Science.gov

Sample records for global environment monitoring

  1. URBAN AIR POLLUTION WORLDWIDE: RESULTS OF THE GEMS (GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT MONITORING SYSTEM) AIR MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter in urban areas have been compiled in an international air quality monitoring project. Interpretative analyses of the 1973 to 1980 data have been completed, showing the general range of concentrations, intercity compa...

  2. Environment Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Viking landers touched down on Mars equipped with a variety of systems to conduct automated research, each carrying a compact but highly sophisticated instrument for analyzing Martian soil and atmosphere. Instrument called a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) had to be small, lightweight, shock resistant, highly automated and extremely sensitive, yet require minimal electrical power. Viking Instruments Corporation commercialized this technology and targeted their primary market as environmental monitoring, especially toxic and hazardous waste site monitoring. Waste sites often contain chemicals in complex mixtures, and the conventional method of site characterization, taking samples on-site and sending them to a laboratory for analysis is time consuming and expensive. Other terrestrial applications are explosive detection in airports, drug detection, industrial air monitoring, medical metabolic monitoring and for military, chemical warfare agents.

  3. Stimulating innovation for global monitoring of agriculture and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydekerke, Lieven; Gilliams, Sven; Gobin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need to ensure food supply for a growing global population. To enable a sustainable growth of agricultural production, effective and timely information is required to support decision making and to improve management of agricultural resources. This requires innovative ways and monitoring methods that will not only improve short-term crop production forecasts, but also allow to assess changes in cultivation practices, agricultural areas, agriculture in general and, its impact on the environment. The G20 launched in June 2011 the "GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM), requesting the GEO (Group on Earth Observations) Agricultural Community of Practice to implement GEOGLAM with the main objective to improve crop yield forecasts as an input to the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS), in order to foster stabilisation of markets and increase transparency on agricultural production. In response to this need, the European Commission decided in 2013 to fund an international partnership to contribute to GEOGLAM and its research agenda. The resulting SIGMA project (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture), a partnership of 23 globally distributed expert organisations, focusses on developing datasets and innovative techniques in support of agricultural monitoring and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM. SIGMA has 3 generic objectives which are: (i) develop and test methods to characterise cropland and assess its changes at various scales; (ii) develop and test methods to assess changes in agricultural production levels; and; (iii) study environmental impacts of agriculture. Firstly, multi-scale remote sensing data sets, in combination with field and other ancillary data, will be used to generate an improved (global) agro-ecological zoning map and crop mask. Secondly, a combination of agro-meteorological models, satellite-based information and long-term time series will be explored to assess crop yield gaps and shifts in cultivation. The third research topic entails the development of best practices for assessing the impact of crop land and cropping system change on the environment. In support of the GEO JECAM (Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring) initiative, SIGMA has selected case studies in Ukraine, Russia, Europe, Africa, Latin America and China, coinciding with the JECAM sites in these area, to explore possible methodological synergies and particularities according to different cropping systems. In combination with research conducted at regional and global scale, it is one of the goals to improve the understanding of dynamics, interactions and validity of the developed methods at the various scales. In addition, specific activities will be dedicated to raising awareness and strengthening capacity for what concerns agro-environmental monitoring, data accessibility and interoperability in line with the GEOSS Data-core principles. The SIGMA project will also anticipate on the availability of the SENTINEL satellites for agricultural applications as open-data in the near future. References http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/ http://www.geoglam-sigma.info/

  4. Global change monitoring with lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Insarov, G.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental monitoring involves observations and assessment of changes in ecosystems and their components caused by anthropogenetic influence. An ideal monitoring system enables quantification of the contemporary state of the environment and detect changes in it. An important function of monitoring is to assess environment quality of areas that are not affected by local anthropogenic impacts, i.e. background areas. In background areas terrestrial ecosystems are mainly affected by such anthropogenic factors as lowered air pollution and global climate change. Assessment of biotic responses to altered climatic and atmospheric conditions provides an important basis for ecosystem management and environmental decision making. Without the ability to make such assessment, sustainability of ecosystems as a support system for humans remains uncertain.

  5. Monitoring global vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Houston, A. G.; Heydorn, R. P.; Botkin, D. B.; Estes, J. E.; Strahler, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to identify the need for, and the current capability of, a technology which could aid in monitoring the Earth's vegetation resource on a global scale. Vegetation is one of our most critical natural resources, and accurate timely information on its current status and temporal dynamics is essential to understand many basic and applied environmental interrelationships which exist on the small but complex planet Earth.

  6. Review of the Applications of Formosat-2 on Rapidly Responding to Global Disasters and Monitoring Earth Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.

    2009-12-01

    Formosat-2 is the first satellite with high-spatial-resolution sensor deployed in a daily-revisit orbit in the world. Together with its agility of pointing ±45 degree both across and along track, we are able to observe each accessible scene from the same angle under the similar illumination conditions. These characteristics make Formosat-2 an ideal satellite for site surveillance. We developed a Formosat-2 automatic image processing system (F-2 AIPS) that can accurately and rapidly process a large amount of Formosat-2 images to produce the higher levels of products, including rigorous band-to-band coregistration, automatic orthorectification, multi-temporal image coregistration and radiance normalization, and pan-sharpening. This system has been successfully employed to rapidly respond to many international disaster events in the past five years, including flood caused by Typhoon Mindulle (2004), landslide caused by Typhoon Aere (2004), South Asia earthquake and tsunami (2004), Hurricane Katrina (2005), California wildfire (2007), Sichuan Earthquake (2008), Typhoon Kalmaegi (2008), Typhoon Sinlaku (2008), Mountain Ali wildfire (2009), Victoria bushfire in Australia (2009), Honduras earthquake (2009), Typhoon Morakot (2009). This paper reviews the applications of Formosat-2 on rapidly responding to global disasters and monitoring earth environment.

  7. GLobal Integrated Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunkel, Matthew; McGuire, Melissa; Smith, David A.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2011-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a collaborative engineering application built to resolve the design session issues of real-time passing of data between multiple discipline experts in a collaborative environment. Utilizing Web protocols and multiple programming languages, GLIDE allows engineers to use the applications to which they are accustomed in this case, Excel to send and receive datasets via the Internet to a database-driven Web server. Traditionally, a collaborative design session consists of one or more engineers representing each discipline meeting together in a single location. The discipline leads exchange parameters and iterate through their respective processes to converge on an acceptable dataset. In cases in which the engineers are unable to meet, their parameters are passed via e-mail, telephone, facsimile, or even postal mail. The result of this slow process of data exchange would elongate a design session to weeks or even months. While the iterative process remains in place, software can now exchange parameters securely and efficiently, while at the same time allowing for much more information about a design session to be made available. GLIDE is written in a compilation of several programming languages, including REALbasic, PHP, and Microsoft Visual Basic. GLIDE client installers are available to download for both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems. The GLIDE client software is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2000 or later on Windows systems, and with Microsoft Excel X or later on Macintosh systems. GLIDE follows the Client-Server paradigm, transferring encrypted and compressed data via standard Web protocols. Currently, the engineers use Excel as a front end to the GLIDE Client, as many of their custom tools run in Excel.

  8. Teaching about the Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Anne M.

    1985-01-01

    Social studies educators hold an important key to our future success in the management of "spaceship earth." Students must be made aware of the global environment and the many problems facing it. These problems are discussed. (RM)

  9. Global Competitive Environment Spring 2015

    E-print Network

    To understand the environment (cultural, economic, political, legal etc.) of international business · Business are affecting international business and the future of such agreements · Business Knowledge and Competency for understanding international business. Topics to be discussed include: · Globalization of markets · Theories

  10. Providing global WLCG transfer monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, J.; Dieguez Arias, D.; Campana, S.; Flix, J.; Keeble, O.; Magini, N.; Molnar, Z.; Oleynik, D.; Petrosyan, A.; Ro, G.; Saiz, P.; Salichos, M.; Tuckett, D.; Uzhinsky, A.; Wildish, T.

    2012-12-01

    The WLCG[1] Transfers Dashboard is a monitoring system which aims to provide a global view of WLCG data transfers and to reduce redundancy in monitoring tasks performed by the LHC experiments. The system is designed to work transparently across LHC experiments and across the various technologies used for data transfer. Currently each LHC experiment monitors data transfers via experiment-specific systems but the overall cross-experiment picture is missing. Even for data transfers handled by FTS, which is used by 3 LHC experiments, monitoring tasks such as aggregation of FTS transfer statistics or estimation of transfer latencies are performed by every experiment separately. These tasks could be performed once, centrally, and then served to all experiments via a well-defined set of APIs. In the design and development of the new system, experience accumulated by the LHC experiments in the data management monitoring area is taken into account and a considerable part of the code of the ATLAS DDM Dashboard is being re-used. The paper describes the architecture of the Global Transfer monitoring system, the implementation of its components and the first prototype.

  11. Environment surveys. [monitoring and protection of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    Environment applications are concerned with the quality, protection, and improvement of water, land, and air resources and, in particular, with the pollution of these resources caused by man and his works, as well as changes to the resources due to natural phenomena (for example, drought and floods). The broad NASA objectives related to the environment are directed toward the development and demonstration of the capability to monitor remotely and assess environmental conditions related to water quality, land and vegetation quality, wildlife resources, and general environment. The contributions of ERTS-1 to these subdiscipline areas are broadly summarized.

  12. Monitoring the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heins, Conrad F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    New ways of obtaining environmental data are being developed to meet the demand for comprehensive, accurate, and timely information on the environment. This article examines four developments that are transforming the entire field of environmental measurement: spectroscopy; satellite transmission of environmental data; remote sensing; and…

  13. Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University

    E-print Network

    © Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University #12;© Global Development from the Americas Mamerto Pérez and Timothy A. Wise July 2008 #12;© Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University Published by: Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA) Global Development

  14. Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change

    E-print Network

    Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change Henrique M. Pereira1,2,* and H. David Cooper3, Canada, H2Y1N9 Governments have set the ambitious target of reducing biodiversity loss by the year 2010. Here, we review current monitoring efforts and propose a global biodiversity monitoring network

  15. Global monitoring in the neurocritical care unit.

    PubMed

    Olson, DaiWai M; Andrew Kofke, W; O'Phelan, Kristine; Gupta, Puneet K; Figueroa, Stephen A; Smirnakis, Stelios M; Leroux, Peter D; Suarez, Jose I

    2015-06-01

    Effective methods of monitoring the status of patients with neurological injuries began with non-invasive observations and evolved during the past several decades to include more invasive monitoring tools and physiologic measures. The monitoring paradigm continues to evolve, this time back toward the use of less invasive tools. In parallel, the science of monitoring began with the global assessment of the patient's neurological condition, evolved to focus on regional monitoring techniques, and with the advent of enhanced computing capabilities is now moving back to focus on global monitoring. The purpose of this session of the Second Neurocritical Care Research Conference was to collaboratively develop a comprehensive understanding of the state of the science for global brain monitoring and to identify research priorities for intracranial pressure monitoring, neuroimaging, and neuro-electrophysiology monitoring. PMID:25846709

  16. Global environment: Water, air and geochemical cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Berner, E.K.; Berner, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    This book is designed to fill the gap between elementary nonscience books on global environment and change and specialized volumes. The scope is on the global environment and specific examples encompass the globe and have strong reference support. Topics covered in the chapters include the following: global environment in terms of atmospheric, water, and oceanic circulations; air chemistry, the greenhouse effect and the ozone hole; global chemical environment; chemical weathering and water chemistry; lakes in terms of physical, biological and chemical processes and cycles; marine littoral environments; and the open ocean.

  17. MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.

    2007-08-01

    The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has conducted first studies on a Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (MEMOS). The MEMOS microsatellite (mass < 20 kg) will accommodate four scientific instruments: solar EUV/UV monitor (SEM), solar wind monitor (SWIM), magnetometer (MAG) and radiation environment monitor (REM). The payload monitors the solar conditions at Mars and characterizes the Mars environment to support other missions and science investigations. Monitoring of the solar wind parameters (velocity, density, and field) is the key for any aeronomy and solar wind interaction mission at Mars. The solar EUV / UV (HeII 30.4 nm and HII 121.6 nm) flux monitoring is required for upper atmosphere / ionosphere studies. The radiation environment monitoring is needed to study space weather effects on the near-Mars environment as well as for the preparations for man-flights. MEMOS follows the design philosophy of a detached and autonomously flying instrument for achieving the mentioned objectives. It is intended to be carried "piggy-back" to Mars on a suitable mission. Potential missions are: ESA Mars orbiters within the NEXT or Cosmic Vision programs, NASA Mars orbiters, national / bilateral Mars missions. At Mars MEMOS is separated from its carrier (parent satellite) via the release mechanism implemented in the dual formation flight mission PRISMA. The separation will take place during the orbit insertion scenario of the parent satellite at Mars thus placing MEMOS in a highly elliptical orbit guarantying sufficient observation time in the solar wind. In orbit MEMOS will autonomously detumble and spin-up to ~1 rpm for reasons of stabilization and to fulfill instrument requirements. Such a low spin-rate is sufficient for a required inertial pointing accuracy of 2.5° because of the small external disturbance torques (< 10-7 Nm) predominant at Mars responsible for nutation and precession of the spin-axis. The advances in micropropulsion systems providing ?NmN adjustable thrust levels and reducing the dry mass to ~2 kg respectively are key factors in keeping the microsatellite stabilized and sun-pointed without stressing the mass budget. The low thrust level enables precise and active nutation damping. Moreover the system offers the possibility of implementing active orbit control or formation flight demonstrations at Mars. Attitude will be determined on-board with an accuracy < 1.0° using miniaturized Horizon Crossing Indicators, a two-axis sun sensor and in support accelerometers and gyroscopes based on MEMS-technology. TM/TC will be relayed via the parent satellite in the UHF frequency range. Therefore the Electra Lite (ELT) Proximity-1 transceiver will autonomously communicate with the parent satellite at inter-satellite ranges < 10 000 km featuring adaptive bit rates > 2 kbit/s. The transceiver also implements a coherent transponding mode for orbit determination through two-way Doppler ranging between the parent satellite and MEMOS. In addition ELT is compatible with a future Martian communication and navigation network pursued by NASA, which could be taken advantage of in the future for relaying data or performing ranging via other satellites part of the network. A system design driver for inter-satellite communication at Mars is the high demand of power. This leads to a disk-shape and thus easy to accommodate spacecraft configuration of MEMOS comprising a single sun-pointing solar array favourable in terms of power and spin stability. Multi-junction solar cells, which currently have an efficiency of ~29% under laboratory conditions are a key factor to keep MEMOS solar array area of ~1.15 m2 small compared to the worst case system power requirements of ~105 W. During eclipse periods high-efficient Li-ion batteries (6 x 20 Wh) will ensure power supply. The spacecraft and payload design will incorporate new technology developments such as autonomous navigation, MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS, Micro- Opto-ElectroMechanical Sys

  18. Azores Global Atmosphere Monitoring Complex 1. INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Honrath, Richard E.

    Azores Global Atmosphere Monitoring Complex 1. INTRODUCTION The Azores Global Atmospheric AS A BASE FOR ATMOSPHERIC STUDIES The Azores Islands (Fig. 1) have a long history as a base for atmospheric to the accuracy of European weather forecasts. Today, they provide a unique base for studies of atmospheric

  19. Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Henrique M; David Cooper, H

    2006-03-01

    Governments have set the ambitious target of reducing biodiversity loss by the year 2010. The scientific community now faces the challenge of assessing the progress made towards this target and beyond. Here, we review current monitoring efforts and propose a global biodiversity monitoring network to complement and enhance these efforts. The network would develop a global sampling programme for indicator taxa (we suggest birds and vascular plants) and would integrate regional sampling programmes for taxa that are locally relevant to the monitoring of biodiversity change. The network would also promote the development of comparable maps of global land cover at regular time intervals. The extent and condition of specific habitat types, such as wetlands and coral reefs, would be monitored based on regional programmes. The data would then be integrated with other environmental and socioeconomic indicators to design responses to reduce biodiversity loss. PMID:16701487

  20. Automatic Workflow Monitoring in Industrial Environments

    E-print Network

    Grabner, Helmut

    over time [4] to cope with changing conditions. Various machine learning and statistical methods haveAutomatic Workflow Monitoring in Industrial Environments Galina Veres1 , Helmut Grabner2 , Lee workflow monitoring using visual sensors in industrial environments is still an unsolved problem

  1. Global temperature monitoring from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Global and regional temperature variations in the lower troposphere and lower stratosphere are examined for the period 1979-92 from Microwave Sounder Unit (MSU) data obtained by the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS)-N series of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operational satellites. In the lower troposphere, globally-averaged temperature variations appear to be dominated by tropical El Nino (warm) and La Nina (cool) events and volcanic eruptions. The Pinatubo volcanic eruption in June 1991 appears to have initiated a cooling trend which persisted through the most recent data analyzed (July, 1992), and largely overwhelmed the warming from the 1991-92 El Nino. The cooling has been stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. The temperature trend over the 13.5 year satellite record is small (+0.03 C) compared to the year-to-year variability (0.2-0.4 C), making detection of any global warming signal fruitless to date. However, the future global warming trend, currently predicted to be around 0.3 C/decade, will be much easier to discern should it develop. The lower stratospheric temperature record is dominated by warm episodes from the Pinatubo eruption and the March 1982 eruption of El Chichon volcano.

  2. Towards a global terrestrial species monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeller, Dirk S.; Julliard, Romain; Bellingham, Peter J.; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Couvet, Denis; Elmendorf, Sarah; Forsyth, David M.; Moreno, Jaime García; Gregory, Richard D.; Magnusson, William E.; Martin, Laura J.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Pereira, Henrique M.; Proença, Vânia; van Swaay, Chris A.M.; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Convention for Biological Diversity’s (CBD) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 envisions that “By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.” Although 193 parties have adopted these goals, there is little infrastructure in place to monitor global biodiversity trends. Recent international conservation policy requires such data to be up-to-date, reliable, comparable among sites, relevant, and understandable; as is becoming obvious from the work plan adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES: www.ipbes.net/; http://tinyurl.com/ohdnknq). In order to meet the five strategic goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its 20 accompanying Aichi Targets for 2020 (www.cbd.int/sp/targets/), advances need to be made in coordinating large-scale biodiversity monitoring and linking these with environmental data to develop a comprehensive Global Observation Network, as is the main idea behind GEOSS the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (Christian 2005)...Here we identify ten requirements important for the successful implementation of a global biodiversity monitoring network under the flag of GEO BON and especially a global terrestrial species monitoring program.

  3. Global monitoring concept for bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmeister, Konrad; Santa, Ulrich

    2000-06-01

    Knowledge of the integrity of in-service structures on a continuous time basis is an ultimate objective for owners and maintenance authorities. The development of a life extension and/or replacement strategy for highway structures is a crucial point in an effective bridge management system. A key component of such a bridge management system is a means of surveillance techniques and determining the condition of an existing structure within the normative and budgetary constraints. Recent advances in sensing technologies and material/structure damage characterization combined with current developments in computations and communications have resulted in a significant interest in developing diagnostic technologies for monitoring the integrity of and for the detection of damages of structures. To identify anomalies and deterioration processes, it is essential to understand the relationships between the signal measurements and the real occurred phenomena. Therefore, the comparison of measured and calculated data in order to tune and validate the mechanical and numerical model assumptions is an integral part of any system analysis. Finally, the interpreted results of all measurements should be the basis for the condition assessment and the safety evaluation of a structure to facilitate replacement and repair decisions.

  4. Real Space Monitoring Technique in Ubiquitous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kon, Tetsuya; Ohira, Yutaka; Kubota, Yuzuru; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    A method of a monitoring and remote controlling real world have been described by using a VRML/Java based virtual reality space which contains multimedia elements, intended for the development of a ubiquitous monitoring system. The focuses are given on the improvements for currently used, static virtual reality spaces to be more capable of an interactive function through which users can bilaterally monitor or control the real world. The monitoring is realized by reflecting sensing data from sensors which were placed in the real space onto a virtual reality space. Remote control can be realized by sending commands to actuators through the 3-D space. Additionally, the virtual reality space has been created as a Web page. So that the multiple users can access the system at the same time. The developed system has shown the availability for such applications as robot navigation, management of buildings and monitoring of factories and environments. In this paper, the construction method of the new technique of the real space monitoring and its operation experiment are described which can put in view a full-scall ubiquitous environment. The extendibility and possibility for monitoring are also described which could provide essential ubiquitous environments.

  5. Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies

    E-print Network

    Larson, Kristine

    Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies Kristine M. Larson,1 Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring an effective tool for hazard mitigation. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is well-suited for monitoring

  6. Satellite global monitoring of environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The missions of two NASA satellites for the monitoring of environmental quality are described: Nimbus G, the Air Pollution and Oceanographic Observing Satellite, and the Applications Explorer Mission (AEM) satellite to be used in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE). The scientific payload of Nimbus G is described in detail with a discussion of limb infrared monitoring of the stratosphere, the stratospheric and mesospheric sounder, stratospheric aerosol measurement, the solar and backscatter UV spectrometer for ozone mapping, the earth radiation budget experiment, the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer, the coastal zone color scanner and the temperature-humidity infrared radiometer. A brief description is given of the SAGE program and future NASA plans relating to the global monitoring of environmental quality are outlined.

  7. TOWARDS A GLOBAL OCEAN MESOSCALE MONITORING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranchant, B.; Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Greiner, E.; Derval, C.; Testut, C.

    2009-12-01

    The new global ocean forecasting system developed at Mercator Ocean will be the reference at the end of the European MyOcean project in 2012. This global ocean forecasting system at 1/12° consists of a global ocean and sea ice models based on the NEMO OGCM and a data assimilation scheme named SAM2v1 based on the SEEK filter. The third main component is the observation data set routinely used both by the data assimilation scheme and by the validation procedures. This new multivariate data assimilation system is able to assimilate both in situ and remotely sensed data (SLA, SST) in order to provide the initial conditions required for numerical ocean prediction. The main characteristics of this system are (i) the background error covariances calculated from a free oceanic simulation, (ii) the adaptive error variance, (iii) the use of the localization technique and (iv) the use of the I.A.U. (Incremental Analysis Updates) procedure where analysis increments are inserted at every time step during the same period than the forecast trajectory, i.e. over the same period as the data window. Thus, this new global ocean forecasting system offers a new perspective on the global ocean mesoscale monitoring. Different comparisons with other systems or independent data will be shown.

  8. Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Farahmand, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Drought is by far the most costly natural disaster that can lead to widespread impacts, including water and food crises. Here we present data sets available from the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS), which provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators. The system provides meteorological and agricultural drought information based on multiple satellite-, and model-based precipitation and soil moisture data sets. GIDMaPS includes a near real-time monitoring component and a seasonal probabilistic prediction module. The data sets include historical drought severity data from the monitoring component, and probabilistic seasonal forecasts from the prediction module. The probabilistic forecasts provide essential information for early warning, taking preventive measures, and planning mitigation strategies. GIDMaPS data sets are a significant extension to current capabilities and data sets for global drought assessment and early warning. The presented data sets would be instrumental in reducing drought impacts especially in developing countries. Our results indicate that GIDMaPS data sets reliably captured several major droughts from across the globe. PMID:25977759

  9. Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Farahmand, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Drought is by far the most costly natural disaster that can lead to widespread impacts, including water and food crises. Here we present data sets available from the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS), which provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators. The system provides meteorological and agricultural drought information based on multiple satellite-, and model-based precipitation and soil moisture data sets. GIDMaPS includes a near real-time monitoring component and a seasonal probabilistic prediction module. The data sets include historical drought severity data from the monitoring component, and probabilistic seasonal forecasts from the prediction module. The probabilistic forecasts provide essential information for early warning, taking preventive measures, and planning mitigation strategies. GIDMaPS data sets are a significant extension to current capabilities and data sets for global drought assessment and early warning. The presented data sets would be instrumental in reducing drought impacts especially in developing countries. Our results indicate that GIDMaPS data sets reliably captured several major droughts from across the globe. PMID:25977759

  10. Monitoring Seasons Through Global Learning Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Robin, J. H.; Jeffries, M. O.; Gordon, L. S.; Verbyla, D. L.; Levine, E. R.

    2006-12-01

    Monitoring Seasons through Global Learning Communities (MSTGLC) is an inquiry- and project-based project that monitors seasons, specifically their interannual variability, in order to increase K-12 students' understanding of the Earth system by providing teacher professional development in Earth system science and inquiry, and engaging K-12 students in Earth system science research relevant to their local communities that connect globally. MSTGLC connects GLOBE students, teachers, and communities, with educators and scientists from three integrated Earth systems science programs: the International Arctic Research Center, and NASA Landsat Data Continuity and Terra Satellite Missions. The project organizes GLOBE schools by biomes into eight Global Learning Communities (GLCs) and students monitor their seasons through regional based field campaigns. The project expands the current GLOBE phenology network by adapting current protocols and making them biome-specific. In addition, ice and mosquito phenology protocols will be developed for Arctic and Tropical regions, respectively. Initially the project will focus on Tundra and Taiga biomes as phenological changes are so pronounced in these regions. However, our long-term goal is to determine similar changes in other biomes (Deciduous Forest, Desert, Grasslands, Rain Forest, Savannah and Shrubland) based upon what we learn from these two biomes. This project will also contribute to critically needed Earth system science data such as in situ ice, mosquito, and vegetation phenology measurements for ground validations of remotely sensed data, which are essential for regional climate change impact assessments. Additionally it will contribute environmental data critical to prevention and management of diseases such as malaria in Asian, African, and other countries. Furthermore, this project will enable students to participate in the International Polar Year (IPY) (2007-2009) through field campaigns conducted by students in polar regions, and web chats between IPY scientists and GLOBE students from all eight GLCs that include non-polar countries.

  11. AVHRR for monitoring global tropical deforestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malingreau, J. P.; Laporte, N.; Tucker, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data have been used to assess the dynamics of forest trnsformations in three parts of the tropical belt. A large portion of the Amazon Basin has been systematically covered by Local Area Coverage (LAC) data in the 1985-1987 period. The analysis of the vegetation index and thermal data led to the identification and measurement of large areas of active deforestation. The Kalimantan/Borneo forest fires were monitored and their impact was evaluated using the Global Area Coverage (GAC) 4 km resolution data. Finally, High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data have provided preliminary information on current activities taking place at the boundary between the savanna and the forest in the Southern part of West Africa. The AVHRR approach is found to be a highly valuable means for carrying out deforestation assessments in regional and global perspectives.

  12. Satellite Constellation Monitors Global and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chio-Zong Frank; Kuo, Ying-Hwa; Anthes, Richard A.; Wu, Lance

    2006-04-01

    Six identical microsatellites were successfully launched into a circular low Earth orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., at 0140 UTC on 15 April 2006. Termed the Formosa Satellite 3 and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC) mission, the new constellation's primary science goal is to obtain vertical profiles in near-real time of temperature, pressure, and water vapor in the neutral atmosphere and electron density in the ionosphere. The observations will be used to support operational global weather prediction, climate monitoring and research, space weather forecasting, and ionospheric research.

  13. Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids by Space Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Dehant, V.; Gross, R. S.; Ray, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.; Watkins, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since its establishment on 1/1/1998 by the International Earth Rotation Service, the Coordinating Center for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids (MGGF) and its seven Special Bureaus have engaged in an effort to support and facilitate the understanding of the geophysical fluids in global geodynamics research. Mass transports in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") will cause the following geodynamic effects on a broad time scale: (1) variations in the solid Earth's rotation (in length-of-day and polar motion/nutation) via the conservation of angular momentum and effected by torques at the fluid-solid Earth interface; (2) changes in the global gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law; and (3) motion in the center of mass of the solid Earth relative to that of the whole Earth ("geocenter") via the conservation of linear momentum. These minute signals have become observable by space geodetic techniques, primarily VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS, with ever increasing precision/accuracy and temporal/spatial resolution. Each of the seven Special Bureaus within MGGF is responsible for calculations related to a specific Earth component or aspect -- Atmosphere, Ocean, Hydrology, Ocean Tides, Mantle, Core, and Gravity/Geocenter. Angular momenta and torques, gravitational coefficients, and geocenter shift will be computed for geophysical fluids based on global observational data, and from state-of-the-art models, some of which assimilate such data. The computed quantities, algorithm and data formats are standardized. The results are archived and made available to the scientific research community. This paper reports the status of the MGGF activities and current results.

  14. Development and testing of crop monitoring methods to improve global agricultural monitoring in support of GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliams, S. J. B.; Bydekerke, L.

    2014-12-01

    The SIGMA project (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture) is funded through the EC FPY7 Research programme with the particular aim to contribute to the GEOGLAM Research Agenda. It is a partnership of globally distributed expert organizations, focusses on developing innovative techniques and datasets in support of agricultural monitoring and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM. SIGMA has 3 generic objectives which are: (i) develop and test methods to characterize cropland and assess its changes at various scales; (ii) develop and test methods to assess changes in agricultural production levels; and; (iii) study environmental impacts of agriculture. Firstly, multi-scale remote sensing data sets, in combination with field and other ancillary data, are used to generate an improved (global) agro-ecological zoning map and crop mask. Secondly, a combination of agro-meteorological models, satellite-based information and long-term time series are be explored to better assess crop yield gaps and shifts in cultivation. The third research topic entails the development of best practices for assessing the impact of crop land and cropping system change on the environment. In support of the GEO JECAM (Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring) initiative, case studies in Ukraine, Russia, Europe, Africa, Latin America and China are carried out in order to explore possible methodological synergies and particularities according to different cropping systems. This presentation will report on the progress made with respect to the three topics above.

  15. Passive Global, Real-Time TEC Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    2002-12-01

    Sensors are being developed to provide a satellite-based VHF global lightning monitor (e.g. Suszcynsky, et al., "VHF Global Lightning and Severe Storm Monitoring from Space: Storm-level Characterization of VHF Lightning Emissions," EOS Trans. AGU 2001 Fall Mt. Prog. And Abstr. 82, No. 47, F143, 2001). Dispersive effects of propagation of the lightning electromagnetic wave through the ionospheric and plasmaspheric plasmas cause the higher frequency components to arrive at the satellite before lower frequency components. From the time-of-arrival at several frequencies we can derive the TEC between the satellite and the lightning. Using multi-satellite techniques we can geolocate the lightning and the ionospheric penetration point quite accurately. A single ground station could provide essentially real-time regional TEC coverage. Four ground stations could provide global, real-time TEC measurements to supplement existing ground-based systems, especially over broad ocean areas. We expect several lightning detections per satellite per minute. Temporal resolution will be limited only by ground segment processing. Spatial coverage and resolution will be limited by lightning occurrence, but many commercial sector TEC requirements are also correlated to lightning occurrence. With our FORTE (Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events) satellite we sense lightning over most of the globe including the oceans. We expect to determine TEC spatial gradients with tens of km resolution. This capability should be especially useful in severe convective weather to aircraft using GPS-based navigation, e.g. the FAA's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS).

  16. Global Disease Monitoring and Forecasting with Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Priedhorsky, Reid

    2014-01-01

    Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based on social internet data, such as social media and search queries, are emerging. These efforts are promising, but important challenges in the areas of scientific peer review, breadth of diseases and countries, and forecasting hamper their operational usefulness. We examine a freely available, open data source for this use: access logs from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Using linear models, language as a proxy for location, and a systematic yet simple article selection procedure, we tested 14 location-disease combinations and demonstrate that these data feasibly support an approach that overcomes these challenges. Specifically, our proof-of-concept yields models with up to 0.92, forecasting value up to the 28 days tested, and several pairs of models similar enough to suggest that transferring models from one location to another without re-training is feasible. Based on these preliminary results, we close with a research agenda designed to overcome these challenges and produce a disease monitoring and forecasting system that is significantly more effective, robust, and globally comprehensive than the current state of the art. PMID:25392913

  17. Global disease monitoring and forecasting with Wikipedia

    SciTech Connect

    Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Priedhorsky, Reid; Salathé, Marcel

    2014-11-13

    Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based on social internet data, such as social media and search queries, are emerging. These efforts are promising, but important challenges in the areas of scientific peer review, breadth of diseases and countries, and forecasting hamper their operational usefulness. We examine a freely available, open data source for this use: access logs from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Using linear models, language as a proxy for location, and a systematic yet simple article selection procedure, we tested 14 location-disease combinations and demonstrate that these data feasibly support an approach that overcomes these challenges. Specifically, our proof-of-concept yields models with up to 0.92, forecasting value up to the 28 days tested, and several pairs of models similar enough to suggest that transferring models from one location to another without re-training is feasible. Based on these preliminary results, we close with a research agenda designed to overcome these challenges and produce a disease monitoring and forecasting system that is significantly more effective, robust, and globally comprehensive than the current state of the art.

  18. Global disease monitoring and forecasting with Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y; Priedhorsky, Reid

    2014-11-01

    Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based on social internet data, such as social media and search queries, are emerging. These efforts are promising, but important challenges in the areas of scientific peer review, breadth of diseases and countries, and forecasting hamper their operational usefulness. We examine a freely available, open data source for this use: access logs from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Using linear models, language as a proxy for location, and a systematic yet simple article selection procedure, we tested 14 location-disease combinations and demonstrate that these data feasibly support an approach that overcomes these challenges. Specifically, our proof-of-concept yields models with r2 up to 0.92, forecasting value up to the 28 days tested, and several pairs of models similar enough to suggest that transferring models from one location to another without re-training is feasible. Based on these preliminary results, we close with a research agenda designed to overcome these challenges and produce a disease monitoring and forecasting system that is significantly more effective, robust, and globally comprehensive than the current state of the art. PMID:25392913

  19. Global disease monitoring and forecasting with Wikipedia

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Priedhorsky, Reid; Salathé, Marcel

    2014-11-13

    Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based on social internet data, such as social media and search queries, are emerging. These efforts are promising, but important challenges in the areas of scientific peer review, breadth of diseases and countries, and forecasting hamper their operational usefulness. We examine a freely available, open data source for this use: accessmore »logs from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Using linear models, language as a proxy for location, and a systematic yet simple article selection procedure, we tested 14 location-disease combinations and demonstrate that these data feasibly support an approach that overcomes these challenges. Specifically, our proof-of-concept yields models with up to 0.92, forecasting value up to the 28 days tested, and several pairs of models similar enough to suggest that transferring models from one location to another without re-training is feasible. Based on these preliminary results, we close with a research agenda designed to overcome these challenges and produce a disease monitoring and forecasting system that is significantly more effective, robust, and globally comprehensive than the current state of the art.« less

  20. Tele-monitoring system for water environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, George; Tecu, Georgiana R.; Fratu, Octavian; Ochian, Adelina; Suciu, Victor

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach for a monitoring system, with applicability for water environments, based on a previous state of the art regarding both communication challenges in water and underwater monitoring but also the technologies which may be used in such surroundings. The system is based on an underwater sensors network which is connected to a cloud platform by means of a reconfigurable wireless transceiver. The sensor network integrates several low cost sensors that can measure different parameters such as water level, the water flow, temperature, pressure etc. The paper analyzes the measured parameters that will be transmitted through an operational communication node, which is able to ensure a reliable communication with timing and variation delay constraints. The cloud platform collects and stores the environmental data received from the targeted locations. Finally, the paper describes the platform interface available to end users, which will provide a real time visualization of the water environment events.

  1. Monitoring tropical environments with Space Shuttle photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfert, Michael R.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital photography from the Space Shuttle missions (1981-88) and earlier manned spaceflight programs (1962-1975) allows remote sensing time series to be constructed for observations of environmental change in selected portions of the global tropics. Particular topics and regions include deforestation, soil erosion, supersedimentation in streams, lacustrine, and estuarine environments, and desertification in the greater Amazon, tropical Africa and Madagascar, South and Southeast Asia, and the Indo-Pacific archipelagoes.

  2. Monitoring, analyzing, and modeling global climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Diabatic heating rate estimates as residuals of the dry thermodynamic equation were generated for May 1, 1985 to December 1989 in pentad resolution. Published results show moderate correlations (approx. .6) between heating rate and outgoing long wave radiation for periods under 90 days in the tropics and many extratropical locations. Nine years of simulation with the Community Climate Model 1 (CCM1) using R15 and observed sea surface temperatures shows that the model retains significantly more heat at the surface and in the free atmosphere than does the actual earth system. A post-processor for the CCM1, with capabilities to produce simulated microwave sounding unit (MSU) brightness temperatures was written. Techniques were refined considerably and validation studies were carried out to verify the globally distributed free atmosphere temperature anomalies derived from MSU data. The precision is such that detailed, long-term climate monitoring is well within the capability of these data.

  3. Monitoring Global Freshwater Resources with GRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matt; Famiglietti, Jay; Velicogna, Isabella; Swenson, Sean; Chambers, Don

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater resources include surface waters, groundwater, and seasonal snowpack. Given adequate ground based measurements, all of these can be monitored effectively, however, outside of the developed world such measurements often are not systematic and the data not centralized, and as a result reports of freshwater availability may be largely anecdotal. Even in the developed world it can be difficult to quantify changes in groundwater storage over large scales. Owing to its global coverage, satellite remote sensing has become a valuable tool for freshwater resources assessment. In particular, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has demonstrated an unequaled ability to monitor total terrestrial water storage including groundwater at regional to continental scales. In this presentation we will identify apparent trends in terrestrial water storage observed by GRACE over the past nine years and attempt to explain their origins and predict whether they are likely to continue. Trends in certain regions where groundwater extraction has significantly depleted aquifers, including northern India and California, will be discussed in detail.

  4. Monitoring Marine Environments using a Team of Heterogeneous Robots

    E-print Network

    Dudek, Gregory

    1 Monitoring Marine Environments using a Team of Heterogeneous Robots Yogesh Girdhar1, Anqi Xu1, Gregory Dudek1 Abstract--We present a novel approach for monitoring marine environments by a team supervisor to plan for further exploration. I. INTRODUCTION Monitoring marine environments is a challenging

  5. Infrared monitoring of the Space Station environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Jennings, Donald E.; Mumma, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement and monitoring of infrared emission in the environment of the Space Station has a twofold importance - for the study of the phenomena itself and as an aid in planning and interpreting Station based infrared experiments. Spectral measurements of the infrared component of the spacecraft glow will, along with measurements in other spectral regions, provide data necessary to fully understand and model the physical and chemical processes producing these emissions. The monitoring of the intensity of these emissions will provide background limits for Space Station based infrared experiments and permit the determination of optimum instrument placement and pointing direction. Continuous monitoring of temporal changes in the background radiation (glow) will also permit better interpretation of Station-based infrared earth sensing and astronomical observations. The primary processes producing infrared emissions in the Space Station environment are: (1) Gas phase excitations of Station generated molecules ( e.g., CO2, H2O, organics...) by collisions with the ambient flux of mainly O and N2. Molecular excitations and generation of new species by collisions of ambient molecules with Station surfaces. They provide a list of resulting species, transition energies, excitation cross sections and relevant time constants. The modeled spectrum of the excited species occurs primarily at wavelengths shorter than 8 micrometer. Emissions at longer wavelengths may become important during rocket firing or in the presence of dust.

  6. Continuously Monitored Global Virtual Time in Parallel Discrete Event Simulation

    E-print Network

    Bystroff, Chris

    Continuously Monitored Global Virtual Time in Parallel Discrete Event Simulation Ewa Deelman information. In this paper we present a new algorithm, the Continuously Monitored Global Virtual Time (CMGVT, as well as the incoming and outgoing messages. Therefore, the major drawback of the optimistic 1 #12

  7. Microbial monitoring of spacecraft and associated environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Duc, M. T.; Kern, R.; Venkateswaran, K.

    2004-01-01

    Rapid microbial monitoring technologies are invaluable in assessing contamination of spacecraft and associated environments. Universal and widespread elements of microbial structure and chemistry are logical targets for assessing microbial burden. Several biomarkers such as ATP, LPS, and DNA (ribosomal or spore-specific), were targeted to quantify either total bioburden or specific types of microbial contamination. The findings of these assays were compared with conventional, culture-dependent methods. This review evaluates the applicability and efficacy of some of these methods in monitoring the microbial burden of spacecraft and associated environments. Samples were collected from the surfaces of spacecraft, from surfaces of assembly facilities, and from drinking water reservoirs aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Culture-dependent techniques found species of Bacillus to be dominant on these surfaces. In contrast, rapid, culture-independent techniques revealed the presence of many Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms, as well as actinomycetes and fungi. These included both cultivable and noncultivable microbes, findings further confirmed by DNA-based microbial detection techniques. Although the ISS drinking water was devoid of cultivable microbes, molecular-based techniques retrieved DNA sequences of numerous opportunistic pathogens. Each of the methods tested in this study has its advantages, and by coupling two or more of these techniques even more reliable information as to microbial burden is rapidly obtained. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Remote sensing monitoring of the global ozonosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, S.; Bortoli, D.; Ravegnani, F.

    2013-10-01

    The use of CFCs, which are the main responsible for the ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere and the formation of the so-called "ozone hole" over Antarctic Region, was phase out by Montreal Protocol (1989). CFCs' concentration is recently reported to decrease in the free atmosphere, but severe episodes of ozone depletion in both Arctic and Antarctic regions are still occurring. Nevertheless the complete recovery of the Ozone layer is expected by about 2050. Recent simulation of perturbations in stratospheric chemistry highlight that circulation, temperature and composition are strictly correlated and they influence the global climate changes. Chemical composition plays an important role in the thermodynamic of the atmosphere, as every gaseous species can absorb and emit in different wavelengths, so their different concentration is responsible for the heating or cooling of the atmosphere. Therefore long-term observations are required to monitor the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer. Measurements from satellite remote sensing instruments, which provide wide coverage, are supplementary to selective ground-based observations which are usually better calibrated, more stable in time and cover a wider time span. The combination of the data derived from different space-borne instruments calibrated with ground-based sensors is needed to produce homogeneous and consistent long-term data records. These last are required for robust investigations and especially for trend analysis. Here, we perform a review of the major remote-sensing techniques and of the principal datasets available to study the evolution of ozone layer in the past decades and predict future behavio

  9. Coastal environment: historical and continuous monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivaldi, Roberta; Surace, Luciano

    2010-05-01

    The monitoring is a tool providing essential data to study the process dynamic. The formation and transformation of coastal environment involve physical, chemical, geological and biological processes. The knowledge of the littoral systems and marine seafloor therefore requires a multidisciplinary approach. Since the phenomena observation occurs in a short period of time it requires the use of high quality data acquired with high accuracy and suitable processing procedures. This knowledge considerable increased during the past 50 years closely following significant progress in the methods of investigation at sea and laboratory. In addition seafloor exploration is deeply rooted in History. A sector actually subject to control results the coastal zone for its position as transition component between continental and marine environments with closely connected natural and human actions. Certainly these activities are important in the time to develop the technologies suited for the knowledge and to increase different protection, prevention, intervention and management tools. In this context the Istituto Idrografico della Marina (Hydrographic Institute of Italian Navy - I.I.M.) is a precursor because since its foundation (in 1872) it contributed to the monitoring activities related to charting and navigation, including hydrologic surveying, seafloor measurements and in consequence the landward limit, the shoreline. The coastal area is certainly the most changeable sector either natural or socio-economic causes. This is the most dynamic environment, subject both to marine (waves and currents) and continental (river and ice) actions, and continuously changing the intended use for the increase of industrial, commercial, recreation and the need for new structures to support. The coast has more recently taken on a growing value determined by some processes, including erosion and retreat are evidence of a transformation of which, however, undermine the system and impoverishing the existing one. The constant monitoring activities of I.I.M. are the production of nautical paper charts and electronic navigational charts (ENC) together other specialised nautical charts and publications to aid safe navigation, the processing of the oldest data from analogical to digital and the care preservation in the archives of all hydrographic survey information. This process is occurred according to an international recognized standard, such as to allow a continuous improvement of all acquired data, even if with more advanced tools and technologies for the development of cartography in constant update both in content and in restitution. In this research the archives infrastructure is used to conduct hydrographic data collection and processing to follow the secular variation and its evolution of the shoreline and coastal seafloor. A key element in monitoring these changes, both of the sub-aerial and submarine beach, is the determination of the shoreline and restitution as the coastline, which already includes the definition of its complexity, in a time period that must be long enough. We present some examples of the Italian littoral evolution with evident changes of coastal morphology in support of present monitoring.

  10. Industrial Lead in the Global Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flegal, A. R.; Ericson, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    Although the rates of emission, fluxes and recycling of natural and industrial lead in biogeochemical systems are needed to quantify environmental lead pollution, those geochemical processes are rarely incorporated in either Earth Science or Environmental Health Science curriculum. The need for an understanding of the global lead cycle in those diverse fields is due to the omnipresence of industrial lead contamination that was initiated over five millennia ago, which has often exceeded natural emissions of lead by orders of magnitude. That contamination has been repeatedly demonstrated in environmental analyses ranging from the most remote polar regions and oceans of the Earth to urban and industrial regions. The latter include studies of soil lead in Baltimore, New Orleans, St. Paul-Minneapolis, Los Angeles, Tijuana, and Ottawa, which show that lead from past combustion of leaded gasoline remains in those cities and it is bioavailable. With the protracted residence time of that soil lead (102 - 103 years), it is estimated that generations of urban children will continue to be exposed to this toxicant, unless there is abatement. Moreover, many third world countries are still using leaded gasoline and other sources of industrial lead continue to be emitted into the environment, albeit at reduced levels. Consequently, the geochemical cycling of lead is and will continue to be a most appropriate and topical subject of study in the curriculum of earth science and environmental health science.

  11. Early Action on the Global Environmental Monitoring System. A Report of the International Environmental Programs Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Environmental Studies Board.

    The Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS) is one of four components of Earthwatch, a part of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). The purpose of GEMS is to provide early warning of impending natural or man-induced environmental changes or trends that threaten direct or indirect harm to human health or well-being. In 1975, the…

  12. Globalization Contextualized: An Organization-Environment Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, changes in higher education, the emerging global economy, and other social changes all influence the environment in which community colleges operate. This article investigates leadership perceptions of adaptation to a rapidly globalizing education environment. Data were collected through a multisite case study that…

  13. Persistent Robotic Tasks: Monitoring and Sweeping in Changing Environments

    E-print Network

    Smith, Stephen L.

    In this paper, we present controllers that enable mobile robots to persistently monitor or sweep a changing environment. The environment is modeled as a field that is defined over a finite set of locations. The field grows ...

  14. MODVOLC: near-real-time thermal monitoring of global volcanism

    E-print Network

    Wright, Robert

    -spatial resolution imagery (e.g. 30- to 120-m pixels) can yield useful information regard- ing the detailed thermalMODVOLC: near-real-time thermal monitoring of global volcanism Robert Wright*, Luke P. Flynn Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the global distribution of volcanic thermal anomalies

  15. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. (editor); Rossow, W. (editor); Fung, I. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

  16. Applications of the EOS SAR to monitoring global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schier, Marguerite; Way, Jobea; Holt, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    The SAR employed by NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a multifrequency multipolarization radar which can conduct global monitoring of geophysical and biophysical parameters. The present discussion of the EOS SAR's role in global monitoring emphasizes geophysical product variables applicable to global hydrologic, biogeochemical, and energy cycle models. EOS SAR products encompass biomass, wetland areas, and phenologic and environmental states, in the field of ecosystem dynamics; soil moisture, snow moisture and extent, and glacier and ice sheet extent and velocity, in hydrologic cycle studies; surface-wave fields and sea ice properties, in ocean/atmosphere circulation; and the topography, erosion, and land forms of the solid earth.

  17. Remote monitoring: A global partnership for safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, J.

    1996-08-01

    With increased awareness of the significant changes of the past several years and their effect on the expectations to international safeguards, it is necessary to reflect on the direction for development of nuclear safeguards in a new era and the resulting implications. The time proven monitoring techniques, based on quantitative factors and demonstrated universal application, have shown their merit. However, the new expectations suggest a possibility that a future IAEA safeguards system could rely more heavily on the value of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime. With the establishment of such a regime, it is highly likely that remote monitoring will play a significant role. Several states have seen value in cooperating with each other to address the many problems associated with the remote interrogation of integrated monitoring systems. As a consequence the International Remote Monitoring Project was organized to examine the future of remote monitoring in International Safeguards. This paper provides an update on the technical issues, the future plans, and the safeguards implications of cooperative programs relating to remote monitoring. Without providing answers to the policy questions involved, it suggests that it is timely to begin addressing these issues.

  18. Environment Monitoring and Control of a Polyhouse Farm through Internet

    E-print Network

    Khandekar, Sameer

    1 Environment Monitoring and Control of a Polyhouse Farm through Internet Yogesh R. Sonawane is the objective of the work presented in this paper. The objective is achieved through the use of internet based. Keywords: Monitoring and Control through internet, Polyhouse farm environment management. I. INTRODUCTION

  19. The Environment to Come: A Global Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    Six major reports have recently assessed the state of the world in terms of energy, food, population, natural resources, pollution, and economic development. These reports include: (1) "The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century"; (2) "Global Future: Time to Act"; (3) "World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource…

  20. Network architecture for global biomedical monitoring service.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Casado, Carmen; Tejero-Calado, Juan; Bernal-Martin, Antonio; Lopez-Gomez, Miguel; Romero-Romero, Marco; Quesada, Guillermo; Lorca, Julio; Garcia, Eugenia

    2005-01-01

    Most of the patients who are in hospitals and, increasingly, patients controlled remotely from their homes, at-home monitoring, are continuously monitored in order to control their evolution. The medical devices used up to now, force the sanitary staff to go to the patients' room to control the biosignals that are being monitored, although in many cases, patients are in perfect conditions. If patient is at home, it is he or she who has to go to the hospital to take the record of the monitored signal. New wireless technologies, such as BlueTooth and WLAN, make possible the deployment of systems that allow the display and storage of those signals in any place where the hospital intranet is accessible. In that way, unnecessary displacements are avoided. This paper presents a network architecture that allows the identification of the biosignal acquisition device as IP network nodes. The system is based on a TCP/IP architecture which is scalable and avoids the deployment of a specific purpose network. PMID:17282729

  1. Using the Global GPS Network and Other Satellite Data to Monitor Ionospheric Total Electron Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannucci, Anthony J.; Wilson, Brian D.; Yuan, Dah-Ning; Lindqwister, Ulf

    1994-01-01

    A globally distributed network of dual-frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers is the primary source of data used to measure ionospheric total electron content (TEC) on global scales. Maps of TEC useful for calibrating propagation delays, or monitoring the solar-terrestrial environment, can be produced using this continuously operating network. The maps can also form the basis of a TEC calibration service for users around the world. Potential users may include single-frequency satellite altimetry missions, satellite tracking stations, and astronomical observatories.

  2. Using the Global Electric Circuit to monitor global climate change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C. G.

    2013-12-01

    The global atmospheric electric circuit describes the global link between fair weather electric fields and currents measured at the Earth's surface, and the generator of these fields and currents in regions of stormy weather. Ever since the 1920s we have known about the global nature of these electric parameters, which appear to vary as a function of universal time (UT) and not local time (LT). It was also shown in the late 1920s that the "batteries" of the GEC are related to thunderstorm activity around the globe, that produce a clear global diurnal cycle due to the longitudinal distribution of the tropical landmasses. Due to the global nature of these electric fields and currents, the GEC supplies perhaps the only global geophysical index that can be measured at a single location on the Earth's surface, representing global electrical activity on the planet. The GEC can be broken down into a DC (direct current) part, and an AC (alternating current) part. Due to the global nature of the electric circuit it has been proposed by some to use geo-electric indices as proxies for changes in the global climate. If global warming results in changes in thunderstorm distribution, number and/or intensity, the GEC may allow us to monitor these changes from only a few ground stations. The advantages and disadvantages of using the GEC to monitor climate change will be presented together with some examples of how the global electric circuit has already been used to monitor changes in the Earth's climate.

  3. Global rainfall monitoring by SSM/I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Eric C.; Kidd, C.; Kniveton, D.

    1993-01-01

    Significant accomplishments in the last year of research are presented. During 1991, three main activities were undertaken: (1) development and testing of a preliminary global rainfall algorithm; (2) researching areas of strong surface scattering; and (3) formulation of a program of work for the WetNet PrecipWG. Focus of present research and plans for next year are briefly dismissed.

  4. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  5. 75 FR 62837 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Building Global Capacity for the Surveillance and Monitoring of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...possibly adapt current global surveillance/monitoring...sub-regional and global strategies and decision-making...implementation of a global surveillance/monitoring...country-level to enable successful and sustainable...

  6. Operational satellites and the global monitoring of snow and ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, John E.

    1991-01-01

    The altitudinal dependence of the global warming projected by global climate models is at least partially attributable to the albedo-temperature feedback involving snow and ice, which must be regarded as key variables in the monitoring for global change. Statistical analyses of data from IR and microwave sensors monitoring the areal coverage and extent of sea ice have led to mixed conclusions about recent trends of hemisphere sea ice coverage. Seasonal snow cover has been mapped for over 20 years by NOAA/NESDIS on the basis of imagery from a variety of satellite sensors. Multichannel passive microwave data show some promise for the routine monitoring of snow depth over unforested land areas.

  7. Constraining global isoprene emissions with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) formaldehyde column measurements

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Paul

    Constraining global isoprene emissions with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) formaldehyde emission estimates are highly uncertain because of a lack of direct observations. Formaldehyde (HCHO the observation of this trace gas to help constrain isoprene emissions. We use HCHO column observations from

  8. One earth, one future. Our changing global environment

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, C.S.; Defries, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    This book reports on deforestation, ozone depletion, global warming, and other matters concerning the global environment. From the perspective that humankind is an increasingly powerful agent changing the planet, the volume describes the Earth as a unified system - exploring the interactions between the atmosphere, land, and water and the snowballing impact that human activity is having on the system - and points out the seemingly paradoxical need for economic growth to alleviate such global environmental problems.

  9. The Global Geodetic Infrastructure for Accurate Monitoring of Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Neil; Blackwell, Juliana; Wang, Yan; Willis, Zdenka

    2014-05-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), two Program Offices within the National Ocean Service, NOAA, routinely collect, analyze and disseminate observations and products from several of the 17 critical systems identified by the U.S. Group on Earth Observations. Gravity, sea level monitoring, coastal zone and ecosystem management, geo-hazards and deformation monitoring and ocean surface vector winds are the primary Earth systems that have active research and operational programs in NGS and IOOS. These Earth systems collect terrestrial data but most rely heavily on satellite-based sensors for analyzing impacts and monitoring global change. One fundamental component necessary for monitoring via satellites is having a stable, global geodetic infrastructure where an accurate reference frame is essential for consistent data collection and geo-referencing. This contribution will focus primarily on system monitoring, coastal zone management and global reference frames and how the scientific contributions from NGS and IOOS continue to advance our understanding of the Earth and the Global Geodetic Observing System.

  10. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, C.; Pengra, B.; Long, J.; Loveland, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m-1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (˜30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  11. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  12. IMPROVE (INTERAGENCY MONITORING OF PROTECTED VISUAL ENVIRONMENTS) SITES DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1987, EPA has supported the IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) network in cooperation with the National Park Service, Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, and State organizations. One of the principal purposes ...

  13. Remote Dosimetry Monitoring Unit for Human Unfriendly Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliáš, Andrej; Závacký, Pavol

    2015-08-01

    This article deals with the design of a mobile monitoring vehicle which is intended to measure radioactivity in the human unfriendly environmental conditions. The prototype of such unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) was successfully built and tested in our controlled environment.

  14. Monitoring the Effects of the Global Crisis on Education Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Gwang-Chol

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience and findings from the monitoring work carried out by UNESCO throughout 2009 to examine and assess the possible effects of the global financial and economic crisis on education provision in its Member States. The findings showed that although it was too early to ascertain the full extent of the impact of the…

  15. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  16. The global forum on environment and development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The first Global Conference of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival was held in Oxford, England not to discuss world issues, but to test the ability of 100 spiritual leaders and 100 parliamentarians to work together in a world which has preferred to separate church and state. This conference, held in Moscow, attracted more than 1,000 people. The main purpose was to find common solutions to environmental quality, economic development, and human survival as citizens of planet Earth. Notable addresses were heard from Javier Perez de Cuellar, Senator Albert Gore, Carl Sagan, Lester Brown, Nafis Sadik, Evguenij Velikhov, and Mikhail Gorbachev who advocated an International Green Cross.

