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1

Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS): The World of Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) Program "provides scientifically-sound data and information on the state and trends of global inland water quality required as a basis for the sustainable management of the world's freshwater to support global environmental assessments and decision- making processes." The website offers newsletters about water quality, downloads of annual reports, links to research projects that utilize the GEMS' data, and information on education and training. Researchers can search global water quality data by location at the GEM Stat link.

2

Global Atmospheric Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global atmospheric monitoring plans of the World Meteorological Organization are detailed. Single and multipurpose basic monitoring systems and the monitoring of chemical properties are discussed. The relationship of the World Meteorological Organization with the United Nations environment program is discussed. A map of the World…

Wallen, Carl C.

1975-01-01

3

Environment Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viking landers touched down on Mars equipped with a variety of systems to conduct automated research, each carrying a compact but highly sophisticated instrument for analyzing Martian soil and atmosphere. Instrument called a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) had to be small, lightweight, shock resistant, highly automated and extremely sensitive, yet require minimal electrical power. Viking Instruments Corporation commercialized this technology and targeted their primary market as environmental monitoring, especially toxic and hazardous waste site monitoring. Waste sites often contain chemicals in complex mixtures, and the conventional method of site characterization, taking samples on-site and sending them to a laboratory for analysis is time consuming and expensive. Other terrestrial applications are explosive detection in airports, drug detection, industrial air monitoring, medical metabolic monitoring and for military, chemical warfare agents.

1988-01-01

4

Monitoring global vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt is made to identify the need for, and the current capability of, a technology which could aid in monitoring the Earth's vegetation resource on a global scale. Vegetation is one of our most critical natural resources, and accurate timely information on its current status and temporal dynamics is essential to understand many basic and applied environmental interrelationships which exist on the small but complex planet Earth.

Macdonald, R. B.; Houston, A. G.; Heydorn, R. P.; Botkin, D. B.; Estes, J. E.; Strahler, A. H.

1981-01-01

5

Review of the Applications of Formosat-2 on Rapidly Responding to Global Disasters and Monitoring Earth Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formosat-2 is the first satellite with high-spatial-resolution sensor deployed in a daily-revisit orbit in the world. Together with its agility of pointing ±45 degree both across and along track, we are able to observe each accessible scene from the same angle under the similar illumination conditions. These characteristics make Formosat-2 an ideal satellite for site surveillance. We developed a Formosat-2 automatic image processing system (F-2 AIPS) that can accurately and rapidly process a large amount of Formosat-2 images to produce the higher levels of products, including rigorous band-to-band coregistration, automatic orthorectification, multi-temporal image coregistration and radiance normalization, and pan-sharpening. This system has been successfully employed to rapidly respond to many international disaster events in the past five years, including flood caused by Typhoon Mindulle (2004), landslide caused by Typhoon Aere (2004), South Asia earthquake and tsunami (2004), Hurricane Katrina (2005), California wildfire (2007), Sichuan Earthquake (2008), Typhoon Kalmaegi (2008), Typhoon Sinlaku (2008), Mountain Ali wildfire (2009), Victoria bushfire in Australia (2009), Honduras earthquake (2009), Typhoon Morakot (2009). This paper reviews the applications of Formosat-2 on rapidly responding to global disasters and monitoring earth environment.

Liu, C.

2009-12-01

6

(Managing the global environment)  

SciTech Connect

The conference was stimulated by concern that policy makers increasingly have to make environmental management decisions in the absence of solidly established scientific consensus about ecological processes and the consequences of human actions. Often, as in the case of climate change, some decisions may have to be made in the absence of information that is desirable but may not be available for years to come, if ever. Six topics were identified as running throughout the Congress. These were: the epistemology and history of the sciences or disciplines concerned with the environment, including the scientific basis of rationality and modes of dealing with uncertainty and complexity; the social, economic, and institutional conditions for the production of knowledge bearing on the environment, including the politics of research and the improvement of scientific data; the structuring and institutionalization of expert assessments on national and international levels, including the global distribution of expertise; the means of establishing scientific information, the role of the media in transmitting and processing knowledge about the environment, and the organization of public environmental debate; and decision making and management under conditions of uncertainty; and, finally the relationship between science and ethics. 13 refs.

Rayner, S.F.

1989-10-03

7

GLobal Integrated Design Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a collaborative engineering application built to resolve the design session issues of real-time passing of data between multiple discipline experts in a collaborative environment. Utilizing Web protocols and multiple programming languages, GLIDE allows engineers to use the applications to which they are accustomed in this case, Excel to send and receive datasets via the Internet to a database-driven Web server. Traditionally, a collaborative design session consists of one or more engineers representing each discipline meeting together in a single location. The discipline leads exchange parameters and iterate through their respective processes to converge on an acceptable dataset. In cases in which the engineers are unable to meet, their parameters are passed via e-mail, telephone, facsimile, or even postal mail. The result of this slow process of data exchange would elongate a design session to weeks or even months. While the iterative process remains in place, software can now exchange parameters securely and efficiently, while at the same time allowing for much more information about a design session to be made available. GLIDE is written in a compilation of several programming languages, including REALbasic, PHP, and Microsoft Visual Basic. GLIDE client installers are available to download for both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems. The GLIDE client software is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2000 or later on Windows systems, and with Microsoft Excel X or later on Macintosh systems. GLIDE follows the Client-Server paradigm, transferring encrypted and compressed data via standard Web protocols. Currently, the engineers use Excel as a front end to the GLIDE Client, as many of their custom tools run in Excel.

Kunkel, Matthew; McGuire, Melissa; Smith, David A.; Gefert, Leon P.

2011-01-01

8

Global nuclear material monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project provided a detailed systems design for advanced integrated facility monitoring and identified the components and enabling technologies required to facilitate the development of the monitoring system of the future.

Howell, J.A.; Monlove, H.O.; Goulding, C.A.; Martinez, B.J.; Coulter, C.A.

1997-08-01

9

The Global Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What can we teachers do? For students we can provide a strong background in the process of science and in scientific ethics. We can encourage students to apply such knowledge wisely throughout their lives. For the public at large, we can speak out in favor of real science at every opportunity. It is possible that the current scientific consensus on global warming is based on incomplete evidence, but global warming ought not be dismissed as unscientific or a hoax, and scientists ought not allow that to happen. As we celebrate National Chemistry Week, we should resolve to support chemistry and science as strongly as we can.

Moore, John W.

2003-10-01

10

Monitoring Global Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the United Nations Environment Program which is composed of the World Health Organization project (including 42 participating countries) and the World Meteorological Organization Network which includes 60 countries. (BB)

de Koning, H. W.; Kohler, A.

1978-01-01

11

Mercury environment monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a development of analytical techniques and a portable high selective analyzer for measuring mercury content in the atmosphere, water, soil and biological objects to use them in ecological monitoring and to control technological processes with mercury and the compounds thereof. Provision of mercury monitoring is made from background to maximum permissible concentration (MPC).

Antipov, A. B.; Genina, E. Y.; Melnikov, N. G.; Kashkan, G. V.

1995-10-01

12

Monitoring the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New ways of obtaining environmental data are being developed to meet the demand for comprehensive, accurate, and timely information on the environment. This article examines four developments that are transforming the entire field of environmental measurement: spectroscopy; satellite transmission of environmental data; remote sensing; and…

Heins, Conrad F.; And Others

1975-01-01

13

Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.  

PubMed

Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. PMID:24074215

Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

2013-10-01

14

Ecosystem monitoring at global baseline sites.  

PubMed

Integrated ecosystem and pollutant monitoring is being conducted at prototype global baseline sites in remote areas of the Noatak National Preserve, Alaska, the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming, and Torres del Paine National Park, Chile. A systems approach has been used in the design of these projects. This approach includes: (1) evaluation of source-receptor relationships, (2) multimedia (i.e., air, water, soil, biota) monitoring of key contaminant pathways within the environment, (3) the use of selected ecosystem parameters to detect anthropogenic influence, and (4) the application of a systems conceptual framework as a heuristic tool.Initial short-term studies of air quality (e.g. SO2, NO2) plus trace metal concentrations in mosses generally indicate pristine conditions at all three of the above sites as expected although trace metals in mosses were higher at the Wyoming site. Selected ecosystem parameters for both terrestrial (e.g. litter decomposition) and aquatic (e.g. shredders, a macroinvertebrate functional feeding group) habitats at the Wyoming site reflected baseline conditions when compared to other studies.Plans also are being made to use U.S. Department of Energy Research Parks for global change monitoring. This will involve cross-site analyses of existing ecological databases and the design of a future monitoring network based on a systems approach as outlined in this paper. PMID:24233371

Bruns, D A; Wiersma, G B; Rykiel, E J

1991-04-01

15

Monitoring Global Ocean Carbon Inventories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword by OOSDP chairman; Preface by Author; Significance of a Changing Oceanic Carbon Inventory; The Case for Monitoring Ocean Carbon Inventories; Ocean Carbon Monitoring Approaches (Air-Sea Fluxes, CO(sub 2) Transport within the Ocean, Inven...

D. W. R. Wallace

1995-01-01

16

Global Resources, Environment, and Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Former President Jimmy Carter discusses the "Global 2000 Report" and the need for coordination, political leadership, unified action, research and development, and for education. A list of recommendations based on the issues and topics discussed is included. (JN)

Carter, Jimmy

1984-01-01

17

MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has conducted first studies on a Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (MEMOS). The MEMOS microsatellite (mass < 20 kg) will accommodate four scientific instruments: solar EUV/UV monitor (SEM), solar wind monitor (SWIM), magnetometer (MAG) and radiation environment monitor (REM). The payload monitors the solar conditions at Mars and characterizes the Mars environment to support other missions and science investigations. Monitoring of the solar wind parameters (velocity, density, and field) is the key for any aeronomy and solar wind interaction mission at Mars. The solar EUV / UV (HeII 30.4 nm and HII 121.6 nm) flux monitoring is required for upper atmosphere / ionosphere studies. The radiation environment monitoring is needed to study space weather effects on the near-Mars environment as well as for the preparations for man-flights. MEMOS follows the design philosophy of a detached and autonomously flying instrument for achieving the mentioned objectives. It is intended to be carried "piggy-back" to Mars on a suitable mission. Potential missions are: ESA Mars orbiters within the NEXT or Cosmic Vision programs, NASA Mars orbiters, national / bilateral Mars missions. At Mars MEMOS is separated from its carrier (parent satellite) via the release mechanism implemented in the dual formation flight mission PRISMA. The separation will take place during the orbit insertion scenario of the parent satellite at Mars thus placing MEMOS in a highly elliptical orbit guarantying sufficient observation time in the solar wind. In orbit MEMOS will autonomously detumble and spin-up to ~1 rpm for reasons of stabilization and to fulfill instrument requirements. Such a low spin-rate is sufficient for a required inertial pointing accuracy of 2.5° because of the small external disturbance torques (< 10-7 Nm) predominant at Mars responsible for nutation and precession of the spin-axis. The advances in micropropulsion systems providing ?NmN adjustable thrust levels and reducing the dry mass to ~2 kg respectively are key factors in keeping the microsatellite stabilized and sun-pointed without stressing the mass budget. The low thrust level enables precise and active nutation damping. Moreover the system offers the possibility of implementing active orbit control or formation flight demonstrations at Mars. Attitude will be determined on-board with an accuracy < 1.0° using miniaturized Horizon Crossing Indicators, a two-axis sun sensor and in support accelerometers and gyroscopes based on MEMS-technology. TM/TC will be relayed via the parent satellite in the UHF frequency range. Therefore the Electra Lite (ELT) Proximity-1 transceiver will autonomously communicate with the parent satellite at inter-satellite ranges < 10 000 km featuring adaptive bit rates > 2 kbit/s. The transceiver also implements a coherent transponding mode for orbit determination through two-way Doppler ranging between the parent satellite and MEMOS. In addition ELT is compatible with a future Martian communication and navigation network pursued by NASA, which could be taken advantage of in the future for relaying data or performing ranging via other satellites part of the network. A system design driver for inter-satellite communication at Mars is the high demand of power. This leads to a disk-shape and thus easy to accommodate spacecraft configuration of MEMOS comprising a single sun-pointing solar array favourable in terms of power and spin stability. Multi-junction solar cells, which currently have an efficiency of ~29% under laboratory conditions are a key factor to keep MEMOS solar array area of ~1.15 m2 small compared to the worst case system power requirements of ~105 W. During eclipse periods high-efficient Li-ion batteries (6 x 20 Wh) will ensure power supply. The spacecraft and payload design will incorporate new technology developments such as autonomous navigation, MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS, Micro- Opto-ElectroMechanical Sys

Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.

2007-08-01

18

Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the days when John Muir walked across its campus, there has been a keen interest in the environment at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. The Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment keeps this tradition alive through its different projects and publications. Perhaps the best part of the site is the Atlas of the Biosphere, which contains numerous maps documenting environmental phenomena across the globe, such as water resources, ecosystems, land use patterns, and human impact, at a variety of scales. The Atlas also contains the data sets that were used to generate these different thematic maps. Related material on the site includes several different global ecosystem and terrestrial hydrology models that have been created by the Center, and are made publicly available here for general review. Providing engaging scholarship and general information about the relationship between humankind and the environment makes the Center's work both timely and of great interest.

1969-12-31

19

Assessment of global environment using microwave radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing countries are presently undergoing rapid industrialization and urbanization as a result numerous gases are being released into the atmosphere which affect the global environment and climate. In the present paper, we have studied the potentiality of microwave radiometers in mapping atmospheric anomalies such as air pollutants, aerosols, hydrometeors and sandstorms. The microwave attenuation and time series analysis of the dielectric constant of atmosphere are discussed for the Indian industrialized and urbanized cities to assess the climatic perturbations qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keshari, Ashok K.; Singh, Ramesh P.

1994-01-01

20

AVHRR for monitoring global tropical deforestation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data have been used to assess the dynamics of forest trnsformations in three parts of the tropical belt. A large portion of the Amazon Basin has been systematically covered by Local Area Coverage (LAC) data in the 1985-1987 period. The analysis of the vegetation index and thermal data led to the identification and measurement of large areas of active deforestation. The Kalimantan/Borneo forest fires were monitored and their impact was evaluated using the Global Area Coverage (GAC) 4 km resolution data. Finally, High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data have provided preliminary information on current activities taking place at the boundary between the savanna and the forest in the Southern part of West Africa. The AVHRR approach is found to be a highly valuable means for carrying out deforestation assessments in regional and global perspectives.

Malingreau, J. P.; Laporte, N.; Tucker, C. J.

1989-01-01

21

Monitoring Seasons Through Global Learning Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring Seasons through Global Learning Communities (MSTGLC) is an inquiry- and project-based project that monitors seasons, specifically their interannual variability, in order to increase K-12 students' understanding of the Earth system by providing teacher professional development in Earth system science and inquiry, and engaging K-12 students in Earth system science research relevant to their local communities that connect globally. MSTGLC connects GLOBE students, teachers, and communities, with educators and scientists from three integrated Earth systems science programs: the International Arctic Research Center, and NASA Landsat Data Continuity and Terra Satellite Missions. The project organizes GLOBE schools by biomes into eight Global Learning Communities (GLCs) and students monitor their seasons through regional based field campaigns. The project expands the current GLOBE phenology network by adapting current protocols and making them biome-specific. In addition, ice and mosquito phenology protocols will be developed for Arctic and Tropical regions, respectively. Initially the project will focus on Tundra and Taiga biomes as phenological changes are so pronounced in these regions. However, our long-term goal is to determine similar changes in other biomes (Deciduous Forest, Desert, Grasslands, Rain Forest, Savannah and Shrubland) based upon what we learn from these two biomes. This project will also contribute to critically needed Earth system science data such as in situ ice, mosquito, and vegetation phenology measurements for ground validations of remotely sensed data, which are essential for regional climate change impact assessments. Additionally it will contribute environmental data critical to prevention and management of diseases such as malaria in Asian, African, and other countries. Furthermore, this project will enable students to participate in the International Polar Year (IPY) (2007-2009) through field campaigns conducted by students in polar regions, and web chats between IPY scientists and GLOBE students from all eight GLCs that include non-polar countries.

Sparrow, E. B.; Robin, J. H.; Jeffries, M. O.; Gordon, L. S.; Verbyla, D. L.; Levine, E. R.

2006-12-01

22

Passive Global, Real-Time TEC Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensors are being developed to provide a satellite-based VHF global lightning monitor (e.g. Suszcynsky, et al., "VHF Global Lightning and Severe Storm Monitoring from Space: Storm-level Characterization of VHF Lightning Emissions," EOS Trans. AGU 2001 Fall Mt. Prog. And Abstr. 82, No. 47, F143, 2001). Dispersive effects of propagation of the lightning electromagnetic wave through the ionospheric and plasmaspheric plasmas cause the higher frequency components to arrive at the satellite before lower frequency components. From the time-of-arrival at several frequencies we can derive the TEC between the satellite and the lightning. Using multi-satellite techniques we can geolocate the lightning and the ionospheric penetration point quite accurately. A single ground station could provide essentially real-time regional TEC coverage. Four ground stations could provide global, real-time TEC measurements to supplement existing ground-based systems, especially over broad ocean areas. We expect several lightning detections per satellite per minute. Temporal resolution will be limited only by ground segment processing. Spatial coverage and resolution will be limited by lightning occurrence, but many commercial sector TEC requirements are also correlated to lightning occurrence. With our FORTE (Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events) satellite we sense lightning over most of the globe including the oceans. We expect to determine TEC spatial gradients with tens of km resolution. This capability should be especially useful in severe convective weather to aircraft using GPS-based navigation, e.g. the FAA's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS).

Pongratz, M. B.

2002-12-01

23

Monitoring periglacial processes: Towards construction of a global network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the strategy for constructing a global monitoring network for periglacial processes. The monitoring system should be designed with appropriate choices of parameters and techniques, which depend on the purpose of monitoring (e.g. modelling individual processes or assessing the sediment budget of a catchment). Acquisition of comparable data from globally distributed sites requires standardized techniques and instruments. In

Norikazu Matsuoka

2006-01-01

24

Monitoring Global Freshwater Resources with GRACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Freshwater resources include surface waters, groundwater, and seasonal snowpack. Given adequate ground based measurements, all of these can be monitored effectively, however, outside of the developed world such measurements often are not systematic and the data not centralized, and as a result reports of freshwater availability may be largely anecdotal. Even in the developed world it can be difficult to quantify changes in groundwater storage over large scales. Owing to its global coverage, satellite remote sensing has become a valuable tool for freshwater resources assessment. In particular, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has demonstrated an unequaled ability to monitor total terrestrial water storage including groundwater at regional to continental scales. In this presentation we will identify apparent trends in terrestrial water storage observed by GRACE over the past nine years and attempt to explain their origins and predict whether they are likely to continue. Trends in certain regions where groundwater extraction has significantly depleted aquifers, including northern India and California, will be discussed in detail.

Rodell, Matt; Famiglietti, Jay; Velicogna, Isabella; Swenson, Sean; Chambers, Don

2011-01-01

25

Monitoring tropical environments with Space Shuttle photography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbital photography from the Space Shuttle missions (1981-88) and earlier manned spaceflight programs (1962-1975) allows remote sensing time series to be constructed for observations of environmental change in selected portions of the global tropics. Particular topics and regions include deforestation, soil erosion, supersedimentation in streams, lacustrine, and estuarine environments, and desertification in the greater Amazon, tropical Africa and Madagascar, South and Southeast Asia, and the Indo-Pacific archipelagoes.

Helfert, Michael R.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.

1989-01-01

26

Population and environment: a global report.  

PubMed

This article relates the experiences of IMPACT, a USAID-funded project to involve the international press in reporting on the link between the environment and population growth. A conference, cohosted by the UN Environmental Program, was held in Nairobi, Kenya for 11 editors of Third World countries. A special supplement of 16 pages, "The Global Edition," was to be published in their journals. It focused on the challenges of sustainable development. All the editors contributed to the 1st 8 pages on worldwide issues. The theme of the "Child 5 Billion" was used, and population data and demographic information was reported. Each editor contributed the last 8 pages. The target audience was 2 million readers of Arabic, Bengali, English, French, Spanish, and Thai. Censorship was a concern in some countries. Examples were given of approaches used in Kenya, Zimbabwe, English-speaking Africa, Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand. In Kenya, the population growth problem was identified as the "hardened attitudes" of the childbearing population and not technology and drugs. Poverty was considered the cause of environmental destruction. Proper allocation of resources by young persons will lead to achievement of wealth. The poor must stop resisting change. Foreign aid has failed. Government is caught in the middle. In Zimbabwe, economic growth and population declines were objectives. The failures of neighboring countries were pointed out. The change agents were Africans themselves. The English-speaking African magazine emphasized the problem of desertification and population explosion, and suggested vigorous family planning (FP) efforts. The magazine does not appear in the Arab world where FP is not accepted. In Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand greater attention was paid to environmental issues. In Colombia and Bangladesh, economic factors were considered the cause of environmental degradation. In Mexico and Thailand, the environment was something to be protected or defended, and the link to population ignored. The accomplishment was in the sense of common purpose felt by the 11 editors, who thought their problems were regional or national. The next topic suggested was the urban environment, followed, after some discussion on feasibility, by global warming. PMID:12282935

Carty, W P

1989-01-01

27

Sentinel-5 Precursor: Global Monitoring of Atmospheric Trace Gases & Aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA's Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) Mission will form part of the Space Component under the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative. It represents a preparatory project for the GMES atmospheric missions that comprise both a geo-stationary (Sentinel-4 / part of MTG-S payload) and a polar orbiting (Sentinel-5 / MetOp Second Generation) component. In view of the planned launch date of around 2020 for the first S-4 MTG-S and MetOp-SG spacecrafts, respectively, S5P (launch: mid 2015) shall minimize gaps in the availability of global atmospheric data products as provided by its predecessor missions SCIAMACHY (Envisat) and OMI (AURA). The satellite's single payload instrument, TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument), is jointly developed by The Netherlands and ESA. Covering spectral channels located in the UV, visible, near- and short-wave infrared it will measure various key species including stratospheric ozone, as well as NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, CH2O and aerosols, specifically in the lower Troposphere. The envisaged formation flying with NASA's Suomi NPP satellite will allow use of high spatial resolution imager data for enhanced cloud clearing of the observational data specifically in the short-wave infrared range. An outline of the Sentinel-5P mission objectives will be given. The status of development activities, covering Spacecraft and the Ground Segment will be presented.

Nett, Herbert; McMullan, Kevin; Ingmann, Paul

2013-04-01

28

Global monitoring of wetlands--the value of ENVISAT ASAR Global mode.  

PubMed

This paper elaborates on recent advances in the use of ScanSAR technologies for wetland-related research. Applications of active satellite radar systems include the monitoring of inundation dynamics as well as time series analyses of surface soil wetness. For management purposes many wetlands, especially those in dry regions, need to be monitored for short and long-term changes. Another application of these technologies is monitoring the impact of climate change in permafrost transition zones where peatlands form one of the major land cover types. Therefore, examples from boreal and subtropical environments are presented using the analysed ENVISAT ASAR Global mode (GM, 1 km resolution) data acquired in 2005 and 2006. In the case of the ENVISAT ASAR instrument, data availability of the rather coarse Global Mode depends on request priorities of other competing modes, but acquisition frequency may still be on average fortnightly to monthly depending on latitude. Peatland types covering varying permafrost regimes of the West Siberian Lowlands can be distinguished from each other and other land cover by multi-temporal analyses. Up to 75% of oligotrophic bogs can be identified in the seasonal permafrost zone in both years. The high seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of the subtropic Okavango Delta can also be captured by GM time series. Response to increased precipitation in 2006 differs from flood propagation patterns. In addition, relative soil moisture maps may provide a valuable data source in order to account for external hydrological factors of such complex wetland ecosystems. PMID:18343560

Bartsch, A; Wagner, W; Scipal, K; Pathe, C; Sabel, D; Wolski, P

2009-05-01

29

Globalization Contextualized: An Organization-Environment Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past two decades, changes in higher education, the emerging global economy, and other social changes all influence the environment in which community colleges operate. This article investigates leadership perceptions of adaptation to a rapidly globalizing education environment. Data were collected through a multisite case study that…

Frost, Robert A.

2009-01-01

30

Internetworking: Automated Local and Global Network Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commercial applications for network monitoring are expensive and therefore not widely available to the majority of network users. Public domain network monitoring software is generally effective in the hands of an expert but difficult to use by the common...

E. B. Edwards

1996-01-01

31

Microbial monitoring of spacecraft and associated environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid microbial monitoring technologies are invaluable in assessing contamination of spacecraft and associated environments. Universal and widespread elements of microbial structure and chemistry are logical targets for assessing microbial burden. Several biomarkers such as ATP, LPS, and DNA (ribosomal or spore-specific), were targeted to quantify either total bioburden or specific types of microbial contamination. The findings of these assays were compared with conventional, culture-dependent methods. This review evaluates the applicability and efficacy of some of these methods in monitoring the microbial burden of spacecraft and associated environments. Samples were collected from the surfaces of spacecraft, from surfaces of assembly facilities, and from drinking water reservoirs aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Culture-dependent techniques found species of Bacillus to be dominant on these surfaces. In contrast, rapid, culture-independent techniques revealed the presence of many Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms, as well as actinomycetes and fungi. These included both cultivable and noncultivable microbes, findings further confirmed by DNA-based microbial detection techniques. Although the ISS drinking water was devoid of cultivable microbes, molecular-based techniques retrieved DNA sequences of numerous opportunistic pathogens. Each of the methods tested in this study has its advantages, and by coupling two or more of these techniques even more reliable information as to microbial burden is rapidly obtained. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag.

La Duc, M. T.; Kern, R.; Venkateswaran, K.

2004-01-01

32

The Environment to Come: A Global Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six major reports have recently assessed the state of the world in terms of energy, food, population, natural resources, pollution, and economic development. These reports include: (1) "The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century"; (2) "Global Future: Time to Act"; (3) "World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource…

Murphy, Elaine M.

33

Toward global baselines and monitoring of forest cover for REDD: the Global Forest Cover Change project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) procedures in support of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) require the establishment of historical baselines of forest cover and changes, as well as consistent monitoring of subsequent forest gains and losses over time. Under the NASA MEaSUREs program, the Global Forest Cover Change project is using the USGS Global Land Survey (GLS)

J. O. Sexton; C. Huang; J. G. Masek; M. Feng; R. Narasimhan; E. F. Vermote; M. C. Hansen; R. E. Wolfe; S. Channan; J. R. Townshend

2010-01-01

34

Monitoring Global Climate Change: The Case of Greenhouse Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent record high temperatures and drought conditions in many regions of the United States have prompted heightened concern about whether these are early manifestations of the global green house warming projected by the major climate models. An improved global climate monitoring and reporting capability is urgently needed in order to ensure that interpretation of climate trends and comparison with model

Fred B. Wood

1990-01-01

35

Potential global fire monitoring from EOS-MODIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MEDIS) on the polarorbiting Earth Observation System (EeS) providing morning and evening global observations in 1999 and afternoon and night observations in 2000. These four MEDIS daily fire observations will advance global fire monitoring with special 1 km resolution fire channels at 4 and 11

Yoram J. Kaufman; Christopher O. Justice; Luke P. Flynn; Jackie D. Kendall; Elaine M. Prins; Louis Giglio; Darold E. Ward; W. Paul Menzel; Alberto W. Setzer

1998-01-01

36

A Framework for Global Illumination in Animated Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new framework for efficiently computing and storing global illumination effects for complex, animated environments. The new framework allows the rapid generation of sequences representing any arbitra ry path in a \\

Jeffry Nimeroff; Julie Dorsey; Holly E. Rushmeier

1995-01-01

37

Remote monitoring: A global partnership for safeguards  

SciTech Connect

With increased awareness of the significant changes of the past several years and their effect on the expectations to international safeguards, it is necessary to reflect on the direction for development of nuclear safeguards in a new era and the resulting implications. The time proven monitoring techniques, based on quantitative factors and demonstrated universal application, have shown their merit. However, the new expectations suggest a possibility that a future IAEA safeguards system could rely more heavily on the value of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime. With the establishment of such a regime, it is highly likely that remote monitoring will play a significant role. Several states have seen value in cooperating with each other to address the many problems associated with the remote interrogation of integrated monitoring systems. As a consequence the International Remote Monitoring Project was organized to examine the future of remote monitoring in International Safeguards. This paper provides an update on the technical issues, the future plans, and the safeguards implications of cooperative programs relating to remote monitoring. Without providing answers to the policy questions involved, it suggests that it is timely to begin addressing these issues.

Bardsley, J. [Australian Safeguards Office, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

1996-08-01

38

Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United States, currently World Water Monitoring Day is

Yoseph Negusse Araya; Edward H. Moyer

2006-01-01

39

Monitoring global monthly mean surface temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy of the global surface air temperature (SST) estimates for a particular month over the past decade is assessed using all of the in situ observations available today. The sources of noise in the data, the numbers of observations, and the spatial coverage are appraised for the comparison with the climate signal, and different analyzed results are compared to determine their reproducibility. The data are further evaluated by comparing anomalies of near-global monthly mean surface temperatures with those of global satellite channel 2 microwave sounding unit temperatures for 144 months from 1979 to 1990. The results indicate that the inherent noise level in an SST observation is about 1.0 C, and this is compounded when the observation is made in regions of large temperature gradient.

Trenberth, Kevin E.; Christy, John R.; Hurrell, James W.

1992-01-01

40

Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report represents the results of the Board's monitoring of radioactivity levels in the Irish marine environment during 1987. The principal objective of the monitoring programme is to obtain estimates of radiation doses to the Irish public arising fro...

J. O'Grady L. Currivan

1990-01-01

41

Global healthcare monitoring system using 6lowpan networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent, technological advances in healthcare monitoring, sensors and wireless networking able to design a system for global healthcare monitoring applications such as ECG, SpO2, glucose, temperature etc. A 6lowpan (IPv6 low power wireless personal area networks) node with biomedical sensors strategically placed on the patient body area networks that can monitor biomedical data. The 6lowpan node has IP-address so it

Dhananjay Singh; Hoon-Jae Lee; Wan-Young Chung

2009-01-01

42

NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

King, Michael D.

2005-01-01

43

Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

Hansen, J. (editor); Rossow, W. (editor); Fung, I. (editor)

1993-01-01

44

Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks  

SciTech Connect

A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

Hansen, J.; Rossow, W.; Fung, I.

1993-09-01

45

Global Hawk monitors hurricane eye wall development  

NASA Video Gallery

The Global Hawk UAV flies over Hurricane Karl to reveal a hot tower. Red shows reflectivity that is 12 km from the surface, orange is 10 km, yellow is 7.5 km, green is 6 km, and blue is under 6 km....

46

Global rainfall monitoring by SSM/I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant accomplishments in the last year of research are presented. During 1991, three main activities were undertaken: (1) development and testing of a preliminary global rainfall algorithm; (2) researching areas of strong surface scattering; and (3) formulation of a program of work for the WetNet PrecipWG. Focus of present research and plans for next year are briefly dismissed.

Barrett, Eric C.; Kidd, C.; Kniveton, D.

1993-01-01

47

Using the Global Electric Circuit to monitor global climate change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global atmospheric electric circuit describes the global link between fair weather electric fields and currents measured at the Earth's surface, and the generator of these fields and currents in regions of stormy weather. Ever since the 1920s we have known about the global nature of these electric parameters, which appear to vary as a function of universal time (UT) and not local time (LT). It was also shown in the late 1920s that the "batteries" of the GEC are related to thunderstorm activity around the globe, that produce a clear global diurnal cycle due to the longitudinal distribution of the tropical landmasses. Due to the global nature of these electric fields and currents, the GEC supplies perhaps the only global geophysical index that can be measured at a single location on the Earth's surface, representing global electrical activity on the planet. The GEC can be broken down into a DC (direct current) part, and an AC (alternating current) part. Due to the global nature of the electric circuit it has been proposed by some to use geo-electric indices as proxies for changes in the global climate. If global warming results in changes in thunderstorm distribution, number and/or intensity, the GEC may allow us to monitor these changes from only a few ground stations. The advantages and disadvantages of using the GEC to monitor climate change will be presented together with some examples of how the global electric circuit has already been used to monitor changes in the Earth's climate.

Price, C. G.

2013-12-01

48

Introduction to Monitoring and Surveillance of the Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: General Considerations--(Pollution, Monitoring and surveillance systems, Sampling, Data analysis and presentation, Fundamentals of electricity, electronics, and instrumentation); The Water Environment--(Properties of the water environment, Legal...

R. Sundin S. Faust R. Weeks R. L. Champlin

1973-01-01

49

Network architecture for global biomedical monitoring service.  

PubMed

Most of the patients who are in hospitals and, increasingly, patients controlled remotely from their homes, at-home monitoring, are continuously monitored in order to control their evolution. The medical devices used up to now, force the sanitary staff to go to the patients' room to control the biosignals that are being monitored, although in many cases, patients are in perfect conditions. If patient is at home, it is he or she who has to go to the hospital to take the record of the monitored signal. New wireless technologies, such as BlueTooth and WLAN, make possible the deployment of systems that allow the display and storage of those signals in any place where the hospital intranet is accessible. In that way, unnecessary displacements are avoided. This paper presents a network architecture that allows the identification of the biosignal acquisition device as IP network nodes. The system is based on a TCP/IP architecture which is scalable and avoids the deployment of a specific purpose network. PMID:17282729

Lopez-Casado, Carmen; Tejero-Calado, Juan; Bernal-Martin, Antonio; Lopez-Gomez, Miguel; Romero-Romero, Marco; Quesada, Guillermo; Lorca, Julio; Garcia, Eugenia

2005-01-01

50

Seagrass meadows in a globally changing environment.  

PubMed

Seagrass meadows are valuable ecosystem service providers that are now being lost globally at an unprecedented rate, with water quality and other localised stressors putting their future viability in doubt. It is therefore critical that we learn more about the interactions between seagrass meadows and future environmental change in the anthropocene. This needs to be with particular reference to the consequences of poor water quality on ecosystem resilience and the effects of change on trophic interactions within the food web. Understanding and predicting the response of seagrass meadows to future environmental change requires an understanding of the natural long-term drivers of change and how these are currently influenced by anthropogenic stress. Conservation management of coastal and marine ecosystems now and in the future requires increased knowledge of how seagrass meadows respond to environmental change, and how they can be managed to be resilient to these changes. Finding solutions to such issues also requires recognising people as part of the social-ecological system. This special issue aims to further enhance this knowledge by bringing together global expertise across this field. The special issues considers issues such as ecosystem service delivery of seagrass meadows, the drivers of long-term seagrass change and the socio-economic consequences of environmental change to seagrass. PMID:24874505

Unsworth, Richard K F; van Keulen, Mike; Coles, Rob G

2014-06-30

51

A global urban carbon monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon emissions associated with cities - including megacities, smaller urban areas, and power plants - represent the single largest human contribution to climate change. Robust validation of emission changes due to growth or stabilization policies requires that we establish measurement baselines today and begin monitoring representative megacities immediately. An observing system designed to monitor urban carbon emissions must include a tiered set of surface, airborne, and satellite sensors. We present a vision, strategy, requirements, and roadmap for an international framework to assess directly the carbon emission trends of the world's urban areas and megacities. We discuss the LA Megacities Carbon Project as an example of a testbed for developing and validating multiple observational techniques ranging from continuous in-situ analysis to geostationary and polar orbiting sounders to mobile boundary layer profiling.

Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.

2013-12-01

52

Monitoring and control of atmosphere in a closed environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications requiring new technologies for atmosphere monitoring and control in the closed environment and their principal functions aboard the Space Station Freedom are described. Oxygen loop closure, involving the conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen; carbon dioxide reduction and removal; and monitoring of atmospheric contamination are discussed. The Trace Contaminant Monitor, the Major Constituent Analyzer, the Carbon Dioxide Monitor, and the Particulate Counter Monitor are discussed.

Humphries, R.; Perry, J.

1991-01-01

53

Using the Global GPS Network and Other Satellite Data to Monitor Ionospheric Total Electron Content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A globally distributed network of dual-frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers is the primary source of data used to measure ionospheric total electron content (TEC) on global scales. Maps of TEC useful for calibrating propagation delays, or monitoring the solar-terrestrial environment, can be produced using this continuously operating network. The maps can also form the basis of a TEC calibration service for users around the world. Potential users may include single-frequency satellite altimetry missions, satellite tracking stations, and astronomical observatories.

Mannucci, Anthony J.; Wilson, Brian D.; Yuan, Dah-Ning; Lindqwister, Ulf

1994-01-01

54

Distributed computing environment monitoring and user expectations  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the growing needs for distributed system monitoring and compares it to current practices. It then goes on to identify the components of distributed system monitoring and shows how they are implemented and successfully used at one site today to address the Local Area Network (LAN), network services and applications, the Wide Area Network (WAN), and host monitoring. It shows how this monitoring can be used to develop realistic service level expectations and also identifies the costs. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the future challenges in network monitoring.

Cottrell, R.L.A.; Logg, C.A.

1995-11-01

55

Monitoring A Mean Global Mesospheric Conductivity Profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve year long observations of natural magnetic field variations in the frequency range 5-50 Hz at Arrival Heights, Antarctica, are summarized in mean diurnal spec- tra. The observed central frequencies of the Schumann resonances are used to derive the wave propagation constants phase velocities. The modeling of the phase veloci- ties requires a mean global two scale height ionospheric model with an ionospheric reflection height of 96 km. This time dependent ionospheric reflection height is used to explain the observed phase velocities on a diurnal basis. The resulting variability of the ionospheric reflection height exhibits a solar cycle dependence in agreement with ionization changes associated with the solar short wave radiation flux. Results from the ionospheric variability on the annual and monthly time scale will be presented.

Füllekrug, M.; Schlegel, K.; Fraser-Smith, A. C.

56

The Global Geodetic Infrastructure for Accurate Monitoring of Earth Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), two Program Offices within the National Ocean Service, NOAA, routinely collect, analyze and disseminate observations and products from several of the 17 critical systems identified by the U.S. Group on Earth Observations. Gravity, sea level monitoring, coastal zone and ecosystem management, geo-hazards and deformation monitoring and ocean surface vector winds are the primary Earth systems that have active research and operational programs in NGS and IOOS. These Earth systems collect terrestrial data but most rely heavily on satellite-based sensors for analyzing impacts and monitoring global change. One fundamental component necessary for monitoring via satellites is having a stable, global geodetic infrastructure where an accurate reference frame is essential for consistent data collection and geo-referencing. This contribution will focus primarily on system monitoring, coastal zone management and global reference frames and how the scientific contributions from NGS and IOOS continue to advance our understanding of the Earth and the Global Geodetic Observing System.

Weston, Neil; Blackwell, Juliana; Wang, Yan; Willis, Zdenka

2014-05-01

57

Extending Global Tool Integration Environment towards Lifecycle Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development and verification of complex systems requires close collaboration between different disciplines and specialists operating in a global development environment with various tools and product data storage. Fluent integration of the tools and databases facilitate a productive development environment by enabling the user to easily launch tools and transfer information between the disconnected databases and tools. The concept of Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) was established to indicate the coordination of activities and the management of artefacts during the software product's lifecycle. This paper presents the analysis of an open source global tool integration environment called ToolChain, and proposes improvement ideas for it towards application lifecycle management. The demonstration of ToolChain and the collection of improvement proposals were carried out in the telecommunication industry. The analysis was made using the ALM framework and Global Software Development (GSD) patterns developed in previous studies in the automation industry.

Kääriäinen, Jukka; Eskeli, Juho; Teppola, Susanna; Välimäki, Antti; Tuuttila, Pekka; Piippola, Markus

58

Towards Real-Time Global Localization in Dynamic Unstructured Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global localization is the problem in which a mobile robot has to estimate the self-position with respect to an a priori given map as it navigates without using any a priori knowledge of the initial self-position. Previous studies on global localization mainly focused on static environments, where the a priori map is almost correct. On the other hand, in dynamic environments, there are several sources of computational complexity. For example, not only the self-position but also the map should be estimated due to the map errors. The main contribution of this paper is to address such computational complexity by decomposing our global localization problem into two smaller subproblems, and solving the subproblems in a practical computation time. Also, we demonstrate the robustness and the efficiency of the proposed method in various large and complex environments.

Tanaka, Kanji; Kondo, Eiji

59

Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates

Kristine M. Larson; Peter Cervelli; Michael Lisowski; Asta Miklius; Paul Segall; Susan Owen

2001-01-01

60

Global infrasonic monitoring of large bolides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using recent infrasonic data (1995-2001) and older infrasonic data recorded by AFTAC (1960-1974), we have refined our estimates of the global influx rate (cumulative influx) of large bolides with sufficient strength to deeply penetrate the atmosphere (below ~50 km). The number of bolides arriving as a function of their initial source energy has been estimated from a least-squares curve-fit of our database of 19 bolides (for a source energy >0.053 kt) with the resulting values and an estimate of the associated statistical counting errors: 30.3+/-6 bolides at >=0.1 kt, 5.8+/-2 at >=1 kt and 0.84+/-0.25 at >=15 kt. In this work we also used these estimates to infer the recurrence interval for energy levels slightly outside the original source energy range. The Tunguska bolide of 1908 (~10 Mt) is a prime example of a previously observed body of great interest. Almost regardless of how we analyze the recent data, the conclusion is that bolides with Tunguska type energy levels should reoccur on the average every 120+/-10 years.

Revelle, D. O.

2001-11-01

61

Trusting in a better future: the global environment facility.  

PubMed Central

Individual countries acting alone cannot solve environmental problems that span national borders. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was created in 1991 to serve as a mechanism for international cooperation in the funding of grants to address concerns in four areas of the global environment: biological diversity, climate change, international waters, and ozone layer depletion. To date, more than 500 projects have been funded with over $2 billion of GEF funds and another $5 billion leveraged from public and private sources, including $2 billion in matching funds from developing countries.

Holton, W C

2000-01-01

62

Global development and the environment: Perspectives and sustainability  

SciTech Connect

Twenty years after the landmark Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment in 1972, the United Nations has convened a Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The 1989 UN resolution calling for the conference singles out -- among other global problems -- issues of biodiversity, water and other natural resources, atmospheric integrity, and human health as ones whose management requires strengthened international cooperation and attention.

Darmstadter, J.

1992-01-01

63

Monitoring the Effects of the Global Crisis on Education Provision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes the experience and findings from the monitoring work carried out by UNESCO throughout 2009 to examine and assess the possible effects of the global financial and economic crisis on education provision in its Member States. The findings showed that although it was too early to ascertain the full extent of the impact of the…

Chang, Gwang-Chol

2010-01-01

64

Environment monitoring using LabVIEW.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system has been developed for electronically recording and monitoring temperature, humidity, and other environmental variables at the Silicon Detector Facility located in Lab D. The data is collected by LabVIEW software, which runs in the background on ...

J. Hawtree

1995-01-01

65

CEO Perspectives on Scanning the Global Hotel Business Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on the first survey of chief executive officers of multinational hotel chains, sponsored by the International Hotel Association. The purpose of the survey was to assess the environmental scanning practices in those hotel firms and to learn how their executives view the uncertainty of the global business environment.

Michael D. Olsen; Bvsan Murthy; Richard Teare

1994-01-01

66

International Management: Creating a More Realistic Global Planning Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for realistic global planning environments in international business education, introducing a strategic planning model that has teams interacting with teams to strategically analyze a selected multinational company. This dynamic process must result in a single integrated written analysis that specifies an optimal strategy for…

Waldron, Darryl G.

