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1

Global Atmospheric Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The global atmospheric monitoring plans of the World Meteorological Organization are detailed. Single and multipurpose basic monitoring systems and the monitoring of chemical properties are discussed. The relationship of the World Meteorological Organization with the United Nations environment program is discussed. A map of the World…

Wallen, Carl C.

1975-01-01

2

Environment Monitor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A supervisory system used to monitor over 200 inputs from temperature and humidity sensors and various items of a plant is described. The plant includes three main and one subsidiary computer halls and several plant rooms, all operated from one central ar...

R. A. H. Methuen

1991-01-01

3

Globalization and Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic globalization impacts the environment and sustainable development in a wide variety of ways and through a multitude of channels. The purpose of this paper is (a) to identify the key links between globalization and environment; (b) to identify the major issues addressed in multilateral economic agreements in trade and finance that affect environmental sustainability; and (c) to review priority

Theodore Panayotou

2000-01-01

4

Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) is designed to monitor from space absorption by trace gases in the Earth atmosphere. The instrument will take spectra of the backscattered solar radiation in the spectral range 240 to 790 nm, with a spatial resolu...

A. Mariani

1992-01-01

5

Monitoring of the global environment - Participation of Japan and other Asian countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global environmental issues are one of the most urgent problems in the present day world, not only in the field of sciences but also in the international social and political juncture. CFCs were found to deplete the ozone layer in the stratosphere, which covers the whole earth and protects the biosphere. The leakage of CFCs at any place in the

KEIICHIRO FUWA

1992-01-01

6

Managing the Global Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document consists of a bibliography on the following topics: Environmental issues and problems; Politics and economics of the environment; Managing the environment -- Past practice; Present and future efforts. Keywords: Environmental protection; Envi...

F. K. Scott L. C. Bassetti S. E. Neufeld

1990-01-01

7

New global environment commission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new initiative from several members of the United Nations to establish an Independent World Commission on Environment and Development establishes a direct link between the Commission and U.N. member governments, and stipulates that the Commission's report and recommendations shall be considered by governments, by the U.N. Environment Program's Governing Council, and by the General Assembly. This addresses some of

Fouere

2009-01-01

8

Global nuclear material monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project provided a detailed systems design for advanced integrated facility monitoring and identified the components and enabling technologies required to facilitate the development of the monitoring system of the future.

Howell, J.A.; Monlove, H.O.; Goulding, C.A.; Martinez, B.J.; Coulter, C.A.

1997-08-01

9

The Global Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What can we teachers do? For students we can provide a strong background in the process of science and in scientific ethics. We can encourage students to apply such knowledge wisely throughout their lives. For the public at large, we can speak out in favor of real science at every opportunity. It is possible that the current scientific consensus on global warming is based on incomplete evidence, but global warming ought not be dismissed as unscientific or a hoax, and scientists ought not allow that to happen. As we celebrate National Chemistry Week, we should resolve to support chemistry and science as strongly as we can.

Moore, John W.

2003-10-01

10

Global Environment Facility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Helps developing countries fund projects and programs that protect the environment; active in the areas of biodivesity, climate change, international waters, land degradation, ozone protection, persistent organic pollutants and renewable energy. Works closely with various agencies of the United Nations.

2007-11-14

11

Global Environmental Monitoring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biosphere is separated into atmosphere, hydrosphere, and pedosphere. Each of these components is discussed and a series of recommendations list the most informative parameters for showing secular trends by monitoring. Living organisms are discussed un...

B. Lundholm S. Svensson

1970-01-01

12

The Emerging Global Security Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global security environment of the 1990s is far more complex than in any previous era. Before the end of the decade, several additional states will have acquired formidable military ar senals containing weapons of increasing range, accuracy, and destruc tiveness for the conduct of high-intensity conflict, with other actors able to project military power within and even beyond their

Robert L. Pfaltzgraff

1991-01-01

13

Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.  

PubMed

Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. PMID:24074215

Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

2013-10-01

14

Materials engineering for a better global environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of materials engineering including ceramics technology for a better global environment is discussed. Present global\\u000a environmental issues will be solved by resourceful energy technology and waste management under a minimum pollution of environment.\\u000a The materials technology will play an important role to mitigate the global environmental issues. Research program on future\\u000a energy technology and waste management should be

Kiyotaka Wasa

1995-01-01

15

Monitoring Global Ocean Carbon Inventories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword by OOSDP chairman; Preface by Author; Significance of a Changing Oceanic Carbon Inventory; The Case for Monitoring Ocean Carbon Inventories; Ocean Carbon Monitoring Approaches (Air-Sea Fluxes, CO(sub 2) Transport within the Ocean, Inven...

D. W. R. Wallace

1995-01-01

16

MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has conducted first studies on a Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (MEMOS). The MEMOS microsatellite (mass < 20 kg) will accommodate four scientific instruments: solar EUV/UV monitor (SEM), solar wind monitor (SWIM), magnetometer (MAG) and radiation environment monitor (REM). The payload monitors the solar conditions at Mars and characterizes the Mars environment to support other missions and science investigations. Monitoring of the solar wind parameters (velocity, density, and field) is the key for any aeronomy and solar wind interaction mission at Mars. The solar EUV / UV (HeII 30.4 nm and HII 121.6 nm) flux monitoring is required for upper atmosphere / ionosphere studies. The radiation environment monitoring is needed to study space weather effects on the near-Mars environment as well as for the preparations for man-flights. MEMOS follows the design philosophy of a detached and autonomously flying instrument for achieving the mentioned objectives. It is intended to be carried "piggy-back" to Mars on a suitable mission. Potential missions are: ESA Mars orbiters within the NEXT or Cosmic Vision programs, NASA Mars orbiters, national / bilateral Mars missions. At Mars MEMOS is separated from its carrier (parent satellite) via the release mechanism implemented in the dual formation flight mission PRISMA. The separation will take place during the orbit insertion scenario of the parent satellite at Mars thus placing MEMOS in a highly elliptical orbit guarantying sufficient observation time in the solar wind. In orbit MEMOS will autonomously detumble and spin-up to ~1 rpm for reasons of stabilization and to fulfill instrument requirements. Such a low spin-rate is sufficient for a required inertial pointing accuracy of 2.5° because of the small external disturbance torques (< 10-7 Nm) predominant at Mars responsible for nutation and precession of the spin-axis. The advances in micropropulsion systems providing ?NmN adjustable thrust levels and reducing the dry mass to ~2 kg respectively are key factors in keeping the microsatellite stabilized and sun-pointed without stressing the mass budget. The low thrust level enables precise and active nutation damping. Moreover the system offers the possibility of implementing active orbit control or formation flight demonstrations at Mars. Attitude will be determined on-board with an accuracy < 1.0° using miniaturized Horizon Crossing Indicators, a two-axis sun sensor and in support accelerometers and gyroscopes based on MEMS-technology. TM/TC will be relayed via the parent satellite in the UHF frequency range. Therefore the Electra Lite (ELT) Proximity-1 transceiver will autonomously communicate with the parent satellite at inter-satellite ranges < 10 000 km featuring adaptive bit rates > 2 kbit/s. The transceiver also implements a coherent transponding mode for orbit determination through two-way Doppler ranging between the parent satellite and MEMOS. In addition ELT is compatible with a future Martian communication and navigation network pursued by NASA, which could be taken advantage of in the future for relaying data or performing ranging via other satellites part of the network. A system design driver for inter-satellite communication at Mars is the high demand of power. This leads to a disk-shape and thus easy to accommodate spacecraft configuration of MEMOS comprising a single sun-pointing solar array favourable in terms of power and spin stability. Multi-junction solar cells, which currently have an efficiency of ~29% under laboratory conditions are a key factor to keep MEMOS solar array area of ~1.15 m2 small compared to the worst case system power requirements of ~105 W. During eclipse periods high-efficient Li-ion batteries (6 x 20 Wh) will ensure power supply. The spacecraft and payload design will incorporate new technology developments such as autonomous navigation, MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS, Micro- Opto-ElectroMechanical Sys

Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.

2007-08-01

17

Towards robust global greenhouse gas monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global monitoring of greenhouse gases and carbon across the coupled earth system would enhance the quality of greenhouse gas emission and removal information available to inventory compilers, auditors, businesses and policy makers. A robust monitoring system would combine direct measurements of the atmosphere, land and oceans, earth system models, inventories and other information to accurately estimate greenhouse gas and carbon

Riley M. Duren; Charles E. Miller

2011-01-01

18

Seabirds as monitors of mercury in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oceans play a major role in global cycling of mercury and widespread contamination of marine ecosystems has been demonstrated in recent years. Monitoring mercury in the marine environment is a priority and biomonitoring has featured prominently in this respect. Seabirds, as top predators, present high mercury levels due to food chain amplification and thus will reflect slight variations in

L. R. Monteiro; R. W. Furness

1995-01-01

19

Global monitoring concept for bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the integrity of in-service structures on a continuous time basis is an ultimate objective for owners and maintenance authorities. The development of a life extension and/or replacement strategy for highway structures is a crucial point in an effective bridge management system. A key component of such a bridge management system is a means of surveillance techniques and determining the condition of an existing structure within the normative and budgetary constraints. Recent advances in sensing technologies and material/structure damage characterization combined with current developments in computations and communications have resulted in a significant interest in developing diagnostic technologies for monitoring the integrity of and for the detection of damages of structures. To identify anomalies and deterioration processes, it is essential to understand the relationships between the signal measurements and the real occurred phenomena. Therefore, the comparison of measured and calculated data in order to tune and validate the mechanical and numerical model assumptions is an integral part of any system analysis. Finally, the interpreted results of all measurements should be the basis for the condition assessment and the safety evaluation of a structure to facilitate replacement and repair decisions.

Bergmeister, Konrad; Santa, Ulrich

2000-06-01

20

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2008 The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) is a research program executed annually with the aim to obtain internationally comparative high quality research data on entrepreneurial activity at the national level. Over the years, GEM has expanded from 10 countries in 1999 to 43 countries in 2008. In this report, we focus specifically on entrepreneurial attitudes, activity and aspirations in the Netherlands.

Sander Wennekers; Jolanda Hessels; Chantal Hartog

2009-01-01

21

Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the days when John Muir walked across its campus, there has been a keen interest in the environment at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. The Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment keeps this tradition alive through its different projects and publications. Perhaps the best part of the site is the Atlas of the Biosphere, which contains numerous maps documenting environmental phenomena across the globe, such as water resources, ecosystems, land use patterns, and human impact, at a variety of scales. The Atlas also contains the data sets that were used to generate these different thematic maps. Related material on the site includes several different global ecosystem and terrestrial hydrology models that have been created by the Center, and are made publicly available here for general review. Providing engaging scholarship and general information about the relationship between humankind and the environment makes the Center's work both timely and of great interest.

1969-12-31

22

Space radiation environment monitoring onboard Chinese spacecrafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space particle radiation can cause harsh hazards to spacecraft performance and lifetime. Numerous operational anomalies and several Chinese satellites failures have been attributed to radiation effects. The failure of FY-1 satellite, in 1991, increased awareness of space radiation effects and enhanced monitoring in situ. From then on, Space Environment Monitors (SEM) have been widely used in a great number

Shijin Wang; Ying Xu; Xianguo Zhang

2010-01-01

23

Globalization and Environment: Can Pollution Haven Hypothesis alone explain the impact of Globalization on Environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic literature on trade and environment seeks empirically test hypotheses about how trade affects the environment that is crucial for resolving current policy debates. Applying panel data technique we examine the impacts of globalization on pollution level, pollution intensity and relative change of pollution for the developed (OECD) and developing (Non-OECD) country groups and the world as a whole.

Soumyananda Dinda

2006-01-01

24

Monitoring tropical environments with space shuttle photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbital photography from the Space Shuttle missions (1981–88) and earlier manned spaceflight programs (1962–1975) allows remote sensing time series to be constructed for observations of environmental change in selected portions of the global tropics. Particular topics and regions include deforestation, soil erosion, supersedimentation in streams, lacustrine, and estuarine environments, and desertification in the Greater Amazon, Tropical Africa and Madagascar, South

Michael R. Helfert; Kamlesh P. Lulla

1989-01-01

25

Using DNA damage to monitor water environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA damage of aquatic organisms living in polluted environments can be used as a biomarker of the genotoxicity of toxic agents to organisms. This technique has been playing an important role in ecotoxicological study and environmental risk assessment. In this article, main types of DNA damage caused by pollutants in water environments were reviewed; methods of detecting DNA damage were also documented for water environmental monitoring.

Zhu, Liyan; Huang, Ying; Liu, Guangxing

2005-09-01

26

Satellite-based Monitoring of Environment for Human Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global environmental change is emerging as the effect of transformation of the land, the ocean and the atmosphere driven by synergy of socio-economic and natural processes. As the progress of rapidly growing interconnectedness in the world, we have begun to induce the planetary scale change in our own life support system. Especially African environment is vulnerable to climate change and affecting human security in a broad sense. This paper describes needs for geoinformation and corresponding JAXA's satellite-based monitoring of environment.

Igarashi, Tamotsu

27

Passive Global, Real-Time TEC Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensors are being developed to provide a satellite-based VHF global lightning monitor (e.g. Suszcynsky, et al., "VHF Global Lightning and Severe Storm Monitoring from Space: Storm-level Characterization of VHF Lightning Emissions," EOS Trans. AGU 2001 Fall Mt. Prog. And Abstr. 82, No. 47, F143, 2001). Dispersive effects of propagation of the lightning electromagnetic wave through the ionospheric and plasmaspheric plasmas cause the higher frequency components to arrive at the satellite before lower frequency components. From the time-of-arrival at several frequencies we can derive the TEC between the satellite and the lightning. Using multi-satellite techniques we can geolocate the lightning and the ionospheric penetration point quite accurately. A single ground station could provide essentially real-time regional TEC coverage. Four ground stations could provide global, real-time TEC measurements to supplement existing ground-based systems, especially over broad ocean areas. We expect several lightning detections per satellite per minute. Temporal resolution will be limited only by ground segment processing. Spatial coverage and resolution will be limited by lightning occurrence, but many commercial sector TEC requirements are also correlated to lightning occurrence. With our FORTE (Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events) satellite we sense lightning over most of the globe including the oceans. We expect to determine TEC spatial gradients with tens of km resolution. This capability should be especially useful in severe convective weather to aircraft using GPS-based navigation, e.g. the FAA's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS).

Pongratz, M. B.

2002-12-01

28

Global Seismic Monitoring: Past, Present, and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global seismological observations began in April 1889 when an earthquake in Tokyo, Japan was accurately recorded in Germany on two different horizontal pendulum instruments. However, modern global observational seismology really began 46 years ago when the 120-station World Wide Standard Seismograph Network was installed by the US to monitor underground nuclear tests and earthquakes using well-calibrated short- and long- period stations. At the same time rapid advances in computing technology enabled researchers to begin sophisticated analysis of the increasing amount of seismic data, which led to better understanding of earthquake source properties and their use in establishing plate tectonics. Today, global seismic networks are operated by German (Geophon), France (Geoscope), the United States (Global Seismograph Network) and the International Monitoring System. Presently, the Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks registers more than 1,000 broadband stations world-wide, a small percentage of the total number of digital seismic stations around the world. Following the devastating Kobe, Japan and Northridge, California earthquakes, Japan and the US have led the world in the integration of existing seismic sensor systems (weak and strong motion) into development of near-real-time, post-earthquake response products like ShakeMap, detailing the spatial distribution of strong shaking. Future challenges include expanding real-time integration of both seismic and geodetic sensor systems to produce early warning of strong shaking, rapid source determination, as well as near-realtime post- earthquake damage assessment. Seismic network data, hydro-acoustic arrays, deep water tide gauges, and satellite imagery of wave propagation should be integrated in real-time to provide input for hydrodynamic modeling yielding the distribution, timing and size of tsunamis runup--which would then be available instantly on the web, e.g. in a Google Earth format. Dense arrays of strong motion sensors together with deployment of MEMS-type accelerometers in buildings and equipment routinely connected to the Web could potentially provide thousands of measurements of damaging strong ground motion. This technology could ultimately become part of smart building design enabling critical facilities to change their structural response to imminent strong shaking. Looking further forward, it is likely that a continuously observing spaceborne system could image the occurrence of "silent" or "slow" earthquakes as well as the propagation of ground displacement by surface waves at scales of continents.

Zoback, M.; Benz, H.; Oppenheimer, D.

2007-12-01

29

Monitoring and management of mountain environment.  

PubMed

The monitoring of mountain environment gives necessary information for its control and effective management in view of its sustainable development. A system of complex monitoring of environment has been established, including physical, chemical, meteorological, hydrological, biological and sociological factors. Methods and observations have been developed and applied. Using a geographical information system, a database was created for Rila Mountain and a modern computer network connected to internet was established. As a direct consequence of the French-Bulgarian project OM2 (carried out in the period 1993-1998) a Basic Environmental Observatory (on the peak Moussala, 2925 m) was constructed and put in operation in attempt to control the large scale and long-term transportation of atmospheric pollutants. PMID:15162863

Stamenov, J N; Vachev, B I

2004-01-01

30

Monitoring user activities in smart home environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) enable smart environments to create pervasive and ubiquitous applications, which give context-aware\\u000a and scalable services to the end users. In this paper, we propose an architecture and design of a web application for a sensor\\u000a network monitoring. Further, the variation in received signal strength indicator values is used for knowledge extraction.\\u000a Experiments are conducted in an

Sajid Hussain; Senol Zafer Erdogan; Jong Hyuk Park

2009-01-01

31

Population and environment: a global report.  

PubMed

This article relates the experiences of IMPACT, a USAID-funded project to involve the international press in reporting on the link between the environment and population growth. A conference, cohosted by the UN Environmental Program, was held in Nairobi, Kenya for 11 editors of Third World countries. A special supplement of 16 pages, "The Global Edition," was to be published in their journals. It focused on the challenges of sustainable development. All the editors contributed to the 1st 8 pages on worldwide issues. The theme of the "Child 5 Billion" was used, and population data and demographic information was reported. Each editor contributed the last 8 pages. The target audience was 2 million readers of Arabic, Bengali, English, French, Spanish, and Thai. Censorship was a concern in some countries. Examples were given of approaches used in Kenya, Zimbabwe, English-speaking Africa, Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand. In Kenya, the population growth problem was identified as the "hardened attitudes" of the childbearing population and not technology and drugs. Poverty was considered the cause of environmental destruction. Proper allocation of resources by young persons will lead to achievement of wealth. The poor must stop resisting change. Foreign aid has failed. Government is caught in the middle. In Zimbabwe, economic growth and population declines were objectives. The failures of neighboring countries were pointed out. The change agents were Africans themselves. The English-speaking African magazine emphasized the problem of desertification and population explosion, and suggested vigorous family planning (FP) efforts. The magazine does not appear in the Arab world where FP is not accepted. In Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand greater attention was paid to environmental issues. In Colombia and Bangladesh, economic factors were considered the cause of environmental degradation. In Mexico and Thailand, the environment was something to be protected or defended, and the link to population ignored. The accomplishment was in the sense of common purpose felt by the 11 editors, who thought their problems were regional or national. The next topic suggested was the urban environment, followed, after some discussion on feasibility, by global warming. PMID:12282935

Carty, W P

1989-01-01

32

Background monitoring and its role in global estimation and forecast of the state of the biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1)Scientific grounds and the concept of monitoring as the system for observations, assessment and prediction of man-induced changes in the state of natural environment, the program and aims of the background monitoring were developed by the author in 1972–1980. These questions were discussed in detail at the International Symposium on Global Integrated Monitoring (Riga, U.S.S.R., December, 1978). It should be

Yu. A. Izrael

1982-01-01

33

Industrial Lead in the Global Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the rates of emission, fluxes and recycling of natural and industrial lead in biogeochemical systems are needed to quantify environmental lead pollution, those geochemical processes are rarely incorporated in either Earth Science or Environmental Health Science curriculum. The need for an understanding of the global lead cycle in those diverse fields is due to the omnipresence of industrial lead contamination that was initiated over five millennia ago, which has often exceeded natural emissions of lead by orders of magnitude. That contamination has been repeatedly demonstrated in environmental analyses ranging from the most remote polar regions and oceans of the Earth to urban and industrial regions. The latter include studies of soil lead in Baltimore, New Orleans, St. Paul-Minneapolis, Los Angeles, Tijuana, and Ottawa, which show that lead from past combustion of leaded gasoline remains in those cities and it is bioavailable. With the protracted residence time of that soil lead (102 - 103 years), it is estimated that generations of urban children will continue to be exposed to this toxicant, unless there is abatement. Moreover, many third world countries are still using leaded gasoline and other sources of industrial lead continue to be emitted into the environment, albeit at reduced levels. Consequently, the geochemical cycling of lead is and will continue to be a most appropriate and topical subject of study in the curriculum of earth science and environmental health science.

Flegal, A. R.; Ericson, J. E.

2004-12-01

34

Space radiation environment monitoring onboard Chinese spacecrafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space particle radiation can cause harsh hazards to spacecraft performance and lifetime. Numerous operational anomalies and several Chinese satellites failures have been attributed to radiation effects. The failure of FY-1 satellite, in 1991, increased awareness of space radiation effects and enhanced monitoring in situ. From then on, Space Environment Monitors (SEM) have been widely used in a great number of Chinese spacecrafts, such as SZ-4 manned spacecraft, FY-1, FY-3 sun-synchronous orbit satellites, FY-2 geo-synchronous orbit satellite, CE-1 lunar probe satellite, and so on. In particular, the SJ-4 and the SJ-5 satellites, which were used for special experiments of space radiation and theirs effects on spacecrafts, had been launched in 1990's. The sustained space radiation monitoring on LEO and GEO has accumulated a mass of data and can promote studies for empirical model of space radiation. In this article, monitoring at the Chinese spacecrafts from 1990's to the predictive future will be described, and cross-calibration of data and their typical results will be given.

Wang, Shijin; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Xianguo

35

The impact of global climatic changes on the aquatic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climatic change, as defined by the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (GCRA), “means changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life”. Climatic changes are the most drastic variables interacting with all live aspects

Alaa E. Eissa; Manal M. Zaki

2011-01-01

36

Toward global baselines and monitoring of forest cover for REDD: the Global Forest Cover Change project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) procedures in support of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) require the establishment of historical baselines of forest cover and changes, as well as consistent monitoring of subsequent forest gains and losses over time. Under the NASA MEaSUREs program, the Global Forest Cover Change project is using the USGS Global Land Survey (GLS)

J. O. Sexton; C. Huang; J. G. Masek; M. Feng; R. Narasimhan; E. F. Vermote; M. C. Hansen; R. E. Wolfe; S. Channan; J. R. Townshend

2010-01-01

37

Coastal environment: historical and continuous monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring is a tool providing essential data to study the process dynamic. The formation and transformation of coastal environment involve physical, chemical, geological and biological processes. The knowledge of the littoral systems and marine seafloor therefore requires a multidisciplinary approach. Since the phenomena observation occurs in a short period of time it requires the use of high quality data acquired with high accuracy and suitable processing procedures. This knowledge considerable increased during the past 50 years closely following significant progress in the methods of investigation at sea and laboratory. In addition seafloor exploration is deeply rooted in History. A sector actually subject to control results the coastal zone for its position as transition component between continental and marine environments with closely connected natural and human actions. Certainly these activities are important in the time to develop the technologies suited for the knowledge and to increase different protection, prevention, intervention and management tools. In this context the Istituto Idrografico della Marina (Hydrographic Institute of Italian Navy - I.I.M.) is a precursor because since its foundation (in 1872) it contributed to the monitoring activities related to charting and navigation, including hydrologic surveying, seafloor measurements and in consequence the landward limit, the shoreline. The coastal area is certainly the most changeable sector either natural or socio-economic causes. This is the most dynamic environment, subject both to marine (waves and currents) and continental (river and ice) actions, and continuously changing the intended use for the increase of industrial, commercial, recreation and the need for new structures to support. The coast has more recently taken on a growing value determined by some processes, including erosion and retreat are evidence of a transformation of which, however, undermine the system and impoverishing the existing one. The constant monitoring activities of I.I.M. are the production of nautical paper charts and electronic navigational charts (ENC) together other specialised nautical charts and publications to aid safe navigation, the processing of the oldest data from analogical to digital and the care preservation in the archives of all hydrographic survey information. This process is occurred according to an international recognized standard, such as to allow a continuous improvement of all acquired data, even if with more advanced tools and technologies for the development of cartography in constant update both in content and in restitution. In this research the archives infrastructure is used to conduct hydrographic data collection and processing to follow the secular variation and its evolution of the shoreline and coastal seafloor. A key element in monitoring these changes, both of the sub-aerial and submarine beach, is the determination of the shoreline and restitution as the coastline, which already includes the definition of its complexity, in a time period that must be long enough. We present some examples of the Italian littoral evolution with evident changes of coastal morphology in support of present monitoring.