  17. Diagnostics for Dust Monitoring in Tokamak Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rosanvallon, S.; Grisolia, C.; Hong, S. H.; Worms, J.

    2008-03-12

    During ITER lifetime, dusts and flakes will be produced due to the interaction of plasmas with the in-vessel materials or due to maintenance. They will be made of carbon, beryllium and tungsten and will be activated, tritiated and chemically reactive and toxic. Safety limits have been set in order to reduce dust hazards. Thus dust diagnostics and removal methods need to be developed for ITER within the constraints linked to magnetic field, radiation, vacuum and temperature. This paper reviews potential diagnostics to monitor the dust content using techniques already used for erosion or deposition monitoring or techniques specially developed for measuring dust in suspension.

  18. Global nuclear radiation monitoring using plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Kostov, Dan; Wang, Wanpeng; Liu, Zhongchi; Hussey, Daniel S.; Baltic, Eli; Jacobson, David L.; Gu, Jerry; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2005-05-01

    Plants exhibit complex responses to changes in environmental conditions such as radiant heat flux, water quality, airborne pollutants, soil contents. We seek to utilize the natural chemical and electrophysiological response of plants to develop novel plant-based sensor networks. Our present work focuses on plant responses to high-energy radiation - with the goal of monitoring natural plant responses for use as benchmarks for detection and dosimetry. For our study, we selected a plants cactus, Arabidopsis, Dwarf mango (pine), Euymus and Azela. We demonstrated that the ratio of Chlorophyll a to Chlorophyll b of the leaves has changed due to the exposure gradually come back to the normal stage after the radiation die. We used blue laser-induced blue fluorescence-emission spectra to characterize the pigment status of the trees. Upon blue laser excitation (400 nm) leaves show a fluorescence emission in the red spectral region between 650 and 800nm (chlorophyll fluorescence with maxima near 690nm and 735 nm). Sample tree subjects were placed at a distance of 1m from NIST-certified 241AmBe neutron source (30 mCi), capable of producing a neutron field of about 13 mrem/h. This corresponds to an actual absorbed dose of ~ 1 mrad/h. Our results shows that all plants are sensitive to nuclear radiation and some take longer time to recover and take less. We can use their characteristics to do differential detection and extract nuclear activity information out of measurement results avoid false alarms produced environmental changes. Certainly the ultimate verification can be obtained from genetic information, which only need to be done when we have seen noticeable changes on plant optical spectra, mechanical strength and electrical characteristics.

  19. Global satellite monitoring of climate-induced vegetation disturbances.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Nate G; Coops, Nicholas C; Beck, Pieter S A; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Gangodagamage, Chandana; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Huang, Cho-ying; Kennedy, Robert; Krofcheck, Dan J; Litvak, Marcy; Meddens, Arjan J H; Muss, Jordan; Negrón-Juarez, Robinson; Peng, Changhui; Schwantes, Amanda M; Swenson, Jennifer J; Vernon, Louis J; Williams, A Park; Xu, Chonggang; Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steve W; Allen, Craig D

    2015-02-01

    Terrestrial disturbances are accelerating globally, but their full impact is not quantified because we lack an adequate monitoring system. Remote sensing offers a means to quantify the frequency and extent of disturbances globally. Here, we review the current application of remote sensing to this problem and offer a framework for more systematic analysis in the future. We recommend that any proposed monitoring system should not only detect disturbances, but also be able to: identify the proximate cause(s); integrate a range of spatial scales; and, ideally, incorporate process models to explain the observed patterns and predicted trends in the future. Significant remaining challenges are tied to the ecology of disturbances. To meet these challenges, more effort is required to incorporate ecological principles and understanding into the assessments of disturbance worldwide. PMID:25500552

  20. Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Mhurchu, C N; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S; Hawkes, C; L'abbé, M; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. PMID:24074213

  1. August 2009 Inbound Logistics In today's global business environment,

    E-print Network

    August 2009 · Inbound Logistics In today's global business environment, it's not enough simply if you don't know what you're capable of? Inbound Logistics' inaugural 25 Green Supply Chain Partners (G, and justification for why they are a cut above. INBOUND LOGISTICS' 25GREENSUPPLY CHAINPARTNERS #12;2 0 0 9 INBOUND

  2. Monitoring global messenger RNA changes in externally controlled microarray experiments

    PubMed Central

    van de Peppel, Jeroen; Kemmeren, Patrick; van Bakel, Harm; Radonjic, Marijana; van Leenen, Dik; Holstege, Frank C.P.

    2003-01-01

    Expression profiling is a universal tool, with a range of applications that benefit from the accurate determination of differential gene expression. To allow normalization using endogenous transcript levels, current microarray analyses assume that relatively few transcripts vary, or that any changes that occur are balanced. When normalization using endogenous genes is carried out, changes in expression levels are calculated relative to the behaviour of most of the transcripts. This does not reflect absolute changes if global shifts in messenger RNA populations occur. Using external RNA controls, we have set up microarray experiments to monitor global changes. The levels of most mRNAs were found to change during yeast stationary phase and human heat shock when external controls were included. Even small global changes had a significant effect on the number of genes reported as being differentially expressed. This suggests that global mRNA changes occur more frequently than is assumed at present, and shows that monitoring such effects may be important for the accurate determination of changes in gene expression. PMID:12671682

  3. Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Lloyd; W. G. Reuter; D. M. Weinberg

    1999-09-19

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique is applicable to many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  4. Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael

    1999-09-01

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  5. A Seamless Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Fisher, C. K.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ('From Observations to Decisions') recognizes that 'water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity', and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the development of a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions, flood potential and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of water variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed. Future changes in water availability and drought risk are quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land surface models. For regions with lack of on-the-ground data we are field-testing low-cost environmental sensors and along with new satellite products for terrestrial hydrology and vegetation, integrating these into the system for improved monitoring and prediction. We provide an overview of the system and some examples of real-world applications to flood and drought events, with a focus on Africa.

  6. Global Agricultural Monitoring (GLAM) using MODAPS and LANCE Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyamba, A.; Pak, E. E.; Majedi, A. H.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Reynolds, C. A.; Pinzon, J. E.; Smith, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies / Global Agricultural Monitoring (GIMMS GLAM) system is a web-based geographic application that offers Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and user interface tools to data query and plot MODIS NDVI time series. The system processes near real-time and science quality Terra and Aqua MODIS 8-day composited datasets. These datasets are derived from the MOD09 and MYD09 surface reflectance products which are generated and provided by NASA/GSFC Land and Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and NASA/GSFC MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS). The GIMMS GLAM system is developed and provided by the NASA/GSFC GIMMS group for the U.S. Department of Agriculture / Foreign Agricultural Service / International Production Assessment Division (USDA/FAS/IPAD) Global Agricultural Monitoring project (GLAM). The USDA/FAS/IPAD mission is to provide objective, timely, and regular assessment of the global agricultural production outlook and conditions affecting global food security. This system was developed to improve USDA/FAS/IPAD capabilities for making operational quantitative estimates for crop production and yield estimates based on satellite-derived data. The GIMMS GLAM system offers 1) web map imagery including Terra & Aqua MODIS 8-day composited NDVI, NDVI percent anomaly, and SWIR-NIR-Red band combinations, 2) web map overlays including administrative and 0.25 degree Land Information System (LIS) shape boundaries, and crop land cover masks, and 3) user interface tools to select features, data query, plot, and download MODIS NDVI time series.

  7. INTRODUCTION Requirements to monitor the effects of potentially environ-

    E-print Network

    Cranston, Peter S.

    the boundaries of which major deposits of uranium are subject to current and proposed mining activities. PerhapsINTRODUCTION Requirements to monitor the effects of potentially environ- mentally damaging mining well-regulated mining activity has left a legacy of discharged acidic and metallic wastes to several

  8. SPECTRAL MONITORING OF FUGITIVE CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    The accidental or intentional release of hazardous chemical substances into the environment is an inevitable consequence of anthropogenic activity. The detection, monitoring and remediation of fugitive contaminants is a major risk factor for human and ecological health and i...

  9. Agricultural environment information monitoring instruments based on integrated intelligent sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guoqing, Sr.; Sha, Zhanyou; Cai, Mingwei

    2009-07-01

    With the rapid development of facility agriculture in rural areas in China, the technology reform related to the auxiliary facilities has become the key factor to promote its development. And how to acquire the agricultural environment information effectively and rapidly becomes the most important factor. This article is aimed to make a study on the technical project of developing high performance and low cost environment monitoring instruments based on integrated intelligent sensors, which includes relative humidity/temperature monitor, intelligent turbidity sensor system with Microprocessor( ?C) and single-bus interface and smog auto-detection and alarm system. The monitoring instruments can be applied to the overground information collecting, processing and alarming in greenhouses, poultry houses, livestock stables and so on.

  10. Grid cells form a global representation of connected environments.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Francis; Manson, Daniel; Jeffery, Kate; Burgess, Neil; Barry, Caswell

    2015-05-01

    The firing patterns of grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) and associated brain areas form triangular arrays that tessellate the environment [1, 2] and maintain constant spatial offsets to each other between environments [3, 4]. These cells are thought to provide an efficient metric for navigation in large-scale space [5-8]. However, an accurate and universal metric requires grid cell firing patterns to uniformly cover the space to be navigated, in contrast to recent demonstrations that environmental features such as boundaries can distort [9-11] and fragment [12] grid patterns. To establish whether grid firing is determined by local environmental cues, or provides a coherent global representation, we recorded mEC grid cells in rats foraging in an environment containing two perceptually identical compartments connected via a corridor. During initial exposures to the multicompartment environment, grid firing patterns were dominated by local environmental cues, replicating between the two compartments. However, with prolonged experience, grid cell firing patterns formed a single, continuous representation that spanned both compartments. Thus, we provide the first evidence that in a complex environment, grid cell firing can form the coherent global pattern necessary for them to act as a metric capable of supporting large-scale spatial navigation. PMID:25913404

  11. Grid Cells Form a Global Representation of Connected Environments

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Francis; Manson, Daniel; Jeffery, Kate; Burgess, Neil; Barry, Caswell

    2015-01-01

    Summary The firing patterns of grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) and associated brain areas form triangular arrays that tessellate the environment [1, 2] and maintain constant spatial offsets to each other between environments [3, 4]. These cells are thought to provide an efficient metric for navigation in large-scale space [5–8]. However, an accurate and universal metric requires grid cell firing patterns to uniformly cover the space to be navigated, in contrast to recent demonstrations that environmental features such as boundaries can distort [9–11] and fragment [12] grid patterns. To establish whether grid firing is determined by local environmental cues, or provides a coherent global representation, we recorded mEC grid cells in rats foraging in an environment containing two perceptually identical compartments connected via a corridor. During initial exposures to the multicompartment environment, grid firing patterns were dominated by local environmental cues, replicating between the two compartments. However, with prolonged experience, grid cell firing patterns formed a single, continuous representation that spanned both compartments. Thus, we provide the first evidence that in a complex environment, grid cell firing can form the coherent global pattern necessary for them to act as a metric capable of supporting large-scale spatial navigation. PMID:25913404

  12. A Global Framework for Monitoring Phenological Responses to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    White, Michael A; Hoffman, Forrest M; Hargrove, William Walter; Nemani, Ramakrishna R

    2005-01-01

    Remote sensing of vegetation phenology is an important method with which to monitor terrestrial responses to climate change, but most approaches include signals from multiple forcings, such as mixed phenological signals from multiple biomes, urbanization, political changes, shifts in agricultural practices, and disturbances. Consequently, it is difficult to extract a clear signal from the usually assumed forcing: climate change. Here, using global 8 km 1982 to 1999 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data and an eight-element monthly climatology, we identified pixels whose wavelet power spectrum was consistently dominated by annual cycles and then created phenologically and climatically self-similar clusters, which we term phenoregions. We then ranked and screened each phenoregion as a function of landcover homogeneity and consistency, evidence of human impacts, and political diversity. Remaining phenoregions represented areas with a minimized probability of non-climatic forcings and form elemental units for long-term phenological monitoring.

  13. Ozone Profiles and Tropospheric Ozone from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Sioris, C. E.; Sparr, R. J. D.; Kuregm, T. P.; Martin, R. V.; Newchurch, M. J.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Ozone profiles are derived from backscattered radiances in the ultraviolet spectra (290-340 nm) measured by the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment using optimal estimation. Tropospheric O3 is directly retrieved with the tropopause as one of the retrieval levels. To optimize the retrieval and improve the fitting precision needed for tropospheric O3, we perform extensive wavelength and radiometric calibrations and improve forward model inputs. Retrieved O3 profiles and tropospheric O3 agree well with coincident ozonesonde measurements, and the integrated total O3 agrees very well with Earth Probe TOMS and Dobson/Brewer total O3. The global distribution of tropospheric O3 clearly shows the influences of biomass burning, convection, and air pollution, and is generally consistent with our current understanding.

  14. Monitoring Global Precipitation Using Satellite Observations: Status and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

    2002-01-01

    The current status of monitoring global precipitation amounts and patterns is described using data sets from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and from recent research satellites, especially the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The GPCP monthly (and pentad) data set is a 23-year, globally complete precipitation analysis that is used to explore global and regional variations and trends. The data set is a blend of data mainly from low-orbit microwave satellites and geosynchronous infrared satellites, with additional input from satellite sounder data, Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) data and raingauges. The monthly GPCP data set shows no significant global trend in precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. Regional trends are also analyzed. A trend pattern that is a combination of both El Nino and La Nina precipitation features is evident in the 23-year data set. This pattern is related to an increase with time in the number of combined months of El Nino and La Nina during the 23-year period. This apparent trend may be a short-term variation, but also might be related to the increase with time of extreme precipitation events reported elsewhere. Patterns of precipitation variation related to ENSO and other phenomena are shown with clear signals extending from the Tropics into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. Also shown, as an example of higher time resolution data is the GPCP daily analysis, which is available for the last six years. A second focus of the talk is on TRMM precipitation data and how these newer data sets incorporating information from the first space-borne meteorological radar compare with the established GPCP data sets.

  15. A quasi-global precipitation time series for drought monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Chris C.; Peterson, Pete J.; Landsfeld, Martin F.; Pedreros, Diego H.; Verdin, James P.; Rowland, James D.; Romero, Bo E.; Husak, Gregory J.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating precipitation variations in space and time is an important aspect of drought early warning and environmental monitoring. An evolving drier-than-normal season must be placed in historical context so that the severity of rainfall deficits may quickly be evaluated. To this end, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, working closely with collaborators at the University of California, Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group, have developed a quasi-global (50°S–50°N, 180°E–180°W), 0.05° resolution, 1981 to near-present gridded precipitation time series: the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) data archive.

  16. Potential global fire monitoring from EOS-MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Justice, Christopher O.; Flynn, Luke P.; Kendall, Jackie D.; Prins, Elaine M.; Giglio, Louis; Ward, Darold E.; Menzel, W. Paul; Setzer, Alberto W.

    1998-12-01

    The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the polarorbiting Earth Observation System (EOS) providing morning and evening global observations in 1999 and afternoon and night observations in 2000. These four MODIS daily fire observations will advance global fire monitoring with special 1 km resolution fire channels at 4 and 11 ?m, with high saturation of about 450 and 400 K, respectively. MODIS data will also be used to monitor burn scars, vegetation type and condition, smoke aerosols, water vapor, and clouds for overall monitoring of the fire process and its effects on ecosystems, the atmosphere, and the climate. The MODIS fire science team is preparing algorithms that use the thermal signature to separate the fire signal from the background signal. A database of active fire products will be generated and archived at a 1 km resolution and summarized on a grid of 10 km and 0.5°, daily, 8 days, and monthly. It includes the fire occurrence and location, the rate of emission of thermal energy from the fire, and a rough estimate of the smoldering/flaming ratio. This information will be used in monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of fires in different ecosystems, detecting changes in fire distribution and identifying new fire frontiers, wildfires, and changes in the frequency of the fires or their relative strength. We plan to combine the MODIS fire measurements with a detailed diurnal cycle of the fires from geostationary satellites. Sensitivity studies and analyses of aircraft and satellite data from the Yellowstone wildfire of 1988 and prescribed fires in the Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation (SCAR) aircraft field experiments are used to evaluate and validate the fire algorithms and to establish the relationship between the fire thermal properties, the rate of biomass consumption, and the emissions of aerosol and trace gases from fires.

  17. Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth.

  18. Noninvasive Brain Physiology Monitoring for Extreme Environments: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Hiles, Laura A; Donoviel, Dorit B; Bershad, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Our ability to monitor the brain physiology is advancing; however, most of the technology is bulky, expensive, and designed for traditional clinical settings. With long-duration space exploration, there is a need for developing medical technologies that are reliable, low energy, portable, and semiautonomous. Our aim was to review the state of the art for noninvasive technologies capable of monitoring brain physiology in diverse settings. A literature review of PubMed and the Texas Medical Center library sites was performed using prespecified search criteria to identify portable technologies for monitoring physiological aspects of the brain physiology. Most brain-monitoring technologies require a moderate to high degree of operator skill. Some are low energy, but many require a constant external power supply. Most of the technologies lack the accuracy seen in gold standard measures, due to the need for calibration, but may be useful for screening or monitoring relative changes in a parameter. Most of the technologies use ultrasound or electromagnetic radiation as energy sources. There is an important need for further development of portable technologies that can be operated in a variety of extreme environments to monitor brain health. PMID:25811362

  19. The Global Atmospheric Environment for the Next Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dentener, F; Stevenson, D; Ellingsen, K; van Joije, T; Schultz, M; Amann, M; Atherton, C; Bell, N; Bergmann, D; Bey, I; Bouwman, L; Butler, T; Cofala, J; Collins, B; Drevet, J; Doherty, R; Eickhout, B; Eskes, H; Fiore, A; Gauss, M; Hauglustaine, D; Horowitz, L; Isaksen, I A; Josse, B; Lawrence, M; Krol, M; Lamarque, J F; Montanaro, V; Muller, J F; Peuch, V H; Pitari, G; Pyle, J; Rast, S; Rodriguez, J; Sanderson, M; Savage, N H; Shindell, D; Strahan, S; Szopa, S; Sudo, K; Van Dingenen, R; Wild, O; Zeng, G

    2005-12-07

    Air quality, ecosystem exposure to nitrogen deposition, and climate change are intimately coupled problems: we assess changes in the global atmospheric environment between 2000 and 2030 using twenty-five state-of-the-art global atmospheric chemistry models and three different emissions scenarios. The first (CLE) scenario reflects implementation of current air quality legislation around the world, whilst the second (MFR) represents a more optimistic case in which all currently feasible technologies are applied to achieve maximum emission reductions. We contrast these scenarios with the more pessimistic IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Ensemble simulations for the year 2000 are consistent among models, and show a reasonable agreement with surface ozone, wet deposition and NO{sub 2} satellite observations. Large parts of the world are currently exposed to high ozone concentrations, and high depositions of nitrogen to ecosystems. By 2030, global surface ozone is calculated to increase globally by 1.5 {+-} 1.2 ppbv (CLE), and 4.3 {+-} 2.2 ppbv (A2). Only the progressive MFR scenario will reduce ozone by -2.3 {+-} 1.1 ppbv. The CLE and A2 scenarios project further increases in nitrogen critical loads, with particularly large impacts in Asia where nitrogen emissions and deposition are forecast to increase by a factor of 1.4 (CLE) to 2 (A2). Climate change may modify surface ozone by -0.8 {+-} 0.6 ppbv, with larger decreases over sea than over land. This study shows the importance of enforcing current worldwide air quality legislation, and the major benefits of going further. Non-attainment of these air quality policy objectives, such as expressed by the SRES-A2 scenario, would further degrade the global atmospheric environment.

  20. Design of the Resources and Environment Monitoring Website in Kashgar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Lin, Q. Z.; Wang, Q. J.

    2014-03-01

    Despite the development of the web geographical information system (web GIS), many useful spatial analysis functions are ignored in the system implementation. As Kashgar is rich in natural resources, it is of great significance to monitor the ample natural resource and environment situation in the region. Therefore, with multiple uses of spatial analysis, resources and environment monitoring website of Kashgar was built. Functions of water, vegetation, ice and snow extraction, task management, change assessment as well as thematic mapping and reports based on TM remote sensing images were implemented in the website. The design of the website was presented based on database management tier, the business logic tier and the top-level presentation tier. The vital operations of the website were introduced and the general performance was evaluated.

  1. Monitor based fault management in a distributed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Hyung-Taek; Yang, Seung-Min; Kim, Moon Hae

    1996-12-31

    The use of computers and communication networks has been rapidly increasing in distributed applications. Most distributed applications require highly dependable (or reliable) system operations. In order to guarantee highly dependable operations of the system in a distributed environment, system-level diagnosis and run-time error (or fault) recovery mechanisms should be provided in the system. In order to support the system-level diagnosis capability, we have proposed a mechanism, call the monitor, to detect faults in a system and to diagnose them. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the monitor. Also, we show the effectiveness of our monitor approach by applying it to an intelligent vehicle system (IVS).

  2. Metagenomic Frameworks for Monitoring Antibiotic Resistance in Aquatic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Port, Jesse A.; Cullen, Alison C.; Wallace, James C.; Smith, Marissa N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: High-throughput genomic technologies offer new approaches for environmental health monitoring, including metagenomic surveillance of antibiotic resistance determinants (ARDs). Although natural environments serve as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes that can be transferred to pathogenic and human commensal bacteria, monitoring of these determinants has been infrequent and incomplete. Furthermore, surveillance efforts have not been integrated into public health decision making. Objectives: We used a metagenomic epidemiology–based approach to develop an ARD index that quantifies antibiotic resistance potential, and we analyzed this index for common modal patterns across environmental samples. We also explored how metagenomic data such as this index could be conceptually framed within an early risk management context. Methods: We analyzed 25 published data sets from shotgun pyrosequencing projects. The samples consisted of microbial community DNA collected from marine and freshwater environments across a gradient of human impact. We used principal component analysis to identify index patterns across samples. Results: We observed significant differences in the overall index and index subcategory levels when comparing ecosystems more proximal versus distal to human impact. The selection of different sequence similarity thresholds strongly influenced the index measurements. Unique index subcategory modes distinguished the different metagenomes. Conclusions: Broad-scale screening of ARD potential using this index revealed utility for framing environmental health monitoring and surveillance. This approach holds promise as a screening tool for establishing baseline ARD levels that can be used to inform and prioritize decision making regarding management of ARD sources and human exposure routes. Citation: Port JA, Cullen AC, Wallace JC, Smith MN, Faustman EM. 2014. Metagenomic frameworks for monitoring antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments. Environ Health Perspect 122:222–228;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307009 PMID:24334622

  3. Monitoring mobility in older adults using global positioning system (GPS) watches and accelerometers: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Webber, Sandra C; Porter, Michelle M

    2009-10-01

    This exploratory study examined the feasibility of using Garmin global positioning system (GPS) watches and ActiGraph accelerometers to monitor walking and other aspects of community mobility in older adults. After accuracy at slow walking speeds was initially determined, 20 older adults (74.4 +/- 4.2 yr) wore the devices for 1 day. Steps, distances, and speeds (on foot and in vehicle) were determined. GPS data acquisition varied from 43 min to over 12 hr, with 55% of participants having more than 8 hr between initial and final data-collection points. When GPS data were acquired without interruptions, detailed mobility information was obtained regarding the timing, distances covered, and speeds reached during trips away from home. Although GPS and accelerometry technology offer promise for monitoring community mobility patterns, new GPS solutions are required that allow for data collection over an extended period of time between indoor and outdoor environments. PMID:19940324

  4. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  5. Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Corrales, Jone; Kristofco, Lauren A.; Steele, W. Baylor; Yates, Brian S.; Breed, Christopher S.; Williams, E. Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs. PMID:26674671

  6. GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

  7. Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, K.M.; Cervelli, Peter; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, Asta; Segall, P.; Owen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates are valuable. Strategies have been researched for obtaining station coordinates every 15 min using a Kalman filter; these strategies have been tested on data collected by a GPS network on Kilauea Volcano. Data from this network are tracked continuously, recorded every 30 s, and telemetered hourly to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. A white noise model is heavily impacted by data outages and poor satellite geometry, but a properly constrained random walk model fits the data well. Using a borehole tiltmeter at Kilauea's summit as ground-truth, solutions using different random walk constraints were compared. This study indicates that signals on the order of 5 mm/h are resolvable using a random walk standard deviation of 0.45 cm/???h. Values lower than this suppress small signals, and values greater than this have significantly higher noise at periods of 1-6 hours. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Global Monitoring of Air Pollution Using Spaceborne Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Remer, L. A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The MODIS sensor onboard EOS-Terra satellite provides not only daily global coverage but also high spectral (36 channels from 0.41 to 14 microns wavelength) and spatial (250m, 500m and 1km) resolution measurements. A similar MODIS instrument will be also configured into EOS-Aqua satellite to be launched soon. Using the complementary EOS-Terra and EOS-Aqua sun-synchronous orbits (10:30 AM and 1:30 PM equator-crossing time respectively), it enables us also to study the diurnal changes of the Earth system. It is unprecedented for the derivation of aerosol properties with such high spatial resolution and daily global converge. Aerosol optical depth and other aerosol properties, e.g., Angstrom coefficient over land and particle size over ocean, are derived as standard products at a spatial resolution of 10 x 10 sq km. The high resolution results are found surprisingly useful in detecting aerosols in both urban and rural regions as a result of urban/industrial pollution and biomass burning. For long-lived aerosols, the ability to monitoring the evolution of these aerosol events could help us to establish an system of air quality especially for highly populated areas. Aerosol scenarios with city pollution and biomass burning will be presented. Also presented are the method used in the derivation of aerosol optical properties and preliminary results will be presented, and issue as well as obstacles in validating aerosol optical depth with AERONET ground-based observations.

  9. Global lightning and severe storm monitoring from GPS orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Suszcynsky, D. M.; Jacobson, A. R.; Linford, J; Pongratz, M. B.; Light, T.; Shao, X.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been a growing interest to develop and deploy an automated and continuously operating satellite-based global lightning mapper [e.g. Christian et al., 1989; Weber et al., 1998; Suszcynsky et al., 2000]. Lightning is a direct consequence of the electrification and breakdown processes that take place during the convective stages of thunderstorm development. Satellite-based lightning mappers are designed to exploit this relationship by using lightning detection as a proxy for remotely identifying, locating and characterizing strong convective activity on a global basis. Global lightning and convection mapping promises to provide users with (1) an enhanced global severe weather monitoring and early warning capability [e.g. Weber et al., 1998] (2) improved ability to optimize aviation flight paths around convective cells, particularly over oceanic and remote regions that are not sufficiently serviced by existing weather radar [e.g. Weber et al., 1998], and (3) access to regional and global proxy data sets that can be used for scientific studies and as input into meteorological forecast and global climatology models. The physical foundation for satellite-based remote sensing of convection by way of lightning detection is provided by the basic interplay between the electrical and convective states of a thundercloud. It is widely believed that convection is a driving mechanism behind the hydrometeor charging and transport that produces charge separation and lightning discharges within thunderclouds [e.g. see chapter 3 in MacGorman and Rust, 1998]. Although cloud electrification and discharge processes are a complex function of the convective dynamics and microphysics of the cloud, the fundamental relationship between convection and electrification is easy to observe. For example, studies have shown that the strength of the convective process within a thundercell can be loosely parameterized (with large variance) by the intensity of the electrical activity within that cell as measured by the lightning flash rate. Williams [2001] has provided a review of experimental work that shows correlations between the total lightning flash rate and the fifth power of the radar cloud-top height (i.e. convective strength) of individual thunder cells. More recently, Ushio et al., [2001] used a large statistical sampling of optical data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) in conjunction with data provided by the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) satellite to conclude that the total lightning flash rate increases exponentially with storm height. Lightning activity levels have also been correlated to cloud ice content, a basic product of the convective process. For example, Blyth et al. [2001] used the Thermal Microwave Imager (TMI) aboard the TRMM satellite to observe a decrease in the 37 and 85 GHz brightness temperatures of upwelling terrestrial radiation during increased lightning activity. This reduction in brightness temperature is believed to be the result of increased ice scattering in the mixed phase region of the cloud. Toracinta and Zipser [2001] have found similar relationships using the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite instrument and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) aboard the DMSP satellites.

  10. Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Risser, P.G.

    1990-02-01

    The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

  11. Near-Real Time Monitoring of Global Lakes and Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckley, B. D.; Birkett, C. M.; Doorn, B.; Reynolds, C.; Baldwin, B.

    2004-12-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has the ability to monitor variations in surface water height (stage) for large lakes and reservoirs. A clear advantage is the provision of data where traditional gauges are lacking or where there is restricted access to ground-based measurements. As part of a new USDA-funded program, near-real time altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs in the world is taking place. Data ingestion and manipulation, to some degree, follows the concepts of the NASA Ocean Altimeter Pathfinder although extra provisions have to be made regarding these smaller targets. Archived data from the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) mission are utilized to provide a historical time series of height variations from 1992-2002. Near-real time stage measurements with respect to the T/P historical mean reference are derived from incoming data from the Jason-1 mission. The project utilizes the IGDR Jason-1 data with its <5 cm orbit accuracy and delivery time of <4 days after satellite overpass. A USDA maintained web site (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir) provides free access to new measurements to the public about a week to ten days after the satellite passes over. Currently there are stage levels from 70 lakes/reservoirs worldwide being made available. As the project progresses, other data from the ERS and ENVISAT missions will also be included. The Foreign Agricultural Service's, Precipitation Estimation and Crop Assessment Division utilize these observations to note potential flood/drought conditions, and to estimate reservoir volume and irrigation potential. In this presentation we demonstrate the current capabilities and limitations of ocean radar altimetry for inland water level monitoring.

  12. PROBA-V, the small saellite for global vegetation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deronde, Bart; Benhadj, Iskander; Clarijs, Dennis; Dierckx, Wouter; Dries, Jan; Sterckx, Sindy; van Roey, Tom; Wolters, erwin

    2015-04-01

    PROBA-V, the small satellite for global vegetation monitoring Bart Deronde, Iskander Benhadj, Dennis Clarijs, Wouter Dierckx, Jan Dries, Sindy Sterck, Tom Van Roey, Erwin Wolters (VITO NV) Exactly one year ago, in December 2013, VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research) started up the real time operations of PROBA-V. This miniaturised ESA (European Space Agency) satellite was launched by ESA's Vega rocket from Kourou, French-Guyana on May 7th, 2013. After six months of commissioning the mission was taken into operations. Since mid-December 2013 PROBA-V products are processed on an operational basis and distributed to a worldwide user community. PROVA-V is tasked with a full-scale mission: to map land cover and vegetation growth across the entire planet every two days. It is flying a lighter but fully functional redesign of the 'VEGETATION' imaging instruments previously flown on France's full-sized SPOT-4 and SPOT-5 satellites, which have been observing Earth since 1998. PROBA-V, entirely built by a Belgian consortium, continues this valuable and uninterrupted time series with daily products at 300 m and 1 km resolution. Even 100 m products will become available early 2015, delivering a global coverage every 5 days. The blue, red, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavebands allow PROBA-V to distinguish between different types of land cover/use and plant species, including crops. Vital uses of these data include day-by-day tracking of vegetation development, alerting authorities to crop failures, monitoring inland water resources and tracing the steady spread of deserts and deforestation. As such the data is also highly valuable to study climate change and the global carbon cycle. In this presentation we will discuss the in-flight results, one year after launch, from the User Segment (i.e. the processing facility) point of view. The focus will be on geometric and radiometric accuracy and stability. Furthermore, we will elaborate on the lessons learnt from the operational day-to-day activities. Data acquisition, input data quality, instrument programming, image processing and data distribution are some of the topics that will be highlighted. Finally, the synergy with other European missions like the Copernicus Sentinel 3 satellite will be handled.

  13. The Node Monitoring Component of a Scalable Systems Software Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel James Miller

    2006-08-09

    This research describes Fountain, a suite of programs used to monitor the resources of a cluster. A cluster is a collection of individual computers that are connected via a high speed communication network. They are traditionally used by users who desire more resources, such as processing power and memory, than any single computer can provide. A common drawback to effectively utilizing such a large-scale system is the management infrastructure, which often does not often scale well as the system grows. Large-scale parallel systems provide new research challenges in the area of systems software, the programs or tools that manage the system from boot-up to running a parallel job. The approach presented in this thesis utilizes a collection of separate components that communicate with each other to achieve a common goal. While systems software comprises a broad array of components, this thesis focuses on the design choices for a node monitoring component. We will describe Fountain, an implementation of the Scalable Systems Software (SSS) node monitor specification. It is targeted at aggregate node monitoring for clusters, focusing on both scalability and fault tolerance as its design goals. It leverages widely used technologies such as XML and HTTP to present an interface to other components in the SSS environment.

  14. Nitrous oxide fluxes in estuarine environments: response to global change.

    PubMed

    Murray, Rachel H; Erler, Dirk V; Eyre, Bradley D

    2015-09-01

    Nitrous oxide is a powerful, long-lived greenhouse gas, but we know little about the role of estuarine areas in the global N2 O budget. This review summarizes 56 studies of N2 O fluxes and associated biogeochemical controlling factors in estuarine open waters, salt marshes, mangroves, and intertidal sediments. The majority of in situ N2 O production occurs as a result of sediment denitrification, although the water column contributes N2 O through nitrification in suspended particles. The most important factors controlling N2 O fluxes seem to be dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and oxygen availability, which in turn are affected by tidal cycles, groundwater inputs, and macrophyte density. The heterogeneity of coastal environments leads to a high variability in observations, but on average estuarine open water, intertidal and vegetated environments are sites of a small positive N2 O flux to the atmosphere (range 0.15-0.91; median 0.31; Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) ). Global changes in macrophyte distribution and anthropogenic nitrogen loading are expected to increase N2 O emissions from estuaries. We estimate that a doubling of current median NO3 (-) concentrations would increase the global estuary water-air N2 O flux by about 0.45 Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) or about 190%. A loss of 50% of mangrove habitat, being converted to unvegetated intertidal area, would result in a net decrease in N2 O emissions of 0.002 Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) . In contrast, conversion of 50% of salt marsh to unvegetated area would result in a net increase of 0.001 Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) . Decreased oxygen concentrations may inhibit production of N2 O by nitrification; however, sediment denitrification and the associated ratio of N2 O:N2 is expected to increase. PMID:25752934

  15. AVHRR-based drought-observing system for monitoring the environment and socioeconomic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, F.

    From all natural disaster, drought is the least understandable and the most damaging environmental phenomenon. Although in pre-satellite era, climate data were used for drought monitoring, drought specifics created problems in early drought detection start/end, monitoring its expansion/contraction, intensity and area coverage and the most important, timely estimation of the impacts on the environment and socioeconomic activities. The latest prevented to take prompt measures in mitigating negative consequences of drought for the society. Advances in remote sensing of the past ten years, contributed to the development of comprehensive drought monitoring system and numerous applications, which helped to make decisions for monitoring the environment and predicting sustainable socioeconomic activities. This paper discusses satellite-based land-surface observing system, which provides wells of information used for monitoring such unusual natural disaster as drought. This system was developed from the observations of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) flown on NOAA operational polar-orbiting satellites. The AVHRR data were packed into the Global Vegetation Index (GVI) product, which have served the global community since 1981. The GVI provided reflectances and indices (4 km spacial resolution) every seven days for each 16 km map cell between 75EN and 55ES covering all land ecosystems. The data includes raw and calibrated radiances in the visible, near infrared and infrared spectral bands, processed (with eliminated high frequency noise) radiances, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), 20-year climatology, vegetation condition indices and also products, such as vegetation health, drought, vegetation fraction, fire risk etc. In the past ten years, users around the world used this information addressing different issues of drought impacts on socioeconomic activities and responded positively to real time drought information place regularly on the following web site http://orbit-net.nesdis.noaa.gov/crad/sat/surf/vci/. Drought assessments were compared with ground observations in twenty two countries around the world and showed good results in early drought detection and monitoring its development and impacts on the environment and socioeconomic activities, for assessment of biomass/crop production losses and fire risk. In addition, the AVHRR-based products showed potential in monitoring mosquito-born epidemics, amount of water required for irrigation, and predicting ENSO impacts on productivity of land ecosystems. These applications were used in agriculture, forestry, weather models, climatology. This presentation will be illustrated with many examples of data applications and also with explanations of data structure and use.

  16. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David K. A.; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C.; Barlaz, Morton

    2009-01-01

    One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly understood. PMID:19528051

  17. An Induced Environment Contamination Monitor for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R. (editor); Decher, R. (editor)

    1978-01-01

    The Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM), a set of ten instruments integrated into a self-contained unit and scheduled to fly on shuttle Orbital Flight Tests 1 through 6 and on Spacelabs 1 and 2, is described. The IECM is designed to measure the actual environment to determine whether the strict controls placed on the shuttle system have solved the contamination problem. Measurements are taken during prelaunch, ascent, on-orbit, descent, and postlanding. The on-orbit measurements are molecular return flux, background spectral intensity, molecular deposition, and optical surface effects. During the other mission phases dew point, humidity, aerosol content, and trace gas are measured as well as optical surface effects and molecular deposition. The IECM systems and thermal design are discussed. Preflight and ground operations are presented together with associated ground support equipment. Flight operations and data reduction plans are given.

  18. An Environment Monitoring Package for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. Ralph; Clifton, Kenneth S.

    1998-01-01

    The first elements of the International Space Station (ISS) will soon be launched into space and over the next few years ISS will be assembled on orbit into its final configuration. Experiments will be performed on a continuous basis both inside and outside the station. External experiments will be mounted on attached payload locations specifically designed to accommodate experiments, provide data and supply power from ISS. From the beginning of the space station program it has been recognized that experiments will require knowledge of the external local environment which can affect the science being performed and may impact lifetime and operations of the experiment hardware. Recently an effort was initiated to design and develop an Environment Monitoring Package (EMP). This paper describes the derivation of the requirements for the EMP package, the type of measurements that the EMP will make and types of instruments which will be employed to make these measurements.

  19. Water erosion monitoring and experimentation for global change studies

    SciTech Connect

    Poesen, J.W.; Boardman, J.; Wilcox, B.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the need for monitoring the effects of climatic change on soil erosion. The importance of monitoring not only runoff, but monitoring and experimental studies at the larger scale of hillslope and catchments is stressed.

  20. Monitoring the marine environment using marine mammal tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Day, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Marine environments, both inshore and open ocean, receive numerous inputs of anthropogenic chemicals. Cetaceans provide a valuable resource for monitoring the low level contamination of marine environments with persistent organic contaminants. Comparative studies using inshore and offshore southern ocean cetaceans have revealed significant differences in the types of contamination in these two environments. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) deposited in the southern oceans are characterized by an abundance of lower chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are not present at significant concentrations in cetaceans from the open southern ocean. In contrast significant concentrations of PCDD/F congeners are detected in the blubber of the inshore living Hector`s dolphin. This species lives close to the shore and has a very small home range (approximately 30 km) for a cetacean. Analysis of tissue PCDD/F and PCB profiles from different populations and their food sources will be presented. The data are being used to determine if there are local variations in the contamination of the New Zealand inshore marine environment.

  1. A framework for the implementation of the comprehensive plan for the global investigation of pollution in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Prepared to provide guidance to the IOC and its Member States on implementing the IOC/GIPME program in general and on developing the Marine Pollution Monitoring System (MARPOLMON), this document outlines the components and essential features of the Comprehensive Plan for the Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment (GIPME), assesses the validity of the approach advocated in it, and offers a strategic framework for GIPME activities.

  2. Satellite-Based Monitoring of Global Freshwater Resources (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodell, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Beaudoing, H.; Li, B.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater resources are changing worldwide due to both direct human impacts and climate change. Shifting precipitation regimes, changes in the magnitude and timing of seasonal snowpack accumulation and melt, competition for surface water, and increasing reliance on aquifers are testing the ability of the water cycle to provide and the ability of humanity to adapt. Accurate accounting of water cycle fluxes and how they respond to these pressures is critical. While ground based measurements are considered to be the 'gold standard', long-term, systematic measurements are scarce, and what data records do exist are rarely centralized and made publicly available by other than a few developed countries. Owing to its global coverage, satellite remote sensing has become a valuable tool for freshwater resources assessment. In particular, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has demonstrated an unequaled ability to monitor total terrestrial water storage, including groundwater, at regional to continental scales. In this presentation we will describe recent space-based estimates of large scale terrestrial water fluxes and trends and their relationships with known climatic and human forcings.

  3. Global Wetland Monitoring with AMSR-E Passive Microwave Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K.; Podest, E.; Heimann, M.; Zimmermann, R.

    2006-12-01

    Methane is the most potent green house gas in Earth's atmosphere. Recent findings have raised wide concern as to whether living plants have a significant role in producing large amounts of methane. Although such findings may contradict the common understanding of many atmospheric scientists, laboratory studies have demonstrated that it is not clear how accurately natural methane production can be measured. Our study investigates the impact of natural wetlands on variations in methane out-gassing within a global modeling construct. At a first step, we utilize newly available passive microwave measurements from the AMSR-E radiometer to observe Earth's largest wetland regions and to monitor their seasonal behavior. A remote sensing technique is presented that exploits the temporal variability of daily AMSR-E brightness temperature observations to detect changes in water distribution that control inundation patterns for large wetlands in Siberia, North America, and the Amazon Basin susceptible to strong seasonal shifts in surface water retention or precipitation amounts. Initial results demonstrate that our method can be applied directly and without any tuning applied to the input remote sensing signal, though careful evaluation of our product with in-situ information remains to be carried out. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Statistical Properties of Task Running Times in a Global-Scale Grid Environment

    E-print Network

    van der Mei, Rob

    Statistical Properties of Task Running Times in a Global-Scale Grid Environment Menno Dobber Vrije@few.vu.nl Abstract-- Over the years, the use of global grid environments have become widespread. In order to make applications robust against the dynamics of those grid environments it is essential to develop powerful

  5. A Global Rapid Integrated Monitoring System for Water Cycle and Water Resource Assessment (Global-RIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roads, John; Voeroesmarty, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The main focus of our work was to solidify underlying data sets, the data processing tools and the modeling environment needed to perform a series of long-term global and regional hydrological simulations leading eventually to routine hydrometeorological predictions. A water and energy budget synthesis was developed for the Mississippi River Basin (Roads et al. 2003), in order to understand better what kinds of errors exist in current hydrometeorological data sets. This study is now being extended globally with a larger number of observations and model based data sets under the new NASA NEWS program. A global comparison of a number of precipitation data sets was subsequently carried out (Fekete et al. 2004) in which it was further shown that reanalysis precipitation has substantial problems, which subsequently led us to the development of a precipitation assimilation effort (Nunes and Roads 2005). We believe that with current levels of model skill in predicting precipitation that precipitation assimilation is necessary to get the appropriate land surface forcing.

  6. Surface Emissivity Retrieved with Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements for Monitoring Global Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Surface and atmospheric thermodynamic parameters retrieved with advanced ultraspectral remote sensors aboard Earth observing satellites are critical to general atmospheric and Earth science research, climate monitoring, and weather prediction. Ultraspectral resolution infrared radiance obtained from nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud information. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity retrieved from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements under "clear-sky" conditions. Fast radiative transfer models, applied to the cloud-free (or clouded) atmosphere, are used for atmospheric profile and surface parameter (or cloud parameter) retrieval. The inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface (or cloud microphysical) parameters. Rapidly produced surface emissivity is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted atmospheric and surface parameters. Surface emissivity and surface skin temperature from the current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information on the Earth s ecosystem and land surface type properties, which can be utilized as part of long-term monitoring for the Earth s environment and global climate change.

  7. Global monitoring of Sea Surface Salinity with Aquarius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, G. S. E.; LeVine, D. M.; Chao, Yi; Colomb, R.; Nollmann, I.

    2005-01-01

    Aquarius is a microwave remote sensing system designed to obtain global maps of the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for late in 2008. The objective of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This will provide data to address scientific questions associated with ocean circulation and its impact on climate. For example, salinity is needed to understand the large scale thermohaline circulation, driven by buoyancy, which moves large masses of water and heat around the globe. Of the two variables that determine buoyancy (salinity and temperature), temperature is already being monitored. Salinity is the missing variable needed to understand this circulation. Salinity also has an important role in energy exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, for example in the development of fresh water lenses (buoyant water that forms stable layers and insulates water below from the atmosphere) which alter the air-sea coupling. Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument,for measuring salinity is the radiometer which is able to detect salinity because of the modulation salinity produces on the thermal emission from sea water. This change is detectable at the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the greatest unknowns in the retrieval. The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6am/6pm. The antenna for these two instruments is a 3 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds arranged in pushbroom fashion looking away from the sun toward the shadow side of the orbit to minimize sunglint. The mission goal is to produce maps of the salinity field globally once each month with an accuracy of 0.2 psu and a spatial resolution of 100 km. This will be adequate to address l&ge scale features of the salinity field of the open ocean. The temporal resolution is sufficient to address seasonal changes and a three year mission is planned to-collect sufficient data to look for interannual variation. Aquarius is being developed by NASA as part of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The SAC-D mission is being developed by CONAE and will include the space craft and several additional instruments, including visible and infrared cameras and a microwave radiometer to monitor rain and wind velocity over the oceans, and sea ice.

  8. Monitoring the Earth's Atmosphere with the Global IMS Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachet, Nicolas; Brown, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Bras, Ronan; Coyne, John; Given, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is tasked with monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) which bans nuclear weapon explosions underground, in the oceans, and in the atmosphere. The verification regime includes a globally distributed network of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations which collect and transmit data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria shortly after the data are recorded at each station. The infrasound network defined in the Protocol of the CTBT comprises 60 infrasound array stations. Each array is built according to the same technical specifications, it is typically composed of 4 to 9 sensors, with 1 to 3 km aperture geometry. At the end of 2000 only one infrasound station was transmitting data to the IDC. Since then, 41 additional stations have been installed and 70% of the infrasound network is currently certified and contributing data to the IDC. This constitutes the first global infrasound network ever built with such a large and uniform distribution of stations. Infrasound data at the IDC are processed at the station level using the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) method for the detection and measurement of infrasound signals. The algorithm calculates the signal correlation between sensors at an infrasound array. If the signal is sufficiently correlated and consistent over an extended period of time and frequency range a detection is created. Groups of detections are then categorized according to their propagation and waveform features, and a phase name is assigned for infrasound, seismic or noise detections. The categorization complements the PMCC algorithm to avoid overwhelming the IDC automatic association algorithm with false alarm infrasound events. Currently, 80 to 90% of the detections are identified as noise by the system. Although the noise detections are not used to build events in the context of CTBT monitoring, they represent valuable data for other civil applications like monitoring of natural hazards (volcanic activity, storm tracking) and climate change. Non-noise detections are used in network processing at the IDC along with seismic and hydroacoustic technologies. The arrival phases detected on the three waveform technologies may be combined and used for locating events in an automatically generated bulletin of events. This automatic event bulletin is routinely reviewed by analysts during the interactive review process. However, the fusion of infrasound data with the other waveform technologies has only recently (in early 2010) become part of the IDC operational system, after a software development and testing period that began in 2004. The build-up of the IMS infrasound network, the recent developments of the IDC infrasound software, and the progress accomplished during the last decade in the domain of real-time atmospheric modelling have allowed better understanding of infrasound signals and identification of a growing data set of ground-truth sources. These infragenic sources originate from natural or man-made sources. Some of the detected signals are emitted by local or regional phenomena recorded by a single IMS infrasound station: man-made cultural activity, wind farms, aircraft, artillery exercises, ocean surf, thunderstorms, rumbling volcanoes, iceberg calving, aurora, avalanches. Other signals may be recorded by several IMS infrasound stations at larger distances: ocean swell, sonic booms, and mountain associated waves. Only a small fraction of events meet the event definition criteria considering the Treaty verification mission of the Organization. Candidate event types for the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin include atmospheric or surface explosions, meteor explosions, rocket launches, signals from large earthquakes and explosive volcanic eruptions.

  9. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our own research to develop a library of immersive visualization stories and templates that explore ecological relationships across time at cosmic, global, and bioregional scales, with learning goals aligned to climate and earth science literacy principles. These experiential narratives are used to increase participants' awareness of global change issues as well as to engage them in dialogues and design processes focused on steps they can take within their own communities to systemically address these interconnected challenges. More than 600 digital planetariums in the U.S. collectively represent a pioneering opportunity for distributing Earth systems messages over large geographic areas. By placing the viewer-and Earth itself-within the context of the rest of the universe, digital planetariums can uniquely provide essential transcalar perspectives on the complex interdependencies of Earth's interacting physical and biological systems. The Worldviews Network is creating innovative, data-driven approaches for engaging the American public in dialogues about human-induced global changes.

  10. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  11. Space Environment Monitor for NPOESS (SEM-N) Sensor Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, K.; Hamilton, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Space Environment Monitor for NPOESS (SEM-N) is a compliment of three space particle sensors to be flown on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) which will take measurements to produce space environment data products for the near earth environment. SEM-N will fly on the first NPOESS spacecraft to be launched in 2013. Five Environmental Data Records will be retrieved by the SEM-N instrument package: auroral boundary, auroral energy deposition, energetic ions, medium energy charged particles, supra-thermal through aurora particles. Multiple angle, continuous energy spectral coverage will be provided for electrons from 30 eV to 1 MeV and for protons from 30 eV to >1000 MeV. The SEM-N coverage extends that of the current SEM-2 instrument and fills gaps in the present energy spectrum. The heritage-based SEM-N complement consists of the DMSP Special Sensor J5 (SSJ-5) for low energy measurements, the APL Energetic Particle Sensor (EPS) for medium energies, and an omnidirectional High Energy Sensor (HES) for high energy protons. This paper will present details on the SEM-N sensors and their expected performance.

  12. From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent technological advances have driven rapid development of DNA-based methods designed to facilitate detection and monitoring of invasive species in aquatic environments. These tools promise to significantly alleviate difficulties associated with traditional monitoring approac...

  13. Harsh-environment fiber optic sensors for structural monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.; Palmer, Matthew E.

    2004-07-01

    The objective of the work presented was to develop a suite of sensors for use in high-temperature aerospace environments, including turbine engine monitoring, hypersonic vehicle skin friction measurements, and support ground and flight test operations. A fiber optic sensor platform was used to construct the sensor suite. Successful laboratory demonstrations include calibration of a pressure sensor to 100psi at a gas temperature of 800°C, calibration of an accelerometer to 2.5g at a substrate temperature of 850°C. Temperature sensors have been field tested up to 1400°C, and a skin friction sensor designed for 870°C operation has been constructed. The key advancement that enabled the operation of these novel harsh environment sensors was a fiber optic packaging methodology that allowed the coupling of alumina and sapphire transducer components, optical fiber, and high-temperature alloy housing materials. The basic operation of the sensors and early experimental results are presented. Each of the sensors described here represent a quantifiable advancement in the state of the art in high-temperature physical sensors and will have a significant impact on the aerospace propulsion instrumentation industry.

  14. An artificial reality environment for remote factory control and monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles Paul; Krolak, Patrick D.

    1993-01-01

    Work has begun on the merger of two well known systems, VEOS (HITLab) and CLIPS (NASA). In the recent past, the University of Massachusetts Lowell developed a parallel version of NASA CLIPS, called P-CLIPS. This modification allows users to create smaller expert systems which are able to communicate with each other to jointly solve problems. With the merger of a VEOS message system, PCLIPS-V can now act as a group of entities working within VEOS. To display the 3D virtual world we have been using a graphics package called HOOPS, from Ithaca Software. The artificial reality environment we have set up contains actors and objects as found in our Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future project. The environment allows us to view and control the objects within the virtual world. All communication between the separate CLIPS expert systems is done through VEOS. A graphical renderer generates camera views on X-Windows devices; Head Mounted Devices are not required. This allows more people to make use of this technology. We are experimenting with different types of virtual vehicles to give the user a sense that he or she is actually moving around inside the factory looking ahead through windows and virtual monitors.

  15. Monitoring and Forecasting Space Weather in Geospace Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.

    2008-01-01

    For improving the reliability of Space Weather prediction, we developed a new, Polar Magnetic (PM) index of geomagnetic activity, which shows high correlation with both upstream solar wind data and related events in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Similarly to the existing polar cap PC index, the new PM index was computed from data from two near-pole geomagnetic observatories; however, the method for computing the PM index is different. The high correlation of the PM index with both solar wind data and events in Geospace environment makes possible to improve significantly forecasting geomagnetic disturbances and such important parameters as the cross-polar-cap voltage and global Joule heating, which play an important role in the development of geomagnetic, ionospheric and thermospheric disturbances. We tested the PM index for 10-year period (1995-2004). The correlation between PM index and upstream solar wind data for these years is very high (the average correlation coefficient R approximately equal to 0.86). The PM index also shows the high correlation with the cross-polar-cap voltage and hemispheric Joule heating (the correlation coefficient between the actual and predicted values of these parameters approximately equal to 0.9), which results in significant increasing the prediction reliability of these parameters. Using the PM index of geomagnetic activity provides a significant increase in the forecasting reliability of geomagnetic disturbances and related events in Geospace environment. The PM index may be also used as an important input parameter in modeling ionospheric, magnetospheric, and thermospheric processes.

  16. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  17. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Lobos, Gustavo A; Hancock, James F

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  18. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Hancock, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  19. Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N. (Editor); Itabe, Toshikazu (Editor); Sugimoto, Nobuo (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Keynote paper: Overview of lidar technology for industrial and environmental monitoring in Japan. 2. lidar technology I: NASA's future active remote sensing mission for earth science. Geometrical detector consideration s in laser sensing application (invited paper). 3. Lidar technology II: High-power femtosecond light strings as novel atmospheric probes (invited paper). Design of a compact high-sensitivity aerosol profiling lidar. 4. Lasers for lidars: High-energy 2 microns laser for multiple lidar applications. New submount requirement of conductively cooled laser diodes for lidar applications. 5. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds I: Lidar monitoring of clouds and aerosols at the facility for atmospheric remote sensing (invited paper). Measurement of asian dust by using multiwavelength lidar. Global monitoring of clouds and aerosols using a network of micropulse lidar systems. 6. Troposphere aerosols and clouds II: Scanning lidar measurements of marine aerosol fields at a coastal site in Hawaii. 7. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds III: Formation of ice cloud from asian dust particles in the upper troposphere. Atmospheric boundary layer observation by ground-based lidar at KMITL, Thailand (13 deg N, 100 deg. E). 8. Boundary layer, urban pollution: Studies of the spatial correlation between urban aerosols and local traffic congestion using a slant angle scanning on the research vessel Mirai. 9. Middle atmosphere: Lidar-observed arctic PSC's over Svalbard (invited paper). Sodium temperature lidar measurements of the mesopause region over Syowa Station. 10. Differential absorption lidar (dIAL) and DOAS: Airborne UV DIAL measurements of ozone and aerosols (invited paper). Measurement of water vapor, surface ozone, and ethylene using differential absorption lidar. 12. Space lidar I: Lightweight lidar telescopes for space applications (invited paper). Coherent lidar development for Doppler wind measurement from the International Space Station. 13. Space lidar II: Using coherent Doppler lidar to estimate river discharge. 14. Poster session: Lidar technology, optics for lidar. Laser for lidar. Middle atmosphere observations. Tropospheric observations (aerosols, clouds). Boundary layer, urban pollution. Differential absorption lidar. Doppler lidar. and Space lidar.