2000-01-01

67

Monitoring of Sedimentary Fluxes in Cold Environments: The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists` (I.A.G. / A.I.G.) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Program (2005 - 2017) is addressing this existing key knowledge gap. The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Research carried out at each of the ca. 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by program, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of geomorphologists, hydrologists, ecologists, permafrost scientists and glaciologists. SEDIBUD has developed manuals and protocols (SEDIFLUX Manual) with a key set of primary surface process monitoring and research data requirements to incorporate results from these diverse projects and allow coordinated quantitative analysis across the program. Defined SEDIBUD key tasks for the coming years include (i) The continued generation and compilation of comparable longer-term datasets on contemporary sedimentary fluxes and sediment yields from SEDIBUD key test sites worldwide, (ii) The continued extension of the SEDIBUD metadata database with these datasets, (iii) The testing of defined SEDIBUD hypotheses (available online, see below) by using datasets continuously compiled in the SEDIBUD metadata database, (iv) The publication of a SEDIBUD book (synthesis book). The title of the currently prepared SEDIBUD book is Source-to-sink fluxes in undisturbed cold environments. The synthesis book will compile results from longer-term studies conducted at undisturbed Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine SEDIBUD key test sites. A synthesis chapter will integrate field data from the different study sites and shall provide a better understanding of (i) The key environmental drivers and rates of contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes in largely undisturbed cold climate environments and (ii) Possible effects of projected climate change on solute and sedimentary fluxes in cold climate environments. Detailed information on the SEDIBUD Program, SEDIBUD meetings, publications and online documents and databases is available at the SEDIBUD website under http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wgsb.html.

Beylich, Achim A.

2014-05-01

68

IMPROVE (INTERAGENCY MONITORING OF PROTECTED VISUAL ENVIRONMENTS) SITES DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1987, EPA has supported the IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) network in cooperation with the National Park Service, Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, and State organizations. One of the principal purposes ...

69

SPECTRAL MONITORING OF FUGITIVE CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The accidental or intentional release of hazardous chemical substances into the environment is an inevitable consequence of anthropogenic activity. The detection, monitoring and remediation of fugitive contaminants is a major risk factor for human and ecological health and i...

70

Research on the Resource Monitoring Model Under Cloud Computing Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resource monitoring is an important part of resource management under the cloud computing environment, which provides a better\\u000a reference for resource allocation, task scheduling and load balancing. Because of the commercial applications target of billing\\u000a the user for the use of resources , the high virtualization, scalability and transparency of the cloud computing environment’s\\u000a resources, the existing resource monitoring methods

Junwei Ge; Bo Zhang; Yiqiu Fang

2010-01-01

71

Advanced monitoring and decision support for battlefield critical care environment.  

PubMed

Automation and decision support systems are vital for improving critical patient care in the battlefield environment. However, advances in data management, sensor fusion, and decision support algorithms must be developed and incorporated into existing patient monitoring systems for this technology to improve battlefield patient care. This paper examines issues related to research and development of advanced monitoring and decision support systems for use both on the battlefield and in the civilian trauma environment. PMID:21607909

Salinas, Jose; Nguyen, Ruth; Darrah, Mark I; Kramer, George A; Serio-Melvin, Maria L; Mann, Elizabeth A; Wolf, Steven E; Chung, Kevin K; Renz, Evan M; Cancio, Leopoldo C

2011-01-01

72

Exposure Monitoring of Aerosols in Different Indoor and Outdoor Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a world-wide first portable nanoparticle detector is introduced and used for aerosol exposure monitoring in different indoor and outdoor environments. This nanoparticle counter, consisting of a unipolar diffusion charger, a time multiplexed electrical conductivity measurement and an aerosol faraday cup electrometer, is operated with any Grimm laser aerosol spectrometer or environmental dust monitor, and extends the lower

Xiaoai Guo; Markus Pesch; Friedhelm Schneider; Hans Grimm

2011-01-01

73

An intelligent environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, information technology is becoming more and more important to improve the productivity of agriculture, especially for real time environment monitoring. However, the traditional method of environmental data collection is unable to provide real-time and highly accurate data of the monitored region to meet the requirements of precision agriculture. As wireless sensor networks(WSNs) has profound impacts on many fields due

Minghua Cao; Huiqin Wang; Duo Peng; Kejun Jia

2009-01-01

74

Global monitoring of collaborative TB-HIV activities.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) programs are increasingly working together towards providing universal access to integrated TB and HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services. To monitor progress we need to measure the delivery and impact of these services; however, the lack of investment in monitoring and evaluation and the added complexity of sharing data between two vertical programs, makes monitoring and evaluation of collaborative TB-HIV activities especially challenging. We describe the global system to record, report and analyse data on collaborative TB-HIV activities and summarize results to date. Although the data suggest that there is a steady increase in collaborative TB-HIV activities in many high-burden countries over time, we are already falling behind the globally agreed implementation milestones. This is due to a combination of slow implementation and lack of necessary tools and systems for capturing activity data. In particular, data from HIV program monitoring of TB screening, TB preventive treatments and TB infection control for people living with HIV is lacking. Much remains to be done by both programs to improve the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of collaborative TB-HIV activities and to optimize prevention, treatment and care for people infected with both TB and HIV, especially in areas at high risk of drug-resistant TB. PMID:18302815

Gunneberg, C; Reid, A; Williams, B G; Floyd, K; Nunn, P

2008-03-01

75

Experiences with global optimization techniques in massively parallel processing environments  

SciTech Connect

The modeling of many physically relevant processes involves the location of global extrema, which are often surrounded by numerous local extrema. The effort involved in locating these extrema grows rapidly with increasing dimensionality of the problems being investigated. A method of analysis for algorithms from the perspective of a parallel processing environment is developed and applied to the family of Monte Carlo global optimization schemes. A new highly parallel Monte Carlo algorithm is presented. Chaotic iteration schemes resulting in nondeterministic algorithms are discussed, and an analysis of the optimal conditions for their application to this class of problems is presented. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Hall, J.H.; Hiromoto, R.

1988-01-01

76

Space environment monitoring mission beyond GOES-M  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions in the near-Earth space environment are of every increasing importance to our human activities on Earth and in space. The provision of the space environment services required in future depends on improving our understanding of solar activity and the coupling of this activity to our local region of space, as well as improving our remote sensing and in-situ monitoring

Richard Grubb; Patricia L. Bornmann; Gary Heckman; Terrance Onsager; Howard Singer; R. Viereck

1996-01-01

77

Application of Fuzzy Data Fusion in Multisensor Environment Monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy data fusion based multisensor technology is proposed to monitor the environment in this paper. The temperature, humidity, ventilation amount and other parameters that obtained by multiple sensors were fuzzed firstly. Through the synthetic operation with the decision rule at the data fusion center, the accurate state parameter estimation of the environment was obtained, which can be used in the

Hongge Sun; Weisheng Wang; Yi Cao; Shenxue He; Xin Yan

2009-01-01

78

WSNs in the Highway Long Distance Tunnel Environment Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless sensor networks have been widely used in the monitoring application. In this paper we shed some lights on several issues in building a complete system for using wireless sensor networks for practical highway long distance tunnel environment monitoring application. From the engineering perspective it is necessary to consider the nodes deployment and from the application perspective it is necessary to meet the performance requirements. Energy conservation, topology and coverage are some important factors need to be taken full consideration for the purpose of providing safe friendly vehicle running environment. Still more deserve to discuss for brighter future of the tracking and monitoring foreground.

Li, Yan-Xiao; Feng, Xin-Xi; Guan, Hua

79

Swiss Experiment: a New Environmental Monitoring Platform in Alpine Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerging awareness of global change clearly shows the need for an innovative way of monitoring the environment in order to better characterize and understand the undergoing change. The Swiss Experiment (SwissEx) aims at being an important trigger for the creation of a new community involving the public, environmental and IT scientists and decision makers. The main SwissEx goal is to enhance our understanding of what environmental change means for alpine society from local to regional scales and identify key mechanisms involved in natural hazards, using new generation of wireless and inexpensive sensor network technology and associated models. To investigate the spatial and temporal variability of environmental variables and in particular to analyse the water budget of an alpine area, a massive amount of in-situ observations have been collected in a Swiss watershed (Dranse, Valais). This field deployment is composed of 40 Sensorscope stations that wirelessly measure air, soil and surface temperature, soil moisture, net radiation, precipitation, wind speed and direction, 3 disdrometers that collect information on the number, the size and the speed of raindrops, an optical fibre that can identify the river exchange with the groundwater and a scintillometer that can measures atmospheric turbulence and fluxes. This contribution presents preliminary results from this field campaign.

Luyet, V.; Barrenetxea, G.; Couach, O.; Krichane, M.; Bertholet, T.; Varidel, T.; Berne, A.; Aberer, K.; Medico, J.; Berod, D.; Bavay, M.; Lehning, M.; Vetterli, M.; Parlange, M. B.

2007-12-01

80

Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership  

SciTech Connect

This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth.

Matthews, J.T. (ed.)

1993-01-01

81

TEMPERATURE GRADIENT CHAMBERS FOR RESEARCH ON GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT CHANGE. I. THERMAL ENVIRONMENT IN A LARGE CHAMBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

OKADA M. HAMASAKI T. and HAYASH! T. Temperature gradient chambers for research on global environment change. I. Thermal environment in a large chamber. BIOTRONICS 24, 85-97, 1995. Simple and low-cost temperature gradient chambers (TGC) have been developed to study the effects of temperature on field crops. Providing a continuous one-way air flow along the long axis of the TGC, the

M. OKADA; T. HAMASAKI; T. HAYASHI

82

GLOBE Program: Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) is a hands-on international environmental science and education program that links students, teachers, and the research community in order to learn about the environment. Research projects cover such topics as seasons and biomes, the carbon cycle, watershed dynamics, and extreme environments. Students in GLOBE groups in over a hundred countries make measurements of atmospheric conditions, hydrology, soils, or land cover/phenology, report the data on the internet, and publish their research in collaboration with scientists and other GLOBE students. For teachers, the site provides information on professional development opportunities, a teachers' guide, videos, and other materials, and contact and support from the GLOBE help desk, other teachers, and scientists.

83

Global Agricultural Monitoring (GLAM) using MODAPS and LANCE Data Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies / Global Agricultural Monitoring (GIMMS GLAM) system is a web-based geographic application that offers Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and user interface tools to data query and plot MODIS NDVI time series. The system processes near real-time and science quality Terra and Aqua MODIS 8-day composited datasets. These datasets are derived from the MOD09 and MYD09 surface reflectance products which are generated and provided by NASA/GSFC Land and Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and NASA/GSFC MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS). The GIMMS GLAM system is developed and provided by the NASA/GSFC GIMMS group for the U.S. Department of Agriculture / Foreign Agricultural Service / International Production Assessment Division (USDA/FAS/IPAD) Global Agricultural Monitoring project (GLAM). The USDA/FAS/IPAD mission is to provide objective, timely, and regular assessment of the global agricultural production outlook and conditions affecting global food security. This system was developed to improve USDA/FAS/IPAD capabilities for making operational quantitative estimates for crop production and yield estimates based on satellite-derived data. The GIMMS GLAM system offers 1) web map imagery including Terra & Aqua MODIS 8-day composited NDVI, NDVI percent anomaly, and SWIR-NIR-Red band combinations, 2) web map overlays including administrative and 0.25 degree Land Information System (LIS) shape boundaries, and crop land cover masks, and 3) user interface tools to select features, data query, plot, and download MODIS NDVI time series.

Anyamba, A.; Pak, E. E.; Majedi, A. H.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Reynolds, C. A.; Pinzon, J. E.; Smith, M. M.

2012-12-01

84

Tree-In-Motion Mapping: A Multi-Agent Solution for Environment Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active investigation of complex environmental parameters involves many computationally-intensive operations, such as data collection, aggregation, dissemination and processing. The adoption of multi-agent systems appears as a very promising approach in the development of a new generation of intelligent autonomous robotic agents for complex environment monitoring. This paper discusses a multi-agent system whose global goal is the minimization of entropy

Rami S. Abielmona; Emil M. Petriu; Voicu Groza

2007-01-01

85

The Global Atmospheric Environment for the Next Generation  

SciTech Connect

Air quality, ecosystem exposure to nitrogen deposition, and climate change are intimately coupled problems: we assess changes in the global atmospheric environment between 2000 and 2030 using twenty-five state-of-the-art global atmospheric chemistry models and three different emissions scenarios. The first (CLE) scenario reflects implementation of current air quality legislation around the world, whilst the second (MFR) represents a more optimistic case in which all currently feasible technologies are applied to achieve maximum emission reductions. We contrast these scenarios with the more pessimistic IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Ensemble simulations for the year 2000 are consistent among models, and show a reasonable agreement with surface ozone, wet deposition and NO{sub 2} satellite observations. Large parts of the world are currently exposed to high ozone concentrations, and high depositions of nitrogen to ecosystems. By 2030, global surface ozone is calculated to increase globally by 1.5 {+-} 1.2 ppbv (CLE), and 4.3 {+-} 2.2 ppbv (A2). Only the progressive MFR scenario will reduce ozone by -2.3 {+-} 1.1 ppbv. The CLE and A2 scenarios project further increases in nitrogen critical loads, with particularly large impacts in Asia where nitrogen emissions and deposition are forecast to increase by a factor of 1.4 (CLE) to 2 (A2). Climate change may modify surface ozone by -0.8 {+-} 0.6 ppbv, with larger decreases over sea than over land. This study shows the importance of enforcing current worldwide air quality legislation, and the major benefits of going further. Non-attainment of these air quality policy objectives, such as expressed by the SRES-A2 scenario, would further degrade the global atmospheric environment.

Dentener, F; Stevenson, D; Ellingsen, K; van Joije, T; Schultz, M; Amann, M; Atherton, C; Bell, N; Bergmann, D; Bey, I; Bouwman, L; Butler, T; Cofala, J; Collins, B; Drevet, J; Doherty, R; Eickhout, B; Eskes, H; Fiore, A; Gauss, M; Hauglustaine, D; Horowitz, L; Isaksen, I A; Josse, B; Lawrence, M; Krol, M; Lamarque, J F; Montanaro, V; Muller, J F; Peuch, V H; Pitari, G; Pyle, J; Rast, S; Rodriguez, J; Sanderson, M; Savage, N H; Shindell, D; Strahan, S; Szopa, S; Sudo, K; Van Dingenen, R; Wild, O; Zeng, G

2005-12-07

86

Monitoring Global Precipitation Using Satellite Observations: Status and Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of monitoring global precipitation amounts and patterns is described using data sets from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and from recent research satellites, especially the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The GPCP monthly (and pentad) data set is a 23-year, globally complete precipitation analysis that is used to explore global and regional variations and trends. The data set is a blend of data mainly from low-orbit microwave satellites and geosynchronous infrared satellites, with additional input from satellite sounder data, Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) data and raingauges. The monthly GPCP data set shows no significant global trend in precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. Regional trends are also analyzed. A trend pattern that is a combination of both El Nino and La Nina precipitation features is evident in the 23-year data set. This pattern is related to an increase with time in the number of combined months of El Nino and La Nina during the 23-year period. This apparent trend may be a short-term variation, but also might be related to the increase with time of extreme precipitation events reported elsewhere. Patterns of precipitation variation related to ENSO and other phenomena are shown with clear signals extending from the Tropics into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. Also shown, as an example of higher time resolution data is the GPCP daily analysis, which is available for the last six years. A second focus of the talk is on TRMM precipitation data and how these newer data sets incorporating information from the first space-borne meteorological radar compare with the established GPCP data sets.

Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

2002-01-01

87

Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements  

SciTech Connect

Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique is applicable to many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

W. R. Lloyd; W. G. Reuter; D. M. Weinberg

1999-09-19

88

Design of remote home environment monitoring and health care monitoring system based on data confusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Base on the ZigBee technology, a wireless sensor networks for remote home environment monitoring and health care monitoring was built in this paper, and the applications of data fusion algorithms in system of front & back end data processing were deeply discussed. The experiment is proved that the applications of data fusion algorithm, which is a combination of Bayesian estimation

Yi Zhang; Peng Xiong; Yuan Luo; Lin Li

2011-01-01

89

A quasi-global precipitation time series for drought monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimating precipitation variations in space and time is an important aspect of drought early warning and environmental monitoring. An evolving drier-than-normal season must be placed in historical context so that the severity of rainfall deficits may quickly be evaluated. To this end, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, working closely with collaborators at the University of California, Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group, have developed a quasi-global (50°S–50°N, 180°E–180°W), 0.05° resolution, 1981 to near-present gridded precipitation time series: the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) data archive.

Funk, Chris C.; Peterson, Pete J.; Landsfeld, Martin F.; Pedreros, Diego H.; Verdin, James P.; Rowland, James D.; Romero, Bo E.; Husak, Gregory J.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

90

A Global Framework for Monitoring Phenological Responses to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Remote sensing of vegetation phenology is an important method with which to monitor terrestrial responses to climate change, but most approaches include signals from multiple forcings, such as mixed phenological signals from multiple biomes, urbanization, political changes, shifts in agricultural practices, and disturbances. Consequently, it is difficult to extract a clear signal from the usually assumed forcing: climate change. Here, using global 8 km 1982 to 1999 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data and an eight-element monthly climatology, we identified pixels whose wavelet power spectrum was consistently dominated by annual cycles and then created phenologically and climatically self-similar clusters, which we term phenoregions. We then ranked and screened each phenoregion as a function of landcover homogeneity and consistency, evidence of human impacts, and political diversity. Remaining phenoregions represented areas with a minimized probability of non-climatic forcings and form elemental units for long-term phenological monitoring.

White, Michael A [Utah State University (USU); Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Hargrove, William Walter [ORNL; Nemani, Ramakrishna R [NASA Ames Research Center

2005-01-01

91

Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) is a hands-on international environmental science and education program. GLOBE links students, teachers, and the scientific research community in an effort to learn more about our environment through student data collection and observation. The website allows students to submit and peruse data in the fields of atmosphere, hydrology, soils, and land cover/phenology. It includes a mapping/graphing area, a teacher's guide, and an educator's forum. GLOBE is a cooperative effort of schools, led in the United States by a Federal interagency program sponsored by NOAA, NASA, NSF, and EPA, in partnership with over 140 colleges and universities, state and local school systems, and non-government organizations.

92

Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) is a hands-on international environmental science and education program. GLOBE links students, teachers, and the scientific research community in an effort to learn more about our environment through student data collection and observation. The website allows students to submit and peruse data in the fields of atmosphere, hydrology, soils, and land cover/phenology. It includes a mapping/graphing area, a teacher's guide, and an educator's forum. GLOBE is a cooperative effort of schools, led in the United States by a Federal interagency program sponsored by NOAA, NASA, NSF, and EPA, in partnership with over 140 colleges and universities, state and local school systems, and non-government organizations.

2007-12-12

93

Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments: A New GLORIA Site in Southwestern Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change is expected to have pronounced effects on the alpine environments and thus the alpine plants of western North America. Predicted responses include an upward migration of treelines, altered species compositions, changes in the percentage of land covered by vegetation, and a change in the phenology of alpine plants. To determine the effects of climate change on the alpine flora of southwestern Montana, we are installing a GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) site in order to monitor temperature, species composition, and percent cover of vascular plants, lichens, and mosses along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We are including lichens and mosses because of their importance as ecological indicator species. The abundance and spatial distribution of lichens and mosses provides essential baseline data for long-term monitoring of local and global impacts on the environment. Mt. Fleecer (9250 ft.), which is west of the continental divide and semi-isolated from other peaks in the Anaconda-Pintlar Range, is currently the most likely location for the southwestern Montana GLORIA site. Mt. Fleecer is accessible because it does not have the steep and hazardous glaciated talus cirques that characterize many of the neighboring, higher peaks. However, if an accessible and suitable higher summit is found, then it will be included as the highest summit in the GLORIA site. Interesting species at Mt. Fleecer include the whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, which is a keystone species in high mountain ecosystems of the western United States and Canada, the green gentian, Frasera speciosa, and the shooting star, Dodecatheon pulchellum. Data from this site will become part of a global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora. Information gained from this GLORIA site can also be used as a link between studies of alpine climate change and related investigations on the timing of snowmelt and its influence on riparian ecosystems in western Montana.

Apple, M. E.; Pullman, T. Y.; Mitman, G. G.

2007-12-01

94

Developing Earth Observations Requirements for Global Agricultural Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognizing the dynamic nature of agricultural cultivation both within and between years and across the globe, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is developing an agricultural monitoring (GEO-GLAM) system with the goal of enhancing the availability and use of satellite and in situ Earth observations (EO) for the generation of timely and accurate information on national, regional, and global food supply. One of the key components of the GEO-GLAM system is the coordination of satellite observations so as to ensure sufficient and appropriate data volume and quality for agricultural monitoring. Therefore, it is essential that we develop EO requirements which articulate in a spatially explicit way where, when, how frequently, and at what spatial resolution satellite imagery must be acquired to meet the needs of a variety of agricultural monitoring applications. Accordingly, best-available cropland location information ('where?') in conjunction with ten years of MODIS surface reflectance data have been used to characterize the timing and duration of the agricultural growing season ('when?') in the form of agricultural growing season calendars (GSCs) for all major agricultural areas of the Earth. With respect to temporal resolution, we must first identify the frequency with which we require imagery inputs for monitoring applications such as crop condition, crop type, crop yield estimation, and planted and harvested area estimation. Members of the GEO Agriculture Monitoring Community of Practice - a group of international scientists - have combined their knowledge and expertise to articulate these general requirements. Second, we must determine how cloud cover impacts the ability of optical sensing systems to meet these established temporal resolution requirements. To this end, MODIS Terra (morning; 2000-2011) and Aqua (afternoon; 2002-2011) observations have been analyzed to derive probabilities of a cloud free clear view at different times of day throughout the agricultural growing season. In conjunction with information on field size distribution - which helps inform where finer resolution imagery are required - this information is being synthesized to generate a set of spatially explicit Earth observation requirements that are scalable to different satellite mission-specific swath widths, and provide concrete evidence for a multi-sensor imaging constellation approach to global agricultural monitoring.

Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Vermote, E.; Justice, C. O.

2013-12-01

95

WESTERN ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT MONITORING STUDY: PLANNING AND COORDINATION SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is a summary of the planning, coordination and implementation mechanisms which provide the framework for the Western Energy/Environment Monitoring Study. This Study involves participation by elements of EPA, NASA, NOAA, and USGS and is a segment of the Interagency Ene...

96

GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

2010-01-01

97

Sun Glitter Measurements for Monitoring Global Surface Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface waters are a dynamic system, important to a range of parties from resource managers to global climate scientists. Current methods of data collection are insufficient to meet the data requirements of many of the interested parties. In this project we explore the advantages and limitations of a micro-satellite constellation system designed to utilize sun glint to monitor at the global scale monthly changes in area of surface water. Sun glint, a very bright, spectrally flat reflection, provides a strong signal indicating water in natural settings. Based upon our investigations and the research of others, we looked at the extent to which wind and above-water foliage affect the amount of sun glitter measured by a satellite sensor. We explored for one specific orbit the effective ground coverage and revisit rates for study areas in Alaska and Brazil, taking into account the probability density function for the number of lakes vs lake area. The results of our research suggest the scientific information of surface waters that potentially could be obtained from data provided by a constellation of sun glitter sensing micro satellites would supplement that expected to be provided by a planned radar satellite surface water monitoring system.

Apperson, A. T.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

2010-12-01

98

ISS Microgravity Environment Monitoring System (MEMS). Part 1; System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project at the NASA Glenn Research center supports Principal Investigators of the microgravity science community as they evaluate the effects of acceleration on their experiments. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' primary responsibility is to support NASA sponsored investigators in the area of acceleration data analysis, interpretation and the monitoring of the microgravity environment on-board various carriers. The microgravity environment is a rich and very complex dynamic one. It is subject to quasi-steady accelerations, higher frequency acceleration, and transient disturbances. With the advent of the International Space Station operation, a significant amount of data is expected to be downlinked and processed for both the space station microgravity environment characterization (verification) and scientific experiments. Therefore, to help principal investigator teams monitor the microgravity environment on-board the International Space Station in order to avoid negative impact on their experiment, when possible, the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project is currently developing an artificial intelligence monitoring system, which will notify the principal investigator teams in near real time of any change in the microgravity environment susceptible to affect their experiments.

Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

2000-01-01

99

Mycotoxins in a changing global environment--a review.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision a stricter control of mycotoxins, however, the changing global environment may not be the ideal setting to control and reduce the exposure to these toxins. Although new technologies allow us to inspect the multi-mycotoxin presence in foods, new sources of exposure, gaps in knowledge of mycotoxins interactions, appearance of "emergent" mycotoxins and elucidation of consequent health effects can complicate their control even more. While humans are adapting to cope with environmental changes, such as food scarcity, decreased food quality, mycotoxin regulations, crop production and seasonality, and other climate related modifications, fungal species are also adapting and increased cases of mycotoxin adverse health effects are likely to occur in the future. To guarantee access to quality food for all, we need a way to balance global mycotoxin standards with the realistic feasibility of reaching them, considering limitations of producers and designing strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure based on sound research. PMID:24769018

Marroquín-Cardona, A G; Johnson, N M; Phillips, T D; Hayes, A W

2014-07-01

100

Global land data sets for next-generation biospheric monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mauna Loa atmospheric CO2 record initiated in 1957 was the first data set to show that the entire Earth was being affected by human activity C. D. Keeling relived the history and current trends of that CO2 data set in a keynote address at a recent Earth observation meeting where next-generation capabilities in global biospheric monitoring were unveiled. The second MODIS Vegetation Workshop held last August, was attended by 170 scientists from 27 states and 19 countries.The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a visible/infrared optical sensor launched on both the Terra (December 1999) and the more recent Aqua (May 2002) platforms of the NASA Earth Observing System to provide daily global Earth observation at 250-1000-m spatial resolution. The MODIS Land Science Team since 1990 has developed algorithms analyzing the spectral data to produce biophysical variables over 110 million km2 of vegetated land surface for global science (http.7/modis-land.gsfc. nasa.gov/products/).

Running, Steven W.

2004-12-01

101

Global monitoring of atmospheric properties by the EOS MODIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) being developed for the Earth Observing System (EOS) is well suited to the global monitoring of atmospheric properties from space. Among the atmospheric properties to be examined using MODIS observations, clouds are especially important, since they are a strong modulator of the shortwave and longwave components of the earth's radiation budget. A knowledge of cloud properties (such as optical thickness and effective radius) and their variation in space and time, which are our task objectives, is also crucial to studies of global climate change. In addition, with the use of related airborne instrumentation, such as the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) in intensive field experiments (both national and international campaigns, see below), various types of surface and cloud properties can be derived from the measured bidirectional reflectances. These missions have provided valuable experimental data to determine the capability of narrow bandpass channels in examining the Earth's atmosphere and to aid in defining algorithms and building an understanding of the ability of MODIS to remotely sense atmospheric conditions for assessing global change. Therefore, the primary task objective is to extend and expand our algorithm for retrieving the optical thickness and effective radius of clouds from radiation measurements to be obtained from MODIS. The secondary objective is to obtain an enhanced knowledge of surface angular and spectral properties that can be inferred from airborne directional radiance measurements.

King, Michael D.

1993-01-01

102

Integration of wireless sensor networks into cyberinfrastructure for monitoring Hawaiian "mountain-to-sea" environments.  

PubMed

Monitoring the complex environmental relationships and feedbacks of ecosystems on catchment (or mountain)-to-sea scales is essential for social systems to effectively deal with the escalating impacts of expanding human populations globally on watersheds. However, synthesis of emerging technologies into a robust observing platform for the monitoring of coupled human-natural environments on extended spatial scales has been slow to develop. For this purpose, the authors produced a new cyberinfrastructure for environmental monitoring which successfully merged the use of wireless sensor technologies, grid computing with three-dimensional (3D) geospatial data visualization/exploration, and a secured internet portal user interface, into a working prototype for monitoring mountain-to-sea environments in the high Hawaiian Islands. A use-case example is described in which native Hawaiian residents of Waipa Valley (Kauai) utilized the technology to monitor the effects of regional weather variation on surface water quality/quantity response, to better understand their local hydrologic cycle, monitor agricultural water use, and mitigate the effects of lowland flooding. PMID:18618172

Kido, Michael H; Mundt, Carsten W; Montgomery, Kevin N; Asquith, Adam; Goodale, David W; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y

2008-10-01

103

Selecting the spatial resolution of satellite sensors required for global monitoring of land transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial resolution of the next generation of sensors for the global monitoring of vegetation is assessed with particular reference to the proposed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). The main innovative use of such instruments will lie in their ability to monitor land transformations at global and continental scales. Reliable monitoring is shown to rely on the success with which

J. R. G. TOWNSHEND; C. O. JUSTICE

1988-01-01

104

Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change  

SciTech Connect

The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

Risser, P.G.

1990-02-01

105

Landsat: The Backbone for Mapping and Monitoring Global Ecological Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term ecological monitoring requires consistent observation of key variables, long-term measurement continuity, and open and affordable access to measurements. The Landsat series of Earth observation missions uniquely meet those criteria, and Landsat's 30m-observation scale permits the detection and differentiation of natural versus human-caused land change. Landsat is the longest and most comprehensive record of the state of the global land surface in existence. No other high-resolution satellite program is either capable or committed to the systematic monitoring of global scale human and natural land change. Beginning with Landsat 1 in 1972, six Landsat missions have continuously recorded images of the Earth. As we near the fortieth anniversary of Landsat, we now have an archive of millions of repetitive images of the Earth with multispectral properties suited to assessing both biotic and abiotic conditions and at a scale appropriate for resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Landsat archive contains nearly three million scenes and all are available to users at no cost. Furthermore, the entire Landsat record, Landsats 1-7, is now calibrated to a common radiometric standard and the majority of the data are orthorectified - enabling immediate assessment of long-term ecological conditions and land change. Landsats 5 and 7 continue to collect imagery and together they provide the potential to cover a significant portion of the Earth's land surfaces every eight days. Both of these missions now use a long-term acquisition plan designed to improve the collection of seasonal global coverage. Furthermore, recent agreements with international Landsat receiving stations are bringing previously inaccessible contemporary Landsat 5 data into the EROS archive. The amount of global coverage being acquired annually is the highest level in the history of the Landsat program. The EROS global historical archive is rapidly expanding because of the addition of 1972-present Landsat holdings from ground stations worldwide. More than three million Landsat scenes not currently found in the EROS archive exist in archives around the world and many of these data are at risk due to aging storage media and inadequate preservation practices. The repatriation of these data into the EROS archive will potentially double the number of no-cost Landsat scenes available to users. The uncertainty of future Landsat missions has challenged operational monitoring of ecological systems. However, that may be changing. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) being developed by NASA and the USGS is slated for a December 2012 launch. LDCM (which will be renamed Landsat 8 following launch) will use new imaging technology to provide improved multispectral measurements, and offers additional spectral bands and increased daily imaging capacity. While missions beyond LDCM are uncertain, the President's Fiscal Year 2012 budget requests funds for the planning and development of Landsats 9 and 10, and includes language that will make Landsat an operational program - ending the decades of uncertainty.

Loveland, T. R.

2011-12-01

106

Formation and evolution of cores in globally collapsing environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will present recent results on the hierarchical gravitational fragmentation (HGF) of molecular clouds (MCs) leading to the formation of dense cores. I will first discuss the scenario of HGF as an alternative to the standard scenario of turbulent support --> turbulent dissipation --> collapse. In it, clouds are multi-Jeans-mass object undergoing global, multi-scale collapse, and the cores are the local centers of collapse. The lapse between the onset of local collapse and the formation of a singularity constitutes the prestellar phase. I will present numerical simulations of core growth during this phase in the idealized case of spherical geometry, immersed in a globally collapsing environment, discussing the evolution of the density and velocity profiles. I will also present synthetic molecular line observations of such idealized cores, aimed at determining to what extent such an idealized setup recovers the basic observational features of the cores, and which features require additional physics such as background turbulence and non-spherical symmetry.

Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique

2014-07-01

107

Global Environment Outlook-1: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP): Global State of the Environment Report 1997: The Web Version  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Environment Programme has recently released this report, "a snap-shot of an ongoing worldwide environmental assessment process." It "describes the environmental status and trends in seven regions...summarizes developments over time in regional policy responses...[and] concludes with an exploration, based on model analysis, of what we might expect in the future for a selected number of environmental issues if no major policy reforms are initiated." An executive summary for each chapter is first presented, followed by the full report, which contains over seventy figures and thirty tables. The power of the report lies in its regional analysis. A second GEO report is due to be released in 1999.

1997-01-01

108

Global Monitoring of Air Pollution Using Spaceborne Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MODIS sensor onboard EOS-Terra satellite provides not only daily global coverage but also high spectral (36 channels from 0.41 to 14 microns wavelength) and spatial (250m, 500m and 1km) resolution measurements. A similar MODIS instrument will be also configured into EOS-Aqua satellite to be launched soon. Using the complementary EOS-Terra and EOS-Aqua sun-synchronous orbits (10:30 AM and 1:30 PM equator-crossing time respectively), it enables us also to study the diurnal changes of the Earth system. It is unprecedented for the derivation of aerosol properties with such high spatial resolution and daily global converge. Aerosol optical depth and other aerosol properties, e.g., Angstrom coefficient over land and particle size over ocean, are derived as standard products at a spatial resolution of 10 x 10 sq km. The high resolution results are found surprisingly useful in detecting aerosols in both urban and rural regions as a result of urban/industrial pollution and biomass burning. For long-lived aerosols, the ability to monitoring the evolution of these aerosol events could help us to establish an system of air quality especially for highly populated areas. Aerosol scenarios with city pollution and biomass burning will be presented. Also presented are the method used in the derivation of aerosol optical properties and preliminary results will be presented, and issue as well as obstacles in validating aerosol optical depth with AERONET ground-based observations.

Chu, D. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Remer, L. A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

109

Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates are valuable. Strategies have been researched for obtaining station coordinates every 15 min using a Kalman filter; these strategies have been tested on data collected by a GPS network on Kilauea Volcano. Data from this network are tracked continuously, recorded every 30 s, and telemetered hourly to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. A white noise model is heavily impacted by data outages and poor satellite geometry, but a properly constrained random walk model fits the data well. Using a borehole tiltmeter at Kilauea's summit as ground-truth, solutions using different random walk constraints were compared. This study indicates that signals on the order of 5 mm/h are resolvable using a random walk standard deviation of 0.45 cm/???h. Values lower than this suppress small signals, and values greater than this have significantly higher noise at periods of 1-6 hours. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

Larson, K. M.; Cervelli, P.; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, A.; Segall, P.; Owen, S.

2001-01-01

110

Monitoring the impacts of trade agreements on food environments.  

PubMed

The liberalization of international trade and foreign direct investment through multilateral, regional and bilateral agreements has had profound implications for the structure and nature of food systems, and therefore, for the availability, nutritional quality, accessibility, price and promotion of foods in different locations. Public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade and investment agreements, diets and health, and there is currently no systematic monitoring of this area. This paper reviews the available evidence on the links between trade agreements, food environments and diets from an obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) perspective. Based on the key issues identified through the review, the paper outlines an approach for monitoring the potential impact of trade agreements on food environments and obesity/NCD risks. The proposed monitoring approach encompasses a set of guiding principles, recommended procedures for data collection and analysis, and quantifiable 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' measurement indicators to be tailored to national priorities, capacity and resources. Formal risk assessment processes of existing and evolving trade and investment agreements, which focus on their impacts on food environments will help inform the development of healthy trade policy, strengthen domestic nutrition and health policy space and ultimately protect population nutrition. PMID:24074216

Friel, S; Hattersley, L; Snowdon, W; Thow, A-M; Lobstein, T; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Mohan, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbe, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

2013-10-01

111

Development of a global flood monitoring system using ATMS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to develop an operational global flood monitoring system using NPP-ATMS microwave brightness temperature measurements. The operational tool is based on a microwave-based soil wetness index (SWI). Swath-wise brightness temperatures (BT) of ATMS 89 GHz and 23 GHz channels are routinely downloaded from NOAA's CLASS. Each swath data is resampled to a regular grid of 35 km by 35 km using the nearest neighborhood technique to produce daily global brightness temperature maps. Global values of SWI are calculated using the difference in BT between the 89 and 23 GHz channels. Using these daily SWI values, we implemented the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) to calculate the Soil Wetness Variational Index (SWVI) which is dependent on the mean and standard deviation of SWIs of the same months of previous years using ATMS data. These SWVI values are influenced by changes in surface conditions. The determined mean and standard deviation values of SWI that were used to estimate the SWVI were determined on a monthly basis to mitigate the impact of the seasonal variation of the vegetation cover and surface conditions on the microwave signal. The determined SWVI using ATMS data showed significant sensitivity to inundation and allows for capturing changes in wet areas (inundation, flooding or very wet surface) across the globe. Snow and ice on the ground were masked out using a threshold-based approach that uses microwave brightness temperature observations. The advantage of the new ATMS sensor with respect to the older AMSU sensor that has similar channels consists of narrower orbit gaps and better spatial coverage and resolution. We nevertheless adapted the developed tool to AMSU data to investigate time series of inundation records across the globe since 2002. The obtained maps were verified against historical flood events in Australia and other parts of the world. Relationship between determined inundation and measured discharge was analyzed. A preliminary version of the automated flood monitoring system is deployed operationally at http://water.ccny.cuny.edu/research-product/inundation/.

Temimi, M.; Tesfagiorgis, K. B.; Lacava, T.; Khanbilvardi, R.

2013-12-01

112

An intelligent environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, information technology is becoming more and more important to improve the productivity of agriculture, especially for real time environment monitoring. However, the traditional method of environmental data collection is unable to provide real-time and highly accurate data of the monitored region to meet the requirements of precision agriculture. As wireless sensor networks(WSNs) has profound impacts on many fields due to its promising capability, in this paper, a WSN-based environment monitoring system is proposed. A prototype of the system that utilizes GAINSJ nodes based on Zigbee communication protocol has been implemented, and its packet error rate in different conditions was evaluated. Based on the proposed system architecture and technologies, the real time data can be measured, transmitted and stored in high accuracy. Moreover, the system was applied in upland grassland in Yushu, Qinghai province, and compared the results with the data acquired by local weather station. The system evaluation and experimental results show the effectiveness and reliability of the system in measuring the variations of temperature and humidity data within monitored region.

Cao, Minghua; Wang, Huiqin; Peng, Duo; Jia, Kejun

2009-07-01

113

A Remote Sensing-based Global Agricultural Drought Monitoring and Forecasting System for Supporting GEOSS (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations. GEO is coordinating the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a worldwide effort to make Earth observation resources more useful to the society. As one of the important technical contributors to GEOSS, the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems (CSISS), George Mason University, is implementing a remote sensing-based global agricultural drought monitoring and forecasting system (GADMFS) as a GEOSS societal benefit areas (agriculture and water) prototype. The goals of the project are 1) to establish a system as a component of GEOSS for providing global on-demand and systematic agriculture drought information to users worldwide, and 2) to support decision-making with improved monitoring, forecasting, and analyses of agriculture drought. GADMFS has adopted the service-oriented architecture and is based on standard-compliant interoperable geospatial Web services to provide online on-demand drought conditions and forecasting at ~1 km spatial and daily and weekly temporal resolutions for any part of the world to world-wide users through the Internet. Applicable GEOSS recommended open standards are followed in the system implementation. The system’s drought monitoring relies on drought-related parameters, such as surface and root-zone soil moisture and NDVI time series derived from remote sensing data, to provide the current conditions of agricultural drought. The system links to near real-time satellite remote sensing data sources from NASA and NOAA for the monitoring purpose. For drought forecasting, the system utilizes a neural-network based modeling algorithm. The algorithm is trained with inputs of current and historic vegetation-based and climate-based drought index data, biophysical characteristics of the environment, and time-series weather data. The trained algorithm will establish per-pixel model for drought forecasting. The model will produce on-demand drought prediction in ~1km or higher spatial resolution, covering whole world by using weather forecasting data as the input. The system will be implemented in multiple phases. Phase I is concentrated only on NDVI-based drought monitoring to demonstrate the concept and feasibility. In phase I, 30-year calibrated global weekly NDVI composites from AVHRR and MODIS are used to establish the baseline and dynamics of vegetation conditions for each co-registered pixel. Multiple NDVI based agricultural drought indices will be computed (e.g., normalized agricultural drought index (NADI), SVI, VegDRI) from the baseline and dynamics for drought monitoring. Phase I prototype will be demonstrated in December 2010.

di, L.; Yu, G.; Han, W.; Deng, M.

2010-12-01

114

A Geomagnetic Meridian Ring for global ionospheric studies and monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeronomers have made huge strides in understanding the detailed physics and chemistry of the upper atmosphere and in designing, constructing and operating advanced facilities to monitor, measure, and, in some cases, perturb that medium. Satellite-borne imagers and field/particle instruments, as well as ground-based instruments such as coherent scatter radars, optical imagers, and magnetometers, have already started to expose and document fundamental clues about the onset and development of the principal mechanisms of transient energy transfer from the solar wind to the Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere (AIM) system. However, the big picture, with its accompanying ability to predict the behavior of the geospace system both in response to solar and anthropogenic factors, remains somewhat elusive. This is due in part to the inherent limited spatial coverage of individual isolated instruments. Neither existing ground-based facilities, nor current or planned space missions, can provide the detailed, reliable, global coverage of geospace required to support either new and insightful scientific understanding or future operational capabilities to trace AIM weather, climate, and global change. Horizontal and vertical propagation effects quickly limit the effective interpretation of phenomena that have global impact. This limitation can be addressed with an array of instruments densely distributed along magnetic meridians and/or lines of constant latitude. Vertical sampling of the AIM system can be achieved with incoherent scatter radars, lidars and multi-spectral images while latitudinal or longitudinal tracking of propagating disturbances can be achieved by the dense distribution of these instruments. Incoherent scatter radars have developed considerably in recent years with the deployment of multiple new systems (Poker Flat, Alaska, Resolute Bay, Canada, and in development in Russia, China, and Scandinavia, as well as a second system at Resolute Bay). Operational changes now support continuous and remote measurements. For the first time, it is now practical to envisage a global ISR deployment capable of providing the precision measurements required. We will present plans to add further observational sites, built around phased array incoherent scatter radars, to cover a complete geomagnetic meridian. We elaborate on how this major initiative will illuminate new science and exploit the potential for international cooperation with other major initiatives, such as the Chinese Meridian Project, not only with regard to new radars and sites (with the potential for hardware collaboration for future incoherent scatter radar systems), but also to further integrate the routine operation of the existing radars around the globe.

Sanchez, E. R.; van Eyken, A. P.; Kelly, J. D.

2012-12-01

115

Toward global baselines and monitoring of forest cover for REDD: the Global Forest Cover Change project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) procedures in support of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) require the establishment of historical baselines of forest cover and changes, as well as consistent monitoring of subsequent forest gains and losses over time. Under the NASA MEaSUREs program, the Global Forest Cover Change project is using the USGS Global Land Survey (GLS) dataset of Landsat images to generate Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) for monitoring forest cover over multiple decades at sub-hectare spatial resolution. These data products include layers representing forest cover, change, and fragmentation in 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2005, as well as atmospherically corrected surface reflectance images for these same GLS “epochs”. Monitoring at this scale requires high levels of automation and radiometric precision. Atmospheric correction is accomplished with the 6S radiative transfer code, and classification is performed with Support Vector Machines fit with training data gathered by automated procedures. Surface reflectance images for the 2000 and 2005 epochs were recently released for public use. For the 2000 epoch, 94% of images had Root-Mean Squared Difference (RMSD) less than 5% reflectance compared to coincident MODIS daily surface reflectance (MOD09) across all bands. For 2005, 92% of images based on Landsat-7 and Landsat-5 met this specification relative to MODIS daily surface reflectance and 16-day NBAR composites (MCD43A4), respectively. Forest cover and change maps are being validated against visually interpreted reference data; pilot studies conducted in several countries showed accuracies above 90%. Classification errors are predominantly due to poor discrimination of deciduous forests from crops and other herbaceous cover types, and so procedures have been devised for flagging and/or replacement of phenologically unsuitable GLS images. Web-based tools have been developed for rapid collection of multi-temporal reference data, and we are exploring ways to incorporate community efforts for validation through this interface. Accuracy assessments will be updated as algorithms are refined. This talk will describe project goals, algorithms, and product status, with additional emphasis on accuracy assessment of surface reflectance and forest cover products. These and forthcoming data records will provide crucial information to resource managers and scientists monitoring changes in forest cover over recent decades.

Sexton, J. O.; Huang, C.; Masek, J. G.; Feng, M.; Narasimhan, R.; Vermote, E. F.; Hansen, M. C.; Wolfe, R. E.; Channan, S.; Townshend, J. R.

