise) have been developed. Data from the MODIS instrument is being used to create imagery products that can be used to monitor the extent of fires, and the location of harmful algae blooms. Data from the NOAA GOES satellites are made available at 15 minute intervals for weather forecasting. Other data products are planned that will address issues such as local flooding and hot spots. Many other institutions, both in the United States and in Central America, are generating data products for the region. In an effort to make all of the information readily available, UAH is developing web services and related GIS applications. These technologies are designed to present the information in both two and three dimensions, giving the decision makers clear representations of the physical environment. By providing data products that accurately capture specific geophysical phenomena and, an information delivery system that combines inputs from each country, we are making inroads toward preserving the wealth to society that Mesoamerica provides.

Hardin, D.; Graves, S.; Sever, T.; Irwin, D.

2005-12-01

374

Global Fluency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines global fluency as a facility with cultural behaviors that help an organization thrive in an ever-changing global business environment; and discusses business culture, global culture, an example of a change effort at a global company, leadership values, company values, and defining global values and practices. (Author/LRW)

Tosti, Donald T.

1999-01-01

375

Monitoring Surface Deformation in Polar, Alpine, and Plateau Periglacial Environments From Space Using Radar Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread and systematic changes in the permafrost and active layers could have profound effects on biological, biogeochemical, hydrologic, and landscape processes, on the flux of greenhouse gases, and on human infrastructure. Thawing of ice-rich permafrost in alpine areas can lead to rapid mass wasting, including active-layer detachment, retrogressive thaw slumps, rock glacier movement, and even more catastrophic events such as landslides, debris flow, and rock falls. We apply radar interferometry (or InSAR) technique to the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data acquired by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) satellite to monitor changes in permafrost and in the active layer in polar, alpine, and plateau periglacial environments. Using InSAR, we are able to map the surface deformation over large area (typically 70 km by 100 km), at a high spatial resolution up to about 10 m, at an interval as short as 46 days. Specifically, near Deadhorse and Barrow on the Arctic coast of Alaska, we detect seasonal thaw settlement and frost heave of 2 to 4 cm. In the Sierra Nevada of California, we find surface deformation of 5 to 20 cm within three summer months over the Barney Lake and Gibbs rock glaciers. On the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we map active layer thaw slumps near the Qinghai-Tibet highway and compare our space-geodetic measurements with ground measurements. Using the radar data acquired by the same sensor, we will compare the spatial and temporal characteristics of these surface motions. We will also present our estimates of long-term trends in surface deformation in the polar and plateau study areas and discuss their associations with increasing ground temperatures. Field data on rock temperatures indicate that active rock glaciers are highly resistant to warming surface temperatures. Therefore, we expect little long-term trends in rock glacier motions.

Liu, L.; Zebker, H. A.; Zhang, T.; Westfall, R. D.; Millar, C. I.

2011-12-01

376

[The resident staphylococcal bacterial carriage in a human population as an index for the microecological monitoring of its habitat environment].  

PubMed

The informative character of staphylococcal persistence factors (antilysozyme and "anti-interferon" signs) as the indices of resident staphylococcal carrier state in the microecological monitoring of the aerial environment was determined. In areas, ecologically unfavorable with respect to the occurrence of diseases of respiratory organs and to the level of air pollution, staphylococcal strains with persistence factors were isolated from children 3 times as often as in areas with low levels of morbidity in respiratory diseases and environmental pollution. The background level resident staphylococcal carrier state was determined (8.1%), permitting the evaluation of the ecological loading and the mapping of the monitored territories. PMID:8771736

Bukharin, O V; Usviatsov, B Ia; Chernova, O L; Matiushina, S B

1996-01-01

377

Global climate monitoring with the advanced microwave scanning radiometer (AMSR and AMSR-E)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometers (AMSR) are dual-polarized microwave radiometers having channel frequencies ranging from 6.9 GHz to 89 GHz, and were designed to retrieve global information on precipitation, sea surface temperature, oceanic surface winds and integrated cloud water and water vapor, vegetation, sea ice, and snow cover. Two AMSR's have been built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National

Elena S. Lobl; Roy W. Spencer; Akira Shibata; Keiji Imaoka; Masayuki Sasaki; Misako Kachi