  20. Big Data Solution for CTBT Monitoring Using Global Cross Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, P.; Bobrov, D.; Dupont, A.; Grenouille, A.; Kitov, I. O.; Rozhkov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the mismatch between data volume and the performance of the Information Technology infrastructure used in seismic data centers, it becomes more and more difficult to process all the data with traditional applications in a reasonable elapsed time. To fulfill their missions, the International Data Centre of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO/IDC) and the Département Analyse Surveillance Environnement of Commissariat à l'Energie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA/DASE) collect, process and produce complex data sets whose volume is growing exponentially. In the medium term, computer architectures, data management systems and application algorithms will require fundamental changes to meet the needs. This problem is well known and identified as a "Big Data" challenge. To tackle this major task, the CEA/DASE takes part during two years to the "DataScale" project. Started in September 2013, DataScale gathers a large set of partners (research laboratories, SMEs and big companies). The common objective is to design efficient solutions using the synergy between Big Data solutions and the High Performance Computing (HPC). The project will evaluate the relevance of these technological solutions by implementing a demonstrator for seismic event detections thanks to massive waveform correlations. The IDC has developed an expertise on such techniques leading to an algorithm called "Master Event" and provides a high-quality dataset for an extensive cross correlation study. The objective of the project is to enhance the Master Event algorithm and to reanalyze 10 years of waveform data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) network thanks to a dedicated HPC infrastructure operated by the "Centre de Calcul Recherche et Technologie" at the CEA of Bruyères-le-Châtel. The dataset used for the demonstrator includes more than 300,000 seismic events, tens of millions of raw detections and more than 30 terabytes of continuous seismic data from the primary IMS stations. In this talk, we will present the Master Event algorithm and the associated workflow, we will give an overview of the designed technical solutions (from the building blocks to the global infrastructure), and we will show the preliminary results at a regional scale.

  1. A Collaborative Decision Environment to Support UAV Wildfire Monitoring Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, C. R.; Enomoto, F. Y.; D'Ortenzio, M. V.; Nguyen, Q. B.

    2006-12-01

    NASA developed the Collaborative Decision Environment (CDE), the ground-based component of its Intelligent Mission Management (IMM) technology for science missions employing long endurance unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The CDE was used to support science mission planning and decision-making for a NASA- and U.S. Forest Service-sponsored mission to monitor wildfires in the western United States using a multi- spectral imager flown onboard the General Atomics Altair UAV in summer of 2006. The CDE is a ground-based system that provides the mission/science team with situational awareness, collaboration, and decision tools. The CDE is used for pre-flight planning, mission monitoring, and visualization of acquired data. It integrates external data products used for planning and executing a mission, such as weather, large wildfire locations, satellite-derived fire detection data, temporarily restricted airspace, and satellite imagery. While a prototype CDE was developed as a Java-based client/server application in 2004-2005, the team investigated the use of Google Earth to take advantage of its 3-D visualization capabilities, friendly user interface, and enhanced graphics performance. External data is acquired via the Internet by leveraging established and emerging Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards and is re-formatted into the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) specification used by Google Earth. Aircraft flight position and sensor data products are relayed from the instrument ground station to CDE servers where they are made available to users. An instant messaging chat server is used to facilitate real-time communication between remote users. This paper will present an overview of the CDE system architecture, and discuss how science user input was crucial to shaping and developing the system. Examples from the UAV mission will be used to illustrate the presentation. Plans for future development work to improve mission operations, such as integration with autonomous planning tools, will be described.

  2. Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment.

    PubMed

    West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; Engstrom, Peder M; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Brauman, Kate A; Carlson, Kimberly M; Cassidy, Emily S; Johnston, Matt; MacDonald, Graham K; Ray, Deepak K; Siebert, Stefan

    2014-07-18

    Achieving sustainable global food security is one of humanity's contemporary challenges. Here we present an analysis identifying key "global leverage points" that offer the best opportunities to improve both global food security and environmental sustainability. We find that a relatively small set of places and actions could provide enough new calories to meet the basic needs for more than 3 billion people, address many environmental impacts with global consequences, and focus food waste reduction on the commodities with the greatest impact on food security. These leverage points in the global food system can help guide how nongovernmental organizations, foundations, governments, citizens' groups, and businesses prioritize actions. PMID:25035492

  3. A New GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments Site in Southwestern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, M. E.; Warden, J. E.; Apple, C. J.; Pullman, T. Y.; Gallagher, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    Global climate change is predicted to have a major impact on the alpine environments and plants of western North America. Alpine plant species and treelines may migrate upwards due to warmer temperatures. Species composition, vegetation cover, and the phenology of photosynthesis, flowering, pollination, and seed dispersal may change. The Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a network of alpine sites established with the goal of understanding the interactions between climate change and alpine plants. The Continental Divide traverses Southwestern Montana, where the flora contains representative species from both sides of the divide. In the summer of 2008, we established a GLORIA site in southwestern Montana east of the Continental Divide with the objective of determining whether the temperature changes at the site, and if so, how temperature changes influence alpine plants. We are monitoring soil temperature along with species composition and percent cover of alpine plants at four sub-summits along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We placed the treeline, lower alpine, and upper alpine sites on Mt. Fleecer (45°49'36.06"N, 112°48'08.18"W, 2886.2 m (9469 ft)) and the highest sub-summit on Keokirk Mountain, (45°35'37.94"N, 112°57'03.89"W, 2987.3 m (9801 ft)) in the Pioneer Range. Interesting species on these mountains include Lewisia pygmaea, the Pygmy Bitterroot, Silene acaulis, the Moss Campion, Eritrichium nanum, the Alpine Forget-Me-Not, Lloydia serotina, the Alpine Lily, and Pinus albicaulis, the Whitebark Pine. This new site will remain in place indefinitely. Baseline and subsequent data from this site will be linked with the global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora.

  4. Global 2000: The Presidential Task Force on Resources and the Environment--A Series of Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; And Others

    A series of responses to "The Global 2000 Report to the President" is presented. The Global 2000 Report examines the issues and interdependencies of population, resources, and environment in the long term global perspective (ED 188 935). According to the above report, if present trends continue, serious stresses of overcrowding, pollution,…

  5. Global styrene oligomers monitoring as new chemical contamination from polystyrene plastic marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Koizumi, Koshiro; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Jong-Oh; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-30

    Polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution is an environmental concern. However, a reliable and objective assessment of the scope of this problem, which can lead to persistent organic contaminants, has yet to be performed. Here, we show that anthropogenic styrene oligomers (SOs), a possible indicator of PS pollution in the ocean, are found globally at concentrations that are higher than those expected based on the stability of PS. SOs appear to persist to varying degrees in the seawater and sand samples collected from beaches around the world. The most persistent forms are styrene monomer, styrene dimer, and styrene trimer. Sand samples from beaches, which are commonly recreation sites, are particularly polluted with these high SOs concentrations. This finding is of interest from both scientific and public perspectives because SOs may pose potential long-term risks to the environment in combination with other endocrine disrupting chemicals. From SOs monitoring results, this study proposes a flow diagram for SOs leaching from PS cycle. Using this flow diagram, we conclude that SOs are global contaminants in sandy beaches around the world due to their broad spatial distribution. PMID:26218303

  6. Global Health Monitor -A Web-based System for Detecting and Mapping Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Global Health Monitor - A Web-based System for Detecting and Mapping Infectious Diseases Son Doan, an online Web-based system for detecting and mapping infectious disease outbreaks that appear in news to monitor the spread of diseases in a geo-temporal context. The background knowledge for the system

  7. Experimental Verification and Full-Scale Deployment of Global Positioning Systems to Monitor

    E-print Network

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Experimental Verification and Full-Scale Deployment of Global Positioning Systems to Monitor Positioning Systems GPS provide one answer to this challenge, with rapid advancements in the available reliability; Global positioning; Buildings, high-rise; Dy- namic response. Introduction With the growing

  8. A global change data base using Thematic Mapper data - Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Antoni, Hector L.; Peterson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the main directions in creating an education program in earth system science aimed at combining top science and technology with high academic performance are presented. The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES) integrated with the research interests of the NASA Ames Research Center and one or more universities is proposed. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, EMES would promote degrees at all levels in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extracurricular courses for multilevel audiences. EMES objectives are to: train specialists; establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool; and transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project.

  9. Validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment ozone profiles and evaluation of stratospheric transport in a global chemistry

    E-print Network

    Laat, Jos de

    , possibly related to the lack of heterogeneous polar stratospheric O3 destruction in TM5. Citation: de LaatValidation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment ozone profiles and evaluation of stratospheric) profiles which are used to evaluate stratospheric transport in the chemistry transport model (CTM) Tracer

  10. Global Ionospheric Perturbations Monitored by the Worldwide GPS Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Mannucci, A. T.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Pi, X. Q.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the delays of these (Global Positioning System-GPS)signals, we have generated high resolution global ionospheric TEC (Total Electronic Changes) maps at 15-minute intervals. Using a differential method comparing storm time maps with quiet time maps, we find that the ionopshere during this time storm has increased significantly (the percentage change relative to quiet times is greater than 150 percent) ...These preliminary results (those mentioned above plus other in the paper)indicate that the differential maping method, which is based on GPS network measurements appears to be a useful tool for studying the global pattern and evolution process of the entire ionospheric perturbation.

  11. SAGE: A Logical Agent-Based Environment Monitoring and Control System

    E-print Network

    Clark, Keith L.

    SAGE: A Logical Agent-Based Environment Monitoring and Control System Krysia Broda1 , Keith Clark1 London www.ucl.ac.uk/infostudies/rob-miller/ rsm@ucl.ac.uk Abstract. We propose SAGE, an agent-based environment monitor- ing and control system based on computation logic. SAGE uses forward chaining deductive

  12. Emergency Guiding and Monitoring Applications in Indoor 3D Environments by Wireless Sensor

    E-print Network

    Tseng, Yu-Chee

    Emergency Guiding and Monitoring Applications in Indoor 3D Environments by Wireless Sensor Networks sensor network in a 3D indoor environment for emergency guiding and monitoring. In such applications the network. To support guiding services, sensors are classified as normal sensors, exit sensors, and stair

  13. Global nuclear material monitoring with NDA and C/S data through integrated facility monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Argo, P.; Goulding, C.; Klosterbuer, S.; Halbig, J.

    1996-09-01

    This paper focuses on a flexible, integrated demonstration of a monitoring approach for nuclear material monitoring. This includes aspects of item signature identification, perimeter portal monitoring, advanced data analysis, and communication as a part of an unattended continuous monitoring system in an operating nuclear facility. Advanced analysis is applied to the integrated nondestructive assay and containment and surveillance data that are synchronized in time. End result will be the foundation for a cost-effective monitoring system that could provide the necessary transparency even in areas that are denied to foreign nationals of both US and Russia should these processes and materials come under full-scope safeguards or bilateral agreements. Monitoring systems of this kind have the potential to provide additional benefits including improved nuclear facility security and safeguards and lower personnel radiation exposures. Demonstration facilities in this paper include VTRAP-prototype, Los Alamos Critical Assemblies Facility, Kazakhstan BM-350 Reactor monitor, DUPIC radiation monitoring, and JOYO and MONJU radiation monitoring.

  14. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and pressure via satellite. The GEMS data will be validated against reference observations provided by current weather instrumentation located at KSC. This paper will report on the results of the GEMSTONE project and discuss the challenges encountered in developing an airborne sensor system.

  15. Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks in Marine Environment Monitoring: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guobao; Shen, Weiming; Wang, Xianbin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of society and the economy, an increasing number of human activities have gradually destroyed the marine environment. Marine environment monitoring is a vital problem and has increasingly attracted a great deal of research and development attention. During the past decade, various marine environment monitoring systems have been developed. The traditional marine environment monitoring system using an oceanographic research vessel is expensive and time-consuming and has a low resolution both in time and space. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently been considered as potentially promising alternatives for monitoring marine environments since they have a number of advantages such as unmanned operation, easy deployment, real-time monitoring, and relatively low cost. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of marine environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks. It first describes application areas, a common architecture of WSN-based oceanographic monitoring systems, a general architecture of an oceanographic sensor node, sensing parameters and sensors, and wireless communication technologies. Then, it presents a detailed review of some related projects, systems, techniques, approaches and algorithms. It also discusses challenges and opportunities in the research, development, and deployment of wireless sensor networks for marine environment monitoring. PMID:25215942

  16. Applications of wireless sensor networks in marine environment monitoring: a survey.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guobao; Shen, Weiming; Wang, Xianbin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of society and the economy, an increasing number of human activities have gradually destroyed the marine environment. Marine environment monitoring is a vital problem and has increasingly attracted a great deal of research and development attention. During the past decade, various marine environment monitoring systems have been developed. The traditional marine environment monitoring system using an oceanographic research vessel is expensive and time-consuming and has a low resolution both in time and space. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently been considered as potentially promising alternatives for monitoring marine environments since they have a number of advantages such as unmanned operation, easy deployment, real-time monitoring, and relatively low cost. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of marine environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks. It first describes application areas, a common architecture of WSN-based oceanographic monitoring systems, a general architecture of an oceanographic sensor node, sensing parameters and sensors, and wireless communication technologies. Then, it presents a detailed review of some related projects, systems, techniques, approaches and algorithms. It also discusses challenges and opportunities in the research, development, and deployment of wireless sensor networks for marine environment monitoring. PMID:25215942

  17. Monitoring of the particulate distribution in urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, M.; Towprayoon, S.; Kaeowjaroon, T.

    1996-12-31

    The air pollution problems identified in the nations of Asia are confined to localized areas of high emissions, usually associated with the urban environment. Monitoring of the highly polluted urban territory is needed to assess the important emission sources especially for-such big city as Bangkok. One of the important pollutant for the urban area is particles matter. The particulate distribution has been studied in the specific district of Rataburana in the Bangkok area. The initial data for this scale was obtained by direct measurement with the use of High Volume Air Sampler (Model GMWL-2000 H). Processes of the field measurement for particulate distribution are very labor-intensive and time consuming (according standard method it needs 24 hours per one measurement point). The using of the interpolation procedure helped to save time and yield more accurate cartographic products, especially when the quantity of data was not enough. This procedure was based on the well-known spline methodology. On the second stage the mapping of the particulate distribution has been made for preliminary expert assessment of situation, searching the tendency and trends for this specific territory. The obtained maps of particulate distribution in Rataburana district have been analyzed in comparison with the placement of the important emission sources such as the transport system, the residential areas, the industrial areas and the construction areas. The expression of this comparative mapping helped to differentiate some relationships and effects between the measurement data and the emission sources under the specific meteorological factors. These results have shown the zones the level of particular matter was higher than national air quality standards. Moreover, it was useful for improving of the sampling strategy and for further management of air pollution abatement.

  18. Global Ionosphere Perturbations Monitored by the Worldwide GPS Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Manucci, A. T.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Pi, X.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) worldwide network are employed to study the global ionospheric total electron content(TEC) changes during a magnetic storm (November 26, 1994). These measurements are obtained from more than 60 world-wide GPS stations which continuously receive dual-frequency signals. Based on the delays of the signals, we have generated high resolution global ionospheric maps (GIM) of TEC at 15 minute intervals. Using a differential method comparing storm time maps with quiet time maps, we find that significant TEC increases (the positive effect ) are the major feature in the winter hemisphere during this storm (the maximum percent change relative to quiet times is about 150 percent).

  19. Regulatory challenges for in vitro diagnostics in a global environment.

    PubMed

    Longwell, A

    1994-06-01

    U.S. medical products are marketed globally and are designed to meet needs of medical practitioners and their patients throughout the world. However, differences in how these products are regulated in different countries can pose challenges for the global marketer. This paper explores some of the differences between proposed and extant U.S. and European regulations for in vitro diagnostic products in terms of documentation, records, and labelling. It will describe some of the practical implications of these differences. PMID:7804632

  20. Global Hawk monitors hurricane eye wall development - Duration: 41 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Global Hawk UAV flies over Hurricane Karl to reveal a hot tower. Red shows reflectivity that is 12 km from the surface, orange is 10 km, yellow is 7.5 km, green is 6 km, and blue is under 6 km....

  1. A WHO global programme for monitoring vector resistance to pesticides.

    PubMed Central

    Shidrawi, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the programme for monitoring vector resistance to pesticides and how it was established. It presents a summary of the computer baseline data and the cumulative number of vector species developing resistance at intervals of 5 years, starting in 1956, as well as information derived from Expert Committee reports dating back to 1947. The problems and concerns of the programme and envisaged solutions are also discussed. PMID:2208555

  2. Taiga forest stands and SAR: Monitoring for subarctic global change

    SciTech Connect

    Way, J.; Kwok, R.; Viereck, L.; Slaughter, C.; Dobson, C.

    1992-03-01

    In preparation for the first European Earth Remote Sensing (ERS-1) mission, a series of multitemporal, multifrequency, multipolarization aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data sets were acquired over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska in March 1988. Significant change in radar backscatter was observed over the two-week experimental period due to changing environmental conditions. These preliminary results are presented to illustrate the opportunity afforded by the ERS-1 SAR to monitor temporal change in forest ecosystems.

  3. Sustaining Breakthrough Research in a Changing Global Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    As companies face ever-increasing economic and competitive pressures, the imperative to deliver real, sustained growth through innovation is clear. Corporations need to develop and maintain a research and development portfolio that recognizes this reality. This talk examines how General Electric's Global Research Center is implementing a technology portfolio that balances long- and shorter-term R&D across four global facilities. Examples from medical imaging and energy business segments will be used to illustrate strategies for delivering growth through sustained investment in technology.

  4. Metrics for Effective Resource Management in Global Computing Environments

    E-print Network

    Taufer, Michela

    and research centers. In contrast, in GC environments resources are managed by volunteers, and shared among is a dedicated server machine and GC workers are volunteered PCs. Strategies for scheduling distributed

  5. Educating Part-Time MBAs for the Global Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, W. Alan

    2008-01-01

    To be successful managers in the business world of the 21st century, MBA students must acquire global skills of business acumen, reflection, cultural sensitivity, and multi-cultural teamwork. Developing these skills requires international experience, but educating part-time MBAs creates a special challenge demanding both rigor and efficiency. This…

  6. Systems engineering in the global environment : a wicked future.

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Regina M.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation discusses the following questions: (1) What are the Global Problems that require Systems Engineering; (2) Where is Systems Engineering going; (3) What are the boundaries of Systems Engineering; (4) What is the distinction between Systems Thinking and Systems Engineering; (5) Can we use Systems Engineering on Complex Systems; and (6) Can we use Systems Engineering on Wicked Problems?

  7. A Global Overview: Trends in Environment and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    The conditions and trends for four clusters of global issues--the air and the sky, the fishes and the sea, the creatures and the land, and people and poverty--are presented. The topics of climate change, the ozone hole, air pollution, biological diversity, deforestation, and desertification are discussed. (KR)

  8. A monitoring sensor management system for grid environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian; Crowley, Brian; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Thompson, Mary

    2001-06-01

    Large distributed systems, such as computational grids,require a large amount of monitoring data be collected for a variety oftasks, such as fault detection, performance analysis, performance tuning,performance prediction and scheduling. Ensuring that all necessarymonitoring is turned on and that the data is being collected can be avery tedious and error-prone task. We have developed an agent-basedsystem to automate the execution of monitoring sensors and the collectionof event data.

  9. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level. PMID:26387506

  10. Autonomous global sky monitoring with real-time robotic follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Vestrand, W Thomas; Davis, H; Wren, J; Wozniak, P; Norman, B; White, R; Bloch, J; Fenimore, E; Hodge, Barry; Jah, Moriba; Rast, Richard

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the development of prototypes for a global grid of advanced 'thinking' sky sentinels and robotic follow-up telescopes that observe the full night sky to provide real-time monitoring of the night sky by autonomously recognizing anomalous behavior, selecting targets for detailed investigation, and making real-time anomaly detection to enable rapid recognition and a swift response to transients as they emerge. This T3 global EO grid avoids the limitations imposed by geography and weather to provide persistent monitoring of the night sky.

  11. Monitoring Natural Events Globally in Near Real-Time Using NASA's Open Web Services and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boller, Ryan A.; Ward, Kevin Alan; Murphy, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1960, NASA has been making global measurements of the Earth from a multitude of space-based missions, many of which can be useful for monitoring natural events. In recent years, these measurements have been made available in near real-time, making it possible to use them to also aid in managing the response to natural events. We present the challenges and ongoing solutions to using NASA satellite data for monitoring and managing these events.

  12. Space Geodesy Monitoring Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid Earth-core system (the 'global geophysical fluids') are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, oceanic and solid tides, hydrological water and idsnow redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. The temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have proven to be an effective tool in monitorihg certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in observing and understanding of these geodynamic effects. This paper will use several prominent examples to illustrate the triumphs in research over the past years under a 'Moore's law' in space geodesy. New space missions and projects promise to further advance our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as of the solid Earth's response to such changes in terms of Earth's mechanical properties.

  13. Global Ionospheric TEC Perturbations Monitored by the GPS Global Network During Two Northern Hemisphere Winter Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Mannucci, A. J.; Sparks, L.; Pi, X.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Wilson, B. D.; Reyes, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    The global evolution of two major ionospheric storms, occurring on November 4, 1993 and November 26, 1994, respectively, is studied using measurements of total electron content (TEC) obtained from a worldwide network of ground-based GPS receivers.

  14. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Peter G.; Moore, Charles J.; van Franeker, Jan A.; Moloney, Coleen L.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infrequent surveys of the standing stock of litter on beaches provide crude estimates of debris types and abundance, but are biased by differential removal of litter items by beachcombing, cleanups and beach dynamics. Monitoring the accumulation of stranded debris provides an index of debris trends in adjacent waters, but is costly to undertake. At-sea sampling requires large sample sizes for statistical power to detect changes in abundance, given the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Another approach is to monitor the impacts of plastics. Seabirds and other marine organisms that accumulate plastics in their stomachs offer a cost-effective way to monitor the abundance and composition of small plastic litter. Changes in entanglement rates are harder to interpret, as they are sensitive to changes in population sizes of affected species. Monitoring waste disposal on ships and plastic debris levels in rivers and storm-water runoff is useful because it identifies the main sources of plastic debris entering the sea and can direct mitigation efforts. Different monitoring approaches are required to answer different questions, but attempts should be made to standardize approaches internationally. PMID:19528052

  15. Induced environment contamination monitor: Preliminary results from the Spacelab 1 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    The STS-9/Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM) mission is briefly described. Preliminary results and analyses are given for each of the 10 instruments comprising the IECM. The final section presents a summary of the major results.

  16. Multi-robot monitoring in dynamic environments with guaranteed currency of observations

    E-print Network

    Smith, Stephen L.

    In this paper we consider the problem of monitoring a known set of stationary features (or locations of interest) in an environment. To observe a feature, a robot must visit its location. Each feature changes over time, ...

  17. School Projects for Monitoring the State of the Marine Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benkendorff, Kirsten

    Australia's marine environment hosts a high level of diverse endemic species along with some of the highest biodiversity in the world. Two-thirds of the population of Australia are living in coastal areas and can be considered a threat to marine life which is very vulnerable to human impacts. Although marine environments conserve high economic…

  18. A Review of Global Learning & Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Office of the President, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program is a worldwide, hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education program. GLOBE supports students, teachers, and scientists in collaborations using inquiry-based investigations of the environment and the earth system. GLOBE currently works in close…

  19. Precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Christy, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Passive microwave radiometry from satellites provides more precise atmospheric temperature information than that obtained from the relatively sparse distribution of thermometers over the earth's surface. Accurate global atmospheric temperature estimates are needed for detection of possible greenhouse warming, evaluation of computer models of climate change, and for understanding important factors in the climate system. Analysis of the first 10 years (1979 to 1988) of satellite measurements of lower atmospheric temperature changes reveals a monthly precision of 0.01 C, large temperature variability on time scales from weeks to several years, but no obvious trend for the 10-year period. The warmest years, in descending order, were 1987, 1988, 1983, and 1980. The years 1984, 1985, and 1986 were the coolest.

  20. Problems of monitoring the environment of the shallow nearshore zone of the Volga mouth

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnozhon, G.F.; Konyushko, V.S.

    1987-11-01

    This article describes problems involved in monitoring the environment of the Volga River delta from the standpoints of drainage and flooding behavior, pollutant concentration and transport, eutrophication, water quality, water current regimes, and bioproductivity. It also discusses monitoring strategies ranging from chemical methods to satellite surveys and calls for a comprehensive water management and planning program for the area.

  1. Applications of TRMM-based Multi-Satellite Precipitation Estimation for Global Runoff Simulation: Prototyping a Global Flood Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Pierce, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Advances in flood monitoring/forecasting have been constrained by the difficulty in estimating rainfall continuously over space (catchment-, national-, continental-, or even global-scale areas) and flood-relevant time scale. With the recent availability of satellite rainfall estimates at fine time and space resolution, this paper describes a prototype research framework for global flood monitoring by combining real-time satellite observations with a database of global terrestrial characteristics through a hydrologically relevant modeling scheme. Four major components included in the framework are (1) real-time precipitation input from NASA TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA); (2) a central geospatial database to preprocess the land surface characteristics: water divides, slopes, soils, land use, flow directions, flow accumulation, drainage network etc.; (3) a modified distributed hydrological model to convert rainfall to runoff and route the flow through the stream network in order to predict the timing and severity of the flood wave, and (4) an open-access web interface to quickly disseminate flood alerts for potential decision-making. Retrospective simulations for 1998-2006 demonstrate that the Global Flood Monitor (GFM) system performs consistently at both station and catchment levels. The GFM website (experimental version) has been running at near real-time in an effort to offer a cost-effective solution to the ultimate challenge of building natural disaster early warning systems for the data-sparse regions of the world. The interactive GFM website shows close-up maps of the flood risks overlaid on topography/population or integrated with the Google-Earth visualization tool. One additional capability, which extends forecast lead-time by assimilating QPF into the GFM, also will be implemented in the future.

  2. An Integrated Environment Monitoring System for Underground Coal Mines—Wireless Sensor Network Subsystem with Multi-Parameter Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-01-01

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected. PMID:25051037

  3. An integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines--Wireless Sensor Network subsystem with multi-parameter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-01-01

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected. PMID:25051037

  4. Large space-based systems for dealing with global environment change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    Increased concern over the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in support for the Global Change Research Program and the Mission to Planet Earth. Research to understand Earth system processes is critical, but it falls short of providing ways of mitigating the effects of change. Geoengineering options and alternatives to interactively manage change need to be developed. Space-based concepts for dealing with changes to the environment should be considered in addition to Earth-based actions. 'Mission for Planet Earth' describes those space-based geoengineering solutions that may combine with an international global change program to stabilize the Global environment. Large space systems that may be needed for this response challenge guidance and control engineering and technology. Definition, analysis, demonstration, and preparation of geoengineering technology will provide a basis for policy response if global change consequences are severe.

  5. Large space-based systems for dealing with global environment change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Increased concern over the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in support for the Global Change Research Program and the Mission to Planet Earth. Research to understand Earth system processes is critical, but it falls short of providing ways of mitigating the effects of change. Geoengineering options and alternatives to interactively manage change need to be developed. Space-based concepts for dealing with changes to the environment should be considered in addition to Earth-based actions. 'Mission for Planet Earth' describes those space-based geoengineering solutions that may combine with an international global change program to stabilize the Global environment. Large space systems that may be needed for this response challenge guidance and control engineering and technology. Definition, analysis, demonstration, and preparation of geoengineering technology will provide a basis for policy response if global change consequences are severe.

  6. Countermeasures for mitigating the effects of global environment changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental countermeasures for preventing the negative effects of global climate change and ozone depletion are discussed with special emphasis on the possibilities of space-based actions. Among the programs addressed are the Mission to Planet Earth, the Solar Power Satellite (and linkage to the Space Exploration Initiative), and proposed projects such as a lunar-based power generator that utilizes He-3 as a fusion fuel when combined with deuterium. The concept of regional working groups is proposed for initiating the programs for effective countermeasures.

  7. Mobile monitoring and embedded control system for factory environment.

    PubMed

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones. PMID:24351642

  8. RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR MONITORING VIRUSES IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conference was held and a report prepared at the invitation of USEPA for the purpose of receiving recommendations for research in the area of viruses. High priority and priority research areas were identified, and included monitoring, indicators, methods development, and qualit...

  9. Introduction to Monitoring and Surveillance of the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champlin, Robert L.; And Others

    This text on monitoring and surveillance is intended for the undergraduate college student and the professional technician. The materials contained within the book are presented from both a practical and philosophical standpoint. The "reason for" and the "how to" are examined within each section, including problems at the end of each chapter which…

  10. Mobile Monitoring and Embedded Control System for Factory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones. PMID:24351642

  11. 75 FR 62837 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Building Global Capacity for the Surveillance and Monitoring of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing its intention to accept and consider a single source application for award of a cooperative agreement to the World Health Organization (WHO) in support of building a global surveillance and monitoring system for combating counterfeit/falsified medicines and risks and breaches in the...

  12. Pluto and Charon with HST I: Monitoring Global Change and Improved Surface Properties from Lightcurves

    E-print Network

    Young, Leslie A.

    Pluto and Charon with HST I: Monitoring Global Change and Improved Surface Properties from to Astronomical Journal #12;­ 2 ­ ABSTRACT We present new lightcurve measurements of Pluto and Charon taken-linearity is seen in the data. In contrast, the lightcurve of Charon is essentially the same as in 1992/3, albeit

  13. Chapter 1 Climate monitoring The European Commission strategy for global climate change studies and

    E-print Network

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Chapter 1 Climate monitoring The European Commission strategy for global climate change studies, Jerusalem, Israel Precipitation as a centerpiece in Climate Change Water is the lifeblood of our livelihood high temperatures. Therefore, our main concern with respect to climate variability and change, at least

  14. Full time and full coverage global observation system for ecological monitoring base on MEO satellite grid constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Rui; Liu, Shuhao

    Human life more and more rely on earth environment and atmosphere, environmental information required by space based monitor is a crucial importance, although GEO and polar weather satellite in orbit by several countries, but it can’t monitor all zone of earth with real time. This paper present a conception proposal which can realize stable, continue and real time observation for any zone(include arctic and ant-arctic zone) of earth and its atmosphere, it base on walker constellation in 20000Km high medium orbit with 24 satellites, payloads configuration with infrared spectrometer, visible camera, ultraviolet ray camera, millimeter wave radiometer, leaser radar, spatial resolution are 1km@ infrared,0.5km@ visible optical. This satellite of grid constellation can monitor any zone of global with 1-3hours retrial observation cycles. Air pollution, ozone of atmosphere, earth surface pollution, desert storm, water pollution, vegetation change, natural disasters, man-made emergency situations, agriculture and climate change can monitor by this MEO satellite grid constellation. This system is a international space infrastructure, use of mature technologies and products, can build by co-operation with multi countries.

  15. Glacial and periglacial environment monitoring in Aosta Valley - Northwestern Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Elena; Cremonese, Edoardo; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Pogliotti, Paolo; Vagliasindi, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Aosta Valley is a small alpine region of about 3.300 km2 located in the NW Italy, on the southern side of the Alps and surrounded by the highest Alpine peaks such as Mont Blanc (4810m), Mont Rose (4634m) and Cervino (4478m), More than 50% of the territory has an elevation above 2000 metres asl. High mountain, glacial and periglacial environments cover a significant part of the territory. As the cryosphere is strongly sensitive to climate change, global warming effects are particularly evident in this alpine region, and they often affect environment and social and economic life, thus representing a key issue for politicians and people working and living in the valley. Among these effects, some of the most important are the decrease of water storage due to glaciers retreat and the increasing natural hazards as a consequence of rapid environmental dynamics. Hence the importance of monitoring glacial and periglacial environment, in order to quantify effects of climate change, to detect new dynamics and to manage consequences on the environment and the social life. In Aosta Valley the understanding of these phenomena is carried out by means of several actions, both at a regional scale and on specific representative sites. A multi-temporal analysis of aerial photographs, orthophotos and satellite imagery allows to detect glaciers evolution trend at a regional scale. All this information is collected in a Regional Glacier inventory, according to the World Glaciers Inventory standard and recommendations. Analysis of the information collected in the Inventory show that the total area presently covered by glaciers is about 135 km2; area changes occurred in the past has been about -44.3 km2, and -17 km2. between 1975 and 2005. Glacier inventory also gathers - for each of the about 200 glaciers - morphological data, information about events and photos both historical and present. Glacier mass balance (the difference resulting from the mass gained by the glacier through the winter/spring precipitations and the mass lost during the summer by snow and ice melting) strictly depends on climatic condition, so its long-term monitoring is a very reliable indicator. In Aosta Valley, yearly mass balance of some important glaciers that have lost significant mass since 2000 is measured. Timorion Glacier 0,5 Km² , 3.100 - 3.450 m, north face, Gran Paradiso Massif) is monitored since 2001; Rutor Glacier (8 Km², 2.700 - 3.400 m, north face) since 2004. Two more glaciers, in the Mont Rose and Mont Blanc Massif respectively, have been recently added to this measurement. The traditional method (with ablation stakes and snow pits) is applied. Glacier is a fundamental water reservoir and climate change can negatively affect water availability. The temporal evolution dynamics is an issue of increasing importance. For this reasons from 2006, ARPA VdA has developed modelling activities to monitor Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) distribution and glacier evolution at the medium basin scale (120 Km²) for hydro-power production optimization.

  16. Monitoring of global geodynamic processes using satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatevian, S. K.; Attia, G. F.; Abou-Aly, N.; Ghoneim, R.; Hegazy, M.

    2014-06-01

    To study mechanisms of destructive geodynamic phenomena including determination of places of possible severe earthquakes, volcano eruptions and some other natural hazards, it is important to have means to evolve areas where maximum changes of the displacement velocities and the terrestrial crust vertical movements are possible. The previous experience has shown that the satellite geodesy techniques including global navigation systems and satellite laser ranging are the most effective for research activities in this field. Permanent control of secular movement of GPS-stations of the international geodynamic network, located in Russia, has allowed improving the reference coordinate frame for North Eurasia since Russian network stations provide representative covering of the largest stable areas (the Siberian and the East European) of the Eurasian plate. Along its southern border, there is a zone consisting of a great number of microplates surrounding the South-Eurasian stable plate. Interaction of these small plates and blocks influences distribution of seismic stresses in internal parts of the continent that is confirmed by the highest seismic activity of the triangle bordered by thrusts of the Himalayas and faults of the Pamirs, the Tien-Shan, the Baikal and the North-Eastern China. One of the active tectonic zones of Egypt located in Aswan, is characterized by regional basement rock uplift and regional faulting. In 1997, the African Regional Geodynamic Network was developed around the northern part of Lake Nasser, consists of 11 points, on both sides of the Lake. Its main goal is to study the geodynamical behavior around the northern part of the lake. The collected data were processed using the Bernese software version 5.0. From the velocity results, including also the African plate motion, it can be noticed that all stations of this network are moved to the northeast direction and it is typically the direction of the African plate motion.

  17. Monitoring the Environment in a Lava Tube with a Wireless Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Wilson, J. L.; Rendon, N. M.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring cave environments is important for several reasons. For instance, through the studies of cave environments, we can better protect cave ecology. Past experiments have monitored cave environments, although most of those were based on individual sensor nodes such as data loggers. In this paper we introduce and discuss a ZigBee wireless sensor network-based platform used for cave environment monitoring. The platform is based on a Freescale ZigBee evaluation kit. We carried out a proof-of-concept experiment in Junction Cave, a lava tube, at El Malpais National Monument in New Mexico. That experiment monitored temperature, humidity, and air turbulence inside the cave. The instrumentation consisted of a turbulence tower with five thermocouple-based sensors, reaching from the floor to the ceiling of the cave, temperature/humidity sensors distributed throughout the cave, and a low-power embedded Linux computer for data collection and storage. The experiment measured interesting air turbulence variations at different heights, which we related to to weather changes outside the cave and human activities inside the cave. The experiment also observed variations of air temperature at different locations inside the cave. In this presentation we will discuss the instrumentation as well as interpretations of the observations. The experiment demonstrated that a ZigBee wireless sensor network-based monitoring system is a potentially feasible platform for a cave environment monitoring system. We also found that network reliability, node cost, and power consumption need to be improved for future systems.

  18. Application of global positioning system to structural health monitoring of cable-supported bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kai-yuen; Man, King-Leung; Chan, Wai-Yee K.

    2001-08-01

    In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the existing Wind and Structural Health Monitoring System (WASHMS) for the three cable-supported bridges, namely, the Tsing Ma (Suspension) Bridge, the Kap Shui Mun (Cable-Stayed) Bridge and the Ting Kau (Cable-Stayed) Bridge, Global Positioning System (GPS) is introduced to monitor the displacements of the cables (main suspension cables only), the stiffening decks and the bridge-towers. The measured displacement values will be used to calculate relevant motions at center-lines of the stiffening decks and bridge-towers, which will then be used to derive relevant stress status acting on the major bridge components. The GPS here refers to the `NAVSTAR GPS or NAVigation System with Time And Ranging Global Positioning System' which is a satellite-based system that uses a constellation of 24 (currently 27) satellites to determine the accurate coordinates or position of a user/receiver. The GPS applied to monitor the displacements of three cable-supported bridges is known as `Global Positioning System--On-Structure Instrumentation System or GPS-OSIS'. This GPS-OSIS is a real-time monitoring system and made up of five sub-systems, namely, the GPS Sensory System, the Local Data Acquisition System, the Global Data Acquisition System, the GPS Computer System and the Optical Fiber Network System. This paper first introduces the system layout and technical performance requirements of the GPS-OSIS, then briefly discusses the applications of GPS results in structural health monitoring of cable-supported bridges, e.g. the correlation of bridge responses to the effects of wind, temperature and traffic loads and the significance of monitoring geometrical variations and dynamic characteristics.

  19. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffe, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivpalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  20. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I.-I.; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-05-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas.

  1. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I-I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  2. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I. -I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  3. Developing and implementing a data acquisition strategy for global agricultural monitoring: an inter-agency initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, C. O.; Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Killough, B.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, in response to global food crises, the G20 Agricultural Ministers launched a satellite-based global agricultural monitoring initiative to develop the Group on Earth Observations Global Agriculture Monitoring (GEOGLAM) system. The GEO is aimed at enhancing the availability and use of both satellite and in situ data for societal benefit. This initiative builds on the observation requirements developed by the GEO Agricultural Community of Practice, the understanding that no one satellite system can currently provide all the data needed for agricultural monitoring and the resulting recommendation for improved acquisition and availability of data by the World's space agencies. Implicit in this recommendation is the fact that certain regions of the Earth are imagery rich while others are imagery poor, leaving knowledge gaps about agricultural processes and food supply for certain areas of the World. In order to respond to these knowledge gaps and to strengthen national, regional, and global agricultural monitoring networks, GEOGLAM is working with the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS), the space arm of GEO, to develop a coordinated global acquisition strategy. A key component of GEOGLAM is an effort to articulate the temporal and spatial Earth Observation (EO) requirements for monitoring; second, the identification of current and planned missions which are capable of fulfilling these EO requirements; and third, the development of a multi-agency, multi-mission image acquisition strategy for agricultural monitoring. CEOS engineers and GEOGLAM scientists have been collaborating on the EO requirements since 2012, and are now beginning the first implementation phase of the acquisition strategy. The goal is to put in place an operational system of systems using a virtual constellation of satellite-based sensors acquiring data to meet the needs for monitoring and early warning of shortfalls in agricultural production, a goal that was articulated in the 1970's, which has yet to be met. Although technically feasible, the challenges are largely institutional and speak to issues of coordination, data policy, data continuity and political will. The GEOGLAM initiative provides an opportunity to address and overcome these challenges to implement a global image acquisition strategy designed to meet critical societal needs.

  4. OSF-distributed computing environment for multimedia telemedicine services in global PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Alsafadi, Yasser H.; Kim, Jinman

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, we present our approach to developing global picture archiving and communication system (PACS) remote consultation and diagnosis (RCD) application using the Open Software Foundation (OSF) Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) services and toolkits. The current RCD system now uses programming services similar to those offered by OSF DCE, the Cell Directory Service, the Distributed Time Service, the Security Service, the RPC Facility, and the Threads Facility. In this research we have formally applied OSF DCE services to the Global PACS RCD software. The use of OSF DCE services for Global PACS enables us to develop a robust distributed structure and new user services which feature reliability and scalability for Global PACS environments.

  5. Global Future: Time to Act. Report to the President on Global Resources, Environment and Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillman, Katherine, Ed.; And Others

    This report presents recommendations and ideas for actions the United States could take, in concert with other nations, for a vigorous response to urgent global problems. The goal of the report is to further public discussion of these important issues and to offer ideas to government leaders who will be developing U.S. policy in the years ahead. A…

  6. Global Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation: History, Methods and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bartram, Jamie; Brocklehurst, Clarissa; Fisher, Michael B.; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hossain, Rifat; Wardlaw, Tessa; Gordon, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries’ needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally-representative and internationally-comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation. PMID:25116635

  7. Global optimal design of ground water monitoring network using embedded kriging.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Anirban; Datta, Bithin

    2009-01-01

    We present a methodology for global optimal design of ground water quality monitoring networks using a linear mixed-integer formulation. The proposed methodology incorporates ordinary kriging (OK) within the decision model formulation for spatial estimation of contaminant concentration values. Different monitoring network design models incorporating concentration estimation error, variance estimation error, mass estimation error, error in locating plume centroid, and spatial coverage of the designed network are developed. A big-M technique is used for reformulating the monitoring network design model to a linear decision model while incorporating different objectives and OK equations. Global optimality of the solutions obtained for the monitoring network design can be ensured due to the linear mixed-integer programming formulations proposed. Performances of the proposed models are evaluated for both field and hypothetical illustrative systems. Evaluation results indicate that the proposed methodology performs satisfactorily. These performance evaluation results demonstrate the potential applicability of the proposed methodology for optimal ground water contaminant monitoring network design. PMID:19563421

  8. Qualification of the MyOcean Global Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting System Skill Assessment for Various Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, Charly; Drevillon, Marie; Desportes, Charles; Greiner, Eric; Hernandez, Fabrice

    2010-05-01

    The operational oceanography European project MyOcean is part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security GMES program. During the next 3 years, 61 European partners in 29 different countries will work to build a pan European ocean monitoring and forecasting capacity. The "marine core service" will be produced by ocean forecast centers and data centers working together. MyOcean is particularly attentive with the setting of quality control, including the scientific validation of the products. The computation of various forecast scores and the inter-comparison of these scores between the various systems is done with an ensemble of metrics defined in the context of MERSEA and GODAE. Based on these metrics and on various data comparisons, this contribution will give an overview of the quality of the product of the state-of-the-art analysis and forecast system. We will look at the global Ocean system which is run at Mercator-Ocean and is based on the ocean and sea ice modelling system NEMO and on an assimilation system based on Kalman filter/SEEK. It is declined in eddy permitting and eddy resolving configurations: The current version of the global system has a ¼° horizontal resolution, with a North Atlantic (including the tropics) and Mediterranean zoom at 1/12° , and a global 1/12° system is under development which will be the reference global system at the end of MyOcean. One of the aims of this quality report (which will probably be updated on a quarterly basis) is to interact with the scientific community and other users so that one can derive the level of confidence (or the correction one can make) for the use of the products in one's own application. We will show that measuring the quality of the systems points out the importance of the real time observation network. In order to monitor the ocean we need a perpetual relatively high resolution spatial and temporal coverage, as an input for ocean analysis and forecast systems as well as for a validation purpose. We also need reliable references like long ocean reanalyses in order to validate these systems but also to provide useful information such as interannual or decadal anomalies (for instance for users who whish to initialize seasonal forecast, decadal forecast).

  9. Do persistent organic pollutants reach a thermodynamic equilibrium in the global environment?

    PubMed

    Schenker, Sebastian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-05-01

    Equilibrium partitioning between different environmental media is one of the main driving forces that govern the environmental fate of organic chemicals. In the global environment, equilibrium partitioning is in competition with long-range transport, advective phase transfer processes such as wet deposition, and degradation. Here we investigate under what conditions equilibrium partitioning is strong enough to control the global distribution of organic chemicals. We use a global multimedia mass-balance model to calculate the Globally Balanced State (GBS) of organic chemicals. The GBS is the state where equilibrium partitioning is in balance with long-range transport; it represents the maximum influence of thermodynamic driving forces on the global distribution of a chemical. Next, we compare the GBS with the Temporal Remote State, which represents the long-term distribution of a chemical in the global environment when the chemical's distribution is influenced by all transport and degradation processes in combination. This comparison allows us to identify the chemical properties required for a substance to reach the GBS as a stable global distribution. We find that thermodynamically controlled distributions are rare and do not occur for most Persistent Organic Pollutants. They are only found for highly volatile and persistent substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, we find that the thermodynamic cold-trap effect (i.e., accumulation of pollutants at the poles because of reduced vapor pressure at low temperatures) is often strongly attenuated by atmospheric and oceanic long-range transport. PMID:24654605

  10. Automated video screening for unattended background monitoring in dynamic environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2004-03-01

    This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A threat of specific interest to this project is the covert placement and subsequent remote detonation of bombs (e.g., briefcase bombs) inside crowded public facilities. Different from existing video motion detection systems, the video-screening technology described in this report is capable of detecting changes in the static background of an otherwise, dynamic environment - environments where motion and human activities are persistent. Our goal was to quickly detect changes in the background - even under conditions when the background is visible to the camera less than 5% of the time. Instead of subtracting the background to detect movement or changes in a scene, we subtracted the dynamic scene variations to produce an estimate of the static background. Subsequent comparisons of static background estimates are used to detect changes in the background. Detected changes can be used to alert security forces of the presence and location of potential threats. The results of this research are summarized in two MS Power-point presentations included with this report.

  11. Coastal Louisiana Wetlands Restoration Monitoring with Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, G.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana has experienced dramatic landscape change over the past century due to human induced changes to the environment as well as an onslaught of major coastal storms. Coastal Louisiana loses on average 25-35 square miles of land per year. The USGS has partnered with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - National Marine Fisheries Service to provide cyclical remote sensing data for selected restoration sites along the coast of Louisiana. Three of these sites are actively maintained in the GFP archive - Atchafalaya River Delta, East Timbalier Island, and Pecan Island. These three sites coincide with NOAA restoration sites that have been monitored since early 2000. The GFP has provided a consistent set of remote sensing data that has greatly benefited the long-term monitoring of these restoration sites. Long-term monitoring of these sites includes both pre- and post-hurricane season data collection used to identify landscape change along the coast. The long-term monitoring also has helped to identify areas of success in the restoration projects, as well as areas that have continued to decline in spite of restoration efforts. These three sites are significant to the program because they provide a variety of coastal landscape types: an open water barrier island environment at East Timbalier Island; coastal wetlands at Pecan Island, which have experienced subsidence of the marsh and convergence to an open water environment; and a deltaic marsh environment at Atchafalaya River Delta. Long-term monitoring of these sites has provided a wealth of knowledge about the changes occurring, as well as a valuable tool for reliable shoreline measurements. Continued monitoring is necessary to accurately assess the condition of these areas as environmental conditions continue to shape the landscape.

  12. Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Booth, Cormac G

    2016-01-01

    The use of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) around marine developments is commonplace. A buffer-based PAM system (e.g., C-POD) is a cost-effective method for assessing cetacean acoustic presence. Devices have been deployed by Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) Marine around the United Kingdom, allowing an examination of the performance of C-PODs with respect to background noise, tilt angle, and environmental factors. C-PODs were found to often only monitor for a few seconds of each minute, resulting in significant loss of monitoring time. Issues were likely driven by environmental and deployment factors. The practical limitations of buffer-based PAM systems in high-energy/noisy environments are indicated here. PMID:26610949

  13. Feedback following the Industry Engagement of the NNSA Unique Identifier and Global Monitoring 5 year plan

    SciTech Connect

    White-Horton, Jessica L; Whitaker, J Michael; Durbin, Karyn R.

    2013-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration s project for developing a unique identifier and a concept for a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders made significant progress on developing functional requirements and a concept of operation for such a system. The multi-laboratory team is working to define the functional requirements for both the unique identifier and the global monitoring system and to develop a preliminary concept of operations to discuss with key industry stakeholders. Team members began meeting with industry representatives in January 2013 to discuss the preliminary concept and solicit feedback and suggestions. The team has met with representatives from United States Enrichment Corporation, Cameco, URENCO, Honeywell/ConverDyn, and others. This paper presents an overview of the preliminary concept of operations and shares the feedback obtained from the industry engagement meetings.

  14. An Intelligent System for Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Paul P.; Jules, Kenol

    2002-01-01

    An intelligent system for monitoring the microgravity environment quality on-board the International Space Station is presented. The monitoring system uses a new approach combining Kohonen's self-organizing feature map, learning vector quantization, and back propagation neural network to recognize and classify the known and unknown patterns. Finally, fuzzy logic is used to assess the level of confidence associated with each vibrating source activation detected by the system.

  15. MONITORING WASTE HEAT REJECTION TO THE ENVIRONMENT VIA REMOTE SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A

    2009-01-13

    Nuclear power plants typically use waste heat rejection systems such as cooling lakes and natural draft cooling towers. These systems are designed to reduce cooling water temperatures sufficiently to allow full power operation even during adverse meteorological conditions. After the power plant is operational, the performance of the cooling system is assessed. These assessments usually rely on measured temperatures of the cooling water after it has lost heat to the environment and is being pumped back into the power plant (cooling water inlet temperature). If the cooling system performance is not perceived to be optimal, the utility will collect additional data to determine why. This paper discusses the use of thermal imagery collected from aircraft and satellites combined with numerical simulation to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of nuclear power plant waste heat dissipation systems. The ANS meeting presentation will discuss analyses of several power plant cooling systems based on a combination of remote sensing data and hydrodynamic modeling.

  16. GLOBAL MONITORING OF URANIUM HEXIFLORIDE CYLINDERS NEXT STEPS IN DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTION PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, D.

    2010-06-09

    Over 40 industrial facilities world-wide use standardized uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders for transport, storage and in-process receiving in support of uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication processes. UF{sub 6} is processed and stored in the cylinders, with over 50,000 tU of UF{sub 6} transported each year in these International Organization for Standardization (ISO) qualified containers. Although each cylinder is manufactured to an ISO standard that calls for a nameplate with the manufacturer's identification number (ID) and the owner's serial number engraved on it, these can be quite small and difficult to read. Recognizing that each facility seems to use a different ID, a cylinder can have several different numbers recorded on it by means of metal plates, sticky labels, paint or even marker pen as it travels among facilities around the world. The idea of monitoring movements of UF{sub 6} cylinders throughout the global uranium fuel cycle has become a significant issue among industrial and safeguarding stakeholders. Global monitoring would provide the locations, movements, and uses of cylinders in commercial nuclear transport around the world, improving the efficiency of industrial operations while increasing the assurance that growing nuclear commerce does not result in the loss or misuse of cylinders. It should be noted that a unique ID (UID) attached to a cylinder in a verifiable manner is necessary for safeguarding needs and ensuring positive ID, but not sufficient for an effective global monitoring system. Modern technologies for tracking and inventory control can pair the UID with sensors and secure data storage for content information and complete continuity of knowledge over the cylinder. This paper will describe how the next steps in development of an action plan for employing a global UF{sub 6} cylinder monitoring network could be cultivated using four primary UID functions - identification, tracking, controlling, and accounting.

  17. Protection of quantum information and optimal singlet conversion through higher dimensional quantum systems and environment monitoring

    E-print Network

    E. Mascarenhas; B. Marques; D. Cavalcanti; M. Terra Cunha; M. Fran\\cca Santos

    2010-04-12

    We study how to protect quantum information in quantum systems subjected to local dissipation. We show that combining the use of three-level systems, environment monitoring, and local feedback can fully and deterministically protect any available quantum information, including entanglement initially shared by different parties. These results can represent a gain in resources and/or distances in quantum communication protocols such as quantum repeaters and teleportation as well as time for quantum memories. Finally, we show that monitoring local environments physically implements the optimum singlet conversion protocol, essential for classical entanglement percolation.

  18. New indicators for global crop monitoring in CropWatch -case study in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingfang, Wu; Miao, Zhang; Hongwei, Zeng; Guoshui, Liu; Sheng, Chang; Gommes, René

    2014-03-01

    CropWatch is a monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information. Now in its 15th year of operation, CropWatch was modified several times to be a timely, comprehensive and independent global agricultural monitoring system using advanced remote sensing technology. Currently CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite (FY-3A) and cloud classification products of FY-2. With new satellite data, CropWatch will generate new indicators such as fallow land ratio (FLR), crop condition for irrigated (CCI) and non-irrigated (CCNI) areas separately, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), radiation use efficiency for the photosynthetically active radiation (RUEPAR) and cropping index (CI) with crop rotation information (CRI). In this paper, the methods for monitoring the new indicators are applied to the North China Plain which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. This paper shows the preliminary results of the new indicators and methods; they still need to be thoroughly validated before being incorporated into the operational CropWatch system. In the future, the new and improved indicators will help us to better understand the global situation of food security.

  19. Design and package of a 14CO2 field analyzer: the Global Monitor Platform (GMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Bruno D. V.; Bright, Michelle; Gronniger, Glen

    2011-09-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is widely accepted as a means to reduce and eliminate the fossil fuel CO2 (ff- CO2) emissions from coal fired power plants. Success of CCS depends on near zero leakage rates over decadal time scales. Currently no commercial methods to determine leakage of ff-CO2 are available. The Global Monitor Platform (GMP) field analyzer provides high precision analysis of CO2 isotopes [12C (99%), 13C (<1%), 14C (1.2x10-10 %)] that can differentiate between fossil and biogenic CO2 emissions. Fossil fuels contain no 14C; their combustion should lower atmospheric amounts on local to global scales. There is a clear mandate for monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) of CCS systems nationally and globally to verify CCS integrity, treaty verification (Kyoto Protocol) and to characterize the nuclear fuel cycle. Planetary Emissions Management (PEM), working with the National Secure Manufacturing Center (NSMC), has the goal of designing, ruggedizing and packaging the GMP for field deployment. The system will conduct atmosphere monitoring then adapt to water and soil evaluations. Measuring 14CO2 in real time will provide quantitative concentration data for ff-CO2 in the atmosphere and CCS leakage detection. Initial results will be discussed along with design changes for improved detection sensitivity and manufacturability.