2010-12-01

116

A Global Rapid Integrated Monitoring System for Water Cycle and Water Resource Assessment (Global-RIMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main focus of our work was to solidify underlying data sets, the data processing tools and the modeling environment needed to perform a series of long-term global and regional hydrological simulations leading eventually to routine hydrometeorological predictions. A water and energy budget synthesis was developed for the Mississippi River Basin (Roads et al. 2003), in order to understand better what kinds of errors exist in current hydrometeorological data sets. This study is now being extended globally with a larger number of observations and model based data sets under the new NASA NEWS program. A global comparison of a number of precipitation data sets was subsequently carried out (Fekete et al. 2004) in which it was further shown that reanalysis precipitation has substantial problems, which subsequently led us to the development of a precipitation assimilation effort (Nunes and Roads 2005). We believe that with current levels of model skill in predicting precipitation that precipitation assimilation is necessary to get the appropriate land surface forcing.

Roads, John; Voeroesmarty, Charles

2005-01-01

117

Water erosion monitoring and experimentation for global change studies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the need for monitoring the effects of climatic change on soil erosion. The importance of monitoring not only runoff, but monitoring and experimental studies at the larger scale of hillslope and catchments is stressed.

Poesen, J.W. [Laboratory for Experimental Geomorphology, Leuven (Belgium); Boardman, J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Wilcox, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1996-09-01

118

NOAA's Global Earth Observation - Integrated Data Environment (GEO-IDE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international Group on Earth Observation (GEO) and the U.S. coordination group, USGEO, have identified nine societal benefit areas that require environmental data of a wide range of types and from many diverse sources. GEO has called on the nations of the world to ensure that the relevant data that they hold is made accessible and useful to these applications. In response, nations and their environmental agencies are addressing the challenges associated with data integration of these distributed and diverse data types. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) holds extremely large collections of data describing the physical and biological properties of the Earth's environment. To date, the data collections and the systems that support them have been acquired by individually funded and managed programs with differing requirements, standards, interfaces and conventions, mirroring the data integration issues faced at the national and international level. The Global Earth Observation - Integrated Data Environment (GEO-IDE) has been initiated by NOAA to address these issues for its own interdisciplinary applications as well as those of the the broader national and international iniatives. The concept and initial plans for GEO-IDE have been developed by the Data Management Integration Team (DMIT), a group of data management professionals representing all NOAA's Line Offices, Goal Teams and the office of the CIO. The goal of GEO-IDE is to define an architecture and the associated processes necessary to establish the required standards and guidelines that allow NOAA's data providers to make their products available as a set of interoperable services. GEO-IDE is addressing the integration of existing data services while at the same time providing guidance to future data system development activities. It is intended to meet an important NOAA need while also supporting NOAA's contribution to USGEO and GEO.

McDonald, K. R.

2007-12-01

119

Archive: Satellite Meteorology: Monitoring the Global Environment, December 22, 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web Seminar took place on December 22, 2010, from 6:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Presenting was Rudo Kashiri, NASA Explorer Schools Coordinator. In this Seminar, Ms. Kashiri focused the discussion on a wealth of online resources for teachers t

1900-01-01

120

Validation of the ASAR Global Monitoring Mode Soil Moisture Product Using the NAFE'05 Data Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) Global Monitoring (GM) mode offers an opportunity for global soil moisture (SM) monitoring at much finer spatial resolution than that provided by the currently operational Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System and future planned missions such as Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity and Soil Moisture Active Passive. Considering the difficulties in

Iliana Mladenova; Venkat Lakshmi; Jeffrey P. Walker; Rocco Panciera; Wolfgang Wagner; Marcela Doubkova

2010-01-01

121

Monitoring of fatigue crack under complex environment using guided waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental study on monitoring of fatigue crack under complex environment using guided waves. An experimental set-up consisting of an electrical oven, a MTS testing machine and a monitoring system is established to perform the study. First, the combined effects of temperature, load and vibration on the propagation of guided waves in metallic structure is studied. Then, a statistical approach is proposed to detect fatigue crack under these combined effects. Damage feature is extracted after the guided wave signals are processed by Fourier transform. A Monte Carlo procedure is employed to estimate the probability density functions of the feature before and after cracking, respectively. By comparing the probability density functions, the probability of existence of fatigue crack is determined. Experimental study on a fatigue coupon under combined effects of temperature, load and vibration is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Tang, Jianfei; Yan, Gang; Xu, Xiwu

2011-11-01

122

The Global Communication Infrastructure of the International Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI) employs 6 satellites in various frequency bands distributed around the globe. Communications with the PTS (Provisional Technical Secretariat) in Vienna, Austria are achieved through VSAT technologies, international leased data circuits and Virtual Private Network (VPN) connections over the Internet. To date, 210 independent VSAT circuits have been connected to Vienna as well as special circuits connecting to the Antarctic and to independent sub-networks. Data volumes from all technologies currently reach 8 Gigabytes per day. The first level of support and a 24/7 help desk remains with the GCI contractor, but performance is monitored actively by the PTS/GCI operations team. GCI operations are being progressively introduced into the PTS operations centre. An Operations centre fully integrated with the GCI segment of the IMS network will ensure a more focused response to incidents and will maximize the availability of the IMS network. Existing trouble tickets systems are being merged to ensure the commission manages GCI incidents in the context of the IMS as a whole. A focus on a single source of data for GCI network performance has enabled reporting systems to be developed which allow for improved and automated reports. The contracted availability for each individual virtual circuit is 99.5% and this performance is regularly reviewed on a monthly basis

Lastowka, L.; Gray, A.; Anichenko, A.

2007-05-01

123

Global monitoring of Sea Surface Salinity with Aquarius  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is a microwave remote sensing system designed to obtain global maps of the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for late in 2008. The objective of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This will provide data to address scientific questions associated with ocean circulation and its impact on climate. For example, salinity is needed to understand the large scale thermohaline circulation, driven by buoyancy, which moves large masses of water and heat around the globe. Of the two variables that determine buoyancy (salinity and temperature), temperature is already being monitored. Salinity is the missing variable needed to understand this circulation. Salinity also has an important role in energy exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, for example in the development of fresh water lenses (buoyant water that forms stable layers and insulates water below from the atmosphere) which alter the air-sea coupling. Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument,for measuring salinity is the radiometer which is able to detect salinity because of the modulation salinity produces on the thermal emission from sea water. This change is detectable at the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the greatest unknowns in the retrieval. The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6am/6pm. The antenna for these two instruments is a 3 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds arranged in pushbroom fashion looking away from the sun toward the shadow side of the orbit to minimize sunglint. The mission goal is to produce maps of the salinity field globally once each month with an accuracy of 0.2 psu and a spatial resolution of 100 km. This will be adequate to address l&ge scale features of the salinity field of the open ocean. The temporal resolution is sufficient to address seasonal changes and a three year mission is planned to-collect sufficient data to look for interannual variation. Aquarius is being developed by NASA as part of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The SAC-D mission is being developed by CONAE and will include the space craft and several additional instruments, including visible and infrared cameras and a microwave radiometer to monitor rain and wind velocity over the oceans, and sea ice.

Lagerloef, G. S. E.; LeVine, D. M.; Chao, Yi; Colomb, R.; Nollmann, I.

2005-01-01

124

Monitoring the Earth's Atmosphere with the Global IMS Infrasound Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is tasked with monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) which bans nuclear weapon explosions underground, in the oceans, and in the atmosphere. The verification regime includes a globally distributed network of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations which collect and transmit data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria shortly after the data are recorded at each station. The infrasound network defined in the Protocol of the CTBT comprises 60 infrasound array stations. Each array is built according to the same technical specifications, it is typically composed of 4 to 9 sensors, with 1 to 3 km aperture geometry. At the end of 2000 only one infrasound station was transmitting data to the IDC. Since then, 41 additional stations have been installed and 70% of the infrasound network is currently certified and contributing data to the IDC. This constitutes the first global infrasound network ever built with such a large and uniform distribution of stations. Infrasound data at the IDC are processed at the station level using the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) method for the detection and measurement of infrasound signals. The algorithm calculates the signal correlation between sensors at an infrasound array. If the signal is sufficiently correlated and consistent over an extended period of time and frequency range a detection is created. Groups of detections are then categorized according to their propagation and waveform features, and a phase name is assigned for infrasound, seismic or noise detections. The categorization complements the PMCC algorithm to avoid overwhelming the IDC automatic association algorithm with false alarm infrasound events. Currently, 80 to 90% of the detections are identified as noise by the system. Although the noise detections are not used to build events in the context of CTBT monitoring, they represent valuable data for other civil applications like monitoring of natural hazards (volcanic activity, storm tracking) and climate change. Non-noise detections are used in network processing at the IDC along with seismic and hydroacoustic technologies. The arrival phases detected on the three waveform technologies may be combined and used for locating events in an automatically generated bulletin of events. This automatic event bulletin is routinely reviewed by analysts during the interactive review process. However, the fusion of infrasound data with the other waveform technologies has only recently (in early 2010) become part of the IDC operational system, after a software development and testing period that began in 2004. The build-up of the IMS infrasound network, the recent developments of the IDC infrasound software, and the progress accomplished during the last decade in the domain of real-time atmospheric modelling have allowed better understanding of infrasound signals and identification of a growing data set of ground-truth sources. These infragenic sources originate from natural or man-made sources. Some of the detected signals are emitted by local or regional phenomena recorded by a single IMS infrasound station: man-made cultural activity, wind farms, aircraft, artillery exercises, ocean surf, thunderstorms, rumbling volcanoes, iceberg calving, aurora, avalanches. Other signals may be recorded by several IMS infrasound stations at larger distances: ocean swell, sonic booms, and mountain associated waves. Only a small fraction of events meet the event definition criteria considering the Treaty verification mission of the Organization. Candidate event types for the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin include atmospheric or surface explosions, meteor explosions, rocket launches, signals from large earthquakes and explosive volcanic eruptions.

Brachet, Nicolas; Brown, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Bras, Ronan; Coyne, John; Given, Jeffrey

2010-05-01

125

The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments.  

PubMed

The simultaneous increases in obesity in almost all countries seem to be driven mainly by changes in the global food system, which is producing more processed, affordable, and effectively marketed food than ever before. This passive overconsumption of energy leading to obesity is a predictable outcome of market economies predicated on consumption-based growth. The global food system drivers interact with local environmental factors to create a wide variation in obesity prevalence between populations. Within populations, the interactions between environmental and individual factors, including genetic makeup, explain variability in body size between individuals. However, even with this individual variation, the epidemic has predictable patterns in subpopulations. In low-income countries, obesity mostly affects middle-aged adults (especially women) from wealthy, urban environments; whereas in high-income countries it affects both sexes and all ages, but is disproportionately greater in disadvantaged groups. Unlike other major causes of preventable death and disability, such as tobacco use, injuries, and infectious diseases, there are no exemplar populations in which the obesity epidemic has been reversed by public health measures. This absence increases the urgency for evidence-creating policy action, with a priority on reduction of the supply-side drivers. PMID:21872749

Swinburn, Boyd A; Sacks, Gary; Hall, Kevin D; McPherson, Klim; Finegood, Diane T; Moodie, Marjory L; Gortmaker, Steven L

2011-08-27

126

An Induced Environment Contamination Monitor for the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM), a set of ten instruments integrated into a self-contained unit and scheduled to fly on shuttle Orbital Flight Tests 1 through 6 and on Spacelabs 1 and 2, is described. The IECM is designed to measure the actual environment to determine whether the strict controls placed on the shuttle system have solved the contamination problem. Measurements are taken during prelaunch, ascent, on-orbit, descent, and postlanding. The on-orbit measurements are molecular return flux, background spectral intensity, molecular deposition, and optical surface effects. During the other mission phases dew point, humidity, aerosol content, and trace gas are measured as well as optical surface effects and molecular deposition. The IECM systems and thermal design are discussed. Preflight and ground operations are presented together with associated ground support equipment. Flight operations and data reduction plans are given.

Miller, E. R. (editor); Decher, R. (editor)

1978-01-01

127

Monitor System for Space Electromagnetic Environments: Sensor Network in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a monitoring system for space electromagnetic environments. We address it MSEE(Monitor System for space Electromagnetic Environments). The MSEE is a kind of the sensor network system in space. It consists of palm-sized sensor nodes, which are randomly distributed in the target area. The sensor node carries a compact plasma wave receiver as well as other necessary components such as communications and digital processing units. The observed data are transferred to the center station such as space stations or satellites/rockets through the ad-hoc network system. The objective of the MSEE is to observe plasma wave activities in multiple-points. Since space plasmas are essentially collisionless, kinetic energies of plasmas are exchanged through plasma waves. This means the plasma wave activities well reflect the variation of the environments in space which is filled with space plasmas. The targets of the MSEE are the artificial disturbances due to human activities in space as well as natural plasma waves. The MSEE provides us with the information on the three dimensional variation of the space electromagnetic environment in the target area. Recently, we have developed the prototype of the sensor node. In the prototype sensor node, small electric and magnetic field sensors with enough sensitivity and their small preamplifiers are installed. We also develop the small plasma wave receiver using the analogue ASIC technology. The necessary analogue components of plasma wave receivers are realized in one-chip ASIC with the size of 3mm x 3mm. The system of the sensor node is controlled by the one-chip computer. Under its control, communications and location identification are done using the wireless network technology. In the present paper, we introduce the MSEE system and its design. We also report the current status in our developing the small size plasma wave receivers with their sensors and the technique of the location identification of each sensor node.

Kojima, H.; Yagitani, S.; Iwai, H.; Takizawa, Y.; Mizuochi, Y.; Fukuhara, H.; Ikeda, H.; Yamakawa, H.; Usui, H.; Ueda, Y.

2008-12-01

128

Global Monitoring of Martian Surface Albedo Changes from Orbital Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Martian surface changes were first observed from orbit during the Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter missions. They were found to be caused by eolian processes, produced by deposition of dust during regional and global dust storms and subsequent darkening of the surface through erosion and transportation of dust and sand. The albedo changes accumulated in the 20 years between Viking and Mars Global Surveyor were sufficient to alter the global circulation of winds and the climate of Mars according to model calculations (Fenton et al., Nature 2007), but little was known about the timing or frequency of the changes. Since 1999, we have had the benefit of continuous monitoring by a series of orbiting spacecraft that continues today with Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express. Daily synoptic observations enable us to determine whether the surface albedo changes are gradual or episodic in nature and to record the seasons that the changes take place. High resolution images of surface morphology and atmospheric phenomena help identify the physical mechanisms responsible for the changes. From these data, we hope to learn the combinations of atmospheric conditions and sediment properties that produce surface changes on Mars and possibly predict when they will take place in the future. Martian surface changes are particularly conspicuous in low albedo terrain, where even a thin layer of bright dust brightens the surface drastically. Equatorial dark areas are repeatedly coated and recoated by dust, which is later shed from the surface by a variety of mechanisms. An example is Syrtis Major, suddenly buried in bright dust by the global dust storm of 2001. Persistent easterly winds blew much of the dust cover away over the course of the next Martian year, but episodic changes continue today, particularly during southern summer when regional dust storms are rife. Another such region is Solis Planum, south of the Valles Marineris, where changes take place relentlessly in all seasons as bright dust and dark sand battle to dominate the landscape. Elsewhere, gradual processes steadily shift albedo boundaries between bright and dark terrain. Dark terrain near the Spirit rover landing site is gradually spreading to the north, driven by seasonal southerly winds. A bright fringe of newly deposited dust appears ahead of the moving boundary, populated by wind streaks and dust avalanches. Dark terrain at higher latitudes gradually creeps towards the equator by the dust cleaning action of dust devils, for example at Nilosytis (43°N, 85°E). Much less obvious is the deposition and erosion of dust on already bright, dust-covered terrain. Changes in the distribution of fresh dust take place frequently in the region surrounding the Tharsis Montes. Dust in this high altitude zone is constantly on the move as faint dark streaks mark the removal of recently deposited dust that is only slightly brighter than the dust already settled on the surface. Dramatic deposition of dust onto dusty terrain took place at much lower elevations in northwestern Amazonis between 2002 and 2005. Since then, the dust has been energetically eroded by towering dust devils that cluster here each summer.

Geissler, P.; Enga, M.; Mukherjee, P.

2013-12-01

129

Ancestral populations perform better in a novel environment: domestication of medfly populations from five global regions  

PubMed Central

Geographically isolated populations of a species may differ in several aspects of life-history, morphology, behavior, and genetic structure as a result of adaptation in ecologically diverse habitats. We used a global invasive species, the Mediterranean fruit fly to investigate, whether adaptation to a novel environment differs among geographically isolated populations that vary in major life history components such as life span and reproduction. We used wild populations from five global regions (Kenya, Hawaii, Guatemala, Portugal, and Greece). Adult demographic traits were monitored in F2, F5, F7 and F9 generations in captivity. Although domestication in constant laboratory conditions had a different effect on the mortality and reproductive rates of the different populations, a general trend of decreasing life span and age of first reproduction was observed for most medfly populations tested. However, taking into account longevity of both sexes, age-specific reproductive schedules, and average reproductive rates we found that the ancestral Kenyan population kept the above life history traits stable during domestication compared to the other populations tested. These findings provide important insights in the life-history evolution of this model species, and suggest that ancestral medfly populations perform better than the derived – invasive ones in a novel environment.

Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Carey, James R.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

2010-01-01

130

Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment.  

PubMed

Achieving sustainable global food security is one of humanity's contemporary challenges. Here we present an analysis identifying key "global leverage points" that offer the best opportunities to improve both global food security and environmental sustainability. We find that a relatively small set of places and actions could provide enough new calories to meet the basic needs for more than 3 billion people, address many environmental impacts with global consequences, and focus food waste reduction on the commodities with the greatest impact on food security. These leverage points in the global food system can help guide how nongovernmental organizations, foundations, governments, citizens' groups, and businesses prioritize actions. PMID:25035492

West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; Engstrom, Peder M; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Brauman, Kate A; Carlson, Kimberly M; Cassidy, Emily S; Johnston, Matt; MacDonald, Graham K; Ray, Deepak K; Siebert, Stefan

2014-07-18

131

Surface Emissivity Retrieved with Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements for Monitoring Global Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface and atmospheric thermodynamic parameters retrieved with advanced ultraspectral remote sensors aboard Earth observing satellites are critical to general atmospheric and Earth science research, climate monitoring, and weather prediction. Ultraspectral resolution infrared radiance obtained from nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud information. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity retrieved from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements under "clear-sky" conditions. Fast radiative transfer models, applied to the cloud-free (or clouded) atmosphere, are used for atmospheric profile and surface parameter (or cloud parameter) retrieval. The inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface (or cloud microphysical) parameters. Rapidly produced surface emissivity is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted atmospheric and surface parameters. Surface emissivity and surface skin temperature from the current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information on the Earth s ecosystem and land surface type properties, which can be utilized as part of long-term monitoring for the Earth s environment and global climate change.

Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter

2009-01-01

132

Novel method for monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms in the environment.  

PubMed Central

A method has been devised for directly detecting and monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) by using in vitro amplification of the target DNAs by a polymerase chain reaction and then hybridizing the DNAs with a specific oligonucleotide or DNA probe. A cloned 0.3-kilobase napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) genomic DNA that did not hybridize to DNAs isolated from various microorganisms, soil sediments, and aquatic environments was inserted into a derivative of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degradative plasmid, pRC10, and transferred into Escherichia coli. This genetically altered microorganism, seeded into filter-sterilized lake and sewage water samples (10(4)/ml), was detected by a plate count method in decreasing numbers for 6 and 10 days of sample incubation, respectively. The new method detected the amplified unique marker (0.3-kilobase DNA) of the GEM even after 10 to 14 days of incubation. This method is highly sensitive (it requires only picogram amounts of DNA) and has an advantage over the plate count technique, which can detect only culturable microorganisms. The method may be useful for monitoring GEMs in complex environments, where discrimination between GEMs and indigenous microorganisms is either difficult or requires time-consuming tests. Images

Chaudhry, G R; Toranzos, G A; Bhatti, A R

1989-01-01

133

Cycling of DDT in the global environment 1950–2002: World ocean returns the pollutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global distribution and fate of the insecticide DDT was modeled for the first time using a spatially resolved global multicompartment chemistry-transport model comprising a 3D coupled atmosphere and ocean GCM, coupled to 2D vegetation surfaces and top soils. DDT enters the model environment as a pesticide in agriculture only. Final sinks of DDT in the total environment are degradation

Irene Stemmler; Gerhard Lammel

2009-01-01

134

Monitoring the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO 2 : Measurements from the NOAA Global Air Sampling Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable isotopic composition of atmospheric CO 2 is being monitored via measurements made at the University of Colorado-Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, using air samples collected weekly by the Global Air Sampling Network of the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory. These measurements, in concert with the monitoring of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios, offer the potential to characterize

M. Trolier; J. W. C. White; P. P. Tans; K. A. Masarie; P. A. Gemery

1996-01-01

135

Background monitoring and its role in global estimation and forecast of the state of the biosphere.  

PubMed

(1) Scientific grounds and the concept of monitoring as the system for observations, assessment and prediction of man-induced changes in the state of natural environment, the program and aims of the background monitoring were developed by the author in 1972-1980. These questions were discussed in detail at the International Symposium on Global Integrated Monitoring (Riga, U.S.S.R., December, 1978). It should be stressed that along with significant anthropogenic loading on large cities and industrial areas, natural ecosystems covering most of the Earth's territory are also exposed to quite extended, though insignificant anthropogenic effects. This paper proposes to consider the ways of the background information use for the biosphere state assessment and prediction. (2) Classification of objects for monitoring from the point of view of the consequences of the man-made impact, pollution in the first hand, is as follows: - population (public health); - ecosystem elements employed by man whose production is used by population (soil, water bodies, forest, etc.); - biotic elements of ecosystems (without the immediate consumed production); - abiotic constituents of natural ecosystems, considerable components of the biosphere, climatic system. (3) Historically, monitoring in all countries involves the first two spheres. The background monitoring also extends on the next two spheres. It should differentially take into account physical, chemical and biological factors of impacts. Indentification of biological effects is most complex and vital. Human impact at the background level proceeds indirectly through a general (global or regional) deterioration of the state of the biosphere. (4) Gradually the background monitoring is being practiced on a larger and larger scale. It is shown that the long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants in various regions leads to a gradual general increase of all the natural media pollution and to perceptible biological effects (soil and water acidification and resulting disturbances in the composition of soil and water organisms). The levels of the background impact differ. Thus, the background concentrations of a number of anthropogenic pollutants in Central Europe is 10-20 times higher than in Central Asia. (5) The area of priority in the background monitoring of the biosphere pollution has become evident: compounds of sulphur, mercury and their derivatives, organochloride pesticides, some radioactive substances (e.g., krypton-85 in the atmosphere). (6) The World Ocean is practically all contaminated on a global scale. Biological effects of the World Ocean pollution cause special concern. Particularly important consequences, including climate impact, may be caused by disturbances in energy and matter transfer between environmental media (water-air, water-bottom, etc.). The priority of the impact factors can be allocated here as well: oil products, metals, organochloride compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (7) One of the most effective possibilities of environmental quality control is standardization which consists in elaboration of permissible ecological loadings upon ecosystems and natural media. The approach to ecological standardization differs from that of hygienic control in principle. The objective of ecological standardization is to ensure the integrity of the given ecosystem and natural environment on the whole. (8) Ecological standardization in its turn requires knowledge related to the damage from this or another impact because in such a case there is a possibility to compare ecological standards for the same ecosystem in the case when impacts are of different origin (e.g., different pollutants). PMID:24264347

Izrael, Y A

1982-12-01

136

A New GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments Site in Southwestern Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change is predicted to have a major impact on the alpine environments and plants of western North America. Alpine plant species and treelines may migrate upwards due to warmer temperatures. Species composition, vegetation cover, and the phenology of photosynthesis, flowering, pollination, and seed dispersal may change. The Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a network of alpine sites established with the goal of understanding the interactions between climate change and alpine plants. The Continental Divide traverses Southwestern Montana, where the flora contains representative species from both sides of the divide. In the summer of 2008, we established a GLORIA site in southwestern Montana east of the Continental Divide with the objective of determining whether the temperature changes at the site, and if so, how temperature changes influence alpine plants. We are monitoring soil temperature along with species composition and percent cover of alpine plants at four sub-summits along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We placed the treeline, lower alpine, and upper alpine sites on Mt. Fleecer (45°49'36.06"N, 112°48'08.18"W, 2886.2 m (9469 ft)) and the highest sub-summit on Keokirk Mountain, (45°35'37.94"N, 112°57'03.89"W, 2987.3 m (9801 ft)) in the Pioneer Range. Interesting species on these mountains include Lewisia pygmaea, the Pygmy Bitterroot, Silene acaulis, the Moss Campion, Eritrichium nanum, the Alpine Forget-Me-Not, Lloydia serotina, the Alpine Lily, and Pinus albicaulis, the Whitebark Pine. This new site will remain in place indefinitely. Baseline and subsequent data from this site will be linked with the global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora.

Apple, M. E.; Warden, J. E.; Apple, C. J.; Pullman, T. Y.; Gallagher, J. H.

2008-12-01

137

The globalization of N deposition: ecosystem consequences in tropical environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities have more than doubled the inputs of nitrogen (N) into terrestrial systems globally. The sources and distribution of anthropogenic N, including N fertilization and N fixed during fossil fuel combustion, are rapidly shifting from the temperate zone to a more global distribution. The consequences of anthropogenic N deposition for ecosystem processes and N losses have been studied primarily

Pamela A. Matson; William H. McDowell; Alan R. Townsend; Peter M. Vitousek

1999-01-01

138

Global collaborative engineering environment for integrated product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization has created a situation of increased international competition, which has put companies under enormous pressure in order to sustain and improve their value added to customers based on mass customization and time-to-market opportunities. This has lead to more international collaboration within companies and their different facilities worldwide, or among different companies in global supply chains. In this scenario the

Arturo Molina; Joaquín Aca; Paul K. Wright

2005-01-01

139

Japanese Automakers and the NAFTA Environment: Global Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese automakers have become an integral part of the North American economy, with total investment approaching $20 billion, direct employment ex- ceeding 40,000 and 3 million vehicles being built annually. The investment and productive capacity can be considered a function of globalization trends and\\/or deliberate policy initiatives by governments and firms. This paper briefly introduces the global context for a

T. Koshiba; P. Parker; T. Rutherford; D. Sanford; R. Olson

2001-01-01

140

Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and pressure via satellite. The GEMS data will be validated against reference observations provided by current weather instrumentation located at KSC. This paper will report on the results of the GEMSTONE project and discuss the challenges encountered in developing an airborne sensor system.

Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

2007-01-01

141

Monitoring and Forecasting Space Weather in Geospace Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For improving the reliability of Space Weather prediction, we developed a new, Polar Magnetic (PM) index of geomagnetic activity, which shows high correlation with both upstream solar wind data and related events in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Similarly to the existing polar cap PC index, the new PM index was computed from data from two near-pole geomagnetic observatories; however, the method for computing the PM index is different. The high correlation of the PM index with both solar wind data and events in Geospace environment makes possible to improve significantly forecasting geomagnetic disturbances and such important parameters as the cross-polar-cap voltage and global Joule heating, which play an important role in the development of geomagnetic, ionospheric and thermospheric disturbances. We tested the PM index for 10-year period (1995-2004). The correlation between PM index and upstream solar wind data for these years is very high (the average correlation coefficient R approximately equal to 0.86). The PM index also shows the high correlation with the cross-polar-cap voltage and hemispheric Joule heating (the correlation coefficient between the actual and predicted values of these parameters approximately equal to 0.9), which results in significant increasing the prediction reliability of these parameters. Using the PM index of geomagnetic activity provides a significant increase in the forecasting reliability of geomagnetic disturbances and related events in Geospace environment. The PM index may be also used as an important input parameter in modeling ionospheric, magnetospheric, and thermospheric processes.

Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.

2008-01-01

142

Regulatory challenges for in vitro diagnostics in a global environment.  

PubMed

U.S. medical products are marketed globally and are designed to meet needs of medical practitioners and their patients throughout the world. However, differences in how these products are regulated in different countries can pose challenges for the global marketer. This paper explores some of the differences between proposed and extant U.S. and European regulations for in vitro diagnostic products in terms of documentation, records, and labelling. It will describe some of the practical implications of these differences. PMID:7804632

Longwell, A

1994-06-01

143

An artificial reality environment for remote factory control and monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work has begun on the merger of two well known systems, VEOS (HITLab) and CLIPS (NASA). In the recent past, the University of Massachusetts Lowell developed a parallel version of NASA CLIPS, called P-CLIPS. This modification allows users to create smaller expert systems which are able to communicate with each other to jointly solve problems. With the merger of a VEOS message system, PCLIPS-V can now act as a group of entities working within VEOS. To display the 3D virtual world we have been using a graphics package called HOOPS, from Ithaca Software. The artificial reality environment we have set up contains actors and objects as found in our Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future project. The environment allows us to view and control the objects within the virtual world. All communication between the separate CLIPS expert systems is done through VEOS. A graphical renderer generates camera views on X-Windows devices; Head Mounted Devices are not required. This allows more people to make use of this technology. We are experimenting with different types of virtual vehicles to give the user a sense that he or she is actually moving around inside the factory looking ahead through windows and virtual monitors.

Kosta, Charles Paul; Krolak, Patrick D.

1993-12-01

144

Advanced monitoring systems for biological applications in marine environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing need to manage complex environmental problems demands a new approach and new technologies to provide the information required at a spatial and temporal resolution appropriate to the scales at which the biological processes occur. In particular sensor networks, now quite popular on land, still poses many difficult problems in underwater environments. In this context, it is necessary to develop an autonomous monitoring system that can be remotely interrogated and directed to address unforeseen or expected changes in such environmental conditions. This system, at the highest level, aims to provide a framework for combining observations from a wide range of different in-situ sensors and remote sensing instruments, with a long-term plan for how the network of sensing modalities will continue to evolve in terms of sensing modality, geographic location, and spatial and temporal density. The advances in sensor technology and digital electronics have made it possible to produce large amount of small tag-like sensors which integrate sensing, processing, and communication capabilities together and form an autonomous entity. To successfully use this kind of systems in under water environments, it becomes necessary to optimize the network lifetime and face the relative hindrances that such a field imposes, especially in terms of underwater information exchange.

Cella, U.; Chiffings, T.; Gandelli, A.; Grimaccia, F.; Johnstone, R. W.; Zich, R. E.

2007-12-01

145

Safety and Security of Remote Monitoring and Control of intelligent Home Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent home environments are one of the major application areas of pervasive computing. Safety and security are two most important issues in the remote monitoring and control of intelligent home environments. This article takes safety and security into consideration together and proposes a phone-out-only policy for ensuring security and virtual home environments for safety. A remote monitoring and control system

Lili Yang; Shuang-Hua Yang; Fang Yao

2006-01-01

146

Applications of Multi-source Remote Sensing Information to Urban Environment Monitoring in Mining Industrial Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote Sensing (RS) has been viewed as the one of the most effective tools for environment monitoring, urban resources and environment investigation, change detection and urban growth analysis in mining industrial cities. Firstly, the framework and structure of applying multi-source RS information to environment monitoring of mining industrial cities is proposed based on the general methodologies of RS applications and

Du Peijun; Zhang Huapeng; Pan Chen; Liu Pei

2007-01-01

147

Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.  

PubMed

Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities. PMID:24315062

Haffeld, Just

2013-11-01

148

Global Ionospheric Perturbations Monitored by the Worldwide GPS Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on the delays of these (Global Positioning System-GPS)signals, we have generated high resolution global ionospheric TEC (Total Electronic Changes) maps at 15-minute intervals. Using a differential method comparing storm time maps with quiet time maps, we find that the ionopshere during this time storm has increased significantly (the percentage change relative to quiet times is greater than 150 percent) ...These preliminary results (those mentioned above plus other in the paper)indicate that the differential maping method, which is based on GPS network measurements appears to be a useful tool for studying the global pattern and evolution process of the entire ionospheric perturbation.

Ho, C. M.; Mannucci, A. T.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Pi, X. Q.

1996-01-01

149

From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent technological advances have driven rapid development of DNA-based methods designed to facilitate detection and monitoring of invasive species in aquatic environments. These tools promise to significantly alleviate difficulties associated with traditional monitoring approac...

150

External Radiation Monitoring in TAPS and RAPS Environs (1980-1981) Using TLD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of environmental external radiation monitoring using quarterly integrated TLD measurements are presented for environments of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) and the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) for the two year monitoring period (...

A. S. Basu K. S. V. Nambi C. M. Sunta

1983-01-01

151

Global warming threat on water resources and environment: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming, greenhouse effect, and the climate change problems are long-term anthropogenic consequences that are expected to threaten water related demand and supply patterns in the near future. These problems may be identified linguistically on a logical basis to take the necessary precautions, and implement mitigation strategies after vulnerability possibilities are assessed using fuzzy logic. Climate change effects are the focus of many scientific, engineering, economic, social, cultural, and global nuisances, and these effects awaits cost-effective remedial solutions. Extreme events such as floods and droughts and modified groundwater recharge may be influenced by climate change.

?en, Zekai

2009-03-01

152

Integration of Electromechanical Impedance and Global Dynamic Techniques for Improved Structural Health Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes the simultaneous application of the local electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) and the global dynamic techniques using the same set of piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) sensor patches for improved health monitoring of structures. It describes an experimental study conducted on a two-story reinforced concrete frame structure using PZT patches embedded in the structure. The global dynamic technique, which is based

Rama Shanker; Suresh Bhalla; Ashok Gupta

2010-01-01

153

A Future Network for Monitoring the Driving Function of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new future network is proposed to monitor the radiative forcing of global warming by greenhouse gases. The greenhouse radiation is the downward infrared heat radiation from greenhouse gases, otherwise known as the surface forcing radiation. The increase in this radiation due to increased carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is the driving function of global warming. In an experimental

W. F. Evans

2007-01-01

154

Monitoring global change with phenology: The case of the spring green wave  

Microsoft Academic Search

The centuries-old practice of recording plant and animal events that take place at specific times each year (phenology) should play an important role in monitoring mid-latitude global changes. At least three problems related to the detection of biosphere changes could be investigated using this information. Firstly, the technique can be generalized from the local to global scale. Secondly, an integrated

Mark D. Schwartz

1994-01-01

155

The Error Analysis of Global Gravity Field Models according to the Earthquake Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the GRACE mission was launched in March 2002, there have been a lot of GRACE observational data and products released, including the time-variable global gravity field models with the maximum degree to 120, and 1 month time resolution. The purpose of this paper is how to use these global gravity field model products to analyze the earthquake monitoring according

Z. Zou; H. Li; W. Dan

2007-01-01

156

The French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative on global observations of atmospheric CH4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a new French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative targeting on global measurements of atmospheric methane (CH4). Among the greenhouse gases banned by the Kyoto protocol, CH4 contributes most to global warming after CO2. Questions arise whether global warming in Arctic regions might foster the melting of permafrost soils which contain significant amounts of carbon in organic form which under

Gerhard Ehret; Pierre Flamant; Axel Amediek; Philippe Ciais; Gibert Fabien; Andreas Fix; Christoph Kiemle; Mathieu Quatrevalet; Martin Wirth

2010-01-01

157

Application of the Open Software Foundation (OSF)distributed computing environment to global PACS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present our approach to developing Global Picture Archiving and Communication System (GPACS) applications using the Open Software Foundation (OSF) Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) services and toolkits. The OSF DCE services include remote procedure calls, naming service, threads service, time service, file management services, and security service. Several OSF DCE toolkits are currently available from computer and software vendors. Designing distributed Global PACS applications using the OSF DCE approach will feature an open architecture, heterogeneity, and technology independence for GPACS remote consultation and diagnosis applications, including synchronized image annotation, and system privacy and security. The applications can communicate through various transport services and communications networks in a Global PACS environment. The use of OSF DCE services for Global PACS will enable us to develop a robust distributed structure and new user services which feature reliability and scalability for Global PACS environments.

Martinez, Ralph; Alsafadi, Yasser H.; Kim, Jinman

1994-05-01

158

Supply chain risk in an uncertain global supply chain environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breadth and scope of supply chain risks have broadened significantly in recent years. Even prior to the 2001 terrorist attacks, the creep of risks and uncertainties were widening with increased globalization, widening political reach by leading countries, and the rise of market producing and consuming economies. This article raises some essential supply chain questions as well as some that

Jack Barry

2004-01-01

159

Global environment facility: Independent evaluation of the pilot phase  

SciTech Connect

;Contents: Introduction; Assessment overview and recommendations; Profile of the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) pilot phase; Policy framework for the GEF pilot phase; Strategies and projects of the GEF focal areas; GEF Small Grants Program; GEF and national development; Project development procedures for the GEF pilot phase; Organization and management; and Annexes.

Edgren, G.; Htun, N.; Picciotto, R.

1994-05-01

160

Systems engineering in the global environment : a wicked future.  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the following questions: (1) What are the Global Problems that require Systems Engineering; (2) Where is Systems Engineering going; (3) What are the boundaries of Systems Engineering; (4) What is the distinction between Systems Thinking and Systems Engineering; (5) Can we use Systems Engineering on Complex Systems; and (6) Can we use Systems Engineering on Wicked Problems?

Griego, Regina M.

2010-12-01

161

Global warming threat on water resources and environment: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming, greenhouse effect, and the climate change problems are long-term anthropogenic consequences that are expected to threaten water related demand and supply patterns in the near future. These problems may be identified linguistically on a logical basis to take the necessary precautions, and implement mitigation strategies after vulnerability possibilities are assessed using fuzzy logic. Climate change effects are the

Zekai Sen

2009-01-01

162

Constructing Meaning in a Technology-Rich, Global Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces the Global Forum on School Leadership (GFSL) as a Type II application of interactive computing technology suitable for 21st century learners, teachers, and school leaders. Simply put, the concept of the GFSL brings together learners who share a common goal, a common subject area, or a common profession, and encourages them to…

Gibson, Ian W.

2005-01-01

163

Globally Consistent Range Scan Alignment for Environment Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robot exploring an unknown environmentmay need to build a world model from sensormeasurements. In order to integrate all the frames of sensor data, it is essential to align thedata properly. An incremental approach has been typically used in the past, in which eachlocal frame of data is aligned to a cumulative global model, and then merged to the model.Because

Feng Lu; Evangelos E. Milios

1997-01-01

164

An Educational Environment for Training Skills for Global Software Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Software Development (GSD) is a recent trend that allows team members to be located on different remote sites, thus forming a network of virtual teams working on the same projects which confront the typical problems caused by distance. The stakeholders involved in the project must be trained to deal with communication difficulties such as those related to cultural and

Miguel J. Monasor; Aurora Vizcaíno; Mario Piattini

2010-01-01

165

Integrated global background monitoring network. Preliminary results from Torres del Paine and Olympic National Parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1984, a pilot project was initiated for monitoring pollution at Torres del Paine National Park in southern Chile and Olympic National Park in the United States. These are two of three initial sites that are to be established as part of an integrated global backgound monitoring network. Eventually, the plan is to establish a world-wide system of such sites.

G. B. Wiersma; A. Kohler; C. Boelcke; G. Baker; M. Harmon; C. Weber; J. Gonzales

1985-01-01

166

The use of differentially corrected global positioning system to monitor activities of cattle at pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global positioning system (GPS) technology is increasingly applied in livestock science to monitor pasture use and tracking routes, and is often combined with equipment for monitoring animal activity. As GPS data are referenced in time and space, it is hypothesised that parameters derived there from, such as distance travelled and aerial distance between the first and last point of a

Eva Schlecht; Christian Hülsebusch; Friedrich Mahler; Klaus Becker

2004-01-01

167

Global Ionosphere Perturbations Monitored by the Worldwide GPS Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the first time, measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) worldwide network are employed to study the global ionospheric total electron content(TEC) changes during a magnetic storm (November 26, 1994). These measurements are obtained from more than 60 world-wide GPS stations which continuously receive dual-frequency signals. Based on the delays of the signals, we have generated high resolution global ionospheric maps (GIM) of TEC at 15 minute intervals. Using a differential method comparing storm time maps with quiet time maps, we find that significant TEC increases (the positive effect ) are the major feature in the winter hemisphere during this storm (the maximum percent change relative to quiet times is about 150 percent).

Ho, C. M.; Manucci, A. T.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Pi, X.

1996-01-01

168

Multilevel impacts on perceived career opportunity from global integration: human capital development within internal institutional environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using human capital and institutional theories, we analyze the impacts of individual- and office-level factors on the career perceptions of employees in a globally integrated firm. More specifically, we examine factors related to both employee human capital and their institutional operating environments that might influence whether employees perceive that their careers would benefit from greater global integration of their company.

William Newburry; Pooja Thakur

2010-01-01

169

Regulatory and transparency environments and security concerns: A study involving global financial services institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationships between contextual factors i.e. transparency and regulatory (legal) environments and security concerns (threats, risk, and vulnerabilities) in the financial services industry. The industry is chosen for illustration purposes and for its relevance in global economic development. The research uses a secondary data source, i.e. the 2009 Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu (DTT) global security survey. The analysis

Princely Ifinedo

2009-01-01

170

An Acoustic Communication Network for Monitoring of the Underwater Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Acoustic Communication network for Monitoring of underwater Environments in coastal areas (ACME) is being developed by a consortium of 6 partners within the EU's Fifth Framework Programme. These partners are TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory (NL), Thales Underwater Systems (FR), ORCA Instrumentation (FR), the University of Newcastle (UK), TNO-TPD (NL), and the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management. The main goal of the project is the development and deployment of a prototype underwater acoustic communication network for the readout of a number of sensors in the Westerschelde in the south west of the Netherlands. The project focusses on coastal areas such as shipping lanes, fishing grounds and estuaries, when conventional data transport with cables or radio links is impossible. The challenges are numerous: multiple echoes of the sound give rise to inter-symbol interference and complicate data retrieval; noise of shipping traffic lowers the signal-to-noise ratio, in particular along busy freighter routes; practical matters such as battery lifetime and hardware for deployment must be dealt with as well. The results so far show that the point-to-point communication and the network protocols are functioning correctly, ready for the last phase of the project in which the autonomous working of the prototype network will be realized.

van Walree, P. A.; Driesenaar, M. L.

2003-04-01

171

Global warming threat on water resources and environment: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming, greenhouse effect, and the climate change problems are long-term anthropogenic consequences that are expected\\u000a to threaten water related demand and supply patterns in the near future. These problems may be identified linguistically on\\u000a a logical basis to take the necessary precautions, and implement mitigation strategies after vulnerability possibilities are\\u000a assessed using fuzzy logic. Climate change effects are the

Zekai ?en

2009-01-01

172

Not far afield. U. S. interests and the global environment  

SciTech Connect

This book analyzes the environmental components underlying political and economic crises in the developing world and concludes that U.S. interests - including national security issues - are clearly at stake. Examining such diverse ecological problems as transboundary pollution, competition for limited water supplies, deforestation, and generally overburdened resource bases, the author calls for greater U.S. involvement in the management and preservation of global resources.

Myers, N.