Ivaldi, Roberta; Surace, Luciano

2010-05-01

38

Remote sensing of the global environment with satellite scatterometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of satellite scatterometry for remote sensing of the global environment from the tropics to polar regions. Results were derived from microwave backscatter data acquired by the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer aboard the QuikSCAT (QSCAT) satellite. QSCAT observed two successive super cyclones that hit the Orissa coastal region of India, affecting 15 million people in 1999. The extent of soil moisture change was delineated after Cyclone Nargis made landfall in Myanmar in May 2008. QSCAT detected excessive rainwater followed by a severe drought leading to widespread wildfires in California, U.S., in 2007. QSCAT tracked vegetation change in an extreme drought in Nairobi, Kenya, affecting 3 million people in 2000. QSCAT monitored snowmelt patterns over the Northern Hemisphere, which showed poleward oscillations of melt bands. QSCAT revealed a record reduction in Arctic perennial sea ice in this decade and a further drastic decline of perennial ice in 2008. At 1-km posting, QSCAT identified urban and suburban areas where backscatter was shown to correlate with population density. QSCAT delineated wind shadow areas near small islands in the Asia-Pacific region. These results demonstrate that satellite scatterometer can provide numerous crucial data products to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems.

Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

2008-12-01

39

MONETA: an embedded monitoring system for ubiquitous network environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and efficient monitoring of dynamically changing environments is one of the most important requirements for ubiquitous network environments. To exploit these ubiquitous environments, we designed and implemented a monitoring system called MONETA that can obtain sensor data transmitted from wireless sensors to hub nodes in embedded equipment. MONETA adopts Web technology for the implementation of a simple but efficient

Ji-Hye Bae; Kyung-Oh Lee; Yoon-Young Park

2006-01-01

40

Short-term monitoring of benzene air concentration in an urban area: a preliminary study of application of Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to assess pollutant impact on global environment and indoor.  

PubMed

In step with the need to develop statistical procedures to manage small-size environmental samples, in this work we have used concentration values of benzene (C6H6), concurrently detected by seven outdoor and indoor monitoring stations over 12 000 minutes, in order to assess the representativeness of collected data and the impact of the pollutant on indoor environment. Clearly, the former issue is strictly connected to sampling-site geometry, which proves critical to correctly retrieving information from analysis of pollutants of sanitary interest. Therefore, according to current criteria for network-planning, single stations have been interpreted as nodes of a set of adjoining triangles; then, a) node pairs have been taken into account in order to estimate pollutant stationarity on triangle sides, as well as b) node triplets, to statistically associate data from air-monitoring with the corresponding territory area, and c) node sextuplets, to assess the impact probability of the outdoor pollutant on indoor environment for each area. Distributions from the various node combinations are all non-Gaussian, in the consequently, Kruskal-Wallis (KW) non-parametric statistics has been exploited to test variability on continuous density function from each pair, triplet and sextuplet. Results from the above-mentioned statistical analysis have shown randomness of site selection, which has not allowed a reliable generalization of monitoring data to the entire selected territory, except for a single "forced" case (70%); most important, they suggest a possible procedure to optimize network design. PMID:21169677

Mura, Maria Chiara; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Fuselli, Sergio

2010-01-01

41

Global snow cover monitoring with spaceborne Ku-band scatterometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study to demonstrate the potential of a spaceborne Ku-band scatterometer to monitor global snow cover. Global Ku-band data were acquired by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) operated on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) from September 1996 to June 1997. NSCAT backscatter patterns aver the northern hemisphere reveals boundaries between different snow classes, defined by the Cold

Son V. Nghiem; Wu-Yang Tsai

2001-01-01

42

Managerial Issues In The Global Business Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is becoming passé to say business world is going global. Globalisation is wide spread and is an ongoing phenomenon. The key factors driving the globalisation process are Foreign Direct Investment, falling international trade barriers, revolutions of information technology, joint ventures and mergers and acquisitions. Even though there is a tendency to assume globalisation is confined to large companies it

K. Asoka Gunaratne

2000-01-01

43

Teaching Global Perspectives in a Rural Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural students can understand global perspectives by developing pride as food providers who share "kinship of the soil" with the developing world. Important lessons include man's dependence on the land; philosophy of environmental protection; agricultural technology; political influence over soil use; and five factors controlling crop production.…

Lind, Mary Ann

1980-01-01

44

Global routing in a rectilinear macrocell environment  

SciTech Connect

A global (topological) router has been developed which operates upon the channel topologies created by rectilinear macrocells. It is based on a graph theoretical model and incorporates both wire length and area figures of merit. Subproblems encompassed by this general purpose model and algorithm include polycell, rectangular macrocell, and gate array layout problems.

Wisniewski, J.A.; Peters, R.C.

1984-01-01

45

International Trade in a Global Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysis of the world market and trade deficits and surpluses are used to examine global economics. The GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) is discussed and presented with the various perspectives on the agreement. A forecast for economics of the '90s and a quiz are included. (EH)|

Welch, Mary A., Ed.

1990-01-01

46

One earth, one future. Our changing global environment  

SciTech Connect

This book reports on deforestation, ozone depletion, global warming, and other matters concerning the global environment. From the perspective that humankind is an increasingly powerful agent changing the planet, the volume describes the Earth as a unified system - exploring the interactions between the atmosphere, land, and water and the snowballing impact that human activity is having on the system - and points out the seemingly paradoxical need for economic growth to alleviate such global environmental problems.

Silver, C.S.; Defries, R.S.

1990-12-31

47

The Changing Global Environment and World Crop Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a period of a presumed world food crisis, the importance of climate and weather, and the rising level of atmospheric carbon dioxide are highlighted as important changes in the global environment. There is a dual and simultaneous effect of the rising level of atmospheric carbon dioxide on first, global warming and second, on the enhancement of crop productivity as

Sylvan H. Wittwer

1997-01-01

48

Interactive Global Illumination in Dynamic Environments Using Commodity Graphics Hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system based on commodity graphics hard- ware for computing global illumination in dynamic scenes at interactive rates. We designed a progressive global il- lumination algorithm specifically to take advantage of cur- rent graphics hardware features. Our algorithm simulates the transport of light in synthetic environments by following the light emitted from the light source(s) through its mul-

Mangesh Nijasure; Sumanta N. Pattanaik; Vineet Goel

2003-01-01

49

Better Group Behaviors in Complex Environments using Global Roadmaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many methods to simulate o cking behaviors have been proposed, these techniques usually only pro- vide simplistic navigation and planning capabilities be- cause each o ck member's behavior depends only on its local environment. In this work, we investigate how the addition of global information in the form of a roadmap of the environment enables more sophisticated o cking

O. Burchan Bayazit; Jyh-Ming Lien; Nancy M. Amato

2002-01-01

50

Virtual global positioning system for distributed interactive simulation environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major shortfall in the fidelity of current military distributed virtual environments (DVEs) is the lack of virtual global positioning system (GPS) timing and position signals for entities within the environment. The DVE's usefulness is reduced because positional errors and positional accuracy that would be available in the real world are not present in the DVE. This, in turn, affects

Gary Williams; Martin R. Stytz; Sheila B. Banks

1997-01-01

51

Global optimization in an electricity market environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competitive market environment for the power industry has resulted in new optimization problems that need to be solved such as bidding, pricing, risk management, and market clearing. These problems are complicated by the fact that power systems are nonlinear and some aspects of the problem are ill-formulated. In this paper, we report our formulation of a market clearing optimization

Yanfang Shen; J. Lawarree; Chen-Ching Liu; Z. B. Zabinsky

2003-01-01

52

Network architecture for global biomedical monitoring service.  

PubMed

Most of the patients who are in hospitals and, increasingly, patients controlled remotely from their homes, at-home monitoring, are continuously monitored in order to control their evolution. The medical devices used up to now, force the sanitary staff to go to the patients' room to control the biosignals that are being monitored, although in many cases, patients are in perfect conditions. If patient is at home, it is he or she who has to go to the hospital to take the record of the monitored signal. New wireless technologies, such as BlueTooth and WLAN, make possible the deployment of systems that allow the display and storage of those signals in any place where the hospital intranet is accessible. In that way, unnecessary displacements are avoided. This paper presents a network architecture that allows the identification of the biosignal acquisition device as IP network nodes. The system is based on a TCP/IP architecture which is scalable and avoids the deployment of a specific purpose network. PMID:17282729

Lopez-Casado, Carmen; Tejero-Calado, Juan; Bernal-Martin, Antonio; Lopez-Gomez, Miguel; Romero-Romero, Marco; Quesada, Guillermo; Lorca, Julio; Garcia, Eugenia

2005-01-01

53

The global forum on environment and development  

SciTech Connect

The first Global Conference of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival was held in Oxford, England not to discuss world issues, but to test the ability of 100 spiritual leaders and 100 parliamentarians to work together in a world which has preferred to separate church and state. This conference, held in Moscow, attracted more than 1,000 people. The main purpose was to find common solutions to environmental quality, economic development, and human survival as citizens of planet Earth. Notable addresses were heard from Javier Perez de Cuellar, Senator Albert Gore, Carl Sagan, Lester Brown, Nafis Sadik, Evguenij Velikhov, and Mikhail Gorbachev who advocated an International Green Cross.

Not Available

1990-01-01

54

Food and Biofuel in a Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As the human population and incomes continue to grow while the petroleum reserve is declining and the concerns about environmental\\u000a damage are increasing, the world community is challenged to supply ever-greater quantities of energy without harming the environment.\\u000a The world primary energy demand is predicted to more than double between 2006 and 2030, and yet most oil-producing countries\\u000a will reduce

Gal Hochman; Steven Sexton; David Zilberman

55

Monitoring global monthly mean surface temperatures  

SciTech Connect

An assessment is made of how well the monthly mean surface temperatures for the decade of the 1980s are known. The sources of noise in the data, the numbers of observations, and the spatial coverage are appraised for comparison with the climate signal, and different analyzed results are compared to see how reproducible they are. The data are further evaluated by comparing anomalies of near-global monthly mean surface temperatures with those of global satellite channel 2 microwave sounding unit (MSU) temperatures for 144 months from 1979 to 1990. Very distincitve patterns are seen in the correlation coefficients, which range from high (> 0.8) over the extratropical continents of the Northern Hemisphere, to moderate ([approximately] 0.5) over tropical and subtropical land areas, to very low over the southern oceans and tropical western Pacific. The physical difference between the two temperature measurements is one factor in these patterns. The correlation coefficient is a measure of the signal-to-noise ratio, and largest values are found where the climate signal is largest, but the spatial variation in the inherent noise in the surface observations over the oceans is the other major factor in accounting for the pattern. 42 refs., 12 figs., 4 tab.

Trenberth, K.E.; Hurrell, J.W. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)); Christy, J.R. (Univ. of Alabama in Huntsville (United States))

1992-12-01

56

Towards Real-Time Global Localization in Dynamic Unstructured Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global localization is the problem in which a mobile robot has to estimate the self-position with respect to an a priori given map as it navigates without using any a priori knowledge of the initial self-position. Previous studies on global localization mainly focused on static environments, where the a priori map is almost correct. On the other hand, in dynamic environments, there are several sources of computational complexity. For example, not only the self-position but also the map should be estimated due to the map errors. The main contribution of this paper is to address such computational complexity by decomposing our global localization problem into two smaller subproblems, and solving the subproblems in a practical computation time. Also, we demonstrate the robustness and the efficiency of the proposed method in various large and complex environments.

Tanaka, Kanji; Kondo, Eiji

57

Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates

Kristine M. Larson; Peter Cervelli; Michael Lisowski; Asta Miklius; Paul Segall; Susan Owen

2001-01-01

58

Environment monitoring using LabVIEW.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system has been developed for electronically recording and monitoring temperature, humidity, and other environmental variables at the Silicon Detector Facility located in Lab D. The data is collected by LabVIEW software, which runs in the background on ...

J. Hawtree

1995-01-01

59

Vegetation index based technique for global agricultural drought monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Droughts occurring every year all over the world have great impacts on human society, nature, and the global economy for example in declining crop yields, reduction of water supplies, and distressed vegetation. Satellite data have been widely used in drought monitoring. Vegetation condition is an excellent indicator of agricultural drought and can be quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

Ali Levent Yagci; Liping Di; Meixia Deng; Weiguo Han; Chunming Peng

2011-01-01

60

Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

2006-01-01

61

OZONE PROFILES AND TROPOSPHERIC OZONE FROM GLOBAL OZONE MONITORING EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone profiles are derived from backscattered radiances in the ultraviolet spectra (290-340 nm) measured by the nadir- viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment using optimal estimation. Tropospheric O3 is directly retrieved with the tropopause as one of the retrieval levels. To optimize the retrieval and improve the fitting precision needed for tropospheric O 3, we perform extensive wavelength and radiometric calibrations

R. J. D. Spurr; T. P. Kurosu; R. V. Martin; M. J. Newchurch; P. K. Bhartia

2005-01-01

62

CEO Perspectives on Scanning the Global Hotel Business Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on the first survey of chief executive officers of multinational hotel chains, sponsored by the International Hotel Association. The purpose of the survey was to assess the environmental scanning practices in those hotel firms and to learn how their executives view the uncertainty of the global business environment.

Michael D. Olsen; Bvsan Murthy; Richard Teare

1994-01-01

63

Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This impressive site from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Forecast Systems Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado serves as an educational gateway into the science of global climate patterns. Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) is "a worldwide network of students, teachers, and scientists working together to study and understand the global environment." Geared for K-12 students and their teachers, GLOBE students around the world "perform environmental observations and send their data via the Internet to the GLOBE Student Data Archive. GLOBE students work under the supervision of trained teachers and follow consistent protocols to produce scientifically useful data." Also at the site are excellent graphics of the El Nino monthly max air temperatures in South America, a detailed vegetation map of africa, and a special section on Earth Day 1998, with unique projects for April 22, 1998.

1969-12-31

64

Process monitoring with optical fibers and harsh environment sensors  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains 35 papers presented at the symposium. Some of the topics covered are: sensors for the energy industry; sensors for materials evaluation and structural monitoring; sensors for engine industry; and other harsh environments sensors.

Marcus, M.A.; Wang, A. [eds.

1999-06-01

65

A new approach to monitoring the social environment for natural ...  

Treesearch

Research & Development ... Description: This paper describes a new approach for monitoring the social environment for natural ... Content analysis of the media has repeatedly been shown to produce results that are closely correlated with ...

66

SPECTRAL MONITORING OF FUGITIVE CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The accidental or intentional release of hazardous chemical substances into the environment is an inevitable consequence of anthropogenic activity. The detection, monitoring and remediation of fugitive contaminants is a major risk factor for human and ecological health and i...

67

Monitoring distributed collections using the Audit Control Environment (ACE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Audit Control Environment (ACE) is a system which provides a scalable, auditable platform that actively monitors collections to ensure their integrity over the lifetime of an archive. It accomplishes this by using a small integrity token issued for each monitored item. This token is part of a larger externally auditable cryptographic system. We will describe how this system has

Michael Smorul; Sangchul Song; Joseph JaJa

2010-01-01

68

Monitoring of toxic substances in the Hong Kong marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term programme for monitoring toxic substances in the marine environment was established in Hong Kong in 2004, focusing on chemicals of potential ecological and health concern. The programme ran on 3-year cycles, with the first two years monitoring marine water, sediment, biota, and the third year monitoring pollution sources. Twenty-four priority chemicals were measured, including dioxins\\/furans, dioxin-like PCBs, total

C. S. W. Kueh; J. Y. C. Lam

2008-01-01

69

Toxicity monitoring of aerosols in working environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerosols from a factory producing lead batteries and their influence on the health of workers working in the lead polluted environment were studied. The aerosols were characterized with regard to their cutoff diameters and elemental composition. Simultaneously the whole blood of the exposed workers was analyzed. The elemental composition of blood was measured by the PIXE method and lead contents by AAS.

Budnar, M.; Starc, V.; Cindro, V.; Ramšak, V.; Ravnikar, M.; Šmit, Ž.; Modic, S.

1984-04-01

70

Experiences with global optimization techniques in massively parallel processing environments  

SciTech Connect

The modeling of many physically relevant processes involves the location of global extrema, which are often surrounded by numerous local extrema. The effort involved in locating these extrema grows rapidly with increasing dimensionality of the problems being investigated. A method of analysis for algorithms from the perspective of a parallel processing environment is developed and applied to the family of Monte Carlo global optimization schemes. A new highly parallel Monte Carlo algorithm is presented. Chaotic iteration schemes resulting in nondeterministic algorithms are discussed, and an analysis of the optimal conditions for their application to this class of problems is presented. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Hall, J.H.; Hiromoto, R.

1988-01-01

71

The Global Atmospheric Environment for the Next Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality, ecosystem exposure to nitrogen deposition,\\u000aand climate change are intimately coupled problems: we\\u000aassess changes in the global atmospheric environment\\u000abetween 2000 and 2030 using 26 state-of-the-art global\\u000aatmospheric chemistry models and three different emissions\\u000ascenarios. The first (CLE) scenario reflects implementation\\u000aof current air quality legislation around the world, while\\u000athe second (MFR) represents a more optimistic

F. J. Dentener; D. Stevenson; K. Ellingsen; Noije van TPC; M. Schultz; M. Amann; C. Atherton; N. Bell; D. Bergmann; I. Bey; L. Bouwman; T. Butler; J. Cofala; B. Collins; J. Drevet; R. Doherty; B. Eickhout; HJ Eskes; A. Fiore; M. Gauss; D. Hauglustaine; L. Horowitz; I. S. A. Isaksen; B. Josse; M. Lawrence; M. C. Krol; J. F. Lamarque; V. Montanaro; JF Mueller; V. H. Peuch; G. Pitari; J. Pyle; S. Rast; J. Rodriguez; M. Sanderson; N. H. Savage; DT Shindell; S. Strahan; S. Szopa; K. Sudo; R. Van Dingenen; O. Wild; G. Zeng

2006-01-01

72

Design and Implementation of a Distributed GIS Portal for Oil Spill and Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring in the Marine Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A web-based distributed system for monitoring and forecasting of the marine environment has been developed in line with INfrastructure for SPatial InfoRmation in Europe (INSPIRE) and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) recommendations for a European Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). This system, called DISPRO, enables integration and distribution of multi-source data from satellites, aircraft, and in situ instruments, as

Éamonn Ó Tuama; Torill Hamre

2007-01-01

73

The Global Drought Monitor Portal - The Foundation for a Global Drought Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought monitoring, assessment, response, mitigation, adaptation, and early warning systems have been created in a number of countries around the world, and some regional and continental efforts have been successful. However, the creation of a Global Drought Early Warning System (GDEWS) remains elusive. A GDEWS incorporates forecasting and research improvements, in addition to monitoring, impact, planning, mitigation and adaptation and recovery information. At a series of workshops in 2010, the US National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) agreed to take the first step toward a GDEWS, the formation of a Global Drought Monitoring Portal (GDMP). This effort currently covers three continents - North America, Europe, and Africa - and provides global drought indicator information through satellite products and Global Historical Climate Network locations. The GDMP has benefited from coordination with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and Group on Earth Observations (GEO). Other nations have expressed interest in contributing and new regional and continental information should be online shortly. This paper presents the capabilities of the GDMP to link the monitoring, forecasting, research, and impacts aspects of international drought as well as the advantages of using common architecture through GEO to facilitate transfer and interoperability of GDEWS-related information.

Brewer, M.; Heim, R. R.; Pozzi, W.; Vogt, J.; Sheffield, J.

2011-12-01

74

An energy consumption technique for global healthcare monitoring applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has proposed an energy consumption algorithm in 6lowpan networks. The performance results have been analyzed mathematical and simulation compression between energy and density. We have designed global healthcare monitoring system. In this system, wearable {6lowpan + biomedical (IP-BSNs)} sensor are fixed into the patient's body area networks that would be connected to the internet based gateway. The IP-BSNs

Dhananjay Singh; Hoon-Jae Lee; Wan-Young Chung

2009-01-01

75

Environment monitoring using LabVIEW  

SciTech Connect

A system has been developed for electronically recording and monitoring temperature, humidity, and other environmental variables at the Silicon Detector Facility located in Lab D. The data is collected by LabVIEW software, which runs in the background on an Apple Macintosh. The software is completely portable between Macintosh, MS Windows, and Sun platforms. The hardware includes a Macintosh with 8 MB of RAM; an external ADC-1 analog-to-digital converter that uses a serial port; LabVIEW software; temperature sensors; humidity sensors; and other voltage/current sensing devices. ADC values are converted to ASCII strings and entered into files which are read over Ethernet. Advantages include automatic logging, automatic recovery after power interruptions, and the availability of stand-alone applications for other locations with inexpensive software and hardware.

Hawtree, J.

1995-01-01

76

Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally.  

PubMed

Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. PMID:24074213

Lee, A; Mhurchu, C N; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S; Hawkes, C; L'abbé, M; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Walker, C

2013-10-01

77

GLOBE Program: Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) is a hands-on international environmental science and education program that links students, teachers, and the research community in order to learn about the environment. Research projects cover such topics as seasons and biomes, the carbon cycle, watershed dynamics, and extreme environments. Students in GLOBE groups in over a hundred countries make measurements of atmospheric conditions, hydrology, soils, or land cover/phenology, report the data on the internet, and publish their research in collaboration with scientists and other GLOBE students. For teachers, the site provides information on professional development opportunities, a teachers' guide, videos, and other materials, and contact and support from the GLOBE help desk, other teachers, and scientists.

78

Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repairs may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service.

Lloyd, W. Randolph; Reuter, Walter G.; Weinberg, David M.

1999-12-01

79

The Global Atmospheric Environment for the Next Generation  

SciTech Connect

Air quality, ecosystem exposure to nitrogen deposition, and climate change are intimately coupled problems: we assess changes in the global atmospheric environment between 2000 and 2030 using twenty-five state-of-the-art global atmospheric chemistry models and three different emissions scenarios. The first (CLE) scenario reflects implementation of current air quality legislation around the world, whilst the second (MFR) represents a more optimistic case in which all currently feasible technologies are applied to achieve maximum emission reductions. We contrast these scenarios with the more pessimistic IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Ensemble simulations for the year 2000 are consistent among models, and show a reasonable agreement with surface ozone, wet deposition and NO{sub 2} satellite observations. Large parts of the world are currently exposed to high ozone concentrations, and high depositions of nitrogen to ecosystems. By 2030, global surface ozone is calculated to increase globally by 1.5 {+-} 1.2 ppbv (CLE), and 4.3 {+-} 2.2 ppbv (A2). Only the progressive MFR scenario will reduce ozone by -2.3 {+-} 1.1 ppbv. The CLE and A2 scenarios project further increases in nitrogen critical loads, with particularly large impacts in Asia where nitrogen emissions and deposition are forecast to increase by a factor of 1.4 (CLE) to 2 (A2). Climate change may modify surface ozone by -0.8 {+-} 0.6 ppbv, with larger decreases over sea than over land. This study shows the importance of enforcing current worldwide air quality legislation, and the major benefits of going further. Non-attainment of these air quality policy objectives, such as expressed by the SRES-A2 scenario, would further degrade the global atmospheric environment.