  20. Man in the Living Environment. A Report on Global Ecological Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inger, Robert F.; And Others

    The findings of four groups of ecologists are synthesized in chapter I of this report on global ecological problems prepared as a data base for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. The other chapters contain the reports of each group. In "Cycles of Elements" the biologically important elements, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen,…

  1. New Challenges Facing Universities in the Internet-Driven Global Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajasingham, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores some new challenges facing universities in a global multimediated Internet-based environment, as they seek alternative paradigms and options to remain true to their core business. At a time of rapid technological change, and contested, complex concepts associated with globalisation, knowledge is becoming a primary factor of…

  2. GLOBAL MHD SIMULATIONS OF SPACE PLASMA ENVIRONMENTS: HELIOSPHERE, COMETS, MAGNETOSPHERES OF PLANETS AND

    E-print Network

    De Zeeuw, Darren L.

    description of a great variety of processes in space physics. Accurate numerical solutions of the MHDGLOBAL MHD SIMULATIONS OF SPACE PLASMA ENVIRONMENTS: HELIOSPHERE, COMETS, MAGNETOSPHERES OF PLANETS these techniques made the direct solution of MHD equations feasible, a number of global three-dimensional models

  3. Monitoring Progress towards Universal Health Coverage at Country and Global Levels

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Ties; Eozenou, Patrick; Evans, David; Evans, Tim; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Wagstaff, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has been defined as the desired outcome of health system performance whereby all people who need health services (promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation) receive them, without undue financial hardship. UHC has two interrelated components: the full spectrum of good-quality, essential health services according to need, and protection from financial hardship, including possible impoverishment, due to out-of-pocket payments for health services. Both components should benefit the entire population. This paper summarizes the findings from 13 country case studies and five technical reviews, which were conducted as part of the development of a global framework for monitoring progress towards UHC. The case studies show the relevance and feasibility of focusing UHC monitoring on two discrete components of health system performance: levels of coverage with health services and financial protection, with a focus on equity. These components link directly to the definition of UHC and measure the direct results of strategies and policies for UHC. The studies also show how UHC monitoring can be fully embedded in often existing, regular overall monitoring of health sector progress and performance. Several methodological and practical issues related to the monitoring of coverage of essential health services, financial protection, and equity, are highlighted. Addressing the gaps in the availability and quality of data required for monitoring progress towards UHC is critical in most countries. PMID:25243899

  4. Aerosols and past environments: A global investigation into cave aerosol identification, distribution, and contribution to speleothem geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dredge, J. A.; Fairchild, I. J.; Harrison, R. M.; Woodhead, J. D.; Hellstrom, J.; Mattey, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new sector of interest is developing within cave science regarding the influence of aerosols on the cave environment and the potential speleothem palaeoenvironmental aerosol record which may be preserved. This paper presents the results from a global collaboration project which explored all aspects of aerosols in the cave environment. Cave aerosol identification, introduction and distribution Cave aerosol multivariable environmental monitoring projects were carried out in the UK, Spain, Austria and Australia. Results demonstrate that cave ventilation is the predominant control on the introduction and distribution of aerosols throughout the cave environment (Dredge et al., 2013). Consequently, aerosol transportation processes vary as a result of seasonal ventilation changes and cave morphological features. Cave aerosol contribution to speleothem geochemistry Aerosol contributions to speleothem geochemistry were determined by comparing monitored aerosol deposition to speleothem trace element data. Significant aerosol contribution scenarios were identified as: hiatus events, high aerosol flux situations and secondary microbial concentration processes. Modelling indicates that a >99.9% reduction in drip water flow rates is required to reduce trace element supply quantities to equal that of aerosol supply (Dredge et al., 2013). Aerosol palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironmental records Aerosol contributions and the ability to utilise aerosol records in speleothem are investigated in samples from Gibraltar and Australia. Long range dust sources and past atmospheric circulation over several glacial cycles is studied through Sr isotope analysis of a Flowstone core from Gibraltar. Results of organic fire proxy analysis from Australian speleothem samples indicate an aerosol deposition forest fire record. In addition to primary fire deposition, secondary biological feedbacks and subsequent bioaccumulation processes in the cave environment are explored by microbial analysis. References Dredge, J., Fairchild, I.J., Harrison, R.M., Fernandez-Cortes, A., Sanchez-Moral, S. Jurado, V., Gunn, J., Smith, A., Spötl, C., Mattey, D., Wynn, P.M., Grassineau, N. 2013. Cave aerosols: distribution and contribution to speleothem geochemistry. Quaternary Science Reviews, 63, 23-41

  5. Volcanic Environments Monitoring by Drones Mud Volcano Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amici, S.; Turci, M.; Giulietti, F.; Giammanco, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; La Spina, A.; Spampinato, L.

    2013-08-01

    Volcanic activity has often affected human life both at large and at small scale. For example, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption caused severe economic damage at continental scale due to its strong effect on air traffic. At a local scale, ash fall and lava flow emission can cause harm and disruption. Understanding precursory signals to volcanic eruptions is still an open and tricky challenge: seismic tremor and gas emissions, for example, are related to upcoming eruptive activity but the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Furthermore, information related to gases emission mostly comes from the summit crater area of a volcano, which is usually hard to investigate with required accuracy. Although many regulation problems are still on the discussion table, an increasing interest in the application of cutting-edge technology like unmanned flying systems is growing up. In this sense, INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) started to investigate the possibility to use unmanned air vehicles for volcanic environment application already in 2004. A flight both in visual- and radio-controlled mode was carried out on Stromboli volcano as feasibility test. In this work we present the preliminary results of a test performed by INGV in collaboration with the University of Bologna (aerospace division) by using a multi-rotor aircraft in a hexacopter configuration. Thermal camera observations and flying tests have been realised over a mud volcano located on its SW flank of Mt. Etna and whose activity proved to be related to early stages of magma accumulation within the volcano.

  6. Aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment. Part III: personal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgen, E.; Levsen, K.; Angerer, J.; Schneider, P.; Heinrich, J.; Wichmann, H.-E.

    As part of a larger study, personal sampling of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the isomeric xylenes (BTEX) was carried out by 55 nonsmoking volunteers for a period of 14 days. Thirty-nine persons lived in a rural area near Hannover (Germany) with hardly any traffic at all, while 16 persons lived in a high-traffic city street in Hannover. The personal exposure level of the persons in the rural area (some commuting to Hannover) was: 2.9, 24.8, 2.4 and 7.7 ?g m -3 for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the sum of xylenes, respectively, while the corresponding data for the high traffic city streets were 4.0, 22.2, 2.8 and 9.7 ?g m -3 (geometric means). Four microenvironments have been monitored which contribute to the total exposure to BTEX, i.e. the home, the outdoor air, the workplace and the car cabin. The most important microenvironment for non-working persons is the private home. The concentration of most BTEX in the private home is almost equal to the personal exposure level, demonstrating that the indoor pollution in the home makes by far the highest contribution to the total exposure. For working people (mostly office workers), the workplace is the second most important microenvironment contributing to the total BTEX exposure. Taking all working persons into consideration (independent of the location of their private home) the personal exposure level is higher by a factor of 1.2-1.4 than that of the workplace (for toluene this factor is 2.2). As already found by others, very high BTEX concentrations may be found in car cabins, in particular, if the engine is gasoline-driven. In the cabin of 44 cars in the rural/urban area average benzene concentrations (geometric mean) of 12/14 ?g m -3 and a maximum value of ˜550 ?g m -3 were found. On average, the participating volunteers drove their car for 45 min day -1 (i.e. 3% of the day). Nevertheless, the car cabin constitutes about 10% of the total benzene exposure. Refueling of the car during the 14-day sampling period has only a small effect on the personal exposure level.

  7. Land-atmosphere coupling metrics from satellite remote sensing as a global drought-monitoring tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, Joshua K.; Santanello, Joseph A.

    2015-04-01

    Drought causes significant economic impact to society that can be reduced through preparations made possible by monitoring and prediction. Most drought monitoring systems utilize a variety of metrics to assess and understand drought. Feedbacks induced through land-atmosphere interactions are an important mechanism of drought intensification and persistence that is often not considered in current drought monitors due to a lack of spatially consistent observations. Recent work has developed a new classification of land-atmosphere interactions that summarizes the net impact of these interactions on drought intensification and recovery through the Coupling Drought Index (CDI). One thing that makes the CDI unique is that it can be calculated based on estimates from satellite remote sensing, which makes it particularly useful for global drought monitoring. Furthermore, the persistent nature of these coupling regimes provides a means of prediction through a Markov Chain Coupling Statistical Model (CSM). Previous work has shown that the CDI based on satellite remote sensing compares well with the U.S. Drought monitor in terms of drought intensification and recovery. On the other hand, the skill of the CSM forecasts over the U.S. is limited and still needs improvement. In this work the extent to which the CDI and CSM can be extended to other areas of the globe are explored. In particular, the ability of the satellite remote sensing based CDI to capture drought intensification and recovery over Africa and Europe are assessed. The benefits and limitations of using a metric of land-atmosphere interactions for global drought monitoring are also discussed.

  8. An Experimental Global Monitoring System for Rainfall-triggered Landslides using Satellite Remote Sensing Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2006-01-01

    Landslides triggered by rainfall can possibly be foreseen in real time by jointly using rainfall intensity-duration thresholds and information related to land surface susceptibility. However, no system exists at either a national or a global scale to monitor or detect rainfall conditions that may trigger landslides due to the lack of extensive ground-based observing network in many parts of the world. Recent advances in satellite remote sensing technology and increasing availability of high-resolution geospatial products around the globe have provided an unprecedented opportunity for such a study. In this paper, a framework for developing an experimental real-time monitoring system to detect rainfall-triggered landslides is proposed by combining two necessary components: surface landslide susceptibility and a real-time space-based rainfall analysis system (http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.aov). First, a global landslide susceptibility map is derived from a combination of semi-static global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, and land cover classification etc.) using a GIs weighted linear combination approach. Second, an adjusted empirical relationship between rainfall intensity-duration and landslide occurrence is used to assess landslide risks at areas with high susceptibility. A major outcome of this work is the availability of a first-time global assessment of landslide risk, which is only possible because of the utilization of global satellite remote sensing products. This experimental system can be updated continuously due to the availability of new satellite remote sensing products. This proposed system, if pursued through wide interdisciplinary efforts as recommended herein, bears the promise to grow many local landslide hazard analyses into a global decision-making support system for landslide disaster preparedness and risk mitigation activities across the world.

  9. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative to reduce obesity and diet-related NCDs. PMID:24833697

  10. A 3-year hygiene and safety monitoring of a meat processing plant which uses raw materials of global origin.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos C; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Doultsos, Dimitrios A; Zilelidou, Evangelia A; Gialitaki, Maria A; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-09-16

    A systematic approach in monitoring the hygiene of a meat processing plant using classical microbiological analyses combined with molecular characterization tools may assist in the safety of the final products. This study aimed: (i) to evaluate the total hygiene level and, (ii) to monitor and characterize the occurrence and spread of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the environment and the final products of a meat industry that processes meat of global origin. In total, 2541 samples from the processing environment, the raw materials, and the final products were collected from a Greek meat industry in the period 2011-2013. All samples were subjected to enumeration of total viable counts (TVC), Escherichia coli (EC) and total coliforms (TCC) and the detection of Salmonella spp., while 709 of these samples were also analyzed for the presence L. monocytogenes. Pathogen isolates were serotyped and further characterized for their antibiotic resistance and subtyped by PFGE. Raw materials were identified as the primary source of contamination, while improper handling might have also favored the proliferation of the initial microbial load. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes reached 5.5% and 26.9%, respectively. Various (apparent) cross-contamination or persistence trends were deduced based on PFGE analysis results. Salmonella isolates showed wide variation in their innate antibiotic resistance, contrary to L. monocytogenes ones, which were found susceptible to all antibiotics except for cefotaxime. The results emphasize the biodiversity of foodborne pathogens in a meat industry and may be used by meat processors to understand the spread of pathogens in the processing environment, as well as to assist the Food Business Operator (FBO) in establishing effective criteria for selection of raw materials and in improving meat safety and quality. This approach can limit the increase of microbial contamination during the processing steps observed in our study as well as the cross contamination of meat products. PMID:25600954

  11. The Environment Monitoring of the VIRGO antenna for gravitational wave detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasio, A.; Barone, F.; Eleuteri, A.; Garufi, F.; Milano, L.

    2000-06-01

    The Environment Monitoring System of the VIRGO antenna is a full modular system that can be easily adapted and extended to fulfil the present and future Virgo needs. This system already started data taking of temperature, pressure and acoustic noise for their identification. .

  12. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union (EU), the United States(USA), and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR), and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpola...

  13. STS-2 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM): Quick-Look Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R. (editor)

    1982-01-01

    The STS-2/induced environment contamination monitor (IECM) mission is described. The IECM system performance is discussed, and IECM mission time events are briefly described. Quick look analyses are presented for each of the 10 instruments comprising the IECM on the flight of STS-2. A short summary is presented.

  14. Heisenberg versus standard scaling in quantum metrology with Markov generated states and monitored environment

    E-print Network

    Catalin Catana; Madalin Guta

    2014-07-04

    Finding optimal and noise robust probe states is a key problem in quantum metrology. In this paper we propose Markov dynamics as a possible mechanism for generating such states, and show how the Heisenberg scaling emerges for systems with multiple `dynamical phases' (stationary states), and noiseless channels. We model noisy channels by coupling the Markov output to `environment' ancillas, and consider the scenario where the environment is monitored to increase the quantum Fisher information of the output. In this setup we find that the survival of the Heisenberg limit depends on whether the environment receives `which phase' information about the memory system.

  15. Nonthreshold-based event detection for 3d environment monitoring in sensor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Liu, Y.H.; Chen, L.

    2008-12-15

    Event detection is a crucial task for wireless sensor network applications, especially environment monitoring. Existing approaches for event detection are mainly based on some predefined threshold values and, thus, are often inaccurate and incapable of capturing complex events. For example, in coal mine monitoring scenarios, gas leakage or water osmosis can hardly be described by the overrun of specified attribute thresholds but some complex pattern in the full-scale view of the environmental data. To address this issue, we propose a nonthreshold-based approach for the real 3D sensor monitoring environment. We employ energy-efficient methods to collect a time series of data maps from the sensor network and detect complex events through matching the gathered data to spatiotemporal data patterns. Finally, we conduct trace-driven simulations to prove the efficacy and efficiency of this approach on detecting events of complex phenomena from real-life records.

  16. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission: Monitoring the Global Tropics for 3 Years and Beyond. 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Marshall; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was launched in November 1997 as a joint U.S.-Japanese mission to advance understanding of the global energy and water cycle by providing distributions of rainfall and latent heating over the global tropics. As a part of NASA's Earth System Enterprise, TRMM seeks to understand the mechanisms through which changes in tropical rainfall influence global circulation. Additionally, a goal is to improve the ability to model these processes in order to predict global circulations and rainfall variability at monthly and longer time scales. Such understanding has implications for assessing climate processes related to El Nino/La Nina and Global Warming. TRMM has also provided unexpected and exciting new knowledge and applications in areas related to hurricane monitoring, lightning, pollution, hydrology, and other areas. This CD-ROM includes a self-contained PowerPoint presentation that provides an overview of TRMM and significant science results; a set of data movies or animation; and listings of current TRMM-related publications in the literature.

  17. Global cytosine methylation in Daphnia magna depends on genotype, environment, and their interaction.

    PubMed

    Asselman, Jana; De Coninck, Dieter I M; Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Jansen, Mieke; Decaestecker, Ellen; De Meester, Luc; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2015-05-01

    The authors characterized global cytosine methylation levels in 2 different genotypes of the ecotoxicological model organism Daphnia magna after exposure to a wide array of biotic and abiotic environmental stressors. The present study aimed to improve the authors' understanding of the role of cytosine methylation in the organism's response to environmental conditions. The authors observed a significant genotype effect, an environment effect, and a genotype?×?environment effect. In particular, global cytosine methylation levels were significantly altered after exposure to Triops predation cues, Microcystis, and sodium chloride compared with control conditions. Significant differences between the 2 genotypes were observed when animals were exposed to Triops predation cues, Microcystis, Cryptomonas, and sodium chloride. Despite the low global methylation rate under control conditions (0.49-0.52%), global cytosine methylation levels upon exposure to Triops demonstrated a 5-fold difference between the genotypes (0.21% vs 1.02%). No effects were found in response to arsenic, cadmium, fish, lead, pH of 5.5, pH of 8, temperature, hypoxia, and white fat cell disease. The authors' results point to the potential role of epigenetic effects under changing environmental conditions such as predation (i.e., Triops), diet (i.e., Cryptomonas and Microcystis), and salinity. The results of the present study indicate that, despite global cytosine methylation levels being low, epigenetic effects may be important in environmental studies on Daphnia. PMID:25639773

  18. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Davies, Stuart J; Bennett, Amy C; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Wright, S Joseph; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Alonso, Alfonso; Baltzer, Jennifer L; Basset, Yves; Bourg, Norman A; Broadbent, Eben N; Brockelman, Warren Y; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Burslem, David F R P; Butt, Nathalie; Cao, Min; Cardenas, Dairon; Chuyong, George B; Clay, Keith; Cordell, Susan; Dattaraja, Handanakere S; Deng, Xiaobao; Detto, Matteo; Du, Xiaojun; Duque, Alvaro; Erikson, David L; Ewango, Corneille E N; Fischer, Gunter A; Fletcher, Christine; Foster, Robin B; Giardina, Christian P; Gilbert, Gregory S; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Gunatilleke, Savitri; Hao, Zhanqing; Hargrove, William W; Hart, Terese B; Hau, Billy C H; He, Fangliang; Hoffman, Forrest M; Howe, Robert W; Hubbell, Stephen P; Inman-Narahari, Faith M; Jansen, Patrick A; Jiang, Mingxi; Johnson, Daniel J; Kanzaki, Mamoru; Kassim, Abdul Rahman; Kenfack, David; Kibet, Staline; Kinnaird, Margaret F; Korte, Lisa; Kral, Kamil; Kumar, Jitendra; Larson, Andrew J; Li, Yide; Li, Xiankun; Liu, Shirong; Lum, Shawn K Y; Lutz, James A; Ma, Keping; Maddalena, Damian M; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marthews, Toby; Mat Serudin, Rafizah; McMahon, Sean M; McShea, William J; Memiaghe, Hervé R; Mi, Xiangcheng; Mizuno, Takashi; Morecroft, Michael; Myers, Jonathan A; Novotny, Vojtech; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Ong, Perry S; Orwig, David A; Ostertag, Rebecca; den Ouden, Jan; Parker, Geoffrey G; Phillips, Richard P; Sack, Lawren; Sainge, Moses N; Sang, Weiguo; Sri-Ngernyuang, Kriangsak; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I-Fang; Sungpalee, Witchaphart; Suresh, Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana; Tan, Sylvester; Thomas, Sean C; Thomas, Duncan W; Thompson, Jill; Turner, Benjamin L; Uriarte, Maria; Valencia, Renato; Vallejo, Marta I; Vicentini, Alberto; Vrška, Tomáš; Wang, Xihua; Wang, Xugao; Weiblen, George; Wolf, Amy; Xu, Han; Yap, Sandra; Zimmerman, Jess

    2015-02-01

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. Within very large plots (median size 25 ha), all stems ? 1 cm diameter are identified to species, mapped, and regularly recensused according to standardized protocols. CTFS-ForestGEO spans 25 °S-61 °N latitude, is generally representative of the range of bioclimatic, edaphic, and topographic conditions experienced by forests worldwide, and is the only forest monitoring network that applies a standardized protocol to each of the world's major forest biomes. Supplementary standardized measurements at subsets of the sites provide additional information on plants, animals, and ecosystem and environmental variables. CTFS-ForestGEO sites are experiencing multifaceted anthropogenic global change pressures including warming (average 0.61 °C), changes in precipitation (up to ± 30% change), atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds (up to 3.8 g N m(-2) yr(-1) and 3.1 g S m(-2) yr(-1)), and forest fragmentation in the surrounding landscape (up to 88% reduced tree cover within 5 km). The broad suite of measurements made at CTFS-ForestGEO sites makes it possible to investigate the complex ways in which global change is impacting forest dynamics. Ongoing research across the CTFS-ForestGEO network is yielding insights into how and why the forests are changing, and continued monitoring will provide vital contributions to understanding worldwide forest diversity and dynamics in an era of global change. PMID:25258024

  19. Temperature sensitive glassware for monitoring liquid or surface temperatures in a high power microwave environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSherry, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Lewis, E.

    2005-06-01

    Temperature sensitive glassware has been developed to monitor liquid chemical temperature in a microwave environment. A combination of two phosphor powders is coated to the base of a Pyrex beaker & Quartz tube, which fluoresce under blue light stimulation. These temperature sensitive glassware monitors changes in liquid or surface temperature by observing ratios of peak emission intensities of the phosphors. The temperature sensitive Pyrex beaker is placed on an oven so that surface temperature can be accurately monitored. A fabricated coated Quartz tube is placed in an Industrial Free Electron Laser (IFEL), which provides the necessary microwave radiation to heat liquids and therefore provide liquid measurements. This paper describes the testing of the coating and its application in monitoring liquid temperature in an Industrial Free Electron Laser.

  20. Youth, Skills Development, and Work in the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2012: Learning from Asia or for Asia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The article underlines the historic importance of the treatment of skills development, finally, by the Education for All Global Monitoring Report (GMR) team. Among the many challenges in its analysis are the multiple and overlapping meanings of the word skill, and the consequent difficulties of quantifying and monitoring efforts at skills…

  1. Building a data set over 12 globally distributed sites to support the development of agriculture monitoring applications with Sentinel-2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing better agricultural monitoring capabilities based on Earth Observation data is critical for strengthening food production information and market transparency. The coming Sentinel-2 mission has the optimal capacity for regional to global agriculture monitoring in terms of resolution (10-20...

  2. Uncovering Global Icebergs in Distributed Monitors Guanyao Huang, Ashwin Lall, Chen-Nee Chuah, and Jun Xu

    E-print Network

    Lall, Ashwin

    Uncovering Global Icebergs in Distributed Monitors Guanyao Huang, Ashwin Lall, Chen-Nee Chuah and worm detection, called distributed global icebergs. While previous work has concentrated on mea- suring local heavy-hitters using "sketches" in the non-distributed streaming case or icebergs in the non

  3. A Low-Cost Sensor Buoy System for Monitoring Shallow Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Albaladejo, Cristina; Soto, Fulgencio; Torres, Roque; Sánchez, Pedro; López, Juan A.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of marine ecosystems is essential to identify the parameters that determine their condition. The data derived from the sensors used to monitor them are a fundamental source for the development of mathematical models with which to predict the behaviour of conditions of the water, the sea bed and the living creatures inhabiting it. This paper is intended to explain and illustrate a design and implementation for a new multisensor monitoring buoy system. The system design is based on a number of fundamental requirements that set it apart from other recent proposals: low cost of implementation, the possibility of application in coastal shallow-water marine environments, suitable dimensions for deployment and stability of the sensor system in a shifting environment like the sea bed, and total autonomy of power supply and data recording. The buoy system has successfully performed remote monitoring of temperature and marine pressure (SBE 39 sensor), temperature (MCP9700 sensor) and atmospheric pressure (YOUNG 61302L sensor). The above requirements have been satisfactorily validated by operational trials in a marine environment. The proposed buoy sensor system thus seems to offer a broad range of applications. PMID:23012562

  4. Integrated global background monitoring network. Preliminary results from Torres del Paine and Olympic National Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, G.B.; Kohler, A.; Boelcke, C.; Baker, G.; Harmon, M.; Weber, C.; Gonzales, J.

    1985-10-01

    During 1984, a pilot project was initiated for monitoring pollution at Torres del Paine National Park in southern Chile and Olympic National Park in the United States. These are two of three initial sites that are to be established as part of an integrated global backgound monitoring network. Eventually, the plan is to establish a world-wide system of such sites. We collected and analyzed samples of the soil, water, air, and two species of plants (moss and lichen). We also collected and analyzed samples of the forest litter. We compared the samples of soil and vegetation against reference samples. We also compared samples of soil, vegetation, and of organic material from Torres del Paine against similar samples from Olympic and Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks in the United States. Although the data is preliminary, it is in agreement with out initial hypothesis that Torres del Paine and Olympic National Parks are not a polluted sites.

  5. Use of Sentinels to aid the global monitoring of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliainen, Jouni; Salminen, Miia; Luojus, Kari; Metsämäki, Sari; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Takala, Matias; Cohen, Juval; Böttcher, Kristine

    2014-05-01

    Earth observation instruments onboard Sentinel satellites provide a unique opportunity for the monitoring and investigation of global snow processes. The issue of the possible decay of seasonal snow cover is highly relevant for climate research. In addition to water cycle, the extent and amount of snow affects to surface albedo, and indirectly to carbon cycling. The latter issue includes snow-induced changes in permafrost regions (active layer characteristics), as well as the effect of snow (melt) to vegetation growth and soil respiration. Recent advances in ESA DUE GlobSnow project have shown that by combining data from optical satellite sensors and passive microwave instruments advanced Climate Data Records (CDR) on seasonal snow cover can be produced, extending to time periods of over 30 years. The combined snow cover products provide information both on Snow Extent (SE) and Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on a daily basis. The applicable instruments providing historical data for CDR generation include such microwave radiometers as SMMR, AMSR and SSMI/I, and such optical sensors as AVHRR, AATSR and VIIRS. Sentinel 3, especially its SLSTR instrument, is a prominent tool for expanding the snow CDR for forthcoming years. The developed global snow cover monitoring methodology, demonstrated and discussed here, derives the SWE information from passive microwave data (accompanied with in situ observations of snow depth at synoptic weather stations). The snow extent and fractional snow cover (FSC) on ground is derived from optical satellite data, in order to accurately map the continental line of seasonal snow cover, and to map regions of ephemeral snow cover. An advanced feature in the developed methodology is the provision of uncertainty information on snow cover characteristics associated with each individual satellite data footprint on ground and moment of time. In addition to assisting the generation and extension of the global snow cover CDR, Sentinel missions provide data that enable the improvement of snow monitoring algorithms for hydrological and NWP applications. On the other hand, Sentinel observations can be applied to enhance snow processes considerations in hydrological, climate and weather prediction models. In general, synergistic techniques that apply data from different sensors (active-passive, optical-microwave, moderate-coarse resolution) are feasible to numerous cryospheric research and end-use applications. For example, MSI of Sentinel 2 and Sentinel 1 SAR can be synergistically used to provide information on snow melt at the scale of sub-drainage basins for hydrological river discharge forecasting independently on cloud conditions. The snow melt monitoring information has also been shown to be relevant for the mapping of the start of the growing season at the conifer forests of the boreal forest zone, which is highly relevant for the global mapping of annual carbon balance.

  6. Strengthening of accountability systems to create healthy food environments and reduce global obesity.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, Boyd; Kraak, Vivica; Rutter, Harry; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lobstein, Tim; Sacks, Gary; Gomes, Fabio; Marsh, Tim; Magnusson, Roger

    2015-06-20

    To achieve WHO's target to halt the rise in obesity and diabetes, dramatic actions are needed to improve the healthiness of food environments. Substantial debate surrounds who is responsible for delivering effective actions and what, specifically, these actions should entail. Arguments are often reduced to a debate between individual and collective responsibilities, and between hard regulatory or fiscal interventions and soft voluntary, education-based approaches. Genuine progress lies beyond the impasse of these entrenched dichotomies. We argue for a strengthening of accountability systems across all actors to substantially improve performance on obesity reduction. In view of the industry opposition and government reluctance to regulate for healthier food environments, quasiregulatory approaches might achieve progress. A four step accountability framework (take the account, share the account, hold to account, and respond to the account) is proposed. The framework identifies multiple levers for change, including quasiregulatory and other approaches that involve government-specified and government-monitored progress of private sector performance, government procurement mechanisms, improved transparency, monitoring of actions, and management of conflicts of interest. Strengthened accountability systems would support government leadership and stewardship, constrain the influence of private sector actors with major conflicts of interest on public policy development, and reinforce the engagement of civil society in creating demand for healthy food environments and in monitoring progress towards obesity action objectives. PMID:25703108

  7. Monitoring the fate of radionuclides released to the environment: May 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L.R.

    1992-08-13

    A review of the radiological effluent and environmental monitoring practices in use at Mound has been conducted. The radionuclides under consideration were HT, Pu-239, U-233,234, U-238, Th-230, Th-232, Co-60, Cs-137, and Ac-227. It is concluded from this analysis that additional continuous monitoring programs are not warranted. Dose contributions from these radionuclides are negligible. Further, in many cases environmental surveillance would not be practical due to the extremely low concentrations encountered in the offsite environment. For these reasons, it is believed that no additional action is required in response to DOE Tiger Team Finding R/CF-1.

  8. IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN HEALTH RISKS OF CHEMICALS IN THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair BA; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:62–78. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23147420

  9. Real-time molecular monitoring of chemical environment in obligate anaerobes during oxygen adaptive response.

    PubMed

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R; Ball, David A; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W; Hazen, Terry C; Downing, Kenneth H

    2009-08-01

    Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment can elucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms that enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bond structures in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of well orchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses. PMID:19541631

  10. Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2009-02-25

    Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

  11. Height resolved ozone hole structure as observed by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Peet, J. C. A.; van der A, R. J.; de Laat, A. T. J.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; König-Langlo, G.; Wittig, J.

    2009-06-01

    We present Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) ozone profiles that were operationally retrieved with the KNMI Ozone ProfilE Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA) algorithm for the period September-December 2008. It is shown that it is possible to accurately measure the vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone for Antarctic ozone hole conditions from spectra measured at ultraviolet wavelengths from a nadir viewing instrument. Comparisons with ozone sonde observations from the Neumayer station at the Antarctic coast show a good agreement for various ozone profile shapes representing different phases of the annual recurring ozone hole cycle. A preliminary analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the ozone hole shows for example that at the vortex edges ozone rich mid-latitude middle and upper stratospheric layers can be found over ozone depleted lower stratospheric ‘ozone hole’ layers. These Antarctic ozone profile observations combined with the daily global coverage of GOME-2 enables the monitoring of the three-dimensional structure of the ozone hole on a daily basis.

  12. Construction and application of an intelligent air quality monitoring system for healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Tung; Liao, Chi-Jui; Liu, Jung-Chun; Den, Walter; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality monitoring in healthcare environment has become a critical part of hospital management and policy. Manual air sampling and analysis are cost-inhibitive and do not provide real-time air quality data and response measures. In this month-long study over 14 sampling locations in a public hospital in Taiwan, we observed a positive correlation between CO(2) concentration and population, total bacteria, and particulate matter concentrations, thus monitoring CO(2) concentration as a general indicator for air quality could be a viable option. Consequently, an intelligent environmental monitoring system consisting of a CO(2)/temperature/humidity sensor, a digital plug, and a ZigBee Router and Coordinator was developed and tested. The system also included a backend server that received and analyzed data, as well as activating ventilation and air purifiers when CO(2) concentration exceeded a pre-set value. Alert messages can also be delivered to offsite users through mobile devices. PMID:24487985

  13. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Today s presentation describes how real time space weather data is used by the International Space Station (ISS) space environments team to obtain data on auroral charging of the ISS vehicle and support ISS crew efforts to obtain auroral images from orbit. Topics covered include: Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), . Auroral charging of ISS, . Real ]time space weather monitoring resources, . Examples of ISS auroral charging captured from space weather events, . ISS crew observations of aurora.

  14. The use of PROBA-V data for Global Agricultural Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydekerke, Lieven; Gilliams, Sven; Kempeneers, Pieter; Piccard, Isabelle; Deronde, Bart; Eerens, Herman; Gobin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Land conversion, forest cutting, urban growth, agricultural expansion, take place at an unprecedented rate and scale such that they have a strong economic and environmental impact. Understanding and measuring dynamics becomes a prerequisite for companies, governments, agencies, NGO's, research institutes and society in general. In many cases the temporal frequency of the information is a requirement to detect phenomena that can occur within a few days and at a certain geographic scale. For example frequent updates on crop condition and projected production are needed to stabilise agricultural markets. Large initiatives such as the GEOGLAM AMIS (Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring - Agricultural Market Information System) respond to this increased need. Observations over large areas are available through satellites, however, the following challenges remain: • obtaining frequent and consistent observations at sufficient level of detail to identify spatial phenomena. At present, no single mission is capable of providing near daily information of any place in the world at scales appropriate to detect land cover/use changes in a consistent manner. • the need for a historical reference. For agricultural monitoring and early warning purposes the comparison of the actual data with a historical reference is of the utmost importance. The PROBA-V mission is an important attempt to overcome these challenges. From its design and within the GIO-Global Land component a lot of work has been done to ensure the consistency between the PROBA-V data and the 15 years historical archive of SPOT-VEGETATION. In this respect PROBA-V observations are comparable with the SPOT-VEGETATION historical baseline and will therefore ensure the continuation of the standard agricultural monitoring products. Next to this integration with the historical archive, PROBA -V also provides an increase in spatial resolution from 1km to 300m and even 100m. The latter ensures a global coverage every 5 days, while daily global coverage is provided at 1 km and 300 m. Within the framework of the FP7 SIGMA project (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture), currently Europe's largest contribution to the abovementioned GEOGLAM initiative, the use of the 100m data set for agricultural monitoring is investigated. To overcome the problem of the reduced revisit time of the 100 m data, the SIGMA projects foresees in a data assimilation of the 100 m and 300 m products. The data assimilation is based on a Kalman filter approach developed by Sedano et al. (2014). As an output, a cloud free composite is produced every ten days at a spatial resolution of 100 m. References Sedano, Fernando, Pieter Kempeneers, and George Hurtt. "A Kalman Filter-Based Method to Generate Continuous Time Series of Medium-Resolution NDVI Images." Remote Sensing 6.12 (2014): 12381-12408. http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/ http://www.geoglam-sigma.info/

  15. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie -Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; et al

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased geneticmore »and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation.« less

  16. Mutations in Global Regulators Lead to Metabolic Selection during Adaptation to Complex Environments

    PubMed Central

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie-Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes if many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that subtle modulations of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order metabolic selection that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism, and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation. PMID:25501822

  17. New study on the correlation between carbon dioxide concentration in the environment and radon monitor devices.

    PubMed

    Shahrokhi, A; Burghele, B D; Fábián, F; Kovács, T

    2015-12-01

    The influence of high geogenic carbon dioxide concentrations on monitoring devices might present a significant challenge to the measurement of radon concentrations in environments with a high level of carbon dioxide concentration such as volcano sites, mofettes, caves, etc. In this study, the influence of carbon dioxide concentration on several different types of radon monitor devices - including Alpha Spectrometry (Sarad RTM 2200, EQF 3220, RAD7), Ionizing Chamber (AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO) and Active Cell (Active scintillation cell, Pylon 300A) - was examined to represent new aspects of radon measuring in environments with carbon dioxide. In light of the results, all measuring devices were exposed to variable conditions affected by carbon dioxide concentration, except for the AlphaGUARD, which was kept in a steady state throughout the experiment. It was observed that alpha spectroscopy devices were affected by carbon dioxide, since measured radon concentrations decreased in the presence of 70% and 90% carbon dioxide concentrations by 26.5 ± 2% and 14.5 ± 2.5% for EQF 3220, and 32 ± 2% and 35.5 ± 2% for RTM 2200. However, the ionizing chamber instrument was unaffected by changes in carbon dioxide concentration. It was determined that the RAD7 performed relatively inefficiently in the presence of carbon dioxide concentrations higher than 67% by an overall efficiency factor of approximately 0.52, confirming that it is not an admissible radon monitor instrument in environments with high carbon dioxide concentrations. PMID:26281966

  18. Evaluation of Local Media Surveillance for Improved Disease Recognition and Monitoring in Global Hotspot Regions

    PubMed Central

    Schwind, Jessica S.; Wolking, David J.; Brownstein, John S.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Smith, Woutrina A.

    2014-01-01

    Digital disease detection tools are technologically sophisticated, but dependent on digital information, which for many areas suffering from high disease burdens is simply not an option. In areas where news is often reported in local media with no digital counterpart, integration of local news information with digital surveillance systems, such as HealthMap (Boston Children’s Hospital), is critical. Little research has been published in regards to the specific contribution of local health-related articles to digital surveillance systems. In response, the USAID PREDICT project implemented a local media surveillance (LMS) pilot study in partner countries to monitor disease events reported in print media. This research assessed the potential of LMS to enhance digital surveillance reach in five low- and middle-income countries. Over 16 weeks, select surveillance system attributes of LMS, such as simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, timeliness, and stability were evaluated to identify strengths and weaknesses in the surveillance method. Findings revealed that LMS filled gaps in digital surveillance network coverage by contributing valuable localized information on disease events to the global HealthMap database. A total of 87 health events were reported through the LMS pilot in the 16-week monitoring period, including 71 unique reports not found by the HealthMap digital detection tool. Furthermore, HealthMap identified an additional 236 health events outside of LMS. It was also observed that belief in the importance of the project and proper source selection from the participants was crucial to the success of this method. The timely identification of disease outbreaks near points of emergence and the recognition of risk factors associated with disease occurrence continue to be important components of any comprehensive surveillance system for monitoring disease activity across populations. The LMS method, with its minimal resource commitment, could be one tool used to address the information gaps seen in global ‘hot spot’ regions. PMID:25333618

  19. Global Earth Monitoring Using ALOS-2/Palsar-2: Initial Status of the ALOS-2 Calibration Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Advanced Land Observation Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched on May 24, 2014, carrying the L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-2) to the low polar orbit of 628km height with 14-day revisit time. To the four mission objectives, i.e., disaster mitigation, environmental monitoring represented by the forest monitoring and cryospheric monitoring, land monitoring, and technology development, PALSAR-2 and ALOS-2 provides the 1~3m high resolution Spotlight and Strip with multi polarization with an imaging swath of 50km, ScanSAR imaging with 350~490km swath with dual polarizations, shorter temporal baseline of 14 days and spatial baseline of within 1km, shorter time delay of less than 72 hours (74 hours in worst case) for emergency observation request to the disaster area, and almost all of global beam synchronization for ScanSAR Interferometry. ALOS-2 science program initiates the JAXA's Calibration, Validation, Application researches of the PALSAR-2/ALOS-2 and Pi-SAR-L2. As the application research, the disaster mitigation and the urban area monitoring using the high-resolution data should contribute significantly to the human society since the disasters occur frequently and globally. High resolution and multi polarimetric SAR with the shorter revisit time reserves the quicker detection of the land changes. In this presentation, we will summarize the contents of the ALOS-2 science program, its expected outcomes, and comparative study results with PALSAR. Some application examples of the disaster mitigation using the recent high resolution SARs, i.e., Pi-SAR-L2 and PALSAR will be also introduced. Kyoto and Carbon Initiative project is the JAXA's Forest and related Carbon estimation project using the time series PALSAR, PALSAR-2 and ground truth dataset. It was established in 2002 and continued for KC-3 (2011/9~2014/3) and later. Main products that will be used are the forest distribution, forest change, ScanSAR mosaic, high resolution SAR mosaic (time series) and those produced for ALSO and JERS-1. Under the collaboration with 3 international institutes, estimating the forest carbon and its time series, and their relationship with the environmental change will be investigated.

  20. Hierarchical Satellite-based Approach to Global Monitoring of Crop Condition and Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Wu, B.; Gommes, R.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, N.; Zeng, H.; Zou, W.; Yan, N.

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of global food security goes beyond the mere estimate of crop production: It needs to take into account the spatial and temporal patterns of food availability, as well as physical and economic access. Accurate and timely information is essential to both food producers and consumers. Taking advantage of multiple new remote sensing data sources, especially from Chinese satellites, such as FY-2/3A, HJ-1 CCD, CropWatch has expanded the scope of its international analyses through the development of new indicators and an upgraded operational methodology. The new monitoring approach adopts a hierarchical system covering four spatial levels of detail: global (sixty-five Monitoring and Reporting Units, MRU), seven major production zones (MPZ), thirty-one key countries (including China) and "sub- countries." The thirty-one countries encompass more that 80% of both global exports and production of four major crops (maize, rice, soybean and wheat). The methodology resorts to climatic and remote sensing indicators at different scales, using the integrated information to assess global, regional, and national (as well as sub-national) crop environmental condition, crop condition, drought, production, and agricultural trends. The climatic indicators for rainfall, temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) as well as potential biomass are first analysed at global scale to describe overall crop growing conditions. At MPZ scale, the key indicators pay more attention to crops and include Vegetation health index (VHI), Vegetation condition index (VCI), Cropped arable land fraction (CALF) as well as Cropping intensity (CI). Together, they characterise agricultural patterns, farming intensity and stress. CropWatch carries out detailed crop condition analyses for thirty one individual countries at the national scale with a comprehensive array of variables and indicators. The Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), cropped areas and crop condition are associated to derive food production estimates. Based on trends analysis, CropWatch also issues crop production supply outlooks, covering both long-term variations and short-term dynamic changes in key food exporters and importers. CropWatch bulletin can be downloaded from the CropWatch website at http://www.cropwatch.com.cn.

  1. Global Characterization and Monitoring of Forest Cover Using Landsat Data: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, John R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Huang, ChengQuan; Vermote, Eric F.; Gao, Feng; Channan, Saurabh; Sexton, Joseph O.; Feng, Min; Narasimhan, Ramghuram; Kim, Dohyung; Song, Kuan; Song, Danxia; Song, Xiao-Peng; Noojipady, Praveen; Tan, Bin; Hansen, Matthew C.; Li, Mengxue; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The compilation of global Landsat data-sets and the ever-lowering costs of computing now make it feasible to monitor the Earth's land cover at Landsat resolutions of 30 m. In this article, we describe the methods to create global products of forest cover and cover change at Landsat resolutions. Nevertheless, there are many challenges in ensuring the creation of high-quality products. And we propose various ways in which the challenges can be overcome. Among the challenges are the need for atmospheric correction, incorrect calibration coefficients in some of the data-sets, the different phenologies between compilations, the need for terrain correction, the lack of consistent reference data for training and accuracy assessment, and the need for highly automated characterization and change detection. We propose and evaluate the creation and use of surface reflectance products, improved selection of scenes to reduce phenological differences, terrain illumination correction, automated training selection, and the use of information extraction procedures robust to errors in training data along with several other issues. At several stages we use Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer data and products to assist our analysis. A global working prototype product of forest cover and forest cover change is included.

  2. Global monitoring of atmospheric properties by the EOS MODIS. Semiannual technical report, January-June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) being developed for the Earth Observing System (EOS) is well suited to the global monitoring of atmospheric properties from space. Among the atmospheric properties to be examined using MODIS observations, clouds are especially important, since they are a strong modulator of the shortwave and longwave components of the earth's radiation budget. A knowledge of cloud properties (such as optical thickness and effective radius) and their variation in space and time, is also crucial to studies of global climate change. In addition, with the use of related airborne instrumentation, such as the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) in intensive field experiments, various types of surface and cloud properties can be derived from the measured bidirectional reflectances. These missions have provided valuable experimental data to determine the capability of narrow bandpass channels in examining the Earth's atmosphere and to aid in defining algorithms and building an understanding of the ability of MODIS to remotely sense atmospheric conditions for assessing global change. Therefore, the primary task objective is to extend and expand the algorithm for retrieving the optical thickness and effective radius of clouds from radiation measurements to be obtained from MODIS. The secondary objective is to obtain an enhanced knowledge of surface angular and spectral properties that can be inferred from airborne directional radiance measurements.

  3. A multimedia approach to environmental monitoring in a northern environment: The Slave River environmental quality monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Peddle, J.; Stephens, G.; Robertson, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Slave River Environmental Quality Monitoring Program is a multimedia sampling program that was established in 1990 to characterize baseline conditions of the aquatic ecosystem in the Slave River at Fort Smith, NWT, Canada. The comprehensive nature of the sampling program made it the first of its kind in the Northwest Territories. The Slave River watershed drains an area of approximately 600,000 km{sup 2}, including the Peace and Athabasca Rivers, with the territorial portion being the furthest downstream. Increase in developments in the upstream portion of the basin prompted concerns by northern residents. In order to answer the questions of ``Can one drink the water?`` and ``Can one eat the fish?``, the program had to take an ecosystem approach and analyze a variety of media including water, suspended sediment and fish. In addition, benthic surveys, stable isotope work and delta coring were carried out in conjunction with this study. Samples were collected under both winter ({minus}40 C, under ice) and summer conditions. Samples were analyzed for organic and inorganic parameters including mixed function oxygenases (MFOs), dioxins, furans and other organochlorines. There was an emphasis on those contaminants likely to result from anthropogenic developments upstream, namely pulp and paper mills, agricultural activities and hydrocarbon developments. A comprehensive and extensive database was created which can be used to address concerns, aid in transboundary negotiations and monitor future changes in the quality of the aquatic environment.

  4. Application of NCEP Land Data Assimilation Systems for Global and Regional Drought Analysis, Monitoring and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ek, M. B.; Xia, Y.; Meng, C. J.; Dong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Currently, NCEP/EMC includes three Land Data Assimilation Systems (LDASs): (1) Global LDAS (GLDAS), (2) North American LDAS (NLDAS), and (3) high resolution NLDAS on the Hydrologic Rainfall Analysis Project (HRAP) grid (HRAP-NLDAS). GLDAS was developed to provide initial conditions for NCEP coupled global weather and climate models, NLDAS to provide hydrometeorological products to support the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS), and HRAP-NLDAS for long-term and near real-time high-resolution (~4 km) hydrometeorological products to support hydrological research and application at National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecast Centers and the Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). These three systems are independent but closely related. The core model of the three systems is the NCEP operational land surface model (Noah) and the OHD operational hydrological model (SAC-HT); two additional land surface/hydrological models are used in NLDAS. The three systems are all moving towards being used for global and regional drought analysis, monitoring and prediction. The uncoupled GLDAS used the Noah land model in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), with blended atmospheric model and observed precipitation forcing used to generate long-term (1979-present) global hydrometeorological products (at ~38 km) as part of the proposed Global Drought Information System (GDIS) in association with the NOAA Climate Program Office (CPO) Modeling, Analysis, Predictions and Projection (MAPP) Drought Task Force; use of GLDAS/Noah continues in the operational Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2). NLDAS is a quasi-operational system that supports U.S. operational drought monitoring and seasonal hydrological prediction, in particular for NIDIS. One key application of the near real-time updates is drought monitoring over the Continental United States (CONUS), shown at the "NLDAS Drought" tab of the NLDAS website (www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/mmb/nldas). NLDAS is mature, with NCEP operational implementation planned for the near future. At the same time, the NCEP/EMC NLDAS team is collaborating with the NASA Goddard Hydrological Sciences Laboratory to add their Land Information System (LIS) to the current NLDAS which will allow assimilation of remotely-sensed data sets and in-situ observations. HRAP-NLDAS centers on supporting NCEP and OHD operational land surface and hydrological modeling missions, as well as providing support for the NOAA Hydrology Test Bed, the NOAA Climate Test Bed, and NIDIS, with long-term retrospective (1979-present) and near real-time multi-model hydrometerological products over CONUS. New capabilities include the use of enhanced versions of the Noah and Sacramento Heat Transfer (SAC-HT) land models. As HRAP-NLDAS is developed under the NASA LIS framework, more land surface/hydrological models will be included in this system. This high resolution exercise will allow drought monitoring with spatial scales from state to sub-county levels.

  5. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the latest spectacular images from NASA's remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man's impact on our world's environment. Visualizations of global data currently available from Earth orbiting satellites include the Earth at night with its city lights, high resolutions of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique as well as flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001. Visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown and demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricane and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites are are presented with other topics with a dynamic theater-style , along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  6. Automatic Event Detection in Noisy Environment for Material Process Monitoring by Laser AE Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, K.; Kuriki, H.; Araki, H.; Kuroda, S.; Enoki, M.

    2014-06-01

    Laser acoustic emission (AE) method is a unique in-situ and non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. It has a capability to detect signals generated from crack generation and propagation, friction and other physical phenomena in materials even in high temperature environment. However, laser AE system has lower signal-to-noise ratio compared to the conventional AE system using PZT sensors, so it is difficult to apply this method in noisy environment. A novel AE measurement system to detect events in such difficult environments was developed. This system could continuously record all AE waveforms and enable unrestricted post-analyses. Noise reduction filters in frequency domain coupling with a new AE event extraction using multiple threshold values showed a good potential for AE signal processing. This system was successfully applied for crack monitoring of plasma spray deposition process of ceramic coating.

  7. Monitoring human health behaviour in one's living environment: a technological review.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Shane A; Ólaighin, Gearóid

    2014-02-01

    The electronic monitoring of human health behaviour using computer techniques has been an active research area for the past few decades. A wide array of different approaches have been investigated using various technologies including inertial sensors, Global Positioning System, smart homes, Radio Frequency IDentification and others. It is only in recent years that research has turned towards a sensor fusion approach using several different technologies in single systems or devices. These systems allow for an increased volume of data to be collected and for activity data to be better used as measures of behaviour. This change may be due to decreasing hardware costs, smaller sensors, increased power efficiency or increases in portability. This paper is intended to act as a reference for the design of multi-sensor behaviour monitoring systems. The range of technologies that have been used in isolation for behaviour monitoring both in research and commercial devices are reviewed and discussed. Filtering, range, sensitivity, usability and other considerations of different technologies are discussed. A brief overview of commercially available activity monitors and their technology is also included. PMID:24388101

  8. Contribution of L-Band SAR to Systematic Global Mangrove Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, Richard; Rebelo, Lisa-Maria; Fatoyinbo, Lola; Rosenqvist, Ake; Itoh, Takuya; Shimada, Masanobu; Simard, Marc; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir; Thomas, Nathan; Trettin, Carl; Accad, Arnon; Carreiras, Joao; Hilarides, Lammert

    2014-01-01

    Information on the status of and changes in mangroves is required for national and international policy development, implementation and evaluation. To support these requirements, a component of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Kyoto and Carbon (K&C) initiative has been to design and develop capability for a Global Mangrove Watch (GMW) that routinely monitors and reports on local to global changes in the extent of mangroves, primarily on the basis of observations by Japanese L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The GMW aims are as follows: (1) to map progression of change within or from existing (e.g. Landsat-derived) global baselines of the extent of mangroves by comparing advanced land-observing satellite 2 (ALOS-2) phased array L-band SAR 2 (PALSAR-2) data from 2014 with that acquired by the Japanese earth resources satellite (JERS-1)SAR(1992-1998) and ALOSPALSAR (2006-2011); (2) to quantify changes in the structure and associated losses and gains of carbon on the basis of canopy height and aboveground biomass (AGB) estimated from the shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM; acquired 2000), the ice, cloud and land-elevation satellite (ICESAT) geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS; 2003-2010) and L-band backscatter data; (3) to determine likely losses and gains of tree species diversity through reference to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) global thematic layers on the distribution of mangrove species; and (4) to validate maps of changes in the extent of mangroves, primarily through comparison with dense time-series of Landsat sensor data and to use these same data to describe the causes and consequences of change. The paper outlines and justifies the techniques being implemented and the role that the GMW might play in supporting national and international policies that relate specifically to the long-term conservation of mangrove ecosystems and the services they provide to society.

  9. Development of a global education environment to study the Equatorial Ionosphere with Cognitive Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    The author has recently been awarded the NSF Career award to develop a radar with cognitive sensing capabilities to study Equatorial plasma instabilities in the Peruvian Andes. Educational research has shown that a rich learning environment contributes tremendously toward improvement in learning achievements and also attitudes toward studies. One of the benefits of this project is that it provides such an environment and a global platform to involve several students at both graduate and undergraduate levels from the US, Puerto Rico, and Peru, and who will benefit from designing, installing, and deploying a radar in multi-instrument science campaigns. In addition to working in the laboratories, students will gain invaluable real world experience building this complex instrument and making it work under challenging conditions at remote sites. The PI will describe how these components are being developed in a Freshman Seminar course and Graduate courses in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Penn State University, and how they are aligned well with the department's and university's strategy for greater global engagement through a network of Global Engagement Nodes in South America (GENSA). The issues of mentoring, recruitment, and retention become particularly important in consideration of the educational objective of this career project to involve underrepresented students with diverse backgrounds and interest them in research projects. The author is working very closely with the Office of Engineering Diversity to leverage existing programs at Penn State designed to increase the participation of women and minority students in science and engineering research: (a) WISER (Women In Science and Engineering Research), and (b) MURE (Minority Undergraduate Research Experience). The Electrical Engineering Department at Penn State is also currently an NSF REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) site. The PI will also present his efforts in connecting his career project in providing research experiences during summer to underrepresented groups as well as students from schools without extensive research environments.

  10. Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment: Review and Analysis of Its Occurrence and Bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Jone; Kristofco, Lauren A; Steele, W Baylor; Yates, Brian S; Breed, Christopher S; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W

    2015-01-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs. PMID:26674671

  11. World Resources: A guide to the Global Environment, 1992-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This book, produced in collaboration with the U.N., is a basic information source on the impact humans have had on the earth's environment, with a theme of sustainable development. Part I is an essay on sustainable development, examined in the contest of industrial, industrializing, and non-industrial countries. Part II is a description of the environmental devastation in central Europe. Part III examines global environmental conditions and trends, and part IV consists of tables, each with an interductory text and citations, including such topics as population, development, land cover, food, forests, wildlife, habitats, energy, water, atmosphere, and climate.

  12. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  13. Use of global navigation satellite systems for monitoring deformations of water-development works

    SciTech Connect

    Kaftan, V. I.; Ustinov, A. V.

    2013-05-15

    The feasibility of using global radio-navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to improve functional safety of high-liability water-development works - dams at hydroelectric power plants, and, consequently, the safety of the population in the surrounding areas is examined on the basis of analysis of modern publications. Characteristics for determination of displacements and deformations with use of GNSS, and also in a complex with other types of measurements, are compared. It is demonstrated that combined monitoring of deformations of the ground surface of the region, and engineering and technical structures is required to ensure the functional safety of HPP, and reliable metrologic assurance of measurements is also required to obtain actual characteristics of the accuracy and effectiveness of GNSS observations.

  14. A global standard for monitoring coastal wetland vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Edward L.; Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Phelps, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise threatens coastal salt-marshes and mangrove forests around the world, and a key determinant of coastal wetland vulnerability is whether its surface elevation can keep pace with rising sea level. Globally, a large data gap exists because wetland surface and shallow subsurface processes remain unaccounted for by traditional vulnerability assessments using tide gauges. Moreover, those processes vary substantially across wetlands, so modelling platforms require relevant local data. The low-cost, simple, high-precision rod surface-elevation table–marker horizon (RSET-MH) method fills this critical data gap, can be paired with spatial data sets and modelling and is financially and technically accessible to every country with coastal wetlands. Yet, RSET deployment has been limited to a few regions and purposes. A coordinated expansion of monitoring efforts, including development of regional networks that could support data sharing and collaboration, is crucial to adequately inform coastal climate change adaptation policy at several scales.

  15. Monitoring global vegetation using Nimbus-7 37 GHz data - Some empirical relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Tucker, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    The difference of the vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures observed by the 37 GHz channel of the SMMR on board the Nimbus-7 satellite are correlated temporally with three indicators of vegetation density, namely the temporal variation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa (Hawaii), rainfall over the Sahel and the normalized difference vegetation index derived from the AVHRR on board the NOAA-7 satellite. SMMR 37 GHz and AVHRR provide complementary data sets for monitoring global vegetation, the 37 GHz data being more suitable for arid and semiarid regions as these data are more sensitive to changes in sparse vegetation. The 37-GHz data might be useful for understanding desertification and indexing Co2 exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

  16. Detection and Monitoring of Global Changes and the Evolution in the Region of Bouzina (aures) Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekaoussi, M.; Benmessaoud, H.

    2015-10-01

    The functioning of Mediterranean ecosystems to daily or interannual scale presents an ecological and socio-economic interest. The intensive exploitation of natural resources of this ecosystem by the population has now reached a critical threshold. To this is added the effect of climate change leading to a drought that occurs mainly in the southern part. This leads to accelerated degradation of the ecosystem and requires the establishment of sustainable management rules. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of multi-date satellite images in detecting global changes and monitoring of developments in the watershed of the Aurès Bouzina center. The approach is to use satellite images Landsat at different times (1986, 2001 and 2013) and sampling work for the confrontation with the ground truth, to conduct a thematic analysis of this environment, and view the global changes that have occurred in this area. The overall reading of the results of the tracking map changes, we notice a degradation of forest cover in ascending gradient from north to south and led to the reduction of vegetation cover drills. The area of irrigated crops registered an increase of grain. In favor of bare soils and wetlands, related to the influence of rivers, as well as the emergence of forage and vegetable crops. Bare soils dominated by a sandy texture are located primarily near areas of crops due to agricultural practices based on the intensification of agriculture as well as silting soil justified by an increase in bare soil. This work is a first step to track the degradation or restoration through ecological indicators field, related to remote sensing data.