1987-01-01

173

Using Global Positioning System techniques in landslide monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precise determination of point coordinates with conventional Global Positioning System (GPS) techniques often required observation times of one to several hours. In the last few years, new GPS methods have been developed (among them, the fast-static and real time kinematic), with higher productivity and good theoretical precision. The main objective of this paper is to ascertain the performance of

Josep A. Gili; Jordi Corominas; Joan Rius

2000-01-01

174

Precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive microwave radiometry from satellites provides more precise atmospheric temperature information than that obtained from the relatively sparse distribution of thermometers over the earth's surface. Accurate global atmospheric temperature estimates are needed for detection of possible greenhouse warming, evaluation of computer models of climate change, and for understanding important factors in the climate system. Analysis of the first 10 years

R. W. Spencer; J. R. Christy

1990-01-01

175

A major upgrade of the global Mercator Océan ocean monitoring and forecasting system and corresponding product quality improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercator Océan (the French ocean forecast service provider) was setup in France about 10 years ago by all the French organizations holding stakes in ocean forecasting. It has since then constantly developed and is currently operating operational ocean forecasting systems based on state-of-the-art Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCM, we use the NEMO code) assimilating the observations of the Global Ocean Observing System (remote sensing + in situ). The mandate of Mercator Océan is to cover the global ocean at a resolution sufficient to both simulate the physics including the eddies (eddy resolving) and take the maximum benefit from the GOOS via data assimilation. To do so, Mercator Océan is strongly connected to the ocean modeling and data assimilation research communities, at French, European and international levels. Mercator Océan is engaged in the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European initiative and is currently coordinating a European consortium (~60 partners) gathering all the European skills in ocean monitoring and forecasting to build the Marine forecast component of the GMES service. This is currently done in the MyOcean II EU funded project (project started in 2012). Within the MyOcean consortium, among other commitments, Mercator Océan is the operator of the global ocean forecasting system, and one of the providers of global ocean reanalysis products. In this context (MyOcean V3 service), we have implemented a major upgrade of the systems operated at Mercator Océan ., including improvements in the model configurations, in data assimilation and product elaboration and serving. This concerns especially the global eddy resolving system (1/12° global) which is operational providing daily service. We focus our presentation on product quality, showing how these upgrades correspond to product improvements, and illustrating how the users are served with better quality products, thanks to this upgrade.

Dombrowsky, Eric; Drillet, Yann; Legalloudec, Olivier; Lellouche, Jean Michel; Regnier, Charly

2013-04-01

176

Global nuclear material monitoring with NDA and C/S data through integrated facility monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on a flexible, integrated demonstration of a monitoring approach for nuclear material monitoring. This includes aspects of item signature identification, perimeter portal monitoring, advanced data analysis, and communication as a part of an unattended continuous monitoring system in an operating nuclear facility. Advanced analysis is applied to the integrated nondestructive assay and containment and surveillance data that are synchronized in time. End result will be the foundation for a cost-effective monitoring system that could provide the necessary transparency even in areas that are denied to foreign nationals of both US and Russia should these processes and materials come under full-scope safeguards or bilateral agreements. Monitoring systems of this kind have the potential to provide additional benefits including improved nuclear facility security and safeguards and lower personnel radiation exposures. Demonstration facilities in this paper include VTRAP-prototype, Los Alamos Critical Assemblies Facility, Kazakhstan BM-350 Reactor monitor, DUPIC radiation monitoring, and JOYO and MONJU radiation monitoring.

Howell, J.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Argo, P.; Goulding, C.; Klosterbuer, S.; Halbig, J.

1996-09-01

177

A Review of Global Learning & Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program is a worldwide, hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education program. GLOBE supports students, teachers, and scientists in collaborations using inquiry-based investigations of the environment and the earth system. GLOBE currently works in close…

Executive Office of the President, 2010

2010-01-01

178

Global inland water monitoring from multi-mission altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

By “illuminating” the Earth's inland water surfaces with radar altimeter data from the ERS-1 Geodetic Mission, a global waveform analysis has shown that over 50% of echoes from even the largest lake targets are non-ocean-like in character. This paper shows that by retracking multi-mission altimeter data, height data can be obtained from the vast majority of lakes with surface area

P. A. M. Berry; J. D. Garlick; J. A. Freeman; E. L. Mathers

2005-01-01

179

Monitoring the Extent of Forests on National to Global Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on forest extent and change is important for many purposes, including understanding the global carbon cycle and managing natural resources. International statistics on forest extent are generated using many different sources often producing inconsistent results spatially and through time. Results will be presented comparing forest extent derived from the recent global Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) FRA 2000 report with products derived using wall-to-wall Landsat, AVHRR and MODIS data sets. The remotely sensed data sets provide consistent results in terms of total area despite considerable differences in spatial resolution. Although the location of change can be satisfactorily detected with all three remotely sensed data sets, reliable measurement of change can only be achieved through use of Landsat-resolution data. Contrary to the FRA 2000 results we find evidence of an increase in deforestation rates in the late 1990s in several countries. Also we have found evidence of considerable changes in some countries for which little or no change is reported by FAO. The results indicate the benefits of globally consistent analyses of forest cover based on multiscale remotely sensed data sets rather than a reliance on statistics generated by individual countries with very different definitions of forest and methods used to derive them.

Townshend, J.; Townshend, J.; Hansen, M.; DeFries, R.; DeFries, R.; Sohlberg, R.; Desch, A.; White, B.

2001-05-01

180

Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer(GEMS) onboard MP-GEOSAT (Multi Purpose Geostationary Satellite) over Asia-Pacific region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Institute of Environmental Research(NIER), Ministry of Environment, Rep. of Korea is planning GEMS (Geostationary Environment Spectrometer) program to be launched in 2017-2018 onboard a geostationary satellite, MP-GEOSAT of KARI(Korea Aerospace Research Institute). GEMS is a scanning UV-Visible Spectrometer to monitor trans-boundary pollution events in Asia-Pacific region, together with ABI(Advanced Baseline Imager) and GOCI-2 (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager). GEMS is to monitor the distribution of tropospheric O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, and aerosol in Asia, which is very important region to understand the air quality problems in both regional and global scale. Furthermore, it is essential to monitor air pollution with measurements of meteorological variables for better understanding. This mission is expected to improve the monitoring capability of trans-boundary air pollution events and the accuracy of its forecasting through hourly observation from GEO. Constellation of the MP-GEOSAT with GEOCAPE in America and Sentennial-4 in Europe with launch in 2017- 2018 period can results in great synergistic outcomes including enhancing significantly our understanding in globalization of tropospheric pollution.

Lee, S.; Hong, Y.; Song, C.; Lee, M.; Ryoo, S.; Kim, J.; Yong, S.; Bhartia, P. K.; Park, R.; Woo, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, K.; Ho, C.; Park, S. K.; Lee, Y.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Eom, Y.; Hong, J.

2009-12-01

181

A new AODV-based routing protocol adequate for monitoring applications in oil & gas production environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring applications in onshore oil and gas production environments are usually based on wireless solutions. Most part of nowadays applications rely upon outdated technologies, based on the use of analog radios and inefficient master-slave communication topologies. In this paper, we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies to monitor oil and gas production environments. More specifically, we consider

Ivanovitch Silva; Luiz Affonso Guedes; Francisco Vasques

2010-01-01

182

Application of fuzzy-evaluation-based information fusion in coal mine environment monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces fuzzy evaluation based multisensor information fusion technology to process the data that obtained with various environmental sensors in the coal mine monitoring system. Through the synthetic operation with the decision rule at the data fusion center, the accurate state parameter estimation of the environment was obtained. Software instrument is introduced in the environment monitoring system to reduce

Hongge Sun; Xin Yan; Xiaoli Li; Tiejun Zhao

2009-01-01

183

Taiga forest stands and SAR: Monitoring for subarctic global change  

SciTech Connect

In preparation for the first European Earth Remote Sensing (ERS-1) mission, a series of multitemporal, multifrequency, multipolarization aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data sets were acquired over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska in March 1988. Significant change in radar backscatter was observed over the two-week experimental period due to changing environmental conditions. These preliminary results are presented to illustrate the opportunity afforded by the ERS-1 SAR to monitor temporal change in forest ecosystems.

Way, J.; Kwok, R.; Viereck, L.; Slaughter, C.; Dobson, C.

1992-03-01

184

Integration of drought monitoring with remote sensing into the global drought information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought occurs everywhere in the world and is one of the costliest natural hazards. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has advocated implementing a Global Drought Early Warning System (GDEWS) since 2007. Various indices have been developed and used to depict drought. According to the survey, various drought monitoring system with remote sensing at regional, national or local level are existing, but the integration with the drought system based on the weather station data, in particular at the global level is still weak. However, the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative was recognized by the G20 agricultural ministers and will enhance the linkage between GEO-GLAM and GDEWS. The capability for a component of drought monitoring with remote sensing is there in place. MODIS data have been used to globally track the distribution of crop failures due to droughts. In China, the Chinese meteorological satellite, FY is also ready to monitoring drought globally. MERSI onboard FY-3 is similar with MODIS and helpful to monitor the occurrence, development of drought at different scales. JRC MARS issues periodical bulletin on agricultural conditions. Agricultural Division of Statistics, Canada issues weekly crop condition reports. In India, the biweekly drought bulletin and monthly reports is issued under National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS). Similar program is followed in many countries world-wide. The informed information of drought is helpful for governmental officials and formers to in advance prepare for coping with the likely coming drought. The global efforts should be in place to promote the global drought information system with a remote sensing drought component.

Fan, Jinlong; Zhang, Mingwei; Cao, Guangzheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Jianjun

2012-09-01

185

Global Ionospheric TEC Perturbations Monitored by the GPS Global Network During Two Northern Hemisphere Winter Storms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global evolution of two major ionospheric storms, occurring on November 4, 1993 and November 26, 1994, respectively, is studied using measurements of total electron content (TEC) obtained from a worldwide network of ground-based GPS receivers.

Ho, C. M.; Mannucci, A. J.; Sparks, L.; Pi, X.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Wilson, B. D.; Reyes, M. J.

1997-01-01

186

Flood monitoring for ungauged rivers: the power of combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood warning systems typically rely on forecasts from national meteorological services and in-situ observations from hydrological gauging stations. This capacity is not equally developed in flood-prone developing countries. Low-cost satellite monitoring systems and global flood forecasting systems can be an alternative source of information for national flood authorities. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been develop jointly with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the Joint Research Centre, and it is running quasi operational now since June 2011. The system couples state-of-the art weather forecasts with a hydrological model driven at a continental scale. The system provides downstream countries with information on upstream river conditions as well as continental and global overviews. In its test phase, this global forecast system provides probabilities for large transnational river flooding at the global scale up to 30 days in advance. It has shown its real-life potential for the first time during the flood in Southeast Asia in 2011, and more recently during the floods in Australia in March 2012, India (Assam, September-October 2012) and Chad Floods (August-October 2012).The Joint Research Centre is working on further research and development, rigorous testing and adaptations of the system to create an operational tool for decision makers, including national and regional water authorities, water resource managers, hydropower companies, civil protection and first line responders, and international humanitarian aid organizations. Currently efforts are being made to link GloFAS to the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS). GFDS is a Space-based river gauging and flood monitoring system using passive microwave remote sensing which was developed by a collaboration between the JRC and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. GFDS provides flood alerts based on daily water surface change measurements from space. Alerts are shown on a world map, with detailed reports for individual gauging sites. A comparison of discharge estimates from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) and the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) with observations for representative climatic zones is presented. Both systems have demonstrated strong potential in forecasting and detecting recent catastrophic floods. The usefulness of their combined information on global scale for decision makers at different levels is discussed. Combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models is an innovative approach and has significant benefits for international river commissions as well as international aid organisations. This is in line with the objectives of the Hyogo and the Post-2015 Framework that aim at the development of systems which involve trans-boundary collaboration, space-based earth observation, flood forecasting and early warning.

Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Netgeka, Victor; Raynaud, Damien; Thielen, Jutta

2013-04-01

187

Space Geodesy Monitoring Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid Earth-core system (the 'global geophysical fluids') are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, oceanic and solid tides, hydrological water and idsnow redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. The temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have proven to be an effective tool in monitorihg certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in observing and understanding of these geodynamic effects. This paper will use several prominent examples to illustrate the triumphs in research over the past years under a 'Moore's law' in space geodesy. New space missions and projects promise to further advance our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as of the solid Earth's response to such changes in terms of Earth's mechanical properties.

Chao, Benjamin F.

2004-01-01

188

Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industry technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global CO2 recycling system which combines utilization of natural energy and CO2 recovered from combustion of fossil fuel is studied. In the model, CO2 recovered at the place of energy demand is transported to the place where energy is produced, and from the CO2 fuels are synthesized by use of solar energy and transported to the place of energy demand. Facilities worth a large amount of money are required to transmit electric power generated by the photovoltaic power generation in the desert to the fuel synthesizing plant. Therefore, production of electrolytic hydrogen by the on-site power generation and transport by pipe may be considered. As a synthetic fuel being sent back by ocean transport, methanol is considered, and synthetic methane (LNG) can also be a candidate. CO2 is recovered as liquid carbon dioxide. Possibility of CO2 recycling is dependent on development of the desert solar base, as well as depletion of fossil fuel and price increase, CO2 penalty. It has still been difficult to say which of the fuel synthesis, CO2 tanker or securing of the solar base becomes a bottleneck. Entry of recycling fuels to the market will be possible in proportion to restrictions on fossil fuels, and evaluation of the system depends almost on the rate of energy arriving from the energy-producing region.

1992-03-01

189

Global characterization and monitoring of forest cover using Landsat data: opportunities and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compilation of global Landsat data-sets and the ever-lowering costs of computing now make it feasible to monitor the Earth's land cover at Landsat resolutions of 30 m. In this article, we describe the methods to create global products of forest cover and cover change at Landsat resolutions. Nevertheless, there are many challenges in ensuring the creation of high-quality products.

John R. Townshend; Jeffrey G. Masek; Chengquan Huang; Eric. F. Vermote; Feng Gao; Saurabh Channan; Joseph O. Sexton; Min Feng; Ramghuram Narasimhan; Dohyung Kim; Kuan Song; Danxia Song; Xiao-Peng Song; Praveen Noojipady; Bin Tan; Matthew C. Hansen; Mengxue Li; Robert E. Wolfe

2012-01-01

190

Low-cost long-term monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the rationale for long-term monitoring of global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks as a contribution to interpretation of long-term global temperature change. Our discussion is based on a more detailed study and workshop report (Hansenet al., 1993b). We focus on the potential contribution of a proposed series of inexpensive small satellites, but we discuss also the need for

J. Hansen; W. Rossow; B. Carlson; A. Lacis; L. Travis; A. Del Genio; I. Fung; B. Cairns; M. Mishchenko; M. Sato

1995-01-01

191

Radiation environment monitoring for manned missions to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a radiation monitoring system for manned Mars missions is described, based on the most recent requirements on crew radiation safety. A comparison is shown between the radiation monitoring systems for Earth-orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft, with similarities and differences pointed out and discussed. An operational and technological sketch of the chosen problem solving approach is also given.

Benghin, V. V.; Petrov, V. M.

192

Autonomous global sky monitoring with real-time robotic follow-up  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the development of prototypes for a global grid of advanced 'thinking' sky sentinels and robotic follow-up telescopes that observe the full night sky to provide real-time monitoring of the night sky by autonomously recognizing anomalous behavior, selecting targets for detailed investigation, and making real-time anomaly detection to enable rapid recognition and a swift response to transients as they emerge. This T3 global EO grid avoids the limitations imposed by geography and weather to provide persistent monitoring of the night sky.

Vestrand, W Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davis, H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wren, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wozniak, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Norman, B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bloch, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fenimore, E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hodge, Barry [AFRL; Jah, Moriba [AFRL; Rast, Richard [AFRL

2008-01-01

193

Iron Resources and Oceanic Nutrients: Advancement of Global Environment Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of a single factor limiting plankton blooms, is presently giving way to co-limitation by light, and the nutrients N, P, Si and Fe. Primary production, export into the deep sea, and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere together form the 'biological pump' in Ocean Biogeochemical Climate Models (OBCM's). Thus far OBCM's assume just one limiting nutrient (P) and one universal phytoplankton species, for C budgets and CO2 exchange. New realistic OBCM's are being developed for budgeting and exchanges of both CO2 and DMS, implementing (i) co-limitation by 4 nutrients of 5 major taxonomic classes of phytoplankton, (ii) DMS(P) pathways, (iii) global iron cycling, (iv) chemical forms of iron and (v) iron supply into surface waters. The new OBCM's will predict realistic climate scenario's, notably climatic feedbacks on oceanic biogeochemistry. IRONAGES is a European consortium of twelve institutes and is coordinated by Royal NIOZ. Input from below of iron from anoxic sediments of coastal margins has been assessed (March 2002) along a 2-D vertical section from Europe into the centre of the north Atlantic. Input from above of Fe(II) dissolved in rainwater from Sahara dust blown over the central Atlantic will be quantified at sea (October 2002), and related to observed plankton production. Different chemical forms of iron are being assessed and a certification excercise for Fe in seawater also under aegis of SCOR Working Group 109 is being completed (December 2002). For two major DMS-producing algal groups Phaeocystis sp. and Emiliania huxleyi the life cycle, Fe limitation, export production, CO2 uptake and DMS emissions have been synthesized from existing literature and laboratory experiments. This is being fed into ecosystem modeling, as well as into DMS(P) pathway modeling. Also know-how has been synthesized for three other major classes (diatoms, N2-fixing Trichodesmium and nano-pico-plankton) and fed into the ecosystem modeling. Pathways of DMS(P) in blooms are being simulated. An existing plankton ecosystem model already well predicts limitation by four nutrients (N, P, Si, Fe) of two algal groups (diatoms and nanoplankton) including export and CO2 air/sea exchange. This is being expanded with 3 other groups of algae and DMS(P)pathways. Next this extended ecosystem model is being simplified while maintaining reliable output for export and CO2/DMS gas exchange. This unit will then be put into two existing OBCM's. Inputs of Fe from above and below into the oceans have been modeled. Moreover a simple global Fe cycling model has been verified versus field data and insights. Two different OBCM's with same upper ocean ecosystem/DMS unit and Fe cycling will be verified versus pre-industrial and present conditions. Next climate change scenario's, notably changes in Fe inputs, will be run, with special attention to climatic feedbacks (warming) on the oceanic cycles and fluxes.

Debaar, H. J.

2002-12-01

194

Application of global positioning system to structural health monitoring of cable-supported bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the existing Wind and Structural Health Monitoring System (WASHMS) for the three cable-supported bridges, namely, the Tsing Ma (Suspension) Bridge, the Kap Shui Mun (Cable-Stayed) Bridge and the Ting Kau (Cable-Stayed) Bridge, Global Positioning System (GPS) is introduced to monitor the displacements of the cables (main suspension cables only), the stiffening

Kai-yuen Wong; King-Leung Man; Wai-Yee K. Chan

2001-01-01

195

OSF-distributed computing environment for multimedia telemedicine services in global PACS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present our approach to developing global picture archiving and communication system (PACS) remote consultation and diagnosis (RCD) application using the Open Software Foundation (OSF) Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) services and toolkits. The current RCD system now uses programming services similar to those offered by OSF DCE, the Cell Directory Service, the Distributed Time Service, the Security Service, the RPC Facility, and the Threads Facility. In this research we have formally applied OSF DCE services to the Global PACS RCD software. The use of OSF DCE services for Global PACS enables us to develop a robust distributed structure and new user services which feature reliability and scalability for Global PACS environments.

Martinez, Ralph; Alsafadi, Yasser H.; Kim, Jinman

1995-05-01

196

Study on an agricultural environment monitoring server system using Wireless Sensor Networks.  

PubMed

This paper proposes an agricultural environment monitoring server system for monitoring information concerning an outdoors agricultural production environment utilizing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology. The proposed agricultural environment monitoring server system collects environmental and soil information on the outdoors through WSN-based environmental and soil sensors, collects image information through CCTVs, and collects location information using GPS modules. This collected information is converted into a database through the agricultural environment monitoring server consisting of a sensor manager, which manages information collected from the WSN sensors, an image information manager, which manages image information collected from CCTVs, and a GPS manager, which processes location information of the agricultural environment monitoring server system, and provides it to producers. In addition, a solar cell-based power supply is implemented for the server system so that it could be used in agricultural environments with insufficient power infrastructure. This agricultural environment monitoring server system could even monitor the environmental information on the outdoors remotely, and it could be expected that the use of such a system could contribute to increasing crop yields and improving quality in the agricultural field by supporting the decision making of crop producers through analysis of the collected information. PMID:22163520

Hwang, Jeonghwan; Shin, Changsun; Yoe, Hyun

2010-01-01

197

Global pollution monitoring of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.  

PubMed

Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters of various regions in the world (offshore waters around Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the North Pacific Ocean). OCs were detected in livers of all of the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed, supporting the thesis that there is widespread contamination of persistent OCs in the marine environment. Within a location, no significant relationship between growth-stage (body length and weight) and OC concentrations (lipid weight basis) was observed, and the OC residue levels were rather uniform among the individuals. Interestingly, the distribution of OC concentrations in skipjack tuna was similar to those in surface seawaters from which they were taken. These results suggest that OC concentrations in skipjack tuna could reflect the pollution levels in seawater from which they are collected and that this species is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of OCs in offshore waters and the open ocean. Concentrations of PCBs and CHLs in skipjack tuna were higher in offshore waters around Japan (up to 1100 and 250 ng/g lipid wt, respectively), suggesting the presence of sources of PCBs and CHLs in Japan. High concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were observed in samples from the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, and the Bay of Bengal (up to 1300 and 22 ng/g lipid wt, respectively). This result suggests recent use of technical DDT and HCH for agricultural and/or public health purposes in Russia, China, India, and some other developing Asian countries. Relatively high concentrations of PCBs, CHLs, HCHs, and HCB were also observed in samples collected from some locations in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, indicating the expansion of OC contamination on a global scale. Considering these facts, continuous studies monitoring these compounds in offshore waters and the open seas, using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator, are needed to further understand the future trend of contamination. PMID:14674591

Ueno, D; Takahashi, S; Tanaka, H; Subramanian, A N; Fillmann, G; Nakata, H; Lam, P K S; Zheng, J; Muchtar, M; Prudente, M; Chung, K H; Tanabe, S

2003-10-01

198

Human resource information systems: operational issues and strategic considerations in a global environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human resource information systems (HRISs) have the potential to be the mechanism by which transnational entities monitor and deploy their personnel in order to attain and sustain a competitive advantage. A systematic survey of leven US-based multinational corporations shows that progress is being made in the design, development and implementation of global human resource information systems, tools that can accommodate

John Hannon; Gregory Jelf; Deborah Brandes

1996-01-01

199

Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment. Annual Report, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is given on the liquid, airborne, and solid radioactive discharges through authorized outlets, and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's works and sites for 1984; i.e., Sellafield site and Drigg storage and disposal site; Chapelcross w...

1985-01-01

200

MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR MONITORING THE ENVIRONMENT. WATER AND WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

This first EPA manual contains uniform laboratory and field methods for microbiological analyses of waters and wastewaters, and is recommended in enforcement, monitoring and research activities. The procedures are prepared in detailed, stepwise form for the bench worker. The manu...

201

Assimilation of Remote Ionospheric Measurements: Towards a Global Ionospheric Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive growth in the availability of ionospheric measurements from ground and space provide a fundamentally new opportunity to image the ionosphere as never before. As examples, ground receiver TEC, occultation TEC, space-based whole-Earth UV disc emission, in-situ measurements of electron density, and ground based ionosonde measurements of both bottom-side profiles and critical parameters are all highly desirable and plentiful. However, these disparate measurements must be blended together carefully, each having its own unique capabilities and challenges. Towards this end, we have developed the Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM). Utilizing two separate complementary assimilation approaches, such observations are intelligently combined with prior climatological knowledge to yield the best estimate of the current ionospheric state. The first, a variation of the Kalman filter recursive estimation approach, is optimized to produce the best fit ionosphere with emphasis in regions of higher data density relying on a climatological background to assist in regions of sparse data. The second, a 4-dimensional variational approach (4DVAR) instead adjusts physical driver estimates (thermospheric densities and winds, electric fields, and solar radiation intensity in our case) to smoothly match incoming data and spread its influence in a physically consistent manner. For ionospheric data in particular, estimation of these ionospheric drivers is of paramount importance, as the ionosphere is a heavily dissipative system, and forecast without proper drivers is nearly impossible. In this presentation, we shall explore results of merging ground-based GPS and occultation TEC measurements and evaluate the system performance in various solar conditions.

Mandrake, L.; Wilson, B. D.; Mannucci, T.

2005-12-01

202

A monitoring sensor management system for grid environments  

SciTech Connect

Large distributed systems, such as computational grids,require a large amount of monitoring data be collected for a variety oftasks, such as fault detection, performance analysis, performance tuning,performance prediction and scheduling. Ensuring that all necessarymonitoring is turned on and that the data is being collected can be avery tedious and error-prone task. We have developed an agent-basedsystem to automate the execution of monitoring sensors and the collectionof event data.

Tierney, Brian; Crowley, Brian; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Thompson, Mary

2001-06-01

203

Do persistent organic pollutants reach a thermodynamic equilibrium in the global environment?  

PubMed

Equilibrium partitioning between different environmental media is one of the main driving forces that govern the environmental fate of organic chemicals. In the global environment, equilibrium partitioning is in competition with long-range transport, advective phase transfer processes such as wet deposition, and degradation. Here we investigate under what conditions equilibrium partitioning is strong enough to control the global distribution of organic chemicals. We use a global multimedia mass-balance model to calculate the Globally Balanced State (GBS) of organic chemicals. The GBS is the state where equilibrium partitioning is in balance with long-range transport; it represents the maximum influence of thermodynamic driving forces on the global distribution of a chemical. Next, we compare the GBS with the Temporal Remote State, which represents the long-term distribution of a chemical in the global environment when the chemical's distribution is influenced by all transport and degradation processes in combination. This comparison allows us to identify the chemical properties required for a substance to reach the GBS as a stable global distribution. We find that thermodynamically controlled distributions are rare and do not occur for most Persistent Organic Pollutants. They are only found for highly volatile and persistent substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, we find that the thermodynamic cold-trap effect (i.e., accumulation of pollutants at the poles because of reduced vapor pressure at low temperatures) is often strongly attenuated by atmospheric and oceanic long-range transport. PMID:24654605

Schenker, Sebastian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

2014-05-01

204

Effective collection metasearch in a hierarchical environment: global vs. localized retrieval performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare standard global IR searching with user-centric localized techniques to address the database selection problem. We conduct a series of experiments to compare the retrieval effectiveness of three separate search modes applied to a hierarchically structured data environment of textual database representations. The data environment is represented as a tree-like directory containing over 15,000 unique databases and over 100,000

Jack G. Conrad; Changwen Yang; Joanne S. Claussen

2002-01-01

205

Globally applicable control chart for online monitoring of stability of process mean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shape features of run chart patterns of the most recent m observations arising from stable and unstable processes are different. Using this fact, a new monitoring statistic is defined whose value for given m depends on the pattern parameters but not on the process parameters. A control chart for this statistic for given m, therefore, will be globally applicable

Susanta Kumar Gauri

2011-01-01

206

Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffe, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivpalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

2011-01-01

207

The ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitor program first results from PROBA-I and INTEGRAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main characteristics of the European Space Agency (ESA) Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) are outlined. First SREM results from the Project for On-Board Autonomy-I (PROBA-I) and INTEGRAL spacecraft are presented.

A. Mohammadzadeh; H. Evans; P. Nieminen; E. Daly; P. Vuilleumier; P. Buhler; C. Eggel; W. Hajdas; N. Schlumpf; A. Zehnder; J. Schneider; R. Fear

2003-01-01

208

Real-Time Environment Monitoring Using Data from METEOSAT and NOAA Imaging Satellites,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An operational remote sensing system is described which supports the environment monitoring using the multi sensor-multi temporal data acquired by the geostationary and polar orbiting weather satellites. The information derived from the satellite images a...

H. A. van Ingen Schenau J. C. Venema

1987-01-01

209

Induced environment contamination monitor: Preliminary results from the Spacelab 1 flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-9/Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM) mission is briefly described. Preliminary results and analyses are given for each of the 10 instruments comprising the IECM. The final section presents a summary of the major results.

Miller, E. R. (editor)

1984-01-01

210

Mapping and Modeling Web Portal to Advance Global Monitoring and Climate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, the principal investigators of NASA Earth Science missions develop their own software to manipulate, visualize, and analyze the data collected from Earth, space, and airborne observation instruments. There is very little, if any, collaboration among these principal investigators due to the lack of collaborative tools, which would allow these scientists to share data and results. At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), under the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP), we have built a web portal that exposes a set of common services to users to allow search, visualization, subset, and download lunar science data. Users also have access to a set of tools that visualize, analyze and annotate the data. These services are developed according to industry standards for data access and manipulation, such REST and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) web services. As a result, users can access the datasets through custom written applications or off-the-shelf applications such as Google Earth. Even though it's currently used to store and process lunar data, this web portal infrastructure has been designed to support other solar system bodies such as asteroids and planets, including Earth. The infrastructure uses a combination of custom, commercial, and open-source software as well as off-the-shelf hardware and pay-by-use cloud computing services. The use of standardized web service interfaces facilitates platform and application-independent access to the services and data. For instance, we have software clients for the LMMP portal that provide a rich browsing and analysis experience from a variety of platforms including iOS and Android mobile platforms and large screen multi-touch displays with 3-D terrain viewing functions. The service-oriented architecture and design principles utilized in the implementation of the portal lends itself to be reusable and scalable and could naturally be extended to include a collaborative environment that enables scientists and principal investigators to share their research and analysis seamlessly. In addition, this extension will allow users to easily share their tools and data, and to enrich their mapping and analysis experiences. In this talk, we will describe the advanced data management and portal technologies used to power this collaborative environment. We will further illustrate how this environment can enable, enhance and advance global monitoring and climate research.

Chang, G.; Malhotra, S.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathulla, S.; Goodale, C. E.; Ramirez, P.; Kim, R. M.; Rodriguez, L.; Law, E.

2011-12-01

211

Company Management in a Global Business Environment - Old Concepts with New Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global business environment is preferably characterized by turbulences as well as by uncertainties and other undeterminable parameters which can hardly be described by routine mathematical tools. At these circumstances corporate management could be likened to ship captain who has to rudder a ship through hell and high water without having correct maps. All of a sudden he has to rely

Miroslav Špa?ek

2008-01-01

212

Personal learning environments in a global higher engineering education Web 2.0 realm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents investigations on formal and informal requirements for personal learning environments taking into account students' personal and social learning practices. The potential of global Web 2.0 educational service bundles and informal learning communities, as well as their recommendation by educators are addressed. A scenario showing how these new paradigms can be integrated in engineering education as a way

Denis Gillet; E. L.-C. Law; A. Chatterjee

2010-01-01

213

Man in the Living Environment. A Report on Global Ecological Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings of four groups of ecologists are synthesized in chapter I of this report on global ecological problems prepared as a data base for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. The other chapters contain the reports of each group. In "Cycles of Elements" the biologically important elements, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen,…

Inger, Robert F.; And Others

214

Mobile Monitoring and Embedded Control System for Factory Environment  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones.

Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

2013-01-01

215

Node Monitoring Component of a Scalable Systems Software Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research describes Fountain, a suite of programs used to monitor the resources of a cluster. A cluster is a collection of individual computers that are connected via a high speed communication network. They are traditionally used by users who desire ...

S. J. Miller

2006-01-01

216

STS-2, -3, -4 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (ICEM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The second, third, and fourth space transportation system missions are described including the location of the IECM in the payload bay and the shuttle coordinate systems used. Measurement results from the three flights are given for each instrument with comparisons to original goals for preflight environment and induced environment contamination. These results include very low levels of molecular mass accumulation rates, absence of molecular films on optical samples, outgassing species above 50 amu undetectable generally low levels of on-orbit particulates, and decay rates for early mission water dump particulates. Results of exposure of several optical materials and coatings to atomic oxygen are also presented. From these results, it is concluded that the space shuttle met the established induced environment contamination goals.

Miller, E. R. (editor)

1983-01-01

217

Environment Monitoring System of Household Security Robot Based on Wireless Mesh Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environment monitoring system of household security robot is designed and implemented based on wireless mesh networks, which are used for monitoring temperature and humidity, gas leaking, fire and housebreaking in family. New tree routing and agent mechanism are proposed to find wireless sensor nodes and forward data. A set of design requirements are developed that cover the hardware design

Wen Jie Tian; Yu Geng

2009-01-01

218

Feasibility Study on Synchronous Dust Test Instrument in Coal Mine Environment Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal mine work environment is relatively poor, environmental monitoring of mine is very important and difficult. Dust produced in the mine does great harm to staffs working in the coal mine, the numbers of occupational diseases are increasing each year, while the pneumoconiosis caused by the mineral dust can not be cured completely. Therefore, the monitoring and measurement of

Yujiao Du; Jingjing Sun

2011-01-01

219

New environment parameters monitoring and control system for greenhouse based on master-slave distributed  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the actual need of monitoring and control of greenhouse environment parameters in rural areas, a master-slave distributed measurement and control system is designed, in which PC is taken as the host. The system consists of PC, soil moisture measurement and control module, temperature and humidity, and CO2 monitoring and control module. In the system, PC has large amount

Ma Yuquan; Han Shufen; Wang Qingzhu

2010-01-01

220

The Design of Tungsten Mine Environment Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs), tungsten mine environment monitoring system used of ZigBee was designed. Sensor nodes were arranged under tungsten mine flexibly. It transferred various safety indicators within the mine to the gateway node by the cluster head nodes directly or indirectly, then via transmission network uploaded the data to the ground monitoring center by the gateway node.

Xuewen He; Yun Wang

2012-01-01

221

An Environment Monitoring System for Precise Agriculture Based on Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve the problems occurring in the traditional precision agriculture such as poor real-time data acquisition, small monitoring coverage area, excessive manpower requirement etc., this paper designs and deploys an environment monitoring system for precise agriculture based on wireless sensor networks in a red bayberry greenhouse located on a hillside. This system can automatically collect the temperature, humidity, illumination, voltage

Jianfa Xia; Zhenzhou Tang; Xiaoqiu Shi; Lei Fan; Huaizhong Li

2011-01-01

222

An integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines-wireless sensor network subsystem with multi-parameter monitoring.  

PubMed

Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected. PMID:25051037

Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

2014-01-01

223

Intelligent Solar Energy Monitoring System under Pervasive Computing Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive computing mainly emphasize on the seamless integration of informational space and physical space, that is, the seamless integration of human, computer and environment. With the development of pervasive computing, there are some challenges about traditional software technology, and need new software architecture to meet it. In this paper, to adapt to the practical requirements, we use the hierarchical structure

Huan Guo; Guohua Chen; Yong Tang; Lin Li

2008-01-01

224

Energy efficient environment control system using wireless condition monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an insight of cost effective deployment of wireless sensor network in a large plant to control the environment for optimizing power consumption, while maintaining the desired comfort level for workforce and equipments. Temperature and humidity are the two primary parameters which determine the comfort level. These data need to be analyzed to propose a suitable control scheme

Mallikarjun Kande; Jithendrian Sundaravaradan; Apala Ray; Venkateswaran Narayanan

2011-01-01

225

The study of method in monitoring mineral environment with remote sensing technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dexing Copper Mine, locating in the upper river of Dawu River and Le'an River in Jiangxi Province, is the largest copper mineral base in China. The development of the mine results in local environment degradation. This paper presents the method to monitor the local environment based on the remotely sensed images and field spectral data. Choosing remotely sensed images, TM

Wang Pei-juan; Liu Su-hong; Zhu Qi-jiang; Guo Xiao-ying

2004-01-01

226

Precipitation anomaly classification: a method for monitoring regional precipitation deficiency and excess on a global scale  

SciTech Connect

An objective method to identify and track significant global precipitation anomalies on time scales of a month or longer is presented. The technique requires current observations of monthly precipitation amounts for each station and long term (20 or more years) monthly precipitation histories. Tests indicate that the technique compares favorably with the well-known Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and Crop Moisture Index (CMI) in the US. Since monthly precipitation data are readily available in a near real-time framework, this method makes an automated, global precipitation anomaly monitoring system possible.

Janowiak, J.E.; Ropelewski, C.F.; Halpert, M.S.

1986-04-01

227

Monitoring the Environment in a Lava Tube with a Wireless Sensor Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring cave environments is important for several reasons. For instance, through the studies of cave environments, we can better protect cave ecology. Past experiments have monitored cave environments, although most of those were based on individual sensor nodes such as data loggers. In this paper we introduce and discuss a ZigBee wireless sensor network-based platform used for cave environment monitoring. The platform is based on a Freescale ZigBee evaluation kit. We carried out a proof-of-concept experiment in Junction Cave, a lava tube, at El Malpais National Monument in New Mexico. That experiment monitored temperature, humidity, and air turbulence inside the cave. The instrumentation consisted of a turbulence tower with five thermocouple-based sensors, reaching from the floor to the ceiling of the cave, temperature/humidity sensors distributed throughout the cave, and a low-power embedded Linux computer for data collection and storage. The experiment measured interesting air turbulence variations at different heights, which we related to to weather changes outside the cave and human activities inside the cave. The experiment also observed variations of air temperature at different locations inside the cave. In this presentation we will discuss the instrumentation as well as interpretations of the observations. The experiment demonstrated that a ZigBee wireless sensor network-based monitoring system is a potentially feasible platform for a cave environment monitoring system. We also found that network reliability, node cost, and power consumption need to be improved for future systems.

Li, Y.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Wilson, J. L.; Rendon, N. M.

2010-12-01

228

The role of 'Big Society' in monitoring the state of the natural environment.  

PubMed

Environmental monitoring is essential for assessing the current state of the environment, measuring impacts of environmental pressures and providing evidence to government. Recent UK government announcements have indicated an increased role for 'Big Society' in monitoring. In this paper, we review available literature concerning the use of citizen science for monitoring, present examples of successful volunteer monitoring work and highlight important issues surrounding the use of volunteers. We argue that in order to ensure that environmental monitoring continues to be effective it is important to learn from examples where volunteers are currently used, acknowledging constraints and identifying potential approaches which will help to maximise both their engagement and data quality. Effective partnerships between environmental monitoring organisations and volunteers may thus aid the UK in developing robust coordinated monitoring systems that will be less vulnerable to funding variances. PMID:21879098

Mackechnie, Colin; Maskell, Lindsay; Norton, Lisa; Roy, David

2011-10-01

229

Evaluation of change detection techniques for monitoring coastal zone environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for detecting changes in Landsat multispectral scanning imagery of coastal zone environments are discussed. Four detection procedures are examined: a comparison of independently produced spectral classifications; a classification of a multispectral difference data set; a single analysis of a multidate data set; and a maximum likelihood classification using multistage decision logic. The relatively complex maximum likelihood classification technique was found to yield results closest to those obtained with the comparison of independently produced spectral classifications, the chosen standard.

Weismiller, R. A.; Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. M.

1977-01-01

230

Problems posed by natural environments for monitoring microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms in natural environments have evolved to withstand fluctuations in physical and chemical conditions. This means\\u000a that they often manifest very different biochemical and morphological features compared with those seen during laboratory\\u000a culture. A major limitation in natural ecosystems is nutrient limitation under which microorganisms are exposed to starvation\\u000a conditions and grow slowly or not at all. This review identifies

Clive Edwards

2000-01-01

231

Global seamless network demonstrator: carrier grade automatic switched transport network implementation in realistic telecom field environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Seamless Network (GSN) Demonstrator is presented, a joint effort of system vendors and Deutsche Telekom Group R&D to demonstrate network functions and management integration and enable, for the first time, experiences with a carrier grade Automatically Switched Transport Network (ASTN) implementation and the envisaged main ASTN clients, IP and Ethernet. For end-to-end monitoring capability, integrating the view on

Hans-Martin Foisel; Norbert Hanik; Ralf-Peter Braun; Georg Lehr; Andreas Gladisch

2004-01-01

232

Feedback following the Industry Engagement of the NNSA Unique Identifier and Global Monitoring 5 year plan  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration s project for developing a unique identifier and a concept for a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders made significant progress on developing functional requirements and a concept of operation for such a system. The multi-laboratory team is working to define the functional requirements for both the unique identifier and the global monitoring system and to develop a preliminary concept of operations to discuss with key industry stakeholders. Team members began meeting with industry representatives in January 2013 to discuss the preliminary concept and solicit feedback and suggestions. The team has met with representatives from United States Enrichment Corporation, Cameco, URENCO, Honeywell/ConverDyn, and others. This paper presents an overview of the preliminary concept of operations and shares the feedback obtained from the industry engagement meetings.

White-Horton, Jessica L [ORNL] [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL] [ORNL; Durbin, Karyn R. [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA] [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA

2013-01-01

233

A New ERA in Global Temperature Monitoring with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch of the first Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on the NOAA-15 spacecraft on 13 May 1998 marked a significant advance in our ability to monitor global temperatures. Compared to the Microwave Sounding Units (MSU) flying since 1978 on the TIROS-N series of NOAA polar orbiters, the AMSU offers better horizontal, vertical, and radiometric resolutions. It will allow routine monitoring of 1 1 (mostly) separate layers, compared to 2 or 3 with the MSU, including layers in the middle and upper stratosphere (2.5 hPa) where increasing carbon dioxide concentrations should be causing a cooling rate of about 1 deg. C per decade. More precise limb corrections combined with low noise will allow identification of subtle spatial temperature patterns associated with global cyclone activity.

Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D.; Christy, John R.

1999-01-01

234

Coastal Louisiana Wetlands Restoration Monitoring with Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal Louisiana has experienced dramatic landscape change over the past century due to human induced changes to the environment as well as an onslaught of major coastal storms. Coastal Louisiana loses on average 25-35 square miles of land per year. The USGS has partnered with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - National Marine Fisheries Service to provide cyclical remote sensing data for selected restoration sites along the coast of Louisiana. Three of these sites are actively maintained in the GFP archive - Atchafalaya River Delta, East Timbalier Island, and Pecan Island. These three sites coincide with NOAA restoration sites that have been monitored since early 2000. The GFP has provided a consistent set of remote sensing data that has greatly benefited the long-term monitoring of these restoration sites. Long-term monitoring of these sites includes both pre- and post-hurricane season data collection used to identify landscape change along the coast. The long-term monitoring also has helped to identify areas of success in the restoration projects, as well as areas that have continued to decline in spite of restoration efforts. These three sites are significant to the program because they provide a variety of coastal landscape types: an open water barrier island environment at East Timbalier Island; coastal wetlands at Pecan Island, which have experienced subsidence of the marsh and convergence to an open water environment; and a deltaic marsh environment at Atchafalaya River Delta. Long-term monitoring of these sites has provided a wealth of knowledge about the changes occurring, as well as a valuable tool for reliable shoreline measurements. Continued monitoring is necessary to accurately assess the condition of these areas as environmental conditions continue to shape the landscape.

Fisher, G.

2012-12-01

235

Climate-monitoring CubeSat mission (CM2): a project for global mesopause temperature sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the Climate Monitoring CubeSat Mission (CM2) are to accelerate climate projection by obtaining global temperature, tidal and wave measurements with a simple CubeSat-based imaging spectrograph; and to demonstrate how a high-resolution imaging spectrograph can be deployed on a CubeSat satellite. In the middle atmosphere (50 - 100 km), beyond the reach of balloons or satellites, thermal signatures

Richard A. Doe; Steven Watchorn

2011-01-01

236

Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) for Monitoring Carbon, Water Cycles, and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is pursuing the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) that will inherit the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) mission and develop into long-term monitoring. GCOM is not the name of a single satellite, but of a mission that consists of two series of medium-size satellites, GCOM-W (Water) and GCOM-C (Climate), and three generations of each

Keiji Imaoka; Misako Kachi; Hideyuki Fujii; Hiroshi Murakami; Masahiro Hori; Akiko Ono; Tamotsu Igarashi; Keizo Nakagawa; Taikan Oki; Yoshiaki Honda; Haruhisa Shimoda

2010-01-01

237

Global calibration of terrestrial reference cells and errors involved in using different irradiance monitoring techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of global calibration of terrestrial reference cells is discussed. A simple, accurate 'secondary' calibration technique based on ratios of test to reference cell currents measured in natural sunlight is described. Different techniques for monitoring incident irradiance during solar cell performance measurements are also examined and assessed, including the techniques of black-body detectors, calibrated reference cells, and the convolution of spectral response with solar irradiance.

Curtis, H. B.

1980-01-01

238

Monitoring and mapping global vegetation cover using data from meteorological satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of coarse resolution meteorological satellite data for monitoring and mapping of vegetation for global, continental and regional scales is outlined. In the NOAA products used the effects of cloud cover are reduced by the generation of temporal composites of images of the normalized difference vegetation index. Different land cover types are shown to have characteristic spectral phenological curves. Such data have the disadvantage of effectively increasing the apparent areal extent of small areas of green vegetation.

Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.; Holben, B.; Tucker, C. J.