Dentener, F; Stevenson, D; Ellingsen, K; van Joije, T; Schultz, M; Amann, M; Atherton, C; Bell, N; Bergmann, D; Bey, I; Bouwman, L; Butler, T; Cofala, J; Collins, B; Drevet, J; Doherty, R; Eickhout, B; Eskes, H; Fiore, A; Gauss, M; Hauglustaine, D; Horowitz, L; Isaksen, I A; Josse, B; Lawrence, M; Krol, M; Lamarque, J F; Montanaro, V; Muller, J F; Peuch, V H; Pitari, G; Pyle, J; Rast, S; Rodriguez, J; Sanderson, M; Savage, N H; Shindell, D; Strahan, S; Szopa, S; Sudo, K; Van Dingenen, R; Wild, O; Zeng, G

2005-12-07

80

Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael

1999-09-01

81

Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements  

SciTech Connect

Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique is applicable to many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

W. R. Lloyd; W. G. Reuter; D. M. Weinberg

1999-09-19

82

New tools in monitoring East and Southeast Asian environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

By all economic measures East and Southeast Asia are major success stories and emerging powerhouses in the global economy. This region continues to outperform, by a wide margin, other regions of the developing world and the industrial countries as well. However, this economic growth has been at a cost to the environment that is increasingly evident and may threaten future

Thomas W. Wagner; Robert A. Shuchman

1997-01-01

83

A mobile context monitoring platform for pervasive computing environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new mobile platform to support emerging pervasive applications in a Personal Area Network (PAN)-scale dynamic mobile computing environment. The PAN-scale computing environment will constitute an important part of future pervasive-space technology with highly proactive applications, requiring continuous monitoring of users' contexts. The context-aware applications impose heavy workloads on the mobile device and the sensor

Youngki Lee; Chulhong Min; Younghyun Ju; Saumay Pushp; Junehwa Song

2011-01-01

84

A Global Framework for Monitoring Phenological Responses to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Remote sensing of vegetation phenology is an important method with which to monitor terrestrial responses to climate change, but most approaches include signals from multiple forcings, such as mixed phenological signals from multiple biomes, urbanization, political changes, shifts in agricultural practices, and disturbances. Consequently, it is difficult to extract a clear signal from the usually assumed forcing: climate change. Here, using global 8 km 1982 to 1999 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data and an eight-element monthly climatology, we identified pixels whose wavelet power spectrum was consistently dominated by annual cycles and then created phenologically and climatically self-similar clusters, which we term phenoregions. We then ranked and screened each phenoregion as a function of landcover homogeneity and consistency, evidence of human impacts, and political diversity. Remaining phenoregions represented areas with a minimized probability of non-climatic forcings and form elemental units for long-term phenological monitoring.

White, Michael A [Utah State University (USU); Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Hargrove, William Walter [ORNL; Nemani, Ramakrishna R [NASA Ames Research Center

2005-01-01

85

Potential global fire monitoring from EOS-MODIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the polarorbiting Earth Observation System (EOS) providing morning and evening global observations in 1999 and afternoon and night observations in 2000. These four MODIS daily fire observations will advance global fire monitoring with special 1 km resolution fire channels at 4 and 11 ?m, with high saturation of about 450 and 400 K, respectively. MODIS data will also be used to monitor burn scars, vegetation type and condition, smoke aerosols, water vapor, and clouds for overall monitoring of the fire process and its effects on ecosystems, the atmosphere, and the climate. The MODIS fire science team is preparing algorithms that use the thermal signature to separate the fire signal from the background signal. A database of active fire products will be generated and archived at a 1 km resolution and summarized on a grid of 10 km and 0.5°, daily, 8 days, and monthly. It includes the fire occurrence and location, the rate of emission of thermal energy from the fire, and a rough estimate of the smoldering/flaming ratio. This information will be used in monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of fires in different ecosystems, detecting changes in fire distribution and identifying new fire frontiers, wildfires, and changes in the frequency of the fires or their relative strength. We plan to combine the MODIS fire measurements with a detailed diurnal cycle of the fires from geostationary satellites. Sensitivity studies and analyses of aircraft and satellite data from the Yellowstone wildfire of 1988 and prescribed fires in the Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation (SCAR) aircraft field experiments are used to evaluate and validate the fire algorithms and to establish the relationship between the fire thermal properties, the rate of biomass consumption, and the emissions of aerosol and trace gases from fires.

Kaufman, Yoram J.; Justice, Christopher O.; Flynn, Luke P.; Kendall, Jackie D.; Prins, Elaine M.; Giglio, Louis; Ward, Darold E.; Menzel, W. Paul; Setzer, Alberto W.

1998-12-01

86

Integrated Measurement Technologies For Monitoring The Marine Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a number of years, the Marine Environment Branch of the Naval Ocean Systems Center has focused on research and development towards improved methods and instrumentation for monitoring and assessment of environmental impact in coastal and estuarine waters. The purpose of this research is to provide a sound scientific basis in addressing U.S. Navy environmental quality and compliance issues. As

D. B. Chadwick; M. H. Salazar

1991-01-01

87

The SMS/GOES Space Environment Monitor Subsystem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Space Environment Monitor Subsystem, which is incorporated in the satellites SMS-1, SMS-2, and GOES-A, is described. The subsystem contains an energetic charged particle sensor, a magnetometer, and a soft solar x-ray detector and is intended for real ...

R. N. Grubb

1975-01-01

88

Space debris environment monitoring fence: techniques and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early warning of debris impact makes it necessary to detect and, if possible, catalog all threatening debris. Space debris environment monitoring fence is an attractive option for the requirement. This kind of fence can detect each object passing through its beam with no task planning. It has significant capabilities to detect new launchings, maneuvers and breakups. This paper depicts the

Zhengxin Song; Weidong Hu; Wenxian Yu

2005-01-01

89

Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments: A New GLORIA Site in Southwestern Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change is expected to have pronounced effects on the alpine environments and thus the alpine plants of western North America. Predicted responses include an upward migration of treelines, altered species compositions, changes in the percentage of land covered by vegetation, and a change in the phenology of alpine plants. To determine the effects of climate change on the alpine flora of southwestern Montana, we are installing a GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) site in order to monitor temperature, species composition, and percent cover of vascular plants, lichens, and mosses along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We are including lichens and mosses because of their importance as ecological indicator species. The abundance and spatial distribution of lichens and mosses provides essential baseline data for long-term monitoring of local and global impacts on the environment. Mt. Fleecer (9250 ft.), which is west of the continental divide and semi-isolated from other peaks in the Anaconda-Pintlar Range, is currently the most likely location for the southwestern Montana GLORIA site. Mt. Fleecer is accessible because it does not have the steep and hazardous glaciated talus cirques that characterize many of the neighboring, higher peaks. However, if an accessible and suitable higher summit is found, then it will be included as the highest summit in the GLORIA site. Interesting species at Mt. Fleecer include the whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, which is a keystone species in high mountain ecosystems of the western United States and Canada, the green gentian, Frasera speciosa, and the shooting star, Dodecatheon pulchellum. Data from this site will become part of a global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora. Information gained from this GLORIA site can also be used as a link between studies of alpine climate change and related investigations on the timing of snowmelt and its influence on riparian ecosystems in western Montana.

Apple, M. E.; Pullman, T. Y.; Mitman, G. G.

2007-12-01

90

Agricultural environment information monitoring instruments based on integrated intelligent sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of facility agriculture in rural areas in China, the technology reform related to the auxiliary facilities has become the key factor to promote its development. And how to acquire the agricultural environment information effectively and rapidly becomes the most important factor. This article is aimed to make a study on the technical project of developing high performance and low cost environment monitoring instruments based on integrated intelligent sensors, which includes relative humidity/temperature monitor, intelligent turbidity sensor system with Microprocessor( ?C) and single-bus interface and smog auto-detection and alarm system. The monitoring instruments can be applied to the overground information collecting, processing and alarming in greenhouses, poultry houses, livestock stables and so on.

Yu, Guoqing, Sr.; Sha, Zhanyou; Cai, Mingwei

2009-07-01

91

Monitoring the Global Soil Moisture Climatology Using GLDAS/LIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture plays a crucial role in the terrestrial water cycle through governing the process of partitioning precipitation among infiltration, runoff and evaporation. Accurate assessment of soil moisture and other land states, namely, soil temperature, snowpack, and vegetation, is critical in numerical environmental prediction systems because of their regulation of surface water and energy fluxes between the surface and atmosphere over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is developed, jointly by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), to perform high-quality global land surface simulation using state-of-art land surface models and further minimizing the errors of simulation by constraining the models with observation- based precipitation, and satellite land data assimilation techniques. The GLDAS-based Land Information System (LIS) infrastructure has been installed on the NCEP supercomputer that serves the operational weather and climate prediction systems. In this experiment, the Noah land surface model is offline executed within the GLDAS/LIS infrastructure, driven by the NCEP Global Reanalysis-2 (GR2) and the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). We use the same Noah code that is coupled to the operational NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) for weather prediction and test bed versions of the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) for seasonal prediction. For assessment, it is crucial that this uncoupled GLDAS/Noah uses exactly the same Noah code (and soil and vegetation parameters therein), and executes with the same horizontal grid, landmask, terrain field, soil and vegetation types, seasonal cycle of green vegetation fraction and surface albedo as in the coupled GFS/Noah and CFS/Noah. This execution is for the 25-year period of 1980-2005, starting with a pre-execution 10-year spin-up. This 25-year GLDAS/Noah global land climatology will be used for both climate variability assessment and as a source of land initial conditions for ensemble CFS/Noah seasonal hindcast experiments. Finally, this GLDAS/Noah climatology will serve as the foundation for a global drought/flood monitoring system that includes near realtime daily updates of the global land states.

Meng, J.; Mitchell, K.; Wei, H.; Gottschalck, J.

2006-05-01

92

Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks into Cyberinfrastructure for Monitoring Hawaiian ``Mountain-to-Sea'' Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the complex environmental relationships and feedbacks of ecosystems on catchment (or mountain)-to-sea scales is essential for social systems to effectively deal with the escalating impacts of expanding human populations globally on watersheds. However, synthesis of emerging technologies into a robust observing platform for the monitoring of coupled human-natural environments on extended spatial scales has been slow to develop. For this purpose, the authors produced a new cyberinfrastructure for environmental monitoring which successfully merged the use of wireless sensor technologies, grid computing with three-dimensional (3D) geospatial data visualization/exploration, and a secured internet portal user interface, into a working prototype for monitoring mountain-to-sea environments in the high Hawaiian Islands. A use-case example is described in which native Hawaiian residents of Waipa Valley (Kauai) utilized the technology to monitor the effects of regional weather variation on surface water quality/quantity response, to better understand their local hydrologic cycle, monitor agricultural water use, and mitigate the effects of lowland flooding.

Kido, Michael H.; Mundt, Carsten W.; Montgomery, Kevin N.; Asquith, Adam; Goodale, David W.; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y.

2008-10-01

93

Integration of wireless sensor networks into cyberinfrastructure for monitoring Hawaiian "mountain-to-sea" environments.  

PubMed

Monitoring the complex environmental relationships and feedbacks of ecosystems on catchment (or mountain)-to-sea scales is essential for social systems to effectively deal with the escalating impacts of expanding human populations globally on watersheds. However, synthesis of emerging technologies into a robust observing platform for the monitoring of coupled human-natural environments on extended spatial scales has been slow to develop. For this purpose, the authors produced a new cyberinfrastructure for environmental monitoring which successfully merged the use of wireless sensor technologies, grid computing with three-dimensional (3D) geospatial data visualization/exploration, and a secured internet portal user interface, into a working prototype for monitoring mountain-to-sea environments in the high Hawaiian Islands. A use-case example is described in which native Hawaiian residents of Waipa Valley (Kauai) utilized the technology to monitor the effects of regional weather variation on surface water quality/quantity response, to better understand their local hydrologic cycle, monitor agricultural water use, and mitigate the effects of lowland flooding. PMID:18618172

Kido, Michael H; Mundt, Carsten W; Montgomery, Kevin N; Asquith, Adam; Goodale, David W; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y

2008-07-11

94

Global Communications Infrastructure: CTBT Treaty monitoring using space communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Article 1 on Basic Obligations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) states that: "Each State Party undertakes not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control. Each State Party undertakes, furthermore, to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion." To monitor States Parties compliance with these Treaty provisions, an International Monitoring System (IMS) consisting of 321 monitoring stations and 16 laboratories in some 91 countries is being implemented to cover the whole globe, including its oceans and polar regions. The IMS employs four technologies--seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide--to detect,locate and identify any seismic event of Richter magnitude 4 and above (equivalent to one kiloton of TNT) that may be associated with a nuclear test explosion. About one-half of this monitoring system is now operational in 67 countries. Monitoring stations send data in near real-time to an International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna over a Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI) incorporating 10 geostationary satellites plus three satellites in inclined orbits. The satellites relay the data to commercial earth stations, from where they are transferred by terrestrial circuits to the IDC. The IDC automatically processes and interactively analyzes the monitoring data, and distributes the raw data and reports relevant to Treaty verification to National Data Centers in Member States over the same communications network. The GCI will eventually support about 250 thin route VSAT links to the monitoring stations, many of them at remote or harsh locations on the earth, plus additional links to national data centres in various countries. Off-the-shelf VSAT and networking hardware are deployed. This is the first global integrated satellite communications network based on VSAT technology. Space segment has been leased to carry more than 9 gigabytes/day of data to the IDC with a designed annual availability of 99.5%. This paper explains the topology of this satellite-based network, and practical limitations encountered in organizing a single network with 250 links that span the majority of countries in the world, plus the Antarctic regions and the earth's oceans. Having now installed about half of the satellite links in 67 countries, CTBTO has had to hurdle regulatory challenges to install VSAT equipment, and operational challenges to keep the earth stations running in unmanned remote locations. Despite the challenges, the GCI has proven its worth in reliably collecting monitoring data and making such available to authorized users. It has also been useful to give scientists real-time access for controlling their remote monitoring stations.

Kebeasy, R.; Abaya, E.; Ricker, R.; Demeules, G.

95

Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments.  

PubMed

One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly understood. PMID:19528051

Barnes, David K A; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C; Barlaz, Morton

2009-07-27

96

A new project of GPS occultation and gravity mission studies Applications of precise satellite positioning for monitoring the Earth's environment -  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have started a new project of GPS occultation and satellite gravity mission studies in Japan. The objectives of the project are the studies for applying GPS occultation and satellite gravity mission to monitor the Earth's environment and the developments of the related techniques and instruments. The global warming occurred in the latter half of twentieth century significantly affect on

T. Tsuda; Y. Fukuda

2003-01-01

97

Selecting the spatial resolution of satellite sensors required for global monitoring of land transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial resolution of the next generation of sensors for the global monitoring of vegetation is assessed with particular reference to the proposed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). The main innovative use of such instruments will lie in their ability to monitor land transformations at global and continental scales. Reliable monitoring is shown to rely on the success with which

J. R. G. TOWNSHEND; C. O. JUSTICE

1988-01-01

98

Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change  

SciTech Connect

The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

Risser, P.G.

1990-02-01

99

Resources, environment and population. The Global Tomorrow Coalition Conference.  

PubMed

The challenge for environmental action has been direct and powerful for the Global Tomorrow Coalition. In June 1983 a major international conference was held by the Coalition in Washington, D.C., the Conference examined the issues of acid rain, biological diversity, foresight capability, hazardous exports, water resources, the oceans, sustainable development, population, and nuclear issues. The Conference presented a unique portrait of the US environmental movement, its problems and the possibilities for US leadership at the international level. The Coalition issued an indictment of the Reagan Administration, charging that it had reversed American domestic and international policies and was threatening the foundation on international cooperation which the US had worked hard to establish. Specifically, the Administration did the following: prevented cooperative international action on acid rain; destroyed the effectiveness of the Council on Environmental Quality by cutting its budget by 2/3 and replacing the entire professional staff with new personnel lacking environmental expertise; withdrew US participation from the Law of the Sea Conference; discouraged initiatives and programs on environment and resource trends by OECD; obstructed OECD's efforts to harmonize testing for new chemicals; sought more than a 25% reduction in US fiscal 1984 support for the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA); opposed UN efforts to control hazardous exports and removed US governmental restraints on this trade; withdrew support for the Internatioanl Man and the Biopshere program; proposed cutting the US voluntary contribution to the UN Environment Program by 2/3; proposed weakening the rules under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species and withdrew support for the World Heritage Convention and the Convention for the Protection of Nature and Preservation of Wildlife in the Western hemisphere; and withdrew funding for participation in US and international Antarctic research programs. On the eve of the Conference, the Heritage Foundation of Washington issued a rebuttal to the Coalition maintaining the following: things are getting better and not worse; the "Global 2000 Report" is a doomsday projection of some current trends but natural course corrections will occur of their own accord; and government should not take primary responsibility for environmental management. The Conference produced an activist package of recommendations, primarily for building domestic strength but also with an eye toward international affairs. The Conference concluded that an urgent need exists for government cooperation with the private sector to improve its capacity to collect data on global trends in environment, population, and natural resources. It called for stronger US leadership in preventing nuclear war. PMID:12339306

Olson, R K

1983-01-01

100

Virtual global positioning system for distributed interactive simulation environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major shortfall in the fidelity of current military distributed virtual environments (DVEs) is the lack of virtual global positioning system (GPS) timing and position signals for entities within the environment. The DVE's usefulness is reduced because positional errors and positional accuracy that would be available in the real world are not present in the DVE. This, in turn, affects the validity of the results of training, analysis, and evaluations involving systems that rely on GPS. The magnitude of the affect depends on the degree that the systems involved in the DVE rely on GPS in the real world. The project reported in this paper addresses this deficit in current military DVEs. The capability we developed to provide a virtual GPS-based navigation capability within a DVE is based upon three components. These components are a complete virtual GPS satellite constellation, a means for broadcasting GPS signals using the Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) simulation protocols, and a software system, the Virtual GPS Receiver (VGPSR), to calculate simulation entity position using the virtual GPS time and position signals. The virtual GPS satellites are propagated in their orbits using the solar system modeler (SM). The SM also performs the simulated GPS signal broadcast by transmitting a DIS protocol data unit (PDU) with the data that would appear within a real world GPS satellite broadcast. The VGPSR is a plug-in module available for simulation applications that require virtual GPS navigation. To demonstrate the capability of this system, we used the VGPSR in conjunction with the virtual cockpit to simulate virtual weapons deployment. We present the design of the VGPSR and the design of the modules added to the SM for GPS broadcast. We describe the calculations the system performs to calculate position in the virtual environment and we describe the accuracy and performance the system achieves when calculating virtual environment position using our system. We conclude with suggestions for further research in this area.

Williams, Gary; Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

1997-07-01

101

GEMS: A WSN-based greenhouse environment monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the special requirements on micro-climate raised by the greenhouse in Northeast China, we develop a WSN- based greenhouse environment monitoring system. We decrease the power consumption of nodes, reduce the complexity of system development and simplify the deployment of nodes by dormancy mechanism, single-hop transmission, and on-demand deployment. Gateway node transmits the sensor data to remote database by

Peng Yu; Xu Yong; Peng Xi-yuan

2011-01-01

102

Monitoring the Trade: Using the CITES Database to Examine the Global Trade in Live Monitor Lizards (Varanus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown particular monitor lizard species to be the subject of intense exploitation for the global trade in reptile skins. However, to date there has not been a review of the CITES - declared trade in live monitor lizards. This paper examines the dynamics of the trade in live monitor lizards between 1975 and 2005, based on CITES

ANGELO P. PERNETTA

103

Landsat: The Backbone for Mapping and Monitoring Global Ecological Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term ecological monitoring requires consistent observation of key variables, long-term measurement continuity, and open and affordable access to measurements. The Landsat series of Earth observation missions uniquely meet those criteria, and Landsat's 30m-observation scale permits the detection and differentiation of natural versus human-caused land change. Landsat is the longest and most comprehensive record of the state of the global land surface in existence. No other high-resolution satellite program is either capable or committed to the systematic monitoring of global scale human and natural land change. Beginning with Landsat 1 in 1972, six Landsat missions have continuously recorded images of the Earth. As we near the fortieth anniversary of Landsat, we now have an archive of millions of repetitive images of the Earth with multispectral properties suited to assessing both biotic and abiotic conditions and at a scale appropriate for resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Landsat archive contains nearly three million scenes and all are available to users at no cost. Furthermore, the entire Landsat record, Landsats 1-7, is now calibrated to a common radiometric standard and the majority of the data are orthorectified - enabling immediate assessment of long-term ecological conditions and land change. Landsats 5 and 7 continue to collect imagery and together they provide the potential to cover a significant portion of the Earth's land surfaces every eight days. Both of these missions now use a long-term acquisition plan designed to improve the collection of seasonal global coverage. Furthermore, recent agreements with international Landsat receiving stations are bringing previously inaccessible contemporary Landsat 5 data into the EROS archive. The amount of global coverage being acquired annually is the highest level in the history of the Landsat program. The EROS global historical archive is rapidly expanding because of the addition of 1972-present Landsat holdings from ground stations worldwide. More than three million Landsat scenes not currently found in the EROS archive exist in archives around the world and many of these data are at risk due to aging storage media and inadequate preservation practices. The repatriation of these data into the EROS archive will potentially double the number of no-cost Landsat scenes available to users. The uncertainty of future Landsat missions has challenged operational monitoring of ecological systems. However, that may be changing. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) being developed by NASA and the USGS is slated for a December 2012 launch. LDCM (which will be renamed Landsat 8 following launch) will use new imaging technology to provide improved multispectral measurements, and offers additional spectral bands and increased daily imaging capacity. While missions beyond LDCM are uncertain, the President's Fiscal Year 2012 budget requests funds for the planning and development of Landsats 9 and 10, and includes language that will make Landsat an operational program - ending the decades of uncertainty.

Loveland, T. R.

2011-12-01

104

Global Climate System: Climate System Monitoring, June 1986 to November 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is based on current scientific understanding of the climate system and provides a basis for the monitoring of global change. Due to deficiencies in the global observing system, the diagnostic analyses of cause-effect relationships are prelimin...

1988-01-01

105

Monitoring the impacts of trade agreements on food environments.  

PubMed

The liberalization of international trade and foreign direct investment through multilateral, regional and bilateral agreements has had profound implications for the structure and nature of food systems, and therefore, for the availability, nutritional quality, accessibility, price and promotion of foods in different locations. Public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade and investment agreements, diets and health, and there is currently no systematic monitoring of this area. This paper reviews the available evidence on the links between trade agreements, food environments and diets from an obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) perspective. Based on the key issues identified through the review, the paper outlines an approach for monitoring the potential impact of trade agreements on food environments and obesity/NCD risks. The proposed monitoring approach encompasses a set of guiding principles, recommended procedures for data collection and analysis, and quantifiable 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' measurement indicators to be tailored to national priorities, capacity and resources. Formal risk assessment processes of existing and evolving trade and investment agreements, which focus on their impacts on food environments will help inform the development of healthy trade policy, strengthen domestic nutrition and health policy space and ultimately protect population nutrition. PMID:24074216

Friel, S; Hattersley, L; Snowdon, W; Thow, A-M; Lobstein, T; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Mohan, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'abbe, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

2013-10-01

106

An intelligent environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, information technology is becoming more and more important to improve the productivity of agriculture, especially for real time environment monitoring. However, the traditional method of environmental data collection is unable to provide real-time and highly accurate data of the monitored region to meet the requirements of precision agriculture. As wireless sensor networks(WSNs) has profound impacts on many fields due to its promising capability, in this paper, a WSN-based environment monitoring system is proposed. A prototype of the system that utilizes GAINSJ nodes based on Zigbee communication protocol has been implemented, and its packet error rate in different conditions was evaluated. Based on the proposed system architecture and technologies, the real time data can be measured, transmitted and stored in high accuracy. Moreover, the system was applied in upland grassland in Yushu, Qinghai province, and compared the results with the data acquired by local weather station. The system evaluation and experimental results show the effectiveness and reliability of the system in measuring the variations of temperature and humidity data within monitored region.