  17. Tunable Diode Laser Sensor for Monitoring and Control of Harsh Combustion Environments

    SciTech Connect

    VonDrasek, William; Melsio-Pubill, Anna

    2006-05-30

    This work represents the collaborative effort between American Air Liquide and Physical Sciences, Inc. for developing a sensor based on near-IR tunable diode lasers (TDL). The multi-species capability of the sensor for simultaneous monitoring of CO, O2, and H2O concentration as well as gas temperature is ideal for in-situ monitoring on industrial furnaces. The chemical species targeted are fundamental for controlling the combustion space for improved energy efficiency, reduced pollutants, and improved product quality, when coupling the measurement to a combustion control system. Several add-on modules developed provide flexibility in the system configuration for handling different process monitoring applications. For example, the on-Demand Power Control system for the 1.5 ?m laser is used for high particle density exhaust streams where laser transmission is problematic. For long-distance signal collection a fiber optic communication system is used to reduce noise pick-up. Finally, hardened modules to withstand high ambient temperatures, immune to EMF interference, protection from flying debris, and interfaced with pathlength control laser beam shielding probes were developed specifically for EAF process monitoring. Demonstration of these different system configurations was conducted on Charter Steel's reheat furnace, Imco Recycling, Inc. (now Aleris International, Inc.) aluminum reverberatory furnace, and Gerdau Ameristeel's EAF. Measurements on the reheat furnace demonstrated zone monitoring with the measurement performed close to the steel billet. Results from the aluminum furnace showed the benefit of measuring in-situ near the bath. In this case, low-level furnace optimization was performed and demonstrated 5% fuel savings. Monitoring tests on the EAF off-gas demonstrated the level of industrialization of the sensor to survive the harsh EAF environment. Long-term testing on the EAF has been on-going for over 6 months with essentially zero maintenance. Validation of the TDL measurement on the EAF was confirmed by comparison with extractive sampling CO measurements.

  18. Inferential monitoring of global change impact on biodiversity through remote sensing and species distribution modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangermano, Florencia

    2009-12-01

    The world is suffering from rapid changes in both climate and land cover which are the main factors affecting global biodiversity. These changes may affect ecosystems by altering species distributions, population sizes, and community compositions, which emphasizes the need for a rapid assessment of biodiversity status for conservation and management purposes. Current approaches on monitoring biodiversity rely mainly on long term observations of predetermined sites, which require large amounts of time, money and personnel to be executed. In order to overcome problems associated with current field monitoring methods, the main objective of this dissertation is the development of framework for inferential monitoring of the impact of global change on biodiversity based on remotely sensed data coupled with species distribution modeling techniques. Several research pieces were performed independently in order to fulfill this goal. First, species distribution modeling was used to identify the ranges of 6362 birds, mammals and amphibians in South America. Chapter 1 compares the power of different presence-only species distribution methods for modeling distributions of species with different response curves to environmental gradients and sample sizes. It was found that there is large variability in the power of the methods for modeling habitat suitability and species ranges, showing the importance of performing, when possible, a preliminary gradient analysis of the species distribution before selecting the method to be used. Chapter 2 presents a new methodology for the redefinition of species range polygons. Using a method capable of establishing the uncertainty in the definition of existing range polygons, the automated procedure identifies the relative importance of bioclimatic variables for the species, predicts their ranges and generates a quality assessment report to explore prediction errors. Analysis using independent validation data shows the power of this methodology to redefine species ranges in a more biophysically reasonable way. If a specific variable is important for a species, a change in that variable is likely to impact the species. Chapter 3 presents a methodology to identify the impact of environmental changes on 6362 species of mammals, amphibians and birds of South America, based on per-species measures of sensitivity, marginality, range restriction and trends in remotely sensed bioclimatic variables. Maps of the impact of environmental changes on vertebrates of South America were generated, with the Andes, Patagonia and the Atlantic Forest experiencing the strongest impact of environmental change in this over the past quarter century. Contributions of this dissertation include the development of new range polygons for all mammals, amphibians and birds of South America, as well as a methodology to re-draw the polygons in any other region of the world. This dataset is essential for both biodiversity analysis and conservation prioritization. Other contributions are the generation of maps of impact of global change on biodiversity, together with a framework for the development and updating of those maps. Conservation and monitoring agencies will find this research useful not only for the selection of new conservation areas but also for prioritizing areas for field monitoring.

  19. Public road infrastructure inventory in degraded global navigation satellite system signal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, N.; Morrison, A.; Haakonsen, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Recent advancement of land-based mobile mapping enables rapid and cost-effective collection of highquality road related spatial information. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) can provide spatial information with subdecimeter accuracy in nominal operation environments. However, performance in challenging environments such as tunnels is not well characterized. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) manages the country's public road network and its infrastructure, a large segment of which is represented by road tunnels (there are about 1 000 road tunnels in Norway with a combined length of 800 km). In order to adopt mobile mapping technology for streamlining road network and infrastructure management and maintenance tasks, it is important to ensure that the technology is mature enough to meet existing requirements for object positioning accuracy in all types of environments, and provide homogeneous accuracy over the mapping perimeter. This paper presents results of a testing campaign performed within a project funded by the NPRA as a part of SMarter road traffic with Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) (SMITS) program. The testing campaign objective was performance evaluation of high end commercial MMSs for inventory of public areas, focusing on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal degraded environments.

  20. Remote Environmental Monitoring of Hydrologic/ Biotic Interaction in a Mountain Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartsough, P. C.; Malazian, A.; Tuli, A.; Kamai, T.; Kizito, F.; Bales, R.; Broad, A.; Hopmans, J.

    2008-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks offer several advantages in monitoring of dynamic environmental variables in remote landscapes and offer a promising approach to realize the full potential of environmental monitoring. Wireless sensors also offer the advantage of real time data collection and sensor/network management and reduced long-term costs. Better understanding of surface water budgets in remote landscapes warrants close monitoring of moisture and temperature variability in near surfaces soils. This work describes field data demonstrating the functionality of four different wireless networks, at two field sites, both part of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). Equipment used varied from traditional point to point radio communication to a wireless mote based, distributed network. Sensors measuring water potential, volumetric water content, and soil temperature were deployed at a variety of sites including, a remote alpine meadow, along a topographic gradient with a dense tree canopy and within the root structure of an individual tree. The sensors were reactive to moisture and temperature variations and the wireless systems met the goal of providing informative data on dynamic responses of soil moisture to precipitation, snow melt and changes in vegetative demand. The systems were dependable, with low power consumption and were robust enough to withstand harsh winter conditions at a high elevation site. The study highlights measurement accuracy, power consumption, and data transmission limitations of the three systems. We demonstrate that deployment, implementation and long-term field monitoring in remote and challenging environments is possible with a variety of wireless systems.

  1. Monitoring Global Precipitation through UCI CHRS's RainMapper App on Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, P.; Huynh, P.; Braithwaite, D.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Water and Development Information for Arid Lands-a Global Network (G-WADI) Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks—Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) GeoServer has been developed through a collaboration between the Center for Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing (CHRS) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) and the UNESCO's International Hydrological Program (IHP). G-WADI PERSIANN-CCS GeoServer provides near real-time high resolution (0.04o, approx 4km) global (60oN - 60oS) satellite precipitation estimated by the PERSIANN-CCS algorithm developed by the scientists at CHRS. The G-WADI PERSIANN-CCS GeoServer utilizes the open-source MapServer software from the University of Minnesota to provide a user-friendly web-based mapping and visualization of satellite precipitation data. Recent efforts have been made by the scientists at CHRS to provide free on-the-go access to the PERSIANN-CCS precipitation data through an application named RainMapper for mobile devices. RainMapper provides visualization of global satellite precipitation of the most recent 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72-hour periods overlaid with various basemaps. RainMapper uses the Google maps application programing interface (API) and embedded global positioning system (GPS) access to better monitor the global precipitation data on mobile devices. Functionalities include using geographical searching with voice recognition technologies make it easy for the user to explore near real-time precipitation in a certain location. RainMapper also allows for conveniently sharing the precipitation information and visualizations with the public through social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. RainMapper is available for iOS and Android devices and can be downloaded (free) from the App Store and Google Play. The usefulness of RainMapper was demonstrated through an application in tracking the evolution of the recent Rammasun Typhoon over the Philippines in mid July 2014.

  2. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes that control change in this understudied region, particularly those concerning the primary components that influence regional climate (i.e. cloud cover, precipitation) and responses and feedbacks to and from terrestrial and aquatic systems. This provides a strong impetus for the SIRS project. SIRS was initiated at a boreal forest conference in Krasnoyarsk in 2002 under the auspices of the IGBP and ESSP regional strategy by Will Steffen (IGBP) and the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS). Russian and foreign scientific activities continued under the Siberian Center for Environmental Research and Training (SCERT) in 2003. In 2005, the Siberian Branch of the Russian National Committee (SB RNC) for IGBP endorsed these activities and recommended investigations focus on four major themes: quantification of the terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas budget, with a focus on the exchange between biota and atmosphere; monitoring and modeling of regional climate change impacts; development of SIRS informational-computational infrastructure; and development of a regional strategy of adaptation to and mitigation of the negative consequences of global change. SIRS development [10, 11] supports Siberian Earth science investigations funded by the RAS Foundation for Basic Research, the European Commission (EC), the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). SB RNC is responsible for SIRS advances, and SCERT hosts the Committee office and houses major SIRS informational-computational infrastructure development. NEESPI (www.neespi.org/) serves as an IGBP and World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) external project, and as a NEESPI mega-project, SIRS has organized distribution centers in Krasnoyarsk and Tomsk to support NEESPI activity, and has coordinated training and educational activity aimed at young scientists. SIRS approaches and outcomes Organizational activity The 'Siberian Geosphere-Biosphere Program: integrated regional study of contemporary natural and climatic changes' is one of se

  3. A global assessment of civil registration and vital statistics systems: monitoring data quality and progress.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Lene; Phillips, David E; AbouZahr, Carla; Setel, Philip W; de Savigny, Don; Lozano, Rafael; Lopez, Alan D

    2015-10-01

    Increasing demand for better quality data and more investment to strengthen civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems will require increased emphasis on objective, comparable, cost-effective monitoring and assessment methods to measure progress. We apply a composite index (the vital statistics performance index [VSPI]) to assess the performance of CRVS systems in 148 countries or territories during 1980-2012 and classify them into five distinct performance categories, ranging from rudimentary (with scores close to zero) to satisfactory (with scores close to one), with a mean VSPI score since 2005 of 0·61 (SD 0·31). As expected, the best performing systems were mostly in the European region, the Americas, and Australasia, with only two countries from east Asia and Latin America. Most low-scoring countries were in the African or Asian regions. Globally, only modest progress has been made since 2000, with the percentage of deaths registered increasing from 36% to 38%, and the percentage of children aged under 5 years whose birth has been registered increasing from 58% to 65%. However, several individual countries have made substantial improvements to their CRVS systems in the past 30 years by capturing more deaths and improving accuracy of cause-of-death information. Future monitoring of the effects of CRVS strengthening will greatly benefit from application of a metric like the VSPI, which is objective, costless to compute, and able to identify components of the system that make the largest contributions to good or poor performance. PMID:25971218

  4. Sensor Selection to Support Practical Use of Health-Monitoring Smart Environments

    PubMed Central

    HOLDER, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    The data mining and pervasive sensing technologies found in smart homes offer unprecedented opportunities for providing health monitoring and assistance to individuals experiencing difficulties living independently at home. In order to monitor the functional health of smart home residents, we need to design technologies that recognize and track activities that people normally perform as part of their daily routines. One question that frequently arises, however, is how many smart home sensors are needed and where should they be placed in order to accurately recognize activities? We employ data mining techniques to look at the problem of sensor selection for activity recognition in smart homes. We analyze the results based on six data sets collected in five distinct smart home environments. PMID:21760755

  5. Qualification, monitoring, and integration into a production environment of the world's first fully programmable illuminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Gregory; Corliss, Daniel; Groenendijk, Remco; Carpaij, Rene; van Niftrik, Ton; Landie, Guillaume; Tamura, Takao; Pepin, Thomas; Waddell, James; Woods, Jerry; Robinson, Chris; Tian, Kehan; Johnson, Richard; Halle, Scott; Kim, Ryoung-Han; Mclellan, Erin; Kato, Hirokazu; Scaduto, Anthony; Maier, Carl; Colburn, Matt

    2011-04-01

    This paper will describe the development, qualification, monitoring, and integration into a production environment of the world's first fully programmable illuminator for optical lithography. FlexRay TM, a programmable illuminator based on a MEMs multi-mirror array that was developed for TWINSCAN XT:19x0i and TWINSCAN NXT series ASML immersion scanners, was first installed in January 2010 at Albany Nanotech, with subsequent tools installed in IBM's East Fishkill Manufacturing facility. After a brief overview of the concept and benefits of FlexRay, this paper will provide a comprehensive assessment of its reliability and imaging performance. A CD-based pupil qualification (CDPQ) procedure will be introduced and shown to be an efficient and effective way to monitor pupil performance. Various CDPQ and in-resist measurement results will be described, offering convincing evidence that FlexRay reliably generates high-quality pupils and is well suited for high volume manufacturing at lithography's leading edge.

  6. Global and Time-Resolved Monitoring of Crop Photosynthesis with Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Jung, Martin; Joiner, Joanna; Voigt, Maximilian; Berry, Joseph A.; Frankenberg, Christian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Lee, Jung-Eun; Moran, M. Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Beer, Christian; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Buchmann, Nina; Gianelle, Damiano; Klumpp, Katja; Cescatti, Alessandro; Baker, John M.; Griffis, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harvest sunlight to produce sugars from carbon dioxide and water. It is the primary source of energy for all life on Earth; hence it is important to understand how this process responds to climate change and human impact. However, model-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP, output from photosynthesis) are highly uncertain, in particular over heavily managed agricultural areas. Recent advances in spectroscopy enable the space-based monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from terrestrial plants. Here we demonstrate that spaceborne SIF retrievals provide a direct measure of the GPP of cropland and grassland ecosystems. Such a strong link with crop photosynthesis is not evident for traditional remotely sensed vegetation indices, nor for more complex carbon cycle models. We use SIF observations to provide a global perspective on agricultural productivity. Our SIF-based crop GPP estimates are 50-75% higher than results from state-of-the-art carbon cycle models over, for example, the US Corn Belt and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, implying that current models severely underestimate the role of management. Our results indicate that SIF data can help us improve our global models for more accurate projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields. Extension of our approach to other ecosystems, along with increased observational capabilities for SIF in the near future, holds the prospect of reducing uncertainties in the modeling of the current and future carbon cycle.

  7. Global and time-resolved monitoring of crop photosynthesis with chlorophyll fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Jung, Martin; Joiner, Joanna; Voigt, Maximilian; Berry, Joseph A.; Frankenberg, Christian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Lee, Jung-Eun; Moran, M. Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Beer, Christian; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Buchmann, Nina; Gianelle, Damiano; Klumpp, Katja; Cescatti, Alessandro; Baker, John M.; Griffis, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harvest sunlight to produce sugars from carbon dioxide and water. It is the primary source of energy for all life on Earth; hence it is important to understand how this process responds to climate change and human impact. However, model-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP, output from photosynthesis) are highly uncertain, in particular over heavily managed agricultural areas. Recent advances in spectroscopy enable the space-based monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from terrestrial plants. Here we demonstrate that spaceborne SIF retrievals provide a direct measure of the GPP of cropland and grassland ecosystems. Such a strong link with crop photosynthesis is not evident for traditional remotely sensed vegetation indices, nor for more complex carbon cycle models. We use SIF observations to provide a global perspective on agricultural productivity. Our SIF-based crop GPP estimates are 50–75% higher than results from state-of-the-art carbon cycle models over, for example, the US Corn Belt and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, implying that current models severely underestimate the role of management. Our results indicate that SIF data can help us improve our global models for more accurate projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields. Extension of our approach to other ecosystems, along with increased observational capabilities for SIF in the near future, holds the prospect of reducing uncertainties in the modeling of the current and future carbon cycle. PMID:24706867

  8. The sperm whale sonar: Monitoring and use in mitigation of anthropogenic noise effects in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Michel

    2009-04-01

    Noise pollution in the marine environment is an emerging but serious concern. Its implications are less well understood than other global threats and largely undetectable to everyone but the specialist. In addition, the assessment of the acoustic impact of artificial sounds in the sea is not a trivial task, certainly because there is a lack of information on how the marine organisms process and analyse sounds and how relevant these sounds are for the balance and development of the populations. Further, this possible acoustic impact not only concerns the hearing systems but may also affect other sensory or systemic levels and result equally lethal for the animal concerned. If we add that the negative consequences of a short or long term exposure to artificial sounds may not be immediately observed one can understood how challenging it is to obtain objective data allowing an efficient control of the introduction of anthropogenic sound in the sea. To answer some of these questions, the choice to investigate cetaceans and their adaptation to an aquatic environment is not fortuitous. Cetaceans, because of their optimum use of sound as an ad-hoc source of energy and their almost exclusive dependence on acoustic information, represent not only the best bio-indicator of the effects of noise pollution in the marine environment, but also a source of data to improve and develop human underwater acoustic technology. Here, we present how the characteristics and performance of the sperm whale mid-range biosonar can be used to develop a mitigation solution based on passive acoustics and ambient noise imaging to prevent negative interactions with human activities by monitoring cetacean movements in areas of interest, e.g. deep-sea observatories.

  9. A review of the global emissions, transport and effects of heavy metals in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.R.; Ashton, W.B.; Rapoport, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the sources and quantities of heavy metal emissions, their transport and fate, their potential health and environmental effects, and strategies to control them. The approach is to review the literature on this topic and to consult with experts in the field. Ongoing research activities and research needs are discussed. Estimates of global anthropogenic and natural emissions indicate that anthropogenic emissions are responsible for most of the heavy metals released into the atmosphere and that industrial activities have had a significant impact on the global cycling of trace metals. The largest anthropogenic sources of trace metals are coal combustion and the nonferrous metal industry. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway by which trace metals enter the environment. Atmospheric deposition varies according to the solubility of the element and the length of time it resides in the atmosphere. Evidence suggests that deposition is influenced by other chemicals in the atmosphere, such as ozone and sulfur dioxide. Trace metals also enter the environment through leaching. Existing emissions-control technologies such as electrostatic precipitators, baghouses, and scrubbers are designed to remove other particulates from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants and are only partially effective at removing heavy metals. Emerging technologies such as flue gas desulfurization, lignite coke, and fluidized bed combustion could further reduce emissions. 108 refs.

  10. [Morphophysiological monitoring of winter wheat at spring in connection with problem of global climate change].

    PubMed

    Klimov, S V; Burakhanova, E A; Dubinina, I M; Alieva, G P; Sal'nikova, E B; Trunova, T I

    2006-01-01

    Data on morphophysiological monitoring of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Mironovskaya 808 grown in Hoagland and Arnon solution in a greenhouse and transferred to natural conditions in March-April 2004 with the mean daily temperature of 0.6 +/- 0.7 degrees C within the exposure period of 42 days are presented. Water content, dry weight of plants and their organs, frost hardiness of plants, degree of tissue damage by frost, CO2 metabolism (photosynthesis and respiration), concentrations of sugars in tissues and proportions between different sugar forms, and activities of soluble and insoluble acid and alkaline phosphatases were monitored. Monitoring was carried out for three experimental variants simulating different microclimatic conditions in spring: after snow melting (experiment I), under ice crust (experiment II), and under snow cover (experiment III). Plants in experiments III and II demonstrated a higher water content in tissues, lower frost hardiness, higher rates of biomass loss, lower concentration of sugars and lower di- to monosaccharide ratio in tissues, and higher total invertase activity, particularly, cell wall-associated acid invertase activity. The dark respiration rates at 0 degrees C did not significantly differ between experimental variants. The photosynthetic capacity at this measurement temperature was maintained in all experimental variants being most pronounced in experiment II with the most intense photoinhibition under natural conditions. Comparison of experiments III and II with experiment I is used to discuss the negative effect of changes in certain microclimatic variables associated with global warming and leading to plant extortion and death from frost in spring. PMID:17022477

  11. The LHCb Online Framework for Experiment Protection, and Global Operational Control and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Jacobsson, R.; Schleich, S.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity and extreme parameters of the LHC, such as the stored energy, the collision frequency, the high risk of adverse background conditions and potentially damaging beam losses have demanded an unprecedented connectivity between the operation of the accelerator and the experiments at both hardware and software level. LHCb has been at the forefront of developing a software framework and hardware which connects to all of the LHC communication interfaces for timing, control and monitoring of the machine and beam parameters, in addition to its own local systems for beam and background monitoring. The framework also includes failsafe connectivity with the beam interlock system. The framework drives the global operation of the detector and is integrated into the readout control. It provides the shifters with the tools needed to take fast and well-guided decisions to run the LHCb experiment safely and efficiently. In particular, it has allowed the detector to be operated with only two shifters already at the LHC pilot run. The requirements include reliability and clarity for the shifters, and the possibility to retrieve the past conditions for offline analysis. All essential parameters are archived and an interactive analysis tool has been developed which provides overviews of the experimental performance and which allows post-analysis of any anomaly in the operation. This paper describes the architecture and the many functions, including the basis of the automation of the LHCb operational procedure and detector controls, and the information exchange between LHCb and the LHC, and finally the shifter and expert tools for monitoring the experimental conditions.

  12. Big Data solution for CTBT monitoring: CEA-IDC joint global cross correlation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Bell, Randy; Brachet, Nicolas; Gaillard, Pierre; Kitov, Ivan; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Waveform cross-correlation when applied to historical datasets of seismic records provides dramatic improvements in detection, location, and magnitude estimation of natural and manmade seismic events. With correlation techniques, the amplitude threshold of signal detection can be reduced globally by a factor of 2 to 3 relative to currently standard beamforming and STA/LTA detector. The gain in sensitivity corresponds to a body wave magnitude reduction by 0.3 to 0.4 units and doubles the number of events meeting high quality requirements (e.g. detected by three and more seismic stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). This gain is crucial for seismic monitoring under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The International Data Centre (IDC) dataset includes more than 450,000 seismic events, tens of millions of raw detections and continuous seismic data from the primary IMS stations since 2000. This high-quality dataset is a natural candidate for an extensive cross correlation study and the basis of further enhancements in monitoring capabilities. Without this historical dataset recorded by the permanent IMS Seismic Network any improvements would not be feasible. However, due to the mismatch between the volume of data and the performance of the standard Information Technology infrastructure, it becomes impossible to process all the data within tolerable elapsed time. To tackle this problem known as "BigData", the CEA/DASE is part of the French project "DataScale". One objective is to reanalyze 10 years of waveform data from the IMS network with the cross-correlation technique thanks to a dedicated High Performance Computer (HPC) infrastructure operated by the Centre de Calcul Recherche et Technologie (CCRT) at the CEA of Bruyères-le-Châtel. Within 2 years we are planning to enhance detection and phase association algorithms (also using machine learning and automatic classification) and process about 30 terabytes of data provided by the IDC to update the world seismicity map. From the new events and those in the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin, we will automatically create various sets of master event templates that will be used for the event location globally by the CTBTO and CEA.

  13. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    SciTech Connect

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie -Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif; Matic, Ivan

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation.

  14. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-04-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old from public schools participate in science clubs outside of their regular school schedule. A comparison study was performed between different groups, in order to assess GLOBE's applicability as a learning science atmosphere and the motivation and interest it generates in students toward science. Internationally applied scales were used as tools for measuring such indicators, adapted to the Costa Rican context. The results provide evidence statistically significant that the students perceive the GLOBE atmosphere as an enriched environment for science learning in comparison with the traditional science class. Moreover, students feel more confident, motivated and interested in science than their peers who do not participate in the project. However, the results were not statistically significant in this last respect.

  15. Biomedical real-time monitoring in restricted and safety-critical environments

    PubMed Central

    Astaras, A; Bamidis, P D; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Maglaveras, N

    2008-01-01

    Biomedical signal monitoring can counteract the risk of human operator error due to inattention or fatigue in safetycritical and restrictive environments, such as in aviation, space, automobile and heavy industrial machinery operation. Real-time biomedical data acquisition is changing through advances in microelectronics fabrication, bio-MEMS and power micro-generators. Such data acquisition and processing systems are becoming increasingly miniaturised, flexible and pervasive, while data is being collected from inside the human body as well as around it. In this paper we review two related research projects exploiting this technological convergence, discuss its implications and suggest future innovation prospects through further similar cross-disciplinary synergies. PMID:19048087

  16. What is a habitable environment? -answers from observations of a global transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Onofri, Silvano; Ott, Sieglinde

    Extremophiles are specialists which colonise special niches in these extreme environments due to there adaptation capacities attained during the evolution of life. Some examples of ex-tremophiles and their potential to deal with harsh conditions as well as the characterisation of their niches will be presented. Based on observations and results obtained in the 10th German Antarctic North Victoria Land Expedition (GANOVEX X) in the area of the Transantarctic Mountains led by the German Geosciences and Resource Research Society (BGR) and during an environment characterisation campaign of the European Alps and the Spanish Mountains "Sierra de Gredos" supported by the German Ministry of Economy and Technology (BMWi) a global transect from temperate Alpine regions to Mediterranean mountains and Polar Mountain regions can be analysed. Due to a summary of these results we are able to compare different strategies of colonisation in different habitats of the global mountain transect by cosmopolitan and endemic species as there are, the colonisation of rocks, fissures, cracks, polygon forming substrates, permafrost and glaciers. Data of UV B-, PAR-and IR-radiation measurements, humidity and temperature as well as the activity of microorganisms are accomplishing with more details the habitat characterisation and may give relevant information on probably niches for life on other planets as e.g. the planet Mars and may give answers on the question what is a habitable environment. These results will also form the basis of a series of new space experiments on satellites or on the International Space Station (ISS) and furthermore may lead to progress in probes-and rover-development for particular "hardly" accessible terrains.

  17. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. See the latest spectacular images from NASA remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man s impact on our world s environment. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights. Shown in high resolution are visualizations of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique. See flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, as well as satellite imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001, and how new satellite tools can be used to help fight these disasters from spreading further. See where and when lightning occurs globally, and how dramatic urbanization has been in the desert southwest since 1910. Spectacular visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. Learn when and where carbon is absorbed by vegetation on the land and ocean as the product of photosynthesis. See demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricanes and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites, and how hurricanes can modify the sea surface temperature in their wake. See massive dust storms in the Middle East as well as dust transport sweeping from north Africa across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. Learn where and how much the temperature of the Earth s surface has changed during the 20th century, as well as how sea ice has decreased over the Arctic region, how sea level has and is likely to continue to change, and how glaciers have retreated worldwide in a response to global change. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  18. Reflecting on the EFA Global Monitoring Report's Framework for Understanding Quality Education: A Teacher's Perspective in Eritrea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers issues concerning the quality of education in Eritrea using the Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report's (GMR) framework for quality education. Drawing on 2 years school-based professional experience in the country, the multiple factors affecting quality in schooling are discussed. The applicability of the GMR…

  19. The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems. PMID:11019460

  20. Ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos in non-occupational environments in Tehran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Meshkani, Mohsen; Azam, Kamal

    2013-12-01

    Airborne asbestos fiber concentrations were monitored in the urban areas of Tehran, Iran during the period of 23 August to 21 September 2012. The airborne fiber concentrations of 110 air samples collected from 15 different sites in five regions of Tehran. The monitoring sites were located 2.5 m above ground nearby the main street and heavy traffic jam. The ambient air samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM). The geometric means of the airborne asbestos fiber concentrations in the outdoor living areas was 1.6 × 10-2 SEM f ml-1 (1.18 × 10-3 PCM f ml-1). This criteria is considerably higher than those reported for the levels of asbestos in outdoor living areas in the Europe and the non-occupational environment of the Korea. No clear correlation was found between asbestos fiber concentration and the relative humidity and temperature. The SEM and PLM analysis revealed that all samples examined contained only chrysotile asbestos. It can be concluded that several factor such as heavy traffic, cement sheet and pipe consumption of asbestos, and geographical conditions play an important role for the high airborne asbestos levels in the non-occupational environments.

  1. Sample project: establishing a global forest monitoring capability using multi-resolution and multi-temporal remotely sensed data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Matt; Stehman, Steve; Loveland, Tom; Vogelmann, Jim; Cochrane, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying rates of forest-cover change is important for improved carbon accounting and climate change modeling, management of forestry and agricultural resources, and biodiversity monitoring. A practical solution to examining trends in forest cover change at global scale is to employ remotely sensed data. Satellite-based monitoring of forest cover can be implemented consistently across large regions at annual and inter-annual intervals. This research extends previous research on global forest-cover dynamics and land-cover change estimation to establish a robust, operational forest monitoring and assessment system. The approach integrates both MODIS and Landsat data to provide timely biome-scale forest change estimation. This is achieved by using annual MODIS change indicator maps to stratify biomes into low, medium and high change categories. Landsat image pairs can then be sampled within these strata and analyzed for estimating area of forest cleared.

  2. The zCOSMOS redshift survey: how group environment alters global downsizing trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovino, A.; Cucciati, O.; Scodeggio, M.; Knobel, C.; Kova?, K.; Lilly, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Caputi, K.; Pozzetti, L.; Oesch, P.; Lamareille, F.; Halliday, C.; Bardelli, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Guzzo, L.; Kampczyk, P.; Maier, C.; Tanaka, M.; Vergani, D.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Mignoli, M.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tresse, L.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Schiminovich, D.; Scoville, N.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Groups of galaxies are a common environment, bridging the gap between starforming field galaxies and quiescent cluster galaxies. Within groups secular processes could be at play, contributing to the observed strong decrease of star formation with cosmic time in the global galaxy population. Aims: We took advantage of the wealth of information provided by the first 10 000 galaxies of the zCOSMOS-bright survey and its group catalogue to study in detail the complex interplay between group environment and galaxy properties. Methods: The classical indicator Fblue, i.e., the fraction of blue galaxies, proved to be a simple but powerful diagnostic tool. We studied its variation for different luminosity and mass selected galaxy samples, divided as to define groups/field/isolated galaxy subsamples. Results: Using rest-frame evolving B-band volume-limited samples, the groups galaxy population exhibits significant blueing as redshift increases, but maintains a systematic difference (a lower Fblue) with respect to the global galaxy population, and an even larger difference with respect to the isolated galaxy population. However moving to mass selected samples it becomes apparent that such differences are largely due to the biased view imposed by the B-band luminosity selection, being driven by the population of lower mass, bright blue galaxies for which we miss the redder, equally low mass, counterparts. By carefully focusing the analysis on narrow mass bins such that mass segregation becomes negligible we find that only for the lowest mass bin explored, i.e., log ({\\cal M}*/{\\cal M}?) ? 10.6 , does a significant residual difference in color remain as a function of environment, while this difference becomes negligible toward higher masses. Conclusions: Our results indicate that red galaxies of mass log ({\\cal M}*/{\\cal M}?) ? 10.8 are already in place at z 1 and do not exhibit any strong environmental dependence, possibly originating from so-called nature or internal mechanisms. In contrast, for lower galaxy masses and redshifts lower than z 1, we observe the emergence in groups of a population of nurture red galaxies: slightly deviating from the trend of the downsizing scenario followed by the global galaxy population, and more so with cosmic time. These galaxies exhibit signatures of group-related secular physical mechanisms directly influencing galaxy evolution. Our analysis implies that these mechanisms begin to significantly influence galaxy evolution after z 1, a redshift corresponding to the emergence of structures in which these mechanisms take place. based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, program 175.A-0839, PI: S. Lilly.

  3. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale

    PubMed Central

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-01-01

    Background The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. Objective To produce maps of the baseline and future bioclimate that allows a direct comparison of the differences in the vulnerability of populations to thermal stress across the world. Design The required climatological data fields are obtained from climate simulations with the global General Circulation Model ECHAM4 in T106-resolution. For the thermo-physiologically relevant assessment of these climate data a complete heat budget model of the human being, the ‘Perceived Temperature’ procedure has been applied which already comprises adaptation by clothing to a certain degree. Short-term physiological acclimatisation is considered via Health Related Assessment of the Thermal Environment. Results The global maps 1971–1980 (control run, assumed as baseline climate) show a pattern of thermal stress intensities as frequencies of heat. The heat load for people living in warm–humid climates is the highest. Climate change will lead to clear differences in health-related thermal stress between baseline climate and the future bioclimate 2041–2050 based on the ‘business-as-usual’ greenhouse gas scenario IS92a. The majority of the world's population will be faced with more frequent and more intense heat strain in spite of an assumed level of acclimatisation. Further adaptation measures are crucial in order to reduce the vulnerability of the populations. Conclusions This bioclimatology analysis provides a tool for various questions in climate and climate change impact research. Considerations of regional or local scale require climate simulations with higher resolution. As adaptation is the key term in understanding the role of climate/climate change for human health, performance and well-being, further research in this field is crucial. PMID:20052427

  4. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Booij, Kees; Robinson, Craig D; Burgess, Robert M; Mayer, Philipp; Roberts, Cindy A; Ahrens, Lutz; Allan, Ian J; Brant, Jan; Jones, Lisa; Kraus, Uta R; Larsen, Martin M; Lepom, Peter; Petersen, Jördis; Pröfrock, Daniel; Roose, Patrick; Schäfer, Sabine; Smedes, Foppe; Tixier, Céline; Vorkamp, Katrin; Whitehouse, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths and shortcomings of passive sampling are assessed for water, sediments, and biota. Passive water sampling is a suitable technique for measuring concentrations of freely dissolved compounds. This method yields results that are incompatible with the EU's quality standard definition in terms of total concentrations in water, but this definition has little scientific basis. Insufficient quality control is a present weakness of passive sampling in water. Laboratory performance studies and the development of standardized methods are needed to improve data quality and to encourage the use of passive sampling by commercial laboratories and monitoring agencies. Successful prediction of bioaccumulation based on passive sampling is well documented for organisms at the lower trophic levels, but requires more research for higher levels. Despite the existence of several knowledge gaps, passive sampling presently is the best available technology for chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds. Key issues to be addressed by scientists and environmental managers are outlined. PMID:26619247

  5. Evaluation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profiles from nine different algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Y. J.; Swart, D. P. J.; Baier, F.; Bhartia, P. K.; Bodeker, G. E.; Casadio, S.; Chance, K.; Del Frate, F.; Erbertseder, T.; Felder, M. D.; Flynn, L. E.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hansen, G.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Kaifel, A.; Kelder, H. M.; Kerridge, B. J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Landgraf, J.; Latter, B.; Liu, X.; McDermid, I. S.; Pachepsky, Y.; Rozanov, V.; Siddans, R.; Tellmann, S.; van der A, R. J.; van Oss, R. F.; Weber, M.; Zehner, C.

    2006-11-01

    An evaluation is made of ozone profiles retrieved from measurements of the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. Currently, four different approaches are used to retrieve ozone profile information from GOME measurements, which differ in the use of external information and a priori constraints. In total nine different algorithms will be evaluated exploiting the optimal estimation (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, University of Bremen, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory), Phillips-Tikhonov regularization (Space Research Organization Netherlands), neural network (Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Tor Vergata University), and data assimilation (German Aerospace Center) approaches. Analysis tools are used to interpret data sets that provide averaging kernels. In the interpretation of these data, the focus is on the vertical resolution, the indicative altitude of the retrieved value, and the fraction of a priori information. The evaluation is completed with a comparison of the results to lidar data from the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations in Andoya (Norway), Observatoire Haute Provence (France), Mauna Loa (Hawaii), Lauder (New Zealand), and Dumont d'Urville (Antarctic) for the years 1997-1999. In total, the comparison involves nearly 1000 ozone profiles and allows the analysis of GOME data measured in different global regions and hence observational circumstances. The main conclusion of this paper is that unambiguous information on the ozone profile can at best be retrieved in the altitude range 15-48 km with a vertical resolution of 10 to 15 km, precision of 5-10%, and a bias up to 5% or 20% depending on the success of recalibration of the input spectra. The sensitivity of retrievals to ozone at lower altitudes varies from scheme to scheme and includes significant influence from a priori assumptions.

  6. Monitoring and identifying genetically-engineered microorganisms in the environment by time-resolved laser fluorometry

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, F.

    1992-01-01

    A large percentage of the applications of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms (GEMs) involve their release into the environment. At the present time there is no rapid analytical method that can accurately identify and quantify the number of microorganisms and their foreign genes. In the past several years the author's laboratory has used successfully laser-based enzymatic assays to identify and differentiate pathogens, microorganisms, and genetically modified microorganisms. This work focused on the use of the above technology to track and identify agricultural beneficially GEMs that have been released into the environment. The first stage of this work dealt with the detection of the marker gene, the lactose operon. It was successfully demonstrated that the laser-based enzymatic assay can detect enzymatic activity in E. coli after 5 minutes of induction. Moreover, the author has achieved quantitation of GEMs in the laboratory down to 10[sup 4] cells with only a 30 minute incubation time. The second stage of this work dealt with the characterization of the analytical blank present in environmental samples. Strategies were devised to circumvent this interference and new substrates were synthesized that improved the S/B of the analysis. The last stage of this research dealt with devising new instrumental methods to detect small number (single cell) of microorganisms. These included incorporation of time-resolved detection in flow cytometry, Capillary Electrophoresis of microorganisms, and two-photon spectroscopy of centrosymmetric probes. The results found here will complement the large array of techniques available for monitoring and identifying GEMs in the environment. Ultimately, the technique chosen will depend heavily on the type of gene being monitored, the sensitivity required, and the environmental conditions.

  7. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  8. The monitoring system for vibratory disturbance detection in microgravity environment aboard the international space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laster, Rachel M.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications within the Microgravity Research Division oversee studies in important physical, chemical, and biological processes in microgravity environment. Research is conducted in microgravity environment because of the beneficial results that come about for experiments. When research is done in normal gravity, scientists are limited to results that are affected by the gravity of Earth. Microgravity provides an environment where solid, liquid, and gas can be observed in a natural state of free fall and where many different variables are eliminated. One challenge that NASA faces is that space flight opportunities need to be used effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that some of the most scientifically promising research is conducted. Different vibratory sources are continually active aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the vibratory sources include crew exercise, experiment setup, machinery startup (life support fans, pumps, freezer/compressor, centrifuge), thruster firings, and some unknown events. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMs), which acts as the hardware and carefully positioned aboard the ISS, along with the Microgravity Environment Monitoring System MEMS), which acts as the software and is located here at NASA Glenn, are used to detect these vibratory sources aboard the ISS and recognize them as disturbances. The various vibratory disturbances can sometimes be harmful to the scientists different research projects. Some vibratory disturbances are recognized by the MEMS's database and some are not. Mainly, the unknown events that occur aboard the International Space Station are the ones of major concern. To better aid in the research experiments, the unknown events are identified and verified as unknown events. Features, such as frequency, acceleration level, time and date of recognition of the new patterns are stored in an Excel database. My task is to carefully synthesize frequency and acceleration patterns of unknown events within the Excel database into a new file to determine whether or not certain information that is received i s considered a real vibratory source. Once considered as a vibratory source, further analysis is carried out. The resulting information is used to retrain the MEMS to recognize them as known patterns. These different vibratory disturbances are being constantly monitored to observe if, in any way, the disturbances have an effect on the microgravity environment that research experiments are exposed to. If the disturbance has little or no effect on the experiments, then research is continued. However, if the disturbance is harmful to the experiment, scientists act accordingly by either minimizing the source or terminating the research and neither NASA's time nor money is wasted.

  9. The Use of Proba-V data for Global Agricultural Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliams, S. J. B.; Bydekerke, L.; Smets, B.; De Ronde, B.

    2014-12-01

    Land conversion, forest cutting, urban growth, agricultural expansion, take place at scales which are unprecedented in history and at such a pace that they are not only subject of scientific studies but also have a strong economic impact. Understanding and measuring dynamics becomes a prerequisite for companies, governments, agencies, NGO's, research institutes and society in general. In many of these cases the temporal frequency of the information is a clear requirement to detect phenomena that can occur within a few days (related to crops, forests and other ecosystems) and at a certain geographic scale. For example frequent updates on crop condition and production is needed to stabilize agricultural markets. This is already being picked up by large initiatives like the GEOGLAM AMIS system. Observations over large areas are available through satellites, however challenges remain; on the one hand side obtaining frequent and consistent observations at sufficient level of detail to identify spatial phenomena. At present, no single mission is capable of providing near daily information of any place in the world at scales in which changes in land cover/use can be identified in a consistent manner. On the other hand side the need for a historical reference. For agricultural monitoring and early warning purposes the comparison of the actual data with the historical reference is of the utmost importance. The Proba-V mission is a first attempt to overcome these challenges. From its design and within the GIO-Global Land component a lot of work has been done to ensure the integration of the Proba-V data with the 15 years historical archive of SPOT-VEGETATION. In this respect Proba-V observation will be intercomparable with the SPOT-VGT historical baseline which will ensure the continuation of the standard agricultural monitoring products. Next to this integration with the historical archive, Proba-V also ensures an increase in spatial resolution of the data sets, from 1km to 300m and even 100m (with some loss in the temporal domain). Within the framework of the FP7 SIGMA project, currently Europe's largest contribution to the abovementioned GEOGLAM initiative, we have been looking at the use of this 100m data set for agricultural monitoring. Results of this study will be presented here.

  10. Feasibility of integrating other federal information systems into the Global Network of Environment and Technology, GNET{reg_sign}

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Global Environment and Technology Enterprise (GETE) of the Global Environment and Technology Foundation (GETF) has been tasked by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to assist in reducing DOE`s cost for the Global Network of Environment and Technology (GNET{reg_sign}). As part of this task, GETE is seeking federal partners to invest in GNET{reg_sign}. The authors are also seeking FETC`s commitment to serve as GNET`s federal agency champion promoting the system to potential agency partners. This report assesses the benefits of partnering with GNET{reg_sign} and provides recommendations for identifying and integrating other federally funded (non-DOE) environmental information management systems into GNET{reg_sign}.

  11. Online service for monitoring the ionosphere based on data from the global navigation satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, I. M.; Alpatov, V. V.; Vasil'ev, A. E.; Burguchev, S. S.; Kholodkov, K. I.; Budnikov, P. A.; Molodtsov, D. A.; Koryagin, V. N.; Perederin, F. V.

    2014-07-01

    A service is described that makes possible the effective construction of a three-dimensional ionospheric model based on the data of ground receivers of signals from global navigation satellite positioning systems (GNSS). The obtained image has a high resolution, mainly because data from the IPG GNSS network of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Rosgidromet) are used. A specially developed format and its implementation in the form of SQL structures are used to collect, transmit, and store data. The method of high-altitude radio tomography is used to construct the three-dimensional model. The operation of all system components (from registration point organization to the procedure for constructing the electron density three-dimensional distribution and publication of the total electron content map on the Internet) has been described in detail. The three-dimensional image of the ionosphere, obtained automatically, is compared with the ionosonde measurements, calculated using the two-dimensional low-altitude tomography method and averaged by the ionospheric model.

  12. Installation of a variable-angle spectrometer system for monitoring diffuse and global solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormachea, O.; Abrahamse, A.; Tolavi, N.; Romero, F.; Urquidi, O.; Pearce, J. M.; Andrews, R.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the design and installation of a spectrometer system for monitoring solar radiation in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Both the light intensity and the spectral distribution affect the power produced by a photovoltaic device. Local variations in the solar spectrum (especially compared to the AM1.5 standard) may have important implications for device optimization and energy yield estimation. The spectrometer system, based on an Ocean Optics USB4000 (300-900nm) spectrometer, was designed to increase functionality. Typically systems only record the global horizontal radiation. Our system moves a fiber-optic cable 0-90 degrees and takes measurements in 9 degree increments. Additionally, a shadow band allows measurement of the diffuse component of the radiation at each position. The electronic controls utilize an Arduino UNO microcontroller to synchronizes the movement of two PAP bipolar (stepper) motors with the activation of the spectrometer via an external trigger. The spectrometer was factory calibrated for wavelength and calibrated for absolute irradiance using a Sellarnet SL1-Cal light source. We present preliminary results from data taken March-June, 2013, and comment on implications for PV devices in Cochabamba.

  13. Use of business planning methods to monitor global health budgets in Turkmenistan.

    PubMed Central

    Ensor, T.; Amannyazova, B.

    2000-01-01

    After undergoing many changes, the financing of health care in countries of the former Soviet Union is now showing signs of maturing. Soon after the political transition in these countries, the development of insurance systems and fee-for-service payment systems dominated the discussions on health reform. At present there is increasing emphasis on case mix adjusted payments in larger hospitals and on global budgets in smaller district hospitals. The problem is that such systems are often mistrusted for not providing sufficient financial control. At the same time, unless further planned restructuring is introduced, payment systems cannot on their own induce the fundamental change required in the health care system. As described in this article, in Tejen etrap (district), Turkmenistan, prospective business plans, which link planned objectives and activities with financial allocations, provide a framework for setting and monitoring budget expenditure. Plans can be linked to the overall objectives of the restructuring system and can be used to ensure sound financial management. The process of business planning, which calls for a major change in the way health facilities examine their activities, can be used as a vehicle to increase awareness of management issues. It also provides a way of satisfying the requirement for a rigorous, bottom-up planning of financial resources. PMID:10994288

  14. Preliminary Concept of Operations for a Global Cylinder Identification and Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J. M.; White-Horton, J. L.; Morgan, J. B.

    2013-08-01

    This report describes a preliminary concept of operations for a Global Cylinder Identification and Monitoring System that could improve the efficiency of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in conducting its current inspection activities and could provide a capability to substantially increase its ability to detect credible diversion scenarios and undeclared production pathways involving UF6 cylinders. There exist concerns that a proliferant State with access to enrichment technology could obtain a cylinder containing natural or low-enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and produce a significant quantity (SQ)1 of highly enriched uranium in as little as 30 days. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative sponsored a multi-laboratory team to develop an integrated system that provides for detecting scenarios involving 1) diverting an entire declared cylinder for enrichment at a clandestine facility, 2) misusing a declared cylinder at a safeguarded facility, and 3) using an undeclared cylinder at a safeguarded facility. An important objective in developing this integrated system was to improve the timeliness for detecting the cylinder diversion and undeclared production scenarios. Developing this preliminary concept required in-depth analyses of current operational and safeguards practices at conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The analyses evaluated the processing, movement, and storage of cylinders at the facilities; the movement of cylinders between facilities (including cylinder fabrication); and the misuse of safeguarded facilities.

  15. The growing pains of global cities : struggles in the urban environment of Dubai and Singapore

    E-print Network

    Haider, Deeba, 1971-

    1999-01-01

    This Master's thesis explores the validity of current theories of globalization through the analysis of two prominent second level global cities, Dubai and Singapore. The hypotheses of global homogenization and hybridization ...

  16. Design and package of a {sup 14}CO{sub 2} field analyzer The Global Monitor Platform (GMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, Michelle; Marino, Bruno D.V.; Gronniger, Glen

    2011-08-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is widely accepted as a means to reduce and eliminate the fossil fuel CO{sub 2} (ff- CO{sub 2}) emissions from coal fired power plants. Success of CCS depends on near zero leakage rates over decadal time scales. Currently no commercial methods to determine leakage of ff-CO{sub 2} are available. The Global Monitor Platform (GMP) field analyzer provides high precision analysis of CO{sub 2} isotopes [12C (99%), 13C (<1%), 14C (1.2x10-10 %)] that can differentiate between fossil and biogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. Fossil fuels contain no {sup 14}C; their combustion should lower atmospheric amounts on local to global scales. There is a clear mandate for monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) of CCS systems nationally and globally to verify CCS integrity, treaty verification (Kyoto Protocol) and to characterize the nuclear fuel cycle. Planetary Emissions Management (PEM), working with the National Secure Manufacturing Center (NSMC), has the goal of designing, ruggedizing and packaging the GMP for field deployment. The system will conduct atmosphere monitoring then adapt the system to monitor water and soil evaluations. Measuring {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in real time will provide quantitative concentration data for ff-CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere and CCS leakage detection. Initial results will be discussed along with design changes for improved detection sensitivity and manufacturability.

  17. Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral components in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter's corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. The stationary simulation of this problem was done in the MHD and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the main significant results from the simplified two-fluid model simulations was a production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the I0 flyby that could not be explained by standard MHD models. In this paper, we develop a method of kinetic ion simulation. This method employs the fluid description for electrons and neutrals whereas for ions multilevel, drift-kinetic and particle, approaches are used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes. Our model provides much more accurate description for ion dynamics and allows us to take into account the realistic anisotropic ion distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations. The first results of such simulation of the dynamics of ions in the Io's environment are discussed in this paper.

  18. Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral gases in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter s corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. Stationary simulations of this problem have already been done using the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the major results of recent simplified two-fluid model simulations [Saur, J., Neubauer, F.M., Strobel, D.F., Summers, M.E., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (SMP5), 1-18] was the production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the Io flyby. These could not be explained before by standard MHD models. In this paper, we present a hybrid simulation for Io with kinetic ions and fluid electrons. This method employs a fluid description for electrons and neutrals, whereas for ions a particle approach is used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes and solve self-consistently for electric and magnetic fields. Our model may provide a much more accurate description for the ion dynamics than previous approaches and allows us to account for the realistic anisotropic ion velocity distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations with isotropic temperatures. The first results of such a simulation of the dynamics of ions in Io s environment are discussed in this paper. Comparison with the Galileo IO flyby results shows that this approach provides an accurate physical basis for the interaction and can therefore naturally reproduce all the observed salient features.

  19. Leakage and Seepage in the Near-Surface Environment: An Integrated Approach to Monitoring and Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2003-12-18

    Monitoring and detection of leakage and seepage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the near-surface environment is needed to ensure the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration. Large leakage fluxes, e.g., through leaking wells, will be easier to detect and monitor than slow and diffuse leakage and seepage. The challenge of detecting slow leakage and seepage is discerning a leakage or seepage signal from within the natural background variations in CO{sub 2} concentration and flux that are controlled by a variety of coupled processes in soil. Although there are no direct examples of leaking geologic carbon sequestration sites on which to base a proposed verification approach, we have been guided by our prior simulation studies of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage, which showed that large CO{sub 2} concentrations can develop in the shallow subsurface even for relatively small CO{sub 2} leakage fluxes. A variety of monitoring technologies exists for measuring CO{sub 2} concentration and flux, but there is a gap between instrument performance and the detection of a leakage or seepage signal from within large natural background variability. We propose an integrated approach to monitoring and verification. The first part of our proposed approach is to characterize and understand the natural ecosystem before CO{sub 2} injection occurs so that future anomalies can be recognized. Measurements of natural CO{sub 2} fluxes using accumulation chamber (AC) and eddy correlation (EC) approaches, soil CO{sub 2} concentration profiles with depth, and carbon isotope compositions of CO{sub 2} are needed to characterize the natural state of the system prior to CO{sub 2} injection. From this information, modeling needs to be carried out to enhance understanding of carbon sources and sinks so that anomalies can be recognized and subject to closer scrutiny as potential leakage or seepage signals. Long-term monitoring using AC, EC, and soil-gas analyses along with ecosystem and flow and transport modeling should continue after CO{sub 2} injection. The integrated use of multiple measurements and modeling offers a promising approach to discerning and quantifying a small CO{sub 2} leakage or seepage signal from within the expected background variability.

  20. Monitoring technologies for the evaluation of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment system in coastal aquifer environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallioras, Andreas; Tsertou, Athanasia; Foglia, Laura; Bumberger, Jan; Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter; Schüth, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse. Treated sewage effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for recharge of aquifers. As the effluent water moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. Recharge systems for SAT can be designed as infiltration-recovery systems, where all effluent water is recovered as such from the aquifer, or after blending with native groundwater. SAT typically removes essentially all suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminthic eggs). Concentrations of synthetic organic carbon, phosphorous, and heavy metals are greatly reduced. The pilot site of LTCP will involve the employment of infiltration basins, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. T he LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved through the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensors, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensors will be developed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. The above technique will offer continuous monitoring of infiltration rates and possible mechanical clogging effects. The qualitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone will be achieved through the installation of appropriate pore-water samplers within a multi-level basis, ensuring repeatability of sampling of infiltrating water of impaired quality. This study also involves the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the Lavrion multi-aquifer system through continuous monitoring of the performance of (i) the alluvial aquifer and its potential for additional water treatment as well as (ii) the effects of the SAT system for countermeasuring seawater intrusion in the area of Lavrion. Additionally, setup and calibration of numerical flow and transport models for evaluating and optimizing different operational modes of the SAT system within both saturated and unsaturated zones will be conducted. The monitoring system will be connected to an ad-hoc wireless network for continuous data transfer within the SAT facilities. It is envisaged that the development and combined application of all the above technologies will provide an integrated monitoring platform for the evaluation of SAT system performance.

  1. Estimates of riparian evapotranspiration using diurnal monitoring of groundwater regime in desert environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Pozdniakov, S. P.; Grinevsky, S.; Yu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Shallow groundwater is mainly discharged by phreatophytes in many riparian ecosystems of arid and semiarid environment, while estimation of groundwater evapotranspiration in these regions still remains a challenge for regional water resources assessment. In this study, a simple relationship between the average standard deviation of diurnal groundwater level fluctuations and the daily evapotranspiration over relatively short periods (days or weeks) was developed for estimating groundwater consumption by phreatophytes in arid/semi-arid areas. Our approach allows estimating groundwater evapotranspiration using stable statistical characteristics of diurnal groundwater fluctuation, and it is useful for analyzing large amounts of data obtained from digital groundwater level monitoring sensors. The developed methodology was applied to two phreatophyte-dominated riparian areas (Populus euphratica and Tamarix ramosissima) in a typical Gobi desert region of northwest China to demonstrate the usefulness of the technique.

  2. The role of environmental biotechnology in exploring, exploiting, monitoring, preserving, protecting and decontaminating the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Arff, Johanne; Banat, Ibrahim M; Broch, Ole Jacob; Daffonchio, Daniele; Edvardsen, Torgeir; Eguiraun, Harkaitz; Giuliano, Laura; Handå, Aleksander; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Marigomez, Ionan; Martinez, Iciar; Øie, Gunvor; Rojo, Fernando; Skjermo, Jorunn; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    In light of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, environmental biotechnology could make significant contributions in the exploitation of marine resources and addressing key marine environmental problems. In this paper 14 propositions are presented focusing on (i) the contamination of the marine environment, and more particularly how to optimize the use of biotechnology-related tools and strategies for predicting and monitoring contamination and developing mitigation measures; (ii) the exploitation of the marine biological and genetic resources to progress with the sustainable, eco-compatible use of the maritime space (issues are very diversified and include, for example, waste treatment and recycling, anti-biofouling agents; bio-plastics); (iii) environmental/marine biotechnology as a driver for a sustainable economic growth. PMID:24747820

  3. Trends in monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal-care products in the aquatic environment by use of passive sampling devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, G.A.; Vrana, B.; Allan, I.; Alvarez, D.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Greenwood, R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of passive sampling in monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment is discussed. The utility of passive sampling methods for monitoring the fraction of heavy metals and the biologically available fraction of non-polar organic priority pollutants is recognized and these technologies are being used in surveys of water quality. These devices are used to measure the dissolved fraction and they can yield information that can be used in the development of risk assessments models. These devices can also be used to locate illegal damping and to monitor specific sources of input of PPCPs into the environment, or to monitor the effectiveness of water treatment processes in the removal of these compounds from wastewater. These devices can provide representative information at low cost which necessitate a combination of laboratory calibration and field studies for emerging pollutants.