1984-01-01

239

Monitoring Global Food Security with New Remote Sensing Products and Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global agriculture monitoring is a crucial aspect of monitoring food security in the developing world. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has a long history of using remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pests, and climate change. In recent years, it has become apparent that FEWS NET requires the ability to apply monitoring and modeling frameworks at a global scale to assess potential impacts of foreign production and markets on food security at regional, national, and local levels. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) Climate Hazards Group have provided new and improved data products as well as visualization and analysis tools in support of the increased mandate for remote monitoring. We present our monitoring products for measuring actual evapotranspiration (ETa), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a near-real-time mode, and satellite-based rainfall estimates and derivatives. USGS FEWS NET has implemented a Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to produce operational ETa anomalies for Africa and Central Asia. During the growing season, ETa anomalies express surplus or deficit crop water use, which is directly related to crop condition and biomass. We present current operational products and provide supporting validation of the SSEB model. The expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) production system provides FEWS NET with an improved NDVI dataset for crop and rangeland monitoring. eMODIS NDVI provides a reliable data stream with a relatively high spatial resolution (250-m) and short latency period (less than 12 hours) which allows for better operational vegetation monitoring. We provide an overview of these data and cite specific applications for crop monitoring. FEWS NET uses satellite rainfall estimates as inputs for monitoring agricultural food production and driving crop water balance models. We present a series of derived rainfall products and provide an update on efforts to improve satellite-based estimates. We also present advancements in monitoring tools, namely, the Early Warning eXplorer (EWX) and interactive rainfall and NDVI time series viewers. The EWX is a data analysis and visualization tool that allows users to rapidly visualize multiple remote sensing datasets and compare standardized anomaly maps and time series. The interactive time series viewers allow users to analyze rainfall and NDVI time series over multiple spatial domains. New and improved data products and more targeted analysis tools are a necessity as food security monitoring requirements expand and resources become limited.

Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Magadzire, T.; Verdin, J. P.

2012-12-01

240

Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys  

PubMed Central

Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative to reduce obesity and diet-related NCDs.

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

2014-01-01

241

An Experimental Global Monitoring System for Rainfall-triggered Landslides using Satellite Remote Sensing Information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landslides triggered by rainfall can possibly be foreseen in real time by jointly using rainfall intensity-duration thresholds and information related to land surface susceptibility. However, no system exists at either a national or a global scale to monitor or detect rainfall conditions that may trigger landslides due to the lack of extensive ground-based observing network in many parts of the world. Recent advances in satellite remote sensing technology and increasing availability of high-resolution geospatial products around the globe have provided an unprecedented opportunity for such a study. In this paper, a framework for developing an experimental real-time monitoring system to detect rainfall-triggered landslides is proposed by combining two necessary components: surface landslide susceptibility and a real-time space-based rainfall analysis system (http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.aov). First, a global landslide susceptibility map is derived from a combination of semi-static global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, and land cover classification etc.) using a GIs weighted linear combination approach. Second, an adjusted empirical relationship between rainfall intensity-duration and landslide occurrence is used to assess landslide risks at areas with high susceptibility. A major outcome of this work is the availability of a first-time global assessment of landslide risk, which is only possible because of the utilization of global satellite remote sensing products. This experimental system can be updated continuously due to the availability of new satellite remote sensing products. This proposed system, if pursued through wide interdisciplinary efforts as recommended herein, bears the promise to grow many local landslide hazard analyses into a global decision-making support system for landslide disaster preparedness and risk mitigation activities across the world.

Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

2006-01-01

242

MONITORING WASTE HEAT REJECTION TO THE ENVIRONMENT VIA REMOTE SENSING  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power plants typically use waste heat rejection systems such as cooling lakes and natural draft cooling towers. These systems are designed to reduce cooling water temperatures sufficiently to allow full power operation even during adverse meteorological conditions. After the power plant is operational, the performance of the cooling system is assessed. These assessments usually rely on measured temperatures of the cooling water after it has lost heat to the environment and is being pumped back into the power plant (cooling water inlet temperature). If the cooling system performance is not perceived to be optimal, the utility will collect additional data to determine why. This paper discusses the use of thermal imagery collected from aircraft and satellites combined with numerical simulation to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of nuclear power plant waste heat dissipation systems. The ANS meeting presentation will discuss analyses of several power plant cooling systems based on a combination of remote sensing data and hydrodynamic modeling.

Garrett, A

2009-01-13

243

Global hexachlorocyclohexane use trends and their impact on the Arctic atmospheric environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the global technical HCH use trends and their impact on the arctic atmospheric environment has been studied. Two significant drops in global technical HCH usage were identified. In 1983, China banned the use of technical HCH. This represented the largest drop ever in global use rates. In 1990 India stopped technical HCH usage in agriculture and the former Soviet Union banned the use of technical HCH. Since 1990, India has been the biggest user of technical HCH in the world. Significant drops in atmospheric ?-HCH in the arctic were observed between 1982 and 1983, and again between 1990 and 1992. The rapid response in atmospheric concentrations to usage is encouraging; however, since ?-HCH concentrations in the arctic waters have remained relatively unchanged, the decline in atmospheric ?-HCH has reversed the net direction of air-sea gas flux. The accumulated mass in oceans and large lakes may represent a new source of HCH to the arctic atmosphere.

Li, Y. F.; Bidleman, T. F.; Barrie, L. A.; McConnell, L. L.

244

Workshop on Pervasive Computing and Cooperative Environments in a Global Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing number of devices that are invisibly embedded into our surrounding environment as well as the proliferation of wireless communication and sensing technologies are the basis for visions like ambient intelligence, ubiquitous and pervasive computing. In this context, the objective of PECES EU project is the creation of a comprehensive software layer to enable the seamless cooperation of embedded devices across various smart spaces on a global scale in a context-dependent, secure and trustworthy manner.

Selvarajah, Kirusnapillai; Speirs, Neil

245

Global technical hexachlorocyclohexane usage and its contamination consequences in the environment: from 1948 to 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global technical 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) usage data are surveyed from 1948 to 1997. In order to fill both temporal and spatial gaps of the usage data, registration status and the residue concentration of this insecticide in various environmental compartments are considered. A linkage between the accumulated use-density over arable land and the contamination in the environment in each country has been

Y. F Li

1999-01-01

246

Monitoring global land surface drought based on a hybrid evapotranspiration model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latent heat of evapotranspiration (ET) plays an important role in the assessment of drought severity as one sensitive indicator of land drought status. A simple and accurate method of estimating global ET for the monitoring of global land surface droughts from remote sensing data is essential. The objective of this research is to develop a hybrid ET model by introducing empirical coefficients based on a simple linear two-source land ET model, and to then use this model to calculate the Evaporative Drought Index (EDI) based on the actual estimated ET and the potential ET in order to characterize global surface drought conditions. This is done using the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) products, AVHRR-NDVI products from the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group, and National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis-2 (NCEP-2) datasets. We randomly divided 22 flux towers into two groups and performed a series of cross-validations using ground measurements collected from the corresponding flux towers. The validation results from the second group of flux towers using the data from the first group for calibration show that the daily bias varies from -6.72 W/m 2 to 12.95 W/m 2 and the average monthly bias is -1.73 W/m 2. Similarly, the validation results of the first group of flux towers using data from second group for calibration show that the daily bias varies from -12.91 W/m 2 to 10.26 W/m 2 and the average monthly bias is -3.59 W/m 2. To evaluate the reliability of the hybrid ET model on a global scale, we compared the estimated ET from the GEWEX, AVHRR-GIMMS-NDVI, and NECP-2 datasets with the latent heat flux from the Global Soil Wetness Project-2 (GSWP-2) datasets. We found both of them to be in good agreement, which further supports the validity of our model's global ET estimation. Significantly, the patterns of monthly EDI anomalies have a good spatial and temporal correlation with the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) anomalies from January 1984 to December 2002, which indicates that the method can be used to accurately monitor long-term global land surface drought.

Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Qin, Qiming; Wang, Kaicun; Zhao, Shaohua

2011-06-01

247

Volcanic Environments Monitoring by Drones Mud Volcano Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic activity has often affected human life both at large and at small scale. For example, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption caused severe economic damage at continental scale due to its strong effect on air traffic. At a local scale, ash fall and lava flow emission can cause harm and disruption. Understanding precursory signals to volcanic eruptions is still an open and tricky challenge: seismic tremor and gas emissions, for example, are related to upcoming eruptive activity but the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Furthermore, information related to gases emission mostly comes from the summit crater area of a volcano, which is usually hard to investigate with required accuracy. Although many regulation problems are still on the discussion table, an increasing interest in the application of cutting-edge technology like unmanned flying systems is growing up. In this sense, INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) started to investigate the possibility to use unmanned air vehicles for volcanic environment application already in 2004. A flight both in visual- and radio-controlled mode was carried out on Stromboli volcano as feasibility test. In this work we present the preliminary results of a test performed by INGV in collaboration with the University of Bologna (aerospace division) by using a multi-rotor aircraft in a hexacopter configuration. Thermal camera observations and flying tests have been realised over a mud volcano located on its SW flank of Mt. Etna and whose activity proved to be related to early stages of magma accumulation within the volcano.

Amici, S.; Turci, M.; Giulietti, F.; Giammanco, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; La Spina, A.; Spampinato, L.

2013-08-01

248

Development of a monitoring system for the Norwegian coastal zone environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the Norwegian Coastal Zone Environment (MONCOZE) is a five year project supported by the Norwegian Research Council. The primary objective is to develop, test and demonstrate a pilot system for monitoring and prediction of the Norwegian marine coastal environment with particular focus on dominant physical and coupled physical-biochemical interactive processes within the Norwegian Coastal Current and along its open boundaries. As a first step in building up a monitoring system for the Norwegian Coastal Zone Environment, a hindcast modelling system for this area is described. The model system is a regional high resolution system of the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) for the North Sea, Skagerak and Kategat. The regional model recieves realistic boundary conditions from larger scale models (the TOPAZ system) and is currently being operated in a 1.5 year hindcast simulation. The work will focus on using HYCOM as a coastal application and results from the validation of the model system will be presented.

Winther, N.; Evensen, G.; Johannessen, J.

2003-04-01

249

Monitoring the Ocean Acoustic Environment: A Model-Based Detection Approach  

SciTech Connect

A model-based approach is applied in the development of a processor designed to passively monitor an ocean acoustic environment along with its associated variations. The technique employs an adaptive, model-based processor embedded in a sequential likelihood detection scheme. The trade-off between state-based and innovations-based monitor designs is discussed, conceptually. The underlying theory for the innovations-based design is briefly developed and applied to a simulated data set.

Candy, J.V.; Sullivan, E.J.

2000-03-13

250

An Intelligent System for Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intelligent system for monitoring the microgravity environment quality on-board the International Space Station is presented. The monitoring system uses a new approach combining Kohonen's self-organizing feature map, learning vector quantization, and back propagation neural network to recognize and classify the known and unknown patterns. Finally, fuzzy logic is used to assess the level of confidence associated with each vibrating source activation detected by the system.

Lin, Paul P.; Jules, Kenol

2002-01-01

251

Workshop on Monitoring and Evaluating the Health Systemwide Effects of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conceptual framework for monitoring and evaluating the effects on health care systems of activities of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was developed by PHRplus for discussion at a June 2003 workshop: Representatives from the Glob...

K. Stillman S. Bennett

2003-01-01

252

The Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS): Overview and Capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of reliable monitoring and prediction indices and tools are fundamental to drought preparedness and management. Motivated by the Global Drought Information Systems (GDIS) activities, this paper presents the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS) which provides near real-time drought information using both remote sensing observations and model simulations. The monthly data from the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-Land), North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), and remotely sensed precipitation data are used as input to GIDMaPS. Numerous indices have been developed for drought monitoring based on various indicator variables (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, water storage). Defining droughts based on a single variable (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture or runoff) may not be sufficient for reliable risk assessment and decision making. GIDMaPS provides drought information based on multiple indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) and the Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) which combines SPI and SSI probabilistically. In other words, MSDI incorporates the meteorological and agricultural drought conditions for overall characterization of droughts. The seasonal prediction component of GIDMaPS is based on a persistence model which requires historical data and near-past observations. The seasonal drought prediction component is based on two input data sets (MERRA and NLDAS) and three drought indicators (SPI, SSI and MSDI). The drought prediction model provides the empirical probability of drought for different severity levels. In this presentation, both monitoring and prediction components of GIDMaPS will be discussed, and the results from several major droughts including the 2013 Namibia, 2012-2013 United States, 2011-2012 Horn of Africa, and 2010 Amazon Droughts will be presented. The results indicate that GIDMaPS advances our drought monitoring and prediction capabilities through integration of multiple data and indicators.

AghaKouchak, A.; Hao, Z.; Farahmand, A.; Nakhjiri, N.

2013-12-01

253

The AMSAT-OSCAR-40 High Elliptical Orbit Radiation Environment Monitoring Payload - First Flight Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, Surrey's micro-satellites have provided continuous monitoring of the proton and heavy-ion environment encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO), through the use of a series of silicon PIN-diode-based particle detectors, starting with the UK Defence Evaluation Research Agency's (DERA's) Cosmic-Radiation Environment and Dosimetry (CREDO) payload, flown on-board UoSAT-3 in 1990, followed in 1992 by the Cosmic-Ray Experiment (CRE),

2002-01-01

254

Monitoring of global acoustic transmissions: Signal processing and preliminary data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal of controversy exists concerning the possible global warming trend which may occur as a result of a documented increase in atmospheric greenhouse gasses. The 1991 Heard Island Feasibility Experiment tested the feasibility of using transmissions of acoustic energy through major ocean basins of the world to monitor spatially averaged global temperature trends. This thesis documents the Naval Postgraduate School's reception of the phase encoded signal transmitted from the Southern Indian Ocean, development of real-time signal processing software, and preliminary data analysis. Data, received from a 32-channel vertical array suspended in the deep sound channel off the coast of Monterey, CA, was processed using real-time capable software. Data processing to reduce noise, determine SNR, and remove the m-sequence coding was found to be quite sensitive to Doppler frequency shifts. Although the SNR of the raw data was only about -27.5 dB for individual hydrophones, the transmitted signal was detected in both the frequency and time domains. However, the maximum processed signal peak in the time domain had an SNR of only +9 dB which is insufficient for use in a long term global temperature monitoring project. The hydrophone provides inadequate arrival time resolution.

Frogner, Gary R.

1991-09-01

255

Silver-based electrochemical sensors for sulfide monitoring in deep-sea environments: New approaches based on autonomous measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large variety of sulfidic environments have been described in the deep-sea since the late seventies, such as hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, organic falls or sub-seafloor microbial habitats. The reactivity of sulfide toward living organisms is a key concern in the exploration and study of these ecosystems, especially at hydrothermal vents where sulfide is a predominant energy source for chemosynthesis. However, the dynamics of sulfide gradients in these marine environments are still poorly documented, constraining the knowledge of their biogeochemical and ecological consequences. In this context, the development of sulfide autonomous sensors became a primary challenge. Measurement tools capable to capture the temporal variability of sulfide concentrations and related parameters are particularly needed, owing to the variability of environments at hydrothermal vents. Silver sulfide potentiometry, which was already applied in situ for punctual measurements, and a new voltammetric method based on bare silver, an electrode material which avoids the need for complex and repeated conditioning of the electrodes, are particularly suitable for unattended use. The advantages and limits of the potentiometric and voltammetric sensing techniques using solid-state electrodes were compared, with respect to the major requirements: concentration ranges; sensitivity to change of pH and temperature; minimum measurement rate; spatial resolution; autonomy; stability and reliability over time. Laboratory tests, combined with unprecedented series of in situ deployments in deep sea and other shallow water sulfidic environments, depict the potential of these tools for monitoring sulfide fluctuations in deep-sea habitats over weeks to months, and their use for investigation of the biogeochemical transformation of sulfur over time. Such sensors, improves the knowledge from these hardly accessible environments and could also reveal usefull to study shallow coastal waters, where sulfidic environments have been known for long. Mangroves, salt-marshes and submarine groundwater discharge zones had proven their importance in local, regional and even global scale processes. The need to monitor sulfide in this context is increasing, due to the probable increase of sulfide exposure episodes as a result of global changes, particularly with the increase of coastal anoxia.

Contreira Pereira, Leonardo; Peru, Erwan; Le Bris, Nadine

2014-05-01

256

Meeting Report: Long Term Monitoring of Global Vegetation using Moderate Resolution Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international community has long recognized the need to coordinate observations of Earth from space. In 1984, this situation provided the impetus for creating the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), an international coordinating mechanism charged with coordinating international civil spaceborne missions designed to observe and study planet Earth. Within CEOS, its Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) is tasked with coordinating satellite-based global observations of vegetation. Currently, several international organizations are focusing on the requirements for Earth observation from space to address key science questions and societal benefits related to our terrestrial environment. The Global Vegetation Workshop, sponsored by the WGCV and held in Missoula, Montana, 7-10 August, 2006, was organized to establish a framework to understand the inter-relationships among multiple, global vegetation products and identify opportunities for: 1) Increasing knowledge through combined products, 2) Realizing efficiency by avoiding redundancy, and 3) Developing near- and long-term plans to avoid gaps in our understanding of critical global vegetation information. The Global Vegetation Workshop brought together 135 researchers from 25 states and 14 countries to advance these themes and formulate recommendations for CEOS members and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The eighteen oral presentations and most of the 74 posters presented at the meeting can be downloaded from the meeting website (www.ntsg.umt.edu/VEGMTG/). Meeting attendees were given a copy of the July 2006 IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Special Issue on Global Land Product Validation, coordinated by the CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV). This issue contains 29 articles focusing on validation products from several of the sensors discussed during the workshop.

Morisette, Jeffrey; Heinsch, Fath Ann; Running, Steven W.

2006-01-01

257

Prioritizing GM crop monitoring sites in the dynamics of cultivation systems and their environment.  

PubMed

EU legislation stipulates that GM crops have to be monitored for potential adverse environmental effects. Monitoring preferably should take place in the most exposed areas-the cultivated fields and their neighbouring environment. Current monitoring designs do not give detailed consideration to the different exposure intensities in agricultural practice. At the same time, the selection of specific, more exposed sites is difficult considering the dynamic and diversity of crop cultivation and rotation systems and their environments. We developed an approach for prioritising the monitoring of on-farm and neighbouring sites based on differing exposure levels using a minimum dataset of cultivation and land use information. Applying a Bt-maize cultivation scenario to Brandenburg, Germany, where presently no GM crops are cultivated, we systemised and categorised areas with different spatio-temporal exposure intensities including 50 m, 200 m and 1000 m buffers. These categories correspond to different suitabilities to serve as monitoring sites. Sites are prioritised using a sequential scheme. This yields an improved and objective spatial monitoring design providing detailed exposure information. This methodology is flexible and transferable to any agricultural setting, therefore enabling superior statistical comparisons between locations and regions and thus enhancing monitoring data quality. PMID:22495474

Bethwell, Claudia; Müller, Hans-Jürgen; Eulenstein, Frank; Graef, Frieder

2012-05-01

258

VEN?S (vegetation and environment monitoring on a new micro satellite) image quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VENµS is a demonstration mission developed in cooperation between Isra"l (ISA) and France (CNES). VENµS scientific mission unique feature is to acquire high resolution (5.3m) multi-spectral images (12 bands in the visible and NIR spectrum) continuously every second day with constant viewing angles. At least 50 sites of interest all around the world will be viewed. It aims at demonstrating the relevance of such observation capabilities in the framework of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security Program (GMES). The satellite also flies a technological mission that aims at qualifying an Israeli electric propulsion technology (IHET) and demonstrating its mission enhancement capabilities. The satellite will be launched in January 2010. The imaging scientific mission will last 2.5 years with the satellite at 720 km. Next, the technological mission will bring the satellite at 410 km. The scientific mission will then go on for one year with an improved resolution (3m). This paper presents the main geometric and radiometric image quality requirements for the scientific mission. The strong multi-spectral (2m) and multi-temporal (3m) registration requirements constrain the stability of the platform and the ground processing which will refine the geometric physical model using an image matching method based on correlation. The location of the images will take benefits from the capacity of the system to produce Digital Elevation Models at a low 'Base to Elevation' ratio (0.026). These processings are detailed through the description of the level 1 production which will provide users with ortho-images of Top of Atmosphere reflectances. Finally we propose different radiometric (relative and absolute camera sensitivity,...) and geometric (line of sight, focal plane cartography,...) in-flight calibration methods to answer the severe mission requirements.

Meygret, Aimé; Hagolle, Olivier; Hillairet, Emmanuel; Dedieu, Gérard; Crebassol, Philippe; Ferrier, P.

2007-10-01

259

Adaptive color reproduction method to various users' monitor environment in color printer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In current printing technique, the Color Management System uses the ICC profiles of monitor and printer to perform color matching. Unfortunately the ICC profile cannot capture all of the monitor color reproduction characteristics, because such features change when the user acts on the color temperature, brightness and contrast controls, and they also depend on the kind of backlighting and lifetime of LCD monitor. As a result there is usually an unwanted color difference between an image displayed on the user monitor and its printed version. Yet, once we are able to produce an ICC profile that matches the user's monitor characteristics by measuring, then the CMS becomes able to correctly perform color matching. However, this method is of difficult application, because in general the measuring equipment is not available and, even then, it takes a long time and new measurements according to monitor color temperature, brightness and contrast. In this paper we propose a color matching technique based on estimate of the user's environment through the simple visual test with an output image on monitor and its printed image. The estimated characteristic of monitor is stored in new ICC profile and applied to color conversion process. Consequently the proposed method reduced the color difference between image displayed on user monitor and its printed image.

Kim, Dae-Chul; Jang, In-Su; Son, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Man; Ha, Yeong-Ho

2010-01-01

260

Global Drought Monitoring and Forecasting based on Satellite Data and Land Surface Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring drought globally is challenging because of the lack of dense in-situ hydrologic data in many regions. In particular, soil moisture measurements are absent in many regions and in real time. This is especially problematic for developing regions such as Africa where water information is arguably most needed, but virtually non-existent on the ground. With the emergence of remote sensing estimates of all components of the water cycle there is now the potential to monitor the full terrestrial water cycle from space to give global coverage and provide the basis for drought monitoring. These estimates include microwave-infrared merged precipitation retrievals, evapotranspiration based on satellite radiation, temperature and vegetation data, gravity recovery measurements of changes in water storage, microwave based retrievals of soil moisture and altimetry based estimates of lake levels and river flows. However, many challenges remain in using these data, especially due to biases in individual satellite retrieved components, their incomplete sampling in time and space, and their failure to provide budget closure in concert. A potential way forward is to use modeling to provide a framework to merge these disparate sources of information to give physically consistent and spatially and temporally continuous estimates of the water cycle and drought. Here we present results from our experimental global water cycle monitor and its African drought monitor counterpart (http://hydrology.princeton.edu/monitor). The system relies heavily on satellite data to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model to provide near real-time estimates of precipitation, evapotranspiraiton, soil moisture, snow pack and streamflow. Drought is defined in terms of anomalies of soil moisture and other hydrologic variables relative to a long-term (1950-2000) climatology. We present some examples of recent droughts and how they are identified by the system, including objective quantification and tracking of their spatial-temporal characteristics. Further we present strategies for merging various sources of information, including bias correction of satellite precipitation and assimilation of remotely sensed soil moisture, which can augment the monitoring in regions where satellite precipitation is most uncertain. Ongoing work is adding a drought forecast component based on a successful implementation over the U.S. and agricultural productivity estimates based on output from crop yield models. The forecast component uses seasonal global climate forecasts from the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS). These are merged with observed climatology in a Bayesian framework to produce ensemble atmospheric forcings that better capture the uncertainties. At the same time, the system bias corrects and downscales the monthly CFS data. We show some initial seasonal (up to 6-month lead) hydrologic forecast results for the African system. Agricultural monitoring is based on the precipitation, temperature and soil moisture from the system to force statistical and process based crop yield models. We demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring major crop types across the world and show a strategy for providing predictions of yields within our drought forecast mode.

Sheffield, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Wood, E. F.

2010-12-01

261

An assessment on the PTS global radionuclide monitoring capabilities to detect the atmospheric traces of nuclear explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to detect any kind of nuclear explosion world-wide the Provisional Technical Secretariat to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is building up a verification regime that performs global monitoring for typical signals expected from such an event. Backbone of this regime is the 321 facilities International Monitoring System (IMS) comprising 80 stations to monitor for particulate radionuclides known to be fission or activation products of a nuclear explosion. Every second station is also equipped with a system capable to monitor for the occurrence of the CTBT relevant isotopes Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe-133m, and Xe-135, which have the highest post-explosion fission yields among the noble gases, and are also not subject to wet deposition in the atmosphere. Moreover, they have a good chance to escape from the cavity of an underground nuclear explosion in contrast to the particulates. Effective radionuclide monitoring requires an optimum overall probability of a one-station detection of an atmospheric or underground nuclear explosion within 14 days. Consequently, the distribution of this detection probability is crucial for assessing the capacity of the radionuclide IMS to meet this requirement. The CTBT monitoring capabilities of the RN IMS are quite different in dependence on the environment in which the nuclear test is conducted (underground, underwater or atmospheric) as this determines the first crucial factor for the overall detection probability, the degree of containment. Secondly, the detection probability is subject to the nuclide specific decay and the dilution of any release (containment failure) during its atmospheric dispersion from the release location to one of the IMS stations. Thirdly, the detection limits of the measurement systems in use factor in. In the study presented here the radionuclide monitoring capabilities for detecting atmospheric and underground explosions, the latter mimicked by a 90% contained atmospheric release (first factor), are assessed. We examine the typical yields of a 1-kt atmospheric explosion for five key nuclides, Barium(Lanthanum)-140, for the 80 stations particulate network, and the four aforementioned gaseous nuclides, Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe-133m, and Xe-135, for the 40 stations noble-gas network. The second factor (decay & dispersion) is determined by consideration of the half-life time of the respective nuclide and by evaluation of the so called source-receptor-sensitivity (SRS) files generated daily by the CTBTO for each station to diagnose the one-station probability within 5, 10 and 14 days. A one year time period was used (August 2008 to 31 July 2009), which considered samples from the radionuclide particulate and xenon stations, taking into account their detection limits (third factor). It should be noted that the contribution of station No. 35 of the 80 station IMS particulate network, intended for the Indian Subcontinent, was not considered. Despite the obvious sensitivity to the maximum atmospheric transport time allowed from the source to the first detecting station, there is a general observation of the prevailing impact of the meteorological wind patterns for the global distribution and average of the one-station detection probability. Therefore, certain gaps in the tropical belt can only be ‘filled' by extending the allowed transport time or supplementing stations. This is in particular true for the noble gas network that comprises only 50% of the stations. Obviously, adding the xenon monitoring capability at a few of the so far particulate only stations that monitor the ‘gap areas' is a ‘low hanging fruit'. Moreover, we observe that the shorter the half-life time the more the nuclide specific detection limits become relevant. These findings will be elaborated in all required detail in the presentation.

Becker, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Auer, Matthias; Krysta, Monika

2010-05-01

262

Experimental Verification and Full-Scale Deployment of Global Positioning Systems to Monitor the Dynamic Response of Tall Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Civil Engineering community has long needed methods of accurate global displacement measurement for use in con- struction and more recently in the areas of structural health monitoring. Global Positioning Systems GPS provide one answer to this challenge, with rapid advancements in the available sampling rates and tracking resolution. However, as a relatively new dynamic sensing technology, GPS performance must

T. Kijewski-Correa; A. Kareem

2006-01-01

263

Global Monitoring of Clouds and Aerosols Using a Network of Micro-Pulse Lidar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term global radiation programs, such as AERONET and BSRN, have shown success in monitoring column averaged cloud and aerosol optical properties. Little attention has been focused on global measurements of vertically resolved optical properties. Lidar systems are the preferred instrument for such measurements. However, global usage of lidar systems has not been achieved because of limits imposed by older systems that were large, expensive, and logistically difficult to use in the field. Small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar systems are now currently available and overcome problems associated with older systems. The first such lidar to be developed is the Micro-pulse lidar System (MPL). The MPL has proven to be useful in the field because it can be automated, runs continuously (day and night), is eye-safe, can easily be transported and set up, and has a small field-of-view which removes multiple scattering concerns. We have developed successful protocols to operate and calibrate MPL systems. We have also developed a data analysis algorithm that produces data products such as cloud and aerosol layer heights, optical depths, extinction profiles, and the extinction-backscatter ratio. The algorithm minimizes the use of a priori assumptions and also produces error bars for all data products. Here we present an overview of our MPL protocols and data analysis techniques. We also discuss the ongoing construction of a global MPL network in conjunction with the AERONET program. Finally, we present some early results from the MPL network.

Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, V. Stanley

2000-01-01

264

Global atmospheric temperature monitoring with satellite microwave measurements - Method and results 1979-84  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a method for determining global atmospheric-temperature anomalies by means of satellite microwave radiometry. It is shown that microwave measurements of molecular oxygen thermal emission by the Microwave Sounding Units (MSUs) flying aboard the NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 can be used to monitor tropospheric temperature anomalies on global basis to a high level of precision. Comparisons between monthly MSU-derived hemispheric temperature anomalies with those computed from surface thermometer data show a very good agreement over the United States, although not for the hemispheres, especially the Southern Hemisphere. In this latter case, the poor agreement is ascribed to weaker thermal coupling between the ocean and the deep troposphere than that over the U.S. Annual anomalies for the hemispheres exhibit better correlations than do monthly anomalies.

Spencer, Roy W.; Christy, John R.; Grody, Norman C.

1990-01-01

265

Effects of enriched environment on hippocampal neuronal cell death and neurogenesis in rat global ischemia.  

PubMed

Enriched environments reportedly show neuroprotective effects. Here, we evaluated the effect of an enriched environment prior to cerebral ischemia on neuronal cell death and neurogenesis in rats. Male SD rats were housed under standard conditions (SC) or in an enriched environment (EE), then subjected to global ischemia. The Y-maze test and novel object cognition test were used to evaluate cognitive function before and after ischemia. At 7 days post-ischemia, we evaluated hippocampal neuronal cell death with Fluoro-Jade B staining and neurogenesis with BrdU staining. Phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (phospho-CREB) was also evaluated immunohistochemically. The EE + ischemia group showed a significant decrease of cell death post-ischemia compared with the SC + ischemia group. There was no difference in neurogenesis post-ischemia between SC + ischemia and EE + ischemia. The EE + ischemia group showed a significant increase of performance before and after ischemia compared with the SC + ischemia group. Phospho-CREB-positive cells were significantly increased post-ischemia in EE + ischemia compared with SC + ischemia. EE suppressed hippocampal cell death due to global ischemia. Additionally, enhancement of cognitive function before and after ischemia and prevention of cognitive impairment associated with ischemia were observed compared with the controls (rats housed in SC without ischemia). The CREB pathway may play an important role in protection of cognitive ability. PMID:24729234

Kato, Tomokazu; Eriguchi, Takashi; Fujiwara, Norio; Murata, Yoshihiro; Yoshino, Atsuo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Katayama, Yoichi

2014-01-01

266

NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation focuses on the latest spectacular images from NASA's remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man's impact on our world's environment. Visualizations of global data currently available from Earth orbiting satellites include the Earth at night with its city lights, high resolutions of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique as well as flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001. Visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown and demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricane and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites are are presented with other topics with a dynamic theater-style , along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

King, Michael D.

2006-01-01

267

Controllo radiologico in un ambiente urbano. (Radiation dose monitoring in urban environments).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the aim of establishing adequate radiation dose monitoring procedures for urban areas in the event of Chernobyl type incidents, this paper reports the results of a radiometric survey carried out in the years 1987-1990, in the urban environment of Rom...

A. Sacripanti J. Rydzy

1992-01-01

268

Monitoring of Exposure to and Potential Effects of Contaminants in the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our lifetimes, much of what was once considered science fiction: space ships, monitor- ing the environment from space, satellite phones and biomedical advances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease at the molecular level have now become realities. These advances in technology have changed our perceptions and how we interact with the world around us. Also during this time,

John P. Giesy; John L. Newsted

2007-01-01

269

Harsh Environment Silicon Carbide Sensors for Health and Performance Monitoring of Aerospace Systems: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent increase in transportation costs and the push for cleaner emissions demands advancements in aerospace technology. The current instrumentation used in aerospace applications is costly, and indirect measurement approaches are often employed due to the inability to locate sensors in harsh environments. Health monitoring technologies for the development of a distributed sensor network can be utilized to improve engine

Debbie G. Senesky; Babak Jamshidi; Kan Bun Cheng; A. P. Pisano

2009-01-01

270

Intelligent video surveillance for monitoring fall detection of elderly in home environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video surveillance is an omnipresent topic when it comes to enhancing security and safety in the intelligent home environments. In this paper, we propose a novel method to detect various posture-based events in a typical elderly monitoring application in a home surveillance scenario. These events include normal daily life activities, abnormal behaviors and unusual events. Due to the fact that

Homa Foroughi; Baharak Shakeri Aski; Hamidreza Pourreza

2008-01-01

271

Monitoring Children's Growth in Early Literacy Skills: Effects of Feedback on Performance and Classroom Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the benefits of providing kindergarten teachers with feedback about students' performance on early literacy progress-monitoring probes. Students were administered the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)" in fall, winter, and spring; classroom environment was evaluated using the "Early Language and…

Ball, Carrie; Gettinger, Maribeth

2009-01-01

272

Silhouette classification using pixel and voxel features for improved elder monitoring in dynamic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for improving human segmentation results in calibrated, multi-view environments using features derived from both pixel (image) and voxel (volume) space. The main focus of this work is to develop a low- cost, vision-based system for passive activity monitoring of older adults in the home, to capture early signs of illness and functional decline and allow seniors

Erik E. Stone; Marjorie Skubic

2011-01-01

273

Brain Mechanisms Associated with Background Monitoring of the Environment for Potentially Significant Sensory Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background monitoring is a necessary prerequisite to detect unexpected changes in the environment, while being involved in a primary task. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms that underlie adaptive goal-directed behavior in a cued task switching paradigm during real response conflict or, more generally, when expectations on the…

Gruber, Oliver; Melcher, Tobias; Diekhof, Esther K.; Karch, Susanne; Falkai, Peter; Goschke, Thomas

2009-01-01

274

An evaluation of monthly mean MSU and ECMWF global atmospheric temperatures for monitoring climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The usefulness of global satellite sounding data for monitoring climate was assessed by comparing monthly mean brightness temperature anomalies derived from channel 2 of the microwave sounding units (MSUs) on board NOAA satellites over the past decade with both weighted and pressure-level ECMWF monthly mean temperatures for 96 months from 1982 to 1989. Results show that very good agreement exists between the MSU and the weighted ECMWF temperatures over the period considered, with grid-point correlations exceeding 0.85. Comparisons with individual pressure-level temperatures from ECMWF showed high correlations at 300 mb over most of the globe.

Hurrell, James W.; Trenberth, Kevin E.

1992-01-01

275

Use of Sentinels to aid the global monitoring of snow cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observation instruments onboard Sentinel satellites provide a unique opportunity for the monitoring and investigation of global snow processes. The issue of the possible decay of seasonal snow cover is highly relevant for climate research. In addition to water cycle, the extent and amount of snow affects to surface albedo, and indirectly to carbon cycling. The latter issue includes snow-induced changes in permafrost regions (active layer characteristics), as well as the effect of snow (melt) to vegetation growth and soil respiration. Recent advances in ESA DUE GlobSnow project have shown that by combining data from optical satellite sensors and passive microwave instruments advanced Climate Data Records (CDR) on seasonal snow cover can be produced, extending to time periods of over 30 years. The combined snow cover products provide information both on Snow Extent (SE) and Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on a daily basis. The applicable instruments providing historical data for CDR generation include such microwave radiometers as SMMR, AMSR and SSMI/I, and such optical sensors as AVHRR, AATSR and VIIRS. Sentinel 3, especially its SLSTR instrument, is a prominent tool for expanding the snow CDR for forthcoming years. The developed global snow cover monitoring methodology, demonstrated and discussed here, derives the SWE information from passive microwave data (accompanied with in situ observations of snow depth at synoptic weather stations). The snow extent and fractional snow cover (FSC) on ground is derived from optical satellite data, in order to accurately map the continental line of seasonal snow cover, and to map regions of ephemeral snow cover. An advanced feature in the developed methodology is the provision of uncertainty information on snow cover characteristics associated with each individual satellite data footprint on ground and moment of time. In addition to assisting the generation and extension of the global snow cover CDR, Sentinel missions provide data that enable the improvement of snow monitoring algorithms for hydrological and NWP applications. On the other hand, Sentinel observations can be applied to enhance snow processes considerations in hydrological, climate and weather prediction models. In general, synergistic techniques that apply data from different sensors (active-passive, optical-microwave, moderate-coarse resolution) are feasible to numerous cryospheric research and end-use applications. For example, MSI of Sentinel 2 and Sentinel 1 SAR can be synergistically used to provide information on snow melt at the scale of sub-drainage basins for hydrological river discharge forecasting independently on cloud conditions. The snow melt monitoring information has also been shown to be relevant for the mapping of the start of the growing season at the conifer forests of the boreal forest zone, which is highly relevant for the global mapping of annual carbon balance.

Pulliainen, Jouni; Salminen, Miia; Luojus, Kari; Metsämäki, Sari; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Takala, Matias; Cohen, Juval; Böttcher, Kristine

2014-05-01

276

Synergistic use of ENVISAT ASAR Global Mode Soil Moisture Products in the Okavango Delta: Runoff & Wetland Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Okavango Delta of northern Botswana is a fast-changing system of canals and floodplains which serves as an important wetland habitat. The area of the wetland is highly dependent on local source of precipitation as well as on external inflow from the upper Okavango River. The Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) is an active remote sensing instrument onboard ENVISAT platform operating at C-band. The data from the ASAR Global ScanSAR Mode (GM) have amply demonstrated the ability for inland wetland monitoring as well as for near surface soil moisture derivation. The processing chain for ENVISAT derived soil moisture was setup within the ESA Tiger DUE Innovator project SHARE for hydrometeorological applications in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The ASAR GM provides up to weekly samples of the Okavango delta with 1 km spatial resolution. The extent of the Okavango Delta wetlands is derived from the ENVISAT ASAR GM data applying threshold of absolute backscatter values. The relations of the wetland size, river discharge, and the relative mean soil moisture in the upper Okavango catchment are studied. Correlation above 0.9 can be observed between the relative mean soil moisture and river discharge. High dependence of the wetland extent on the relative mean soil moisture in the upper Okavango is also clearly evident. With this work we demonstrate that the relative soil moisture derived from the ENVISAT ASAR GM data can be clearly related to the river discharge measurements in subtropic environments. Additionally, we show the ability of ENVISAT ASAR Global Mode to monitor dynamics of wetland areas as a response to the relative soil moisture in the upper Okavango catchment. This allows for prediction of the wetland extent up to six months in advance. An incorporation of spatially improved soil moisture and wetland products may improve prediction models for the wetland region.

Bartsch, A.; Doubkova, M.; Pathe, C.; Sabel, D.; Wagner, W.

2007-12-01

277

Kankyo chowagata seibutsu kagaku konbinato ni kansuru chosa. (Survey on bio-chemical complex harmonized with global environment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to develop the process and product harmonized with the global environment, a bio-chemical complex was structured which was focused on the biological technology. The substitution of biological technology for the conventional system of a large ener...

1994-01-01

278

Nonthreshold-based event detection for 3d environment monitoring in sensor networks  

SciTech Connect

Event detection is a crucial task for wireless sensor network applications, especially environment monitoring. Existing approaches for event detection are mainly based on some predefined threshold values and, thus, are often inaccurate and incapable of capturing complex events. For example, in coal mine monitoring scenarios, gas leakage or water osmosis can hardly be described by the overrun of specified attribute thresholds but some complex pattern in the full-scale view of the environmental data. To address this issue, we propose a nonthreshold-based approach for the real 3D sensor monitoring environment. We employ energy-efficient methods to collect a time series of data maps from the sensor network and detect complex events through matching the gathered data to spatiotemporal data patterns. Finally, we conduct trace-driven simulations to prove the efficacy and efficiency of this approach on detecting events of complex phenomena from real-life records.

Li, M.; Liu, Y.H.; Chen, L. [Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Kowloon (China)

2008-12-15

279

Multi-Index Drought Monitoring: A Prototype Global Drought GeoServe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of reliable monitoring and prediction indices are fundamental to drought monitoring and prediction. Numerous indices have been developed for drought monitoring based on various indicator variables (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, water storage). Defining droughts based on a single variable (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture or runoff) may not be sufficient for reliable risk assessment and decision making. In this presentation, a multivariate multi-index drought monitoring framework is suggested using the concept of joint empirical probability. The suggested Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) combines Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) probabilistically for drought characterization. In other words, MSDI incorporates the meteorological and agricultural drought conditions for overall characterization of droughts. MSDI is compared with SPI and SSI for characterizing drought condition across the globe using NASA MERRA-Land data. The results revealed that MSDI indicated drought onsite and termination based on the combination of all two indices with onsite time being dominated by SPI and drought enduring being more similar to SSI behavior. Overall, MSDI seems to be a reasonable model for combining multiple indices probabilistically. This paper presents an online drought portal (GeoServer), designed to provide access to global drought data based on the MSDI. The objective of the drought GeoServer is to provide interactive access to a composite multi-index drought data.

Aghakouchak, A.; Hao, Z.; Nakhjiri, N.

2013-05-01

280

Development of a global education environment to study the Equatorial Ionosphere with Cognitive Radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author has recently been awarded the NSF Career award to develop a radar with cognitive sensing capabilities to study Equatorial plasma instabilities in the Peruvian Andes. Educational research has shown that a rich learning environment contributes tremendously toward improvement in learning achievements and also attitudes toward studies. One of the benefits of this project is that it provides such an environment and a global platform to involve several students at both graduate and undergraduate levels from the US, Puerto Rico, and Peru, and who will benefit from designing, installing, and deploying a radar in multi-instrument science campaigns. In addition to working in the laboratories, students will gain invaluable real world experience building this complex instrument and making it work under challenging conditions at remote sites. The PI will describe how these components are being developed in a Freshman Seminar course and Graduate courses in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Penn State University, and how they are aligned well with the department's and university's strategy for greater global engagement through a network of Global Engagement Nodes in South America (GENSA). The issues of mentoring, recruitment, and retention become particularly important in consideration of the educational objective of this career project to involve underrepresented students with diverse backgrounds and interest them in research projects. The author is working very closely with the Office of Engineering Diversity to leverage existing programs at Penn State designed to increase the participation of women and minority students in science and engineering research: (a) WISER (Women In Science and Engineering Research), and (b) MURE (Minority Undergraduate Research Experience). The Electrical Engineering Department at Penn State is also currently an NSF REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) site. The PI will also present his efforts in connecting his career project in providing research experiences during summer to underrepresented groups as well as students from schools without extensive research environments.

Urbina, J. V.