2003-01-01

378

Evaluation of real time and future global monitoring and forecasting systems at Mercator Ocan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since December 2010, the global analysis and forecast of the MyOcean system consists in the Mercator Ocan NEMO global 1/4 configuration with a 1/12 "zoom" over the Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. The zoom open boundaries come from the global 1/4 at 20 S and 80 N. The data assimilation uses a reduced order Kalman filter with a 3-D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. It includes an adaptative error and a localization algorithm. A 3D-Var scheme corrects for the slowly evolving large-scale biases in temperature and salinity. Altimeter data, satellite temperature and in situ temperature and salinity vertical profiles are jointly assimilated to estimate the initial conditions for the numerical ocean forecasting. This paper gives a description of the recent systems. The validation procedure is introduced and applied to the current and future systems. This paper shows how the validation impacts on the quality of the systems. It is shown how quality check (in situ, drifters) and data source (satellite temperature) impacts as much as the systems design (model physics and assimilation parameters). The validation demonstrates the accuracy of the MyOcean global products. Their quality is stable in time. The future systems under development still suffer from a drift. This could only be detected with a 5 yr hindcast of the systems. This emphasizes the need for continuous research efforts in the process of building future versions of MyOcean2 forecasting capacities.

Lellouche, J.-M.; Le Galloudec, O.; Drvillon, M.; Rgnier, C.; Greiner, E.; Garric, G.; Ferry, N.; Desportes, C.; Testut, C.-E.; Bricaud, C.; Bourdall-Badie, R.; Tranchant, B.; Benkiran, M.; Drillet, Y.; Daudin, A.; de Nicola, C.

2012-03-01

379

A Remote Sensing-based Global Agricultural Drought Monitoring and Forecasting System for Supporting GEOSS (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations. GEO is coordinating the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a worldwide effort to make Earth observation resources more useful to the society. As one of the important technical contributors to GEOSS, the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems (CSISS), George

L. di; G. Yu; W. Han; M. Deng

2010-01-01

380

Atmospheric monitoring of Mars by the Mars Orbiter Camera on Mars global surveyor  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOC wide-angle cameras routinely produce daily global maps of Mars in two colors at ~7.5 km\\/pixel resolution. These images have been used to study several seasonal phenomena linked to atmospheric processes and condensate cycles: dust storms, clouds, and polar recessions. Preliminary results of observations of polar caps and dust storms are presented here.

P. B. James; B. A. Cantor

2002-01-01

381

Atmospheric monitoring of Mars by the Mars Orbiter Camera on Mars global surveyor  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOC wide-angle cameras routinely produce daily global maps of Mars in two colors at ?7.5 km\\/pixel resolution. These images have been used to study several seasonal phenomena linked to atmospheric processes and condensate cycles: dust storms, clouds, and polar recessions. Preliminary results of observations of polar caps and dust storms are presented here.

P. B. James; B. A. Cantor

2002-01-01

382

Evaluating a system of systems approach for integrated global weather, climate, and hazard monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) provides systems and technologies to ensure national security based on technologies - from undersea to outer space, and in cyberspace. With a heritage of developing and integrating science instruments on space platforms and airborne systems, NGC is conducting analysis of alternatives for a global observing system that integrates data collected from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites with

Ronald Birk; Brian Baldauf; Rick Ohlemacher; Leo Andreoli

2008-01-01

383

The SMOS Mission: New Tool for Monitoring Key Elements ofthe Global Water Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well understood that data on soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS) are required to improve meteorological and climate predictions. These two quantities are not yet available globally or with adequate temporal or spatial sampling. It is recognized that a spaceborne L-band radiometer with a suitable antenna is the most promising way of fulfilling this gap. With

Yann H. Kerr; Philippe Waldteufel; Jean-Pierre Wigneron; Steven Delwart; Franois Cabot; Jacqueline Boutin; Maria-Jos Escorihuela; Nicolas Reul; Claire Gruhier; Silvia Enache Juglea; Mark R. Drinkwater; Achim Hahne; Manuel Martin-Neira; Susanne Mecklenburg