  4. Toward Global Drought Early Warning Capability - Expanding International Cooperation for the Development of a Framework for Monitoring and Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozzi, Will; Sheffield, Justin; Stefanski, Robert; Cripe, Douglas; Pulwarty, Roger; Vogt, Jurgen V.; Heim, Richard R., Jr.; Brewer, Michael J.; Svoboda, Mark; Westerhoff, Rogier; vanDijk, Albert I. J. M.; Lloyd-Hughes, Benjamin; Pappenberger, Florian; Werner, Micha; Dutra, Emanuel; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Wagner, Wolfgang; Schubert, Siegfried; Mo, Kingste; Nicholson, Margaret; Bettio, Lynette; Nunez, Liliana; vanBeek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc; deGoncalves, Luis Gustavo Goncalves; deMattos, Joao Gerd Zell; Lawford, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Drought has had a significant impact on civilization throughout history in terms of reductions in agricultural productivity, potable water supply, and economic activity, and in extreme cases this has led to famine. Every continent has semiarid areas, which are especially vulnerable to drought. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has noted that average annual river runoff and water availability are projected to decrease by 10 percent-13 percent over some dry and semiarid regions in mid and low latitudes, increasing the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought, along with its associated impacts. The sheer magnitude of the problem demands efforts to reduce vulnerability to drought by moving away from the reactive, crisis management approach of the past toward a more proactive, risk management approach that is centered on reducing vulnerability to drought as much as possible while providing early warning of evolving drought conditions and possible impacts. Many countries, unfortunately, do not have adequate resources to provide early warning, but require outside support to provide the necessary early warning information for risk management. Furthermore, in an interconnected world, the need for information on a global scale is crucial for understanding the prospect of declines in agricultural productivity and associated impacts on food prices, food security, and potential for civil conflict. This paper highlights the recent progress made toward a Global Drought Early Warning Monitoring Framework (GDEWF), an underlying partnership and framework, along with its Global Drought Early Warning System (GDEWS), which is its interoperable information system, and the organizations that have begun working together to make it a reality. The GDEWF aims to improve existing regional and national drought monitoring and forecasting capabilities by adding a global component, facilitating continental monitoring and forecasting (where lacking), and improving these tools at various scales, thereby increasing the capacity of national and regional institutions that lack drought early warning systems or complementing existing ones. A further goal is to improve coordination of information delivery for drought-related activities and relief efforts across the world. This is especially relevant for regions and nations with low capacity for drought early warning. To do this requires a global partnership that leverages the resources necessary and develops capabilities at the global level, such as global drought forecasting combined with early warning tools, global real-time monitoring, and harmonized methods to identify critical areas vulnerable to drought. Although the path to a fully functional GDEWS is challenging, multiple partners and organizations within the drought, forecasting, agricultural, and water-cycle communities are committed to working toward its success.

  5. RTEMIS: Real-time Tumoroid and Environment Monitoring Using Impedance Spectroscopy and pH Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Frank A., Jr.

    This research utilizes Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy, a technique classically used for electrochemical analysis and material characterization, as the basis for a non-destructive, label-free assay platform for three dimensional (3D) cellular spheroids. In this work, a linear array of microelectrodes is optimized to rapidly respond to changes located within a 3D multicellular model. In addition, this technique is coupled with an on chip micro-pH sensor for monitoring the environment around the cells. Finally, the responses of both impedance and pH are correlated with physical changes within the cellular model. The impedance analysis system realized through this work provides a foundation for the development of high-throughput drug screening systems that utilize multiple parallel sensing modalities including pH and impedance sensing in order to quickly assess the efficacy of specific drug candidates. The slow development of new drugs is mainly attributed to poor predictability of current chemosensitivity and resistivity assays, as well as genetic differences between the animal models used for tests and humans. In addition, monolayer cultures used in early experimentation are fundamentally different from the complex structure of organs in vivo. This requires the study of smaller 3D models (spheroids) that more efficiently replicate the conditions within the body. The main objective of this research was to develop a microfluidic system on a chip that is capable of deducing viability and morphology of 3D tumor spheroids by monitoring both the impedance of the cellular model and the pH of their local environment. This would provide a fast and reliable method for screening pharmaceutical compounds in a high-throughput system.

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon speciation in aquatic environments and its application to monitor algal carbon uptake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yimin; Zhang, Liang; Xu, Changan; Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman

    2016-01-15

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation is an important parameter that enables chemical and ecological changes in aquatic environments, such as the aquatic environmental impact of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels, to be monitored. We have examined and developed a sensitive and cost-effective 'back-titration' method to determine the DIC species and abundance in aqueous environments that is more accurate and reproducible than existing methods and is applicable in a range of fresh, brackish and sea waters. We propose the use of pHHCO3 (bicarbonate-dominant pH) and pH3.5 as the titration end points in the back-titration technique to accurately determine carbonate alkalinity. The proposed method has a higher accuracy and precision than other modified Gran's methods that are currently in use. The detection limit was found to be ~5?molkg(-1) with an accuracy within 1% and a precision (CV) within 0.2% and 0.5% at high and low level of carbonates, respectively. This method was successfully applied to monitor DIC in the aqueous medium of Nannochlopsis salina cultivation separately carried out with NaHCO3 and CO2 as the respective inorganic carbon source. The cells were able to grow in the NaHCO3 medium with a similar growth curve to cells with 0.039% CO2 (air). Increases in CO2 level stimulated lipid accumulation by diverting the fixed carbon from protein to lipids. The increased concentration of gaseous CO2 and the accompanying lower pH appears to significantly inhibit the growth of algae despite the presence of HCO3(-) when 20% CO2 was employed. PMID:26476067

  7. Ceramic MEMS Designed for Wireless Pressure Monitoring in the Industrial Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pavlin, Marko; Belavic, Darko; Novak, Franc

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless pressure-monitoring system for harsh-environment applications. Two types of ceramic pressure sensors made with a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) were considered. The first type is a piezoresistive strain gauge pressure sensor. The second type is a capacitive pressure sensor, which is based on changes of the capacitance values between two electrodes: one electrode is fixed and the other is movable under an applied pressure. The design was primarily focused on low power consumption. Reliable operation in the presence of disturbances, like electromagnetic interference, parasitic capacitances, etc., proved to be contradictory constraints. A piezoresistive ceramic pressure sensor with a high bridge impedance was chosen for use in a wireless pressure-monitoring system and an acceptable solution using energy-harvesting techniques has been achieved. The described solution allows for the integration of a sensor element with an energy harvester that has a printed thick-film battery and complete electronics in a single substrate packaged inside a compact housing. PMID:22368471

  8. Monitoring of the natural environment by chemical speciation of elements in aerosol and sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Hlavay, J; Polyák, K; Weisz, M

    2001-02-01

    The development of a monitoring network for chemical speciation of elements of aerosol and sediment samples collected at Lake Balaton has been carried out. Sequential leaching procedures for the determination of the distribution of elements in aerosols (3 steps) and sediments (4 steps) were used. These methods were recently successfully applied to describe environmentally mobile and stable fractions of toxic metals. In aerosol matrices the partition of elements was accomplished by particle size and chemical bonding. In sediments the distribution was performed by chemical bonding. The processes are called fractionation of elements. Particular attention was paid to distinguishing between environmentally mobile and environmentally immobile fractions because these represent the two extreme modes by which the metals are bound to solid matrices. The monitoring objectives were to assess pollution effects on man and his environment and to identify any possible cause and effect relationship between pollutant concentrations and health effects. The results of dry and wet deposition rates showed that most of the toxic metals were dissolved in an aqueous phase and the wet deposition played an important role. It has been found that, while the concentration of Cd and Pb in aerosols is low (0.7 and 29 ng m(-3), respectively), environmentally mobile fractions are considerable. Based upon the data it can be concluded that the effect of the anthropogenic sources on the quality of the lake is minor. This has been the first attempt to correlate speciation results between aerosols and sediments. PMID:11253023

  9. Human-impacted waters: New perspectives from global high-resolution monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Laio, Francesco; Montanari, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The human presence close to streams and rivers is known to have consistently increased worldwide, therefore introducing dramatic anthropogenic and environmental changes. However, a spatiotemporal detailed analysis is missing to date. In this paper, we propose a novel method to quantify the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of the anthropogenic presence along streams and rivers and in their immediate proximity at the global scale and at a high-spatial resolution (i.e., nearly 1 km at the equator). We use satellite images of nocturnal lights, available as yearly snapshots from 1992 to 2013, and identify five distinct distance classes from the river network position. Our results show a temporal enhancement of human presence across the considered distance classes. In particular, we observed a higher human concentration in the vicinity of the river network, even though the frequency distribution of human beings in space has not significantly changed in the last two decades. Our results prove that fine-scale remotely sensed data, as nightlights, may provide new perspectives in water science, improving our understanding of the human impact on water resources and water-related environments.

  10. A global organism detection and monitoring system for non-native species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, J.; Newman, G.; Jarnevich, C.; Shory, R.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Harmful invasive non-native species are a significant threat to native species and ecosystems, and the costs associated with non-native species in the United States is estimated at over $120 Billion/year. While some local or regional databases exist for some taxonomic groups, there are no effective geographic databases designed to detect and monitor all species of non-native plants, animals, and pathogens. We developed a web-based solution called the Global Organism Detection and Monitoring (GODM) system to provide real-time data from a broad spectrum of users on the distribution and abundance of non-native species, including attributes of their habitats for predictive spatial modeling of current and potential distributions. The four major subsystems of GODM provide dynamic links between the organism data, web pages, spatial data, and modeling capabilities. The core survey database tables for recording invasive species survey data are organized into three categories: "Where, Who & When, and What." Organisms are identified with Taxonomic Serial Numbers from the Integrated Taxonomic Information System. To allow users to immediately see a map of their data combined with other user's data, a custom geographic information system (GIS) Internet solution was required. The GIS solution provides an unprecedented level of flexibility in database access, allowing users to display maps of invasive species distributions or abundances based on various criteria including taxonomic classification (i.e., phylum or division, order, class, family, genus, species, subspecies, and variety), a specific project, a range of dates, and a range of attributes (percent cover, age, height, sex, weight). This is a significant paradigm shift from "map servers" to true Internet-based GIS solutions. The remainder of the system was created with a mix of commercial products, open source software, and custom software. Custom GIS libraries were created where required for processing large datasets, accessing the operating system, and to use existing libraries in C++, R, and other languages to develop the tools to track harmful species in space and time. The GODM database and system are crucial for early detection and rapid containment of invasive species. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Global Monitoring of Mountain Glaciers Using High-Resolution Spotlight Imaging from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; Bills, B. G.; Goguen, J.; Ansar, A.; Knight, R. L.; Hallet, B.; Scambos, T. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Morin, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world are retreating rapidly, contributing about 20% to present-day sea level rise. Numerous studies have shown that mountain glaciers are sensitive to global environmental change. Temperate-latitude glaciers and snowpack provide water for over 1 billion people. Glaciers are a resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power, but also pose flood and avalanche hazards. Accurate mass balance assessments have been made for only 280 glaciers, yet there are over 130,000 in the World Glacier Inventory. The rate of glacier retreat or advance can be highly variable, is poorly sampled, and inadequately understood. Liquid water from ice front lakes, rain, melt, or sea water and debris from rocks, dust, or pollution interact with glacier ice often leading to an amplification of warming and further melting. Many mountain glaciers undergo rapid and episodic events that greatly change their mass balance or extent but are sparsely documented. Events include calving, outburst floods, opening of crevasses, or iceberg motion. Spaceborne high-resolution spotlight optical imaging provides a means of clarifying the relationship between the health of mountain glaciers and global environmental change. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be constructed from a series of images from a range of perspectives collected by staring at a target during a satellite overpass. It is possible to collect imagery for 1800 targets per month in the ×56° latitude range, construct high-resolution DEMs, and monitor changes in high detail over time with a high-resolution optical telescope mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Snow and ice type, age, and maturity can be inferred from different color bands as well as distribution of liquid water. Texture, roughness, albedo, and debris distribution can be estimated by measuring bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) and reflectance intensity as a function of viewing angle. The non-sun-synchronous orbit of the ISS results in varying illumination angles and fix-point spotlight imaging results in varying viewing angles, ideal for viewing steep slopes on glaciers and adjacent areas. Rapid events may be observed in progress by correlating changes in images over a single pass or between passes. We present a working design, data acquisition parameters, science objectives, and data processing strategy for a conceptual instrument, MUIR (Mission to Understand Ice Retreat).

  12. Global Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding is among the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disasters faced by modern society, with several major events occurring each year. In the past few years, major floods have devastated parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, Australia, and the Philippines, among others. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we have developed, and are now operating, a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours after flooding events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard. The LANCE system typically processes imagery in less than 3 hours after satellite overpass, and our flood mapping system can output flood products within ½ hour of acquiring the LANCE products. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, every day, and more robust assessments after accumulating imagery over a longer period; the MODIS sensors are optical, so cloud cover remains an issue, which is partly overcome by using multiple looks over one or more days. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on some of these issues, and are working to develop higher resolution flood detection using alternate sensors, including Landsat and various radar sensors. Although these provide better spatial resolution, this comes at the cost of being less timely. As of late 2011, the system expanded to fully global daily flood monitoring, with free public access to the generated products. These include GIS-ready files of flood and normal water extent (KML, shapefile, raster), and small scale graphic maps (10 degrees square) showing regional flood extent. We are now expanding product distribution channels to include live web services (WMS, etc), allowing easier access via standalone apps. We are also working to bring our product into the Pacific Disaster Center's Disaster Alert system and mobile app for wider accessibility.

  13. Monitoring Changes in Channel Morphology in Las Vegas Wash with Global Fiducials Program Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    To borrow from a popular adage, "What happens in Las Vegas [Wash], stays in Las Vegas [Wash]"—but only with a lot of help. This past decade has seen a concerted effort to curb erosion and sediment transport along the 12 mile long channel between East Las Vegas and Lake Mead. Las Vegas Wash is prototypical of an urban river in an arid environment that is being impacted by increasing urban development and impervious surface runoff within its drainage area. Rapid urbanization since the 1970s has increased the flow of water into Las Vegas Wash, causing severe channel destabilization. Within two decades millions of cubic yards of rocks and sediment were scoured out of the wash and transported downstream to Lake Mead. The wetlands that once covered over 2,000 acres within Las Vegas Wash dwindled to 200 acres in the 1990s as the channel became as much as 40 feet deeper and 300 feet wider at some points. In 1999 the Las Vegas Wash Coordination Committee (LVWCC) initiated a 20-year plan to construct erosion control structures (weirs) for channel stabilization and rock riprap for stream bank protection. The hope is to design structures that will slow down the water flow, trap sediments, and to eventually restore much of the wetland environment. Using high-resolution satellite imagery from the Global Fiducials Program Library housed at the U. S. Geological Survey, this transition is being tracked from 1999 to the present. From November 1999 to July 2008 new residential and commercial development has claimed an additional 12 square kilometers (3000 acres) of land in Henderson, NV, along the south side of Las Vegas Wash. Even with the increased volume of surface and groundwater runoff entering the wash, current sediment yields are much lower than the 1999 totals. The imagery documents the construction of 14 of the 22 LVWCC planned weirs by the year 2011. It also shows many miles of stream bank stabilization by riprap, planting of riparian vegetation and placing of obstructions in the channel. The replanting of native vegetation on storm debris flats is stabilizing some of the soil in the wash and also rejuvenating much of the wetland habitat. Las Vegas Wash is a test bed for the design and implementation of innovative methods for modifying stream morphology to achieve desirable results, as some of these methods are deemed successful and some are not as effective. The lessons learned about curbing erosion and sediment transport within Las Vegas Wash may be applied to other urban streams in arid environments.

  14. A NASA-NOAA Update on Global Fire Monitoring Capabilities for Studying Fire-Climate Interactions: Focus on Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutman, G.; Csiszar, I.

    2012-04-01

    The global, long-term effects of fires are not well understood and we are learning more every year about its global impacts and potential feedbacks to climate change. The frequency, intensity, severity, and emissions of fires may be changing as a result of climate warming as has been manifested by the observations in northern Eurasia. The climate-fire interaction may produce important societal and environmental impacts in the long run. NASA and NOAA have been developing long-term fire datasets and improving systems to monitor active fires, study fire severity, fire growth, emissions into the atmosphere, and fire effects on carbon stocks. Almost every year there are regions in the world that experience particularly severe fires. For example, less than two years ago the European part of Russia was the focus of attention due to the anomalous heat and dry wave with record high temperatures that caused wildfires rage for weeks and that led to thousands of deaths. The fires also have spread to agricultural land and damaged crops, causing sharp increases of global wheat commodity prices. Remote sensing observations are widely used to monitor fire occurrence, fire spread; smoke dispersion, and atmospheric pollutant levels. In the context of climate warming and acute interest to large-scale emissions from various land-cover disturbances studying spatial-temporal dynamics of forest fire activity is critical. NASA supports several activities related to fires and the Earth system. These include GOFC-GOLD Fire Project Office at University of Maryland and the Rapid Response System for global fire monitoring. NASA has funded many research projects on biomass burning, which cover various geographic regions of the world and analyze impacts of fires on atmospheric carbon in support of REDD initiative, as well as on atmospheric pollution with smoke. Monitoring active fires, studying their severity and burned areas, and estimating fire-induced atmospheric emissions has been the subject of several research projects in the NASA LCLUC program over the globe, and, in particular, in Northern Eurasia. As an operational agency, NOAA puts global fire monitoring as a priority and supports related GCOS, CEOS and GOFC-GOLD objectives. NOAA developed an operational quasi-global fire monitoring system using geostationary satellites that provides coverage over parts of Northern Eurasia. Fire products from the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite) sensor on the NPP (NPOESS Preparatory Project) satellite, launched in October 2011, and on subsequent JPSS satellites will ensure high quality global fire monitoring and will extent the AVHRR- and MODIS-based fire data record over Northern Eurasia. This overview presents an update of NASA's and NOAA's fire monitoring capability and scientific achievements on fire-climate interactions. We will illustrate how combination of coarse spatial resolution polar orbiting satellite observations are combined with moderate spatial resolution observations to better monitor the location of fires and burned areas. While coarse resolution data have been more or less easily available, the utility of moderate resolution Landsat data has increased tremendously during the past couple of years once the data became freely available. Data fusion from polar orbiting and geostationary satellites will be discussed.

  15. Protection of quantum information and optimal singlet conversion through higher-dimensional quantum systems and environment monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, E.; Marques, B.; Santos, M. Franca; Cavalcanti, D.; Cunha, M. Terra

    2010-03-15

    We study how to protect quantum information in quantum systems subjected to local dissipation. We show that combining the use of three-level systems, environment monitoring, and local feedback can fully and deterministically protect any available quantum information, including entanglement initially shared by different parties. These results can represent a gain in resources and/or distances in quantum communication protocols such as quantum repeaters and teleportation as well as time for quantum memories. Finally, we show that monitoring local environments physically implements the optimum singlet conversion protocol, which is essential for classical entanglement percolation.

  16. A sensitivity study of the thermodynamic environment on GFDL model hurricane intensity: Implications for global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Tuleya, R.E.; Ginis, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the effect of thermodynamic environmental changes on hurricane intensity is extensively investigated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model for a suite of experiments with different initial upper-tropospheric temperature anomalies up to {+-}4 C and sea surface temperatures ranging from 26 to 31 C given the same relative humidity profile. The results indicate that stabilization in the environmental atmosphere and sea surface temperature (SST) increase cause opposing effects on hurricane intensity. The offsetting relationship between the effects of atmospheric stability increase (decrease) and SST increase (decrease) is monotonic and systematic in the parameter space. This implies that hurricane intensity increase due to a possible global warming associated with increased CO{sub 2} is considerably smaller than that expected from warming of the oceanic waters alone. The results also indicate that the intensity of stronger (weaker) hurricanes is more (less) sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes. The model-attained hurricane intensity is found to be well correlated with the maximum surface evaporation and the large-scale environmental convective available potential energy. The model-attained hurricane intensity if highly correlated with the energy available from wet-adiabatic ascent near the eyewall relative to a reference sounding in the undisturbed environment for all the experiments. Coupled hurricane-ocean experiments show that hurricane intensity becomes less sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes since the ocean coupling causes larger (smaller) intensity reduction for stronger (weaker) hurricanes. This implies less increase of hurricane intensity related to a possible global warming due to increased CO{sub 2}.

  17. Monitoring of chromium species and 11 selected metals in emission and immission of airborne environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krystek, Petra; Ritsema, Rob

    2007-08-01

    Monitoring of chromium species as hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and the determination of the total chromium concentration as well as the concentration of 11 selected metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Zn) in industrial emission of a foundry and immission studies of the nearby airborne environment were carried out. The samples were taken as industrial exhaust directly by the outlet and as airborne sample in the environment with distances between some hundred meters and 2 km from the industrial factoryE Wherefore two methods of sampling, sample pre-treatment and mass spectrometric measurement were developed and applied. With respect to different sampling duration different volumes of air were sampled and analysed. For the determination of Cr(VI) sampling in impingers (filled with carbonate-buffer) was used. A procedure of selective complex forming and extraction was developed and measured by double focussing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). For the determination of the total chromium concentration as well as of 11 metals sampling was done by using quartz-filters. After microwave digestion in the medium of aqua regia the samples were analysed by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS). The maximum concentration of Cr(VI)-species in emission samples was determined as 180 ng/m3 air which is about 2% of total Cr. The lowest concentration of Cr(VI)-species in immission was determined as 0.5 ng/m3 air.

  18. Global Radiological Source Sorting, Tracking, and Monitoring Project: Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M; Hill, David E; Gorman, Bryan L

    2010-09-01

    As a proof of concept tested in an operational context, the Global Radiological Source Sorting, Tracking, and Monitoring (GRadSSTraM) Project successfully demonstrated that radio frequency identification (RFID) and Web 2.0* technologies can be deployed to track controlled shipments between the United States and the European Union. Between November 2009 and May 2010, a total of 19 shipments were successfully shipped from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and tracked to their delivery at England's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) by the United Kingdom Royal Mail. However, the project can only be viewed as a qualified success as notable shortcomings were observed. Although the origin and terminus of all RFID-enabled shipments were recorded and no shipments were lost, not all the waypoints between ORNL and NPL were incorporated into the pilot. Given limited resources, the project team was able to install RFID listeners/actuators at three waypoints between the two endpoints. Although it is likely that all shipments followed the same route between ORNL and NPL, it cannot be determined beyond question that all 19 shipments were routed on identical itineraries past the same three waypoints. The pilot also raises the distinct possibility that unattended RFID tracking alone, without positive confirmation that a tagged item has been properly recorded by an RFID reader, does not meet a rigorous standard for shipping controlled items. Indeed, the proof of concept test strongly suggests that a multifaceted approach to tracking may be called for, including tracking methods that are capable of reading and accepting multiple inputs for individual items [e.g., carrier-provided tracking numbers, Universal Product Codes (UPCs), and RFID tags]. For controlled items, another apparent requirement is a confirmation feature, human or otherwise, which can certify that an item's RFID tag, UPC, or tracking number has been recorded.

  19. Off-the-shelf real-time monitoring of satellite constellations in a visual 3-D environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Hervias, Felipe; Cheng, Cecilia Han; Mactutis, Anthony; Angelino, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The multimission spacecraft analysis system (MSAS) data monitor is a generic software product for future real-time data monitoring and analysis. The system represents the status of a satellite constellation through the shape, color, motion and position of graphical objects floating in a three dimensional virtual reality environment. It may be used for the monitoring of large volumes of data, for viewing results in configurable displays, and for providing high level and detailed views of a constellation of monitored satellites. It is considered that the data monitor is an improvement on conventional graphic and text-based displays as it increases the amount of data that the operator can absorb in a given period, and can be installed and configured without the requirement for software development by the end user. The functionality of the system is described, including: the navigation abilities; the representation of alarms in the cybergrid; limit violation; real-time trend analysis, and alarm status indication.

  20. Searching for Global Descriptors of Engineered Nanomaterial Fate and Transport in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Nowack, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are a new class of environmental pollutants. Researchers are beginning to debate whether new modeling paradigms and experimental tests to obtain model parameters are required for ENMs or if approaches for existing pollutants are robust enough to predict ENM distribution between environmental compartments. This Account outlines how experimental research can yield quantitative data for use in ENM fate and exposure models. We first review experimental testing approaches that are employed with ENMs. Then we compare and contrast ENMs against other pollutants. Finally, we summarize the findings and identify research needs that may yield global descriptors for ENMs that are suitable for use in fate and transport modeling. Over the past decade, researchers have made significant progress in understanding factors that influence the fate and transport of ENMs. In some cases researchers have developed approaches toward global descriptor models (experimental, conceptual, and quantitative). We suggest the following global descriptors for ENMs: octanol-water partition coefficients, solid-water partition coefficients, attachment coefficients, and rate constants describing reactions such as dissolution, sedimentation, and degradation. ENMs appear to accumulate at the octanol-water interface and readily interact with other interfaces, such as lipid-water interfaces. Batch experiments to investigate factors that influence retention of ENMs on solid phases are very promising. However ENMs probably do not behave in the same way as dissolved chemicals, and therefore researchers need to use measurement techniques and concepts more commonly associated with colloids. Despite several years of research with ENMs in column studies, available summaries tend to discuss the effects of ionic strength, pH, organic matter, ENM type, packing media, or other parameters qualitatively rather than reporting quantitative values, such as attachment efficiencies, that would facilitate comparison across studies. Only a few structure-activity relationships have been developed for ENMs so far, but such evaluations will facilitate the understanding of the reactivities of different forms of a single ENM. The establishment of predictive capabilities for ENMs in the environment would enable accurate exposure assessments that would assist in ENM risk management. Such information is also critical for understanding the ultimate disposition of ENMs and may provide a framework for improved engineering of nanomaterials that are more environmentally benign. PMID:22950943

  1. Cross-Cultural Collisions in Cyberspace: Case Studies of International Legal Issues for Educators Working in Globally Networked Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rife, Martine Courant

    2010-01-01

    This article explores some of the legal and law-related challenges educators face in designing, implementing, and sustaining globally networked learning environments (GNLEs) in the context of conflicting international laws on intellectual property and censorship/free speech. By discussing cases and areas involving such legal issues, the article…

  2. Z .The Science of the Total Environment 262 2000 263 286 Assessing the consequences of global change for forest

    E-print Network

    Ayres, Matthew.P.

    Z .The Science of the Total Environment 262 2000 263 286 Assessing the consequences of global. It is probable that climatic effects on some herbivores and pathogens will impact on biodiversity, recreation snow cover may increase winter mortality of some insect pests , Zbut many are detrimental e.g. warming

  3. The global plasma environment of Titan as observed by Cassini Plasma Spectrometer during the first two close encounters with Titan

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    The global plasma environment of Titan as observed by Cassini Plasma Spectrometer during the first two close encounters with Titan K. Szego,1 Z. Bebesi,1 G. Erdos,1 L. Foldy,1 F. Crary,2 D. J. Mc] The Cassini spacecraft flew by Titan on October 26, 2004 and December 13, 2004. In both cases it entered

  4. "What Price Respect"--Exploring the Notion of Respect in a 21st Century Global Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Doirean

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the meaning of respect in a 21st century global learning environment, with a view to exploring the implications for promoting harmonious working relationships among students of culturally diverse ethnic backgrounds in the classroom. Research conducted since 2005 that investigates the understanding, meaning and experience of…

  5. Impact of Globalization on Sugarcane Pests, Biodiversity and the Environment: A Review of the 2009 Entomology Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 7th International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ISSCT) Entomology Workshop was held from 20 to 24 April 2009 in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina under the theme: “Impact of Globalization on Sugar Cane Pests, Biodiversity and the Environment”. Technical sessions held over three days were g...

  6. Sensor Web for Spatio-Temporal Monitoring of a Hydrological Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delin, K. A.; Jackson, S. P.; Johnson, D. W.; Burleigh, S. C.; Woodrow, R. R.; McAuley, M.; Britton, J. T.; Dohm, J. M.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Ip, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    The Sensor Web is a macroinstrument concept that allows for the spatio-temporal understanding of an environment through coordinated efforts between multiple numbers and types of sensing platforms, including, in its most general form, both orbital and terrestrial and both fixed and mobile. Each of these platforms, or pods, communicates within its local neighborhood and thus distributes information to the instrument as a whole. The result of sharing and continual processing of this information among all the Sensor Web elements will result in an information flow and a global perception of and reactive capability to the environment. As illustrated, the Sensor Web concept also allows for the recursive notion of a web of webs with individual distributed instruments possibly playing the role of a single node point on a larger Sensor Web instrument. In particular, the fusion of inexpensive, yet sophisticated, commercial technology from both the computation and telecommunication revolutions has enabled the development of practical, fielded, and embedded in situ systems that have been the focus of the NASA/JPL Sensor Webs Project (http://sensorwebs.jpl.nasa.gov/). These Sensor Webs are complete systems consisting of not only the pod elements that wirelessly communicate among themselves, but also interfacing and archiving software that allows for easy use by the end-user. Previous successful deployments have included environments as diverse as coastal regions, Antarctica, and desert areas. The Sensor Web has broad implications for Earth and planetary science and will revolutionize the way experiments and missions are conceived and performed. As part of our current efforts to develop a macrointelligence within the system, we have deployed a Sensor Web at the Central Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (CAVSARP) facility located west of Tucson, AZ. This particular site was selected because it is ideal for studying spatio-temporal phenomena and for providing a test site for more sophisticated hydrological studies in the future.

  7. Natural hazards education in global environment leaders education programme for designing a low-carbon society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Han Soo; Yamashita, Takao; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2010-05-01

    Global environmental leader (GEL) education programme at graduate school for international development and cooperation (IDEC) in Hiroshima University is an education and training programme for graduate students especially from developing countries in Asian region to build and enhance their ability to become international environmental leaders. Through this programme, they will participate in regular course works and other activities to learn how to cope with the various environment and resource management issues from global to regional scales toward a low-carbon society via multi-disciplinary approaches considering sustainable development and climate change. Under this GEL programme, there are five different research sub-groups as follows assuming a cause-effect relationship among interacting components of social, economic, and environmental systems; 1) urban system design to prevent global warming, 2) wise use of biomass resources, 3) environmental impact assessment, 4) policy and institutional design, and 5) development of environmental education programs. Candidate students of GEL programme belong to one of the five research sub-groups, perform their researches and participate in many activities under the cross-supervisions from faculty members of different sub-groups. Under the third research group for environmental impact assessment, we use numerical models named as regional environment simulator (RES) as a tool for research and education for assessing the environmental impacts due to natural hazards. Developed at IDEC, Hiroshima University, RES is a meso-scale numerical model system that can be used for regional simulation of natural disasters and environmental problems caused by water and heat circulation in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. RES has three components: i) atmosphere-surface waves-ocean part, ii) atmosphere-land surface process-hydrologic part, and iii) coastal and estuarine part. Each part is constructed with state-of-the-art public domain numerical models that are combined synchronously by an own-developed model coupler. Therefore, RES can provide detailed insights from various aspects of interaction processes between each component in the earth system. For instance, RES has been used for the study of storm surges and the abnormally high ocean waves caused by typhoons, cyclones, hurricanes, and winter monsoon winds in Asian region; dam lake circulation; air-sea interaction of momentum, heat, and tracer material exchange; heavy rainfall and runoff simulation; estuarine circulation with cohesive sediment transport; and wave overtopping in coastal regions. Most recently, a project on the impact of reduced discharge of freshwater and sediment from the Yangtze River basin on the adjacent East China Sea has been initiated by using the RES. Under the GEL programme, we found the RES can be an important and useful tool for graduate students not only from science and engineering background but also from social science so as to evaluate their policy and institutional design.

  8. Teaching about the Global Environment at a Jesuit Liberal Arts University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about global environmental issues is often reserved to courses in environmental and/or geoscience departments. Universities that do not have departments that fall into these categories may be missing out on educating both science and non-science students about these important and timely issues. Loyola University Maryland is a private Jesuit liberal arts University with no environmental or geoscience department and prior to 2008 had no courses that focused on the science of global environmental issues. Global Environment in a course offered by the Chemistry Department that fills this niche. The course is designed for a general non-science audience, though the course content is also appropriate for science students. The primary goal of the course is for students to learn the basics about how the Earth system works and how our changing climate is related to biodiversity, pollution, water availability and society. The course is designated a diversity course which is a course that fulfills the University's call "to prepare students … to pursue justice by making an action-oriented response to the needs of the world." All students at Loyola University Maryland are required to take one diversity course. For this class, the diversity focus is environmental justice which is brought into the course through lectures, discussions and student projects. By bringing societal impacts into a science course the students can better understand why the environment is important and our actions affect both ourselves and others. The course has also evolved over four iterations into a course that maximizes student involvement while minimizing student angst. One way that this is accomplished is by eliminating tests and substituting daily quizzes using a student response system (clickers). Clickers are also used to poll students and to review what information the students are retaining. Students are able to self-guide their own learning in the course by creating a portfolio focusing on a topic of their choosing that fits within the course content. During class time, recent issues and examples are utilized to promote student discussion and thinking. The course also incorporates active learning such as playing games in class to demonstrate concepts, incorporating field trips into the course, and making posters to share what students have learned with the rest of the university community for Earth Day. To date, 94 students have completed the course which has an enrollment limit of 24 students per semester. These students represent primarily the business school (30%), humanities (38%) and social sciences (27%); however a few natural science majors have also taken the course. About half of the students that have taken the course have been either business (30%) or communications majors (19%). This presentation will feature the techniques and materials used in the course as well as some of the data related to the population and majors served, data from the clicker system and student responses to the course through evaluations and comments.

  9. Monitoring Ephemeral Streams Using Airborne Very High Resolution Multispectral Remote Sensing in Arid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Y.; O'Connor, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    Development in arid environments often results in the loss and degradation of the ephemeral streams that provide habitat and critical ecosystem functions such as water delivery, sediment transport, and groundwater recharge. Quantification of these ecosystem functions is challenging because of the episodic nature of runoff events in desert landscapes and the large spatial scale of watersheds that potentially can be impacted by large-scale development. Low-impact development guidelines and regulatory protection of ephemeral streams are often lacking due to the difficulty of accurately mapping and quantifying the critical functions of ephemeral streams at scales larger than individual reaches. Renewable energy development in arid regions has the potential to disturb ephemeral streams at the watershed scale, and it is necessary to develop environmental monitoring applications for ephemeral streams to help inform land management and regulatory actions aimed at protecting and mitigating for impacts related to large-scale land disturbances. This study focuses on developing remote sensing methodologies to identify and monitor impacts on ephemeral streams resulting from the land disturbance associated with utility-scale solar energy development in the desert southwest of the United States. Airborne very high resolution (VHR) multispectral imagery is used to produce stereoscopic, three-dimensional landscape models that can be used to (1) identify and map ephemeral stream channel networks, and (2) support analyses and models of hydrologic and sediment transport processes that pertain to the critical functionality of ephemeral streams. Spectral and statistical analyses are being developed to extract information about ephemeral channel location and extent, micro-topography, riparian vegetation, and soil moisture characteristics. This presentation will demonstrate initial results and provide a framework for future work associated with this project, for developing the necessary field measurements necessary to verify remote sensing landscape models, and for generating hydrologic models and analyses.

  10. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old…

  11. On Planning and Exploiting Schumann Resonance Measurements for Monitoring the Electrical Productivity of Global Lightning Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtak, V. C.; Williams, E.

    2010-12-01

    The spatial-temporal behavior of world-wide lightning activity can be effectively used as an indicator of various geophysical processes, the global climate change being of a special interest among them. Since it has been reliably established that the lightning activity presents a major source of natural electromagnetic background in the Schumann resonance (SR) frequency range (5 to 40 Hz), SR measurements provide a continuous flow of information about this globally distributed source, thus forming an informative basis for monitoring its behavior via an inversion of observations into the source’s properties. To have such an inversion procedure effective, there is a series of prerequisites to comply with when planning and realizing it: (a) a proper choice of observable parameters to be used in the inversion; (b) a proper choice of a forward propagation model that would be accurate enough to take into consideration the major propagation effects occurring between a source and observer; (c) a proper choice of a method for inverting the sensitivity matrix. While the prerequisite (a) is quite naturally fulfilled by considering the SR resonance characteristics (modal frequencies, intensities, and quality factors), the compliance with prerequisites (b) and (c) has benefitted greatly from earlier seminal work on geophysical inversion by T.R. Madden. Since it has been found that the electrodynamic non-uniformities of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, primarily the day/night, play an essential role in low-frequency propagation, use has been made of theory for the two-dimensional telegraph equation (TDTE; Kirillov, 2002) developed on the basis of the innovative suggestion by Madden and Thompson (1965) to consider the waveguide, both physically and mathematically, by analogy with a two-dimensional transmission line. Because of the iterative nature of the inversion procedure and the complicated, non-analytical character of the propagation theory, a special, fast-running TDTE forward algorithm has been developed for repeated numerous calculations of the sensitivity matrix. The theory for the inverse boundary value problem from Madden (1972) allows not only to correctly invert the sensitivity matrix, especially when the latter is ill-defined, but also to determine a priori the optimal observational design. The workability of the developed approaches and techniques is illustrated by estimating and processing observations from a network of SR stations located in Europe (Sopron, Hungary; Belsk, Poland), Asia (Shilong, India; Moshiri, Japan), North America (Rhode Island, USA), and Antarctica (Syowa). The spatial dynamics of major lightning “chimneys” determined via the inversion procedure had been found in a good agreement with general geophysical knowledge even when only the modal frequencies had been used. The incorporation of modal intensities greatly improves the agreement, while the Q-factors have been found of a lesser informative value. The preliminary results form a promising basis for achieving the ultimate objective of this study, The authors are deeply grateful to all the participants of the project who have generously, and on a gratis basis, invested their time and effort into preparing and providing the SR data.

  12. Monitoring of the Geospace Environment by Ground-based McMAC and Falcon Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, P. J.; Russell, C. T.; Engebretson, M. J.; Chun, F. K.; McHarg, M. G.; Bristow, W. A.; Cruz-Abeyro, J. L.; Goldstein, J.; Hairston, M. R.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Mynatt, D.; Petit, N.; Pfaff, R. F.; Wing, S.; Winkler, L. I.

    2012-12-01

    The ground-based Mid-continent Magnetoseismic Chain (McMAC) and Falcon magnetometers were established to monitor a variety of physical processes in the Geospace environment. McMAC consists of nine magnetometers in the US and Mexico along the 330th magnetic meridian, and the six Falcon stations are strategically located in five different US time zones. In addition to the observations of magnetic field variations and the Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF) waves, a key derived data from McMAC and Falcon observations is the inferred plasma mass density through the field line resonance (FLR) sounding method. By examining the plasmaspheric mass density during several magnetic storm events, we have found that the density variations within the plasmasphere appeared to coincide with the changes in ionospheric content. Our recent results also indicate that the local time and annual variations of plasmaspheric mass density closely resemble the variations of the neutral mass density in the thermosphere, suggesting an inadequately explored connection between the thermosphere and the plasmasphere. The observations by McMAC and Falcon magnetometers can be studied in conjunction with those by other magnetic observatories in North America for broader coverage of latitude or local time. We have developed computer programs that can efficiently process a large amount of observations and generate two dimensional snapshots (in both local time and L-values) of the equatorial plasma mass density in the magnetosphere. The magnetic field observations by the McMAC and Falcon magnetometers and their derived data products can enrich the studies of the Geospace environment by the NASA RBSP Mission.

  13. Luobei graphite mines surrounding ecological environment monitoring based on high-resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaosha; Wan, Huawei; Liu, Xiaoman

    2014-11-01

    Graphite is one of the important industrial mineral raw materials, but the high content of heavy metals in tailings may cause soil pollution and other regional ecological environmental problems. Luobei has already become the largest production base of graphite. To find out the ecological situation in the region, further ecological risk analysis has been carried out. Luobei graphite mine which is located in Yabdanhe basin has been selected as the study area, SVM classifiers method with the support of GF-1 Satellite remote sensing data has been used, which is the first high-resolution earth observation satellite in China. The surrounding ecological environment was monitored and its potential impact on the ecological environment was analyzed by GIS platform. The results showed that the Luobei graphite mine located Yadanhe basin covers an area of 499.65 km2, the main types of forest ecosystems ( 44.05% of the total basin area ), followed by agricultural area( 35.14% ), grass area( 15.52% ), residential area ( 4.34% ), mining area ( 0.64% ) and water area( 0.30% ). By confirming the classification results, the total accuracy is 91.61%, the Kappa coefficient is 0.8991. Overall, GF-1 Satellite data can obtain regional ecosystems quickly, and provide a better data support for regional ecological resource protection zone. For Luobei graphite mines area, farmland and residential areas within its watershed are most vulnerable to mining, the higher proportion of farmland in duck river basin. The regulatory tailings need to be strengthened in the process of graphite mining processing.

  14. Mental performance in extreme environments: results from a performance monitoring study during a 438-day spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Manzey, D; Lorenz, B; Poljakov, V

    1998-04-01

    During their stay in a space habitat, astronauts are exposed to many different stressors that may entail detrimental effects on mood and performance. In order to monitor the effects of the space environment on different human information processing functions during an extraordinary long-term space mission, the cognitive. visuo-motor and time-sharing performance of one Russian cosmonaut was repeatedly assessed (29 times) during his 438-day stay in space. The performance tasks used were chosen from the AGARD-STRES battery and included grammatical reasoning, Sternberg memory-search, unstable tracking, and a dual-tasks consisting of unstable tracking with concurrent memory-search. In addition to performance assessment, several subjective ratings concerning mood and workload were collected. Comparisons of pre-flight, in-flight, post-flight and two follow-up assessments 6 months after the mission revealed, (1) no impairments of basic cognitive functions during the flight, (2) clear impairments of mood, feelings of raised workload, and disturbances of tracking performance and time-sharing during the first 3 weeks in space and the first 2 weeks after return to Earth, (3) an impressive stability of mood and performance during the second to fourteenth month in space, where mood and performance had returned to pre-flight baseline level, and (4) no long-lasting performance deficits at follow-up assessments. From these results it is concluded that the first 3 weeks of long-term spaceflights and the first 2 weeks back on Earth represent critical periods where adverse effects on attentional processes are to be expected, induced by the demands to adjust to the extreme environmental changes. The stability of mood and performance observed after successful adaptation to the space environment indicates that mental efficiency and emotional state can be maintained on a level as high as on Earth even during extraordinary long-term space missions. PMID:9557591

  15. A Spatio-temporal Data Mining Approach to Global scale Burned Area Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithal, V.; Khandelwal, A.; Nayak, G.; Kumar, V.; Nemani, R. R.; Oza, N.

    2014-12-01

    We present a novel technique for burned area mapping in forests using the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the MODIS 16-day Level 3 1km Vegetation Indices (MOD13A2) and the Active Fire (AF) from the MODIS 8-day Level 3 1km Thermal Anomalies and Fire products (MOD14A2). The proposed method leverages the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of thermal anomalies and vegetation loss caused due to forest fires to detect burned areas. Our approach derives features from Enhanced Vegetation Index that target locations which show an abrupt change in their vegetation time series that take at least several months to recover. One unique aspect of our approach is that it uses data from multiple months around the fire event and is therefore more robust to issues in data quality. Comparison with other burned area products show that our approach detects several large previously undetected burned areas across multiple geographical regions. In particular, we found that our approach detects several large burned regions in the tropical forests of Indonesia and South America that had been missed by the state-of-arts burned area approaches. For example, using our approach in Indonesia we discovered that the state-of-the-art MODIS Burned area product had missed around 20,000 sq. km. of burned area (nearly as much burned area as it has reported). We show that all these previously unreported burned areas detected by our approach are actually significant fires which suffered a large, abrupt loss in their vegetation at the time of the fire event and take at least several months to recover back to their normal vegetation. To evaluate these burned areas we compared the Landsat-based composites before and after the date of the event. Our Landsat analysis shows that the burned areas detected by the proposed approach are true burns with a very small error of commission. We believe our work has the potential to provide a scalable approach to global forest monitoring as well as reduce the uncertainty in quantifying the carbon emissions from forests due to fire activity.

  16. Promoting Positive Academic Dispositions Using a Web-Based PBL Environment: The GlobalEd 2 Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott W.; Lawless, Kimberly A.; Boyer, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional design approach for promoting student learning, understanding and knowledge development in context rich settings. Previous PBL research has primarily focused on face-to-face learning environments, but current technologies afford PBL designers the opportunities to create online, virtual, PBL…

  17. How volcano monitoring in New Zealand can contribute to a global volcano dataset: The GeoNet Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, G. E.; Scott, B.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanism plays an important role in New Zealand. Much of the landscape of the central North Island owes its shape to volcanism, with the soils supporting forestry and farming economies, geothermal systems providing renewable electricity production and the spectacular landscape supporting tourism and adventure. However volcanism also has it disadvantages: eruptive activity brings physical damage and economic losses and, sometimes, tragically the loss of life. Historically, in New Zealand, volcanoes represent the largest single source of fatalities from natural disasters. To better mitigate the hazard from New Zealand’s volcanoes, a multidisciplinary approach is applied. In 2001 the NZ Earthquake Commission (EQC) commenced funding the GeoNet project, providing the first totally national modern geological hazard monitoring system in New Zealand. The GeoNet project is responsibly for monitoring and assessing all of the active volcanoes (and other geological hazards) in New Zealand. The volcano monitoring programme is integrated into the national seismograph and geodetic networks. The volcano monitoring covers active volcanic cones, resting calderas, volcanic fields, and submarine volcanoes. Monitoring techniques include volcano seismology, geodesy, gas and water chemistry, remote sensing and other geophysical techniques, producing a wide variety of data sets, with both temporal and spatial distribution. These data sets form the basis for detailed research to achieve in depth understanding of these volcanoes and will contribute to the global knowledge of volcanic processes. However to achieve this the data sets need to be accessible by a range of end users, so that they can be used to underpin fundamental research and applied hazard assessments. This presentation will outline the NZ data sets and the problems of presenting and sharing them globally.

  18. Functional traits determine plant co-occurrence more than environment or evolutionary relatedness in global drylands

    PubMed Central

    Soliveres, Santiago; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Torices, Rubén; Quero, José L.; García-Gómez, Miguel; Cabrera, Omar; Cea, Alex; Coaguila, Daniel; Eldridge, David J.; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Hemmings, Frank; Monerris, Jorge J.; Tighe, Matthew; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Escolar, Cristina; García-Palacios, Pablo; Gozalo, Beatriz; Ochoa, Victoria; Blones, Julio; Derak, Mchich; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gutiérrez, Julio R.; Hernández, Rosa M.; Noumi, Zouhaier

    2015-01-01

    Plant-plant interactions are driven by environmental conditions, evolutionary relationships (ER) and the functional traits of the plants involved. However, studies addressing the relative importance of these drivers are rare, but crucial to improve our predictions of the effects of plant-plant interactions on plant communities and of how they respond to differing environmental conditions. To analyze the relative importance of –and interrelationships among– these factors as drivers of plant-plant interactions, we analyzed perennial plant co-occurrence at 106 dryland plant communities established across rainfall gradients in nine countries. We used structural equation modeling to disentangle the relationships between environmental conditions (aridity and soil fertility), functional traits extracted from the literature, and ER, and to assess their relative importance as drivers of the 929 pairwise plant-plant co-occurrence levels measured. Functional traits, specifically facilitated plants’ height and nurse growth form, were of primary importance, and modulated the effect of the environment and ER on plant-plant interactions. Environmental conditions and ER were important mainly for those interactions involving woody and graminoid nurses, respectively. The relative importance of different plant-plant interaction drivers (ER, functional traits, and the environment) varied depending on the region considered, illustrating the difficulty of predicting the outcome of plant-plant interactions at broader spatial scales. In our global-scale study on drylands, plant-plant interactions were more strongly related to functional traits of the species involved than to the environmental variables considered. Thus, moving to a trait-based facilitation/competition approach help to predict that: 1) positive plant-plant interactions are more likely to occur for taller facilitated species in drylands, and 2) plant-plant interactions within woody-dominated ecosystems might be more sensitive to changing environmental conditions than those within grasslands. By providing insights on which species are likely to better perform beneath a given neighbour, our results will also help to succeed in restoration practices involving the use of nurse plants. PMID:25914604

  19. Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA): Results From Four Target Regions in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, R. J.; Dennis, A.; Millar, C. I.; Westfall, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a worldwide network of long- term research sites established to assess the impacts of climate change in sensitive native alpine communities. Many alpine species face habitat fragmentation and loss, and even extinction because they are adapted to cold temperatures and very limited in their geographic distribution. This study summarizes the data collected from four sites comprised of three to four summits each in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountain ranges of California. The 14 summits cover elevational gradients ranging from 3170m to 4285m. On each summit, habitat characteristics, species composition, species cover, and frequency counts are recorded in sixteen 1m x 1m quadrats. Additional surveys on the percentage cover of surface types and of each species in eight larger plots extending to 10m below the summit focus on detecting changes in species richness and species migrations. Sites were analyzed both independently and as a group to explore similarities and differences in species composition, plant functional groups, phenology, and response to climate. A total of 124 species were identified across all sites. The summits within each site exhibited rich, heterogeneous plant communities, but ones in which most species were infrequent. Northern slopes generally had the highest vegetation cover and eastern slopes, the lowest. Elevation, aspect, and substrate all strongly influenced community composition. The average minimum winter soil temperature varied by more than 10C between the lowest and highest sites in the gradient. Resampling over time will allow us to discern trends in species diversity and temperature, and assess and predict losses in biodiversity and other threats to these fragile alpine ecosystems. Results from this work will contribute to a predictive understanding of shifts in the distribution of alpine species with climate warming in the western U.S.; expand existing long-term data sets on the effects of climate change in alpine environments; and provide standardized, quantitative data on the altitudinal differences in species richness, species compositions, vegetation cover, soil temperature, and snow cover period.

  20. THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES VIEWED BY XMM-NEWTON's OPTICAL MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Tincher, J.; Winter, L. M. E-mail: rachel.dudik@usno.navy.mil

    2013-10-20

    We have used XMM-Newton's Optical Monitor (OM) images to study the local environment of a sample of 27 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in nearby galaxies. UVW1 fluxes were extracted from 100 pc regions centered on the ULX positions. We find that at least 4 ULXs (out of 10 published) have spectral types that are consistent with previous literature values. In addition, the colors are similar to those of young stars. For the highest-luminosity ULXs, the UVW1 fluxes may have an important contribution from the accretion disk. We find that the majority of ULXs are associated with recent star formation. Many of the ULXs in our sample are located inside young OB associations or star-forming regions (SFRs). Based on their colors, we estimated ages and masses for SFRs located within 1 kpc from the ULXs in our sample. The resolution of the OM was insufficient to detect young dense superclusters, but some of these SFRs are massive enough to contain such clusters. Only three ULXs have no associated SFRs younger than ?50 Myr. The age and mass estimates for clusters were used to test runaway scenarios. The data are, in general, compatible with stellar-mass binaries accreting at super-Eddington rates and ejected by natal kicks. We also tested the hypothesis that ULXs are sub-Eddington accreting intermediate mass black holes ejected by three-body interactions; however, this is not supported well by the data.

  1. Wave Glider Monitoring of Sediment Transport and Dredge Plumes in a Shallow Marine Sandbank Environment

    PubMed Central

    Van Lancker, Vera; Baeye, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    As human pressure on the marine environment increases, safeguarding healthy and productive seas increasingly necessitates integrated, time- and cost-effective environmental monitoring. Employment of a Wave Glider proved very useful for the study of sediment transport in a shallow sandbank area in the Belgian part of the North Sea. During 22 days, data on surface and water-column currents and turbidity were recorded along 39 loops around an aggregate-extraction site. Correlation with wave and tidal-amplitude data allowed the quantification of current- and wave-induced advection and resuspension, important background information to assess dredging impacts. Important anomalies in suspended particulate matter concentrations in the water column suggested dredging-induced overflow of sediments in the near field (i.e., dynamic plume), and settling of finer-grained material in the far field (i.e., passive plume). Capturing the latter is a successful outcome to this experiment, since the location of dispersion and settling of a passive plume is highly dependent on the ruling hydro-meteorological conditions and thus difficult to predict. Deposition of the observed sediment plumes may cause habitat changes in the long-term. PMID:26070156

  2. Timepix-based radiation environment monitor measurements aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffle, Nicholas; Pinsky, Lawrence; Kroupa, Martin; Hoang, Son; Idarraga, John; Amberboy, Clif; Rios, Ryan; Hauss, Jessica; Keller, John; Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Turecek, Daniel; Jakubek, Jan; Vykydal, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav

    2015-05-01

    A number of small, single element radiation detectors, employing the CERN-based Medipix2 Collaboration's Timepix Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) coupled to a specially modified version of the USB-Lite interface for that ASIC provided by the Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics (IEAP) at the Czech Technical University in Prague, have been developed at the University of Houston and NASA Johnson Space Center. These detectors, officially designated by NASA as Radiation Environment Monitors (REMs), were deployed aboard the International Space Station in late 2012. Six REM units are currently operating on Station Support Computers (SSCs) and returning data on a daily basis. The associated data acquisition software on the SSCs provides both automated data collection and transfer, as well as algorithms to handle adjustment of acquisition rates and recovery and restart of the acquisition software. A suite of ground software analysis tools has been developed to allow rapid analysis of the data and provides a ROOT-based framework for extending data analysis capabilities.

  3. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, L.; Beutel, J.; Gruber, S.; Hunziker, J.; Lim, R.; Weber, S.

    2012-11-01

    We present a custom acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node) integrated into a wireless sensor network (WSN) customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  4. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock-walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, L.; Beutel, J.; Gruber, S.; Hunziker, J.; Lim, R.; Weber, S.

    2012-06-01

    We present a custom acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock-walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node) integrated into a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock-wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock-wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock-wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock-fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  5. A Multimodel Global Drought Information System (GDIS) for Near Real-Time Monitoring of Surface Water Conditions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijssen, B.

    2013-12-01

    While the absolute magnitude of economic losses associated with weather and climate disasters such as droughts is greatest in the developed world, the relative impact is much larger in the developing world, where agriculture typically constitutes a much larger percentage of the labor force and food insecurity is a major concern. Nonetheless, our ability to monitor and predict the development and occurrence of droughts at a global scale in near real-time is limited and long-term records of soil moisture are essentially non-existent globally The problem is particularly critical given that many of the most damaging droughts occur in parts of the world that are most deficient in terms of in situ precipitation observations. In recent years, a number of near real-time drought monitoring systems have been developed with regional or global extent. While direct observations of key variables such as moisture storage are missing, the evolution of land surface models that are globally applicable provides a means of reconstructing them. The implementation of a multi-model drought monitoring system is described, which provides near real-time estimates of surface moisture storage for the global land areas between 50S and 50N with a time lag of about one day. Near real-time forcings are derived from satellite-based precipitation estimates and modeled air temperatures. The system is distinguished from other operational systems in that it uses multiple land surface models to simulate surface moisture storage, which are then combined to derive a multi-model estimate of drought. Previous work has shown that while land surface models agree in broad context, particularly in terms of soil moisture percentiles, important differences remain, which motivates a multi-model ensemble approach. The system is an extension of similar systems developed by at the University of Washington for the Pacific Northwest and for the United States, but global application of the protocols used in the U.S. systems poses new challenges, particularly with respect to the generation of meteorological forcings that drive the land surface models. Agricultural and hydrological droughts are inherently defined in the context of a long-term climatology. Changes in observing platforms can be misinterpreted as droughts (or as excessively wet periods). This problem cannot simply be addressed through the addition of more observations or through the development of new observing platforms. Instead, it will require careful (re)construction of long-term records that are updated in near real-time in a consistent manner so that changes in surface meteorological forcings reflect actual conditions rather than changes in methods or sources.

  6. Dust storm monitoring: effects on the environment, human health, and potential security conflicts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davara, Fernando; de la Cruz, Antonio

    2004-10-01

    Monitoring dust storms with recently available medium and moderate resolution satellites (Meris, Modis and SeaWiFS) is providing new global information regarding the sources, transportation tracks and affected areas. Saharan dust plumes reach the SE region of the United States and the Caribbean region in summer and the Amazon basin in winter. Generally these Saharan plumes branch off in dust tracks along the North Atlantic reaching Western Europe as far north as the Scandinavian countries. Furthermore, dust storms originating in the Eastern Sahara and Northern African deserts form dust plumes propagated by the Sirocco winds that, after crossing the Mediterranean Sea, affect Southern and Central Europe particularly during spring and summer. Dust storms originating in the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts blow in an easterly direction propagating dust plumes affecting Korea, Japan and reach the United States after crossing the Pacific Ocean. The large amount of cyclic deposition generated by dust storms produces an environmental impact that causes the decay of coral reefs in the Caribbean, the origin and distribution of red tides and the disappearance of sea grasses. The relationship of dust plumes with the increasing number of asthma and allergy cases in the Caribbean correlates well with the appearance of similar cases in Europe and elsewhere during the mid 1980s. The recurrence presence of insecticides in regions where these products were banned long ago, or where they were never used, may be partly due to Saharan dust plumes. The loss of agricultural soil, literally blown away by dust storms in the source areas, creates hardship, hunger and forced-migration. Dust storms should be considered as an important security issue.