2011-12-01

281

Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Global Drought Monitor Portal: Adding Capabilities for Forecasting Hydrological Extremes and Early Warning Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2007) has suggested the hydrometeorological extremes of both drought and flooding may increase under climate change. Drought zones can grow over large tracts of continental area and are a global-scale phenomenon (Sheffield and Wood 2011). The Group on Earth Observations Global Drought Monitor Portal (GDMP) was established as a demonstration for the 5th Earth Observation Ministerial Summit in Beijing in 2010. The European Drought Observatory, the North American Drought Monitor, the Princeton University experimental African Drought Monitor, and the University College London experimental global drought monitor were made "interoperable" through installation of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Services (WMS) on their respective servers, allowing maps of current drought conditions to be exchanged and assembled into maps of global drought coverage on the NIDIS portal. Partners from the Republic of Argentina, the Commonwealth of Australia, China, Jordan, Brazil, and Uruguay have also joined. The GEO Global Drought Monitoring, Forecasting, and Early Warning effort involves multiple parties and institutions, including the World Meteorological Organization, the World Climate Research Program Drought Interest Group, NASA, and others. The GEO Secretariat held a launch workshop in Geneva on 4-6 May 2010 to initiate drafting the final GEO Work Plan, and, during this meeting, additional capabilities were added to the existing GDMP: 1) drought forecasting was added to drought "current conditions" monitoring, in a partnership with Joint Research Centre (and other partners) aiming at a combined platform for Hydrological Extremes (drought and flooding); 2) extending drought forecasts from the medium-range 15-day window to a 30-day window; this will be tested through pilot projects over Europe and Africa, as part of the Global Water Scarcity Information Service (GLOWASIS)and the Improved Drought Early Warning Forecasting for Africa (DEWFORA) to strengthen preparedness and adaptation; 3) setting up an Early Warning System network for drought ( to be developed through World Meteorological Organization WMO); and 4) adding global remote sensing drought monitoring capabilities (soil moisture anomalies). Flooding represents positive precipitation anomalies, whereas drought represents negative precipitation anomalies. The JRC combined Hydrologic Extremes platform will include multiple models and tools, such as; 1) JRC Global Flood Detection System and Global Flood Early Warning System; 2) the WMO Flash Flood Guidance system; 3) the Dartmouth Flood Observatory; 4) a suite of monitored and forecasted drought and water scarcity indicators through the various drought observatories accessible through the GEO Global Drought Monitor Portal. The GEO Global Drought and Flooding systems represent the "applications-side" of water activities within the GEO Work Plan and are supported by the "Research and Development (R&D) side" of water activities within the new 2012-2015 GEO Work Plan.

Pozzi, W.; de Roo, A.; Vogt, J.; Lawford, R. G.; Pappenberger, F.; Heim, R. R.; Stefanski, R.

2011-12-01

282

Measuring the Incremental Costs of Global Environment Protection: The Case of Grid-Connected Wind Turbines in Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application is presented of the methodology used bythe Global Environment Facility (GEF) to measureincremental costs. Incremental cost estimates are usedby the GEF to determine its financial contribution toprojects that protect the global environment, such asinvestments in renewable energy. The importance ofadopting a system-wide view in certain types ofprojects (such as investments in grid-connected power)is illustrated using the case of

Shiva Swaminathan; Samuel Fankhauser

2000-01-01

283

Observations of urban and suburban environments with global satellite scatterometer data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global and consistent characterization of land use and land change in urban and suburban environments is crucial for many fundamental social and natural science studies and applications. Presented here is a dense sampling method (DSM) that uses satellite scatterometer data to delineate urban and intraurban areas at a posting scale of about 1 km. DSM results are analyzed together with information on population and housing censuses, with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery, and with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) night-light data. The analyses include Dallas-Fort Worth and Phoenix in the United States, Bogotá in Colombia, Dhaka in Bangladesh, Guangzhou in China, and Quito in Ecuador. Results show that scatterometer signatures correspond to buildings and infrastructures in urban and suburban environments. City extents detected by scatterometer data are significantly smaller than city light extents, but not all urban areas are detectable by the current SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite. Core commercial and industrial areas with high buildings and large factories are identified as high-backscatter centers. Data from DSM backscatter and DMSP nighttime lights have a good correlation with population density. However, the correlation relations from the two satellite datasets are different for different cities indicating that they contain complementary information. Together with night-light and census data, DSM and satellite scatterometer data provide new observations to study global urban and suburban environments and their changes. Furthermore, the capability of DSM to identify hydrological channels on the Greenland ice sheet and ecological biomes in central Africa demonstrates that DSM can be used to observe persistent structures in natural environments at a km scale, providing contemporaneous data to study human impacts beyond urban and suburban areas.

Nghiem, S. V.; Balk, D.; Rodriguez, E.; Neumann, G.; Sorichetta, A.; Small, C.; Elvidge, C. D.

284

A novel technique for acoustic emission monitoring in civil structures with global fiber optic sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of acoustic emission (AE)-based damage detection is gaining interest in the field of civil structural health monitoring. Damage progress can be detected and located in real time and the recorded AEs hold information on the fracture process which produced them. One of the drawbacks for on-site application in large-scale concrete and masonry structures is the relatively high attenuation of the ultrasonic signal, which limits the detection range of the AE sensors. Consequently, a large number of point sensors are required to cover a certain area. To tackle this issue, a global damage detection system, based on AE detection with a polarization-modulated, single mode fiber optic sensor (FOS), has been developed. The sensing principle, data acquisition and analysis in time and frequency domain are presented. During experimental investigations, this AE-FOS is applied for the first time as a global sensor for the detection of crack-induced AEs in a full-scale concrete beam. Damage progress is monitored during a cyclic four-point bending test and the AE activity, detected with the FOS, is related to the subsequent stages of damage progress in the concrete element. The results obtained with the AE-FOS are successfully linked to the mechanical behavior of the concrete beam and a qualitative correspondence is found with AE data obtained by a commercial system.

Verstrynge, E.; Pfeiffer, H.; Wevers, M.

2014-06-01

285

Effect of calibration environment on the performance of direct-reading organic vapor monitors.  

PubMed

The performance of two direct-reading organic vapor monitors (monitors) when calibrated at different environmental conditions was compared with charcoal tube results. Three MIRAN SapphIRe portable ambient air analyzers (SAP) and three Century portable toxic vapor analyzers (TVAs) were evaluated. Prior to sampling, the monitors were calibrated per the manufacturer's instructions using methane for the TVA flame ionization detector (FID) and isobutylene for the photoionization detector (PID), whereas the SapphIRe instruments were zeroed and the instrument's manufacturer-supplied library was used. For the first series of tests ("Part 1--Same condition"), the monitors were calibrated under the same environmental conditions as those present during sampling. They were then challenged with four cyclohexane concentrations (30, 150, 300, and 475 ppm) under two extreme environmental conditions: 5 degrees C and 30% relative humidity (RH) (same/cold) and 38 degrees C and 90% RH (same/hot). For the second series of tests ("Part 2--Different condition"), the monitors were calibrated at approximately normal indoor environmental conditions (21 degrees C and 50% RH) and sampled at extreme environmental conditions (different/cold and different/hot). The monitor readings from the two methods were compared with the actual cyclohexane concentration determined from charcoal tubes using ratios and root mean square errors. A number of monitor failures, both below detection limit values in the presence of a known challenge concentration and erroneously high measurements, occurred in each part: same condition 20.7% (149/720) and different condition 42.4% (305/ 720), with a majority of the failures (> 78%) during the hot and humid conditions. All monitors performed best at the same/cold, followed by the same/hot, in terms of closeness to the reference standard method and low within-monitor variability. The ranked choice of monitors for same/cold is PID > SAP > FID; for different/cold FID > PID > SAP; for same/hot SAP > PID > FID; and for different/hot PID > SAP (FID not included due to 100% failure rate). Implications: Direct-reading organic vapor monitors are used for assessing the concentrations of volatile organic compounds in the air at varying environmental conditions. Typical calibration is performed at laboratory temperature and pressure. The monitors may be used in atmospheres that differ from that during calibration. An understanding of the effect of calibration environment on monitor performance may provide valuable information on the reliability and appropriateness of certain monitor types for industrial hygienists, emergency responders, and exposure assessment practitioners. Results of the study indicate monitor calibration should be performed at the same environmental conditions as sampling. PMID:23786144

LeBouf, Ryan F; Slaven, James E; Coffey, Christopher C

2013-05-01

286

A Low-Cost Sensor Buoy System for Monitoring Shallow Marine Environments  

PubMed Central

Monitoring of marine ecosystems is essential to identify the parameters that determine their condition. The data derived from the sensors used to monitor them are a fundamental source for the development of mathematical models with which to predict the behaviour of conditions of the water, the sea bed and the living creatures inhabiting it. This paper is intended to explain and illustrate a design and implementation for a new multisensor monitoring buoy system. The system design is based on a number of fundamental requirements that set it apart from other recent proposals: low cost of implementation, the possibility of application in coastal shallow-water marine environments, suitable dimensions for deployment and stability of the sensor system in a shifting environment like the sea bed, and total autonomy of power supply and data recording. The buoy system has successfully performed remote monitoring of temperature and marine pressure (SBE 39 sensor), temperature (MCP9700 sensor) and atmospheric pressure (YOUNG 61302L sensor). The above requirements have been satisfactorily validated by operational trials in a marine environment. The proposed buoy sensor system thus seems to offer a broad range of applications.

Albaladejo, Cristina; Soto, Fulgencio; Torres, Roque; Sanchez, Pedro; Lopez, Juan A.

2012-01-01

287

Integrated system approach at GIST/ADEMRC for monitoring atmospheric environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated system approach has been adopted at the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Kwangju Institute Science and Technology (KJIST), Korea for the effective monitoring of atmospheric environment utilizing various optical remote sensing methods. A multi-channel LIDAR system has been used since December 2002 to monitor the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosol. Vertical profiles of extinction coefficient, depolarization ratio, and color ratio of atmospheric aerosols are determined from the simultaneous detection of three elastic-backscatter signals and one Raman signal backscattered by atmospheric nitrogen molecules. Ground based sunphotometer measurement provides LIDAR validation and information on the column integrated aerosol optical depth at seven different wavelengths. Optical atmospheric environment monitoring over horizontal path is also made with a Long-path DOAS system and a transmissometer. The GIST long-path DOAS system has been used to measure concentration of trace gases as well as atmospheric extinction at 550 nm. Results of aerosol optical depth determination based on satellite data retrieval are compared with the results of LIDAR and sunphotometer measurements. This paper presents the results of integrated measurements of atmospheric aerosol at Gwangju (35°10`N, 126°53`E), Korea.

Kim, Young Joon; Choi, Sung C.; Lee, Chul Kyu; Jung, Jin Sang; Lee, Han L.; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Kyung Won; Jung, Hyun Rock; Kim, Min Jung; He, Zhuanshi; Ogunjobi, Kehinde; Lee, Kwon Ho

2004-09-01

288

Update on NASA's Real-time Global Flood Monitoring System: Recent Improvements and Examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing availability of remotely-sensed precipitation estimates and geospatial datasets covering the globe at scales useful for hydrologic applications increase the possibility of establishing global flood monitoring systems. Our group recently developed a global flood monitoring system (GFMS) that utilizes precipitation estimates from the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and other geospatial datasets as input to a hydrological model. In this presentation we will provide an overview of the recent updates to our GFMS. Our initial GFMS uses a relatively simple hydrologic model, based on the runoff curve number method, to transform TMPA-based precipitation into runoff every 3 hour at 0.250 spatial scale within 50oN-S latitude band. An in-depth evaluation of this initial GFMS was carried out including a regional evaluation of the TMPA precipitation estimates and evaluation of the simulated runoff using a global flood archive and with observed streamflow at selected watersheds in the globe. This evaluation effort pointed out the limitations of the initial GFMS including the hydrologic model structure and its routing component. The evaluation results also indicated that the GFMS suffered from region-dependent bias. Based on these results, we recently developed a second generation GFMS (GFMS-2) that operates at a higher spatial resolution (0.125o) and contains a new hydrologic model with an improved physical representation and an improved routing component. Sub-grid variability of soil moisture capacity and coupled runoff generation and routing mechanisms are among the distinguishing features of the GFMS-2. We will outline the calibration, evaluation and parameter regionalization procedures developed for GFMS-2 together with examples from its application to selected watersheds in different continents.

Yilmaz, Koray K.; Adler, Robert; Hong, Yang; Wang, Jiahu; Policelli, Frederick; Tian, Yudong; Pierce, Harold

2010-05-01

289

"Evolution Canyon," a potential microscale monitor of global warming across life  

PubMed Central

Climatic change and stress is a major driving force of evolution. The effects of climate change on living organisms have been shown primarily on regional and global scales. Here I propose the “Evolution Canyon” (EC) microscale model as a potential life monitor of global warming in Israel and the rest of the world. The EC model reveals evolution in action at a microscale involving biodiversity divergence, adaptation, and incipient sympatric speciation across life from viruses and bacteria through fungi, plants, and animals. The EC consists of two abutting slopes separated, on average, by 200 m. The tropical, xeric, savannoid, “African” south-facing slope (AS = SFS) abuts the forested “European” north-facing slope (ES = NFS). The AS receives 200–800% higher solar radiation than the ES. The ES represents the south European forested maquis. The AS and ES exhibit drought and shade stress, respectively. Major adaptations on the AS are because of solar radiation, heat, and drought, whereas those on the ES relate to light stress and photosynthesis. Preliminary evidence suggests the extinction of some European species on the ES and AS. In Drosophila, a 10-fold higher migration was recorded in 2003 from the AS to ES. I advance some predictions that could be followed in diverse species in EC. The EC microclimatic model is optimal to track global warming at a microscale across life from viruses and bacteria to mammals in Israel, and in additional ECs across the planet.

Nevo, Eviatar

2012-01-01

290

The Heritage of the Operational Usda/nasa Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite radar altimetry has the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs. A clear advantage is the provision of data where in situ data are lacking or where there is restricted access to ground-based measurements. A USDA/NASA funded program is performing altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world. The near-real time height measurements are currently derived from NASA/CNES Jason-2/OSTM mission data. Archived data are also utilized from the NASA/CNES Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 missions, the NRL GFO mission, and the ESA ENVISAT mission. Lake level products are output within 1-2 weeks after satellite overpass, a time delay which will improve to a few days as the project moves into its next phase. The USDA/FAS utilize the products for assessing irrigation potential (and thus crop production estimates), and for general observation of high-water status and short-term drought. Other end-users explore the products to study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and to consider water management and regional security issues. This presentation explores the heritage of the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) which has its origins in the field of ocean surface topography and the exploration of radar altimetry techniques over non-ocean surfaces. The current system closely follows the software design of the historical NASA Ocean Pathfinder Project and utilizes a global lakes catalogue that was created for climate change/aridity studies. The output of lake level products, imagery and information also echoes an earlier trial (UNDP-funded) lakes database which first offered altimetric products via the world wide web and which enabled world-wide interest to be both assessed and highlighted.;

Birkett, C. M.; Beckley, B. D.; Reynolds, C. A.

2012-12-01

291

United Nations Environment Programme; Resources for Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information on the state of the planet's natural resources and sustainable development. The site highlights scientific assessment and global monitoring efforts that are currently underway such as the Global International Waters Assessment, the Global Environment Monitoring System Freshwater Quality Programme and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. A section on maps and graphics is also included.

Nations, The U.

292

[The marine coastal water monitoring program of the Italian Ministry of the Environment].  

PubMed

The Ministry of the Environment carries out marine and coastal monitoring programs with the collaboration of the coastal Regions. The program in progress (2001-2003), on the basis of results of the previous one, has identified 73 particulary significant areas (57 critical areas and 16 control areas). The program investigates several parameters on water, plancton, sediments, mollusks and benthos with analyses fortnightly, six-monthly and annual. The main aim of these three year monitoring programs is to assess the quality of national marine ecosystem. PMID:12820576

Di Girolamo, Irene

2003-01-01

293

Fiber-optic sensing in cryogenic environments. [for rocket propellant tank monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Passive optical sensors using fiber-optic signal transmission to a remote monitoring station are explored as an alternative to electrical sensors used to monitor the status of explosive propellants. The designs of passive optical sensors measuring liquid level, pressure, and temperature in cryogenic propellant tanks are discussed. Test results for an experimental system incorporating these sensors and operating in liquid nitrogen demonstrate the feasibility of passive sensor techniques and indicate that they can serve as non-hazardous replacements for more conventional measuring equipment in explosive environments.

Sharma, M.; Brooks, R. E.

1980-01-01

294

Real-time Global Flood Monitoring using an Enhanced Land Surface Model with Satellite-based Precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A community land surface model (LSM), Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, was enhanced by coupling with a hierarchical dominant river tracing-based runoff-routing model. The Dominant river tracing-Routing Integrated with VIC Environment (DRIVE) model formed the new core of an existing real-time global flood monitoring system (GFMS). It is the first time to use satellite-based real-time precipitation (with other data) to drive a state-of-the-art LSM for real-time flood monitoring for global domain at relatively high spatial (~12km) and temporal (3-hourly) resolution. In order to evaluate the new GFMS accuracy in flood event detection and flood magnitude estimation, we ran the DRIVE model for retrospective ~15 years (1998~) using both NASA TMPA research and real-time precipitation products, with the model simulations referred to as DRIVE-V7 and DRIVE-RT respectively. The DRIVE-RT and DRIVE-V7 derived very close probability of detection (0.90 vs. 0.93) and false alarm ratio (0.88 vs. 0.84) against archived flood events with duration greater than one day, which are much better than the old GFMS using a simpler hydrologic model driven by TMPA 3B42V6 research product. The DRIVE-V7 derived positive daily and monthly Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSC) for 362 (32.3%) and 675 (60.2%) gauges, out of 1,121 in total from global rivers with observed daily streamflow data, with a mean of 0.39 and 0.212 respectively. It is promising considering the model was using only a priori parameters. The model performance generally decreases from tropics toward higher latitudes at annual, seasonal and daily scales, with DRIVE-V7 generally better than DRIVE-RT. However, their performances at daily scale had no significant difference for almost all regions except the northern mid-latitudes where TMPA V7 research product has much better quality than real-time data because of gauge data based corrections. A real-time evaluation on recent flood cases for the new operational GFMS (http://flood.umd.edu) demonstrated that the new GFMS had a fairly good performance in flood occurrence detection, flood evolution and magnitude calculation according to river gauge data. The GFMS has also been developed to provide flood detection, streamflow and inundation estimation at a much higher resolution (as fine as 1 km). The evaluation also demonstrated that the delineation of floodplain inundation dynamics at the 1km resolution further significantly improved the flood estimation.

Wu, H.; Adler, R. F.; Tian, Y.

2013-12-01

295

EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes that control change in this understudied region, particularly those concerning the primary components that influence regional climate (i.e. cloud cover, precipitation) and responses and feedbacks to and from terrestrial and aquatic systems. This provides a strong impetus for the SIRS project. SIRS was initiated at a boreal forest conference in Krasnoyarsk in 2002 under the auspices of the IGBP and ESSP regional strategy by Will Steffen (IGBP) and the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS). Russian and foreign scientific activities continued under the Siberian Center for Environmental Research and Training (SCERT) in 2003. In 2005, the Siberian Branch of the Russian National Committee (SB RNC) for IGBP endorsed these activities and recommended investigations focus on four major themes: quantification of the terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas budget, with a focus on the exchange between biota and atmosphere; monitoring and modeling of regional climate change impacts; development of SIRS informational-computational infrastructure; and development of a regional strategy of adaptation to and mitigation of the negative consequences of global change. SIRS development [10, 11] supports Siberian Earth science investigations funded by the RAS Foundation for Basic Research, the European Commission (EC), the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). SB RNC is responsible for SIRS advances, and SCERT hosts the Committee office and houses major SIRS informational-computational infrastructure development. NEESPI (www.neespi.org/) serves as an IGBP and World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) external project, and as a NEESPI mega-project, SIRS has organized distribution centers in Krasnoyarsk and Tomsk to support NEESPI activity, and has coordinated training and educational activity aimed at young scientists. SIRS approaches and outcomes Organizational activity The 'Siberian Geosphere-Biosphere Program: integrated regional study of contemporary natural and climatic changes' is one of se

Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

2010-03-01

296

What is a habitable environment? -answers from observations of a global transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremophiles are specialists which colonise special niches in these extreme environments due to there adaptation capacities attained during the evolution of life. Some examples of ex-tremophiles and their potential to deal with harsh conditions as well as the characterisation of their niches will be presented. Based on observations and results obtained in the 10th German Antarctic North Victoria Land Expedition (GANOVEX X) in the area of the Transantarctic Mountains led by the German Geosciences and Resource Research Society (BGR) and during an environment characterisation campaign of the European Alps and the Spanish Mountains "Sierra de Gredos" supported by the German Ministry of Economy and Technology (BMWi) a global transect from temperate Alpine regions to Mediterranean mountains and Polar Mountain regions can be analysed. Due to a summary of these results we are able to compare different strategies of colonisation in different habitats of the global mountain transect by cosmopolitan and endemic species as there are, the colonisation of rocks, fissures, cracks, polygon forming substrates, permafrost and glaciers. Data of UV B-, PAR-and IR-radiation measurements, humidity and temperature as well as the activity of microorganisms are accomplishing with more details the habitat characterisation and may give relevant information on probably niches for life on other planets as e.g. the planet Mars and may give answers on the question what is a habitable environment. These results will also form the basis of a series of new space experiments on satellites or on the International Space Station (ISS) and furthermore may lead to progress in probes-and rover-development for particular "hardly" accessible terrains.

de Vera, Jean-Pierre; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Onofri, Silvano; Ott, Sieglinde

297

The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.  

PubMed Central

Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems.

McMichael, A. J.

2000-01-01

298

Can the ASAR Global Monitoring Mode Product Adequately Capture Spatial Soil Moisture Variability?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global soil moisture (SM) monitoring in the past several decades has been undertaken mainly at coarse spatial resolution, which is not adequate for addressing small-scale phenomena and processes. The currently operational Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (NASA) and future planned missions such as the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (ESA) and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (NASA) will remain resolution limited. Finer scale soil moisture estimates can be achieved either by down-scaling the available coarse resolution radiometer and scatterometer (i.e. ERS1/2, ASCAT) observations or by using high resolution active microwave SAR type systems (typical resolution is in the order of meters). Considering the complex land surface - backscatter signal interaction, soil moisture inversion utilizing active microwave observations is difficult and generally needs supplementary data. Algorithms based on temporal change detection offer an alternative less complex approach for deriving (and disaggregating coarse) soil moisture estimates. Frequent monitoring and low frequency range along with a high pixel resolution are essential preconditions when characterizing spatial and temporal soil moisture variability. An alternative active system that meets these requirements is the Advance Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) on ENVISAT [C-band, global, 1 km in Global Monitoring (GM) Mode]. The Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) has developed a 1 km soil moisture product using the temporal change detection approach and the ASAR GM. The TU Wien SM product sensitivity was evaluated at two scales: point (using in situ data from permanent soil moisture stations) and regional [using ground measured data and aircraft estimates derived from the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR)] over the National Airborne Field Experiment (NAFE'05) area located in the Goulburn catchment, SE Australia. The month long (November 2005) campaign was undertaken in a region predominantly covered by grasslands and partly by forests and croplands. Point scale analysis revealed high ASAR sensitivity and adequate response to changes in moisture conditions (R = 0.69 and RMSE = 0.08 v/v). Regional analysis was performed at several different spatial resolutions (1 km to 25 km). ASAR exhibited high noise level and significant wet bias. Increase in pixel size resulted in improving R and RMSE from R = 0.59 and RMSE = 0.14 to R = 0.91 and RMSE = 0.05 at 1 km and 25 km respectively; however, despite the reasonable statistical agreement at 1 km, the soil moisture spatial patterns clearly visible in the PLMR images, the later were verified with ground data, were lacking in the ASAR product.

Mladenova, I.; Lakshmi, V.; Walker, J.; Panciera, R.; Wagner, W.; Doubkova, M.

2008-12-01

299

Resourcesat-1: A global multi-observation mission for resources monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an array of Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS), a wide variety of national applications have been developed as an inter-agency effort over the past 20 years. Now, the capacity of the programme has been extended into the global arena and IRS is providing operational data services to the global user community. The recently launched IRS satellite, Resourcesat-1, was placed into perfect orbit by India's PSLV and is providing valuable imaging services. Resourcesat-1 is actually like 3 satellites "rolled" into one, imaging a wide field of 710 km area at ˜55 m resolution in multispectral bands from the AWiFS, 23 m resolution in a systematic 142 km swath from four bands of the LISS-3 and the 5.8 m multi-spectral images from the most advanced sensor—LISS-4. Yet another aspect of Resourcesat-1 is it that it marks a "watershed" in terms of a quantum jump in technological capability that India has achieved compared to past missions. The mission has many newer features—the advanced imaging sensors, the more precise attitude and orbit determination systems, the satellite positioning system onboard, the mass storage devices and many other features. This mission has led IRS into a new technological era, and when combined with the technological capability of the forthcoming Cartosat missions, India would have developed technologies that will take us into the new generation of EO satellites for the coming years. This paper provides a detailed description of the Resourcesat-1 mission. From the applications point of view, Resourcesat-1 will open up new avenues for environmental monitoring and resources management—especially for vegetation assessment and disaster management support. The monitoring capability of this mission is also extremely important for a number of applications. The mission has global imaging and servicing capabilities and could be received through the Antrix-Space Imaging network, which markets Resourcesat-1 data worldwide. This paper also describes the applications potentials and global capabilities of the mission. Resourcesat-1 will have continuity and after that a new generation system will provide enhanced and more unique imaging services. Actually, India has a 25 years strategy for EO and a perspective of the same is also described in this paper.

Seshadri, K. S. V.; Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Thyagarajan, K.; Sridhara Murthi, K. R.

2005-07-01

300

A global inland water monitoring system from EnviSat satellite radar altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite altimetry has been used for many years to measure the height of inland waterbodies; this paper assesses the contribution of the EnviSat RA-2 to global inland water monitoring. A full waveform analysis of cycles 10 to 85 of the EnviSat RA-2 SGDR dataset has been completed over inland water, retrieving 822229 crossings. The results confirm that the unique dynamic mode-switching capability of the RA-2 has enabled the instrument to maintain lock over rapidly varying terrain, thus acquiring a huge database of echoes over inland water. The vast majority of these targets were acquired in 320MHz 'ocean' mode, enabling precise retracking and allowing generation of 25636 timeseries of inland water heights. Analysis reveals that of these, 15067 have successfully retrieved the target signature. Because these echo data were made available by ESA in Near-Real-Time, a pilot system has been running since 2005, generating river and lake height time series globally, and disseminating data to end users within 3 days of satellite overpass. This paper includes an analysis of the service provided to the worldwide userbase. The Envisat RA-2 also has the unique capability to transmit to ground a small percentage of the retrieved echoes at the full 1800Hz acquisition rate. Global analysis of these 'individual echoes' (IEs) has revealed that even small pools of water can be identified, and height timeseries successfully retrieved from as few as 7 IEs. This global assessment shows that the EnviSat RA-2 is a superb instrument for inland water measurement; the 15067 timeseries of water heights already retrieved represent only a fraction of the acquired echo dataset. Enhancements to the processing and retracking capability will further increase the target retrieval to enhance the inland water monitoring capability. In addition, and crucially for future missions, the unique IE dataset has shown that the high pulse repetition frequency allows even small pools of water a few metres across to be identified, and height timeseries determined from targets less than 30m across.

Berry, P. A. M.; Smith, R. G.; Benveniste, J.

2012-04-01

301

Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today s presentation describes how real time space weather data is used by the International Space Station (ISS) space environments team to obtain data on auroral charging of the ISS vehicle and support ISS crew efforts to obtain auroral images from orbit. Topics covered include: Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), . Auroral charging of ISS, . Real ]time space weather monitoring resources, . Examples of ISS auroral charging captured from space weather events, . ISS crew observations of aurora.

Minow, Joseph; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

2012-01-01

302

SiC Sensors in Extreme Environments: Real-time Hydrogen Monitoring for Energy Plant Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean, efficient energy production, such as the gasification of coal (syngas), requires physical and chemical sensors for exhaust gas monitoring as well as real-time control of the combustion process. Wide-bandgap semiconducting materials systems can meet the sensing demands in these extreme environments consisting of chemically corrosive gases at high temperature and pressure. We have developed a SiC based micro-sensor for

Ruby Ghosh

2008-01-01

303

A novel integrative technique for locating and monitoring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon discharges to the aquatic environment  

SciTech Connect

A simple integrative technique for locating and monitoring polynuclear aromatic hydrogen discharges to aquatic environments is described. The technique involves anchoring artificial substrates cut from a commercial oil-adsorbant cloth (3M Co.) near suspected sources of contamination. Analytical methodology involves mild ethanolic extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning to isolate a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon containing fraction that is amenable to analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

Black, J.J.; Hart, T.F. Jr.; Black, P.J.

1982-05-01

304

Application of hyperspectral remote sensing for environment monitoring in mining areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems caused by extraction of minerals have long been a focus on environmental earth sciences. Vegetation\\u000a growing conditions are an indirect indicator of the environmental problem in mining areas. A growing number of studies in\\u000a recent years made substantial efforts to better utilize remote sensing for dynamic monitoring of vegetation growth conditions\\u000a and the environment in mining areas. In

Bing ZhangDi; Di Wu; Li Zhang; Quanjun Jiao; Qingting Li

305

SAGE: A Logical Agent-Based Environment Monitoring and Control System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose SAGE, an agent-based environment monitoring and control system based on computation logic. SAGE uses forward chaining deductive inference to map low level sensor data to high level events, multi-agent abductive reasoning to provide possible explanations for these events, and teleo-reactive programming to react to these explanations, e.g. to gather extra information to check abduced hypotheses. The system is embedded in a publish/subscribe architecture.

Broda, Krysia; Clark, Keith; Miller, Rob; Russo, Alessandra

306

The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale  

PubMed Central

Background The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. Objective To produce maps of the baseline and future bioclimate that allows a direct comparison of the differences in the vulnerability of populations to thermal stress across the world. Design The required climatological data fields are obtained from climate simulations with the global General Circulation Model ECHAM4 in T106-resolution. For the thermo-physiologically relevant assessment of these climate data a complete heat budget model of the human being, the ‘Perceived Temperature’ procedure has been applied which already comprises adaptation by clothing to a certain degree. Short-term physiological acclimatisation is considered via Health Related Assessment of the Thermal Environment. Results The global maps 1971–1980 (control run, assumed as baseline climate) show a pattern of thermal stress intensities as frequencies of heat. The heat load for people living in warm–humid climates is the highest. Climate change will lead to clear differences in health-related thermal stress between baseline climate and the future bioclimate 2041–2050 based on the ‘business-as-usual’ greenhouse gas scenario IS92a. The majority of the world's population will be faced with more frequent and more intense heat strain in spite of an assumed level of acclimatisation. Further adaptation measures are crucial in order to reduce the vulnerability of the populations. Conclusions This bioclimatology analysis provides a tool for various questions in climate and climate change impact research. Considerations of regional or local scale require climate simulations with higher resolution. As adaptation is the key term in understanding the role of climate/climate change for human health, performance and well-being, further research in this field is crucial.

Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

2009-01-01

307

The zCOSMOS redshift survey: how group environment alters global downsizing trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Groups of galaxies are a common environment, bridging the gap between starforming field galaxies and quiescent cluster galaxies. Within groups secular processes could be at play, contributing to the observed strong decrease of star formation with cosmic time in the global galaxy population. Aims: We took advantage of the wealth of information provided by the first 10 000 galaxies of the zCOSMOS-bright survey and its group catalogue to study in detail the complex interplay between group environment and galaxy properties. Methods: The classical indicator Fblue, i.e., the fraction of blue galaxies, proved to be a simple but powerful diagnostic tool. We studied its variation for different luminosity and mass selected galaxy samples, divided as to define groups/field/isolated galaxy subsamples. Results: Using rest-frame evolving B-band volume-limited samples, the groups galaxy population exhibits significant blueing as redshift increases, but maintains a systematic difference (a lower Fblue) with respect to the global galaxy population, and an even larger difference with respect to the isolated galaxy population. However moving to mass selected samples it becomes apparent that such differences are largely due to the biased view imposed by the B-band luminosity selection, being driven by the population of lower mass, bright blue galaxies for which we miss the redder, equally low mass, counterparts. By carefully focusing the analysis on narrow mass bins such that mass segregation becomes negligible we find that only for the lowest mass bin explored, i.e., log ({\\cal M}*/{\\cal M}?) ? 10.6 , does a significant residual difference in color remain as a function of environment, while this difference becomes negligible toward higher masses. Conclusions: Our results indicate that red galaxies of mass log ({\\cal M}*/{\\cal M}?) ? 10.8 are already in place at z 1 and do not exhibit any strong environmental dependence, possibly originating from so-called nature or internal mechanisms. In contrast, for lower galaxy masses and redshifts lower than z 1, we observe the emergence in groups of a population of nurture red galaxies: slightly deviating from the trend of the downsizing scenario followed by the global galaxy population, and more so with cosmic time. These galaxies exhibit signatures of group-related secular physical mechanisms directly influencing galaxy evolution. Our analysis implies that these mechanisms begin to significantly influence galaxy evolution after z 1, a redshift corresponding to the emergence of structures in which these mechanisms take place. based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, program 175.A-0839, PI: S. Lilly.

Iovino, A.; Cucciati, O.; Scodeggio, M.; Knobel, C.; Kova?, K.; Lilly, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Caputi, K.; Pozzetti, L.; Oesch, P.; Lamareille, F.; Halliday, C.; Bardelli, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Guzzo, L.; Kampczyk, P.; Maier, C.; Tanaka, M.; Vergani, D.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Mignoli, M.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tresse, L.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Schiminovich, D.; Scoville, N.

2010-01-01

308

Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment.  

PubMed

Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. PMID:23147420

Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair B A; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

2013-01-01

309

Construction and application of an intelligent air quality monitoring system for healthcare environment.  

PubMed

Indoor air quality monitoring in healthcare environment has become a critical part of hospital management and policy. Manual air sampling and analysis are cost-inhibitive and do not provide real-time air quality data and response measures. In this month-long study over 14 sampling locations in a public hospital in Taiwan, we observed a positive correlation between CO(2) concentration and population, total bacteria, and particulate matter concentrations, thus monitoring CO(2) concentration as a general indicator for air quality could be a viable option. Consequently, an intelligent environmental monitoring system consisting of a CO(2)/temperature/humidity sensor, a digital plug, and a ZigBee Router and Coordinator was developed and tested. The system also included a backend server that received and analyzed data, as well as activating ventilation and air purifiers when CO(2) concentration exceeded a pre-set value. Alert messages can also be delivered to offsite users through mobile devices. PMID:24487985

Yang, Chao-Tung; Liao, Chi-Jui; Liu, Jung-Chun; Den, Walter; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

2014-02-01

310

CHRM2, parental monitoring, and adolescent externalizing behavior: evidence for gene-environment interaction.  

PubMed

Psychologists, with their long-standing tradition of studying mechanistic processes, can make important contributions to further characterizing the risk associated with genes identified as influencing risk for psychiatric disorders. We report one such effort with respect to CHRM2, which codes for the cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor and was of interest originally for its association with alcohol dependence. We tested for association between CHRM2 and prospectively measured externalizing behavior in a longitudinal, community-based sample of adolescents, as well as for moderation of this association by parental monitoring. We found evidence for an interaction in which the association between the genotype and externalizing behavior was stronger in environments with lower parental monitoring. There was also suggestion of a crossover effect, in which the genotype associated with the highest levels of externalizing behavior under low parental monitoring had the lowest levels of externalizing behavior at the extreme high end of parental monitoring. The difficulties involved in distinguishing mechanisms of gene-environment interaction are discussed. PMID:21441226

Dick, Danielle M; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Latendresse, Shawn J; Creemers, Hanneke E; Lansford, Jennifer E; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Budde, John; Goate, Alison; Buitelaar, Jan K; Ormel, Johannes; Verhulst, Frank C; Huizink, Anja C

2011-04-01

311

Use of global navigation satellite systems for monitoring deformations of water-development works  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using global radio-navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to improve functional safety of high-liability water-development works - dams at hydroelectric power plants, and, consequently, the safety of the population in the surrounding areas is examined on the basis of analysis of modern publications. Characteristics for determination of displacements and deformations with use of GNSS, and also in a complex with other types of measurements, are compared. It is demonstrated that combined monitoring of deformations of the ground surface of the region, and engineering and technical structures is required to ensure the functional safety of HPP, and reliable metrologic assurance of measurements is also required to obtain actual characteristics of the accuracy and effectiveness of GNSS observations.

Kaftan, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Geophysical Center (Russian Federation); Ustinov, A. V. [JSC Institut Gidropreoekt (Russian Federation)

2013-05-15

312

A global standard for monitoring coastal wetland vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea-level rise threatens coastal salt-marshes and mangrove forests around the world, and a key determinant of coastal wetland vulnerability is whether its surface elevation can keep pace with rising sea level. Globally, a large data gap exists because wetland surface and shallow subsurface processes remain unaccounted for by traditional vulnerability assessments using tide gauges. Moreover, those processes vary substantially across wetlands, so modelling platforms require relevant local data. The low-cost, simple, high-precision rod surface-elevation table–marker horizon (RSET-MH) method fills this critical data gap, can be paired with spatial data sets and modelling and is financially and technically accessible to every country with coastal wetlands. Yet, RSET deployment has been limited to a few regions and purposes. A coordinated expansion of monitoring efforts, including development of regional networks that could support data sharing and collaboration, is crucial to adequately inform coastal climate change adaptation policy at several scales.

Webb, Edward L.; Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Phelps, Jacob

2013-01-01

313

Monitoring global vegetation using Nimbus-7 37 GHz data - Some empirical relations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The difference of the vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures observed by the 37 GHz channel of the SMMR on board the Nimbus-7 satellite are correlated temporally with three indicators of vegetation density, namely the temporal variation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa (Hawaii), rainfall over the Sahel and the normalized difference vegetation index derived from the AVHRR on board the NOAA-7 satellite. SMMR 37 GHz and AVHRR provide complementary data sets for monitoring global vegetation, the 37 GHz data being more suitable for arid and semiarid regions as these data are more sensitive to changes in sparse vegetation. The 37-GHz data might be useful for understanding desertification and indexing Co2 exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

Choudhury, B. J.; Tucker, C. J.

1987-01-01

314

A global standard for monitoring coastal wetland vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea-level rise threatens coastal salt-marshes and mangrove forests around the world, and a key determinant of coastal wetland vulnerability is whether its surface elevation can keep pace with rising sea level. Globally, a large data gap exists because wetland surface and shallow subsurface processes remain unaccounted for by traditional vulnerability assessments using tide gauges. Moreover, those processes vary substantially across wetlands, so modelling platforms require relevant local data. The low-cost, simple, high-precision rod surface-elevation table-marker horizon (RSET-MH) method fills this critical data gap, can be paired with spatial data sets and modelling and is financially and technically accessible to every country with coastal wetlands. Yet, RSET deployment has been limited to a few regions and purposes. A coordinated expansion of monitoring efforts, including development of regional networks that could support data sharing and collaboration, is crucial to adequately inform coastal climate change adaptation policy at several scales.

Webb, Edward L.; Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Phelps, Jacob

2013-05-01

315

Large meteoroid detection using the global International Monitoring System infrasound system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will review the subject of infrasound from large bolides (large meteor-fireballs) entering the atmosphere at hypersonic speeds and their expected rate of detection by the 60 infrasonic arrays of the global IMS network (International Monitoring System). This will include the details of the generation of a quasiline source blast wave and its subsequent decay for near-continuum flow conditions. We will also discuss new highly refined models of bolide ablation and fragmentation and of known compositional types and their effect on sound and light production. In addition, we will consider the effects of refraction of the waves by the middle atmospheric and tropospheric thermodynamic sound speed and horizontal wind profiles in a range-independent atmosphere so that the characteristic velocity and wave normal directions radiated at the source are conserved during the propagation. Next, we will discuss the detection of the signals and their interpretation in terms of plane wave arrivals regarding the 3-D source location (latitude, longitude, height), the source energy level, etc. Finally, we will use the infrasound data from bolides to estimate the expected steady-state global influx rate, including formal errors, as a function of their observed source energy. Infrasound from recent large events will also be examined.

ReVelle, Douglas O.

2002-11-01

316

Requirements for an L-band InSAR Mission to Monitor Global Tectonic Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DLR is currently studying a space mission based on a formation of two L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar satellites dedicated to monitor a) the global biomass for CO2 cycle studies b) small displacements of the earth surface. The focus of this presentation is the so called deformation mode for repeated displacement measurements during the mission lifetime. Measurements shall be made on risk regions such as faults, volcanoes, landslides and urban areas - or even globally if feasible. The study is currently in the requirements definition phase where the following parameters are discussed with the scientific user community, most importantly: - signal characteristics & accuracy requirements, - areas of interest, - revisit time requirements for different application fields such as volcanic or seismic activity, landslides or anthropogenic subsidence and - definition product levels, i.e., different processing stages. The goal of the study is to design a mission optimized for the derived requirements. This includes - mission & coverage concepts, - instrument design and - 3D motion reconstruction methods. In our presentation we show the current ideas and the requirements collected for deformation measurements.

Eineder, M.; Minet, C.; Bamler, R.; Hajnsek, I.; Friedrich, A.

2008-12-01

317

Automatic Event Detection in Noisy Environment for Material Process Monitoring by Laser AE Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser acoustic emission (AE) method is a unique in-situ and non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. It has a capability to detect signals generated from crack generation and propagation, friction and other physical phenomena in materials even in high temperature environment. However, laser AE system has lower signal-to-noise ratio compared to the conventional AE system using PZT sensors, so it is difficult to apply this method in noisy environment. A novel AE measurement system to detect events in such difficult environments was developed. This system could continuously record all AE waveforms and enable unrestricted post-analyses. Noise reduction filters in frequency domain coupling with a new AE event extraction using multiple threshold values showed a good potential for AE signal processing. This system was successfully applied for crack monitoring of plasma spray deposition process of ceramic coating.

Ito, K.; Kuriki, H.; Araki, H.; Kuroda, S.; Enoki, M.

2014-06-01

318

Photonic-crystal fiber-based pressure sensor for dual environment monitoring.  

PubMed

In this paper the development of a side-hole photonic-crystal fiber (SH-PCF) pressure sensor for dual environment monitoring is reported. SH-PCF properties (phase and group birefringence, sensitivity to pressure variations) are measured and compared to simulated data. In order to probe two environments, two sections of the SH-PCF with different lengths are spliced and set in a Solc filter-like configuration. This setup allows obtaining the individual responses of the first and second fiber independently, which is useful for a space-multiplexed measurement. As the employed fiber is sensitive to pressure variations, we report the use of this configuration for dual environment pressure sensing. PMID:24921131

Osório, Jonas H; Hayashi, Juliano G; Espinel, Yovanny A V; Franco, Marcos A R; Andrés, Miguel V; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B

2014-06-10

319

Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

1998-01-01

320

A new constituting lidar network for global aerosol observation and monitoring: Leone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to observe and monitoring the direct and indirect impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on the radiative transfer and climate changing, it is necessary a continuous worldwide observation of the microphysical aerosol properties. A global observation it is of great support to the actual research in climate and it is a complement in the effort of monitoring trans-boundary pollution, and satellite validation, valorizing the use of lidar and passive sensors networks. In this framework, we have created the LEONET program, a new constituting worldwide network of EZ Lidar™ instruments. These lidars, developed by the French company LEOSPHERE, are compact and rugged eye safe UV Lidars with cross-polarisation detection capabilities, designed to monitor and study the atmospheric vertical structure of aerosols and clouds in a continuous way, night and day, over long time period in order to investigate and contribute to the climate change studies. LEONET output data, in hdf format, have the same architecture of those of NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) and will be soon available to the scientific community through the AERONET data synergy tool which provides ground-based, satellite, and model data products to characterize aerosol optical and microphysical properties, spatial and temporal distribution, transport, and chemical and radiative properties. In this work, it is presented an overview of the LEONET products and methodologies as the backscattering and extinction coefficients; the depolarization ratio, cloud layer heights and subsequent optical depths, provided to the limit of detection capability from a range of 100 m up to 20 km as well as the recent automatic height retrieval method of the different Planetary Boundary Layers (PBL). The retrieval algorithm in the future will be improved integrating, when possible, a measured Lidar ratio by a co-located sun photometer Further are presented some data examples from several diverse sites in the network.

Lolli, Simone; Sauvage Laurent, Laurent

2010-05-01

321

Monitoring human health behaviour in one's living environment: a technological review.  