2010-01-01

384

A global observing system for monitoring and prediction of sea level change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rise of global sea level is a direct consequence of climate change. A one-meter rise by the end of the century is estimated to have global economic impacts by trillions of US dollars and displacement of 10% of the worlds population if no adaptation is applied. Before the advent of satellite observations of sea surface height with radar altimetry, it was not possible to make direct determination of the global mean sea level. The sparsely located tide gauges were not able to sample the uneven spatial distribution of sea level change, leading to biased measurement. The 20-year record from satellite altimetry is the first directly measured time series of the global mean sea level. The satellites uniform global sampling also reveals the complex geographic pattern of sea level change over the past 20 years, underscoring the uncertainty from sparse tide gauge measurement. The contributions to recent sea level rise have roughly equal partitions among the steric effect from ocean warming, the melting of mountain glaciers, and the melting of polar ice sheets. The measurement of the change of Earths gravity field from the GRACE Mission has for the first time provided direct observation of the mass added to the ocean from ice melting. The difference between altimetry and gravity measurements is attributed to the steric sea level change, which has been observed by an in-situ network of float measurement (Argo). The intercomparison of satellite and in-situ observations has provided cross-calibration and mutual validation of the measurement system, demonstrating a calibrated measurement system for global sea level. The ability to diagnose sea level change in terms of its various components represents a key step towards understanding the physical processes. In order to assess the societal impact of sea level rise, one must be able to predict its regional pattern, which involves a host of other factors. The prediction of sea level change thus requires an Earth system science approach. The system consists of the following elements: (1) the measurement of sea level relative to the land, (2) the measurement of the main components of the ice mass contribution to sea level (i.e. surface mass balance and ice dynamics), (3) the steric contribution to sea level, (4) the mechanisms determining the geographic distribution of sea level change; and (5) the integration of these observations in advanced numerical models for hindcast and projection of sea level change. This global observing system will be discussed in the presentation.

Fu, Lee-Lueng

385

Internationalization as a Response to Globalization: Radical Shifts in University Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study probes recent developments in a number of academic and non-academic aspects of a private research university in response to current globalization trends. Under the name of internationalization, university administrators and external firms are emerging as powerful decision-makers shaping academic content and even academic

Stromquist, Nelly P.

2007-01-01

386

GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTE WORKING PAPER NO. 08-03  

E-print Network

catastrophic effects from global climate change. The recent much-publicized Stern Review on the Economics a Response to Climate Change Brian Roach July 2008 Tufts University Medford MA 02155, USA http. 08-03 Policies for Funding a Response to Climate Change Abstract This paper asserts

Tufts University

387

Using TIMSS and PIRLS to Construct Global Indicators of Effective Environments for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an extension of the effort devoted to updating the questionnaires for TIMSS and PIRLS 2011, this dissertation explored a new reporting strategy for contextual questionnaire data. The study investigated the feasibility of constructing "global indicators" from a large number of diverse background variables, which could provide policy makers and

Preuschoff, Anna Corinna

2011-01-01

388

alpine space -man & environment, vol. 7: Global Change and Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions 2008 iup innsbruck university press, ISBN 978-3-902571-97-7  

E-print Network

95 alpine space - man & environment, vol. 7: Global Change and Sustainable Development in Mountain Mountain Forests: Connecting People and Ecology Dan Binkley Colorado Forest Restoration Institute, Warner Mountains form the backbone of the North American continent, separating waters flowing eastward

Binkley, Dan

389

Global monitoring and security assistance based on next generation Internet for public and transportation safety enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, information overload has become a serious concern. However, in the near future, with the development and application of next generation Internet based on IPv6 and multimedia data compress techniques, the overloading problem may be even worsen that people would find them lost in the ocean of multimedia data. Urban traffic video systems for monitoring and intelligence collection is a

Gong Xiaoyan; Gao Haijun; Wang Feiyue

2005-01-01

390

Global long-term monitoring of the ozone layer - a prerequisite for predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Montreal Protocol now controls the production and emission of ozone depleting substances, the timing of ozone recovery is unclear. There are many other factors affecting the ozone layer, in particular climate change is expected to modify the speed of re-creation of the ozone layer. Therefore, long- term observations are needed to monitor the further evolution of the stratospheric

D. G. Loyola; R. M. Coldewey-Egbers; M. Dameris; H. Garny; A. Stenke; M. van Roozendael; C. Lerot; D. Balis; M. Koukouli

2009-01-01

391

The Challenges of Developing a Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ("From Observations to Decisions") recognizes that "water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity", and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the developments at Princeton University towards a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions, flood potential and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of water variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed. Future changes in water availability and drought risk are quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land surface models. For regions with lack of on-the-ground data we are field-testing low-cost environmental sensors and along with new satellite products for terrestrial hydrology and vegetation, integrating these into the system for improved monitoring and prediction. At every step there are scientific challenges whose solutions are only partially being solved. In addition there are challenges in delivering such systems as "climate services", especially to societies with low technical capacity such as rural agriculturalists in sub-Saharan Africa, but whose needs for such information are great. We provide an overview of the system and some examples of real-world applications to flood and drought events, with a focus on Africa.