  7. Space Weather Monitors -- A Global Education and Small Instruments Program for the IHY 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, D. K.; Mitchell, R.; Cohen, M.; Clark, W.; Styner, R.; Roche, A.; Scherrer, P.; Inan, U.; Lee, S.; Winegarden, S.; Tan, J.; Khanal, S.

    2005-12-01

    Earth's ionosphere reacts strongly to the intense x-ray and ultraviolet radiation released by the Sun during solar events and by lightning during thunderstorms. Students around the world can directly monitor and track these sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs) by using a receiver to monitor the signal strength from distant VLF transmitters, and noting unusual changes as the waves bounce off the ionosphere. Stanford's Solar Center, in conjunction with the Space, Telecommunications and Radioscience Laboratory and local educators, have developed inexpensive ionospheric disturbance monitors that students can install and use at their local schools. Students "buy in" to the project by building their own antenna, a simple structure costing little and taking a couple hours to assemble. Data collection and analysis is handled by a local PC. Stanford is providing a centralized data repository where students can exchange and discuss data. Two versions of the monitors exist -- a low-cost version (nicknamed "SID") designed to detect solar flares, and a more sensitive version ("AWESOME") that provides both solar and nighttime research-quality data. Both monitors are currently being placed in high schools and community colleges around the US. Students will have the opportunity to work with a researcher "mentor" to collect and interpret data. Our space weather monitors have been chosen as educational and small intruments projects for deployment to 191 countries around the world for the International Heliophysical Year, 2007. Our presentation will focus on the educational aspects of the Space Weather Monitor program.

  8. Monitoring of the Environment at the Transplant Unit—Hemato-Oncology Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Matoušková, Ivanka; Holy, Ond?ej

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Aim of this study was to monitor the environment at the Transplant Unit—Hemato-Oncology Clinic, University Hospital Olomouc (Olomouc, Czech Republic) and identify risks for the patients. Methods and Results: Microorganisms were cultivated under standard aerobic conditions. Strains were biochemically identified using the BD Phoenix™ PID Panel (USA). Legionella pneumophila was identified by DNA sequencing. From the air, the most frequently isolated strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (94.3%), Micrococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. No Gram-negative strains were isolated from the air. From the surfaces, the most frequently isolated Gram-positive strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (67.4%), Bacillus spp., enterococci (5.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (2.3%) and Micrococcus spp. (1.7%). From the surfaces, the most frequently isolated Gram-negative strains were from genera Pseudomonas (28%), Enterobacter (28%), E. coli (6%), and Klebsiella spp. (5%). From the personnel, the most frequently isolated Gram-positive strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.6%), Bacillus spp. (24.1%) and Staphylococcus aureus (9.8%). From the personnel, the most frequently isolated Gram-negative strains were Enterobacter spp. (61%), Klebsiella oxytoca (18%), and E. coli (11%). Microscopic filamentous fungi were isolated in 13 cases (2.71%). Isolated strains were Aspergillus spp. (4), Trichoderma spp. (2), Penicillium spp. (2), one case of the strains Paecilomyces spp., Eurotium spp., Monilia spp. Conclusions: The study found no significant deviations in the microbial contamination of the cleanroom air. The personnel entrance of the Transplant Unit represent a high risk area, an extreme value (7270 CFU/m3) was recorded. Regime measures are fully effective, no other deficiencies were found. Significance and Impact of the Study: This epidemiological study, which was held for the duration of one year at the Transplant Unit—Hemato-Oncology Clinic, University Hospital Olomouc. The study monitored microbial contamination of the cleanroom air, surfaces, water, colonization of the personnel by bacterial strains of epidemiological consequence. PMID:25222472

  9. The use of embedded sensors for the monitoring of adhesive joints in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Scott T.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2005-05-01

    A copolymer incorporating polyaniline was used as a sensing medium in the construction of a resistance based humidity sensor. Aniline monomer was polymerised in the presence of poly (butyl acrylate / vinyl acetate) and a copolymer containing polyaniline emeraldine salt was obtained. The sensing medium was then developed by redissolving 1-2 w/w% of the resulting polymer residue in dichloromethane to produce a processable polymer blend solution. Some of this polymer residue was also de-doped in a solution of ammonia, and then washed with distilled water until the waste water had a neutral pH. This residue was then redissolved at 1-2 w/w% in dichloromethane to produce a second processable polymer blend this time containing polyaniline emeraldine base. The final sensor design utilised 125?m polyester insulated platinum wire as conducting electrodes that were dip coated in the emeraldine salt copolymer solution and allowed to dry in a desiccator. The sensor was then dip-coated in a protective barrier layer of the emeraldine base copolymer to prevent over-oxidation and/or de-protonation of the emeraldine salt sensing medium under this coating. The sensors had an overall final thickness of less than 150?m and showed high sensitivity to humidity, low resistance, and good reversibility without hysteresis. Sensors were monitored for 2-probe resistance changes when in contact with water. Calibration curves for each sensor were produced to convert the resistance reading to mass uptake of water. Individual sensors were embedded within Aluminium 5083 / Araldite 2015 adhesive joints to monitor mass uptake of water when exposed to marine environments. Correlations between mass uptake of water and joint strength were made. There are various advantages of such a sensor design. Polymer based thin film humidity sensors have the advantage that the high processability of the material allows for simple fabrication of a range of geometries including smaller sensor designs. The ease of processing gives a low cost sensor, whilst the small size and good mechanical properties gives a robust sensor which has the flexibility to be able to be used in applications where dynamic stresses and strains are encountered. Such sensors may find uses in a number of areas including electronic textiles, food/ electronics packaging and corrosion detection.

  10. Application of low-background gamma-ray spectrometry to monitor radioactivity in the environment and food.

    PubMed

    Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Beach, S E; Haines, D K; Bradt, C J; Bari, A; Syed, U-F; Torres, M; Marrantino, J; Kitto, M E; Menia, T; Fielman, E

    2014-08-01

    The results are described of an upgrade of the low-background gamma-ray spectrometry laboratory at New York State Department of Health by acquiring sensitivity to low-energy gamma rays. Tuning of the spectrometer and its low-energy response characteristics are described. The spectrometer has been applied to monitor the environment by measuring aerosols and water in New York State contaminated by the 2011 Fukushima accident plume. In addition, the spectrometer has been used to monitor radioactivity in food by performing a study of cesium in Florida milk. PMID:24836905

  11. Smart telemedicine support for continuous glucose monitoring: the embryo of a future global agent for diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Rigla, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Although current systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are the result of progressive technological improvement, and although a beneficial effect on glucose control has been demonstrated, few patients are using them. Something similar has happened to telemedicine (TM); in spite of the long-term experience, which began in the early 1980s, no TM system has been widely adopted, and presential visits are still almost the only way diabetologists and patients communicate. The hypothesis developed in this article is that neither CGM nor TM will ever be routinely implemented separately, and their consideration as essential elements for standard diabetes care will one day come from their integration as parts of a telemedical monitoring platform. This platform, which should include artificial intelligence for giving decision support to patients and physicians, will represent the core of a more complex global agent for diabetes care, which will provide control algorithms and risk analysis among other essential functions. PMID:21303626

  12. THE GLOBAL EARTH OBSERVATION SYSTEM OF SYTEMS (GEOSS): PROACTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Golbal secruity can be improved through strong international coopeation and using existing national monitoring systems that will provide more complete accurate and accessible data and information to users and decision-makers. Environmenatal damage is typically collateral to even...

  13. Satellite monitoring of the global ocean surface during 1987-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David

    1992-01-01

    Long-term simultaneous global coverage of AVHRR sea surface temperature, SSMI surface wind speed, GEOSAT sea surface height, and ARGOS buoy drift began in 1987. Methodology to create annual atlases of monthly mean distributions is described.

  14. Implementing a New Learning Strategy: Organizational Change for a Global Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goho, James; Webb, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Globalization, new technology, and the knowledge economy are transforming the role of community colleges in learning. In an increasingly competitive and global education market community colleges in Canada and the USA are responding by changing their missions, culture, curricula, program delivery models, and organizational structures. This…

  15. U.S. Interests and the Global Environment. Occasional Paper 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Lynton K.

    This essay presents an argument for policies responsive to global environmental needs by examining the causes and consequences of six critical environmental issues, and then offering specific U.S. policy recommendations. Following an explanation of the global nature of environmental problems, a summary of the salient facts regarding the following…

  16. Why Some Distance Education Programs Fail while Others Succeed in a Global Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Downey, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Many universities increase their recruiting efforts to reach a larger and more diverse audience. Some universities also extend their reach with cross-border initiatives and seek international students in order to promote enrollment growth and global learning. The economic potential of distance education and academic globalization has attracted…

  17. Monitoring the Impact of Anthropogenic and Natural Influences on the Environment of Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D.; Graves, S.; Sever, T.; Irwin, D.

    2005-12-01

    Mesoamerica - composed of the seven Central American countries and the five southernmost states of Mexico - is one of the richest biological regions in the world. The region is home to approximately eight percent of the planet's biodiversity. There are 14 biosphere reserves, eight world heritage sites and 589 protected areas. The human population, of over 45 million people consists of more than 50 ethnic groups. This rich biological and cultural diversity is threatened by human influence and natural disasters. Illegal logging and slash and burn agriculture are major contributors to extensive deforestation. Earthquakes, volcanoes, drought, and severe storms threaten the region. Of particular note is the massive destruction and loss of life resulting from hurricane Mitch in 1998. An international effort is underway to preserve the remaining forested regions, with its biodiversity, and to promote sustained development throughout the region. In 2002 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) joined with the World Bank and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to work with the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), to develop an advanced decision support system for Mesoamerica known as SERVIR. (SERVIR is a Spanish acronym meaning to serve.) The partners are contributing expertise in space-based observation with information management technologies and intimate knowledge of local ecosystems to create a system for use by scientists, educators, and policy makers to monitor and forecast ecological changes, respond to natural disasters, and better understand both natural and human induced effects. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) are concentrating on the preparation of data products and Information Technology applications that will integrate information from the entire region into a coherent information system that is easy to access and utilize. Already, numerous products derived from data from NASA's Earth-Sun Connection missions (formerly known as the Earth Science Enterprise) have been developed. Data from the MODIS instrument is being used to create imagery products that can be used to monitor the extent of fires, and the location of harmful algae blooms. Data from the NOAA GOES satellites are made available at 15 minute intervals for weather forecasting. Other data products are planned that will address issues such as local flooding and hot spots. Many other institutions, both in the United States and in Central America, are generating data products for the region. In an effort to make all of the information readily available, UAH is developing web services and related GIS applications. These technologies are designed to present the information in both two and three dimensions, giving the decision makers clear representations of the physical environment. By providing data products that accurately capture specific geophysical phenomena and, an information delivery system that combines inputs from each country, we are making inroads toward preserving the wealth to society that Mesoamerica provides.

  18. Cytokinesis block micronucleus assay in field plants for monitoring radiation-induced genotoxicity of the environment.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Fuma, Shoichi; Kouichi, Maruyama; Ichikawa, San'ei; Kubota, Masahide; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Effective biomonitoring for detection of radiation-induced genotoxicity of contaminants in natural environments involves testing of field plants for cytogenetic changes. To increase the efficiency and precision of cytogenetic analyses of field plants that have naturally high individual variability, an improved micronucleus assay is proposed that employs a cytokinesis block technique similar to the lymphocyte test system used in mammals. In seed embryonic meristems of the Japanese cedar, application of a methylxanthine derivative, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), was found to be effective in inhibiting cytokinesis to make once-divided cells easily recognizable by their binucleate appearance. In the meristem of IBMX-treated seminal roots from X-ray-irradiated seeds, variation in micronucleus frequency in the binucleate cell population was reduced compared to that in the total cell population. The highest efficiency of measurement of micronucleus frequencies was obtained in the root meristems where 0.2- to 1.5-mm-long seminal roots were incubated with IBMX for 24 h. This result indicated that this root elongation stage corresponded to the first divisions of the root meristematic cells, and was therefore suitable for obtaining reliable estimations of accumulated genetic damage in the seeds. This cytokinesis block assay applied specifically at the root elongation stage was then used to examine dose-response relationships in Japanese cedar seeds irradiated either acutely with X-rays or chronically with ?-rays. The resulting dose-response curve for the acute X-ray irradiation was fitted onto a linear-quadratic regression curve, whereas the dose-response curve for the chronic ?-irradiation matched a linear regression line better. Both dose-response curves were consistent with the target theory of classical radiation biology. The good agreement of the micronucleus data to a simple dose-response model indicates the proposed accuracy of the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay for plant monitoring. PMID:25440909

  19. Meteorological Circulations at Gale Environment Through Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Observations and Mesoscale Modeling (MRAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-García, J.; Rafkin, S.

    2015-10-01

    Gale Crater, in which the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed in August 2012, is the most topographically complex area visited to date on Mars. The meteorology within the crater may also be one of the most dynamically complex meteorological environments, because topography is thought to strongly drive the near-surface atmospheric circulations. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) [5] has provided some clues on the nature of the local meteorology strongly influenced by the complex topography, as predicted by numerous previous studies. The types of perturbations of pressure, air and ground temperature and wind measured by REMS have never been observed at other locations and these data provide a great opportunity to test the models at the most meteorological interesting area measured to date. In an effort to better understand the atmospheric circulations of the Gale Crater, the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS)[6]was applied to the landing site region using nested grids with a spacing of 330 meters on the innermost grid that is centered over the landing site. We provide a comparison of MRAMS predictions for pressure, air temperature, winds and ground temperature,to the REMS data available at the location of the Rover for sols 51-55 (Ls=180), sols 195-199 (Ls=270), sols 348-352 (Ls=0) and sols 541-545 (Ls=90), in order to provide a baseline of model performance.Pressure and ground temperature provide the most robust parameters with which to test the model predictions(Figures 2 and 3).

  20. Arctic Observing Experiment - An Assessment of Instruments Used to Monitor the Polar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigor, I. G.; Johnson, J.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Woods, J. E.; Valentic, T. A.; Henderson, G. R.; Marshall, C.; Gallage, C.; Zook, J.; Davis, Z.

    2014-12-01

    To understand and predict weather and climate require an accurate observing network that measures the fundamental meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, and wind. Measuring these parameters autonomously in the polar regions is especially challenging. To assess the accuracy of polar measurement networks, we established the Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) test site in March 2013 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation and Meteorology (ARM) site in Barrow, Alaska. We deployed a myriad of data loggers and autonomous buoys, which represent most of the instruments that are commonly deployed by the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) to measure temperature, air pressure and wind. Estimates of temperature over this area have also been analyzed from satellites (e.g., using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ice-surface temperature (IST)) product, and can complement data from in-situ sensors and provide consistent measurements under clear-sky conditions. Preliminary results reveal that some of the buoys are susceptible to solar heating, icing can block barometers for short periods, and frosting may insulate air temperature sensors and freeze-lock anemometers. Some of these issues may be addressed by simply painting the buoys white to reduce solar heating of the buoys, and using better temperature shields and barometer ports. Nevertheless, frosting of ultrasonic and mechanical anemometers remains a significant challenge. These results will be useful to initiate a protocol to obtain accurate and consistent measurements from the IABP, the Arctic Observing Network (AON), the International Program for Antarctic Buoys, and the Southern Ocean Observing System to monitor polar environments.

  1. The participatory design of a performance oriented monitoring and evaluation system in an international development environment.

    PubMed

    Guerra-López, Ingrid; Hicks, Karen

    2015-02-01

    This article illustrates the application of the impact monitoring and evaluation process for the design and development of a performance monitoring and evaluation framework in the context of human and institutional capacity development. This participative process facilitated stakeholder ownership in several areas including the design, development, and use of a new monitoring and evaluation system, as well their targeted results and accomplishments through the use of timely performance data gathered through ongoing monitoring and evaluation. The process produced a performance indicator map, a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation framework, and data collection templates to promote the development, implementation, and sustainability of the monitoring and evaluation system of a farmer's trade union in an African country. PMID:25279997

  2. Real Time On-line Space Research Laboratory Environment Monitoring with Off-line Trend and Prediction Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2006-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services is to support NASA sponsored investigators in the area of reduced-gravity acceleration data analysis, interpretation and the monitoring of the reduced-gravity environment on-board various carriers. With the International Space Station currently operational, a significant amount of acceleration data is being down-linked and processed on ground for both the space station onboard environment characterization (and verification) and scientific experiments. Therefore, to help principal investigator teams monitor the acceleration level on-board the International Space Station to avoid undesirable impact on their experiment, when possible, the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services developed an artificial intelligence monitoring system, which detects in near real time any change in the environment susceptible to affect onboard experiments. The main objective of the monitoring system is to help research teams identify the vibratory disturbances that are active at any instant of time onboard the International Space Station that might impact the environment in which their experiment is being conducted. The monitoring system allows any space research scientist, at any location and at any time, to see the current acceleration level on-board the Space Station via the World Wide Web. From the NASA Glenn s Exploration Systems Division web site, research scientists can see in near real time the active disturbances, such as pumps, fans, compressor, crew exercise, re-boost, extra-vehicular activity, etc., and decide whether or not to continue operating or stopping (or making note of such activity for later correlation with science results) their experiments based on the g-level associated with that specific event. A dynamic graphical display accessible via the World Wide Web shows the status of all the vibratory disturbance activities with their degree of confidence as well as their g-level contribution to the environment. The system can detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance activities. It can also perform trend analysis and prediction by analyzing past data over many Increments of the space station for selected disturbance activities. This feature can be used to monitor the health of onboard mechanical systems to detect and prevent potential system failure as well as for use by research scientists during their science results analysis. Examples of both real time on-line vibratory disturbance detection and off-line trend analysis are presented in this paper. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen s Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  3. Quantification of differences between occupancy and total monitoring periods for better assessment of exposure to particles in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicka, A.; Bohgard, M.; Pagels, J. H.; Dahl, A.; Löndahl, J.; Hussein, T.; Swietlicki, E.; Gudmundsson, A.

    2015-04-01

    For the assessment of personal exposure, information about the concentration of pollutants when people are in given indoor environments (occupancy time) are of prime importance. However this kind of data frequently is not reported. The aim of this study was to assess differences in particle characteristics between occupancy time and the total monitoring period, with the latter being the most frequently used averaging time in the published data. Seven indoor environments were selected in Sweden and Finland: an apartment, two houses, two schools, a supermarket, and a restaurant. They were assessed for particle number and mass concentrations and number size distributions. The measurements using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and two photometers were conducted for seven consecutive days during winter in each location. Particle concentrations in residences and schools were, as expected, the highest during occupancy time. In the apartment average and median PM2.5 mass concentrations during the occupancy time were 29% and 17% higher, respectively compared to total monitoring period. In both schools, the average and medium values of the PM2.5 mass concentrations were on average higher during teaching hours compared to the total monitoring period by 16% and 32%, respectively. When it comes to particle number concentrations (PNC), in the apartment during occupancy, the average and median values were 33% and 58% higher, respectively than during the total monitoring period. In both houses and schools the average and median PNC were similar for the occupancy and total monitoring periods. General conclusions on the basis of measurements in the limited number of indoor environments cannot be drawn. However the results confirm a strong dependence on type and frequency of indoor activities that generate particles and site specificity. The results also indicate that the exclusion of data series during non-occupancy periods can improve the estimates of particle concentrations and characteristics suitable for exposure assessment, which is crucial for estimating health effects in epidemiological and toxicological studies.

  4. Cycles of selected elements in the frame of Globalization and Global Change in the environment of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidak, Markus O.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Schöler, Heinfried; Trieloff, Mario; Kober, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    The Laurel Forest is an important and sensitive ecosystem with particular element cycling mechanisms. On Tenerife the distribution is straitened to some parts in the north, north-west and northeast. The NE trade wind ensures a permanently humid climate in the north. Major urban and industrial development is centred on Tenerife, and as a touristy hotspot the Island is exposed to heavy air traffic. Furthermore, the short distance to the African coastline and, therefore, to the Sahara, contribute a regular influence of African Dust emissions. In summary, Laurel Forest is exposed to different climatic conditions, variations in lithology and soils, and aerosols caused by local anthropogenic emissions, Saharan dust, and sea spray. The present study aims to understand geogenic and anthropogenic element transports of K, P, N, and organic components between soils and Laurel Forest. In addition, the element contribution from the aerosols such as the Sahara dust has to be quantified to understand the rock - soil - vegetation coupling system. The Sahara dust as one of the important aerosols has been studied by various researchers (Bustos et al., 1998; Rodr?guez, 1999; Torres et al., 2001; Viana et al., 2002). Viana et al.,(2002) quantified the impacts of African dust outbreaks for Tenerife and Gran Canaria, after the interpretation of the PM10 (thoracis particulate matter) from nineteen air quality monitoring stations. Three types of African dust contributions were identified and characterized (winter, summer and autumn-winter dust outbreaks). Collected samples with and without African dust influence proved that: (a) for the intensive winter African dust outbreaks (daily PM10 levels up to 191 mg/m3) at least 76% of the bulk PM10 levels may be attributable to dust load, whereas the anthropogenic input accounts for only 3-14% and (b) SiO2, Al2O3, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, V, Mn and Ba concentrations are excellent tracers of African origin (Viana et al., 2002).

  5. Remote sensing of gene expression in Planta: transgenic plants as monitors of exogenous stress perception in extraterrestrial environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manak, Michael S.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Sehnke, Paul C.; Ferl, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic arabidopsis plants containing the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were developed as biological sensors for monitoring physiological responses to unique environments. Plants were monitored in vivo during exposure to hypoxia, high salt, cold, and abcissic acid in experiments designed to characterize the utility and responses of the Adh/GFP biosensors. Plants in the presence of environmental stimuli that induced the Adh promoter responded by expressing GFP, which in turn generated a detectable fluorescent signal. The GFP signal degraded when the inducing stimulus was removed. Digital imaging of the Adh/GFP plants exposed to each of the exogenous stresses demonstrated that the stress-induced gene expression could be followed in real time. The experimental results established the feasibility of using a digital monitoring system for collecting gene expression data in real time from Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) biosensor plants during space exploration experiments.

  6. The interaction of a dipolar thunderstorm with its global electrical environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzur, I.; Roble, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    The role of the thundercloud in the global electric circuit has been considered by many researchers. Thus, Holzer and Saxon (1952) have constructed a simple model of a bipolar thunderstorm. The global models considered provide insight into the atmospheric electric circuit but are restricted, both by various analytical mathematical representations and by computer size, to a grid of about five degrees in latitude and longitude. A need exists, therefore, for the development of a numerical regional model capable of resolving small-scale phenomena so that their coupling into the global-scale circuit can be examined. The construction of a two-dimensional quasi-static numerical model of atmospheric electricity is discussed. The model provides a basis for the calculation of the global electric field and current distribution produced by a single thunderstorm generator. In connection with the calculations, the thunderstorm was defined by a quasi-static current source function which generates a dipole charge configuration.

  7. Global warming, energy efficiency and the role of the built environment

    E-print Network

    DiBona, Donna K

    2008-01-01

    This thesis attempts to explore the relationships between the Buildings Sector, energy efficiency and global warming. Through a qualitative analysis the author illustrates the connection between these three areas and shows ...

  8. http://www.yfes.tn.edu.tw/environment/main1.htm Global warming

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yang-Yuan

    ; : #12; Global warming Stratospheric ozone depletion Acid deposition Deforestation Desertification Ocean.6~0.7°C 2001 (IPCC) 2100 19901.4~5.8°C9~88 The amount of energy humans use annually: 4.6 x 1020

  9. UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING THE RISKS TO HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT FROM GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC CHANGE: A SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global atmosphere is changing. Anthropogenic activities are increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases and releasing synthetic compounds that deplete stratospheric ozone and increase UV-B radiation. Changes of temperature in the Northern Hemisphere during the past cent...

  10. The Challenges of Developing a Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Eric F.

    2014-05-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ("From Observations to Decisions") recognizes that "water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity", and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the developments at Princeton University towards a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions, flood potential and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of water variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed. Future changes in water availability and drought risk are quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land surface models. For regions with lack of on-the-ground data we are field-testing low-cost environmental sensors and along with new satellite products for terrestrial hydrology and vegetation, integrating these into the system for improved monitoring and prediction. At every step there are scientific challenges whose solutions are only partially being solved. In addition there are challenges in delivering such systems as "climate services", especially to societies with low technical capacity such as rural agriculturalists in sub-Saharan Africa, but whose needs for such information are great. We provide an overview of the system and some examples of real-world applications to flood and drought events, with a focus on Africa.

  11. CARTOGRAPHIC AND GEOMETRIC COMPONENTS OF A GLOBAL SAMPLING DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive environmental monitoring program based on a sound statistical design is necessary to provide estimates of the status of, and trends in, the condition of ecological resources. ampling design based upon a systematic grid can adequately assess the condition of many t...

  12. Noninvasive in vivo monitoring of tissue-specific global gene expression in humans

    E-print Network

    Quake, Stephen R.

    by the development of noninvasive prenatal tests for fetal aneuploidy (2), noninvasive sequencing of fetal genomes (3 and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305; and c Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine contributions of these tissues to circulating RNA and to monitor changes in tissue development and health

  13. Monitoring and assessing global impacts of roads and off-road vehicle traffic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid increases in the number of vehicles, urban sprawl, exurban development and infrastructure development for energy and water have led to dramatic increases in both the size and extent of the global road network. Anecdotal evidence suggests that off-road vehicle traffic has also increased in many...

  14. Using global information technology to detect, monitor, and control mosquito pest and disease vector populations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS), image analysis, and remote sensing comprise global information technologies that are used to characterize pest and vector populations of mosquitoes. At this national meeting, scientists from ARS and McNeese State University organized and convened a half-day sym...

  15. Environment, Complexity and Professional Training in Agriculture. "Turning Local Learning into Global Knowledge."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevost, P.

    1994-01-01

    Training farmers to care for the environment must address the complex relationship between farming and the environment. The example of maize weeding in France demonstrates the process of decision making on a farm and the need for teaching about complexity and adopting a pragmatic approach to training. (SK)

  16. Advancements of Global Navigation Satellite System radio occultation retrieval in the upper stratosphere for optimal climate monitoring utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobiet, A.; Kirchengast, G.

    2004-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System-based radio occultation (RO) measurements promise to become a valuable observational basis for climate research, numerical weather prediction, and atmospheric process studies, thanks to their unique combination of global coverage, high accuracy and vertical resolution, and long-term stability. Concerning the quality of the RO-derived atmospheric profiles, performance simulation studies and first data analysis results from the current CHAMP satellite mission are encouraging but also reveal weaknesses of present RO retrieval chains at high altitudes (above 30 km). This study aims at providing, first, understanding of these weaknesses and, second, mitigation by an advanced retrieval scheme. We first evaluated present state-of-the-art high-altitude RO retrieval algorithms. We found clear superiority for using statistical optimization involving background information over using exponential extrapolation and a sensitivity of RO retrieval products to biases in background information calling for sensible bias mitigation. Exploiting these findings, an advanced high-altitude retrieval scheme is presented, which focuses on minimizing residual retrieval biases in the upper stratosphere and thereby on optimizing the climate monitoring utility of retrieved profiles. Applied to a large ensemble of simulated occultation events, the advanced scheme proved to be effective. The scheme is currently under evaluation with real data from the CHAMP mission. It will then serve as part of a processing chain generating RO-based global climatologies of refractivity, geopotential height, temperature, and humidity based on RO data from CHAMP, SAC-C, GRACE and other future satellites carrying RO instruments.

  17. TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Karsenti, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Eric Karsenti of EMBL delivers the closing keynote on "TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  18. A Neural Network Model for K(?) Retrieval and Application to Global Kpar Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Zhu, Yuanli; Wu, Yongsheng; Cui, Tingwei; Ishizaka, Joji; Ju, Yongtao

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of diffuse attenuation coefficients in the visible wavelengths Kd(?) from remotely sensed data is particularly challenging in global oceanic and coastal waters. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate the applicability of a semi-analytical Kd(?) retrieval model (SAKM) and Jamet's neural network model (JNNM), and then develop a new neural network Kd(?) retrieval model (NNKM). Based on the comparison of Kd(?) predicted by these models with in situ measurements taken from the global oceanic and coastal waters, all of the NNKM, SAKM, and JNNM models work well in Kd(?) retrievals, but the NNKM model works more stable and accurate than both SAKM and JNNM models. The near-infrared band-based and shortwave infrared band-based combined model is used to remove the atmospheric effects on MODIS data. The Kd(?) data was determined from the atmospheric corrected MODIS data using the NNKM, JNNM, and SAKM models. The results show that the NNKM model produces <30% uncertainty in deriving Kd(?) from global oceanic and coastal waters, which is 4.88-17.18% more accurate than SAKM and JNNM models. Furthermore, we employ an empirical approach to calculate Kpar from the NNKM model-derived diffuse attenuation coefficient at visible bands (443, 488, 555, and 667 nm). The results show that our model presents a satisfactory performance in deriving Kpar from the global oceanic and coastal waters with 20.2% uncertainty. The Kpar are quantified from MODIS data atmospheric correction using our model. Comparing with field measurements, our model produces ~31.0% uncertainty in deriving Kpar from Bohai Sea. Finally, the applicability of our model for general oceanographic studies is briefly illuminated by applying it to climatological monthly mean remote sensing reflectance for time ranging from July, 2002- July 2014 at the global scale. The results indicate that the high Kd(?) and Kpar values are usually found around the coastal zones in the high latitude regions, while low Kd(?) and Kpar values are usually found in the open oceans around the low-latitude regions. These results could improve our knowledge about the light field under waters at either the global or basin scales, and be potentially used into general circulation models to estimate the heat flux between atmosphere and ocean. PMID:26083341

  19. Food and beverage environment analysis and monitoring system: a reliability study in the school food and beverage environment. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the US Department of Agriculture's reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies.

  20. Analysis of integrity monitoring for the local area augmentation system using the global navigation satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fan

    This dissertation addresses the signal-in-space integrity monitoring of the Local Area Augmentation System. The theoretical basis and the system architecture of the integrity monitoring are described. The performance of the baseline protection level algorithms defined in the "Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards for The Local Area Augmentation System" is verified by both theoretical analysis and computer simulation. It is shown that the underlying assumptions used in calculating the protection levels do not take into account the effect of the ground processing function. A modification to the baseline algorithms is presented. Procedures in verifying the algorithms along with other ground processing functions and/or with any number of reference receivers are demonstrated. Finally, improvements to the algorithms are discussed.

  1. AQUARIUS: A Passive/Active Microwave Sensor to Monitor Sea Surface Salinity Globally from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David; Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Colomb, F. Raul; Chao, Yi

    2004-01-01

    Salinity is important for understanding ocean dynamics, energy exchange with the atmosphere and the global water cycle. Existing data is limited and much of the ocean has never even been sampled. Sea surface salinity can be measured remotely by satellite and a three year mission for this purpose called AquariudSAC-D has recently been selected by NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The objective is to map the salinity field globally with a spatial resolution of 100 km and a monthly average accuracy of 0.2 psu. The mission, scheduled for launch in 2008, is a partnership of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Argentine Comision National de Actividades Epaciales (CONAE).

  2. 33 Years of Near-Global Daily Precipitation from Multisatellite Observations and its Application to Drought Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashouri, H.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.; Braithwaite, D.; Knapp, K. R.; Cecil, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    PERSIANN Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) is a new retrospective satellite-based precipitation data set that is constructed for long-term hydrological and climate studies. The PERSIANN-CDR is a near-global (60°S-60°N) long-term (1980-2012), multi-satellite, high-resolution precipitation product that provides rain rate estimates at 0.25° and daily spatiotemporal resolution. PERSIANN-CDR is aimed at addressing the need for a consistent, long-term, high resolution precipitation data set for studying the spatial and temporal variations and changes of precipitation patterns, particularly in a scale relevant to climate extremes at the global scale. PERSIANN-CDR is generated from the PERSIANN algorithm using GridSat-B1 infrared data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). PERSIANN-CDR is adjusted using the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation to maintain consistency of two data sets at 2.5° monthly scale throughout the entire reconstruction period. PERSIANN-CDR daily precipitation data demonstrates considerable consistency with both GPCP monthly and GPCP 1DD precipitation products. Verification studies over Hurricane Katrina show that PERSIANN-CDR has a good agreement with NCEP Stage IV radar data, noting that PERSIANN-CDR has better spatial coverage. In addition, the Probability Density Function (PDF) of PERSIANN-CDR over the contiguous United States was compared with the PDFs extracted from CPC gauge data and the TMPA precipitation product. The experiment also shows good agreement of the PDF of PERSIANN-CDR with the PDFs of TMPA and CPC gauge data. The application of PERSIANN-CDR in regional and global drought monitoring is investigated. Consisting of more than three decades of high-resolution precipitation data, PERSIANN-CDR makes us capable of long-term assessment of droughts at a higher resolution (0.25°) than previously possible. The results will be presented at the meeting.

  3. Global positioning system reobservations over the Eastern United States Strain Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Strange, W.E.

    1996-06-01

    In the period March--May, 1990, a 45 station geodetic network, originally established in November--December, 1987, was reobserved using global positioning system (GPS) technology. This network, known as the Eastern US Strain network, was established for the purpose of determining strain and deformation in the central and eastern US. This 1990 reobservation was the first of a series of reobservations scheduled to take place over a decade in order to place meaningful constraints on the small differential movements involved.

  4. Monitoring precipitable water vapor in real-time using global navigation satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Kouba, Jan; Schutz, Bob; Kim, Do Hyeong; Lee, Young Jae

    2013-11-01

    This paper addresses real-time monitoring of the precipitable water vapor (PWV) from GNSS measurements and presents some results obtained from 6-month long GNSS PWV experiments using international and domestic GNSS networks. In the real-time GNSS PWV monitoring system a server/client structure is employed to facilitate formation of PWV networks and single-differenced GNSS measurements are utilized to mitigate errors in GNSS satellites’ orbits and clocks. An issue relating to baseline length between the server and clients is discussed in detail and as a result the PWV monitor is configured to perform in two modes depending on the baseline length. The server estimates sequentially the zenith wet delay of the individual stations, which is then converted into the PWV of the stations. We evaluate system performance by comparing the real-time PWV solution with reference solutions including meteorological measurements obtained with radiosondes and deferred-time precision GNSS PWV solutions. Results showed that the standard deviation of difference between the real-time PWV and the reference solutions ranged from 2.1 to 3.4 mm in PWV for a 6-month long comparison, which was improved to 1.4 to 2.9 mm by reducing comparison period to 20 days in winter.

  5. A Dynamic Approach to Monitoring Particle Fallout in a Cleanroom Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Radford L., III

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses a mathematical model to monitor particle fallout in a cleanroom. "Cleanliness levels" do not lead to increases with regards to cleanroom type or time because the levels are not linear. Activity level, impacts the cleanroom class. The numerical method presented leads to a simple Class-hour formulation, that allows for dynamic monitoring of the particle using a standard air particle counter.

  6. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  7. It Is a Small World after All: Teaching Business Ethics in a Global Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budden, Connie B.; Budden, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, managers and employees are facing ethical issues when conducting business in the global marketplace. Business educators attempting to teach appropriate ethical behavior and develop skills for dealing with complex ethical situations need to incorporate realistic case scenarios to challenge students. Such cases should appropriately…

  8. Ability of the Geo-environment and Oceans to Support the Global Population

    E-print Network

    Coles, Cynthia

    economy, and control of population growth is recommended to ensure sustainable conditions. RÉSUMÉ L to curtail current population growth is the need, perhaps especially in more developed countries, to address ABSTRACT Current global population growth and resource use are contributing to climate change

  9. Once upon a Future Time: Thoughts on the Global Environment and LRE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary Louise

    1993-01-01

    Argues that law-related education should prepare students to be able to debate global environmental issues. Discusses overpopulation, water quality, and species extinction. Concludes that law-related education's critical contribution may be to prepare citizens to balance competing interests and make decisions that promote the common good. (CFR)

  10. Internationalization as a Response to Globalization: Radical Shifts in University Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2007-01-01

    This case study probes recent developments in a number of academic and non-academic aspects of a private research university in response to current globalization trends. Under the name of internationalization, university administrators and external firms are emerging as powerful decision-makers shaping academic content and even academic…

  11. 2. INTRODUCTION With the increasing public concern on the global environment,

    E-print Network

    Zha, Gecheng

    fuel consumption. The appearance of electric cars is the consequence of this global trend to push clean technology. Due to the low power density of the current battery technology, the electric cars also tend is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emission. Small and light cars become popular for their low

  12. Meeting global food needs: Realizing the potential via genetics x environment x management interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global food needs are projected to double by 2050 to feed the nine billion people and the challenge presented to agriculture is whether this is feasible. These goals will be faced with an increasing variability in climate and more extremes in temperature and precipitation in all parts of the world a...

  13. Using TIMSS and PIRLS to Construct Global Indicators of Effective Environments for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuschoff, Anna Corinna

    2011-01-01

    As an extension of the effort devoted to updating the questionnaires for TIMSS and PIRLS 2011, this dissertation explored a new reporting strategy for contextual questionnaire data. The study investigated the feasibility of constructing "global indicators" from a large number of diverse background variables, which could provide policy makers and…

  14. From Common Struggles to Common Dreams: Neoliberalism and Multicultural Education in a Globalized Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-Lun

    2012-01-01

    Major troubling contours of neoliberalism and high-stakes education have common features. Consequently, the author discusses how multicultural education can serve as praxis for collective empowerment in a globalized context. The author asserts that equitable representation and localized multicultural knowledge production are the foundation of a…

  15. A monitor for the laboratory evaluation of control integrity in digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for dynamically monitoring digital controllers in the laboratory for susceptibility to electromagnetic disturbances that compromise control integrity. The integrity of digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments can be compromised by upsets caused by induced transient electrical signals. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. The motivation for this work is the need to develop tools and techniques that can be used in the laboratory to validate and/or certify critical aircraft controllers operating in electromagnetically adverse environments that result from lightning, high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The detection strategy presented in this paper provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity resulting from redundancy management errors, control calculation errors, and control correctness/effectiveness errors. In particular, this paper discusses the use of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and statistical decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors.

  16. Evaluating The Global Inventory of Planetary Analog Environments on Earth: An Ontological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: Field sites on Earth are routinely used to simulate planetary environments so that we can try to understand the evidence of processes such as sedimentary deposition, weathering, evolution of habitable environments, and behavior of spacecraft and instrumentation prior to selection of mission architectures, payload investigations and landing sites for in situ exploration of other planets. The rapid evolution of astrobiology science drivers for space exploration as well as increasing capability to explore planetary surfaces in situ has led to a proliferation of declarations that various Earth environments are analogs for less accessible planetary environments. We have not yet progressed to standardized measures of analog fidelity, and the analog value of field sites can be variable de-pending upon a variety of factors. Here we present a method of evaluating the fidelity and hence utility of analog environments by using an ontological approach to evaluating how well the analogs work. The use of ontologies as specification constructs is now quite common in artificial intelligence, systems engineering, business development and various informatics systems. We borrow from these developments just as they derive from the original use of ontology in philosophy, where it was meant as a systematic approach to describing the fundamental elements that define “being,” or existence [1]. An ontology is a framework for the specification of a concept or domain of interest. The knowledge regarding that domain, eg., inventory of objects, hierarchical classes, relationships and functions is what describes and defines the domain as a declarative formalism [2]. In the case of planetary environments, one can define a list of fundamen-tal attributes without which the domain (environment) in question must be defined (classified) otherwise. In particu-lar this is problematic when looking at ancient environments because of their alteration over time. In other words, their fundamental attributes may no longer exist and have to be reconstructed. In the case of Earth analogs for Mars, there are important distinctions that cannot be duplicated in contemporary Earth environments—we cannot produce the same surface conditions with respect to thermal fluctuation, ionizing radiation and extremely oxidizing chemistry. Mars analogs on Earth: We have studied the habitability of several desert environments on Earth by measuring their chemical, physical and biological features. These locations, which include Battleship Promontory in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica; several sites in Svalbard, the arctic; the Imperial Dunes in southern California and Amboy Crater in the Mojave Desert, CA, form the basis for a trial ontology of analog environments which have varying degrees of analogy to potential environments of interest on Mars for exploration of its habitability potential. We present a trial taxonomy for Mars analog environments to which we can add the attributes of other environments advocated as Earth analogs for Mars. References: [1] Bunge,M.,Treatise on Basic Philosophy: Ontology I, The Furniture of the World, Reidel, 1977. [2] Gruber, T. R., (1993). Knowledge Acquisition, 5(2):199-220.

  17. Nuclear Power Plant environment`s surveillance by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    The main environmental issues affecting the broad acceptability of nuclear power plant are the emission of radioactive materials, the generation of radioactive waste, and the potential for nuclear accidents. All nuclear fission reactors, regardless of design, location, operator or regulator, have the potential to undergo catastrophic accidents involving loss of control of the reactor core, failure of safety systems and subsequent widespread fallout of hazardous fission products. Risk is the mathematical product of probability and consequences, so lowprobability and high-consequence accidents, by definition, have a high risk. NPP environment surveillance is a very important task in frame of risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing data had been applied for dosimeter levels first time for Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986. Just for a normal functioning of a nuclear power plant, multitemporal and multispectral satellite data in complementarily with field data are very useful tools for NPP environment surveillance and risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing is used as an important technology to help environmental research to support research analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental features nearby nuclear facilities. Digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and QuickBird data in synergy with in-situ data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air. As a test case the methodology was applied for for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Cernavoda, Romania. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactors cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube River. Water temperatures captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. If during the winter thermal plume is localized to an area of a few km of NPP, the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas being about 1.5 oC, during summer and fall , is a larger thermal plume up to 5-6 km far along Danube Black Sea Canal ,the temperature change is about 1.0 oC.

  18. Biodiversity Monitoring Using NGS Approaches on Unusual Substrates (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Tom Gilbert of the Natural History Museum of Denmark on "Biodiversity monitoring using NGS approaches on unusual substrates" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  19. A new method for monitoring global volcanic activity. [Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D. H.; Allen, R.; Eaton, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The ERTS Data Collection System makes it feasible for the first time to monitor the level of activity at widely separated volcanoes and to relay these data rapidly to one central office for analysis. While prediction of specific eruptions is still an evasive goal, early warning of a reawakening of quiescent volcanoes is now a distinct possibility. A prototypical global volcano surveillance system was established under the ERTS program. Instruments were installed in cooperation with local scientists on 15 volcanoes in Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The sensors include 19 seismic event counters that count four different sizes of earthquakes and six biaxial borehole tiltmeters that measure ground tilt with a resolution of 1 microradian. Only seismic and tilt data are collected because these have been shown in the past to indicate most reliably the level of volcano activity at many different volcanoes. Furthermore, these parameters can be measured relatively easily with new instrumentation.

  20. Retrieval and molecule sensitivity studies for the global ozone monitoring experiment and the scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly V.; Burrows, John P.; Schneider, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) are diode based spectrometers that will make atmospheric constituent and aerosol measurements from European satellite platforms beginning in the mid 1990's. GOME measures the atmosphere in the UV and visible in nadir scanning, while SCIAMACHY performs a combination of nadir, limb, and occultation measurements in the UV, visible, and infrared. A summary is presented of the sensitivity studies that were performed for SCIAMACHY measurements. As the GOME measurement capability is a subset of the SCIAMACHY measurement capability, the nadir, UV, and visible portion of the studies is shown to apply to GOME as well.

  1. Evaluating a system of systems approach for integrated global weather, climate, and hazard monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Ronald; Baldauf, Brian; Ohlemacher, Rick; Andreoli, Leo

    2008-08-01

    Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) provides systems and technologies to ensure national security based on technologies - from undersea to outer space, and in cyberspace. With a heritage of developing and integrating science instruments on space platforms and airborne systems, NGC is conducting analysis of alternatives for a global observing system that integrates data collected from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites with Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) platforms. This enhanced acquisition of environmental data will feed decision support systems such as the TouchTable ® to deliver improved decision making capabilities. Rapidly fusing and displaying multiple types of weather and ocean observations, imagery, and environmental data with geospatial data to create an integrated source of information for end users such as emergency managers and planners will deliver innovative solutions to improve disaster warning, mitigate disaster impacts, and reduce the loss of life and property. We present analysis of alternatives of combinations of sensor platforms that integrate space and airborne systems with ground and ocean observing sensors and form the basis for vertically integrated global observing systems with the capacity to improve measurements associated with hazard and climate-related uncertainties. The analyses include candidate sensors deployed on various configurations of satellites that include NPOESS, GOES R, and future configurations, augmented by UAS vehicles including Global Hawk, configured to deliver innovative environmental data collection capabilities over a range of environmental conditions, including severe hazards, such as hurricanes and extreme wildland fires. Resulting approaches are evaluated based on metrics that include their technical feasibility, capacity to be integrated with evolving Earth science models and relevant decision support tools, and life cycle costs.

  2. Cosmic influence on sun-earth environment can effect the global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    Influence of Star flares during low Planetary Indices Kp and low Electron flux E-flux condition of Sun-Earth Environment might result in further sudden lowering in magnetic field as well as E-flux in Sun-Earth environment This might be caused by repulsion of magnetic field in Sun-Earth Environment and star flares E-flux induces the variation of production of ionosphere currents Ionosphere currents are produced by geomagnetic storms originating from the star-sun-earth environment Ionospheric current variation has direct influence on atmospheric temperature A few case studies of hailstorm and snowstorm have been reported in northern hemisphere on 25th December 2004 while in tropics sudden drop in temperature led to foggy and smoggy condition This temperature variation is different in different parts of the earth as effect of solar flare is dependent on geomagnetic co-ordinate of earth and its respective position from stars Cosmic influence coupled with the effect of the Sun on the environment of the earth studies can be of useful for the societal development

  3. SoundProof: A Smartphone Platform for Wireless Monitoring of Wildlife and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukac, M.; Monibi, M.; Lane, M. L.; Howell, L.; Ramanathan, N.; Borker, A.; McKown, M.; Croll, D.; Terschy, B.

    2011-12-01

    We are developing an open-source, low-cost wildlife and environmental monitoring solution based on Android smartphones. Using a smartphone instead of a traditional microcontroller or single board computer has several advantages: smartphones are single integrated devices with multiple radios and a battery; they have a robust software interface which enables customization; and are field-tested by millions of users daily. Consequently, smartphones can improve the cost, configurability, and real-time access to data for environmental monitoring, ultimately replacing existing monitoring solutions which are proprietary, difficult to customize, expensive, and require labor-intensive maintenance. While smartphones can radically change environmental and wildlife monitoring, there are a number of technical challenges to address. We present our smartphone-based platform, SoundProof, discuss the challenges of building an autonomous system based on Android phones, and our ongoing efforts to enable environmental monitoring. Our system is built using robust off-the-shelf hardware and mature open-source software where available, to increase scalability and ease of installation. Key features include: * High-quality acoustic signal collection from external microphones to monitor wildlife populations. * Real-time data access, remote programming, and configuration of the field sensor via wireless cellular or WiFi channels, accessible from a website. * Waterproof packaging and solar charger setup for long-term field deployments. * Rich instrumentation of the end-to-end system to quickly identify and debug problems. * Supplementary mesh networking system with long-range wireless antennae to provide coverage when no cell network is available. We have deployed this system to monitor Rufous Crowned Sparrows on Anacapa Island, Chinese Crested Turns on the Matsu Islands in Taiwan, and Ashy Storm Petrels on South East Farallon Island. We have testbeds at two UC Natural Reserves to field-test new or exploratory features before deployment. Side-by-side validation data collected in the field using SoundProof and state-of-the-art wildlife monitoring solutions, including the Cornell ARU and Wildlife Acoustic's Songmeter, demonstrate that acoustic signals collected with cellphones provide sufficient data integrity for measuring the success of bird conservation efforts, measuring bird relative abundance and detecting elusive species. We are extending this platform to numerous other areas of environmental monitoring. Recent developments such as the Android Open Accessory, the IOIO Board, MicroBridge, Amarino, and Cellbots enable microcontrollers to talk with Android applications, making it affordable and feasible to extend our platform to operate with the most common sensors.

  4. Wearable monitoring systems for psychological and physiological state assessment in a naturalistic environment.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, R; Faetti, T; Werner, S

    2011-01-01

    Wearable monitoring systems based on Smart Fibers and Interactive Textile (SFIT) platforms combine imperceptible sensing and computing functions with an interactive communication network. The integration into clothes of bio-potential sensors for health monitoring provides daily physiological parameters through a continuous, personalized, self-made detection of vital signs and the tracking of behavioral indicators of the subject. SFIT platforms can be used unobtrusively into the routinely daily activity to perform remote monitoring of persons in different circumstances and situations: during controlled exercises and diagnostic procedures as a biofeedback tool, during the usual daily life, during sleep or even to monitor behavioral indexes and mood disorders. Treatment of stress may include also training in cognitive-behavioral skills. Moreover, physiological signs and behavioral monitoring based on a multivariable approach leads to an enhanced sensitivity and specificity of these systems for the prediction of critical events. This paper presents two applications: a platform used in the frame of PSYCHE project, based on textile platforms and portable sensing devices for the long term and short term acquisition of data from patients affected by mood disorders and a platform addressing healthy subjects, based on biofeedback methodology, designed for the training of professional drivers named Mental Bio. PMID:22254788

  5. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  6. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  7. Local and global epidemic outbreaks in populations moving in inhomogeneous environments.

    PubMed

    Buscarino, Arturo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia; Rizzo, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    We study disease spreading in a system of agents moving in a space where the force of infection is not homogeneous. Agents are random walkers that additionally execute long-distance jumps, and the plane in which they move is divided into two regions where the force of infection takes different values. We show the onset of a local epidemic threshold and a global one and explain them in terms of mean-field approximations. We also elucidate the critical role of the agent velocity, jump probability, and density parameters in achieving the conditions for local and global outbreaks. Finally, we show that the results are independent of the specific microscopic rules adopted for agent motion, since a similar behavior is also observed for the distribution of agent velocity based on a truncated power law, which is a model often used to fit real data on motion patterns of animals and humans. PMID:25375555

  8. Local and global epidemic outbreaks in populations moving in inhomogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscarino, Arturo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia; Rizzo, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    We study disease spreading in a system of agents moving in a space where the force of infection is not homogeneous. Agents are random walkers that additionally execute long-distance jumps, and the plane in which they move is divided into two regions where the force of infection takes different values. We show the onset of a local epidemic threshold and a global one and explain them in terms of mean-field approximations. We also elucidate the critical role of the agent velocity, jump probability, and density parameters in achieving the conditions for local and global outbreaks. Finally, we show that the results are independent of the specific microscopic rules adopted for agent motion, since a similar behavior is also observed for the distribution of agent velocity based on a truncated power law, which is a model often used to fit real data on motion patterns of animals and humans.

  9. Global climate change mitigation and sustainable forest management--The challenge of monitoring and verification

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, sustainable forest management is discussed within the historical and theoretical framework of the sustainable development debate. The various criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management put forth by different institutions are critically explored. Specific types of climate change mitigation policies/projects in the forest sector are identified and examined in the light of the general criteria for sustainable forest management. Areas of compatibility and contradiction between the climate mitigation objectives and the minimum criteria for sustainable forest management are identified and discussed. Emphasis is put on the problems of monitoring and verifying carbon benefits associated with such projects given their impacts on pre-existing policy objectives on sustainable forest management. The implications of such policy interactions on assignment of carbon credits from forest projects under Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly initiatives are discussed. The paper concludes that a comprehensive monitoring and verification regime must include an impact assessment on the criteria covered under other agreements such as the Biodiversity and/or Desertification Conventions. The actual carbon credit assigned to a specific project should at least take into account the negative impacts on the criteria for sustainable forest management. The value of the impacts and/or the procedure to evaluate them need to be established by interested parties such as the Councils of the respective Conventions.

  10. Evaluation of Real-Time Satellite Precipitation Data for Global Drought Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Tian; Nijssen, Bart; Huffman, George J.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2014-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) near-real-time (RT) data are considered less accurate than the TMPA research quality (RP) data because of the simplified data processing algorithm and the lack of gauge adjustments. However, for near-real-time hydrological applications, such as drought nowcasting, the RT data must play a key role given latency considerations and consistency is essential with products like RP, which have a long-term climatology. The authors used a bivariate test to examine the consistency between the monthly RT and RP precipitation estimates for 12 yr (200012) and found that, for over 75 of land cells globally, RT and RP were statistically consistent at 0.05 significance level. The inconsistent grid cells are spatially clustered in western North America, northern South America, central Africa, and most of Australia. The authors also show that RT generally increases with time relative to RP in northern South America and western Australia, while in western North America and eastern Australia, RT decreases relative to RP. In other areas such as the eastern part of North America, Eurasia, and southern part of the South America, the RT data are statistically consistent with the RP data and are appropriate for global- or macroscale hydrological applications.

  11. Economic aspects of global warming in a post-Copenhagen environment

    PubMed Central

    Nordhaus, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The science of global warming has reached a consensus on the high likelihood of substantial warming over the coming century. Nations have taken only limited steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions since the first agreement in Kyoto in 1997, and little progress was made at the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. The present study examines alternative outcomes for emissions, climate change, and damages under different policy scenarios. It uses an updated version of the regional integrated model of climate and the economy (RICE model). Recent projections suggest that substantial future warming will occur if no abatement policies are implemented. The model also calculates the path of carbon prices necessary to keep the increase in global mean temperature to 2 °C or less in an efficient manner. The carbon price for 2010 associated with that goal is estimated to be $59 per ton (at 2005 prices), compared with an effective global average price today of around $5 per ton. However, it is unlikely that the Copenhagen temperature goal will be attained even if countries meet their ambitious stated objectives under the Copenhagen Accord. PMID:20547856

  12. Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Feranec, Robert S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Current global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (?1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (?1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C4 grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with warming. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that global warming resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (?28°N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global warming in modern ecosystems. PMID:19492043

  13. Environment. Development. How Can Societies Develop To Meet Basic Needs and Nurture Economies without Undermining the Natural Resources and Environmental Integrity on Which They Depend? Teaching Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachergram, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Designed for the senior secondary level, these activities and articles explore critical issues between the environment and development. Two causes of environmental degradation are wasteful affluence and desperate poverty. The problems with development and the environment addresses Canadian and global situations. An article presents three…

  14. A global drought monitoring system: insights of an approach integrating remote sensing data and vulnerability to food insecurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Perez, Francesca; Cámaro, Walther; Demarchi, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are currently underdeveloped compared to those related to other natural hazards. Both forecasting and monitoring of drought events are still posing challenges to the scientific community. In fact, the multifaceted nature of drought (i.e. hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) is source of coexistence for different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. Similarly, drought impacts are various and complex thus difficult to be univocally measured. In the present study an approach for monitoring drought in near-real time and for estimating its impacts is presented. The EWS developed runs on a global extent and is mainly based on the early detection and monitoring of vegetation stress. On the one hand the monitoring of vegetation phenological parameters, whose extraction is based on the analysis of the MODIS-derived NDVI function, allows the fortnightly assessment of the vegetation productivity which could be expected at the end of the growing season. On the other hand, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), calculated adapting TRMM-derived precipitation data in a selected distribution is used, before the growing season start, in order to early detect meteorological conditions which could give rise to vegetation stress events. During the growing season the SPI is used as check information for vegetation conditions. The relationships between rainfall and vegetation dynamics have been statistically analyzed considering different types of vegetation, in order to identify the most suitable rainfall cumulating interval to be used for the proposed monitoring procedures in different areas. A simplified vulnerability model, coupled with the above-mentioned hazard data, returns food security conditions, i.e. the estimated impacts over an investigated area. The model includes a set of agricultural indicators that accounts for the diversity of cultivated crops, the percentage of irrigated area and the suitability of soils. In addition the people's strategy to supply food is mapped through the use of gravity spatial choice models. This leads to the definition of hazard-specific risk zones, upon which to base the allocation of the calculated alerts. The performances of the proposed EWS were evaluated, for a selection of national case studies, with comparable ground-truth data derived from local food security assessments. The system is deployed on a WebGIS platform for its use by the widest possible audience.