Cao, Minghua; Wang, Huiqin; Peng, Duo; Jia, Kejun

2009-07-01

107

Global Environment Outlook-1: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP): Global State of the Environment Report 1997: The Web Version  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Environment Programme has recently released this report, "a snap-shot of an ongoing worldwide environmental assessment process." It "describes the environmental status and trends in seven regions...summarizes developments over time in regional policy responses...[and] concludes with an exploration, based on model analysis, of what we might expect in the future for a selected number of environmental issues if no major policy reforms are initiated." An executive summary for each chapter is first presented, followed by the full report, which contains over seventy figures and thirty tables. The power of the report lies in its regional analysis. A second GEO report is due to be released in 1999.

1997-01-01

108

The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our own research to develop a library of immersive visualization stories and templates that explore ecological relationships across time at cosmic, global, and bioregional scales, with learning goals aligned to climate and earth science literacy principles. These experiential narratives are used to increase participants' awareness of global change issues as well as to engage them in dialogues and design processes focused on steps they can take within their own communities to systemically address these interconnected challenges. More than 600 digital planetariums in the U.S. collectively represent a pioneering opportunity for distributing Earth systems messages over large geographic areas. By placing the viewer-and Earth itself-within the context of the rest of the universe, digital planetariums can uniquely provide essential transcalar perspectives on the complex interdependencies of Earth's interacting physical and biological systems. The Worldviews Network is creating innovative, data-driven approaches for engaging the American public in dialogues about human-induced global changes.

Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

2011-12-01

109

Engineering Versus Marketing: An Appraisal in a Global Economic Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global manager should consider engineering first before marketing because optimal engineering efficiency creates more\\u000a values than customized marketing efficiency. Although the debate over the global standardization continues in the area of\\u000a global strategic management, global firms need to conduct this new type of global strategy. Foreign consumers actually prefer\\u000a global products to locally customized products in many industries such

Hwy-Chang Moon

110

GEMS: Assimilation of Satellite and In-Situ Observations to Monitor and Forecast Global and Regional Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the umbrella of European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) the Global and regional Earth-system (Atmosphere) Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data (GEMS) project has been running since March 2005. The aim of the project is to build a pre-operational system that will assimilate both satellite and in- situ observations to monitor atmospheric composition. Greenhouse gases, reactive gases, and aerosol are all monitored in a global 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system running at about 1 degree resolution. These global fields are then used as boundary conditions for regional air quality modelling on the European scale. Both the global and regional component will improve our understanding of surface fluxes, long- range transport, and in general the causes of poor air quality. We will present an overview of the project and show how we combine state-of-the-art modelling, data assimilation and retrieval techniques to support scientific research, air quality forecasters, and environmental policy makers.

Kaiser, J. W.; Engelen, R. J.; Hollingsworth, A.; Textor, C.; Benedetti, A.; Boucher, O.; Chevallier, F.; Dethof, A.; Elbern, H.; Eskes, H.; Flemming, J.; Granier, C.; Morcrette, J.; Rayner, P.; Peuch, V.; Rouil, L.; Schultz, M.; Serrar, S.; Simmons, A.

2007-12-01

111

Green house environment monitor technology implementation based on android mobile platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green house environment monitoring technology has continuously improved, and good greenhouse environment can improve crop quality, short the growth cycle and increase production,which have very important theoretical significance and value for study. This paper use mobile phone as monitoring terminal, monitoring green house environment.

Wei Ai; Cifa Chen

2011-01-01

112

Monitoring of fatigue crack under complex environment using guided waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental study on monitoring of fatigue crack under complex environment using guided waves. An experimental set-up consisting of an electrical oven, a MTS testing machine and a monitoring system is established to perform the study. First, the combined effects of temperature, load and vibration on the propagation of guided waves in metallic structure is studied. Then, a statistical approach is proposed to detect fatigue crack under these combined effects. Damage feature is extracted after the guided wave signals are processed by Fourier transform. A Monte Carlo procedure is employed to estimate the probability density functions of the feature before and after cracking, respectively. By comparing the probability density functions, the probability of existence of fatigue crack is determined. Experimental study on a fatigue coupon under combined effects of temperature, load and vibration is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Tang, Jianfei; Yan, Gang; Xu, Xiwu

2011-11-01

113

NOAA's Global Earth Observation - Integrated Data Environment (GEO-IDE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international Group on Earth Observation (GEO) and the U.S. coordination group, USGEO, have identified nine societal benefit areas that require environmental data of a wide range of types and from many diverse sources. GEO has called on the nations of the world to ensure that the relevant data that they hold is made accessible and useful to these applications. In response, nations and their environmental agencies are addressing the challenges associated with data integration of these distributed and diverse data types. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) holds extremely large collections of data describing the physical and biological properties of the Earth's environment. To date, the data collections and the systems that support them have been acquired by individually funded and managed programs with differing requirements, standards, interfaces and conventions, mirroring the data integration issues faced at the national and international level. The Global Earth Observation - Integrated Data Environment (GEO-IDE) has been initiated by NOAA to address these issues for its own interdisciplinary applications as well as those of the the broader national and international iniatives. The concept and initial plans for GEO-IDE have been developed by the Data Management Integration Team (DMIT), a group of data management professionals representing all NOAA's Line Offices, Goal Teams and the office of the CIO. The goal of GEO-IDE is to define an architecture and the associated processes necessary to establish the required standards and guidelines that allow NOAA's data providers to make their products available as a set of interoperable services. GEO-IDE is addressing the integration of existing data services while at the same time providing guidance to future data system development activities. It is intended to meet an important NOAA need while also supporting NOAA's contribution to USGEO and GEO.

McDonald, K. R.

2007-12-01

114

Validation of the ASAR Global Monitoring Mode Soil Moisture Product Using the NAFE'05 Data Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) Global Monitoring (GM) mode offers an opportunity for global soil moisture (SM) monitoring at much finer spatial resolution than that provided by the currently operational Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System and future planned missions such as Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity and Soil Moisture Active Passive. Considering the difficulties in

Iliana Mladenova; Venkat Lakshmi; Jeffrey P. Walker; Rocco Panciera; Wolfgang Wagner; Marcela Doubkova

2010-01-01

115

Water erosion monitoring and experimentation for global change studies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the need for monitoring the effects of climatic change on soil erosion. The importance of monitoring not only runoff, but monitoring and experimental studies at the larger scale of hillslope and catchments is stressed.

Poesen, J.W. [Laboratory for Experimental Geomorphology, Leuven (Belgium); Boardman, J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Wilcox, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1996-09-01

116

Archive: Satellite Meteorology: Monitoring the Global Environment, December 22, 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web Seminar took place on December 22, 2010, from 6:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Presenting was Rudo Kashiri, NASA Explorer Schools Coordinator. In this Seminar, Ms. Kashiri focused the discussion on a wealth of online resources for teachers t

1900-01-01

117

Archive: Satellite Meteorology: Monitoring the Global Environment, February 3, 2011  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web Seminar took place on February 3, 2011 from 6:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Presenting was Rudo Kashiri, NASA Explorer Schools Coordinator. In this Seminar, Ms. Kashiri focused the discussion on a wealth of online resources for teachers to

1900-01-01

118

AVHRR-based drought-observing system for monitoring the environment and socioeconomic activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From all natural disaster, drought is the least understandable and the most damaging environmental phenomenon. Although in pre-satellite era, climate data were used for drought monitoring, drought specifics created problems in early drought detection start/end, monitoring its expansion/contraction, intensity and area coverage and the most important, timely estimation of the impacts on the environment and socioeconomic activities. The latest prevented to take prompt measures in mitigating negative consequences of drought for the society. Advances in remote sensing of the past ten years, contributed to the development of comprehensive drought monitoring system and numerous applications, which helped to make decisions for monitoring the environment and predicting sustainable socioeconomic activities. This paper discusses satellite-based land-surface observing system, which provides wells of information used for monitoring such unusual natural disaster as drought. This system was developed from the observations of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) flown on NOAA operational polar-orbiting satellites. The AVHRR data were packed into the Global Vegetation Index (GVI) product, which have served the global community since 1981. The GVI provided reflectances and indices (4 km spacial resolution) every seven days for each 16 km map cell between 75EN and 55ES covering all land ecosystems. The data includes raw and calibrated radiances in the visible, near infrared and infrared spectral bands, processed (with eliminated high frequency noise) radiances, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), 20-year climatology, vegetation condition indices and also products, such as vegetation health, drought, vegetation fraction, fire risk etc. In the past ten years, users around the world used this information addressing different issues of drought impacts on socioeconomic activities and responded positively to real time drought information place regularly on the following web site http://orbit-net.nesdis.noaa.gov/crad/sat/surf/vci/. Drought assessments were compared with ground observations in twenty two countries around the world and showed good results in early drought detection and monitoring its development and impacts on the environment and socioeconomic activities, for assessment of biomass/crop production losses and fire risk. In addition, the AVHRR-based products showed potential in monitoring mosquito-born epidemics, amount of water required for irrigation, and predicting ENSO impacts on productivity of land ecosystems. These applications were used in agriculture, forestry, weather models, climatology. This presentation will be illustrated with many examples of data applications and also with explanations of data structure and use.

Kogan, F.

119

The Global Communication Infrastructure of the International Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI) employs 6 satellites in various frequency bands distributed around the globe. Communications with the PTS (Provisional Technical Secretariat) in Vienna, Austria are achieved through VSAT technologies, international leased data circuits and Virtual Private Network (VPN) connections over the Internet. To date, 210 independent VSAT circuits have been connected to Vienna as well as special circuits connecting to the Antarctic and to independent sub-networks. Data volumes from all technologies currently reach 8 Gigabytes per day. The first level of support and a 24/7 help desk remains with the GCI contractor, but performance is monitored actively by the PTS/GCI operations team. GCI operations are being progressively introduced into the PTS operations centre. An Operations centre fully integrated with the GCI segment of the IMS network will ensure a more focused response to incidents and will maximize the availability of the IMS network. Existing trouble tickets systems are being merged to ensure the commission manages GCI incidents in the context of the IMS as a whole. A focus on a single source of data for GCI network performance has enabled reporting systems to be developed which allow for improved and automated reports. The contracted availability for each individual virtual circuit is 99.5% and this performance is regularly reviewed on a monthly basis

Lastowka, L.; Gray, A.; Anichenko, A.

2007-05-01

120

Ancestral populations perform better in a novel environment: domestication of medfly populations from five global regions  

PubMed Central

Geographically isolated populations of a species may differ in several aspects of life-history, morphology, behavior, and genetic structure as a result of adaptation in ecologically diverse habitats. We used a global invasive species, the Mediterranean fruit fly to investigate, whether adaptation to a novel environment differs among geographically isolated populations that vary in major life history components such as life span and reproduction. We used wild populations from five global regions (Kenya, Hawaii, Guatemala, Portugal, and Greece). Adult demographic traits were monitored in F2, F5, F7 and F9 generations in captivity. Although domestication in constant laboratory conditions had a different effect on the mortality and reproductive rates of the different populations, a general trend of decreasing life span and age of first reproduction was observed for most medfly populations tested. However, taking into account longevity of both sexes, age-specific reproductive schedules, and average reproductive rates we found that the ancestral Kenyan population kept the above life history traits stable during domestication compared to the other populations tested. These findings provide important insights in the life-history evolution of this model species, and suggest that ancestral medfly populations perform better than the derived – invasive ones in a novel environment.

Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Carey, James R.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

2010-01-01

121

Ancestral populations perform better in a novel environment: domestication of medfly populations from five global regions.  

PubMed

Geographically isolated populations of a species may differ in several aspects of life-history, morphology, behavior, and genetic structure as a result of adaptation in ecologically diverse habitats. We used a global invasive species, the Mediterranean fruit fly to investigate, whether adaptation to a novel environment differs among geographically isolated populations that vary in major life history components such as life span and reproduction. We used wild populations from five global regions (Kenya, Hawaii, Guatemala, Portugal, and Greece). Adult demographic traits were monitored in F(2), F(5), F(7) and F(9) generations in captivity. Although domestication in constant laboratory conditions had a different effect on the mortality and reproductive rates of the different populations, a general trend of decreasing life span and age of first reproduction was observed for most medfly populations tested. However, taking into account longevity of both sexes, age-specific reproductive schedules, and average reproductive rates we found that the ancestral Kenyan population kept the above life history traits stable during domestication compared to the other populations tested. These findings provide important insights in the life-history evolution of this model species, and suggest that ancestral medfly populations perform better than the derived - invasive ones in a novel environment. PMID:21278856

Diamantidis, Alexandros D; Carey, James R; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

2011-02-01

122

Global Software Processes Definition in a Distributed Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global software development projects are passing through the boundaries of a company or a country. In order to manage global teams effectively, it is necessary to define a software process adapted to different organizational cultures. A global software process gives all team members a common language to define tasks and activities allowing the better understanding of the business domain terms

Mariângela Vanzin; Marcelo Blois Ribeiro; Rafael Prikladnicki; Ilmari Ceccato; Dante Carlos Antunes

2005-01-01

123

Satellite monitoring of global land cover changes and their impact on climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land cover is a crucial, spatially and temporally varying component of global carbon and climate systems. Therefore accurate estimation and monitoring of land cover changes is important in global change research. Although, land cover has dramatically changed over the last few centuries, until now there has been no consistent way of quantifying the changes globally.

Ramakrishna R. Nemani; Steven W. Running

1995-01-01

124

The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments.  

PubMed

The simultaneous increases in obesity in almost all countries seem to be driven mainly by changes in the global food system, which is producing more processed, affordable, and effectively marketed food than ever before. This passive overconsumption of energy leading to obesity is a predictable outcome of market economies predicated on consumption-based growth. The global food system drivers interact with local environmental factors to create a wide variation in obesity prevalence between populations. Within populations, the interactions between environmental and individual factors, including genetic makeup, explain variability in body size between individuals. However, even with this individual variation, the epidemic has predictable patterns in subpopulations. In low-income countries, obesity mostly affects middle-aged adults (especially women) from wealthy, urban environments; whereas in high-income countries it affects both sexes and all ages, but is disproportionately greater in disadvantaged groups. Unlike other major causes of preventable death and disability, such as tobacco use, injuries, and infectious diseases, there are no exemplar populations in which the obesity epidemic has been reversed by public health measures. This absence increases the urgency for evidence-creating policy action, with a priority on reduction of the supply-side drivers. PMID:21872749

Swinburn, Boyd A; Sacks, Gary; Hall, Kevin D; McPherson, Klim; Finegood, Diane T; Moodie, Marjory L; Gortmaker, Steven L

2011-08-27

125

Health and the environment: a global challenge. WHO Commission on Health and Environment.  

PubMed Central

A healthy environment is not only a need, it is also a right; the right to live and work in an environment conducive to physical and mental health is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Everyone shares the responsibility for ensuring that this right is duly acknowledged. The responsibility for action lies with individuals and with business. Governments have the responsibility of setting up the strategic and institutional framework within which action is taken. There are three main global objectives: achieving a sustainable basis for health for all--by slowing down population growth as soon as possible, and promoting life-styles and patterns of consumption among affluent groups and countries that are consistent with ecological sustainability; providing an environment that promotes health--by reducing the risk of physical, chemical and biological hazards and ensuring that everyone has the means to acquire the resources on which health depends; making all individuals and organizations aware of their responsibilities for health and its environmental basis.

1992-01-01

126

Novel method for monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms in the environment.  

PubMed

A method has been devised for directly detecting and monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) by using in vitro amplification of the target DNAs by a polymerase chain reaction and then hybridizing the DNAs with a specific oligonucleotide or DNA probe. A cloned 0.3-kilobase napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) genomic DNA that did not hybridize to DNAs isolated from various microorganisms, soil sediments, and aquatic environments was inserted into a derivative of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degradative plasmid, pRC10, and transferred into Escherichia coli. This genetically altered microorganism, seeded into filter-sterilized lake and sewage water samples (10(4)/ml), was detected by a plate count method in decreasing numbers for 6 and 10 days of sample incubation, respectively. The new method detected the amplified unique marker (0.3-kilobase DNA) of the GEM even after 10 to 14 days of incubation. This method is highly sensitive (it requires only picogram amounts of DNA) and has an advantage over the plate count technique, which can detect only culturable microorganisms. The method may be useful for monitoring GEMs in complex environments, where discrimination between GEMs and indigenous microorganisms is either difficult or requires time-consuming tests. PMID:2667463

Chaudhry, G R; Toranzos, G A; Bhatti, A R

1989-05-01

127

Novel method for monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms in the environment.  

PubMed Central

A method has been devised for directly detecting and monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) by using in vitro amplification of the target DNAs by a polymerase chain reaction and then hybridizing the DNAs with a specific oligonucleotide or DNA probe. A cloned 0.3-kilobase napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) genomic DNA that did not hybridize to DNAs isolated from various microorganisms, soil sediments, and aquatic environments was inserted into a derivative of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degradative plasmid, pRC10, and transferred into Escherichia coli. This genetically altered microorganism, seeded into filter-sterilized lake and sewage water samples (10(4)/ml), was detected by a plate count method in decreasing numbers for 6 and 10 days of sample incubation, respectively. The new method detected the amplified unique marker (0.3-kilobase DNA) of the GEM even after 10 to 14 days of incubation. This method is highly sensitive (it requires only picogram amounts of DNA) and has an advantage over the plate count technique, which can detect only culturable microorganisms. The method may be useful for monitoring GEMs in complex environments, where discrimination between GEMs and indigenous microorganisms is either difficult or requires time-consuming tests. Images

Chaudhry, G R; Toranzos, G A; Bhatti, A R

1989-01-01

128

Software configuration management over a global software development environment: lessons learned from a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software configuration management is an important support activity in the software development process. In global environments, the software configuration becomes critical due to the characteristics of the distributed development (physical distance, cultural differences, trust, communication and other factors). The objective of this paper is to analyze the software configuration management in a global software development environment, identifying the main challenges.

Leonardo Pilatti; Jorge Luis Nicolas Audy; Rafael Prikladnicki

2006-01-01

129

Cycling of DDT in the global environment 1950–2002: World ocean returns the pollutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global distribution and fate of the insecticide DDT was modeled for the first time using a spatially resolved global multicompartment chemistry-transport model comprising a 3D coupled atmosphere and ocean GCM, coupled to 2D vegetation surfaces and top soils. DDT enters the model environment as a pesticide in agriculture only. Final sinks of DDT in the total environment are degradation

Irene Stemmler; Gerhard Lammel

2009-01-01

130

Development of Data Video Base Station in Water Environment Monitoring Oriented Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consists of three parts: data monitoring nodes, date video base station and remote monitoring center. For the sake of realizing to monitor large range waters such as reservoir, wetland, lake, river and ocean etc, the monitoring system has the function of perception, acquisition, processing and transmission for video-information in key

Kong Yifan; Jiang Peng

2008-01-01

131

Monitoring the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO 2 : Measurements from the NOAA Global Air Sampling Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable isotopic composition of atmospheric CO 2 is being monitored via measurements made at the University of Colorado-Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, using air samples collected weekly by the Global Air Sampling Network of the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory. These measurements, in concert with the monitoring of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios, offer the potential to characterize

M. Trolier; J. W. C. White; P. P. Tans; K. A. Masarie; P. A. Gemery

1996-01-01

132

Space Environment Monitor for NPOESS (SEM-N) Sensor Suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Environment Monitor for NPOESS (SEM-N) is a compliment of three space particle sensors to be flown on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) which will take measurements to produce space environment data products for the near earth environment. SEM-N will fly on the first NPOESS spacecraft to be launched in 2013. Five Environmental Data Records will be retrieved by the SEM-N instrument package: auroral boundary, auroral energy deposition, energetic ions, medium energy charged particles, supra-thermal through aurora particles. Multiple angle, continuous energy spectral coverage will be provided for electrons from 30 eV to 1 MeV and for protons from 30 eV to >1000 MeV. The SEM-N coverage extends that of the current SEM-2 instrument and fills gaps in the present energy spectrum. The heritage-based SEM-N complement consists of the DMSP Special Sensor J5 (SSJ-5) for low energy measurements, the APL Energetic Particle Sensor (EPS) for medium energies, and an omnidirectional High Energy Sensor (HES) for high energy protons. This paper will present details on the SEM-N sensors and their expected performance.

Wolfram, K.; Hamilton, R.

2008-12-01

133

New tools in monitoring East and Southeast Asian environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By all economic measures East and Southeast Asia are major success stories and emerging powerhouses in the global economy. This region continues to outperform, by a wide margin, other regions of the developing world and the industrial countries as well. However, this economic growth has been at a cost to the environment that is increasingly evident and may threaten future growth. Losses of tropical forests, unsustainable agriculture, unsound energy production and use, urban and industrial pollution, and the depletion of coastal and marine resources all impact current and future growth. However, information obtained from Mission-To-Planet-Earth sensors and other remote sensing devices may provide a basis for policies that help reduce environmental damage and promote resource sustainability. Three examples using Landsat, AVHRR, and interferometric RADAR data illustrate remote sensing applications to Asian development and environmental sustainability.

Wagner, Thomas W.; Shuchman, Robert A.

1997-01-01

134

Global audit characteristics across cultures and environments: An empirical examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to harmonize auditing globally have met with limited success. If cultural and environmental factors, endemic to each nation, represent the underlying harrier to global audit harmonization, then a relationship between these factors and audit characteristics should be expected. This study clarifies the linkages among cultural and environmental factors and auditing while empirically testing these relationships using canonical correlation. The

Rahnl A. Wood

1996-01-01

135

Global Biofuel Expansion under Different Energy Price Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of varying energy price paths (reference, low and high petroleum prices) on continued biofuel expansion and the implications on global agricultural commodity markets. It uses PEATSim, a dynamic, partial equilibrium, multi- commodity, multi-region global trade model of the agriculture sector. Continued biofuel expansion spurred by alternative energy programs will lead to increasing agricultural commodity prices

May M. Peters

136

Ocean Acidification: The Newest Threat to the Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification is the newest global environmental threat confronting the earth. It is the consequence of the same anthropogenic excess that is responsible for global warming—release of much more CO2 at much faster rates, minute after minute, than the earth's capability to assimilate. Considering that oceans cover almost 70% of the earth's surface, any upset in the balance of forces

Tasneem Abbasi; S. A. Abbasi

2011-01-01

137

Monitoring of plant development in controlled environment with machine vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information acquisition is the foremost requirement for the control and continued operation of any complex system. This is especially true when a plant production system is used as a major component in a sustainable life support system. The plant production system not only provides food and fiber but is a means of providing critically needed life supporting elements such as O_2 and purified H_2O. The success of the plant production system relies on close monitoring and control of the production system. Machine vision technology was evaluated for the monitoring of plant health and development and showed promising results. Spectral and morphological characteristics of a model plant were studied under various artificially induced stress conditions. From the spectroscopic studies, it was found that the stresses can be determined from visual and non-visual symptoms. The development of the plant can also be quantified using a video image analysis base approach. The correlations between the qualities of the model plant and machine vision measured spectral features were established. The success of the research has shown a great potential in building an automated, closed-loop plant production system in controlled environments.