PubMed

The electronic monitoring of human health behaviour using computer techniques has been an active research area for the past few decades. A wide array of different approaches have been investigated using various technologies including inertial sensors, Global Positioning System, smart homes, Radio Frequency IDentification and others. It is only in recent years that research has turned towards a sensor fusion approach using several different technologies in single systems or devices. These systems allow for an increased volume of data to be collected and for activity data to be better used as measures of behaviour. This change may be due to decreasing hardware costs, smaller sensors, increased power efficiency or increases in portability. This paper is intended to act as a reference for the design of multi-sensor behaviour monitoring systems. The range of technologies that have been used in isolation for behaviour monitoring both in research and commercial devices are reviewed and discussed. Filtering, range, sensitivity, usability and other considerations of different technologies are discussed. A brief overview of commercially available activity monitors and their technology is also included. PMID:24388101

Lowe, Shane A; Ólaighin, Gearóid

2014-02-01

322

Big Data solution for CTBT monitoring: CEA-IDC joint global cross correlation project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waveform cross-correlation when applied to historical datasets of seismic records provides dramatic improvements in detection, location, and magnitude estimation of natural and manmade seismic events. With correlation techniques, the amplitude threshold of signal detection can be reduced globally by a factor of 2 to 3 relative to currently standard beamforming and STA/LTA detector. The gain in sensitivity corresponds to a body wave magnitude reduction by 0.3 to 0.4 units and doubles the number of events meeting high quality requirements (e.g. detected by three and more seismic stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). This gain is crucial for seismic monitoring under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The International Data Centre (IDC) dataset includes more than 450,000 seismic events, tens of millions of raw detections and continuous seismic data from the primary IMS stations since 2000. This high-quality dataset is a natural candidate for an extensive cross correlation study and the basis of further enhancements in monitoring capabilities. Without this historical dataset recorded by the permanent IMS Seismic Network any improvements would not be feasible. However, due to the mismatch between the volume of data and the performance of the standard Information Technology infrastructure, it becomes impossible to process all the data within tolerable elapsed time. To tackle this problem known as "BigData", the CEA/DASE is part of the French project "DataScale". One objective is to reanalyze 10 years of waveform data from the IMS network with the cross-correlation technique thanks to a dedicated High Performance Computer (HPC) infrastructure operated by the Centre de Calcul Recherche et Technologie (CCRT) at the CEA of Bruyères-le-Châtel. Within 2 years we are planning to enhance detection and phase association algorithms (also using machine learning and automatic classification) and process about 30 terabytes of data provided by the IDC to update the world seismicity map. From the new events and those in the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin, we will automatically create various sets of master event templates that will be used for the event location globally by the CTBTO and CEA.

Bobrov, Dmitry; Bell, Randy; Brachet, Nicolas; Gaillard, Pierre; Kitov, Ivan; Rozhkov, Mikhail

2014-05-01

323

Feasibility of integrating other federal information systems into the Global Network of Environment and Technology, GNET{reg_sign}  

SciTech Connect

The Global Environment and Technology Enterprise (GETE) of the Global Environment and Technology Foundation (GETF) has been tasked by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to assist in reducing DOE`s cost for the Global Network of Environment and Technology (GNET{reg_sign}). As part of this task, GETE is seeking federal partners to invest in GNET{reg_sign}. The authors are also seeking FETC`s commitment to serve as GNET`s federal agency champion promoting the system to potential agency partners. This report assesses the benefits of partnering with GNET{reg_sign} and provides recommendations for identifying and integrating other federally funded (non-DOE) environmental information management systems into GNET{reg_sign}.

NONE

1998-05-01

324

Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral components in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter's corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. The stationary simulation of this problem was done in the MHD and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the main significant results from the simplified two-fluid model simulations was a production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the I0 flyby that could not be explained by standard MHD models. In this paper, we develop a method of kinetic ion simulation. This method employs the fluid description for electrons and neutrals whereas for ions multilevel, drift-kinetic and particle, approaches are used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes. Our model provides much more accurate description for ion dynamics and allows us to take into account the realistic anisotropic ion distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations. The first results of such simulation of the dynamics of ions in the Io's environment are discussed in this paper.

Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

2004-01-01

325

Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral gases in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter s corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. Stationary simulations of this problem have already been done using the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the major results of recent simplified two-fluid model simulations [Saur, J., Neubauer, F.M., Strobel, D.F., Summers, M.E., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (SMP5), 1-18] was the production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the Io flyby. These could not be explained before by standard MHD models. In this paper, we present a hybrid simulation for Io with kinetic ions and fluid electrons. This method employs a fluid description for electrons and neutrals, whereas for ions a particle approach is used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes and solve self-consistently for electric and magnetic fields. Our model may provide a much more accurate description for the ion dynamics than previous approaches and allows us to account for the realistic anisotropic ion velocity distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations with isotropic temperatures. The first results of such a simulation of the dynamics of ions in Io s environment are discussed in this paper. Comparison with the Galileo IO flyby results shows that this approach provides an accurate physical basis for the interaction and can therefore naturally reproduce all the observed salient features.

Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

2006-01-01

326

Neurocognitive monitors: toward the prevention of cognitive performance decrements and catastrophic failures in the operational environment.  

PubMed

Network-centric doctrine and the proposed C41SR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) distributions to the individual warfighter require that the cognitive performance, judgment, and decision making of warfighters must be sustained and effectively managed in the forward operating environment, where various physiological and psychological stressors abound, in order to reduce human errors and catastrophic failures. The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) established the Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-Making Research Program (CPJDRP) in 2004 to direct research to this issue. A Neurophysiological Measures and Cognition Focus Team (NMFCT) was formed to work with augmented cognition investigators and to specifically address the development of neurophysiological measures as potential monitors of alertness-cognitive state in warfighters. The USAM-RMC approach complemented the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Augmented Cognition approach, which focused on the detection of workload-related impaired cognitive state, and subsequent modification of information flow through automation. In this preface, the premise for neurophysiological measures as neurocognitive monitors is explained using an example of a neurophysiological index: the oculomotor measure, saccadic velocity. The progress of the NMFCT on the development of a neurocognitive monitor is described, as well as the recommendations of a 2005 USAMRMC/Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC)-sponsored workshop. Awareness of neurocognitive monitoring is discussed, as are future endeavors related to operational testing and fieldability. Four papers are summarized in this Neurophysiological Monitoring and Augmented Cognition section involving technologies to enhance cognitive performance in the operational environment: one on dynamic cortical electroencephalography, two on oculometrics, and one on a spatial orientation enhancement system. PMID:17547315

Thomas, Maria L; Russo, Michael B

2007-05-01

327

Global Security Rule Sets An Analysis of the Current Global Security Environment and Rule Sets Governing Nuclear Weapons Release  

SciTech Connect

America is in a unique position in its history. In maintaining its position as the world's only superpower, the US consistently finds itself taking on the role of a global cop, chief exporter of hard and soft power, and primary impetus for globalization. A view of the current global situation shows an America that can benefit greatly from the effects of globalization and soft power. Similarly, America's power can be reduced significantly if globalization and its soft power are not handled properly. At the same time, America has slowly come to realize that its next major adversary is not a near peer competitor but terrorism and disconnected nations that seek nuclear capabilities. In dealing with this new threat, America needs to come to terms with its own nuclear arsenal and build a security rule set that will establish for the world explicitly what actions will cause the US to consider nuclear weapons release. This rule set; however, needs to be established with sensitivity to the US's international interests in globalization and soft power. The US must find a way to establish its doctrine governing nuclear weapons release without threatening other peaceful nations in the process.

Mollahan, K; Nattrass, L

2004-09-30

328

Clapp, Jennifer , and Peter Dauvergne . 2005. Paths to a Green World: The Political Economy of the Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This intelligent, well-written and informative book provides a fresh analysis of global environmental politics and ªlls a soft spot in the literature by concentrating explicitly and exclusively on its political economy. Clapp and Dauvergne use a typology of four worldviews—Market Liberals, Institutionalists, Bioenvironmentalists, and Social Greens—as a framework to examine how forces in global political economy impact the environment. Each

David Downie

2006-01-01

329

Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

2001-01-01

330

Monitoring Ionospheric Total Electron Content Using the GPS Global Network and TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a preliminary study to access the accuracy of global ionospheric maps are presented. Global ionospheric maps, produced using dual-frequency data from the global network of GPS receivers, are.

Mannucci, Anthony J.; Wilson, Brian D.; Yuan, Dah-Ning

1994-01-01

331

High frequency monitoring of the coastal marine environment using the MAREL buoy.  

PubMed

The MAREL Iroise data buoy provides physico-chemical measurements acquired in surface marine water in continuous and autonomous mode. The water is pumped 1.5 m from below the surface through a sampling pipe and flows through the measuring cell located in the floating structure. Technological innovations implemented inside the measuring cell atop the buoy allow a continuous cleaning of the sensor, while injection of chloride ions into the circuit prevents biological fouling. Specific sensors for temperature, salinity, oxygen and fluorescence investigated in this paper have been evaluated to guarantee measurement precision over a 3 month period. A bi-directional link under Internet TCP-IP protocols is used for data, alarms and remote-control transmissions with the land-based data centre. Herein, we present a 29 month record for 4 parameters measured using a MAREL buoy moored in a coastal environment (Iroise Sea, Brest, France). The accuracy of the data provided by the buoy is assessed by comparison with measurements of sea water weekly sampled at the same site as part of SOMLIT (Service d'Observation du Milieu LIToral), the French network for monitoring of the coastal environment. Some particular events (impact of intensive fresh water discharges, dynamics of a fast phytoplankton bloom) are also presented, demonstrating the worth of monitoring a highly variable environment with a high frequency continuous reliable system. PMID:15173911

Blain, S; Guillou, J; Tréguer, P; Woerther, P; Delauney, L; Follenfant, E; Gontier, O; Hamon, M; Leilde, B; Masson, A; Tartu, C; Vuillemin, R

2004-06-01

332

Tunable Diode Laser Sensor for Monitoring and Control of Harsh Combustion Environments  

SciTech Connect

This work represents the collaborative effort between American Air Liquide and Physical Sciences, Inc. for developing a sensor based on near-IR tunable diode lasers (TDL). The multi-species capability of the sensor for simultaneous monitoring of CO, O2, and H2O concentration as well as gas temperature is ideal for in-situ monitoring on industrial furnaces. The chemical species targeted are fundamental for controlling the combustion space for improved energy efficiency, reduced pollutants, and improved product quality, when coupling the measurement to a combustion control system. Several add-on modules developed provide flexibility in the system configuration for handling different process monitoring applications. For example, the on-Demand Power Control system for the 1.5 ?m laser is used for high particle density exhaust streams where laser transmission is problematic. For long-distance signal collection a fiber optic communication system is used to reduce noise pick-up. Finally, hardened modules to withstand high ambient temperatures, immune to EMF interference, protection from flying debris, and interfaced with pathlength control laser beam shielding probes were developed specifically for EAF process monitoring. Demonstration of these different system configurations was conducted on Charter Steel's reheat furnace, Imco Recycling, Inc. (now Aleris International, Inc.) aluminum reverberatory furnace, and Gerdau Ameristeel's EAF. Measurements on the reheat furnace demonstrated zone monitoring with the measurement performed close to the steel billet. Results from the aluminum furnace showed the benefit of measuring in-situ near the bath. In this case, low-level furnace optimization was performed and demonstrated 5% fuel savings. Monitoring tests on the EAF off-gas demonstrated the level of industrialization of the sensor to survive the harsh EAF environment. Long-term testing on the EAF has been on-going for over 6 months with essentially zero maintenance. Validation of the TDL measurement on the EAF was confirmed by comparison with extractive sampling CO measurements.

VonDrasek, William; Melsio-Pubill, Anna

2006-05-30

333

The sperm whale sonar: Monitoring and use in mitigation of anthropogenic noise effects in the marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise pollution in the marine environment is an emerging but serious concern. Its implications are less well understood than other global threats and largely undetectable to everyone but the specialist. In addition, the assessment of the acoustic impact of artificial sounds in the sea is not a trivial task, certainly because there is a lack of information on how the marine organisms process and analyse sounds and how relevant these sounds are for the balance and development of the populations. Further, this possible acoustic impact not only concerns the hearing systems but may also affect other sensory or systemic levels and result equally lethal for the animal concerned. If we add that the negative consequences of a short or long term exposure to artificial sounds may not be immediately observed one can understood how challenging it is to obtain objective data allowing an efficient control of the introduction of anthropogenic sound in the sea. To answer some of these questions, the choice to investigate cetaceans and their adaptation to an aquatic environment is not fortuitous. Cetaceans, because of their optimum use of sound as an ad-hoc source of energy and their almost exclusive dependence on acoustic information, represent not only the best bio-indicator of the effects of noise pollution in the marine environment, but also a source of data to improve and develop human underwater acoustic technology. Here, we present how the characteristics and performance of the sperm whale mid-range biosonar can be used to develop a mitigation solution based on passive acoustics and ambient noise imaging to prevent negative interactions with human activities by monitoring cetacean movements in areas of interest, e.g. deep-sea observatories.

André, Michel

2009-04-01

334

The ERS-1 Central Africa Mosaic: a new perspective in radar remote sensing for the global monitoring of vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Africa Mosaic Project (CAMP) is an attempt to bring spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing into an entirely new perspective for tropical forest monitoring, this goal represents a drastic change in the use of radar data, as it brings high-resolution SAR from the role of gap-filler and local hot spot analysis to the role of global mapping

Gianfranco De Grandi; Jean-Paul Malingreau; Marc Leysen

1999-01-01

335

Computation of Travel Time Through 3D Velocity Models for Applications in Real-Time, Global Seismic Event Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three dimensional velocity models of the Earth have been little used by real-time global monitoring agencies despite the expectation that these models might improve the accuracy and reduce the uncertainty of the seismic event locations they calculate. There are many reasons for this reluctance to adopt 3D models, including 1) uncertainty that adoption of 3D models will in fact significantly

S. Ballard; C. J. Young; J. R. Hipp; M. C. Chang; G. T. Barker

2007-01-01

336

Reflecting on the EFA Global Monitoring Report's Framework for Understanding Quality Education: A Teacher's Perspective in Eritrea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers issues concerning the quality of education in Eritrea using the Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report's (GMR) framework for quality education. Drawing on 2 years school-based professional experience in the country, the multiple factors affecting quality in schooling are discussed. The applicability of the GMR…

Gordon, Charlie

2010-01-01

337

Indoor Air Pollution in the Residential Environment. Volume II. Field Monitoring Protocol, Indoor Episodic Pollutant Release Experiments and Numerical Analyses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This second volume of the two-volume series on 'Indoor Air Pollution in the Residential Environment' contains three chapters. Chapter 1 describes the experimental monitoring design for obtaining continuous and intermittent air samples under 'real-life' co...

D. J. Moschandreas

1978-01-01

338

Trends and Indicators for Monitoring the EU Thematic Strategy on Sustainable Development of Urban Environment. Summary and Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trends and Indicators for Monitoring the EU Thematic Strategy on Sustainable Development of Urban Environment (TISSUE) belonged to the 6th framework programme area 'Integrating and Strengthening the European Research Area'. The overall goal of the project...

T. Haekkinen

2009-01-01

339

Statistical Analysis of the Extensive Component of the Maryland Department of the Environment Stream Acidification Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a statistical review of the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) Stream Acidification Monitoring Program (SAMP). The SAMP program was developed from the Maryland Synoptic Stream Chemistry Survey (MSSCS) which was conducted by...

P. E. Miller

1996-01-01

340

Monitoring health in Sweden: on the rationale for working environment regulations.  

PubMed

The quality of the working environment affects the health status of a population. In the absence of government intervention this quality would be determined by market forces, but the market outcome is generally not accepted. Instead public policy attempts to carefully monitor the level of occupational hazards, which are invariably subject to regulation in industrialized countries. However, this study demonstrates that the welfare implications of this monitoring of health are not self-evident. In the presence of a tax on labour and, for example, a tax-financed social insurance system, it is shown that market forces may lead either to excessive or to sub-optimal investments in injury prevention. Both private and (local) public safety goods are considered. PMID:8142994

Lyttkens, C H

1993-12-01

341

Evaluation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profiles from nine different algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation is made of ozone profiles retrieved from measurements of the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. Currently, four different approaches are used to retrieve ozone profile information from GOME measurements, which differ in the use of external information and a priori constraints. In total nine different algorithms will be evaluated exploiting the optimal estimation (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, University of Bremen, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory), Phillips-Tikhonov regularization (Space Research Organization Netherlands), neural network (Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Tor Vergata University), and data assimilation (German Aerospace Center) approaches. Analysis tools are used to interpret data sets that provide averaging kernels. In the interpretation of these data, the focus is on the vertical resolution, the indicative altitude of the retrieved value, and the fraction of a priori information. The evaluation is completed with a comparison of the results to lidar data from the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations in Andoya (Norway), Observatoire Haute Provence (France), Mauna Loa (Hawaii), Lauder (New Zealand), and Dumont d'Urville (Antarctic) for the years 1997-1999. In total, the comparison involves nearly 1000 ozone profiles and allows the analysis of GOME data measured in different global regions and hence observational circumstances. The main conclusion of this paper is that unambiguous information on the ozone profile can at best be retrieved in the altitude range 15-48 km with a vertical resolution of 10 to 15 km, precision of 5-10%, and a bias up to 5% or 20% depending on the success of recalibration of the input spectra. The sensitivity of retrievals to ozone at lower altitudes varies from scheme to scheme and includes significant influence from a priori assumptions.

Meijer, Y. J.; Swart, D. P. J.; Baier, F.; Bhartia, P. K.; Bodeker, G. E.; Casadio, S.; Chance, K.; Del Frate, F.; Erbertseder, T.; Felder, M. D.; Flynn, L. E.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hansen, G.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Kaifel, A.; Kelder, H. M.; Kerridge, B. J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Landgraf, J.; Latter, B.; Liu, X.; McDermid, I. S.; Pachepsky, Y.; Rozanov, V.; Siddans, R.; Tellmann, S.; van der A, R. J.; van Oss, R. F.; Weber, M.; Zehner, C.

2006-11-01

342

FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 GNSS radio occultation constellation mission for global weather monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States and Taiwan, through an Agreement signed in May 2010, have begun to jointly develop a satellite program to deliver next-generation global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) data to users around the world. This Program, known as FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2, is the follow-on to the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC mission, which was a joint US-Taiwan 6-satellite constellation demonstration mission launched in April 2006. The COSMIC mission was the world's first operational GPS radio occultation (GPS-RO) mission for global weather forecast; climate monitoring; atmospheric, ionospheric, and geodetic research. The GPS-RO data from COSMIC has been extremely valuable to the climate, meteorology, and space weather communities, including real-time forecasting users as well as U.S. and international research communities. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC reached the end of its design life in 2011. The constellation satellites have exhibited some unrecoverable anomalies and consequently the critical real-time satellite observing capability is degrading and may go offline with uncertainty in the coming few years. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Taiwan's National Space Organization (NSPO) have recognized the potential GPS-RO data gap due to the degrading COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 constellation and agreed to implement the follow-on COSMIC-2/FORMOSAT-7 mission in 2010. Both experienced programmatic difficulties in the past two years in the course of implementing the COSMIC-2/FORMOSAT-7 Program; however, significant progress over the past six months has occurred. This paper will provide an overview of the COSMIC2/FORMOSAT-7 Program including the Program goals and objectives. It will also discuss the status of the Program including current satellite and constellation configuration, activities to determine the optimal and minimal ground system architecture to meet data latency requirements, and other discussions on the mission and scientific payload technol- gy that will be used to meet the Program objectives.

Cook, K.; Fong, Chen-Joe; Wenkel, M. J.; Wilczynski, P.; Yen, N.; Chang, G. S.

343

Biomedical real-time monitoring in restricted and safety-critical environments  

PubMed Central

Biomedical signal monitoring can counteract the risk of human operator error due to inattention or fatigue in safetycritical and restrictive environments, such as in aviation, space, automobile and heavy industrial machinery operation. Real-time biomedical data acquisition is changing through advances in microelectronics fabrication, bio-MEMS and power micro-generators. Such data acquisition and processing systems are becoming increasingly miniaturised, flexible and pervasive, while data is being collected from inside the human body as well as around it. In this paper we review two related research projects exploiting this technological convergence, discuss its implications and suggest future innovation prospects through further similar cross-disciplinary synergies.

Astaras, A; Bamidis, P D; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Maglaveras, N

2008-01-01

344

Monitoring Rapid Changes at Bering Glacier, AK Using Global Fiducials Program Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alaska's Bering Glacier is a very dynamic glacier system which exhibits frequent surges. The past two cycles of surge advance and subsequent retreat have been well documented. Beginning prior to the 1993-1995 surge, remotely sensed imagery, photography and ground-based observations have advanced understanding of the glaciological, geological and hydrological processes related to the surge and the surge's ecological effects on fish, marine mammals and vegetation. The last surge of Bering Glacier occurred between 2008 and 2011. During the past year the glacier terminus has begun to retreat, suggesting that the surge has ended. Following the end of the previous surge, which occurred between 1993 and 1995, the terminus of the Bering Lobe in the Tashalich Arm retreated as much as 7 km, mainly through disarticulation. During the recent surge, from fall 2010 to late summer 2011, the terminus advanced over 3.3 km with an average velocity of 11.5 m/d. Imagery from the Global Fiducials Program has been used in documenting the post-1995 retreat of the Bering Glacier terminus and monitoring the rapid changes during the last surge. The imagery captures the post-1995 retreat, the subsequent terminus flattening and disarticulation, and the 2008-2011 surge with its large-scale displacement and intense fracturing of the ice as the terminus advanced from its 2010 maximum retreat position. This presentation documents this monitoring effort and compares and contrasts these last two surges to help understand the dynamics of Bering Glacier's surge behavior, processes, events and rates of change.

Angeli, K.; Molnia, B. F.

2012-12-01

345

Sample project: establishing a global forest monitoring capability using multi-resolution and multi-temporal remotely sensed data sets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying rates of forest-cover change is important for improved carbon accounting and climate change modeling, management of forestry and agricultural resources, and biodiversity monitoring. A practical solution to examining trends in forest cover change at global scale is to employ remotely sensed data. Satellite-based monitoring of forest cover can be implemented consistently across large regions at annual and inter-annual intervals. This research extends previous research on global forest-cover dynamics and land-cover change estimation to establish a robust, operational forest monitoring and assessment system. The approach integrates both MODIS and Landsat data to provide timely biome-scale forest change estimation. This is achieved by using annual MODIS change indicator maps to stratify biomes into low, medium and high change categories. Landsat image pairs can then be sampled within these strata and analyzed for estimating area of forest cleared.

Hansen, Matt; Stehman, Steve; Loveland, Tom; Vogelmann, Jim; Cochrane, Mark

2009-01-01

346

Global isoprene emissions estimated using MEGAN, ECMWF analyses and a detailed canopy environment model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global emissions of isoprene are calculated at 0.5° resolution for each year between 1995 and 2006, based on the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) version 2 model (Guenther et al., 2006) and a detailed multi-layer canopy environment model for the calculation of leaf temperature and visible radiation fluxes. The calculation is driven by meteorological fields - air temperature, cloud cover, downward solar irradiance, windspeed, volumetric soil moisture in 4 soil layers - provided by analyses of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The estimated annual global isoprene emission ranges between 374 Tg (in 1996) and 449 Tg (in 1998 and 2005), for an average of ca. 410 Tg/year over the whole period, i.e. about 30% less than the standard MEGAN estimate (Guenther et al., 2006). This difference is due, to a large extent, to the impact of the soil moisture stress factor, which is found here to decrease the global emissions by more than 20%. In qualitative agreement with past studies, high annual emissions are found to be generally associated with El Niño events. The emission inventory is evaluated against flux measurement campaigns at Harvard forest (Massachussets) and Tapajós in Amazonia, showing that the model can capture quite well the short-term variability of emissions, but that it fails to reproduce the observed seasonal variation at the tropical rainforest site, with largely overestimated wet season fluxes. The comparison of the HCHO vertical columns calculated by a chemistry and transport model (CTM) with HCHO distributions retrieved from space provides useful insights on tropical isoprene emissions. For example, the relatively low emissions calculated over Western Amazonia (compared to the corresponding estimates in the inventory of Guenther et al., 1995) are validated by the excellent agreement found between the CTM and HCHO data over this region. The parameterized impact of the soil moisture stress on isoprene emissions is found to reduce the model/data bias over Australia, but it leads to underestimated emissions near the end of the dry season over subtropical Africa.

Müller, J.-F.; Stavrakou, T.; Wallens, S.; de Smedt, I.; van Roozendael, M.; Potosnak, M. J.; Rinne, J.; Munger, B.; Goldstein, A.; Guenther, A. B.

2007-11-01

347

Global isoprene emissions estimated using MEGAN, ECMWF analyses and a detailed canopy environment model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global emissions of isoprene are calculated at 0.5° resolution for each year between 1995 and 2006, based on the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) version 2 model (Guenther et al., 2006) and a detailed multi-layer canopy environment model for the calculation of leaf temperature and visible radiation fluxes. The calculation is driven by meteorological fields - air temperature, cloud cover, downward solar irradiance, windspeed, volumetric soil moisture in 4 soil layers - provided by analyses of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The estimated annual global isoprene emission ranges between 374 Tg (in 1996) and 449 Tg (in 1998 and 2005), for an average of ca. 410 Tg/year over the whole period, i.e. about 30% less than the standard MEGAN estimate (Guenther et al., 2006). This difference is due, to a large extent, to the impact of the soil moisture stress factor, which is found here to decrease the global emissions by more than 20%. In qualitative agreement with past studies, high annual emissions are found to be generally associated with El Niño events. The emission inventory is evaluated against flux measurement campaigns at Harvard forest (Massachussets) and Tapajós in Amazonia, showing that the model can capture quite well the short-term variability of emissions, but that it fails to reproduce the observed seasonal variation at the tropical rainforest site, with largely overestimated wet season fluxes. The comparison of the HCHO vertical columns calculated by a chemistry and transport model (CTM) with HCHO distributions retrieved from space provides useful insights on tropical isoprene emissions. For example, the relatively low emissions calculated over Western Amazonia (compared to the corresponding estimates in the inventory of Guenther et al., 1995) are validated by the excellent agreement found between the CTM and HCHO data over this region. The parameterized impact of the soil moisture stress on isoprene emissions is found to reduce the model/data bias over Australia, but it leads to underestimated emissions near the end of the dry season over subtropical Africa.

Müller, J.-F.; Stavrakou, T.; Wallens, S.; de Smedt, I.; van Roozendael, M.; Potosnak, M. J.; Rinne, J.; Munger, B.; Goldstein, A.; Guenther, A. B.

2008-03-01

348

Mercator-Ocean monitoring and forecasting : a 4D vision of the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercator Ocean is a public interest grouping formed in Toulouse in early 2002 by six major players in the French oceanography community: the space agency CNES, the scientific research centre CNRS, IFREMER (the institute of marine research and exploration), the development research institute IRD, the Météo France weather service, and SHOM (the French Navy's hydrography & oceanography department). In 1995, these same organizations gave themselves seven years to achieve a challenging objective: to conceive, develop and implement France's first operational oceanography system. The unique system would be capable of describing, analysing and predicting conditions at the ocean surface and subsurface in real time, anytime, anywhere in the world, even in the most inhospitable seas. That objective was met on 17 January 2001 with the release of the first Mercator ocean bulletin, providing a two-week forecast for the entire North Atlantic. Two thousands new forecast charts are now added to the MERCATOR bulletin every week. Building on these successes, a dedicated operational oceanography team, Mercator Ocean, was set up in 2002. Mercator Ocean's mission is to deliver incremental improvements in the service provided by this new operational oceanography capability by increasing the resolution and the geographic coverage of the models used. The new high-resolution model that is now on line offers 6 km grid resolution, and the first models offering global ocean coverage will be implemented in 2004. Over the next four years, Mercator Ocean also plans to establish a European Operational Oceanography Centre in Toulouse. Objective 1. Develop an operational oceanography system using three-dimensional simulation and a high-resolution primitive-equation model capable of assimilating satellite data (from the Jason altimetry satellite in particular) and in-situ ocean observation data (particularly those gathered by the CORIOLIS centre). 2. Support applications for commercial shipping and naval forces, promote sustainable stewardship of the world's oceans, oceanographic research, safety at sea, environmental monitoring and conservation, and further knowledge of the ocean's role in climatic change. 3. Contribute to the international GODAE initiative (Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment) through routine real-time analysis and forecasting of global ocean conditions.

Bahurel, P.; Toumazou, V.

349

JIT inventory and competition in the global environment: a comparative study of American and Japanese values in auto endustry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of Just in Time (JIT) Inventory is very important and relevant to all operations managers today. It has become a major factor of competitiveness in the global environment. The concept is a minimized costing system that increases efficiency, productivity and quality through economies of scale and control. Current business enterprises need this for both cost benefit and effectiveness

Seyed-Mahmoud Aghazadeh

2003-01-01

350

Cross-Cultural Collisions in Cyberspace: Case Studies of International Legal Issues for Educators Working in Globally Networked Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores some of the legal and law-related challenges educators face in designing, implementing, and sustaining globally networked learning environments (GNLEs) in the context of conflicting international laws on intellectual property and censorship/free speech. By discussing cases and areas involving such legal issues, the article…

Rife, Martine Courant

2010-01-01

351

Preliminary Concept of Operations for a Global Cylinder Identification and Monitoring System  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a preliminary concept of operations for a Global Cylinder Identification and Monitoring System that could improve the efficiency of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in conducting its current inspection activities and could provide a capability to substantially increase its ability to detect credible diversion scenarios and undeclared production pathways involving UF6 cylinders. There exist concerns that a proliferant State with access to enrichment technology could obtain a cylinder containing natural or low-enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and produce a significant quantity (SQ)1 of highly enriched uranium in as little as 30 days. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative sponsored a multi-laboratory team to develop an integrated system that provides for detecting scenarios involving 1) diverting an entire declared cylinder for enrichment at a clandestine facility, 2) misusing a declared cylinder at a safeguarded facility, and 3) using an undeclared cylinder at a safeguarded facility. An important objective in developing this integrated system was to improve the timeliness for detecting the cylinder diversion and undeclared production scenarios. Developing this preliminary concept required in-depth analyses of current operational and safeguards practices at conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The analyses evaluated the processing, movement, and storage of cylinders at the facilities; the movement of cylinders between facilities (including cylinder fabrication); and the misuse of safeguarded facilities.

Whitaker, J. M. [ORNL; White-Horton, J. L. [ORNL; Morgan, J. B. [InSolves Associates

2013-08-01

352

Use of business planning methods to monitor global health budgets in Turkmenistan.  

PubMed Central

After undergoing many changes, the financing of health care in countries of the former Soviet Union is now showing signs of maturing. Soon after the political transition in these countries, the development of insurance systems and fee-for-service payment systems dominated the discussions on health reform. At present there is increasing emphasis on case mix adjusted payments in larger hospitals and on global budgets in smaller district hospitals. The problem is that such systems are often mistrusted for not providing sufficient financial control. At the same time, unless further planned restructuring is introduced, payment systems cannot on their own induce the fundamental change required in the health care system. As described in this article, in Tejen etrap (district), Turkmenistan, prospective business plans, which link planned objectives and activities with financial allocations, provide a framework for setting and monitoring budget expenditure. Plans can be linked to the overall objectives of the restructuring system and can be used to ensure sound financial management. The process of business planning, which calls for a major change in the way health facilities examine their activities, can be used as a vehicle to increase awareness of management issues. It also provides a way of satisfying the requirement for a rigorous, bottom-up planning of financial resources.

Ensor, T.; Amannyazova, B.

2000-01-01

353

Global Monitoring of Precipitation on Monthly and Shorter Time Scales Utilizing Low-Orbit and Geosynchronous Satellite Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A satellite-based system to monitor global precipitation on monthly and shorter time scales is described. The monitoring system is based primarily on the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) global, monthly, 2.5 degree by 2.5 degree latitude-longitude product which utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/I) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. The low-orbit microwave estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. This globally complete, monthly product is available from January 1986 to the present, with an extension back to January 1979 underway using non-SSM/I data. The monthly GPCP merged data product described in the previous paragraph is available a few (2-4) months after the end of the month. An analysis based solely on low-orbit microwave (SSM/1) data and the Goddard Profiling (GPROF) algorithm is used to bring the global monitoring up to real time. Anomalies from climatological means are produced from both the GPCP and GPROF fields to monitor the evolution of global precipitation, including the calculation of ENSO precipitation indices for real-time (five- day running means) climate monitoring and comparison with previous ENSO anomalies. The long-term climatology of the global precipitation field and the time and space variations thereof will be discussed, including the variations associated with the 1997- 1998 ENSO. The GPCP fields will also be compared to analyses based on the recently launched Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM). On an even shorter time scale, a new daily, 1 degree x 1 degree latitude-longitude global analysis has been developed starting in January 1997 utilizing low-orbit microwave and geosynchronous IR information using a similar method as is used to produce the monthly GPCP product. Retaining the overall small bias of the monthly product the daily product will allow greater utilization in the hydrology and other science communities.

Adler, Robert; Curtis, Scott; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

1999-01-01

354

Strengthening river basin institutions: The Global Environment Facility and the Danube River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased international attention to water resource management has resulted in the creation of new institutional arrangements and funding mechanisms as well as international initiatives designed to strengthen river basin institutions. The Global Environment Facility's (GEF) International Waters Program is at the heart of such novel collaborative regional approaches to the management of transboundary water resources. This paper assesses GEF-led efforts in the Danube River Basin, GEF's most mature and ambitious projects to date. It finds that GEF has been quite successful in building scientific knowledge and strengthening regional governance bodies. However, challenges of coordinating across expanding participants and demonstrating clear ecological improvements remain. GEF-led collaborative activities in the Danube River Basin reveal three critical lessons that can inform future river basin institution building and decision making, including the importance of appropriately creating and disseminating scientific data pertaining to the river system, the need for regional governance bodies for integrated river basin management, and the necessity to address coordination issues throughout project planning and implementation.

Gerlak, Andrea K.

2004-08-01

355

Further Evaluation of a Satellite-based Real-time Global Flood Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real-time global flood monitoring system (GFMS) driven by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) rainfall was further developed with a relatively more physically based hydrological model. The performance in flood detection of this new version of the GFMS was evaluated against available flood event archives (Wu et al, 2011). This new GFMS is quantitatively evaluated in terms of flood event detection during the TRMM era (1998-2010) using a global retrospective simulation (3-hourly and 1/8 degree spatial resolution) with the TMPA 3B42V6 rainfall. Four methods were explored to define flood events from the model results, including three percentile-based statistic methods and a Log Pearson-III flood frequency curve method. The evaluation showed the GFMS detection performance improves with longer flood durations and larger affected areas. The impact of dams was detected in the validation statistics. The presence of dams tends to result in more false alarms and false alarm duration. The GFMS statistics for flood durations > 3 days and for areas without dams vary across the four identification methods, but center around a POD of ~ 0.70 and a FAR of ~ 0.65. When both flood events-based categorical verification metrics and flood duration metrics are considered, a method using the 95th percentile runoff depth plus two parameters related to variability and basin size (method 3) may be more suitable for application to our routine, real-time flood calculations. The evaluation showed the GFMS detection performance improves with longer flood durations and larger affected areas. The new GFMS (operationally available at http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/) improved not only the flood detection performance, but also in the presentation of flood evolution (start, development and recession) in the drainage network. The new GFMS is further evaluated with more quantitative flood properties including flood peak timing, peak stage, peak volumes, and duration of flood flows at various basins across the globe, by comparing the simulated results to gauge based hydrograph. This model development and evaluation provide a pathway forward for continued improvement. First, the improvements brought by the new hydrological model encourage us to use more physically-based hydrological models to potentially achieve better flood forecasting capability and performance in future endeavor, though very likely with much higher computational cost. Second, to realize the potential of global flood monitoring systems, simple and robust flow routing schemes that contain minimal calibration parameters wherever possible are needed, in addition to the a prior parameters. To improve the stream flow simulation accuracy, a new kinematic wave based routing scheme for large scale applications while taking into account subgrid stream routing at finer resolution is under developing and testing.

Wu, H.; Adler, R. F.; Tian, Y.; Hong, Y.; Policelli, F.

2011-12-01

356

Ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos in non-occupational environments in Tehran, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne asbestos fiber concentrations were monitored in the urban areas of Tehran, Iran during the period of 23 August to 21 September 2012. The airborne fiber concentrations of 110 air samples collected from 15 different sites in five regions of Tehran. The monitoring sites were located 2.5 m above ground nearby the main street and heavy traffic jam. The ambient air samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM). The geometric means of the airborne asbestos fiber concentrations in the outdoor living areas was 1.6 × 10-2 SEM f ml-1 (1.18 × 10-3 PCM f ml-1). This criteria is considerably higher than those reported for the levels of asbestos in outdoor living areas in the Europe and the non-occupational environment of the Korea. No clear correlation was found between asbestos fiber concentration and the relative humidity and temperature. The SEM and PLM analysis revealed that all samples examined contained only chrysotile asbestos. It can be concluded that several factor such as heavy traffic, cement sheet and pipe consumption of asbestos, and geographical conditions play an important role for the high airborne asbestos levels in the non-occupational environments.

Kakooei, Hossein; Meshkani, Mohsen; Azam, Kamal

2013-12-01

357

Monitoring performance of the cameras under the high dose-rate gamma ray environments.  

PubMed

CCD/CMOS cameras, loaded on a robot system, are generally used as the eye of the robot and monitoring unit. A major problem that arises when dealing with images provided by CCD/CMOS cameras under severe accident situations of a nuclear power plant is the presence of speckles owing to the high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. To use a CCD/CMOS camera as a monitoring unit in a high radiation area, the legibility of the camera image in such intense gamma-radiation fields should therefore be defined. In this paper, the authors describe the monitoring index as a figure of merit of the camera's legibleness under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation environment. From a low dose-rate (10 Gy h) to a high dose-rate (200 Gy h) level, the legible performances of the cameras owing to the speckles are evaluated. The numbers of speckles generated by gamma ray irradiation in the camera image are calculated by an image processing technique. The legibility of the sensor indicator (thermo/hygrometer) owing to the number of speckles is also presented. PMID:24667385

Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min

2014-05-01

358

Design and package of a {sup 14}CO{sub 2} field analyzer The Global Monitor Platform (GMP)  

SciTech Connect

Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is widely accepted as a means to reduce and eliminate the fossil fuel CO{sub 2} (ff- CO{sub 2}) emissions from coal fired power plants. Success of CCS depends on near zero leakage rates over decadal time scales. Currently no commercial methods to determine leakage of ff-CO{sub 2} are available. The Global Monitor Platform (GMP) field analyzer provides high precision analysis of CO{sub 2} isotopes [12C (99%), 13C (<1%), 14C (1.2x10-10 %)] that can differentiate between fossil and biogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. Fossil fuels contain no {sup 14}C; their combustion should lower atmospheric amounts on local to global scales. There is a clear mandate for monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) of CCS systems nationally and globally to verify CCS integrity, treaty verification (Kyoto Protocol) and to characterize the nuclear fuel cycle. Planetary Emissions Management (PEM), working with the National Secure Manufacturing Center (NSMC), has the goal of designing, ruggedizing and packaging the GMP for field deployment. The system will conduct atmosphere monitoring then adapt the system to monitor water and soil evaluations. Measuring {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in real time will provide quantitative concentration data for ff-CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere and CCS leakage detection. Initial results will be discussed along with design changes for improved detection sensitivity and manufacturability.

Bright, Michelle; Marino, Bruno D.V.; Gronniger, Glen

2011-08-01

359

Monitoring Changes in Channel Morphology in Las Vegas Wash with Global Fiducials Program Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To borrow from a popular adage, "What happens in Las Vegas [Wash], stays in Las Vegas [Wash]"—but only with a lot of help. This past decade has seen a concerted effort to curb erosion and sediment transport along the 12 mile long channel between East Las Vegas and Lake Mead. Las Vegas Wash is prototypical of an urban river in an arid environment that is being impacted by increasing urban development and impervious surface runoff within its drainage area. Rapid urbanization since the 1970s has increased the flow of water into Las Vegas Wash, causing severe channel destabilization. Within two decades millions of cubic yards of rocks and sediment were scoured out of the wash and transported downstream to Lake Mead. The wetlands that once covered over 2,000 acres within Las Vegas Wash dwindled to 200 acres in the 1990s as the channel became as much as 40 feet deeper and 300 feet wider at some points. In 1999 the Las Vegas Wash Coordination Committee (LVWCC) initiated a 20-year plan to construct erosion control structures (weirs) for channel stabilization and rock riprap for stream bank protection. The hope is to design structures that will slow down the water flow, trap sediments, and to eventually restore much of the wetland environment. Using high-resolution satellite imagery from the Global Fiducials Program Library housed at the U. S. Geological Survey, this transition is being tracked from 1999 to the present. From November 1999 to July 2008 new residential and commercial development has claimed an additional 12 square kilometers (3000 acres) of land in Henderson, NV, along the south side of Las Vegas Wash. Even with the increased volume of surface and groundwater runoff entering the wash, current sediment yields are much lower than the 1999 totals. The imagery documents the construction of 14 of the 22 LVWCC planned weirs by the year 2011. It also shows many miles of stream bank stabilization by riprap, planting of riparian vegetation and placing of obstructions in the channel. The replanting of native vegetation on storm debris flats is stabilizing some of the soil in the wash and also rejuvenating much of the wetland habitat. Las Vegas Wash is a test bed for the design and implementation of innovative methods for modifying stream morphology to achieve desirable results, as some of these methods are deemed successful and some are not as effective. The lessons learned about curbing erosion and sediment transport within Las Vegas Wash may be applied to other urban streams in arid environments.

Wheeler, D. J.

2012-12-01

360

The monitoring system for vibratory disturbance detection in microgravity environment aboard the international space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications within the Microgravity Research Division oversee studies in important physical, chemical, and biological processes in microgravity environment. Research is conducted in microgravity environment because of the beneficial results that come about for experiments. When research is done in normal gravity, scientists are limited to results that are affected by the gravity of Earth. Microgravity provides an environment where solid, liquid, and gas can be observed in a natural state of free fall and where many different variables are eliminated. One challenge that NASA faces is that space flight opportunities need to be used effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that some of the most scientifically promising research is conducted. Different vibratory sources are continually active aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the vibratory sources include crew exercise, experiment setup, machinery startup (life support fans, pumps, freezer/compressor, centrifuge), thruster firings, and some unknown events. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMs), which acts as the hardware and carefully positioned aboard the ISS, along with the Microgravity Environment Monitoring System MEMS), which acts as the software and is located here at NASA Glenn, are used to detect these vibratory sources aboard the ISS and recognize them as disturbances. The various vibratory disturbances can sometimes be harmful to the scientists different research projects. Some vibratory disturbances are recognized by the MEMS's database and some are not. Mainly, the unknown events that occur aboard the International Space Station are the ones of major concern. To better aid in the research experiments, the unknown events are identified and verified as unknown events. Features, such as frequency, acceleration level, time and date of recognition of the new patterns are stored in an Excel database. My task is to carefully synthesize frequency and acceleration patterns of unknown events within the Excel database into a new file to determine whether or not certain information that is received i s considered a real vibratory source. Once considered as a vibratory source, further analysis is carried out. The resulting information is used to retrain the MEMS to recognize them as known patterns. These different vibratory disturbances are being constantly monitored to observe if, in any way, the disturbances have an effect on the microgravity environment that research experiments are exposed to. If the disturbance has little or no effect on the experiments, then research is continued. However, if the disturbance is harmful to the experiment, scientists act accordingly by either minimizing the source or terminating the research and neither NASA's time nor money is wasted.

Laster, Rachel M.