Wood, Eric F.

2014-05-01

392

The Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Pollution and Activities: Gauging the Tides of Global and Regional Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

After providing an introductory overview of the major land-based threats to the marine environment, this article focuses upon the specific global and regional efforts to address land-based marine pollution and activities through a four-part survey. The main international initiative is first described, namely, the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA). Progress

Ann Powers

2008-01-01

393

Biochemical characterization of the antioxidant system in the scallop Adamussium colbecki, a sentinel organism for monitoring the Antarctic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scallop Adamussium colbecki can be profitably used for monitoring Antarctic coastal environments but its utility would be increased if chemical analyses\\u000a of pollutants were integrated with data on their biological effects. Since oxidative stress is a common pathway of toxicity\\u000a induced by xenobiotics, a preliminary biochemical characterization was carried out on the antioxidant system of this species\\u000a and baseline

F. Regoli; G. B. Principato; E. Bertoli; M. Nigro; E. Orlando

1997-01-01

394

AQUARIUS: A Passive/Active Microwave Sensor to Monitor Sea Surface Salinity Globally from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salinity is important for understanding ocean dynamics, energy exchange with the atmosphere and the global water cycle. Existing data is limited and much of the ocean has never even been sampled. Sea surface salinity can be measured remotely by satellite and a three year mission for this purpose called AquariudSAC-D has recently been selected by NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The objective is to map the salinity field globally with a spatial resolution of 100 km and a monthly average accuracy of 0.2 psu. The mission, scheduled for launch in 2008, is a partnership of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Argentine Comision National de Actividades Epaciales (CONAE).

LeVine, David; Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Colomb, F. Raul; Chao, Yi

2004-01-01

395

Integrating Genome-based Informatics to Modernize Global Disease Monitoring, Information Sharing, and Response  

PubMed Central

The rapid advancement of genome technologies holds great promise for improving the quality and speed of clinical and public health laboratory investigations and for decreasing their cost. The latest generation of genome DNA sequencers can provide highly detailed and robust information on disease-causing microbes, and in the near future these technologies will be suitable for routine use in national, regional, and global public health laboratories. With additional improvements in instrumentation, these next- or third-generation sequencers are likely to replace conventional culture-based and molecular typing methods to provide point-of-care clinical diagnosis and other essential information for quicker and better treatment of patients. Provided there is free-sharing of information by all clinical and public health laboratories, these genomic tools could spawn a global system of linked databases of pathogen genomes that would ensure more efficient detection, prevention, and control of endemic, emerging, and other infectious disease outbreaks worldwide. PMID:23092707

Brown, Eric W.; Detter, Chris; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Gilmour, Matthew W.; Harmsen, Dag; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hewson, Roger; Heymann, David L.; Johansson, Karin; Ijaz, Kashef; Keim, Paul S.; Koopmans, Marion; Kroneman, Annelies; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Lund, Ole; Palm, Daniel; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Sobel, Jeremy; Schlundt, J?rgen

2012-01-01

396

U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works Hearing on an Examination of the Impacts of Global Warming on  

E-print Network

U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works Hearing on an Examination of the Impacts of Global Warming on the Chesapeake Bay September 26, 2007 Testimony of Dr. Donald F. Boesch, Professor is known about the impacts of global warming on the Chesapeake Bay, what future effects are likely