Ling, P. P.; Giacomelli, G. A.; Russell, T.

138

Safety and Security of Remote Monitoring and Control of intelligent Home Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent home environments are one of the major application areas of pervasive computing. Safety and security are two most important issues in the remote monitoring and control of intelligent home environments. This article takes safety and security into consideration together and proposes a phone-out-only policy for ensuring security and virtual home environments for safety. A remote monitoring and control system

Lili Yang; Shuang-Hua Yang; Fang Yao

2006-01-01

139

TROPOMI: An Important Step Towards Global Monitoring of the Troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TROPOMI is a nadir viewing shortwave spectrometer to measure the tropospheric composition for climate and air quality applications. The TROPOMI instrument, an initiative from the Netherlands and co-funded by ESA, is planned for a launch in 2014 as a single payload on the Sentinel 5 Precursor mission. This mission is an important step forward from the current OMI on NASA EOS Aura and SCIAMACHY on Envisat towards the operational Sentinel 5 mission that is planned around 2020. The primary data products of TROPOMI are nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, tropospheric ozone column, methane and aerosols. In addition, also formaldehyde, bromine monoxide, total ozone and cloud parameters will be detected. Together, this forms a set of key species for air quality and climate applications. These applications will include forecasting of the air quality, improving emissions inventories, and monitoring of the atmospheric composition. TROPOMI will measure the UV-visible wavelength range from (270-500 nm), the near infrared (710-770 nm) and the shortwave infrared (2314-2382 nm). In the UV-visible and near infrared the spectral resolution is 0.5 nm, except for the wavelengths below 308 nm, where the spectral resolution is 1.0 nm. In the shortwave infrared the spectral resolution is 0.25 nm. TROPOMI will have an unprecedented spatial resolution of about 7x7 km2 at nadir. The spatial resolution is combined with a wide swath to allow for daily global coverage. The high spatial resolution serves two goals: (1) emissions sources can be detected with more accuracy and (2) the number of cloud-free ground pixels will increase substantially. The latter is especially important for TROPOMI data products that are very sensitive for cloud contamination, such as the methane product. In addition to an improved spatial resolution, also the signal-to-noise of TROPOMI will be improved as compared to OMI and SCIAMACHY. The Sentinel 5 Precursor will be launched into a Sun-synchronous early afternoon orbit. By using this orbit, the TROPOMI data can be used together with the GOME-2 measurements in the morning to detect diurnal variations. This has already been demonstrated for NO2 using OMI and SCIAMACHY observations. Over Europe, the diurnal variations will be observed by the geostationary Sentinel 4 mission after 2018. It is planned to fly the Sentinel 5 Precursor within 10 minutes of the NPP/NPOESS missions. The high spatial resolution imagery of the VIIRS instrument onboard of these missions can be used for additional information on clouds and aerosols, which is especially important for the methane, but can also improve the quality of several other data products.

Veefkind, Pepijn; Aben, Ilse; Levelt, Pieternel

2010-05-01

140

Global environment and technology of plasticity: role of technology of plasticity in addressing global environmental issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global environmental problems are very complex and provide mankind with a number of challenging themes. While the pollution problems that emerged in the 1960s had been limited to developed countries, the environmental problems confronting us today have crossed national borders and must be tackled on a global level. In addressing the global environmental issues, not only must the technology

Haruo Kubotera

1996-01-01

141

Advanced sensors and monitors for process industries and the environment  

SciTech Connect

Some of the topics covered in this volume are: optical monitoring and control for process industries; emerging sensor technology; gas turbine monitoring; and environmental monitoring. There are a total of 32 papers.

Groot, W.A. de [ed.

1999-06-01

142

Quantitative analysis of NOx emissions from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite image sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxides (NOx) play a very important role among the anthropogenic trace gases. They affect human health and have an impact on ozone chemistry and climatic change. Here we describe a new method for the quantification of the global NOx budget from image sequences of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) spectrometer on board the ERS 2 satellite. In contrast

C. Leue; M. Wenig; T. Wagner; Oliver Klimm; U. Platt; B. Jähne

2001-01-01

143

Monitoring Global Biomass Burning CO emissions: MOPITT, AIRS, and Ground-based Spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO has several natural and human-induced sources. They are comparable in strength, but biomass burning (BB) is the only one that experiences significant interannual and seasonal variations. Thus, estimates of CO emission anomalies from BB using global satellite data are relatively straightforward. The importance of this monitoring is connected with long-term increases in global BB that has been speculated, but

L. Yurganov; R. C. Wilson; W. W. McMillan

2008-01-01

144

Linking Geophysical Networks to International Economic Development Through Integration of Global and National Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outside of the research community and mission agencies, global geophysical monitoring rarely receives sustained attention except in the aftermath of a humanitarian disaster. The recovery and rebuilding period focuses attention and resources for a short time on regional needs for geophysical observation, often at the national or sub-national level. This can result in the rapid deployment of national monitoring networks, but may overlook the longer-term benefits of integration with global networks. Even in the case of multinational disasters, such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, it has proved difficult to promote the integration of national solutions with global monitoring, research and operations infrastructure. More importantly, continuing operations at the national or sub-national scale are difficult to sustain once the resources associated with recovery and rebuilding are depleted. Except for some notable examples, the vast infrastructure associated with global geophysical monitoring is not utilized constructively to promote the integration of national networks with international efforts. This represents a missed opportunity not only for monitoring, but for developing the international research and educational collaborations necessary for technological transfer and capacity building. The recent confluence of highly visible disasters, global multi-hazard risk assessments, evaluations of the relationships between natural disasters and socio-economic development, and shifts in development agency policies, provides an opportunity to link global geophysical monitoring initiatives to central issues in international development. Natural hazard risk reduction has not been the first priority of international development agendas for understandable, mainly humanitarian reasons. However, it is now recognized that the so-called risk premium associated with making development projects more risk conscious or risk resilient is relatively small relative to potential losses. Thus there is an attitudinal shift emerging whereby disaster risk management can be "mainstreamed" into the sustainable development programs in many countries. Consequently, it is incumbent to demonstrate that multi-scale geophysical monitoring, comprising integration of global networks with national and sub-national operations, is a foundational component of sustainable development infrastructure. This suggests even greater emphasis on developing dynamic and adaptive multi- hazard risk assessments, encompassing valid estimates of social and physical vulnerabilities; designing multi- scale network integration strategies that consider risk as well as hazard; providing operational and flexible templates for developing national networks in a global context; emphasizing the backbone characteristics of global geophysical monitoring to nations seeking to develop their own monitoring capacity; promoting sustained international research, education and training collaborations coinciding with the development of monitoring capacity; and continuing to promote the free and open exchange of data as a necessary component of sustained intellectual interest in monitoring. A combination of these strategies may counteract the decay of interest in regional geophysical monitoring after a disaster.

Lerner-Lam, A.

2007-05-01

145

Global warming threat on water resources and environment: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming, greenhouse effect, and the climate change problems are long-term anthropogenic consequences that are expected to threaten water related demand and supply patterns in the near future. These problems may be identified linguistically on a logical basis to take the necessary precautions, and implement mitigation strategies after vulnerability possibilities are assessed using fuzzy logic. Climate change effects are the focus of many scientific, engineering, economic, social, cultural, and global nuisances, and these effects awaits cost-effective remedial solutions. Extreme events such as floods and droughts and modified groundwater recharge may be influenced by climate change.

?en, Zekai

2009-03-01

146

Acting Globally While Thinking Locally: Is the Global Environment Protected by Transport Emission Control Programs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

September 1998Locally motivated air quality programs have only minor collateral benefits for the global climate. If agencies with global and local agendas did business together, then individuals and firms-and even cities-would act globally when thinking locally, and one would see greater synergy.Eskeland and Xie find that locally motivated air quality programs for urban transport have limited collateral benefits in terms

Gunnar S. Eskeland; Jian Xie

1998-01-01

147

Classification of Global Urban Centers Using ASTER Data: Preliminary Results From the Urban Environmental Monitoring Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of global ecologic and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of these changes are part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument, and comprise the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program. The UEM program will acquire day\\/night, visible through thermal infrared ASTER data twice

W. L. Stefanov; P. R. Christensen

2001-01-01

148

The Internet Motion Sensor: A distributed global scoped Internet threat monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Networks are increasingly subjected to a broad spectrum of threats that impact the reliability and availability of critical infrastructure. In response, researchers and network operators have increasingly relied on monitoring to characterize and track these threats. This paper introduces the Internet Motion Sensor (IMS), a globally scoped Internet threat monitoring system whose goal is to measure, characterize, and track threats.

Evan Cooke; Michael Bailey; David Watson; Farnam Jahanian; Jose Nazario

2004-01-01

149

Problems of correlation of global and local monitoring of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1)The Air Polluttion Monitoring System has got a significant development of late, which is in direct relation with a considerable extention and improvement of the observation network in cities and industrial areas, with creation of a new network for assessing regional and global background of the atmosphere pollution, as well as with the wide involvement of meteorologists to monitoring organization.(2)While

M. E. Berlyand; N. Sh. Volberg; R. F. Lavrinenko; E. N. Rusina

1982-01-01

150

The use of differentially corrected global positioning system to monitor activities of cattle at pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global positioning system (GPS) technology is increasingly applied in livestock science to monitor pasture use and tracking routes, and is often combined with equipment for monitoring animal activity. As GPS data are referenced in time and space, it is hypothesised that parameters derived there from, such as distance travelled and aerial distance between the first and last point of a

Eva Schlecht; Christian Hülsebusch; Friedrich Mahler; Klaus Becker

2004-01-01

151

Integrated global background monitoring network. Preliminary results from Torres del Paine and Olympic National Parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1984, a pilot project was initiated for monitoring pollution at Torres del Paine National Park in southern Chile and Olympic National Park in the United States. These are two of three initial sites that are to be established as part of an integrated global backgound monitoring network. Eventually, the plan is to establish a world-wide system of such sites.

G. B. Wiersma; A. Kohler; C. Boelcke; G. Baker; M. Harmon; C. Weber; J. Gonzales

1985-01-01

152

A Global Overview: Trends in Environment and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conditions and trends for four clusters of global issues--the air and the sky, the fishes and the sea, the creatures and the land, and people and poverty--are presented. The topics of climate change, the ozone hole, air pollution, biological diversity, deforestation, and desertification are discussed. (KR)

Paden, Mary E.

1991-01-01

153

HOW TO COMPETE IN THE NEW GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades, global marketing was adopted by a majority of international companies. Globalisation was the name of the game and all business sectors were concerned. By virtually any measure - development of international trade, growing interdependence and interconnectivity of markets, trans-national terrorism, cross-borders mergers and acquisitions, strength of the alter-globalisation debate - globalisation is becoming increasingly pervasive.

Jean-Jacques Lambin; Isabelle Schuiling

154

Modeling Biofuels Expansion in a Changing Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of declining energy prices on biofuels production and use and its implications to agricultural commodity markets. It uses PEATSim, a dynamic partial equilibrium, multi-commodity, multi-country global trade model of the agriculture sector to analyze the interaction between biofuel, crop and livestock sectors. The ability of countries to achieve their energy goals will be affected by

May Peters; Agapi Somwaru; James M. Hansen; Ralph Seeley; Steve Dirkse

2009-01-01

155

Developing Design Skills in a Global Learning Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering design has undergone drastic changes over the years, including improvements in design visualization, design methods, and instrumentation. In this competitive, global economy, a product may be designed by engineers from several countries around the globe. Differences in cultural background and work attitudes must be understood by all parties involved in order to develop an effective design. For example, the

B. Lakkundi; K. Soschinske

156

Creating a Distributed Virtual Environment for Global Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GreenSpace program began in April, 1993 and continues at the present as a collaborative effort among the Human Interface Technology (HIT) Lab at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA, the Fujitsu Research Institute (FRI) of Tokyo, Japan and Fujitsu Limited of Japan. The purpose of the GreenSpace program is to develop and demonstrate a new global communications and information

Jon Mandeville; Thomas Furness; Masahiro Kawahata; Dace Campbell; Paul Danset; Austin Daul; Jens Dauner; Jim Davidson; Jon Howell; Kigen Kandie; Paul Schwartz

1995-01-01

157

Global environment: An emerging challenge for international cooperation building a legal regime for ozone layer depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global environment is presenting new opportunities and challenges for international cooperation. The depletion of the ozone layer is one of the successful cases where the world community has demonstrated a rare consensus to address a global problem. This study: (1) examines the role of international law and institutions in shaping a regime for ozone layer depletion as formalized in the

Hosseini

1992-01-01

158

The Global Environment Facility-a Role Model for International Governance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's fragmented world demands creative institutional arrangements to allow governments, international organizations and civil society actors to address transboundary and international problems. This article examines if and how the Global Environment Facility (GEF) can serve as a testing ground to find new ways to address such global problems in multilateral cooperation. After outlining the GEF's history, institutional setting and participatory

Charlotte Streck

2001-01-01

159

A major upgrade of the global Mercator Océan ocean monitoring and forecasting system and corresponding product quality improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercator Océan (the French ocean forecast service provider) was setup in France about 10 years ago by all the French organizations holding stakes in ocean forecasting. It has since then constantly developed and is currently operating operational ocean forecasting systems based on state-of-the-art Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCM, we use the NEMO code) assimilating the observations of the Global Ocean Observing System (remote sensing + in situ). The mandate of Mercator Océan is to cover the global ocean at a resolution sufficient to both simulate the physics including the eddies (eddy resolving) and take the maximum benefit from the GOOS via data assimilation. To do so, Mercator Océan is strongly connected to the ocean modeling and data assimilation research communities, at French, European and international levels. Mercator Océan is engaged in the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European initiative and is currently coordinating a European consortium (~60 partners) gathering all the European skills in ocean monitoring and forecasting to build the Marine forecast component of the GMES service. This is currently done in the MyOcean II EU funded project (project started in 2012). Within the MyOcean consortium, among other commitments, Mercator Océan is the operator of the global ocean forecasting system, and one of the providers of global ocean reanalysis products. In this context (MyOcean V3 service), we have implemented a major upgrade of the systems operated at Mercator Océan ., including improvements in the model configurations, in data assimilation and product elaboration and serving. This concerns especially the global eddy resolving system (1/12° global) which is operational providing daily service. We focus our presentation on product quality, showing how these upgrades correspond to product improvements, and illustrating how the users are served with better quality products, thanks to this upgrade.

Dombrowsky, Eric; Drillet, Yann; Legalloudec, Olivier; Lellouche, Jean Michel; Regnier, Charly

2013-04-01

160

Satellite clocks characterization and monitoring for global navigation satellite systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) the user’s position is determined measuring the time of flight of the signals broadcast from satellites, which is proportional to the distance between the user and each satellite of the constellation. Time and frequency metrology has an essential role in satellite navigation systems: since a distance can be measured from a time, any error

A. Cernigliaro; I. Sesia

2011-01-01

161

Coordination and monitoring in an intelligent global manufacturing service system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen significant changes made in terms of enterprise strategy and manufacturing paradigms particularly for companies working together to remain world competitive in the volatile market. As the development of manufacturing is becoming less and less limited by national borders, a number of global manufacturing (GM) networks have been established, taking advantage of the quickly evolving computer networking

S. K Tso; Henry Lau; John K. L Ho

2000-01-01

162

Using Global Positioning System techniques in landslide monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precise determination of point coordinates with conventional Global Positioning System (GPS) techniques often required observation times of one to several hours. In the last few years, new GPS methods have been developed (among them, the fast-static and real time kinematic), with higher productivity and good theoretical precision. The main objective of this paper is to ascertain the performance of

Josep A. Gili; Jordi Corominas; Joan Rius

2000-01-01

163

Skills for Global Communication: Pursuing a positive learning environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seido Language Institute of Kobe, Japan, published the four-skills textbook, Skills for Global Communication, in the spring of 2006. It had been piloted at the University of Hyogo from the spring of 2004, and was formally adopted as the required text for all first-year English-language students at that university at the time of its formal publication. In this paper the

Aya Shinozaike Dougherty; Patrick T. Dougherty

164

Global nuclear material monitoring with NDA and C/S data through integrated facility monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on a flexible, integrated demonstration of a monitoring approach for nuclear material monitoring. This includes aspects of item signature identification, perimeter portal monitoring, advanced data analysis, and communication as a part of an unattended continuous monitoring system in an operating nuclear facility. Advanced analysis is applied to the integrated nondestructive assay and containment and surveillance data that are synchronized in time. End result will be the foundation for a cost-effective monitoring system that could provide the necessary transparency even in areas that are denied to foreign nationals of both US and Russia should these processes and materials come under full-scope safeguards or bilateral agreements. Monitoring systems of this kind have the potential to provide additional benefits including improved nuclear facility security and safeguards and lower personnel radiation exposures. Demonstration facilities in this paper include VTRAP-prototype, Los Alamos Critical Assemblies Facility, Kazakhstan BM-350 Reactor monitor, DUPIC radiation monitoring, and JOYO and MONJU radiation monitoring.

Howell, J.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Argo, P.; Goulding, C.; Klosterbuer, S.; Halbig, J.

1996-09-01

165

Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Challenges and Opportunities in the Selection of Coverage Indicators for Global Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live.

Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Newby, Holly; Bryce, Jennifer

2013-01-01

166

Urban real estate dynamic monitoring using 3S integration in a mobile environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposed a technique for integration of 3S (GIS, RS and GPS) in urban real estate dynamic monitoring within a mobile environment. The framework of the technique includes two major parts: one is the change detection of buildings from high resolution satellite images, the other one is the dynamic monitoring based on 3S integration within a mobile GIS environment.

He Bing; Chen Peng; Tong Xiao-hua; Cai Yin-qiao; Qu Bo

2009-01-01

167

What do researchers know about the global business environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highlights the dearth of research on the range of issues surrounding the international environment and the impact on international marketing. Such issues concern trade and investment liberalization and protectionism, the role of multilateral institutions and the NGOs, and country, sector and company analyses. A research agenda is proposed. Suggests company studies (the impacts on the firm of the evolution of

Stephen Young

2001-01-01

168

Validation of the ASAR Global Monitoring Mode Soil Moisture Product  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is well established in literature that integration of land surface variables such as soil moisture into forecasting models will lead to improved hydrologic prediction. Furthermore, most hydrological processes are best monitored at spatial scales of 1 km or higher. However, current and future pas...

169

Topology discovery services for monitoring the global grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic joint optimization of both computational and network resources has the potential of guaranteeing optimal performance Io geographically distributed grid applications. A grid network information and monitoring service (NIMS) has been recently proposed to complement computational resource status information with network resource status information. NIMS information includes, but is not limited to, information already available in the network control

L. Valcarenghi; L. Foschini; F. Paolucci; P. Castoldi; F. Cugini

2006-01-01

170

MODVOLC: near-real-time thermal monitoring of global volcanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

MODVOLC is a non-interactive algorithm developed at the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) that uses low spatial resolution (1-km pixel-size) infrared satellite data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the global distribution of volcanic thermal anomalies in near-real-time. MODVOLC scans the Level-1B MODIS data stream, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, for evidence of pixel and

Robert Wright; Luke P. Flynn; Harold Garbeil; Andrew J. L. Harris; Eric Pilger

2004-01-01

171

The Design of Flower Ecological Environment Monitoring System Based on ZigBee Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological environment is the key point of improving the flower's quality and quantity. Due to China's flower production management at a lower level, there is no scientific method in real-time monitoring of the flower's ecological environment. In order to solve the problem such as high costs; poor monitoring point scalability, poor mobility and other issues in traditional flower basement's data acquisition system, this paper devises a wireless real-time system based on ZigBee technology for the monitoring of flower's ecological environment. By the analysis of ZigBee technology's characteristics, it focuses on the design of wireless gateway with S3C4510B; wireless sensor node control module AT89S51 and the communication module CC2430; analyses the Zigbee protocol stack network's formation and designs data acquisition and communication procedures. By monitoring every flower's ecological environment indicators in practice, this system can meet the needs of the real-time monitoring for flower's ecological environment.

Guo, Xiaoqing; Xiang, Xinjian

172

Integration of drought monitoring with remote sensing into the global drought information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought occurs everywhere in the world and is one of the costliest natural hazards. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has advocated implementing a Global Drought Early Warning System (GDEWS) since 2007. Various indices have been developed and used to depict drought. According to the survey, various drought monitoring system with remote sensing at regional, national or local level are existing, but the integration with the drought system based on the weather station data, in particular at the global level is still weak. However, the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative was recognized by the G20 agricultural ministers and will enhance the linkage between GEO-GLAM and GDEWS. The capability for a component of drought monitoring with remote sensing is there in place. MODIS data have been used to globally track the distribution of crop failures due to droughts. In China, the Chinese meteorological satellite, FY is also ready to monitoring drought globally. MERSI onboard FY-3 is similar with MODIS and helpful to monitor the occurrence, development of drought at different scales. JRC MARS issues periodical bulletin on agricultural conditions. Agricultural Division of Statistics, Canada issues weekly crop condition reports. In India, the biweekly drought bulletin and monthly reports is issued under National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS). Similar program is followed in many countries world-wide. The informed information of drought is helpful for governmental officials and formers to in advance prepare for coping with the likely coming drought. The global efforts should be in place to promote the global drought information system with a remote sensing drought component.

Fan, Jinlong; Zhang, Mingwei; Cao, Guangzheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Jianjun

2012-09-01

173

Global satellite monitoring of the atmosphere and ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities of monitoring the atmosphere and ionosphere along satellite-to-satellite radio occultation paths are considered.\\u000a A relation between the amplitude and the phase of the signal sounding the medium is substantiated. Owing to this relation,\\u000a it is possible to separate the influence of layered and wave structures from the influence of turbulence in the atmosphere\\u000a and ionosphere. The possibility to

A. G. Pavelyev; S. S. Matyugov; O. I. Yakovlev

2008-01-01

174

Flood monitoring for ungauged rivers: the power of combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood warning systems typically rely on forecasts from national meteorological services and in-situ observations from hydrological gauging stations. This capacity is not equally developed in flood-prone developing countries. Low-cost satellite monitoring systems and global flood forecasting systems can be an alternative source of information for national flood authorities. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been develop jointly with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the Joint Research Centre, and it is running quasi operational now since June 2011. The system couples state-of-the art weather forecasts with a hydrological model driven at a continental scale. The system provides downstream countries with information on upstream river conditions as well as continental and global overviews. In its test phase, this global forecast system provides probabilities for large transnational river flooding at the global scale up to 30 days in advance. It has shown its real-life potential for the first time during the flood in Southeast Asia in 2011, and more recently during the floods in Australia in March 2012, India (Assam, September-October 2012) and Chad Floods (August-October 2012).The Joint Research Centre is working on further research and development, rigorous testing and adaptations of the system to create an operational tool for decision makers, including national and regional water authorities, water resource managers, hydropower companies, civil protection and first line responders, and international humanitarian aid organizations. Currently efforts are being made to link GloFAS to the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS). GFDS is a Space-based river gauging and flood monitoring system using passive microwave remote sensing which was developed by a collaboration between the JRC and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. GFDS provides flood alerts based on daily water surface change measurements from space. Alerts are shown on a world map, with detailed reports for individual gauging sites. A comparison of discharge estimates from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) and the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) with observations for representative climatic zones is presented. Both systems have demonstrated strong potential in forecasting and detecting recent catastrophic floods. The usefulness of their combined information on global scale for decision makers at different levels is discussed. Combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models is an innovative approach and has significant benefits for international river commissions as well as international aid organisations. This is in line with the objectives of the Hyogo and the Post-2015 Framework that aim at the development of systems which involve trans-boundary collaboration, space-based earth observation, flood forecasting and early warning.

Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Netgeka, Victor; Raynaud, Damien; Thielen, Jutta

2013-04-01

175

Veterinary medicine, food security and the global environment.  

PubMed

The authors focus on the role of veterinary medicine in feeding the nine billion people projected to inhabit the planet by 2050, despite the problems of global warming, political constraints and environmental destruction. Population growth, predominantly urban, will occur mainly in developing countries, at a magnitude comparable to creating a city the size of Los Angeles, the second largest city in the United States of America, every three weeks for the next 40 years. Accompanying this growth will be a greatly increased demand for animal protein. How this burgeoning demand can be met by intensive and extensive systems of animal production is discussed, with particular reference to the immensely important role that the veterinary profession and schools must play. PMID:20128458

Kelly, A M; Marshak, R R

2009-08-01

176

Global transcriptional response of Lactobacillus reuteri to the sourdough environment.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus reuteri is a lactic acid bacterium that is highly adapted to the sourdough environment. It is a dominant member of industrial type II sourdoughs, and is also able to colonize the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans, and birds. In this study, the transcriptional response of L. reuteri ATCC 55730 was investigated during sourdough fermentation by using whole-genome microarrays. Significant changes of mRNA levels were found for 101 genes involved in diverse cellular processes, such as carbohydrate and energy metabolism, cell envelope biosynthesis, exopolysaccharide production, stress responses, signal transduction and cobalamin biosynthesis. The results showed extensive changes of the organism's gene expression during growth in sourdough as compared with growth in chemically defined medium, and, thus, revealed pathways involved in the adaptation of L. reuteri to the ecological niche of sourdough. The utilization of starch and non-starch carbohydrates, the remodelling of the cell wall, characterized by reduced D-alanylation, and increased amounts of cell wall-associated polysaccharides, as well as the regulatory function of two component systems for cell wall biogenesis and metabolism were suggested by the gene expression data as being important for growth in sourdough. The impact of several L. reuteri genes for effective growth in sourdough was shown by implementation of mutant strains in sourdough fermentation. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular fundamentals of L. reuteri's ecological competitiveness, and provides a basis for further exploration of genetic traits involved in adaptation to the food environment. PMID:18762399

Hüfner, Eric; Britton, Robert A; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Hans; Hertel, Christian

2008-08-30

177

Applying video sensor networks to nearshore environment monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental monitoring is an important emerging application area for pervasive computing. We describe shore-based sensing using standard video cameras and measurement techniques for important variables such as wave and ocean current conditions. We apply networked sensors for monitoring environmentally sensitive beaches and nearshore coastal oceans. We give some steps to improve the Argus video sensor network's functionality to quantify the

Rob Holman; John Stanley; Tuba Özkan-Haller

2003-01-01

178

Guide for monitoring equipment environments during nuclear plant operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This guide is intended to assist utilities in formulating and implementing improved monitoring programs by providing guidance on why, where and how to track environmental conditions such as temperature, radiation, and humidity for equipment in nuclear power plants during operation. The guide describes steps for implementing programs. It also gives advantages, disadvantages and costs for a variety of monitoring methods

J. W. Danahy; R. W. Evans

1991-01-01

179

The Application of the DMC Strategy and Experience to Provide Additional Support to a European Global Monitoring System Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd has reviewed the ability of small satellites to provide additional capability to the presently defined Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) space segment, allowing the broadest set of user requirements to be met. User- focused services have been compared with the instruments defined for the currently proposed Sentinels. SSTL has developed the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) of small satellites at a very low cost, which provide land-focused data products in the visible wavebands with daily access capability. The study undertaken by SSTL for the European Space Agency analysed the DMC operational concept in a GMES context, reviewing a range of possible services with different payload configurations on small satellite platforms. One concept was selected and an appropriate payload definition derived. The chosen mission concept was based on the provision of near time operational oceanography information using a constellation of small satellites. The aim is to provide sea surface height, significant wave height and wind speed.

Cutter, M. A.; Giwa, S. C.; Graham, K. L.; Hodgson, D. J.; Mackin, S.; Sweeting, M. N.; Vanotti, M.; Regan, A.

2008-08-01

180

Global Future: Time to Act. Report to the President on Global Resources, Environment and Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents recommendations and ideas for actions the United States could take, in concert with other nations, for a vigorous response to urgent global problems. The goal of the report is to further public discussion of these important issues and to offer ideas to government leaders who will be developing U.S. policy in the years ahead. A…

Gillman, Katherine, Ed.; And Others

181

Global Future: Time to Act. Report to the President on Global Resources, Environment and Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents recommendations and ideas for actions the United States could take, in concert with other nations, for a vigorous response to urgent global problems. The goal of the report is to further public discussion of these important issues and to offer ideas to government leaders who will be developing U.S. policy in the years ahead.…

Gillman, Katherine, Ed.; And Others

182

Iron Resources and Ocanic Nutrients: Advancement of Global Environment Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron limits phytoplankton growth in more than 40 percent of the oceans and is a co-limitation in the remaining 60 percent of surface waters. Moreover the paradigm of a single limiting factor for plankton blooms has given way to the concept of co-limitation by light, and the nutrient elements N, Fe, P and Si. Primary production, export into the deep sea, and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere together form the biological pump in Ocean Biogeochemical Climate Models (OBCM's). The IRONAGES project is a consortium of 12 European institutes developing more realistic OBCM's for budgeting and exchanges of both CO2 and DMS, by implementing the following improvements: (i) co-limitation by four nutrients N, Fe, P, Si simultaneously; (ii) five major bloom-forming taxonomic groups, the diatoms, calcifiers, N2-fixers, Phaecystis sp. and nano-pico-plankton; (iii) DMS(P) pathways; (iv) integrated plankton ecosystem modeling; (v) realistic global oceanic iron cycling, on basis of: (vi) iron supply from below reducing sediments; (vii) iron supply from above aeolian dust input; (viii) several chemical forms of iron in surface waters; (ix) certification of iron data in the oceans.

de Baar, H.; Ironages Team

2003-04-01

183

Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industry technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global CO2 recycling system which combines utilization of natural energy and CO2 recovered from combustion of fossil fuel is studied. In the model, CO2 recovered at the place of energy demand is transported to the place where energy is produced, and from the CO2 fuels are synthesized by use of solar energy and transported to the place of energy demand. Facilities worth a large amount of money are required to transmit electric power generated by the photovoltaic power generation in the desert to the fuel synthesizing plant. Therefore, production of electrolytic hydrogen by the on-site power generation and transport by pipe may be considered. As a synthetic fuel being sent back by ocean transport, methanol is considered, and synthetic methane (LNG) can also be a candidate. CO2 is recovered as liquid carbon dioxide. Possibility of CO2 recycling is dependent on development of the desert solar base, as well as depletion of fossil fuel and price increase, CO2 penalty. It has still been difficult to say which of the fuel synthesis, CO2 tanker or securing of the solar base becomes a bottleneck. Entry of recycling fuels to the market will be possible in proportion to restrictions on fossil fuels, and evaluation of the system depends almost on the rate of energy arriving from the energy-producing region.

1992-03-01

184

Study on an agricultural environment monitoring server system using Wireless Sensor Networks.  

PubMed

This paper proposes an agricultural environment monitoring server system for monitoring information concerning an outdoors agricultural production environment utilizing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology. The proposed agricultural environment monitoring server system collects environmental and soil information on the outdoors through WSN-based environmental and soil sensors, collects image information through CCTVs, and collects location information using GPS modules. This collected information is converted into a database through the agricultural environment monitoring server consisting of a sensor manager, which manages information collected from the WSN sensors, an image information manager, which manages image information collected from CCTVs, and a GPS manager, which processes location information of the agricultural environment monitoring server system, and provides it to producers. In addition, a solar cell-based power supply is implemented for the server system so that it could be used in agricultural environments with insufficient power infrastructure. This agricultural environment monitoring server system could even monitor the environmental information on the outdoors remotely, and it could be expected that the use of such a system could contribute to increasing crop yields and improving quality in the agricultural field by supporting the decision making of crop producers through analysis of the collected information. PMID:22163520

Hwang, Jeonghwan; Shin, Changsun; Yoe, Hyun

2010-12-08

185

OSF-distributed computing environment for multimedia telemedicine services in global PACS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present our approach to developing global picture archiving and communication system (PACS) remote consultation and diagnosis (RCD) application using the Open Software Foundation (OSF) Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) services and toolkits. The current RCD system now uses programming services similar to those offered by OSF DCE, the Cell Directory Service, the Distributed Time Service, the Security Service, the RPC Facility, and the Threads Facility. In this research we have formally applied OSF DCE services to the Global PACS RCD software. The use of OSF DCE services for Global PACS enables us to develop a robust distributed structure and new user services which feature reliability and scalability for Global PACS environments.

Martinez, Ralph; Alsafadi, Yasser H.; Kim, Jinman

1995-05-01

186

NNWSI preliminary radiological monitoring plan for the environment  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations are focusing on the tuff formations under Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. As part of these ongoing Department of Energy studies, the MITRE Corporation has prepared a preliminary radionuclide monitoring program for that location. An environmental monitoring program is proposed to identify specific radionuclides which may be detected in air, water, soil, and biota. This monitoring plan addresses the preoperation, construction, and operation phases of the repository development. Further research needs are also recommended.

Saari, S.; Hoffer, R.

1984-06-01

187

Web Cache Design for Efficient SNMP Monitoring Towards Realizing Globalization of Network Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a RESTful active proxy, called Tambourine, towards realizing globalization in network management. Tambourine radically changes the landscape of traditional closed-domain SNMP monitoring into a multi-domain, multi-user monitoring activity by translating HTTP requests from a huge number of Internet users into adequate SNMP requests to network devices. Implementation of cache in Tambourine is vital to ensure

A. K. A. Hamid; Y. Kawahara; T. Asami

2010-01-01

188

Iron Resources and Oceanic Nutrients: Advancement of Global Environment Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of a single factor limiting plankton blooms, is presently giving way to co-limitation by light, and the nutrients N, P, Si and Fe. Primary production, export into the deep sea, and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere together form the 'biological pump' in Ocean Biogeochemical Climate Models (OBCM's). Thus far OBCM's assume just one limiting nutrient (P) and one universal phytoplankton species, for C budgets and CO2 exchange. New realistic OBCM's are being developed for budgeting and exchanges of both CO2 and DMS, implementing (i) co-limitation by 4 nutrients of 5 major taxonomic classes of phytoplankton, (ii) DMS(P) pathways, (iii) global iron cycling, (iv) chemical forms of iron and (v) iron supply into surface waters. The new OBCM's will predict realistic climate scenario's, notably climatic feedbacks on oceanic biogeochemistry. IRONAGES is a European consortium of twelve institutes and is coordinated by Royal NIOZ. Input from below of iron from anoxic sediments of coastal margins has been assessed (March 2002) along a 2-D vertical section from Europe into the centre of the north Atlantic. Input from above of Fe(II) dissolved in rainwater from Sahara dust blown over the central Atlantic will be quantified at sea (October 2002), and related to observed plankton production. Different chemical forms of iron are being assessed and a certification excercise for Fe in seawater also under aegis of SCOR Working Group 109 is being completed (December 2002). For two major DMS-producing algal groups Phaeocystis sp. and Emiliania huxleyi the life cycle, Fe limitation, export production, CO2 uptake and DMS emissions have been synthesized from existing literature and laboratory experiments. This is being fed into ecosystem modeling, as well as into DMS(P) pathway modeling. Also know-how has been synthesized for three other major classes (diatoms, N2-fixing Trichodesmium and nano-pico-plankton) and fed into the ecosystem modeling. Pathways of DMS(P) in blooms are being simulated. An existing plankton ecosystem model already well predicts limitation by four nutrients (N, P, Si, Fe) of two algal groups (diatoms and nanoplankton) including export and CO2 air/sea exchange. This is being expanded with 3 other groups of algae and DMS(P)pathways. Next this extended ecosystem model is being simplified while maintaining reliable output for export and CO2/DMS gas exchange. This unit will then be put into two existing OBCM's. Inputs of Fe from above and below into the oceans have been modeled. Moreover a simple global Fe cycling model has been verified versus field data and insights. Two different OBCM's with same upper ocean ecosystem/DMS unit and Fe cycling will be verified versus pre-industrial and present conditions. Next climate change scenario's, notably changes in Fe inputs, will be run, with special attention to climatic feedbacks (warming) on the oceanic cycles and fluxes.

Debaar, H. J.

2002-12-01

189

A monitoring sensor management system for grid environments  

SciTech Connect

Large distributed systems, such as computational grids,require a large amount of monitoring data be collected for a variety oftasks, such as fault detection, performance analysis, performance tuning,performance prediction and scheduling. Ensuring that all necessarymonitoring is turned on and that the data is being collected can be avery tedious and error-prone task. We have developed an agent-basedsystem to automate the execution of monitoring sensors and the collectionof event data.

Tierney, Brian; Crowley, Brian; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Thompson, Mary

2001-06-01

190

Video Monitoring of Vulnerable People in Home Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Video Monitoring System, which aims to achieve behavior analysis of elderly people. Real-time tracking\\u000a and posture discrimination enable to detect emergency situation (by trigging an alarm in case of fall detection for example)\\u000a and to analyze long term activity which enforces medical follow-up. These are key-issues to improve healthcare quality for\\u000a rural population. Monitoring human activity

Quoc-cuong Pham; Yoann Dhome; Laetitia Gond; Patrick Sayd

2008-01-01

191

Effects of Wildland Fire on Regional and Global Carbon Stocks in a Changing Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year tens of millions of hectares of forests, woodlands, and grasslands burn globally. Some are burned intentionally for land conversion, pasture renewal or hazard reduction, or wildlife habitat improvement, but most are burned by uncontrolled wildfire. Estimates of burned area available in the literature vary widely, but satellite-based remote sensing data are increasing the accuracy of monitoring active fire

Susan G. Conard; Allen M. Solomon

192

Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment  

PubMed Central

Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infrequent surveys of the standing stock of litter on beaches provide crude estimates of debris types and abundance, but are biased by differential removal of litter items by beachcombing, cleanups and beach dynamics. Monitoring the accumulation of stranded debris provides an index of debris trends in adjacent waters, but is costly to undertake. At-sea sampling requires large sample sizes for statistical power to detect changes in abundance, given the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Another approach is to monitor the impacts of plastics. Seabirds and other marine organisms that accumulate plastics in their stomachs offer a cost-effective way to monitor the abundance and composition of small plastic litter. Changes in entanglement rates are harder to interpret, as they are sensitive to changes in population sizes of affected species. Monitoring waste disposal on ships and plastic debris levels in rivers and storm-water runoff is useful because it identifies the main sources of plastic debris entering the sea and can direct mitigation efforts. Different monitoring approaches are required to answer different questions, but attempts should be made to standardize approaches internationally.

Ryan, Peter G.; Moore, Charles J.; van Franeker, Jan A.; Moloney, Coleen L.

2009-01-01

193

Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment.  

PubMed

Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infrequent surveys of the standing stock of litter on beaches provide crude estimates of debris types and abundance, but are biased by differential removal of litter items by beachcombing, cleanups and beach dynamics. Monitoring the accumulation of stranded debris provides an index of debris trends in adjacent waters, but is costly to undertake. At-sea sampling requires large sample sizes for statistical power to detect changes in abundance, given the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Another approach is to monitor the impacts of plastics. Seabirds and other marine organisms that accumulate plastics in their stomachs offer a cost-effective way to monitor the abundance and composition of small plastic litter. Changes in entanglement rates are harder to interpret, as they are sensitive to changes in population sizes of affected species. Monitoring waste disposal on ships and plastic debris levels in rivers and storm-water runoff is useful because it identifies the main sources of plastic debris entering the sea and can direct mitigation efforts. Different monitoring approaches are required to answer different questions, but attempts should be made to standardize approaches internationally. PMID:19528052

Ryan, Peter G; Moore, Charles J; van Franeker, Jan A; Moloney, Coleen L

2009-07-27

194

Assimilation of Remote Ionospheric Measurements: Towards a Global Ionospheric Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive growth in the availability of ionospheric measurements from ground and space provide a fundamentally new opportunity to image the ionosphere as never before. As examples, ground receiver TEC, occultation TEC, space-based whole-Earth UV disc emission, in-situ measurements of electron density, and ground based ionosonde measurements of both bottom-side profiles and critical parameters are all highly desirable and plentiful. However, these disparate measurements must be blended together carefully, each having its own unique capabilities and challenges. Towards this end, we have developed the Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM). Utilizing two separate complementary assimilation approaches, such observations are intelligently combined with prior climatological knowledge to yield the best estimate of the current ionospheric state. The first, a variation of the Kalman filter recursive estimation approach, is optimized to produce the best fit ionosphere with emphasis in regions of higher data density relying on a climatological background to assist in regions of sparse data. The second, a 4-dimensional variational approach (4DVAR) instead adjusts physical driver estimates (thermospheric densities and winds, electric fields, and solar radiation intensity in our case) to smoothly match incoming data and spread its influence in a physically consistent manner. For ionospheric data in particular, estimation of these ionospheric drivers is of paramount importance, as the ionosphere is a heavily dissipative system, and forecast without proper drivers is nearly impossible. In this presentation, we shall explore results of merging ground-based GPS and occultation TEC measurements and evaluate the system performance in various solar conditions.

Mandrake, L.; Wilson, B. D.; Mannucci, T.

2005-12-01

195

Computation of Travel Time Through 3D Velocity Models for Applications in Real-Time, Global Seismic Event Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional velocity models of the Earth have been little used by real-time global monitoring agencies despite the expectation that these models might improve the accuracy and reduce the uncertainty of the seismic event locations they calculate. There are many reasons for this reluctance to adopt 3D models, including 1) uncertainty that adoption of 3D models will in fact significantly improve locations, 2) questions about how to quantify the uncertainty of the travel time predictions, 3) uncertainty as to how to assess the fidelity of computed travel times relative to the input velocity model, 4) questions about the computational architecture most appropriate for calculating predicted travel times, and 5) concern that the computational cost of calculating travel time predictions in a real time monitoring environment will be prohibitive. In this paper we begin to address the implications of using 3D velocity models in real-time global monitoring environments by addressing the last 3 items in the list above, which focus on the computational aspects of using 3D velocity models for travel time prediction. There are three fundamental approaches to computing travel times through 3D velocity models: 1) fix a source location at some position in the Earth model and compute travel times to all nodes in a 3D grid of nodes surrounding the source locations by solving the eikonal equation, 2) fix the locations of a single source and single receiver within the 3D velocity model and find the ray path(s) that honor Snell's Law in between (boundary value problem; ray bending), and 3) fix a single source location within the model and iteratively modify an initial estimate of the ray parameter searching for a ray that arrives at the receiver (initial value problem; ray shooting). To assess the computational issues with the use of these types of travel time calculators we have implemented the Fast Marching Method of de Kool, et al (2006), which is an eikonal solver, and the pseudo-bending algorithm of Um and Thurber (1987). In this paper, we compare the relative merits of these approaches in the context of their use in a real-time global monitoring environment.

Ballard, S.; Young, C. J.; Hipp, J. R.; Chang, M. C.; Barker, G. T.

2007-12-01

196

Achieving Satellite Instrument Calibration for Monitoring Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the most part, satellite observations of climate are not sufficiently accurate to establish a climate record that is indisputable and hence capable of determining at what rate the climate is changing. Furthermore, they are insufficient for establishing a baseline for testing long term trend predictions of climate models. The reasons for this state of affairs are many, but can be summed up in one all-encompassing statement: NOAA's operational satellite systems have been focused on short term weather observations, and NASA's research satellite systems have not had the long term continuity needed for monitoring climate change. As a result, highly accurate observations of decadal scale climate trends are generally lacking. The Workshop on Achieving Satellite Instrument Calibration for Climate Change (ASIC3) was organized to discuss the scientific issues involved and develop recommendations to improve the situation. The Workshop brought together experts in satellite instrument calibration, metrology scientists from the U.S. and U.K. national standards institutes, remote sensing specialists, and climate data analysts. The Workshop recommended a set of satellite benchmark missions to create irrefutable records traceable to International Standards (SI) and to calibrate other satellite sensors. This recommendation also includes a call to maintain continuous, overlapping missions for sea level, solar irradiance, and Earth radiation budget. The second overarching recommendation calls for establishing a U.S. National Center for Calibration (NCC). The NCC would bring together NOAA's expertise in operational missions and calibration/intercalibration of operational instruments, NIST's leadership in measurement science and standards, and NASA's capabilities in research missions and advanced calibration techniques.

Ohring, G.

2007-12-01

197

Monitoring ocean heat content from the current generation of global ocean observing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the world's ocean heat storage and its associated volume changes are a key factor to gauge global warming and to assess the Earth's energy budget. It is also directly link to sea level change, which has a direct impact on coastal populations. Understanding and monitoring heat and sea level change is therefore one of the major legacies of current global ocean observing systems. In this study, we present an inter-comparison of the three of these global ocean observing systems: the ocean temperature/salinity network Argo, the gravimeter GRACE and the satellite altimeters. Their consistency is investigated at global and regional scale during the period 2005-2010 of overlapping time window of re-qualified data. These three datasets allow closing the recent global ocean sea level budget within uncertainties. However, sampling inconsistencies need to be corrected for an accurate budget at global scale. The Argo network allows estimating global ocean heat content and global sea level and reveals a positive change of 0.5 ± 0.1W m-2 and 0.5 ± 0.1 mm yr-1 over the last 8 yr (2005-2012). Regional inter-comparison of the global observing systems highlights the importance of specific ocean basins for the global estimates. Specifically, the Indonesian Archipelago appears as a key region for the global ocean variability. Both the large regional variability and the uncertainties in the current observing systems, prevent us to shed light, from the global sea level perspective, on the climatically important deep ocean changes. This emphasises, once more, the importance of continuing sustained effort in measuring the deep ocean from ship platforms and by setting up a much needed automated deep-Argo network.

von Schuckmann, K.; Sallée, J.-B.; Chambers, D.; Le Traon, P.-Y.; Cabanes, C.; Gaillard, F.; Speich, S.; Hamon, M.

2013-06-01

198

Integrated monitoring of mountain glaciers as key indicators of global climate change: the European Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internationally recommended multi-level strategy for monitoring mountain glaciers is illustrated using the example of the European Alps, where especially dense information has been available through historical times. This strategy combines in situ measurements (mass balance, length change) with remote sensing (inventories) and numerical modelling. It helps to bridge the gap between detailed local process-oriented studies and global coverage. Since

Wilfried Haeberli; Martin Hoelzle; Frank Paul; Michael Zemp

2007-01-01

199

Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment: Algorithm description and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone profiles are derived from back scattered radiance spectra in the ultraviolet (289-339 nm) measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) using the optimal estimation technique. Tropospheric Column Ozone (TCO) is directly derived using the known tropopause to divide the stratosphere and troposphere. To optimize the retrieval and improve the fitting precision needed for tropospheric ozone, we perform extensive

X. Liu; K. Chance; C. E. Sioris; R. J. D. Spurr; T. P. Kurosu; R. V. Martin; M. J. Newchurch

2005-01-01

200

Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment: Algorithm description and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone profiles are derived from back scattered radiance spectra in the ultraviolet (289–339 nm) measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) using the optimal estimation technique. Tropospheric Column Ozone (TCO) is directly derived using the known tropopause to divide the stratosphere and troposphere. To optimize the retrieval and improve the fitting precision needed for tropospheric ozone, we perform extensive

X. Liu; K. Chance; C. E. Sioris; R. J. D. Spurr; T. P. Kurosu; R. V. Martin; M. J. Newchurch

2005-01-01

201

The Education for All Global Monitoring Report: A Mid-Term Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report is six years old and seven reports have been produced (UNESCO, 2000-2008). It is a product of the outcomes of the World Education Forum in Dakar held in 2000. It is designed to track progress towards the realization of the six EFA goals and to hold governments and the international community to…

Packer, Steve

2008-01-01

202

Aircraft takeoff performance monitoring in far-northern regions: An application of the global positioning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design approach for an aircraft takeoff performance monitoring system (TOPMS) is described. In this approach, it is proposed that the Global Positioning System (GPS) in conjunction with a discrete Kalman Filter be used to determine aircraft acceleration, ground speed, and position relative to the end of the runway. A practical evaluation of the feasibility of this proposal showed clear

Shane Donald Pinder

2003-01-01

203

Monitoring of radionuclides in the environs of Finnish nuclear power plants in 1989-1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surveillance of radioactive substances around Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 1989-1990 according to the regular monitoring programmes. About 1000 samples were analysed annually from both terrestrial and aquatic environments. The dominant artifi...