2004-01-01

361

Global Monitoring of Mountain Glaciers Using High-Resolution Spotlight Imaging from the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain glaciers around the world are retreating rapidly, contributing about 20% to present-day sea level rise. Numerous studies have shown that mountain glaciers are sensitive to global environmental change. Temperate-latitude glaciers and snowpack provide water for over 1 billion people. Glaciers are a resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power, but also pose flood and avalanche hazards. Accurate mass balance assessments have been made for only 280 glaciers, yet there are over 130,000 in the World Glacier Inventory. The rate of glacier retreat or advance can be highly variable, is poorly sampled, and inadequately understood. Liquid water from ice front lakes, rain, melt, or sea water and debris from rocks, dust, or pollution interact with glacier ice often leading to an amplification of warming and further melting. Many mountain glaciers undergo rapid and episodic events that greatly change their mass balance or extent but are sparsely documented. Events include calving, outburst floods, opening of crevasses, or iceberg motion. Spaceborne high-resolution spotlight optical imaging provides a means of clarifying the relationship between the health of mountain glaciers and global environmental change. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be constructed from a series of images from a range of perspectives collected by staring at a target during a satellite overpass. It is possible to collect imagery for 1800 targets per month in the ×56° latitude range, construct high-resolution DEMs, and monitor changes in high detail over time with a high-resolution optical telescope mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Snow and ice type, age, and maturity can be inferred from different color bands as well as distribution of liquid water. Texture, roughness, albedo, and debris distribution can be estimated by measuring bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) and reflectance intensity as a function of viewing angle. The non-sun-synchronous orbit of the ISS results in varying illumination angles and fix-point spotlight imaging results in varying viewing angles, ideal for viewing steep slopes on glaciers and adjacent areas. Rapid events may be observed in progress by correlating changes in images over a single pass or between passes. We present a working design, data acquisition parameters, science objectives, and data processing strategy for a conceptual instrument, MUIR (Mission to Understand Ice Retreat).

Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; Bills, B. G.; Goguen, J.; Ansar, A.; Knight, R. L.; Hallet, B.; Scambos, T. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Morin, P. J.

2013-12-01

362

Global Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is among the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disasters faced by modern society, with several major events occurring each year. In the past few years, major floods have devastated parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, Australia, and the Philippines, among others. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we have developed, and are now operating, a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours after flooding events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard. The LANCE system typically processes imagery in less than 3 hours after satellite overpass, and our flood mapping system can output flood products within ½ hour of acquiring the LANCE products. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, every day, and more robust assessments after accumulating imagery over a longer period; the MODIS sensors are optical, so cloud cover remains an issue, which is partly overcome by using multiple looks over one or more days. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on some of these issues, and are working to develop higher resolution flood detection using alternate sensors, including Landsat and various radar sensors. Although these provide better spatial resolution, this comes at the cost of being less timely. As of late 2011, the system expanded to fully global daily flood monitoring, with free public access to the generated products. These include GIS-ready files of flood and normal water extent (KML, shapefile, raster), and small scale graphic maps (10 degrees square) showing regional flood extent. We are now expanding product distribution channels to include live web services (WMS, etc), allowing easier access via standalone apps. We are also working to bring our product into the Pacific Disaster Center's Disaster Alert system and mobile app for wider accessibility.

Smith, M.; Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M.

2012-12-01

363

New monitoring of physical and biochemical environment in the area north of Svalbard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic shelf seas contain some of the most biologically productive ecosystems in the world, and also play globally significant roles in heat exchange, ocean circulation, and geochemical cycling. The inflow of Atlantic water (AW) along the shelf break of Svalbard is a major source of heat and biological energy to the Arctic Ocean. Monitoring of this AW slope current with current meter moorings is essential to assess the transport and variability of AW, and associated tracers, into the Arctic Ocean. In 2012, nine moorings were deployed, including three from Fram Centre (Norway), four from WHOI (USA) and two from IOPAS (Poland). Four moorings were re-deployed in the same region in 2013, and in addition about 200 CTD, biological and chemical stations were conducted around the mooring array. Thus during these years we have established new representative site for long-term monitoring of the warm Atlantic Waters north of Svalbard. Based on the data obtained from the mooring stations in 2013 we discuss seasonal changes of the important parameters like water temperature, salinity, currents, heat and salt fluxes of the Atlantic water to the Arctic Ocean.

Pavlov, Vladimir; Ingvaldsen, Randi; Sundfjord, Arild; Reigstad, Marit

2014-05-01

364

A global organism detection and monitoring system for non-native species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Harmful invasive non-native species are a significant threat to native species and ecosystems, and the costs associated with non-native species in the United States is estimated at over $120??Billion/year. While some local or regional databases exist for some taxonomic groups, there are no effective geographic databases designed to detect and monitor all species of non-native plants, animals, and pathogens. We developed a web-based solution called the Global Organism Detection and Monitoring (GODM) system to provide real-time data from a broad spectrum of users on the distribution and abundance of non-native species, including attributes of their habitats for predictive spatial modeling of current and potential distributions. The four major subsystems of GODM provide dynamic links between the organism data, web pages, spatial data, and modeling capabilities. The core survey database tables for recording invasive species survey data are organized into three categories: "Where, Who & When, and What." Organisms are identified with Taxonomic Serial Numbers from the Integrated Taxonomic Information System. To allow users to immediately see a map of their data combined with other user's data, a custom geographic information system (GIS) Internet solution was required. The GIS solution provides an unprecedented level of flexibility in database access, allowing users to display maps of invasive species distributions or abundances based on various criteria including taxonomic classification (i.e., phylum or division, order, class, family, genus, species, subspecies, and variety), a specific project, a range of dates, and a range of attributes (percent cover, age, height, sex, weight). This is a significant paradigm shift from "map servers" to true Internet-based GIS solutions. The remainder of the system was created with a mix of commercial products, open source software, and custom software. Custom GIS libraries were created where required for processing large datasets, accessing the operating system, and to use existing libraries in C++, R, and other languages to develop the tools to track harmful species in space and time. The GODM database and system are crucial for early detection and rapid containment of invasive species. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Graham, J.; Newman, G.; Jarnevich, C.; Shory, R.; Stohlgren, T. J.

2007-01-01

365

Kinetic effects on Lunar plasma environment on global scale, mesoscale and microscale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent Lunar missions have shown that the solar wind interaction with the Moon is complex and scientifically more interesting than anticipated before, as shown by new in situ plasma, neutral atom and magnetic field observations. Especially, an unexpectedly high fraction of the incident solar wind protons is reflected from the surface, and even larger fraction by the Lunar magnetic anomalies. This effect has been observed both by measuring deviated solar wind flow near the magnetic anomalies and by observing decreased flux of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms, ENAs, from the surface region of strong magnetic anomalies. These "macro scale" processes affect the properties of plasma near the Lunar surface. Consequently, also physical processes at "micro scales" within the Debye sheath layer, where the electric potential of the surface and near surface region are controlled by photoelectrons and solar wind particles, are affected. In this work we introduce two numerical kinetic simulation models developed to study the solar wind interaction with the Moon: (1) a hybrid model (HYB-Moon) to study macro scale processes and (2) a full kinetic PIC model to study micro scale processes. Both models are part of the HYB planetary plasma modelling platform developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. In the hybrid model ions are modelled as particles while electrons form a charge neutralizing massless fluid. In the Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation both ions and electrons are modelled as particles. In the presentation we show results based on these models. A schematic illustration of plasmas and fields which affect the lunar dust-plasma environment near the lunar surface: photoelectrons (e-hf), solar wind electrons (e-sw) and ions (H+sw), dust electrons (e-dust), dust particles (q dust), electric field (E) and magnetic field. Because of the non-zero magnetic field associated with the interplanetary magnetic field (Bsw), electric currents in the plasma and the lunar magnetic anomalies, the charged particle follow gyromotion around the magnetic field. The electric field contains the convective electric field of the solar wind (Esw) and the electric field associated with the charge separation within the potential sheath and possible also within magnetic anomalies. The length scale of the potential sheath is the Debye length (lamda D). See Kallio et al., "Kinetic effects on Lunar plasma environment on global scale, mesoscale and microscale" (PSS, 2012, submitted) for details.

Kallio, E.; Dyadechkin, S.; Jarvinen, R.; Wurz, P.; Barabash, S.; Rantala, A.; Alho, M.

2012-12-01

366

Evolution of the concentration PDF in random environments modeled by global random walk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of concentrations of chemical species transported in random environments is often modeled by ensembles of notional particles. The particles move in physical space along stochastic-Lagrangian trajectories governed by Ito equations, with drift coefficients given by the local values of the resolved velocity field and diffusion coefficients obtained by stochastic or space-filtering upscaling procedures. A general model for the sub-grid mixing also can be formulated as a system of Ito equations solving for trajectories in the composition space. The PDF is finally estimated by the number of particles in space-concentration control volumes. In spite of their efficiency, Lagrangian approaches suffer from two severe limitations. Since the particle trajectories are constructed sequentially, the demanded computing resources increase linearly with the number of particles. Moreover, the need to gather particles at the center of computational cells to perform the mixing step and to estimate statistical parameters, as well as the interpolation of various terms to particle positions, inevitably produce numerical diffusion in either particle-mesh or grid-free particle methods. To overcome these limitations, we introduce a global random walk method to solve the system of Ito equations in physical and composition spaces, which models the evolution of the random concentration's PDF. The algorithm consists of a superposition on a regular lattice of many weak Euler schemes for the set of Ito equations. Since all particles starting from a site of the space-concentration lattice are spread in a single numerical procedure, one obtains PDF estimates at the lattice sites at computational costs comparable with those for solving the system of Ito equations associated to a single particle. The new method avoids the limitations concerning the number of particles in Lagrangian approaches, completely removes the numerical diffusion, and speeds up the computation by orders of magnitude. The approach is illustrated for the transport of passive scalars in heterogeneous aquifers, with hydraulic conductivity modeled as a random field.

Suciu, Nicolae; Vamos, Calin; Attinger, Sabine; Knabner, Peter

2013-04-01

367

Global near-realtime monitoring of Tropical Cyclones Using Weather Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Research Laboratory maintains a satellite web portal that monitors global tropical cyclones in every basin on a continuing basis. The portal is used routinely by agencies around the world in forecasting operations and the issuance of warnings. Products from this site are widely redistributed and published frequently in journal articles, seasonal storm summaries, and ongoing World Wide Web discussions. Traditionally, weather satellite reconnaissance of tropical cyclones has depended on the interpretation of visible and infrared imagery. But such methods have limitations. Visible images are not available during the nighttime, and both kinds of imagery often fail to detect important structure, including storm eyes, which are vital for determining the strength and location of tropical systems. Thus, the portal supplements visible and infrared coverage with products from satellite microwave sensors. These sensors penetrate higher clouds to reveal important detail about low-level cloud and precipitation features. The first part of the talk will discuss how these various products can be used together for improved analysis. The second part of talk will present information about tropical cyclone structure. Surface winds from aircraft will be compared to features seen in passive microwave images. We see that low brightness temperature features on 85 GHz images often corresponding to wind maxima near the sea surface. We shall make some inferences about how the observation of specific structures in satellite images can help characterize the wind field when no aircraft data are available. Special attention will be paid to multiple eye walls apparent on satellite images. These are associated with very intense storms which undergo an evolutionary process not observed in weaker systems.

Lee, T.; Hawkins, J.; Turk, F.; Miller, S.; Sampson, C.; Kuciauskas, A.; Richardson, K.; Kent, J.

2006-12-01

368

Noninvasive in vivo monitoring of tissue-specific global gene expression in humans  

PubMed Central

Circulating cell-free RNA in the blood provides a potential window into the health, phenotype, and developmental programs of a variety of human organs. We used high-throughput methods of RNA analysis such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing to characterize the global landscape circulating RNA in a cohort of human subjects. By focusing on genes whose expression is highly specific to certain tissues, we were able to identify the relative contributions of these tissues to circulating RNA and to monitor changes in tissue development and health. As one application of this approach, we performed a longitudinal study on pregnant women and analyzed their combined cell-free RNA transcriptomes across all three trimesters of pregnancy and after delivery. In addition to the analysis of mRNA, we observed and characterized noncoding species such as long noncoding RNA and circular RNA transcripts whose presence had not been previously observed in human plasma. We demonstrate that it is possible to track specific longitudinal phenotypic changes in both the mother and the fetus and that it is possible to directly measure transcripts from a variety of fetal tissues in the maternal blood sample. We also studied the role of neuron-specific transcripts in the blood of healthy adults and those suffering from the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer’s disease and showed that disease specific neural transcripts are present at increased levels in the blood of affected individuals. Characterization of the cell-free transcriptome in its entirety may thus provide broad insights into human health and development without the need for invasive tissue sampling.

Koh, Winston; Pan, Wenying; Gawad, Charles; Fan, H. Christina; Kerchner, Geoffrey A.; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Blumenfeld, Yair J.; El-Sayed, Yasser Y.; Quake, Stephen R.

2014-01-01

369

Noninvasive in vivo monitoring of tissue-specific global gene expression in humans.  

PubMed

Circulating cell-free RNA in the blood provides a potential window into the health, phenotype, and developmental programs of a variety of human organs. We used high-throughput methods of RNA analysis such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing to characterize the global landscape circulating RNA in a cohort of human subjects. By focusing on genes whose expression is highly specific to certain tissues, we were able to identify the relative contributions of these tissues to circulating RNA and to monitor changes in tissue development and health. As one application of this approach, we performed a longitudinal study on pregnant women and analyzed their combined cell-free RNA transcriptomes across all three trimesters of pregnancy and after delivery. In addition to the analysis of mRNA, we observed and characterized noncoding species such as long noncoding RNA and circular RNA transcripts whose presence had not been previously observed in human plasma. We demonstrate that it is possible to track specific longitudinal phenotypic changes in both the mother and the fetus and that it is possible to directly measure transcripts from a variety of fetal tissues in the maternal blood sample. We also studied the role of neuron-specific transcripts in the blood of healthy adults and those suffering from the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease and showed that disease specific neural transcripts are present at increased levels in the blood of affected individuals. Characterization of the cell-free transcriptome in its entirety may thus provide broad insights into human health and development without the need for invasive tissue sampling. PMID:24799715

Koh, Winston; Pan, Wenying; Gawad, Charles; Fan, H Christina; Kerchner, Geoffrey A; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Blumenfeld, Yair J; El-Sayed, Yasser Y; Quake, Stephen R

2014-05-20

370

Molecular-level methods for monitoring soil organic matter responses to global climate change.  

PubMed

Soil organic matter (SOM) is one of the most complex natural mixtures on earth. It plays a critical role in many ecosystem functions and is directly responsible for sustaining life on our planet. However, due to its chemical heterogeneity, SOM composition at molecular-level is still not completely clear. Consequently, the response of SOM to global climate change is difficult to predict. Here we highlight applications of two complementary molecular-level methods (biomarkers and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)) for ascertaining SOM responses to various environmental changes. Biomarker methods that measure highly specific molecules determine the source and decomposition stage of SOM components. However, biomarkers only make up a small fraction of SOM components because much of SOM is non-extractable. By comparison, (13)C solid-state NMR allows measurement of SOM in its entirety with little or no pretreatment but suffers from poor resolution (due to overlapping of SOM components) and insensitivity, and thus subtle changes in SOM composition may not always be detected. Alternatively, (1)H solution-state NMR methods offer an added benefit of improved resolution and sensitivity but can only analyze SOM components that are fully soluble (humic type molecules) in an NMR compatible solvent. We discuss how these complementary methods have been employed to monitor SOM responses to: soil warming in a temperate forest, elevated atmospheric CO(2) and nitrogen fertilization in a temperate forest, and permafrost thawing in the Canadian High Arctic. These molecular-level methods allow some novel and important observations of soil dynamics and ecosystem function in a changing climate. PMID:21416081

Feng, Xiaojuan; Simpson, Myrna J

2011-05-01

371

GEMS(Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) onboard the GeoKOMPSAT : Requirements for instrument and sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEMS (Geostationary Environment Spectrometer) is a scanning UV-Visible Spectrometer, and is planned to be launched in 2018 onboard a geostationary satellite, GeoKOMPSAT(Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose SATellite)-2B by KARI(Korea Aerospace Research Institute), together with ABI(Advanced Baseline Imager) and GOCI-2 (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager). User requirements for the instrument and sciences are the most important basis for the successful mission. This mission is expected to improve the accuracy of air quality forecasting, emission rate database, and reduce current discrepancy between the model and observation. Furthermore, the constellation of the GeoKOMPSAT with Senteniel-4 in Europe and GEOCAPE in America in 2017- 2020 time frame can result in great synergistic outcomes including enhancing significantly our understanding in globalization of tropospheric pollution.

Lee, H.; Kim, J.; Park, R.; Lee, S.; Ko, D.; Song, C.; Hong, Y.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Woo, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, K.; Ho, C.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Choi, Y.; Jeong, M.; Chance, K.; Bhartia, P. K.; Veefkind, P.; KIM, M.; Park, S.; Yong, S.

2012-12-01

372

Global radionuclide monitoring in near-real time for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global radionuclide monitoring system is being engineered as part of a multi-technology verification system for the Comprehensive\\u000a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The system detects airborne radioactive aerosols and gases that can indicate nuclear weapons test\\u000a debris. The backbone of the system is a network of 80 remote detection stations that utilize high-volume air sampling and\\u000a high-resolution gamma spectrometry to

L. R. Mason; J. D. Bohner; D. L. Williams

1998-01-01

373

Leakage and Seepage in the Near-Surface Environment: An Integrated Approach to Monitoring and Detection  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring and detection of leakage and seepage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the near-surface environment is needed to ensure the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration. Large leakage fluxes, e.g., through leaking wells, will be easier to detect and monitor than slow and diffuse leakage and seepage. The challenge of detecting slow leakage and seepage is discerning a leakage or seepage signal from within the natural background variations in CO{sub 2} concentration and flux that are controlled by a variety of coupled processes in soil. Although there are no direct examples of leaking geologic carbon sequestration sites on which to base a proposed verification approach, we have been guided by our prior simulation studies of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage, which showed that large CO{sub 2} concentrations can develop in the shallow subsurface even for relatively small CO{sub 2} leakage fluxes. A variety of monitoring technologies exists for measuring CO{sub 2} concentration and flux, but there is a gap between instrument performance and the detection of a leakage or seepage signal from within large natural background variability. We propose an integrated approach to monitoring and verification. The first part of our proposed approach is to characterize and understand the natural ecosystem before CO{sub 2} injection occurs so that future anomalies can be recognized. Measurements of natural CO{sub 2} fluxes using accumulation chamber (AC) and eddy correlation (EC) approaches, soil CO{sub 2} concentration profiles with depth, and carbon isotope compositions of CO{sub 2} are needed to characterize the natural state of the system prior to CO{sub 2} injection. From this information, modeling needs to be carried out to enhance understanding of carbon sources and sinks so that anomalies can be recognized and subject to closer scrutiny as potential leakage or seepage signals. Long-term monitoring using AC, EC, and soil-gas analyses along with ecosystem and flow and transport modeling should continue after CO{sub 2} injection. The integrated use of multiple measurements and modeling offers a promising approach to discerning and quantifying a small CO{sub 2} leakage or seepage signal from within the expected background variability.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

2003-12-18

374

ALOS PALSAR: A Pathfinder Mission for Global-Scale Monitoring of the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) is Japan's new-generation Earth Observation satellite, launched in January 2006 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. ALOS carries two optical instruments (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping and Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2) and, to maintain Japan's commitment to spaceborne L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), the Phased Array L-band SAR (PALSAR). The

Ake Rosenqvist; Masanobu Shimada; Norimasa Ito; Manabu Watanabe

2007-01-01

375

Monitoring the Environment using High-Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing: Contribution to Health Information Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presence (density) of mosquitoes linked to Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in the Ferlo (Senegal) is evaluated by monitoring the environment from space. Using five SPOT-5 high-resolution images (~10m spatial resolution, on August 17th, 2006) a meridional transect of 290 x 60 km2 is analyzed for the first time. Four major ecozones are thus identified: Senegal River valley; sandy Ferlo; sandy-clayey Ferlo; and steppe/cultivated areas, from north to south, respectively. An integrated/multidisciplinary approach using remote-sensing leads to a composited Zones Potentially Occupied by Mosquitoes (or ZPOMs, with extrema). It is found that at the peak of the rainy season, the area occupied by ponds is of 12,817 ha ± 10% (i.e., ~ 0.8 % of the transect) with a mean ZPOM 17 times larger i.e.: 212,813 ha ± 10 % (or ~14 % of the transect). ZPOMs characteristics (minimum and maximum) at the ecozones levels with different hydrological mechanisms, are presented. Ponds and ZPOMs inter-annual variabilities and RVF risks, are subsequently highlighted by comparing statistics in the so-called Barkedji zone (sandy-clayey Ferlo with a hydrofossil riverbed), for the very humid year of 2003, and the near normal rainfall year of 2006. It is shown that at the end of August 2003/2006, ponds (ZPOMs) areas, were already ~22 (~5) times larger. The key roles played by isolated ponds for animals' exposure to RVF risks are thus identified. These results highlight the importance of monitoring the changing environment when linkages with public health exist. The ZPOM approach is to be adapted for other vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, in different places of the world. Results are meant to be included into Health Information Systems (HIS) on an operational basis, in order to minimize socio-economical impacts from epidemics.

Tourre, Y. M.; Lacaux, J.

2007-12-01

376

Monitoring technologies for the evaluation of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment system in coastal aquifer environments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse. Treated sewage effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for recharge of aquifers. As the effluent water moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. Recharge systems for SAT can be designed as infiltration-recovery systems, where all effluent water is recovered as such from the aquifer, or after blending with native groundwater. SAT typically removes essentially all suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminthic eggs). Concentrations of synthetic organic carbon, phosphorous, and heavy metals are greatly reduced. The pilot site of LTCP will involve the employment of infiltration basins, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. T he LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved through the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensors, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensors will be developed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. The above technique will offer continuous monitoring of infiltration rates and possible mechanical clogging effects. The qualitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone will be achieved through the installation of appropriate pore-water samplers within a multi-level basis, ensuring repeatability of sampling of infiltrating water of impaired quality. This study also involves the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the Lavrion multi-aquifer system through continuous monitoring of the performance of (i) the alluvial aquifer and its potential for additional water treatment as well as (ii) the effects of the SAT system for countermeasuring seawater intrusion in the area of Lavrion. Additionally, setup and calibration of numerical flow and transport models for evaluating and optimizing different operational modes of the SAT system within both saturated and unsaturated zones will be conducted. The monitoring system will be connected to an ad-hoc wireless network for continuous data transfer within the SAT facilities. It is envisaged that the development and combined application of all the above technologies will provide an integrated monitoring platform for the evaluation of SAT system performance.

Kallioras, Andreas; Tsertou, Athanasia; Foglia, Laura; Bumberger, Jan; Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter; Schüth, Christoph

2014-05-01

377

Textile technology for the vital signs monitoring in telemedicine and extreme environments.  

PubMed

This paper illustrates two extensive applications of a smart garment we previously developed for the monitoring of ECG, respiration, and movement. In the first application, the device, named Maglietta Interattiva Computerizzata (MagIC), was used for the home monitoring of cardiac patients. The used platform included MagIC for signals collection, a touchscreen computer with a dedicated software for data handling, and a universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) dongle for data transmission, via email, to three cardiologists. Three patients daily-performed 3-min telemonitoring sessions for 30 days by using the platform. The whole system behaved correctly in 85 out of 90 sessions. In five instances, a second session was required due to UMTS traffic congestion. Only in three sessions, cardiologists asked the patient to repeat the acquisition because of poor signal quality. In the second application, MagIC was used to evaluate the effects of high-altitude hypoxia on sleep and 24 h daily life in 30 healthy subjects at 3500 and 5400 m above sea level on Mount Everest slopes. The use of MagIC garment was reported to be simple and requiring short instrumentation time even in the demanding expedition environment. The signal quality was adequate in 111 out of 115 recordings and 90% of the subjects found the vest comfortable. PMID:20421189

Di Rienzo, Marco; Meriggi, Paolo; Rizzo, Francesco; Castiglioni, Paolo; Lombardi, Carolina; Ferratini, Maurizio; Parati, Gianfranco

2010-05-01

378

Ceramic MEMS Designed for Wireless Pressure Monitoring in the Industrial Environment  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the design of a wireless pressure-monitoring system for harsh-environment applications. Two types of ceramic pressure sensors made with a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) were considered. The first type is a piezoresistive strain gauge pressure sensor. The second type is a capacitive pressure sensor, which is based on changes of the capacitance values between two electrodes: one electrode is fixed and the other is movable under an applied pressure. The design was primarily focused on low power consumption. Reliable operation in the presence of disturbances, like electromagnetic interference, parasitic capacitances, etc., proved to be contradictory constraints. A piezoresistive ceramic pressure sensor with a high bridge impedance was chosen for use in a wireless pressure-monitoring system and an acceptable solution using energy-harvesting techniques has been achieved. The described solution allows for the integration of a sensor element with an energy harvester that has a printed thick-film battery and complete electronics in a single substrate packaged inside a compact housing.

Pavlin, Marko; Belavic, Darko; Novak, Franc

2012-01-01

379

Ceramic MEMS designed for wireless pressure monitoring in the industrial environment.  

PubMed

This paper presents the design of a wireless pressure-monitoring system for harsh-environment applications. Two types of ceramic pressure sensors made with a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) were considered. The first type is a piezoresistive strain gauge pressure sensor. The second type is a capacitive pressure sensor, which is based on changes of the capacitance values between two electrodes: one electrode is fixed and the other is movable under an applied pressure. The design was primarily focused on low power consumption. Reliable operation in the presence of disturbances, like electromagnetic interference, parasitic capacitances, etc., proved to be contradictory constraints. A piezoresistive ceramic pressure sensor with a high bridge impedance was chosen for use in a wireless pressure-monitoring system and an acceptable solution using energy-harvesting techniques has been achieved. The described solution allows for the integration of a sensor element with an energy harvester that has a printed thick-film battery and complete electronics in a single substrate packaged inside a compact housing. PMID:22368471

Pavlin, Marko; Belavic, Darko; Novak, Franc

2012-01-01

380

Monitoring the Shallow Water Table and Vadose Zone of a Humid Subtropical Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In humid environments, such as Florida and the Southeast U.S., a dynamic surficial water table controls many hydrologic fluxes including baseflow, evapotranspiration, and saturation excess runoff. Currently, extensive monitoring of the surficial water table and the shallow vadose zone along two flow paths (hillslope transects) is occurring. The field site is on Long Flat Creek tributary of the Alafia River in west-central Florida. The monitoring system consists of a series of observation wells and soil moisture sensors (ENVIROSCAN), runoff and rainfall excess collector beds, very accurate stream gauging stations, continuous 5-minute rainfall gaging, a total weather station and an evaporation pan. All instruments are automated with pressure transducers and data loggers, providing continuous recording at minutes time intervals. There are three objectives for this field investigation. The first objective is to determine the time scale of water table and gradient fluctuations and their roles in controlling upward fluxes from groundwater to unsaturated zone, and stream baseflow. The second objective is to gain an improved understanding and representation of these processes in order to enhance integrated (coupled surface and groundwater) hydrological models aimed at simulating processes and fluxes across surface water, vadose zone, and groundwater domains. Finally the third objective is to observe the spatial and temporal dynamics of variable runoff source areas. These runoff source areas fringe streams and their spatial and dynamic variability are associated with the hydro-period of forested wetlands.

Vomacka, J. G.; Tara, P.; Nachabe, M. H.; Ross, M. A.; Geurink, J.; Basso, R.

2001-12-01

381

Sensor Web for Spatio-Temporal Monitoring of a Hydrological Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sensor Web is a macroinstrument concept that allows for the spatio-temporal understanding of an environment through coordinated efforts between multiple numbers and types of sensing platforms, including, in its most general form, both orbital and terrestrial and both fixed and mobile. Each of these platforms, or pods, communicates within its local neighborhood and thus distributes information to the instrument as a whole. The result of sharing and continual processing of this information among all the Sensor Web elements will result in an information flow and a global perception of and reactive capability to the environment. As illustrated, the Sensor Web concept also allows for the recursive notion of a web of webs with individual distributed instruments possibly playing the role of a single node point on a larger Sensor Web instrument. In particular, the fusion of inexpensive, yet sophisticated, commercial technology from both the computation and telecommunication revolutions has enabled the development of practical, fielded, and embedded in situ systems that have been the focus of the NASA/JPL Sensor Webs Project (http://sensorwebs.jpl.nasa.gov/). These Sensor Webs are complete systems consisting of not only the pod elements that wirelessly communicate among themselves, but also interfacing and archiving software that allows for easy use by the end-user. Previous successful deployments have included environments as diverse as coastal regions, Antarctica, and desert areas. The Sensor Web has broad implications for Earth and planetary science and will revolutionize the way experiments and missions are conceived and performed. As part of our current efforts to develop a macrointelligence within the system, we have deployed a Sensor Web at the Central Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (CAVSARP) facility located west of Tucson, AZ. This particular site was selected because it is ideal for studying spatio-temporal phenomena and for providing a test site for more sophisticated hydrological studies in the future.

Delin, K. A.; Jackson, S. P.; Johnson, D. W.; Burleigh, S. C.; Woodrow, R. R.; McAuley, M.; Britton, J. T.; Dohm, J. M.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Ip, Felipe

2004-01-01

382

Paths to a Green World: The Political Economy of the Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comprehensive and accessible book fills the need for a political economy view of global environmental politics, focusing on the ways international economic processes affect environmental outcomes. It examines the main actors and forces shaping global environmental management, particularly in the developing world. Moving beyond the usual emphasis on international agreements and institutions, it strives to capture not only academic

Jennifer Clapp; Peter Dauvergne

383

Paths to a Green World: The Political Economy of the Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comprehensive and accessible text fills the need for a political economy view of global environmental politics, focusing on the ways key economic processes affect environmental outcomes. It examines the main actors and forces shaping global environmental management, particularly in the developing world. Moving beyond the usual academic emphasis on international agreements and institutions, it strives to integrate debates within

Jennifer Clapp; Peter Dauvergne

384

Improving Productivity of Local Software Development Teams in a Global Software Development Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

New guidelines and methods for teams and organizational structures are crucial to improve efficiency and scalability for globally distributed software development. Our work introduces a simplified process to be used by local teams working globally. The process is derived from the Agile Unified Process proposal and is highly centered in team motivation using game principles

Marcelo Blois Ribeiro; Ricardo M. Czekster; Thais Webber

2006-01-01

385

The Global Environment Facility and Transboundary Water Resource Management: New Institutional Arrangements in the Danube River and Black Sea Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased international attention to water resource management has resulted in the creation of new institutional arrangements and environmental funding mechanisms. The Global Environment Facility’s (GEF) International Waters Program is at the heart of these new collaborative regional approaches to the management of transboundary resources. This article assesses the GEF-led efforts in the Danube River and Black Sea region, the GEF’s

Andrea K. Gerlak

2004-01-01

386

Fast fiber Bragg grating interrogation system with scalability to support monitoring of large structures in harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optic sensor systems can alleviate certain challenges faced by electronics sensors faced when monitoring structures subject to marine and other harsh environments. Challenges in implementation of such systems include scalability, interconnection and cabling. We describe a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system architecture based that is scalable to support over 1000 electromagnetic interference immune sensors at high sampling rates for harsh environment applications. A key enabler is a high performance FBG interrogator supporting subsection sampling rates ranging from kHz to MHz. Results are presented for fast dynamic switching between multiple structural sections and the use of this sensing system for dynamic load monitoring as well as the potential for acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring on materials ranging from aluminum and composites to concrete subject to severe environments.

Moslehi, Behzad; Black, Richard J.; Costa, Joannes M.; Edwards, Elizabeth H.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Sotoudeh, Vahid

2014-04-01

387

Trends in monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal-care products in the aquatic environment by use of passive sampling devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of passive sampling in monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment is discussed. The utility of passive sampling methods for monitoring the fraction of heavy metals and the biologically available fraction of non-polar organic priority pollutants is recognized and these technologies are being used in surveys of water quality. These devices are used to measure the dissolved fraction and they can yield information that can be used in the development of risk assessments models. These devices can also be used to locate illegal damping and to monitor specific sources of input of PPCPs into the environment, or to monitor the effectiveness of water treatment processes in the removal of these compounds from wastewater. These devices can provide representative information at low cost which necessitate a combination of laboratory calibration and field studies for emerging pollutants.

Mills, G. A.; Vrana, B.; Allan, I.; Alvarez, D. A.; Huckins, J. N.; Greenwood, R.

2007-01-01

388

Radiation environment on board Russian segment of International space station measured by raditon monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operative radiation monitoring system (RMS) was installed on board the Russian segment of the International Space Station (RS ISS) and has been functioning since August 1, 2001.The RMS permits to measure the absorbed dose rate in 4 points of the RS ISS. In every point of measurement two semiconductor detectors one of which has no shielding and the other one has a lead spherical screen with thickness of 3 gc m-2, have been installed. The measurement results are beingprocessed and analyzed on board and simultaneously are being transmitted to the ground for estimating the radiat ion environment and hazard for the crew members and for the hardware verifying as well. For one year of RMS functioning the continuous massive of data on dose rate distribution inside RS ISS was formed. It permits to investigate the radiation environment characteristics under quiet conditions and during solar proton events (SPE). Regularities of behavior of the cosmic ray depth-dose curve for various radiation conditions in the near-earth space and during SPE were established on the basis of these data analysis. These curves permit to calculate the dose of cosmonaut's exposure with taking into account its dynamics if the shielding function of the ISS areas in which the crew members were during the exposure are known. During the future functioning of the RSM the results that will expand the massive of data for the period of solar minimum will be obtained. This will permit to investigate in detail the radiation environment inside the RS ISS depending on various helio -geophysical characteristics during its flight in various regions of the near-earth space.

Benghin, V.; Petrov, V.; Shurshakov, V.; Lyagushin, V.; Volkov, A.

389

Design and implementation of a sensor-based wireless camera system for continuous monitoring in assistive environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camera-based surveillance system is an important tool for assistive environment to monitor those who may have physical or\\u000a cognitive impairment. It is, however, expensive to deploy a wired surveillance system and difficult to continuously monitor\\u000a a moving subject in a large facility where many cameras are deployed. In this paper, we first evaluate the performance of\\u000a streaming camera images over

Nan Li; Bo Yan; Guanling Chen; Prabhu Govindaswamy; Jie Wang

2010-01-01

390

Assessment of Pulse Counting Magnetometer Technology for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial pulse-counting fluxgate magnetometer heads offer promise for low-cost magnetic monitoring. Having an entirely digital output consisting of pulses in the tens of kHz, they are well suited to use with microcontrollers. In turn the magnetic data storage and transmission requirements are well handled by personal computers (PCs), to which microcontrollers are easily interfaced. A further relevant technology is that of Global Positioning, which gives a precision time base to be used both for pulse counting and for absolute timing of the measurements. All of these technologies can be integrated to produce a magnetometer with a cost of several hundred dollars. Since the PC required is also not expensive, a magnetometer deployable in large quantities for education or research is possible. Here we assess the quality of magnetic data acquired by sample instruments. We find that resolutions of about 10 nT are attained by thermally insulated devices without active thermal control. This surpasses by a factor of about 10 that of Hall effect sensors and is suitable for applications such as monitoring currents in pipelines. To attain a threshold of 1 nT with 1 second sampling, active thermal control is needed. With the current family of commercial sensors this threshold will be difficult to surpass since an error of one pulse per second corresponds to roughly one nT at current device frequencies. These sensors are thus most suited to studies of morphology of auroral currents, where availability of a large number of stations of limited resolution would enhance the ability to do data inversion.

Connors, M.; Ponto, J.; Foote, M.

2002-12-01

391

Global tropospheric and total ozone monitoring with a Double-Etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge of the global scale distribution of atmospheric ozone and its temporal variability can be achieved using a satellite-based nadir-viewing device making high spectral resolution measurements with high signal-to-noise ratios. This would enable observation in the pressure-broadened wings of strong O3 lines while minimizing the impact of undesirable signal contributions associated with, for example, the terrestrial surface and interfering species. The Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) provides high spectral resolution and high throughput capabilities that are essential for this measurement task. The periodic nature of the Fabry-Perot instrument function can be advantageous when observation of periodic spectra is desired. However, for most applications, additional optical elements are necessary to reduce the effect of unwanted passbands. This is frequently accomplished using additional Fabry-Perot etalons in a series configuration in conjunction with a bandpass filter. This paper discusses a Fabry-Perot interferometer conceptual instrument design to achieve tropospheric and total ozone monitoring capability from a satellite-based nadir-viewing geometry. The design involves a double-etalon fixed-gap series configuration FPI along with an ultra-narrow bandpass filter to achieve single-order operation with an overall spectral resolution of approximately .068 cm(exp -1). The impact of inter-etalon reflections has been reduced to acceptable levels by placement of a slightly attenuating medium in between the etalons. A passive device is selected for low power consumption, and continuous day/night coverage, independent of solar zenith angle, is enabled by observing within the strong 9.6 micron ozone infrared band. The IR-FPI detection will be performed through implementation of the new Circle to Line Interferometer Optical (CLIO) system, developed by researchers at the Space Physics Research Laboratory (SPRL) of the University of Michigan, to accomplish focal plane fringe detection; the CLIO system converts the circular interferometric fringes into a linear pattern which then can be detected by conventional linear array detectors. A multiplex signal advantage is achievable as all necessary frequencies can be measured simultaneously using a multichannel configuration. Through proper selection of channel spectral regions, the FPI optimized for tropospheric O3 measurements can simultaneously observe a stratospheric component and thus the total O3 column abundance.

Larar, Allen M.; Drayson, S. Roland; Hays, Paul B.

1995-01-01

392

Real-time on-line space research laboratory environment monitoring with off-line trend and prediction analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the International Space Station currently operational, a significant amount of acceleration data is being down-linked, processed and analyzed daily on the ground on a continuous basis for the space station reduced gravity environment characterization, the vehicle design requirements verification and science data collection. To help understand the impact of the unique spacecraft environment on the science data, an artificial intelligence monitoring system was developed, which detects in near real time any change in the reduced gravity environment susceptible to affect the on-going experiments. Using a dynamic graphical display, the monitoring system allows science teams, at any time and any location, to see the active vibration disturbances, such as pumps, fans, compressor, crew exercise, re-boost and extra-vehicular activities that might impact the reduced gravity environment the experiments are exposed to. The monitoring system can detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance activities. It can also perform trend analysis and prediction by analyzing past data over many increments (an increment usually lasts 6 months) collected onboard the station for selected disturbances. This feature can be used to monitor the health of onboard mechanical systems to detect and prevent potential systems failures. The monitoring system has two operating modes: online and offline. Both near real-time on-line vibratory disturbance detection and off-line detection and trend analysis are discussed in this paper.

Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

2007-06-01

393

Monitoring The Dynamics Of Hyper-Saline Environments With Polarimetric SAR: Death Valley, California Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil salinization in arid and semi-arid regions still remains one of the most important threats not only for socio-economical issues when dealing with water ressources management, but also for ecological matters such as: desertification, climate changes, and biomass reduction. Then, monitoring and mapping of soil salinity distribution represent today a key challenge in our understanding of such environmental processes. Being highly dependent on the dielectric properties of soils, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) appears to be an efficient tool for the remote sensing of hyper-saline environments. More precisely, the influence of saline deposits on SAR imagery lies in the solubility and ionic properties of the minerals which strongly influence both real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity of such deposits, and thus the radar backscattering coefficient. Based on temporal series acquired with spaceborne SAR systems (ALOS/PALSAR, SIR-C) over the Death Valley (CA), we show that the copolarized backscattering ratio and phase difference derived from SAR data can be used as suitable indicators to monitor the dynamics of hyper-saline deposits. In particular, we propose these copolar parameters to follow the variations in the dielectric properties of moistened and salt-affected soils on a seasonal time scale because of the close relationship between the salinity (governed by the soil moisture content) and the complex permittivity of the soils. We also highlight a strong temporal correlation between the copolar parameters and weather data since precipitation events control the soil moisture and salinity. In order to allow for a better interpretation of the saline deposits signatures observed on SAR data, we also perform analytical simulations of the radar backscattering associated with saline deposits by means of the IEM scattering model. Using laboratory and in~ situ dielectric measurements as input parameters, we simulate the copolar ratio and phase difference as function of the complex permittivity and surface roughness. Successfully reproducing the observed signature, our results indicate that the analysis of SAR data could also account for the monitoring and understanding of seasonal changes of evaporitic basins through a close correlation between the soil moisture and surface roughness related to the desiccation processes. Such results are of great interest for soil salinity monitoring and the detection of small amounts of subsurface water mixed with evaporites, not only for arid terrestrial surfaces but also for planetary missions, particularly the exploration of Mars. Both of the observation and simulation aspects of our methodology will be thouroughly described at time of the presentation as well as the sustaining measurement technique. We will also present preliminary results derived from the first high-resolution image acquired with the UAVSAR sensor operated by NASA/JPL/CalTech.

Lasne, Y.; McDonald, K.; Paillou, P.; Freeman, A.; Chapman, B.; Farr, T.; Ruffié, G.; Malézieux, J.

2008-12-01

394

Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both academic publications and public media often make inappropriate use of incommensurate conflict statistics, creating misleading impressions about patterns in global warfare. This article clarifies the distinction between combatant deaths, battle deaths, and war deaths. A new dataset of battle deaths in armed conflict is presented for the period 1946–2002. Global battle deaths have been decreasing over most of this

Bethany Lacina; Nils Petter Gleditsch

2005-01-01

395

Cycles of selected elements in the frame of Globalization and Global Change in the environment of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laurel Forest is an important and sensitive ecosystem with particular element cycling mechanisms. On Tenerife the distribution is straitened to some parts in the north, north-west and northeast. The NE trade wind ensures a permanently humid climate in the north. Major urban and industrial development is centred on Tenerife, and as a touristy hotspot the Island is exposed to heavy air traffic. Furthermore, the short distance to the African coastline and, therefore, to the Sahara, contribute a regular influence of African Dust emissions. In summary, Laurel Forest is exposed to different climatic conditions, variations in lithology and soils, and aerosols caused by local anthropogenic emissions, Saharan dust, and sea spray. The present study aims to understand geogenic and anthropogenic element transports of K, P, N, and organic components between soils and Laurel Forest. In addition, the element contribution from the aerosols such as the Sahara dust has to be quantified to understand the rock - soil - vegetation coupling system. The Sahara dust as one of the important aerosols has been studied by various researchers (Bustos et al., 1998; Rodr?guez, 1999; Torres et al., 2001; Viana et al., 2002). Viana et al.,(2002) quantified the impacts of African dust outbreaks for Tenerife and Gran Canaria, after the interpretation of the PM10 (thoracis particulate matter) from nineteen air quality monitoring stations. Three types of African dust contributions were identified and characterized (winter, summer and autumn-winter dust outbreaks). Collected samples with and without African dust influence proved that: (a) for the intensive winter African dust outbreaks (daily PM10 levels up to 191 mg/m3) at least 76% of the bulk PM10 levels may be attributable to dust load, whereas the anthropogenic input accounts for only 3-14% and (b) SiO2, Al2O3, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, V, Mn and Ba concentrations are excellent tracers of African origin (Viana et al., 2002).

Heidak, Markus O.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Schöler, Heinfried; Trieloff, Mario; Kober, Bernd

2010-05-01

396

The interaction of a dipolar thunderstorm with its global electrical environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of the thundercloud in the global electric circuit has been considered by many researchers. Thus, Holzer and Saxon (1952) have constructed a simple model of a bipolar thunderstorm. The global models considered provide insight into the atmospheric electric circuit but are restricted, both by various analytical mathematical representations and by computer size, to a grid of about five degrees in latitude and longitude. A need exists, therefore, for the development of a numerical regional model capable of resolving small-scale phenomena so that their coupling into the global-scale circuit can be examined. The construction of a two-dimensional quasi-static numerical model of atmospheric electricity is discussed. The model provides a basis for the calculation of the global electric field and current distribution produced by a single thunderstorm generator. In connection with the calculations, the thunderstorm was defined by a quasi-static current source function which generates a dipole charge configuration.

Tzur, I.; Roble, R. G.

1985-01-01

397

Off-the-shelf real-time monitoring of satellite constellations in a visual 3-D environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multimission spacecraft analysis system (MSAS) data monitor is a generic software product for future real-time data monitoring and analysis. The system represents the status of a satellite constellation through the shape, color, motion and position of graphical objects floating in a three dimensional virtual reality environment. It may be used for the monitoring of large volumes of data, for viewing results in configurable displays, and for providing high level and detailed views of a constellation of monitored satellites. It is considered that the data monitor is an improvement on conventional graphic and text-based displays as it increases the amount of data that the operator can absorb in a given period, and can be installed and configured without the requirement for software development by the end user. The functionality of the system is described, including: the navigation abilities; the representati