397

Development and Analysis of Global, High-Resolution Diagnostic Metrics for Vegetation Monitoring, Yield Estimation and Famine Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought, through its impact on food scarcity and crop prices, can have significant economic, social, and environmental impacts - presently, up to 36 countries and 73 million people are facing food crises around the globe. Because of these adverse affects, there has been a drive to develop drought and vegetation- monitoring metrics that can quantify and predict human vulnerability/susceptibility to drought at high- resolution spatial scales over the entire globe. Here we introduce a new vegetation-monitoring index utilizing data derived from satellite-based instruments (the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS) designed to identify the vulnerability of vegetation in a particular region to climate variability during the growing season. In addition, the index can quantify the percentage of annual grid-point vegetation production either gained or lost due to climatic variability in a given month. When integrated over the growing season, this index is shown to be better correlated with end-of-season crop yields than traditional remotely-sensed or meteorological indices. In addition, in-season estimates of the index, which are available in near real-time, provide yield forecasts comparable to concurrent in situ objective yield surveys, which are only available in limited regions of the world. Overall, the cost effectiveness and repetitive, near-global view of earth's surface provided by this satellite-based vegetation monitoring index can potentially improve our ability to mitigate human vulnerability/susceptibility to drought and its impacts upon vegetation and agriculture.

Anderson, B. T.; Zhang, P.; Myneni, R.

2008-12-01

398

Remote sensing of gene expression in Planta: transgenic plants as monitors of exogenous stress perception in extraterrestrial environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transgenic arabidopsis plants containing the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were developed as biological sensors for monitoring physiological responses to unique environments. Plants were monitored in vivo during exposure to hypoxia, high salt, cold, and abcissic acid in experiments designed to characterize the utility and responses of the Adh/GFP biosensors. Plants in the presence of environmental stimuli that induced the Adh promoter responded by expressing GFP, which in turn generated a detectable fluorescent signal. The GFP signal degraded when the inducing stimulus was removed. Digital imaging of the Adh/GFP plants exposed to each of the exogenous stresses demonstrated that the stress-induced gene expression could be followed in real time. The experimental results established the feasibility of using a digital monitoring system for collecting gene expression data in real time from Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) biosensor plants during space exploration experiments.

Manak, Michael S.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Sehnke, Paul C.; Ferl, Robert J.

2002-01-01

399

Global positioning system reobservations over the Eastern United States Strain Monitoring Network  

SciTech Connect

In the period March--May, 1990, a 45 station geodetic network, originally established in November--December, 1987, was reobserved using global positioning system (GPS) technology. This network, known as the Eastern US Strain network, was established for the purpose of determining strain and deformation in the central and eastern US. This 1990 reobservation was the first of a series of reobservations scheduled to take place over a decade in order to place meaningful constraints on the small differential movements involved.

Strange, W.E. [National Geodetic Survey, Silver Spring, MD (United States)] [National Geodetic Survey, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

1996-06-01

400

Development of micropower ultrawideband impulse radar medical diagnostic systems for continuous monitoring applications and austere environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the application of Micropower Ultrawideband Impulse Radar (MUIR) technology to the detection and monitoring of intracranial hemorrhage. MUIR is ideally suited for medical diagnostic and monitoring applications because the emitted electromagnetic radiation is non-ionizing and has both peak and average power levels that are orders of magnitude lower than those of a hand-held cell phone. Furthermore, MUIR

John Chang; Christine Paulson; Patrick Welsh

2012-01-01

401

Textile technology for the vital signs monitoring in telemedicine and extreme environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates two extensive applications of a smart garment we previously developed for the monitoring of ECG, respiration, and movement. In the first application, the device, named Maglietta Interattiva Computerizzata (MagIC), was used for the home monitoring of cardiac patients. The used platform included MagIC for signals collection, a touchscreen computer with a dedicated software for data handling, and

Marco Di Rienzo; Paolo Meriggi; Francesco Rizzo; Paolo Castiglioni; Carolina Lombardi; Maurizio Ferratini; Gianfranco Parati

2010-01-01

402

The health promoting school and social justice in a global environment.  