E. Ilus K. L. Sjoeblom S. Klemola H. Arvela

1992-01-01

204

Global Imaging Monitor of the Ionosphere (GIMI) on the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS): quick look results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Imaging Monitor of the Ionosphere (GIMI) is one of nine space research and technology instruments aboard the Air Force Space Test Program's Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). The ARGOS was launched into a sun-synchronous polar orbit by a Delta II launch vehicle from Vendenberg AFB, CA on the morning of 23 February 1999. At the time of this writing, GIMI had completed preliminary check-outs in orbit, with actual data takes beginning in late May, 1999. The GIMI instrument consists of two far- ultraviolet cameras, using electron-bombarded CCD array detectors, operating in the 75 - 115 nm wavelength range (Camera 1) and the 131 - 160 and 131 - 200 nm wavelength ranges (Camera 2). Both cameras are mounted on a two-axis gimbaled pointing system and simultaneously view the same 9 degree(s)-square field.

Carruthers, George R.; Seeley, Timothy D.

1999-09-01

205

An automated monitoring environment for the Kolar Gold Fields nucleon decay experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile and automated monitoring environment has been developed to complement the data acquisition and trigger systems employed in the Kolar Gold Fields nucleon decay experiment. This article discusses the technical aspects of this environment in detail as well as the various facilities offered by it, in terms of detector maintenance and event data calibration. Novel design features, operating characteristics and capabilities of different monitors are highlighted.

Adarkar, H.; Dugad, S. R.; Kalmani, S. D.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Mondal, N. K.; Murty, P. S.; Nagaraj, P.; Narasimham, V. S.; Reddy, L. V.; Satyanarayana, B.; Hayashi, Y.; Ito, N.; Kawakami, S.; Nakamura, T.; Tanaka, K.; Miyake, S.

1991-10-01

206

Orchestrator: An active resource orchestration framework for mobile context monitoring in sensor-rich mobile environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present Orchestrator, an active resource orchestration framework for mobile context monitoring. Emerging pervasive environments will introduce a PAN-scale sensor-rich mobile platform consisting of a mobile device and many wearable and space-embedded sensors. In such environments, it is challenging to enable multiple context-aware applications requiring continuous context monitoring to simultaneously run and share highly scarce and dynamic

Seungwoo Kang; Youngki Lee; Chulhong Min; Younghyun Ju; Jinwon Lee; Yunseok Rhee; Junehwa Song

2010-01-01

207

How Key GEOSS Datasets Contribute to the Global Monitoring and Assessment of Glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An early and dramatic indicator of global climate change has been the recession of mountain glaciers. The potential impacts on water resources and global sea level rise has led to an increased interest in accurate monitoring and assessment of glaciers worldwide. Past glacier inventories recorded scalar information such as area and terminus location for glaciers in easily accessible regions of the Earth. A modern glacier inventory must be truly global, attempting to assess all of the Earth's estimated 160,000 glaciers, and contain actual glacier extents with area distribution by elevation. These data are required in order to begin modeling the response of this portion of the cryosphere to future climate change. Fortunately, the two key data sets required to produce this global inventory of glaciers were recently made available as contributions to GEOSS by GEO Member nations. These are the multispectral imagery in the Landsat archive, contributed by the U.S.A., and the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) jointly contributed by the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) of Japan and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This talk will describe how the Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space (GLIMS) project is utilizing these GEOSS resources by enabling GLIMS collaborators to derive detailed glacier outlines, transient snow lines, area-elevation distributions, and other pertinent information that will enhance our understanding of the current state, recent evolution, and future fate of the glaciers worldwide.

Khalsa, S. S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Armstrong, R. L.

2009-12-01

208

The 'global health' education framework: a conceptual guide for monitoring, evaluation and practice  

PubMed Central

Background In the past decades, the increasing importance of and rapid changes in the global health arena have provoked discussions on the implications for the education of health professionals. In the case of Germany, it remains yet unclear whether international or global aspects are sufficiently addressed within medical education. Evaluation challenges exist in Germany and elsewhere due to a lack of conceptual guides to develop, evaluate or assess education in this field. Objective To propose a framework conceptualising 'global health' education (GHE) in practice, to guide the evaluation and monitoring of educational interventions and reforms through a set of key indicators that characterise GHE. Methods Literature review; deduction. Results and Conclusion Currently, 'new' health challenges and educational needs as a result of the globalisation process are discussed and linked to the evolving term 'global health'. The lack of a common definition of this term complicates attempts to analyse global health in the field of education. The proposed GHE framework addresses these problems and presents a set of key characteristics of education in this field. The framework builds on the models of 'social determinants of health' and 'globalisation and health' and is oriented towards 'health for all' and 'health equity'. It provides an action-oriented construct for a bottom-up engagement with global health by the health workforce. Ten indicators are deduced for use in monitoring and evaluation.

2011-01-01

209

CORMS AI: Decision Support System for Monitoring US Maritime Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rule based reasoning and case based reasoning have emerged as two important and complementary reasoning methodologies in artificial intelligence (Al). This paper describes the approach for the development of CORMS AI, a decision support system which employs rule-based and case-based reasoning to assist NOAA's Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services watch standing personnel in monitoring the quality of marine

Haleh Vafaie; Carl Cecere

2005-01-01

210

A Personal Environment Monitoring System for Pulmonary Disease Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable system to monitor environmental factors of pulmonary diseases is introduced in this paper. Disease triggers including temperature, humidity and airborne particles are continuously measured in real time. Data is transferred to a handheld device through a wireless body area network (BAN). If target triggers of disease are detected, the system will provide alarms and instructions to the patient

Yongji Fu; Byran Hallberg

2010-01-01

211

Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate.

P. G. Ryan; Moore C. J. C. J; Franeker van J. A; C. L. Moloney

2009-01-01

212

Man in the Living Environment. A Report on Global Ecological Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The findings of four groups of ecologists are synthesized in chapter I of this report on global ecological problems prepared as a data base for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. The other chapters contain the reports of each group. In "Cycles of Elements" the biologically important elements, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen,…

Inger, Robert F.; And Others

213

Exploring the environment: a problem-based approach to learning about global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors' project, Exploring the Environment (ETE), is developing Earth science modules for delivery over the Internet. Technology, such as remote sensing, simulations, and groundtruthing provide a myriad of tools to study global scale interactions and to make better predictions and decisions. Remote sensing allows students to see Earth subsystem interrelations on a grand scale. It is ideal for the

J. A. Botti; R. Myers

1995-01-01

214

Universal Service in a Global Networked Environment: Selected Issues and Possible Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents selected issues related to the development of universal service to networked information resources and services in a global networked environment. Defines universal service as a set of telecommunications services to which users should have access, including appropriate funding and interconnected public telecommunications infrastructure…

Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Owens, Kimberly A.

1999-01-01

215

Accounting knowledge and skills and the challenges of a global business environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid spread and acceptance of globalization and the enormous developments in information technology, has led to dramatic changes in the business environment. These changes have brought new challenges not only to business but also to business education. Business schools that prepare future managers in different disciplines are responsible for closing the gap between the skills acquired by its graduates

Ehab K. A. Mohamed; Sherif H. Lashine

2003-01-01

216

The illusion of preservation: a global environ mental argument for the local production of natural resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim The United States (US) and other affluent countries consume vast quantities of global natural resources, but contribute proportionately less to the extraction of many raw materials. This imbalance is due, in part, to domestic policies intended to protect the environment. Ironically, developed nations are often better equipped to extract resources in an environmentally prudent manner than the major suppliers.

Mary M. Berlik; David B. Kittredge; David R. Foster Harvard

2002-01-01

217

Design of a Water Environment Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

A water environmental monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network is proposed. It consists of three parts: data monitoring nodes, data base station and remote monitoring center. This system is suitable for the complex and large-scale water environment monitoring, such as for reservoirs, lakes, rivers, swamps, and shallow or deep groundwaters. This paper is devoted to the explanation and illustration for our new water environment monitoring system design. The system had successfully accomplished the online auto-monitoring of the water temperature and pH value environment of an artificial lake. The system's measurement capacity ranges from 0 to 80 °C for water temperature, with an accuracy of ±0.5 °C; from 0 to 14 on pH value, with an accuracy of ±0.05 pH units. Sensors applicable to different water quality scenarios should be installed at the nodes to meet the monitoring demands for a variety of water environments and to obtain different parameters. The monitoring system thus promises broad applicability prospects.

Jiang, Peng; Xia, Hongbo; He, Zhiye; Wang, Zheming

2009-01-01

218

Keeping Scores: Audited Self-Monitoring of High-Stakes Testing Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To address a public relations problem faced by a large urban public school district in Texas, we conducted action research that resulted in an audited self-monitoring system for high-stakes testing environments. The system monitors violations of testing protocols while identifying and disseminating best practices to improve the education of…

Padilla, Raymond; Richards, Michael

2006-01-01

219

Design and Implementation of Production Environment Monitoring System Based on GPRS-Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, A production environment monitoring system based on GPRS-Internet was designed and implemented. The system uses ARM9 embedded CPU as its host and realizes monitoring function and man-machine interface by using cross-platform C++ graphic interface library Qt in Linux OS. It sends collected data to remote server by GPRS model and clients realize real-time and long distance monitoring

Lei Wu; Jie Hu

2010-01-01

220

Glacial and periglacial environment monitoring in Aosta Valley - Northwestern Italian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aosta Valley is a small alpine region of about 3.300 km2 located in the NW Italy, on the southern side of the Alps and surrounded by the highest Alpine peaks such as Mont Blanc (4810m), Mont Rose (4634m) and Cervino (4478m), More than 50% of the territory has an elevation above 2000 metres asl. High mountain, glacial and periglacial environments cover a significant part of the territory. As the cryosphere is strongly sensitive to climate change, global warming effects are particularly evident in this alpine region, and they often affect environment and social and economic life, thus representing a key issue for politicians and people working and living in the valley. Among these effects, some of the most important are the decrease of water storage due to glaciers retreat and the increasing natural hazards as a consequence of rapid environmental dynamics. Hence the importance of monitoring glacial and periglacial environment, in order to quantify effects of climate change, to detect new dynamics and to manage consequences on the environment and the social life. In Aosta Valley the understanding of these phenomena is carried out by means of several actions, both at a regional scale and on specific representative sites. A multi-temporal analysis of aerial photographs, orthophotos and satellite imagery allows to detect glaciers evolution trend at a regional scale. All this information is collected in a Regional Glacier inventory, according to the World Glaciers Inventory standard and recommendations. Analysis of the information collected in the Inventory show that the total area presently covered by glaciers is about 135 km2; area changes occurred in the past has been about -44.3 km2, and -17 km2. between 1975 and 2005. Glacier inventory also gathers - for each of the about 200 glaciers - morphological data, information about events and photos both historical and present. Glacier mass balance (the difference resulting from the mass gained by the glacier through the winter/spring precipitations and the mass lost during the summer by snow and ice melting) strictly depends on climatic condition, so its long-term monitoring is a very reliable indicator. In Aosta Valley, yearly mass balance of some important glaciers that have lost significant mass since 2000 is measured. Timorion Glacier 0,5 Km² , 3.100 - 3.450 m, north face, Gran Paradiso Massif) is monitored since 2001; Rutor Glacier (8 Km², 2.700 - 3.400 m, north face) since 2004. Two more glaciers, in the Mont Rose and Mont Blanc Massif respectively, have been recently added to this measurement. The traditional method (with ablation stakes and snow pits) is applied. Glacier is a fundamental water reservoir and climate change can negatively affect water availability. The temporal evolution dynamics is an issue of increasing importance. For this reasons from 2006, ARPA VdA has developed modelling activities to monitor Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) distribution and glacier evolution at the medium basin scale (120 Km²) for hydro-power production optimization.

Motta, Elena; Cremonese, Edoardo; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Pogliotti, Paolo; Vagliasindi, Marco

2010-05-01

221

A Mobile Sensor Network System for Monitoring of Unfriendly Environments  

PubMed Central

Observing microclimate changes is one of the most popular applications of wireless sensor networks. However, some target environments are often too dangerous or inaccessible to humans or large robots and there are many challenges for deploying and maintaining wireless sensor networks in those unfriendly environments. This paper presents a mobile sensor network system for solving this problem. The system architecture, the mobile node design, the basic behaviors and advanced network capabilities have been investigated respectively. A wheel-based robotic node architecture is proposed here that can add controlled mobility to wireless sensor networks. A testbed including some prototype nodes has also been created for validating the basic functions of the proposed mobile sensor network system. Motion performance tests have been done to get the positioning errors and power consumption model of the mobile nodes. Results of the autonomous deployment experiment show that the mobile nodes can be distributed evenly into the previously unknown environments. It provides powerful support for network deployment and maintenance and can ensure that the sensor network will work properly in unfriendly environments.

Song, Guangming; Zhou, Yaoxin; Ding, Fei; Song, Aiguo

2008-01-01

222

Specifying and monitoring economic environments using rights and obligations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a formal scripting language to capture the semantics of economic environments. The language is based on a set of well-defined design principles and makes explicit an agent's rights, as derived from property, and an agent's obligations, as derived from restrictions placed on its actions either voluntarily or as a consequence of other actions. Coupled with the language is

Loizos Michael; David C. Parkes; Avi Pfeffer

2010-01-01

223

Monitoring anthropogenic radioactivity in salt marsh environments through in situ gamma-ray spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide bearing effluents discharged into the Irish Sea have resulted in the accumulation of radionuclides in salt marsh environments which can contribute to critical group exposures. Recent developments in in situ gamma-ray spectrometry provide a novel and effective method for monitoring anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations and distributions within these coastal environments. This paper presents the results from an in situ survey

Andrew N. Tyler

1999-01-01

224

The role of 'Big Society' in monitoring the state of the natural environment.  

PubMed

Environmental monitoring is essential for assessing the current state of the environment, measuring impacts of environmental pressures and providing evidence to government. Recent UK government announcements have indicated an increased role for 'Big Society' in monitoring. In this paper, we review available literature concerning the use of citizen science for monitoring, present examples of successful volunteer monitoring work and highlight important issues surrounding the use of volunteers. We argue that in order to ensure that environmental monitoring continues to be effective it is important to learn from examples where volunteers are currently used, acknowledging constraints and identifying potential approaches which will help to maximise both their engagement and data quality. Effective partnerships between environmental monitoring organisations and volunteers may thus aid the UK in developing robust coordinated monitoring systems that will be less vulnerable to funding variances. PMID:21879098

Mackechnie, Colin; Maskell, Lindsay; Norton, Lisa; Roy, David

2011-08-30

225

Systematic monitoring of needs for care and global outcomes in patients with severe mental illness  

PubMed Central

Background It was hypothesised that the introduction of tools that allow clinicians to assess patients' needs and to negotiate treatment (Cumulative Needs for Care Monitor; CNCM), would be associated with global outcome improvements in patients diagnosed with severe mental illness. Methods The CNCM was introduced in one region in South Limburg (the Netherlands) in 1998 (REGION-1998) and in the rest of South Limburg in 2004 (REGION-2004). By comparing these two regions, changes after the introduction of the CNCM could be assessed (between-region comparison). In addition, a pre-post within-patient comparison was conducted in both regions. Results The within-patient comparison revealed that global outcomes of psychopathology and impairment improved in the first 3-5 years after the introduction of the CNCM. The between-region comparison revealed an improvement in global psychopathology but not in global impairment in REGION-2004 after 2004, while there was no such improvement in REGION-1998. Conclusion Systematic clinical monitoring of individual severe mental illness patients, in combination with provision of feedback, is associated with global improvement in psychopathology. More research is needed to determine the degree to which this association reflects a causal effect.

2010-01-01

226

Qualification of the MyOcean Global Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting System Skill Assessment for Various Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operational oceanography European project MyOcean is part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security GMES program. During the next 3 years, 61 European partners in 29 different countries will work to build a pan European ocean monitoring and forecasting capacity. The "marine core service" will be produced by ocean forecast centers and data centers working together. MyOcean is particularly attentive with the setting of quality control, including the scientific validation of the products. The computation of various forecast scores and the inter-comparison of these scores between the various systems is done with an ensemble of metrics defined in the context of MERSEA and GODAE. Based on these metrics and on various data comparisons, this contribution will give an overview of the quality of the product of the state-of-the-art analysis and forecast system. We will look at the global Ocean system which is run at Mercator-Ocean and is based on the ocean and sea ice modelling system NEMO and on an assimilation system based on Kalman filter/SEEK. It is declined in eddy permitting and eddy resolving configurations: The current version of the global system has a ¼° horizontal resolution, with a North Atlantic (including the tropics) and Mediterranean zoom at 1/12° , and a global 1/12° system is under development which will be the reference global system at the end of MyOcean. One of the aims of this quality report (which will probably be updated on a quarterly basis) is to interact with the scientific community and other users so that one can derive the level of confidence (or the correction one can make) for the use of the products in one's own application. We will show that measuring the quality of the systems points out the importance of the real time observation network. In order to monitor the ocean we need a perpetual relatively high resolution spatial and temporal coverage, as an input for ocean analysis and forecast systems as well as for a validation purpose. We also need reliable references like long ocean reanalyses in order to validate these systems but also to provide useful information such as interannual or decadal anomalies (for instance for users who whish to initialize seasonal forecast, decadal forecast).

Regnier, Charly; Drevillon, Marie; Desportes, Charles; Greiner, Eric; Hernandez, Fabrice

2010-05-01

227

Global trends (1996–2003) of total column precipitable water observed by Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on ERS-2 and their relation to near-surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed global trends of total column precipitable water from measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on the European Research Satellite (ERS-2) for the period January 1996 to June 2003. In contrast to other satellite retrieval methods of total column precipitable water, our analysis does not rely on a priori assumptions or additional information; thus it is

T. Wagner; S. Beirle; M. Grzegorski; U. Platt

2006-01-01

228

Global trends (1996-2003) of total column precipitable water observed by Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on ERS-2 and their relation to near-surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed global trends of total column precipitable water from measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on the European Research Satellite (ERS-2) for the period January 1996 to June 2003. In contrast to other satellite retrieval methods of total column precipitable water, our analysis does not rely on a priori assumptions or additional information; thus it is

T. Wagner; S. Beirle; M. Grzegorski; U. Platt

2006-01-01

229

Global seamless network demonstrator: carrier grade automatic switched transport network implementation in realistic telecom field environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Seamless Network (GSN) Demonstrator is presented, a joint effort of system vendors and Deutsche Telekom Group R&D to demonstrate network functions and management integration and enable, for the first time, experiences with a carrier grade Automatically Switched Transport Network (ASTN) implementation and the envisaged main ASTN clients, IP and Ethernet. For end-to-end monitoring capability, integrating the view on

Hans-Martin Foisel; Norbert Hanik; Ralf-Peter Braun; Georg Lehr; Andreas Gladisch

2004-01-01

230

World Resources 1996-97: A Guide to the Global Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Full text of _World Resources 1996-97: A Guide to the Global Environment_, produced by the World Resources Institute, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Development Programme, and World Bank, is available via the Web. It is the official source book for the United Nations Habitat II Conference being held in Istanbul, Turkey June 3-14, 1996. The tenth edition of _World Resources_ contains two major sections, Global Conditions and Trends and Data Tables, and The Urban Environment, a special section concentrating on how urban population growth is affecting the global environment. Major findings include: "more than half of humankind will live in urban areas by the end of the century, and 60 percent by 2020; by 2010 the number of motor vehicles could grow to more than 800 million; and, by 2050, as many as 2.4 billion people could live in countries facing water scarcity." The report is available in HTML, and the data tables and Executive Summary are available as Adobe Acrobat .pdf files. Acrobat may be downloaded from the site. Print version availability and pricing can be found on the home page at the bottom of the News Release and under "Ordering Information." http://www.wri.org/wri/wr-96-97/index.html Habitat II Conference: http://pan.cedar.univie.ac.at/habitat/habitat.html http://www.un.org/Conferences/habitat/

Bank., World; Programme., United N.; Programme., United N.

1996-01-01

231

Monitoring in Coastal Environments Using Foraminifera and Thecamoebian Indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here is the first comprehensive book to describe specific environmental applications of foraminifera and thecamoebians. These organisms permit the biological characterization of a variety of freshwater and coastal marine environments and react quickly to environmental stress, natural or anthropogenic. Their small size and hard shells lead to preservation in large numbers in core samples, allowing their use as proxies to reconstruct past environmental conditions. The book introduces the topic to nonspecialists and then goes on to give detailed descriptions of the methods and techniques. Resource managers and consultants in the public and private sectors who routinely work on coastal environmental problems will find this book invaluable.

Scott, David B.; Medioli, Franco S.; Schafer, Charles T.

2001-06-01

232

Automated video screening for unattended background monitoring in dynamic environments.  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A threat of specific interest to this project is the covert placement and subsequent remote detonation of bombs (e.g., briefcase bombs) inside crowded public facilities. Different from existing video motion detection systems, the video-screening technology described in this report is capable of detecting changes in the static background of an otherwise, dynamic environment - environments where motion and human activities are persistent. Our goal was to quickly detect changes in the background - even under conditions when the background is visible to the camera less than 5% of the time. Instead of subtracting the background to detect movement or changes in a scene, we subtracted the dynamic scene variations to produce an estimate of the static background. Subsequent comparisons of static background estimates are used to detect changes in the background. Detected changes can be used to alert security forces of the presence and location of potential threats. The results of this research are summarized in two MS Power-point presentations included with this report.

Carlson, Jeffrey J.

2004-03-01

233

Global Imaging Monitor of the Ionosphere (GIMI): a far-ultraviolet imaging experiment on ARGOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Imaging Monitor of the Ionosphere (GIMI) is one of several remote-sensing instruments under development for flight on the Air Force Space Test Program's P91-1 Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite, planned for launch in 1997. The primary objective of GIMI is to map and monitor the ionospheric O+ and electron density on a global basis, by means of wide-field imaging of ionospheric far-ultraviolet emissions. it will also be used to detect and characterize local perturbations of the ionosphere due to natural and artificial events. Atomic nitrogen in the upper atmosphere will be measured by nitric oxide nightglow emissions resulting from its combination with atomic oxygen. Observations of stellar occultations by Earth's atmosphere will be used to measure the neutral density distributions of N2 and O2. Other objectives are to map and monitor the ultraviolet background in near-Earth space due to ionospheric and airglow emissions and extraterrestrial sources, and to obtain all-sky surveys of celestial point and diffuse sources. GIMI consists of two wide-field imaging cameras sensitive in three far- and extreme-UV spectral ranges (75 - 110 nm, 131 - 160 nm, and 131 - 200 nm), selected for their utility in day and night ionospheric and neutral atmospheric remote sensing. The GIMI sensors are based on electron-bombarded CCD arrays, with opaque alkali halide photocathodes and Schmidt or all-reflective optical systems.