  15. Global positioning system measurements over a strain monitoring network in the eastern two-thirds of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Strange, W.E.

    1991-09-01

    A 45-station geodetic network was established in 1987 using global positioning system (GPS) technology to provide a means of monitoring strain and deformation in the central and eastern United States. Reduction of the initial epoch data showed that accuracies of 1 to 3 cm can be achieved for horizontal position, provided sufficient observations are available and there are four or more fiducial stations whose positions are known a priori, for example from Very Long Baseline Interferometry measurements. Accuracies obtained provide the ability to determine strain at the 1:10{sup 7} to 1:10{sup 8} level. Vertical positions are less accurate because of problems in modeling refraction and are determined at the 5 to 7 cm level. It is planned to remeasure this network at regular intervals in the coming years to place bounds on the strain occurring in the central and eastern United States. This network is also expected to serve as a reference network for more detailed monitoring networks in areas of high risk such as the New Madrid area. Future measurements are expected to provide more accurate results because of increased numbers of GPS satellites available and improved computation software. The improved software will also allow future upgrading of the accuracy of the 1987 observations. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Monitoring the implementation of the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Zurn, Pascal; Rø, Otto Christian; Gedik, Gulin; Ronquillo, Kenneth; Joan Co, Christine; Vaillancourt-Laflamme, Catherine; dela Rosa, Jennifer; Perfilieva, Galina; Dal Poz, Mario Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the findings of the first round of monitoring of the global implementation of the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel (“the Code”), a voluntary code adopted in 2010 by all 193 Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods WHO requested that its Member States designate a national authority for facilitating information exchange on health personnel migration and the implementation of the Code. Each designated authority was then sent a cross-sectional survey with 15 questions on a range of topics pertaining to the 10 articles included in the Code. Findings A national authority was designated by 85 countries. Only 56 countries reported on the status of Code implementation. Of these, 37 had taken steps towards implementing the Code, primarily by engaging relevant stakeholders. In 90% of countries, migrant health professionals reportedly enjoy the same legal rights and responsibilities as domestically trained health personnel. In the context of the Code, cooperation in the area of health workforce development goes beyond migration-related issues. An international comparative information base on health workforce mobility is needed but can only be developed through a collaborative, multi-partnered approach. Conclusion Reporting on the implementation of the Code has been suboptimal in all but one WHO region. Greater collaboration among state and non-state actors is needed to raise awareness of the Code and reinforce its relevance as a potent framework for policy dialogue on ways to address the health workforce crisis. PMID:24347705

  17. Development of an Experimental African Drought Monitoring and Seasonal Forecasting System: A First Step towards a Global Drought Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Sheffield, J.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Extreme hydrologic events in the form of droughts are a significant source of social and economic damage. Internationally, organizations such as UNESCO, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) have recognized the need for drought monitoring, especially for the developing world where drought has had devastating impacts on local populations through food insecurity and famine. Having the capacity to monitor droughts in real-time, and to provide drought forecasts with sufficient warning will help developing countries and international programs move from the management of drought crises to the management of drought risk. While observation-based assessments, such as those produced by the US Drought Monitor, are effective for monitoring in countries with extensive observation networks (of precipitation in particular), their utility is lessened in areas (e.g., Africa) where observing networks are sparse. For countries with sparse networks and weak reporting systems, remote sensing observations can provide the real-time data for the monitoring of drought. More importantly, these datasets are now available for at least a decade, which allows for the construction of a climatology against which current conditions can be compared. In this presentation we discuss the development of our multi-lingual experimental African Drought Monitor (ADM) (see http://hydrology.princeton.edu/~nchaney/ADM_ML). At the request of UNESCO, the ADM system has been installed at AGRHYMET, a regional climate and agricultural center in Niamey, Niger and at the ICPAC climate center in Nairobi, Kenya. The ADM system leverages off our U.S. drought monitoring and forecasting system (http://hydrology.princeton.edu/forecasting) that uses the NLDAS data to force the VIC land surface model (LSM) at 1/8th degree spatial resolution for the estimation of our soil moisture drought index (Sheffield et al., 2004). For the seasonal forecast of drought, CFSv2 climate forecasts are bias corrected, downscaled and used as inputs to the VIC LSM as well as forecasts based on ESP and CPC official seasonal outlook. For Africa, data from a combination of remote sensing (TMPA-based precipitation, land cover characteristics) and GFS analysis fields (temperature and wind) are used to monitor drought using our soil moisture drought index as well as 1, 3 and and 6-month SPI. River discharge is also estimated at over 900 locations. Seasonal forecasts have been developed using CFSv2 climate forecasts following the approaches used over CONUS. We will discuss the performance of the system to evaluate the depiction of drought over various scales, from regional to the African continent, and over a number of years to capture multiple drought events. Furthermore, the hindcasts from the seasonal drought forecast system are analyzed to assess the ability of seasonal climate models to detect drought on-set and its recovery. Finally, we will discuss whether our ADM provides a pathway to a Global Drought Information System, a goal of the WCRP Drought Task Force.

  18. Population, Poverty, and Land Degradation. Teacher's Guide to World Resources. Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Sarah A.

    This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about the complex connections among population growth, economic activity, and changes in the environment. The lesson is divided into five parts and may be completed in one or more class periods. Student handouts include: (1) "Facts about Population, Poverty, and Land…

  19. Home Musical Environment of Children in Singapore: On Globalization, Technology, and Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2008-01-01

    The home musical environments of a class of 28 first-grade children in Singapore were examined in this ethnographic study. Technology was an integral part of the soundscape in the home. The musical repertoire gathered was closely associated with electronic and pop-influenced music, approaching the styles favored by teens and adults. Particular…

  20. Global Channels of Evidence for Learning and Assessment in Complex Game Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Brian C.; Erlandson, Benjamin; Denham, Andre

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we take a designer's look at how the activities and data of learning and assessment can be structured in immersive virtual game environments called Massively Multi-Player Online Games (MMOG). In doing so, we examine the channels of evidence through which learning and assessment activities are derived in MMOGs, offering examples of…

  1. Selenium-global perspectives of impacts on humans, animals and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metalloid selenium (Se) is ubiquitous in the natural environment and its concentration can vary from below 0.1 to 10µg/g or even greater. Its distribution is usually heterogenous and site specific and it commonly exists as selenite, selenate, and as various organic reduced Se compounds. Further ...

  2. The Global Classroom Project: Learning a Second Language in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutzen, Brant; Kennedy, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of a pilot project exploring the integration of a collaborative virtual learning environment (Second Life) with the instruction of English courses at Lingnan University in Hong Kong. An educational partnership was developed with two TESOL teacher-training courses at Texas A&M University in the US. The project…

  3. A Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer for a Global Ground-Based Column Carbon Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, E. L.; Melroy, H.; Miller, J. H.; McLinden, M. L.; Ott, L.; Holben, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    We present progress in the development of a passive, miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (mini-LHR) that will measure key greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, CO) in the atmospheric column as well as their respective altitude profiles, and O2 for a measure of atmospheric pressure. Laser heterodyne radiometry is a spectroscopic method that borrows from radio receiver technology. In this technique, a weak incoming signal containing information of interest is mixed with a stronger signal (local oscillator) at a nearby frequency. In this case, the weak signal is sunlight that has undergone absorption by a trace gas of interest and the local oscillator is a distributive feedback (DFB) laser that is tuned to a wavelength near the absorption feature of the trace gas. Mixing the sunlight with the laser light, in a fast photo-receiver, results in a beat signal in the RF. The amplitude of the beat signal tracks the concentration of the trace gas in the atmospheric column. The mini-LHR operates in tandem with AERONET, a global network of more than 450 aerosol sensing instruments. This partnership simplifies the instrument design and provides an established global network into which the mini-LHR can rapidly expand. This network offers coverage in key arctic regions (not covered by OCO-2) where accelerated warming due to the release of CO2 and CH4 from thawing tundra and permafrost is a concern as well as an uninterrupted data record that will both bridge gaps in data sets and offer validation for key flight missions such as OCO-2, OCO-3, and ASCENDS. Currently, the only ground global network that routinely measures multiple greenhouse gases in the atmospheric column is TCCON (Total Column Carbon Observing Network) with 18 operational sites worldwide and two in the US. Cost and size of TCCON installations will limit the potential for expansion. We offer a low-cost (<$30K/unit) solution to supplement these measurements with the added benefit of an established aerosol optical depth measurement. Aerosols induce a radiative effect that is an important modulator of regional carbon cycles. Changes in the diffuse radiative flux fraction (DRF) due to aerosol loading have the potential to alter the terrestrial carbon exchange.omponents of the mini-LHR. Clockwise from upper right: (1) collimation optics clamped to an AERONET sun tracker, (2) RF receiver box containing a bias-T, low pass filter, 4 RF amplifiers, an RF detector, and a printed circuit board (PCB) video amplifier, (3) mini-LHR housed in a waterproof case, (4) screen capture of the raw beat signal, (5) real-time scan of CO2 line.

  4. A Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer for a Global Ground-Based Column Carbon Monitoring Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Emily L.; Melroy, Hilary R.; Miller, J. Houston; McLinden, Matthew L.; Ott, Lesley E.; Holben, Brent

    2012-01-01

    We present progress in the development of a passive, miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (mini-LHR) that will measure key greenhouse gases (C02, CH4, CO) in the atmospheric column as well as their respective altitude profiles, and O2 for a measure of atmospheric pressure. Laser heterodyne radiometry is a spectroscopic method that borrows from radio receiver technology. In this technique, a weak incoming signal containing information of interest is mixed with a stronger signal (local oscillator) at a nearby frequency. In this case, the weak signal is sunlight that has undergone absorption by a trace gas of interest and the local oscillator is a distributive feedback (DFB) laser that is tuned to a wavelength near the absorption feature of the trace gas. Mixing the sunlight with the laser light, in a fast photoreceiver, results in a beat signal in the RF. The amplitude of the beat signal tracks the concentration of the trace gas in the atmospheric column. The mini-LHR operates in tandem with AERONET, a global network of more than 450 aerosol sensing instruments. This partnership simplifies the instrument design and provides an established global network into which the mini-LHR can rapidly expand. This network offers coverage in key arctic regions (not covered by OCO-2) where accelerated warming due to the release of CO2 and CH4 from thawing tundra and permafrost is a concern as well as an uninterrupted data record that will both bridge gaps in data sets and offer validation for key flight missions such as OCO-2, OCO-3, and ASCENDS. Currently, the only ground global network that routinely measures multiple greenhouse gases in the atmospheric column is TCCON (Total Column Carbon Observing Network) with 18 operational sites worldwide and two in the US. Cost and size of TCCON installations will limit the potential for expansion, We offer a low-cost $30Klunit) solution to supplement these measurements with the added benefit of an established aerosol optical depth measurement. Aerosols induce a radiative effect that is an important modulator of regional carbon cycles. Changes in the diffuse radiative flux fraction (DRF) due to aerosol loading have the potential to alter the terrestrial carbon exchange.

  5. Air Mass Factor Formulation for Spectroscopic Measurements from Satellites: Application to Formaldehyde Retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Paul I.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Chance, Kelly; Martin, Randall V.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert; Fiore, Arlene; Li, Qinbin

    2004-01-01

    We present a new formulation for the air mass factor (AMF) to convert slant column measurements of optically thin atmospheric species from space into total vertical columns. Because of atmospheric scattering, the AMF depends on the vertical distribution of the species. We formulate the AMF as the integral of the relative vertical distribution (shape factor) of the species over the depth of the atmosphere, weighted by altitude-dependent coefficients (scattering weights) computed independently from a radiative transfer model. The scattering weights are readily tabulated, and one can then obtain the AMF for any observation scene by using shape factors from a three dimensional (3-D) atmospheric chemistry model for the period of observation. This approach subsequently allows objective evaluation of the 3-D model with the observed vertical columns, since the shape factor and the vertical column in the model represent two independent pieces of information. We demonstrate the AMF method by using slant column measurements of formaldehyde at 346 nm from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite instrument over North America during July 1996. Shape factors are cumputed with the Global Earth Observing System CHEMistry (GEOS-CHEM) global 3-D model and are checked for consistency with the few available aircraft measurements. Scattering weights increase by an order of magnitude from the surface to the upper troposphere. The AMFs are typically 20-40% less over continents than over the oceans and are approximately half the values calculated in the absence of scattering. Model-induced errors in the AMF are estimated to be approximately 10%. The GEOS-CHEM model captures 50% and 60% of the variances in the observed slant and vertical columns, respectively. Comparison of the simulated and observed vertical columns allows assessment of model bias.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED IN SITU TECHNIQUES FOR CHEMISTRY MONITORING AND CORROSION MITIGATION IN SCWO ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We propose to develop chemical and corrosion sensors for use in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous environments, to improve their precision and reliability, and to use them to characterize the fundamental properties of supercritical aqueous solutions. A better understandi...

  7. Monitoring Viable Fungal and Bacterial Bioaerosol Concentrations to Identify Acceptable Levels for Common Indoor Environments 

    E-print Network

    Robertson, L. D.

    1998-01-01

    /or medical environments. New sampling methodologies are being developed to evaluate bioaerosol concentrations. These include ergosterol, beta Beta 1-3 Glucan, DNA fingerprinting, and others. While these methodologies may offer alternative means...

  8. Monitoring in the Western Pacific region shows evidence of seagrass decline in line with global trends.

    PubMed

    Short, Frederick T; Coles, Robert; Fortes, Miguel D; Victor, Steven; Salik, Maxwell; Isnain, Irwan; Andrew, Jay; Seno, Aganto

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass systems of the Western Pacific region are biodiverse habitats, providing vital services to ecosystems and humans over a vast geographic range. SeagrassNet is a worldwide monitoring program that collects data on seagrass habitats, including the ten locations across the Western Pacific reported here where change at various scales was rapidly detected. Three sites remote from human influence were stable. Seagrasses declined largely due to increased nutrient loading (4 sites) and increased sedimentation (3 sites), the two most common stressors of seagrass worldwide. Two sites experienced near-total loss from of excess sedimentation, followed by partial recovery once sedimentation was reduced. Species shifts were observed at every site with recovering sites colonized by pioneer species. Regulation of watersheds is essential if marine protected areas are to preserve seagrass meadows. Seagrasses in the Western Pacific experience stress due to human impacts despite the vastness of the ocean area and low development pressures. PMID:24746094

  9. Availability of positioning and receiver autonomous integrity monitoring for the global positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    Receiver-autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) of GPS data is examined by means of a simulation of the availability of a RAIM system that can provide both a GPS coverage model and a Markov reliability model. State probabilities of GPS failure scenarios are assigned with the Markov model with a maximum of 6 simultaneous satellite failures. The parametric analysis of the failures on GPS RAIM availability includes the maximum allowable value of the horizontal dilution of precision (HDOP), the mean time to repair, and the efficacy of incorporating altimeter measurements. When the HDOP requirement is relaxed the number of RAIM outages is minimized, and poor satellite geometry can lead to a large HDOP. The use of an altimeter can also reduce outages, and RAIM availability increases with optimistic values for the mean time to repair.

  10. A technique for global monitoring of net solar irradiance at the ocean surface. II - Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertock, Beth; Frouin, Robert; Gautier, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    The generation and validation of the first satellite-based long-term record of surface solar irradiance over the global oceans are addressed. The record is generated using Nimbus-7 earth radiation budget (ERB) wide-field-of-view plentary-albedo data as input to a numerical algorithm designed and implemented based on radiative transfer theory. The mean monthly values of net surface solar irradiance are computed on a 9-deg latitude-longitude spatial grid for November 1978-October 1985. The new data set is validated in comparisons with short-term, regional, high-resolution, satellite-based records. The ERB-based values of net surface solar irradiance are compared with corresponding values based on radiance measurements taken by the Visible-Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer aboard GOES series satellites. Errors in the new data set are estimated to lie between 10 and 20 W/sq m on monthly time scales.

  11. Global positioning system surveying to monitor land subsidence in Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    A subsidence research program began in 1985 to document the extent and magnitude of land subsidence in Sacramento Valley, California, an area of about 15 600 km2m, using Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying. In addition to periodic conventional spirit levelling, an examination was made of the changes in GPS-derived ellipsoidal height differences (summary differences) between pairs of adjacent bench marks in central Sacramento Valley from 1986 to 1989. The average rates of land subsidence in the southern Sacramento Valley for the past several decades were determined by comparing GPS-derived orthometric heights with historic published elevations. A maximum average rate of 0.053 m year-1 (0.90 m in 17 years) of subsidence has been measured. -Author

  12. From Mentoring to Monitoring: The Impact of Changing Work Environments on Academics in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, John; Gordon, Sue; Schuck, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Universities in many western nations are experiencing increasing performance measures for academic accountability. This paper maps the pitted pathway that has led Australian universities from mentoring to monitoring and from performance enhancement to performance evaluation, and reviews implications for teaching and learning in higher education.…

  13. Non-Threshold based Event Detection for 3D Environment Monitoring in Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yunhao

    of capturing complex events. For ex- ample, in coal mine monitoring scenarios, gas leakage or water osmosis can hardly be described by the overrun of specified attribute thresholds, but some complex pattern-enriched spots and water seepage. Gas leakage often occurs when the digging machines expose a source of gas

  14. Assessment and monitoring of recovery of spatial neglect within a virtual environment Assaf Y Dvorkin1,*

    E-print Network

    Dvorkin1,* , William Z. Rymer1,2 , Richard L. Harvey1,2 , Ross A. Bogey1,2 , James L. Patton 1,2,3 1.Y., Rymer W.Z., Harvey R.L., Bogey R.A. & Patton J.L. Assessment and monitoring of recovery of spatial

  15. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Radio Occultation Constellation Mission and the Future Plan for Global Climate Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, N. L.; Wu, L.; Fong, C.

    2007-05-01

    The Radio Occultation (RO) has been drawn great attention in the global atmospheric field since the successful "proof of the RO concept" program, GPSMET, in 1995. Shortly after the successful launch of the NSPO's FORMOSAT-3 (or COSMIC in the States by NSPO's partner UCAR) in April 2006, the enormous RO data in 6- satellites constellation distribution globally have been successfully retrieved and used in the assimilation system widely. The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC spacecraft constellation is the first operational GPS radio occultation constellation mission. The COSMIC mission stands for Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate and carries three onboard instruments including GPS Occultation Receiver (GOX), Tri- Band Beacon (TBB), and Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP). All the six FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites are maintained in the good state of health and are on their way toward the final constellation of six separate orbit planes with 30-degree separations as planned. Three out of six satellites have reached their final mission orbit of 800 km by the early February of 2007. The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC has processed over 1800 good atmospheric sounding profiles (~900 mostly above the land mass) per day that has over the number of worldwide radiosondes launched per day. It's expected to reach 2500 good atmospheric sounding profiles per day in the near future. The atmospheric radio soundings data are assimilated into the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models for real-time weather prediction and typhoon/hurricane forecast. This paper will emphasize the performance of the FORMOSAT-3 that affect the RO data retrievals and the projection of the follow-on program(s) to continue the RO constellation in the future. The ultimate success of a real-time operation of the FORMOSAT- 3/COSMIC mission in the final constellation formation can be anticipated.

  16. Infrasound network implementation in Iceland - examples of volcano monitoring in an extreme environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Ripepe, Maurizio; Barsotti, Sara; Björnsson, Halldór; Del Donne, Dario; Vogfjörð, Kristín

    2015-04-01

    The installation of a network of infrasound arrays for volcano monitoring has been initiated in Iceland. In collaboration with the University of Florence (UNIFI), The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) has been operating infrasound arrays since the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010. An important support came through the 26 partner FP7 FUTUREVOLC project which runs from 2012 - 2016. This project which is relevant to the EU "Supersite concept" for long term monitoring in geologically active regions of Europe, is led by the University of Iceland together with IMO which leads long-term monitoring of geohazards in Iceland and is responsible for maintaining instrument networks for this purpose. As a part of the ground based FUTUREVOLC network, infrasound arrays, are used to monitor volcanic eruptive activity. The arrays are composed of 4 elements with a triangular geometry and an aperture of 120 m where each element has a differential pressure transducer with a sensitivity of 25 mV/Pa in the frequency band 0.001-50 Hz and a noise level of 10-2 Pa. Infrasound is recorded on site at 100 Hz and 24 bits and transmitted via Internet link both to the IMO and UNIFI. Three arrays are installed in South Iceland, one in Gunnarsholt, one in Þjórsárdalur and one in Kirkjubæjarklaustur. These places were chosen with the aim to optimize wind noice reduction (onsite bushes and trees) and close proximity to volcanoes such as Hekla, Katla, Torfajökull, Eyjafjallajökull, Vestmannaeyjar and the Vatnajökull ice cap which covers four central volcanoes known for explosive eruptions. In September 2014, the fourth array was installed a few km north of Vatnajökull glacier, just north of the large effusive eruption in Holuhraun which started on 29 August 2014 and is still ongoing in January 2015. The eruption is associated with the ongoing Bárðarbunga volcanic unrest and caldera collapse which is being monitored closely by the IMO and FUTUREVOLC partners. The new array has the potential of monitoring an explosive subglacial eruption, which could pose a threat to aviation as well as a flood risk to the lowlands. We present several examples of data analysis and near-real-time online visualization from the Holuhraun eruption. Since the eruption is mainly effusive it only produces a weak infrasound signal related to the large lava lake- like activity, which is picked up by the two closest arrays. Depending on weather conditions, infrasound monitoring allows to define changes and pulsations in the eruptive activity.

  17. Global Gradients in Vertebrate Diversity Predicted by Historical Area-Productivity Dynamics and Contemporary Environment

    PubMed Central

    Jetz, Walter; Fine, Paul V. A.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or “evolutionary arenas,” characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients. PMID:22479151

  18. Remote sensing of the earth's biosphere - A tool for studies of the global atmospheric environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, David S.; Harriss, Robert C.; Bartlett, Karen B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology and its use for global studies of the biospheric processes are described. Special consideration is given to research related to two issues: (1) quantifying the impacts of natural vegetation and its changing patterns of occurrence on the atmospheric CO2 budget and (2) assessing wetlands (such as the swamps and marshes of Florida's Everglades) as sources of atmospheric CH4. The results include the data from NOAA-AVHRR sensors and from experiments in remote detection of plant growth rate.

  19. Impacts Of Global/Regional Climate Changes On Environment And Health: Need For Integrated Research And Education Collaboration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuluri, F.

    2013-12-01

    The realization of long term changes in climate in research community has to go beyond the comfort zone through climate literacy in academics. Higher education on climate change is the platform to bring together the otherwise disconnected factors such as effective discovery, decision making, innovation, interdisciplinary collaboration, Climate change is a complex process that may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system, or to variations in natural or anthropogenic (human-driven) external forcing. Global climate change indicates a change in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for several decades or longer. This includes changes in average weather conditions on Earth, such as a change in average global temperature, as well as changes in how frequently regions experience heat waves, droughts, floods, storms, and other extreme weather. It is important to examine the effects of climate variations on human health and disorders in order to take preventive measures. Similarly, the influence of climate changes on animal management practices, pests and pest management systems, and high value crops such as citrus and vegetables is also equally important for investigation. New genetic agricultural varieties must be explored, and pilot studies should examine biotechnology transfer. Recent climate model improvements have resulted in an enhanced ability to simulate many aspects of climate variability and extremes. However, they are still characterized by systematic errors and limitations in accurately simulating more precisely regional climate conditions. The present situations warrant developing climate literacy on the synergistic impacts of environmental change, and improve development, testing and validation of integrated stress impacts through computer modeling. In the present study we present a detailed study of the current status on the impacts of global/regional climate changes on environment and health with a view to highlighting the need for integrated research and education collaboration at national and global level.

  20. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine environment. A report prepared by the Panel on Monitoring Persistent Pesticides in the Marine Environment of the Committee on Oceanography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panel on Monitoring Persistent Pesticides in the Marine Environment; Goldberg, E.D.; Butler, P.; Meier, P.; Menzel, D.; Paulik, G.; Risebrough, R.; Stickel, L.F.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS : The oceans are an ultimate accumulation site for the persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. As much as 25 percent of the DDT compounds produced to date may have been transferred to the sea. The amount of DDT compounds in the marine biota is estimated to be less than 0.1 percent of total production, yet this amount has produced a demonstrable impact upon the marine environment. Populations of fish-eating birds have experienced reproductive failure and decline. With continued accumulations of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine ecosystem, additional species will be threatened. Continued release of these pollutants to the environment can only accelerate the accumulation of unacceptable levels of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the tissues of marine food fish. Certain risks in the utilization of chlorinated hydrocarbons are especially hard to quantify, but they require serious consideration. The rate at which such substances degrade to harmless products in the marine system is unknown; the half-lives of some of the more persistent materials are certainly of the order of years, and perhaps even of decades or centuries. If most of the remaining 75 percent of the persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons is now in reservoirs that will in time transfer their contents to the sea, we may expect an increased level of these substances in marine organisms, despite future improvements of manufacturing practices. In fact, if these compounds degrade with half-lives of decades or longer, there will be no opportunity to redress the consequences. The more the problems are studied, the more unexpected effects are identified. In view of the findings of the past decade, our prediction of the potential hazards of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine environment may be vastly underestimated. The Panel makes the following recommendations, which will be developed and expanded in the remainder of the report: ? A massive national effort should be made immediately to effect a drastic reduction of the escape of persistent toxicants into the environment, with the ultimate aim of achieving virtual cessation in the shortest possible time. ? Programs should be designed both to determine the rates of entry of each pollutant into the marine environment and to make base-line determinations of the distribution of the pollutants among the components of that environment, These should be followed by a program of monitoring long-term trends in order to record progress and to document possible disaster. ? The laws relating to the registration of chemical substances and the release of production figures by government should be examined and perhaps revised in light of evidence of environmental deterioration caused by some of these substances.

  1. Archaea in artificial environments: their presence in global spacecraft clean rooms and impact on planetary protection.

    PubMed

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2011-02-01

    The presence and role of Archaea in artificial, human-controlled environments is still unclear. The search for Archaea has been focused on natural biotopes where they have been found in overwhelming numbers, and with amazing properties. However, they are considered as one of the major group of microorganisms that might be able to survive a space flight, or even to thrive on other planets. Although still concentrating on aerobic, bacterial spores as a proxy for spacecraft cleanliness, space agencies are beginning to consider Archaea as a possible contamination source that could affect future searches for life on other planets. This study reports on the discovery of archaeal 16S rRNA gene signatures not only in US American spacecraft assembly clean rooms but also in facilities in Europe and South America. Molecular methods revealed the presence of Crenarchaeota in all clean rooms sampled, while signatures derived from methanogens and a halophile appeared only sporadically. Although no Archaeon was successfully enriched in our multiassay cultivation approach thus far, samples from a European clean room revealed positive archaeal fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals of rod-shaped microorganisms, representing the first visualization of Archaea in clean room environments. The molecular and visual detection of Archaea was supported by the first quantitative PCR studies of clean rooms, estimating the overall quantity of Archaea therein. The significant presence of Archaea in these extreme environments in distinct geographical locations suggests a larger role for these microorganisms not only in natural biotopes, but also in human controlled and rigorously cleaned environments. PMID:20703318

  2. Archaea in artificial environments: Their presence in global spacecraft clean rooms and impact on planetary protection

    PubMed Central

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The presence and role of Archaea in artificial, human-controlled environments is still unclear. The search for Archaea has been focused on natural biotopes where they have been found in overwhelming numbers, and with amazing properties. However, they are considered as one of the major group of microorganisms that might be able to survive a space flight, or even to thrive on other planets. Although still concentrating on aerobic, bacterial spores as a proxy for spacecraft cleanliness, space agencies are beginning to consider Archaea as a possible contamination source that could affect future searches for life on other planets. This study reports on the discovery of archaeal 16S rRNA gene signatures not only in US American spacecraft assembly clean rooms but also in facilities in Europe and South America. Molecular methods revealed the presence of Crenarchaeota in all clean rooms sampled, while signatures derived from methanogens and a halophile appeared only sporadically. Although no Archaeon was successfully enriched in our multiassay cultivation approach thus far, samples from a European clean room revealed positive archaeal fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals of rod-shaped microorganisms, representing the first visualization of Archaea in clean room environments. The molecular and visual detection of Archaea was supported by the first quantitative PCR studies of clean rooms, estimating the overall quantity of Archaea therein. The significant presence of Archaea in these extreme environments in distinct geographical locations suggests a larger role for these microorganisms not only in natural biotopes, but also in human controlled and rigorously cleaned environments. PMID:20703318

  3. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection.…

  4. Global Use of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index

    PubMed Central

    Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna Sullivan

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index has been endorsed as a gauge of the quality of the nursing practice environment by several organizations in the United States promoting healthcare quality, there is no literature describing its use in different practice settings and countries. Objective To inform research by describing the modifications and use of the scale in a variety of practice settings and countries. Method The Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and PubMed databases were searched for the years 2002-2010 to identify 37 research reports published since 2002 describing use, modification, and scoring variations in different practice settings and countries. Results The scale was modified for 10 practice settings in five countries and translated into three languages. Composite scores ranged from 2.48 to 3.17 (on a 1-4 scale). The Staffing and Resource Adequacy subscale most often scored lowest. A new nursing information technology subscale has been developed. New scoring methods to identify the favorability of practice environments are described. Over time, the nature of the research conducted using the measure has changed. Overall, most publications report significant associations between scale scores and multiple nurse, patient, and organizational outcomes. Discussion Scale use is growing across different clinical settings and countries. Recommendations for future research use include reducing scale length, employing consistent scoring methods, considering the impact of various modifications based on cultural and clinical setting nuances, and using the measure in longitudinal and intervention research designs. PMID:21127450

  5. Global trends of research on emerging contaminants in the environment and humans: a literature assimilation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Wei, Yan-Li; Yao, Yao; Ruan, Qin-Qin; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2015-02-01

    Available literature data on five typical groups of emerging contaminants (EMCs), i.e., chlorinated paraffins (CPs), dechlorane plus and related compounds (DPs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), phthalate esters, and pyrethroids, accumulated between 2003 and 2013 were assimilated. Research efforts were categorized by environmental compartments and countries, so that global trends of research on EMCs and data gaps can be identified. The number of articles on the target EMCs ranged from 126 to 1,379 between 2003 and 2013. The numbers of articles on CPs, DPs, HBCDs, and pyrethroids largely followed the sequence of biota > sediment ? air > water ? soil > human tissue, whereas the sequence for phthalate esters was water > sediment > soil > human tissue ? biota ? air. Comprehensive studies on the target EMCs in biological samples and human tissues have been conducted worldwide. However, investigations into the occurrence of the target EMCs in soil of background areas and water are still scarce. Finally, developed and moderately developed countries, such as the USA, China, Canada, Japan, and Germany, were the main contributors to the global research efforts on EMCs, suggesting that economic prosperity may be one of the main factors propelling scientific research on EMCs. PMID:25096494

  6. Black Carbon : Impacts on Local, Regional and Global Environment and Climate (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    2010-12-01

    Black Carbon is one of the unique pollutants that has a large direct negative impact on human health, indoor and outdoor air quality, temperature, cloudiness, precipitation, mountain glaciers, sea ice, and snow packs. We are just beginning to unravel its impact on all these scales and phenomena. The lack of access to fossil fuels forces more than 3 billion from rural populations to burn biomass fuels such as dung, firewood, and crops. The resulting pollution indoors and outdoors kills over 2 million people annually in developing nations. It also contributes to the so-called atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs), which eventually become transcontinental plumes, with large impacts on clouds and rainfall patterns and which also contribute to glacier melting. In the industrial world, fossil fuel combustion is a major source of black carbon and ABCs, which contribute to global warming and retreat of arctic sea ice. There is now a compelling, if not convincing, case to regulate or eliminate black carbon emissions. Such measures can reduce global warming, improve health, improve air quality, and slow down glacier retreat.

  7. Global, Daily, Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F. S.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M. M.; Smith, M. M.; Kettner, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Flooding is the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disaster faced by modern society, and is expected to increase in frequency and damage with climate change and population growth. Some of 2013's major floods have impacted the New York City region, the Midwest, Alberta, Australia, various parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, and central Europe. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we developed and are now operating a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours of events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard within a few hours of satellite overpass. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial daily assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, and more robust assessments after accumulating cloud-free imagery over several days. Cloud cover is the primary limitation in detecting surface water from MODIS imagery. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on many of these issues, and are working to develop higher resolution flood detection using alternate sensors, including Landsat and various radar sensors. Although these provide better spatial resolution, this typically comes at the cost of being less timely. Since late 2011, this system has been providing daily flood maps of the global non-antarctic land surface. These data products are generated in raster and vector formats, and provided freely on our website. To better serve the disaster response community, we have recently begun providing the products via live OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) services, allowing easy access in a variety of platforms (Google Earth, desktop GIS software, mobile phone apps). We are also working with the Pacific Disaster Center to bring our product into their Disaster Alert system (including a mobile app), which will help simplify product distribution to the disaster management community.

  8. The application of spaceborne GPS to atmospheric limb sounding and global change monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melbourne, W. G.; Davis, E. S.; Duncan, C. B.; Hajj, G. A.; Hardy, K. R.; Kursinski, E. R.; Meehan, T. K.; Young, L. E.; Yunck, T. P.

    1994-01-01

    This monograph is intended for readers with minimal background in radio science who seek a relatively comprehensive treatment of the mission and technical aspects of an Earth-orbiting radio occultation satellite. Part 1 (chapters 1-6) describes mission concepts and programmatic information; Part 2 (chapters 7-12) deals with the theoretical aspects of analyzing and interpreting radio occultation measurements. In this mission concept the navigation signals from a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite that is being occulted by the Earth's limb are observed by a GPS flight receiver on board a low Earth orbiter (LEO) satellite. This technique can be used to recover profiles of the Earth's atmospheric refractivity, pressure, and temperature using small, dedicated, and relatively low-cost space systems. Chapter 2 summarizes the basic space system concepts of the limb-sounding technique and describes a low-cost strawman demonstration mission. Chapter 3 discusses some of the scientific benefits of using radio occultation on a suite of small satellites. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of several system elements in a radio occultation mission, including the launch system for small payloads, the LEO microsat, the GPS constellation, the GPS flight receiver payload, the mission operations ground control and data receiving system, the ground-based GPS global tracking network for precision orbit determination, and the central data processing and archive system. Chapter 5 addresses the various technology readiness questions that invariably arise. Chapter 6 discusses the overall costs of a demonstration mission such as GPS/MET (meteorological) proposed by the University Navstar Consortium (UNAVCO). Chapter 7 describes a geometrical optics approach to coplanar atmospheric occultation. Chapter 8 addresses major questions regarding accuracy of the occultation techniques. Chapter 9 describes some simulations that have been performed to evaluate the sensitivity of the recovered profiles of atmospheric parameters to different error sources, such as departure from spherical symmetry, water vapor, etc. Chapter 10 discusses horizontal and vertical resolution associated with limb sounders in general. Chapter 11 treats selected Fresnel diffraction techniques that can be used in radio occultation measurements to sharpen resolution. Chapter 12 provides brief discussions on selected special topics, such as strategies for handling interference and multipath processes that may arise for rays traveling in the lower troposphere.

  9. Remote-sensing GIS based investigations of coal fires in northern China; global monitoring to support the estimation of CO2 emissions from spontaneous combustion of

    E-print Network

    Remote-sensing GIS based investigations of coal fires in northern China; global monitoring to support the estimation of CO2 emissions from spontaneous combustion of coal Freek van der Meer, Paul van, disaster control, coal fires, China ABSTRACT The uncontrolled fires burning of coal seams, stock piles

  10. Method and apparatus for conducting structural health monitoring in a cryogenic, high vibration environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qing, Xinlin (Inventor); Beard, Shawn J. (Inventor); Li, Irene (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Sensors affixed to various such structures, where the sensors can withstand, remain affixed, and operate while undergoing both cryogenic temperatures and high vibrations. In particular, piezoelectric single crystal transducers are utilized, and these sensors are coupled to the structure via a low temperature, heat cured epoxy. This allows the transducers to monitor the structure while the engine is operating, even despite the harsh operating conditions. Aspects of the invention thus allow for real time monitoring and analysis of structures that operate in conditions that previously did not permit such analysis. A further aspect of the invention relates to use of piezoelectric single crystal transducers. In particular, use of such transducers allows the same elements to be used as both sensors and actuators.

  11. Evaluation of Content-Matched Range Monitoring Queries over Moving Objects in Mobile Computing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jung, HaRim; Song, MoonBae; Youn, Hee Yong; Kim, Ung Mo

    2015-01-01

    A content-matched (CM) range monitoring query over moving objects continually retrieves the moving objects (i) whose non-spatial attribute values are matched to given non-spatial query values; and (ii) that are currently located within a given spatial query range. In this paper, we propose a new query indexing structure, called the group-aware query region tree (GQR-tree) for efficient evaluation of CM range monitoring queries. The primary role of the GQR-tree is to help the server leverage the computational capabilities of moving objects in order to improve the system performance in terms of the wireless communication cost and server workload. Through a series of comprehensive simulations, we verify the superiority of the GQR-tree method over the existing methods. PMID:26393613

  12. Real-time monitoring for alpha emitters in high-airflow environments

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, J.E.; Bounds, J.A.; Conaway, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    Key problems in detecting alpha contamination for site characterization and decontamination and decommissioning that remain to be solved include measurement of airborne contamination, material holdup within pipes, and leakage of material containers. These problems are very difficult using traditional alpha detectors and systems. The ionization detection method (long-range alpha detection or LRAD) offers a number of specific advantages for these environmental measurements. An LRAD system detects the air molecules ionized by alpha-emitting contamination rather than the alpha particles. Thus, LRAD-based detectors are not limited by the short range of alpha particles and can be used to detect contamination anywhere that air can penetrate. Extending this technology to large enclosures or long pipes requires a system optimized for large airflows. In this paper the authors present designs and preliminary results for high-volume flow-through air monitors based on the LRAD technique. In addition, they discuss the behavior of the monitors and their potential applications.

  13. Real-time monitoring for alpha emitters in high-airflow environments

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, J.E.; MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M; Whitley, C.R.; Conaway, J.G.; Steadman, P.A.

    1996-07-01

    Key problems in detecting alpha contamination for site characterization and decontamination and decommissioning that remain to be solved include measurement of airborne contamination, material holdup within pipes, and leakage of material containers. These problems are very difficult using traditional alpha detectors and systems. The ionization detection method (long-range alpha detection of LRAD) offers a number of specific advantages for these environmental measurements. An LRAD system detects the air molecules ionized by alpha-emitting contamination rather than the alpha particles. Thus, LRAD-based detectors are not limited by the short range of alpha particles and can be used to detect contamination anywhere that air can penetrate. Extending this technology to large enclosures of long pipes requires a system optimized for large airflows. In this paper we will present designs and preliminary results for high-volume flow-through air monitors based on the LRAD technique. In addition, we will discuss the behavior of the monitors and their potential applications.

  14. Air monitoring and assessment of occupational exposure to peracetic acid in a hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Pacenti, Marco; Dugheri, Stefano; Boccalon, Pierpaolo; Arcangeli, Giulio; Dolara, Piero; Cupelli, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    A new automated method based upon solid phase micro-extraction (SPME)/fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the quantitative determination of airborne peracetic acid (PAA). The method is suitable for the quick assessment of brief acute exposure as well as for long-term environmental monitoring of PAA and can assist in improving safety and environmental quality in workplaces where disinfectants are used. During a monitoring campaign in the Regional Hospital of Florence, Italy, the 8-h average air concentration of PAA was 1/10 of the threshold limit value of time weighted average in 87% of the clinical units tested. However, the application of the new SPME method showed that short-term exposure to PAA could be relatively elevated in some hospital units with poor ventilation, allowing prompt intervention in order to reduce worker exposure to this potentially toxic compound. PMID:20424354

  15. Influence of precipitation on (7)Be concentrations in air as measured by CTBTO global monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J; Gheddou, A; Nikkinen, M

    2015-06-01

    Data collected by the International Monitoring System (IMS) during 2009-2012 were used to study influence of precipitation and relative humidity on changes in (7)Be concentrations in atmosphere. The significant decrease in (7)Be concentrations, corresponding to measurements collected by stations located within Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is demonstrated. This effect can be attributed to the process of enhanced wet deposition within the ITCZ. To quantify this effect data collected by IMS stations within ITCZ were thoroughly analyzed. It was found that the atmospheric content of (7)Be strongly decreases under the rain conditions. The rain mediated depletion of (7)Be to half of its before rain value, needs about 62 h in case of light precipitation, while in the case of moderate precipitation about 38 h is needed. In addition the evaluated impact of humidity showed that increase in relative humidity by 20%, for example from 70% ± 5% to 90% ± 5% causes almost a double decrease in beryllium concentration in surface air. PMID:25847860

  16. Global Climate Monitoring with the EOS PM-Platform's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning 2 Radiometer (AMSR-E) is being built by NASDA to fly on NASA's PM Platform (now called Aqua) in December 2000. This is in addition to a copy of AMSR that will be launched on Japan's ADEOS-II satellite in 2001. The AMSRs improve upon the window frequency radiometer heritage of the SSM/I and SMMR instruments. Major improvements over those instruments include channels spanning the 6.9 GHz to 89 GHz frequency range, and higher spatial resolution from a 1.6 m reflector (AMSR-E) and 2.0 m reflector (ADEOS-II AMSR). The ADEOS-II AMSR also will have 50.3 and 52.8 GHz channels, providing sensitivity to lower tropospheric temperature. NASA funds an AMSR-E Science Team to provide algorithms for the routine production of a number of standard geophysical products. These products will be generated by the AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) at the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) in Huntsville, Alabama. While there is a separate NASDA-sponsored activity to develop algorithms and produce products from AMSR, as well as a Joint (NASDA-NASA) AMSR Science Team 3 activity, here I will review only the AMSR-E Team's algorithms and how they benefit from the new capabilities that AMSR-E will provide. The US Team's products will be archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).

  17. Enhanced Sensitivity of Gas Sensor Based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Thin-Film Transistors for Disease Diagnosis and Environment Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Marco R.; Izquierdo, José E. E.; Braga, Guilherme S.; Dirani, Ely A. T.; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A.; Rodríguez, Estrella F. G.; Fonseca, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic devices based on organic thin-film transistors (OTFT) have the potential to supply the demand for portable and low-cost gadgets, mainly as sensors for in situ disease diagnosis and environment monitoring. For that reason, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the active layer in the widely-used bottom-gate/bottom-contact OTFT structure was deposited over highly-doped silicon substrates covered with thermally-grown oxide to detect vapor-phase compounds. A ten-fold organochloride and ammonia sensitivity compared to bare sensors corroborated the application of this semiconducting polymer in sensors. Furthermore, P3HT TFTs presented approximately three-order higher normalized sensitivity than any chemical sensor addressed herein. The results demonstrate that while TFTs respond linearly at the lowest concentration values herein, chemical sensors present such an operating regime mostly above 2000 ppm. Simultaneous alteration of charge carrier mobility and threshold voltage is responsible for pushing the detection limit down to units of ppm of ammonia, as well as tens of ppm of alcohol or ketones. Nevertheless, P3HT transistors and chemical sensors could compose an electronic nose operated at room temperature for a wide range concentration evaluation (1–10,000 ppm) of gaseous analytes. Targeted analytes include not only biomarkers for diseases, such as uremia, cirrhosis, lung cancer and diabetes, but also gases for environment monitoring in food, cosmetic and microelectronics industries. PMID:25912354

  18. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Bruce; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This review identifies understudied areas of emerging contaminant (EC) research in wastewaters and the environment, and recommends direction for future monitoring. Non-regulated trace organic ECs including pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products are focused on due to ongoing policy initiatives and the expectant broadening of environmental legislation. These ECs are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, mainly derived from the discharge of municipal wastewater effluents. Their presence is of concern due to the possible ecological impact (e.g., endocrine disruption) to biota within the environment. To better understand their fate in wastewaters and in the environment, a standardised approach to sampling is needed. This ensures representative data is attained and facilitates a better understanding of spatial and temporal trends of EC occurrence. During wastewater treatment, there is a lack of suspended particulate matter analysis due to further preparation requirements and a lack of good analytical approaches. This results in the under-reporting of several ECs entering wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) and the aquatic environment. Also, sludge can act as a concentrating medium for some chemicals during wastewater treatment. The majority of treated sludge is applied directly to agricultural land without analysis for ECs. As a result there is a paucity of information on the fate of ECs in soils and consequently, there has been no driver to investigate the toxicity to exposed terrestrial organisms. Therefore a more holistic approach to environmental monitoring is required, such that the fate and impact of ECs in all exposed environmental compartments are studied. The traditional analytical approach of applying targeted screening with low resolution mass spectrometry (e.g., triple quadrupoles) results in numerous chemicals such as transformation products going undetected. These can exhibit similar toxicity to the parent EC, demonstrating the necessity of using an integrated analytical approach which compliments targeted and non-targeted screening with biological assays to measure ecological impact. With respect to current toxicity testing protocols, failure to consider the enantiomeric distribution of chiral compounds found in the environment, and the possible toxicological differences between enantiomers is concerning. Such information is essential for the development of more accurate environmental risk assessment. PMID:25267363

  19. An Assessment of Potential Detectors to Monitor the Man-made Orbital Debris Environment. [space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R. C.; Ruck, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Observations using NORAD radar showed that man made debris exceeds the natural environment for large objects. For short times (a few days to a few weeks) after solid rocket motor (SRM) firings in LEO, man made debris in the microparticle size range also appears to exceed the meteoroid environment. The properties of the debris population between these size regimes is currently unknown as there has been no detector system able to perform the required observations. The alternatives for obtaining data on this currently unobserved segment of the population are assessed.

  20. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The awareness of potentially significant impacts of space weather on spaceand ground ]based technological systems has generated a strong desire in many sectors of government and industry to effectively transform knowledge and understanding of the variable space environment into useful tools and applications for use by those entities responsible for systems that may be vulnerable to space weather impacts. Essentially, effectively transitioning science knowledge to useful applications relevant to space weather has become important. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective, and how in the current environment those can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  1. Automatic laser beam alignment using blob detection for an environment monitoring spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khidir, Jarjees; Chen, Youhua; Anderson, Gary

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a fully automated system to align an infra-red laser beam with a small retro-reflector over a wide range of distances. The component development and test were especially used for an open-path spectrometer gas detection system. Using blob detection under OpenCV library, an automatic alignment algorithm was designed to achieve fast and accurate target detection in a complex background environment. Test results are presented to show that the proposed algorithm has been successfully applied to various target distances and environment conditions.

  2. The Ozone Layer. UNEP/GEMS Environment Library No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    Since the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) was created, more than a dozen years ago, public understanding of the environmental issues confronting our planet has increased enormously. The Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) has provided several environmental assessments. The aim of the UNEP/GEMS Environment Library is to provide…

  3. An Optical Fiber-Based Sensor Array for the Monitoring of Zinc and Copper Ions in Aqueous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kopitzke, Steven; Geissinger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Copper and zinc are elements commonly used in industrial applications as aqueous solutions. Before the solutions can be discharged into civil or native waterways, waste treatment processes must be undertaken to ensure compliance with government guidelines restricting the concentration of ions discharged in solution. While currently there are methods of analysis available to monitor these solutions, each method has disadvantages, be it high costs, inaccuracy, and/or being time-consuming. In this work, a new optical fiber-based platform capable of providing fast and accurate results when performing solution analysis for these metals is described. Fluorescent compounds that exhibit a high sensitivity and selectivity for either zinc or copper have been employed for fabricating the sensors. These sensors demonstrated sub-part-per-million detection limits, 30-second response times, and the ability to analyze samples with an average error of under 10%. The inclusion of a fluorescent compound as a reference material to compensate for fluctuations from pulsed excitation sources has further increased the reliability and accuracy of each sensor. Finally, after developing sensors capable of monitoring zinc and copper individually, these sensors are combined to form a single optical fiber sensor array capable of simultaneously monitoring concentration changes in zinc and copper in aqueous environments. PMID:24549250

  4. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the literature and results of a monitoring study at selected sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory reservation. In the field, ten species of small mammals were trapped at contaminated and reference sites to monitor for exposure to mercury, strontium-90, and benzo(a)pyrene. Residue analyses and a hemoglobin-adduct assay were performed on the animals. Accumulation of mercury in kidney tissue and strontium-90 in bone was related to the degree of contamination of the environment as well as trophic level of the species. Both shorttail shrews and white-footed mice trapped at the mercury-contaminated site had significantly higher concentrations of mercury in kidney tissue than those trapped at the control site, with the insectivorous shrew having a higher concentration than the omnivorous mouse. Strontium-90 was present in the bone of all species trapped at the radionuclide-contaminated sites, but was highest in the eastern harvest mouse. The hemoglobin-adduct assay was evaluated as an indicator of subchronic exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in the laboratory and chronic exposure in the field.

  5. Geochronology of Pb and Hg pollution in a coastal marine environment using global fallout 137Cs.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Chavan, S B; Pandit, G G; Sadasivan, S

    2003-01-01

    Global fallout 137Cs was used for dating sediment cores and estimation of recent sedimentation rates (up to 1 cm/y) in the Thane Creek, which lies in the southern part of the Deccan belt of India. The residence time of 210Pb in the Thane Creek water was calculated to be 0.7 years. Further, the concentrations of Pb (up to 70 microg/g) and Hg (up to 10 microg/g) in sediment profiles were measured to assess the anthropogenic input of contaminants due to large-scale industrialization, which has taken place in this area over the last two decades. The depth-wise concentration profile of Hg shows positive evidence of continued fresh input into the Creek. PMID:12860095

  6. Global MHD Simulations of Space Plasma Environments: Heliosphere, Comets, Magnetospheres of Plants and Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kabin, K.; Hansen, K. C.; Gombosi, T. I.; Combi, M. R.; Linde, T. J.; DeZeeuw, D. L.; Groth, C. P. T.; Powell, K. G.; Nagy, A. F.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides an approximate description of a great variety of processes in space physics. Accurate numerical solutions of the MHD equations are still a challenge, but in the past decade a number of robust methods have appeared. Once these techniques made the direct solution of MHD equations feasible, a number of global three-dimensional models were designed and applied to many space physics objects. The range of these objects is truly astonishing, including active galactic nuclei, the heliosphere, the solar corona, and the solar wind interaction with planets, satellites, and comets. Outside the realm of space physics, MHD theory has been applied to such diverse problems as laboratory plasmas and electromagnetic casting of liquid metals. In this paper we present a broad spectrum of models of different phenomena in space science developed in the recent years at the University of Michigan. Although the physical systems addressed by these models are different, they all use the MHD equations as a unifying basis.

  7. Abundance in Capital: Global Risk Sharing and Insurance in a Changing Financial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Gero; Schaper, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Insurance has played a viable role in the hedging of homeowners and commercial risks around the world. Countries that have significant penetration in insurance have in addition performed better after large regional or over-regional catastrophic losses. Insurance has hence increased the resilience of western societies. This is opposed to emerging or developing markets with low insurance penetration which have suffered significant drawbacks in their development after large catastrophic events. Examples include the recent Typhoon(s) in the Philippines and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. This presentation will provide insights into the opportunities, views and risk management features a global reinsurance company must assume in order to hedge and mitigate risk across the world. During the past year, an unprecedented amount of new capital has been entering the insurance market, looking for profitable investments outside the much wider capital market. Catastrophe insurance is seen as a valuable alternative to investing in assets that that have shown low returns and high correlation in the recent financial meltdown. The new capital is mostly deployed - or competing with already deployed capital - in the US where insurance penetration is already high. This is opposed to more than half of the world including all developing and most emerging countries which have low insurance penetration and often lack infrastructure hindering new capital to be deployed effectively. What is needed to overcome this obvious deficiency in capital supply and demand? One reason why it is difficult to deploy capital in developing countries is the lack of available exposure information and catastrophe models. This presentation sheds light on the potential science needs of our market and gives an overview of what is being done at Montpelier, a global reinsurance company, to understand catastrophe risk around the globe.

  8. GlobVolcano pre-operational services for global monitoring active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampellini, Lucia; Ratti, Raffaella; Borgström, Sven; Seifert, Frank Martin; Peltier, Aline; Kaminski, Edouard; Bianchi, Marco; Branson, Wendy; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Hirn, Barbara; van der Voet, Paul; van Geffen, J.

    2010-05-01

    The GlobVolcano project (2007-2010) is part of the Data User Element programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The project aims at demonstrating Earth Observation (EO) based integrated services to support the Volcano Observatories and other mandate users (e.g. Civil Protection) in their monitoring activities. The information services are assessed in close cooperation with the user organizations for different types of volcano, from various geographical areas in various climatic zones. In a first phase, a complete information system has been designed, implemented and validated, involving a limited number of test areas and respective user organizations. In the currently on-going second phase, GlobVolcano is delivering pre-operational services over 15 volcanic sites located in three continents and as many user organizations are involved and cooperating with the project team. The set of GlobVolcano offered EO based information products is composed as follows: Deformation Mapping DInSAR (Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) has been used to study a wide range of surface displacements related to different phenomena (e.g. seismic faults, volcanoes, landslides) at a spatial resolution of less than 100 m and cm-level precision. Permanent Scatterers SAR Interferometry method (PSInSARTM) has been introduced by Politecnico of Milano as an advanced InSAR technique capable of measuring millimetre scale displacements of individual radar targets on the ground by using multi-temporal data-sets, estimating and removing the atmospheric components. Other techniques (e.g. CTM) have followed similar strategies and have shown promising results in different scenarios. Different processing approaches have been adopted, according to data availability, characteristic of the area and dynamic characteristics of the volcano. Conventional DInSAR: Colima (Mexico), Nyiragongo (Congo), Pico (Azores), Areanal (Costa Rica) PSInSARTM: Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island), Stromboli and Volcano (Italy), Hilo (Hawai), Mt. St. Helens (United States), CTM (Coherent Target Monitoring): Cumbre Vieja (La Palma) To generate products either Envisat ASAR, Radarsat 1or ALOS PALSAR data have been used. Surface Thermal Anomalies Volcanic hot-spots detection, radiant flux and effusion rate (where applicable) calculation of high temperature surface thermal anomalies such as active lava flow, strombolian activity, lava dome, pyroclastic flow and lava lake can be performed through MODIS (Terra / Aqua) MIR and TIR channels, or ASTER (Terra), HRVIR/HRGT (SPOT4/5) and Landsat family SWIR channels analysis. ASTER and Landsat TIR channels allow relative radiant flux calculation of low temperature anomalies such as lava and pyroclastic flow cooling, crater lake and low temperature fumarolic fields. MODIS, ASTER and SPOT data are processed to detect and measure the following volcanic surface phenomena: Effusive activity Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island); Mt Etna (Italy). Lava dome growths, collapses and related pyroclastic flows Soufrière Hills (Montserrat); Arenal - (Costa Rica). Permanent crater lake and ephemeral lava lake Karthala (Comores Islands). Strombolian activity Stromboli (Italy). Low temperature fumarolic fields Nisyros (Greece), Vulcano (Italy), Mauna Loa (Hawaii). Volcanic Emission The Volcanic Emission Service is provided to the users by a link to GSE-PROMOTE - Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). The aim of the service is to deliver in near-real-time data derived from satellite measurements regarding SO2 emissions (SO2 vertical column density - Dobson Unit [DU]) possibly related to volcanic eruptions and to track the ash injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption. SO2 measurements are derived from different satellite instruments, such as SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2. The tracking of volcanic ash is accomplished by using SEVIRI-MSG data and, in particular, the following channels VIS 0.6 and IR 3.9, and along with IR8.7, IR 10.8 and IR 12.0. The GlobVolcano information system and its current experimentation represent a