PubMed

Globalisation is present whether recognised in SARS, global terrorism, finance or youth music. With the growth of the health promoting school movement in this context and the increased numbers of countries and schools involved, eight themes are proposed as critical to how the Health Promotion School move forward. They are concerned with: the diverse origins and alliances of forces in the movement; holistic and ecological approach; its status as a global movement; the tension between and empowerment or compliances model; evidence-based and values-based approches; the radical vision; social capital and social inclusion; and sustainability. Reaching the level of acceptance the Health Promotion School has acheived may lead to settling into comfortable official recognition--and assured funding--and losing its militancy. Can the Health Promotion School challenge health inequalities on a national and international scale and can it be a force for social inclusion? PMID:15828510

Parsons, C

2004-01-01

403

Determining indicators, methods and sites for monitoring potential adverse effects of genetically modified plants to the environment: the legal and conceptional framework for implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMPs) have to be monitored. The aim\\u000a of the monitoring is to identify potential adverse effects of the GMPs and their use on human health and the environment.\\u000a There are few concepts showing how GMP monitoring may be implemented. This article indicates monitoring requirements with\\u000a a focus on environmental issues.

Wiebke Zghart; Armin Benzler; Frank Berhorn; Ulrich Sukopp; Frieder Graef

2008-01-01

404

Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCurrent global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3\\/C4 transitions and relative seasonality.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes

Larisa R. G. Desantis; Robert S. Feranec; Bruce J. MacFadden; Jon Moen

2009-01-01

405

Economic aspects of global warming in a post-Copenhagen environment.  

PubMed

The science of global warming has reached a consensus on the high likelihood of substantial warming over the coming century. Nations have taken only limited steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions since the first agreement in Kyoto in 1997, and little progress was made at the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. The present study examines alternative outcomes for emissions, climate change, and damages under different policy scenarios. It uses an updated version of the regional integrated model of climate and the economy (RICE model). Recent projections suggest that substantial future warming will occur if no abatement policies are implemented. The model also calculates the path of carbon prices necessary to keep the increase in global mean temperature to 2 degrees C or less in an efficient manner. The carbon price for 2010 associated with that goal is estimated to be $59 per ton (at 2005 prices), compared with an effective global average price today of around $5 per ton. However, it is unlikely that the Copenhagen temperature goal will be attained even if countries meet their ambitious stated objectives under the Copenhagen Accord. PMID:20547856

Nordhaus, William D

2010-06-29

406

Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments  

PubMed Central

Background Current global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (?1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (?1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C4 grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with warming. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that global warming resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (?28N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global warming in modern ecosystems. PMID:19492043

DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Feranec, Robert S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

2009-01-01

407

Economic aspects of global warming in a post-Copenhagen environment  

PubMed Central

The science of global warming has reached a consensus on the high likelihood of substantial warming over the coming century. Nations have taken only limited steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions since the first agreement in Kyoto in 1997, and little progress was made at the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. The present study examines alternative outcomes for emissions, climate change, and damages under different policy scenarios. It uses an updated version of the regional integrated model of climate and the economy (RICE model). Recent projections suggest that substantial future warming will occur if no abatement policies are implemented. The model also calculates the path of carbon prices necessary to keep the increase in global mean temperature to 2 C or less in an efficient manner. The carbon price for 2010 associated with that goal is estimated to be $59 per ton (at 2005 prices), compared with an effective global average price today of around $5 per ton. However, it is unlikely that the Copenhagen temperature goal will be attained even if countries meet their ambitious stated objectives under the Copenhagen Accord. PMID:20547856

Nordhaus, William D.

2010-01-01

408

Selecting the spatial resolution of satellite sensors required for global monitoring of land transformations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper provides preliminary evidence for the spatial resolutions required to monitor land transformations at broad scales. This is obtained from simulations of imagery at various spatial resolutions between 125 and 4000 m derived from Landsat MSS imagery. Consideration is given to the various types of spatial images detectable by remotely-sensed systems, as well as to the difficulties associated in disentangling permanent land transformations from shorter term changes such as phenological and interannual changes.

Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.

1988-01-01

409

Monitoring Needs to Transform Amazonian Forest Maintenance Into a Global Warming-Mitigation Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two approaches are frequently mentioned in proposals to use tropical forest maintenance as a carbon offset. One is to set\\u000a up specific reserves, funding the establishment, demarcation, and guarding of these units. Monitoring, in this case, consists\\u000a of the relatively straightforward process of confirming that the forest stands in question continue to exist. In Amazonia,\\u000a where large expanses of tropical

Philip M. Fearnside

1997-01-01

410

Bacillus Endospores Isolated from Granite: Close Molecular Relationships to Globally Distributed Bacillus spp. from Endolithic and Extreme Environments  

PubMed Central

As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain ?500 cultivable Bacillus spores and ?104 total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, d