Carruthers, George R.; Seeley, Timothy D.

1996-11-01

234

Monitoring global change with phenology: The case of the spring green wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The centuries-old practice of recording plant and animal events that take place at specific times each year (phenology) should play an important role in monitoring mid-latitude global changes. At least three problems related to the detection of biosphere changes could be investigated using this information. Firstly, the technique can be generalized from the local to global scale. Secondly, an integrated approach could be developed to represent biome diversity effectively. Lastly, physical mechanisms responsible for the events can be deduced in order to incorporate the phenological information into global-scale models, and detect changes in related environmental factors. With these goals in mind, regional phenological data collection networks were initiated in eastern North America during the early 1960s, using cloned lilacs and several species of honeysuckle. This paper reviews research projects which address the problems outlined above, using first leaf data (associated with spring green-up or “green wave” in mid-latitudes) gathered from these networks. The results of such studies in North America have demonstrated the potential of phenology as an efficient monitor of global change throughout mid-latitude regions. Future research efforts will concentrate on the development of a coordinated strategy to link phenological information from satellites, indicator plants (such as the lilac), and representative species from each biome.

Schwartz, Mark D.

1994-03-01

235

Global hexachlorocyclohexane use trends and their impact on the Arctic atmospheric environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the global technical HCH use trends and their impact on the arctic atmospheric environment has been studied. Two significant drops in global technical HCH usage were identified. In 1983, China banned the use of technical HCH. This represented the largest drop ever in global use rates. In 1990 India stopped technical HCH usage in agriculture and the former Soviet Union banned the use of technical HCH. Since 1990, India has been the biggest user of technical HCH in the world. Significant drops in atmospheric ?-HCH in the arctic were observed between 1982 and 1983, and again between 1990 and 1992. The rapid response in atmospheric concentrations to usage is encouraging; however, since ?-HCH concentrations in the arctic waters have remained relatively unchanged, the decline in atmospheric ?-HCH has reversed the net direction of air-sea gas flux. The accumulated mass in oceans and large lakes may represent a new source of HCH to the arctic atmosphere.

Li, Y. F.; Bidleman, T. F.; Barrie, L. A.; McConnell, L. L.

236

Corn, Carbon, and Conservation: Rethinking U.S. Agricultural Policy in a Changing Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aCORN, CARBON AND CONSERVATION: RETHINKING U.S. AGRICULTURAL POLICY IN A CHANGING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT\\u000aMary Jane Angelo\\u000aIn the past few years, the public has renewed its interest in ensuring that the food it eats is healthy and is grown in ways that are environmentally and economically sustainable. The immense popularity of books such as The Omnivore’s Dilemma, the widespread “locavore”

Mary Jane Angelo

2009-01-01

237

Health Monitor Agent Based on Neural Networks for Ubiquitous Healthcare Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environments such as healthcare systems rely on wireless sensor networks as one of the trends being established in today’s\\u000a industry. Being one of the most researched topics today, ubiquitous healthcare is mostly concerned with providing fast and\\u000a efficient service. This paper proposes the Health Monitor Agent (HMA) to monitor patients’ conditions, provide early detection\\u000a of serious cases, and take appropriate

Michael Angelo G. Salvo; Romeo Mark A. Mateo; Jaewan Lee; Malrey Lee

2009-01-01

238

Energy Efficient and Low-Cost Indoor Environment Monitoring System Based on the IEEE 1451 Standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Indoor Environment Monitoring System (IEMS) for monitoring the concentrations of indoor airpollutant gases and indoor environmental parameters has been developed in compli- ance with IEEE1451.2 standard. The sensor array is implemented using the electrochemical sensors. The smart transducer interface module (STIM) is implemented using the PIC18F4550 microcon- troller. Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) imple- mented in LabVIEW 9.0 is

Anuj Kumar; I. P. Singh; S. K. Sud

2011-01-01

239

Aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment. Part III: personal monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a larger study, personal sampling of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the isomeric xylenes (BTEX) was carried out by 55 nonsmoking volunteers for a period of 14 days. Thirty-nine persons lived in a rural area near Hannover (Germany) with hardly any traffic at all, while 16 persons lived in a high-traffic city street in Hannover. The personal exposure level of the persons in the rural area (some commuting to Hannover) was: 2.9, 24.8, 2.4 and 7.7 ?g m -3 for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the sum of xylenes, respectively, while the corresponding data for the high traffic city streets were 4.0, 22.2, 2.8 and 9.7 ?g m -3 (geometric means). Four microenvironments have been monitored which contribute to the total exposure to BTEX, i.e. the home, the outdoor air, the workplace and the car cabin. The most important microenvironment for non-working persons is the private home. The concentration of most BTEX in the private home is almost equal to the personal exposure level, demonstrating that the indoor pollution in the home makes by far the highest contribution to the total exposure. For working people (mostly office workers), the workplace is the second most important microenvironment contributing to the total BTEX exposure. Taking all working persons into consideration (independent of the location of their private home) the personal exposure level is higher by a factor of 1.2-1.4 than that of the workplace (for toluene this factor is 2.2). As already found by others, very high BTEX concentrations may be found in car cabins, in particular, if the engine is gasoline-driven. In the cabin of 44 cars in the rural/urban area average benzene concentrations (geometric mean) of 12/14 ?g m -3 and a maximum value of ˜550 ?g m -3 were found. On average, the participating volunteers drove their car for 45 min day -1 (i.e. 3% of the day). Nevertheless, the car cabin constitutes about 10% of the total benzene exposure. Refueling of the car during the 14-day sampling period has only a small effect on the personal exposure level.

Ilgen, E.; Levsen, K.; Angerer, J.; Schneider, P.; Heinrich, J.; Wichmann, H.-E.

240

Cognition, but not sensation, mediates age-related changes in the ability to monitor the environment.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine which age-related changes in sensation and cognition are associated with age-related changes in the ability to monitor the environment. To that end, a proxy measure of the ability to monitor the environment (useful field of view, UFOV) and measures of sensation and cognition were collected from young adult (N = 61) and older adult subjects (N = 79). Although UFOV performance was expected to be mediated primarily by cognition rather than by sensation, it was somewhat unexpected to find no reliable associations between UFOV and sensory functioning beyond those of age and cognition. PMID:18808255

Fiorentino, Dary D

2008-09-01

241

A Future Network for Monitoring the Driving Function of Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new future network is proposed to monitor the radiative forcing of global warming by greenhouse gases. The greenhouse radiation is the downward infrared heat radiation from greenhouse gases, otherwise known as the surface forcing radiation. The increase in this radiation due to increased carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is the driving function of global warming. In an experimental project, the calibrated spectrum of the greenhouse radiation at the surface has been measured for the last 10 years in the Great Lakes area. From these measurements the radiative flux from each greenhouse gas has been extracted. There is a 10 year record of the radiative fluxes from carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and CFCs. The increases in these fluxes represent the forcing function of global warming. It is an experimental version of radiative forcing similar to but different from the radiative forcing used by IPCC. It is proposed that this radiative forcing should be monitored in a fashion similar to our monitoring of the ozone layer. A world monitoring network like the world total ozone monitoring network of Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers should be setup. The AERI instrument already exists and there are 12 of them deployed around the world; it is manufactured by ABB BOMEM. The methodology will be to process the AERI infrared spectrometer measurements into the downward surface radiation flux in W/m2 from each of the major greenhouse gases. Well calibrated infrared spectral measurements of the downward infrared long wave radiation have been routinely made by the AERI instruments at the three main DOE ARM sites for over 7 years with a 12 year record at the SGP site. These are being processed into long wave radiation fluxes from each of the major greenhouse gases using a methodology already developed for similar measurements at 44° N in the Great Lakes area. The uses of the data would be to investigate the seasonal and climate regime variations of the surface greenhouse radiation flux, compare the measurements with climate model simulations of the surface forcing radiation fluxes for each greenhouse gas, evaluate the reduction of the surface forcing radiation by various types of clouds by measuring the reduction in surface radiation forcing under cloudy conditions, conduct complementary measurements of surface radiation forcing with radiative trapping measured from space with overpasses of satellites and monitor the increase with time of the forcing radiation from each gas. This network will provide a new experimental dataset which would complement the calculated radiative forcings from climate models which are currently used for policy determination of safe levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The new network will give us the experimental capability to conduct long-term monitoring of the increases in greenhouse radiation due to increases in the individual greenhouse gases without using an intervening climate model. This also adds a new climate observable which could potentially be used to compare changes in the long wave radiation balance of the atmosphere with other climate variables. Hence, the world should monitor this important variable instead of relying solely on model calculations of radiative forcing since it is the fundamental forcing function of global warming. The analysis of the data from ARM AERI sites would represent a big step towards building a world monitoring network for this very important climate observable. With AERI instruments deployed around the globe, a first step in building a network to monitor radiative forcing similar to the world ozone monitoring network has already taken place. This future network emphasizes the extreme importance of continuing the DOE ARM AERI measurements for the foreseeable future.

Evans, W. F.

2007-12-01

242

Prioritizing GM crop monitoring sites in the dynamics of cultivation systems and their environment.  

PubMed

EU legislation stipulates that GM crops have to be monitored for potential adverse environmental effects. Monitoring preferably should take place in the most exposed areas-the cultivated fields and their neighbouring environment. Current monitoring designs do not give detailed consideration to the different exposure intensities in agricultural practice. At the same time, the selection of specific, more exposed sites is difficult considering the dynamic and diversity of crop cultivation and rotation systems and their environments. We developed an approach for prioritising the monitoring of on-farm and neighbouring sites based on differing exposure levels using a minimum dataset of cultivation and land use information. Applying a Bt-maize cultivation scenario to Brandenburg, Germany, where presently no GM crops are cultivated, we systemised and categorised areas with different spatio-temporal exposure intensities including 50 m, 200 m and 1000 m buffers. These categories correspond to different suitabilities to serve as monitoring sites. Sites are prioritised using a sequential scheme. This yields an improved and objective spatial monitoring design providing detailed exposure information. This methodology is flexible and transferable to any agricultural setting, therefore enabling superior statistical comparisons between locations and regions and thus enhancing monitoring data quality. PMID:22495474

Bethwell, Claudia; Müller, Hans-Jürgen; Eulenstein, Frank; Graef, Frieder

2012-04-12

243

Monitoring of global acoustic transmissions: Signal processing and preliminary data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal of controversy exists concerning the possible global warming trend which may occur as a result of a documented increase in atmospheric greenhouse gasses. The 1991 Heard Island Feasibility Experiment tested the feasibility of using transmissions of acoustic energy through major ocean basins of the world to monitor spatially averaged global temperature trends. This thesis documents the Naval Postgraduate School's reception of the phase encoded signal transmitted from the Southern Indian Ocean, development of real-time signal processing software, and preliminary data analysis. Data, received from a 32-channel vertical array suspended in the deep sound channel off the coast of Monterey, CA, was processed using real-time capable software. Data processing to reduce noise, determine SNR, and remove the m-sequence coding was found to be quite sensitive to Doppler frequency shifts. Although the SNR of the raw data was only about -27.5 dB for individual hydrophones, the transmitted signal was detected in both the frequency and time domains. However, the maximum processed signal peak in the time domain had an SNR of only +9 dB which is insufficient for use in a long term global temperature monitoring project. The hydrophone provides inadequate arrival time resolution.

Frogner, Gary R.

1991-09-01

244

3S Based Method of Eco-environment Monitoring, Evaluation and Adjustment for Chinas Land Border Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper probe into and study on the theoretic basis of ecosystem monitoring, evaluation and adjustment along the land border of P.R.China, using the theory of Global Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. The key points are whether ecosystem can be effectively monitored and adjusted, which features can be identified and monitored by 3S technologies, and in what spatial and temporal dimension they

Qingwen Qi; Darning He; Lili Jiang; Xiuping Zou; Jin Li

2006-01-01

245

Global Drought Monitoring and Forecasting based on Satellite Data and Land Surface Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring drought globally is challenging because of the lack of dense in-situ hydrologic data in many regions. In particular, soil moisture measurements are absent in many regions and in real time. This is especially problematic for developing regions such as Africa where water information is arguably most needed, but virtually non-existent on the ground. With the emergence of remote sensing estimates of all components of the water cycle there is now the potential to monitor the full terrestrial water cycle from space to give global coverage and provide the basis for drought monitoring. These estimates include microwave-infrared merged precipitation retrievals, evapotranspiration based on satellite radiation, temperature and vegetation data, gravity recovery measurements of changes in water storage, microwave based retrievals of soil moisture and altimetry based estimates of lake levels and river flows. However, many challenges remain in using these data, especially due to biases in individual satellite retrieved components, their incomplete sampling in time and space, and their failure to provide budget closure in concert. A potential way forward is to use modeling to provide a framework to merge these disparate sources of information to give physically consistent and spatially and temporally continuous estimates of the water cycle and drought. Here we present results from our experimental global water cycle monitor and its African drought monitor counterpart (http://hydrology.princeton.edu/monitor). The system relies heavily on satellite data to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model to provide near real-time estimates of precipitation, evapotranspiraiton, soil moisture, snow pack and streamflow. Drought is defined in terms of anomalies of soil moisture and other hydrologic variables relative to a long-term (1950-2000) climatology. We present some examples of recent droughts and how they are identified by the system, including objective quantification and tracking of their spatial-temporal characteristics. Further we present strategies for merging various sources of information, including bias correction of satellite precipitation and assimilation of remotely sensed soil moisture, which can augment the monitoring in regions where satellite precipitation is most uncertain. Ongoing work is adding a drought forecast component based on a successful implementation over the U.S. and agricultural productivity estimates based on output from crop yield models. The forecast component uses seasonal global climate forecasts from the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS). These are merged with observed climatology in a Bayesian framework to produce ensemble atmospheric forcings that better capture the uncertainties. At the same time, the system bias corrects and downscales the monthly CFS data. We show some initial seasonal (up to 6-month lead) hydrologic forecast results for the African system. Agricultural monitoring is based on the precipitation, temperature and soil moisture from the system to force statistical and process based crop yield models. We demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring major crop types across the world and show a strategy for providing predictions of yields within our drought forecast mode.

Sheffield, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Wood, E. F.

2010-12-01

246

Development of a Micro Quad-Rotor UAV for Monitoring an Indoor Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to develop a micro UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) as the platform for monitoring an indoor environment, more specifically, a quad-rotor aircraft that has strong advantages of its small size, stable hovering and precise flight. To begin with, we analyze the dynamics of a quad-rotor aircraft, and introduce control strategies based on the PD control.

B. C. Min; C. H. Cho; K. M. Choi; D. H. Kim

2009-01-01

247

Monitoring of environment by energy efficient usage of wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an energy efficient solution based on wireless sensor networks for monitoring of the environment by traffic control. The algorithm is based on Fuzzy ART model of neural networks. Our system provides high dimensionality reduction when sending only the classified data and transferring only the new data in given time series. In this way, the system can be

Stojanco Gancev; Danco Davcev

2009-01-01

248

Monitoring the tobacco use epidemic V The environment: Factors that influence tobacco use  

Microsoft Academic Search

article i nfo Available online 26 October 2008 Objective. This environment paper (V of V) summarizes important surveillance and evaluation systems that monitor influences on tobacco use such as smoke-free laws and other legislation, excise taxes, mass media, and a broad range of tobacco control activities, discusses their strengths and weaknesses, and makes recommendations for enhancement. Methods. We summarize and

Matthew C. Farrelly

2009-01-01

249

Emergency guiding and monitoring applications in indoor 3D environments by wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, wireless sensor networks have been widely discussed in many applica- tions. In this paper, we propose a novel 3D emergency service that aims to guide people to safe places when emergencies happen. At normal time, the network is responsible for monitoring the environment. When emergency events are detected, the network can adaptively modify its topology to ensure transportation reliability,

Meng-shiuan Pan; Chia-hung Tsai; Yu-chee Tseng

2006-01-01

250

Monitoring of Exposure to and Potential Effects of Contaminants in the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our lifetimes, much of what was once considered science fiction: space ships, monitor- ing the environment from space, satellite phones and biomedical advances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease at the molecular level have now become realities. These advances in technology have changed our perceptions and how we interact with the world around us. Also during this time,

John P. Giesy; John L. Newsted

2007-01-01

251

CHINA RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT REMOTE SENSING SATELLITES' APPLICATION IN MONITORING BUSHFIRE IN VICTORIA IN AUSTRALIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of remote sensing satellite data for fire monitoring has been more than a decade, and currently mainly relies on the EOS\\/ MODIS satellite series. MODIS has specialized thermal infrared channel to catch the launch characteristics of the fire geothermal energy, of a high capture efficiency of fire point. China resources and environment remote sensing satellite constellation, Launched in

Jian Tan; Xiangtao Fan; Tianfeng Xu; Boqin Zhu

252

Experimental Verification and Full-Scale Deployment of Global Positioning Systems to Monitor the Dynamic Response of Tall Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Civil Engineering community has long needed methods of accurate global displacement measurement for use in con- struction and more recently in the areas of structural health monitoring. Global Positioning Systems GPS provide one answer to this challenge, with rapid advancements in the available sampling rates and tracking resolution. However, as a relatively new dynamic sensing technology, GPS performance must

T. Kijewski-Correa; A. Kareem

2006-01-01

253

The role of ocean observatories in monitoring for potential effects of man-made sound on the marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important question is whether or not man-made sounds have an adverse long-term impact on the ocean environment. Clear evidence exists that an impact has occurred on some individual animals in a few cases. However, according to the 2003 National Academy of Sciences report, the degree of impact on any marine mammal population or on ocean ecosystems as a whole is unknown. An essential component of an approach to addressing this question is an ocean noise/marine ecosystem monitoring system. The monitoring regions should be global in extent and include biologically sensitive areas. The effort should be sustained so that long-term trends in ocean noise levels can be evaluated. An important aspect of the data collection effort is the type and quality of ancillary information. Ancillary data on the marine ecosystems allows determination of any impacts and data on the sources of marine noise and marine environmental properties which are required to develop metrics for evaluating and predicting the characteristics of the noise field. The ocean observatory system presently being contemplated could play an important role in establishing an ocean noise monitoring capability. [Work supported through the National Ocean Partnership Program, with sponsorship from ONR, NOAA, NSF, and USGS.

Bradley, David L.; D'Spain, Gerald L.; Miller, James H.; Frisk, George V.

2005-04-01

254

An assessment on the PTS global radionuclide monitoring capabilities to detect the atmospheric traces of nuclear explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to detect any kind of nuclear explosion world-wide the Provisional Technical Secretariat to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is building up a verification regime that performs global monitoring for typical signals expected from such an event. Backbone of this regime is the 321 facilities International Monitoring System (IMS) comprising 80 stations to monitor for particulate radionuclides known to be fission or activation products of a nuclear explosion. Every second station is also equipped with a system capable to monitor for the occurrence of the CTBT relevant isotopes Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe-133m, and Xe-135, which have the highest post-explosion fission yields among the noble gases, and are also not subject to wet deposition in the atmosphere. Moreover, they have a good chance to escape from the cavity of an underground nuclear explosion in contrast to the particulates. Effective radionuclide monitoring requires an optimum overall probability of a one-station detection of an atmospheric or underground nuclear explosion within 14 days. Consequently, the distribution of this detection probability is crucial for assessing the capacity of the radionuclide IMS to meet this requirement. The CTBT monitoring capabilities of the RN IMS are quite different in dependence on the environment in which the nuclear test is conducted (underground, underwater or atmospheric) as this determines the first crucial factor for the overall detection probability, the degree of containment. Secondly, the detection probability is subject to the nuclide specific decay and the dilution of any release (containment failure) during its atmospheric dispersion from the release location to one of the IMS stations. Thirdly, the detection limits of the measurement systems in use factor in. In the study presented here the radionuclide monitoring capabilities for detecting atmospheric and underground explosions, the latter mimicked by a 90% contained atmospheric release (first factor), are assessed. We examine the typical yields of a 1-kt atmospheric explosion for five key nuclides, Barium(Lanthanum)-140, for the 80 stations particulate network, and the four aforementioned gaseous nuclides, Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe-133m, and Xe-135, for the 40 stations noble-gas network. The second factor (decay & dispersion) is determined by consideration of the half-life time of the respective nuclide and by evaluation of the so called source-receptor-sensitivity (SRS) files generated daily by the CTBTO for each station to diagnose the one-station probability within 5, 10 and 14 days. A one year time period was used (August 2008 to 31 July 2009), which considered samples from the radionuclide particulate and xenon stations, taking into account their detection limits (third factor). It should be noted that the contribution of station No. 35 of the 80 station IMS particulate network, intended for the Indian Subcontinent, was not considered. Despite the obvious sensitivity to the maximum atmospheric transport time allowed from the source to the first detecting station, there is a general observation of the prevailing impact of the meteorological wind patterns for the global distribution and average of the one-station detection probability. Therefore, certain gaps in the tropical belt can only be ‘filled' by extending the allowed transport time or supplementing stations. This is in particular true for the noble gas network that comprises only 50% of the stations. Obviously, adding the xenon monitoring capability at a few of the so far particulate only stations that monitor the ‘gap areas' is a ‘low hanging fruit'. Moreover, we observe that the shorter the half-life time the more the nuclide specific detection limits become relevant. These findings will be elaborated in all required detail in the presentation.

Becker, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Auer, Matthias; Krysta, Monika

2010-05-01

255

Applications of Global Earth Observations for Natural Hazards (Flood and Landslide) Monitoring and Prediction (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods and associated storm-triggered landslides affect more people than many other types of natural disasters around the world. This talk will review NASA Global Hazard System (GHS) that continuously assimilates near real-time multi-satellite observations to monitor and forecast floods and landslides on a global basis. This talk will also present regional applications of a high-definition GHS version for decision-making support and capacity building in East Africa: SERVIR-Africa (www.servir.net). The ultimate goal is to build and transfer the multi-disaster modeling capacity to developing countries for supporting their disaster response and mitigation activities. The GHS and SERVIR-Africa projects directly address the first objective of GEOSS: Enabling the use of Earth observations and predictive models for timely disaster decision making to benefit society.

Hong, Y.; Wang, J.; Adler, R. F.; Kirschbaum, D. B.; Policelli, F. S.; Habib, S.; Irwin, D.

2009-12-01

256

The chromosomal polymorphism of Drosophila subobscura: a microevolutionary weapon to monitor global change.  

PubMed

The Palaearctic species Drosophila subobscura recently invaded the west coast of Chile and North America. This invasion helped to corroborate the adaptive value of the rich chromosomal polymorphism of the species, as the same clinal patterns than those observed in the original Palaearctic area were reproduced in the colonized areas in a relatively short period of time. The rapid response of this polymorphism to environmental conditions makes it a good candidate to measure the effect of the global rising of temperatures on the genetic composition of populations. Indeed, the long-term variation of this polymorphism shows a general increase in the frequency of those inversions typical of low latitudes, with a corresponding decrease of those typical of populations closer to the poles. Although the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well understood, the system remains a valid tool to monitor the genetic impact of global warming on natural populations. PMID:19639003

Balanyà, J; Huey, R B; Gilchrist, G W; Serra, L

2009-07-29

257

Inland and coastal water environment remote sensing monitoring system: rapid construction and application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims at bridging the gap between the academic research and practical application in water environment monitoring by remote sensing. It mainly focuses on how to rapidly construct the Inland and coastal Water Environment Remote Sensing Monitoring System (IWERSMS) in a software perspective. In this paper, the remote sensed data processing framework, dataflow and product levels are designed based on the retrieval algorithms of water quality parameters. The prototype is four-tier architecture and modules are designed elaborately. The paper subsequently analyzes the strategy and key technology of conglutinating hybrid components, adopting semantic metafiles and tiling image during rapid construction of prototype. Finally, the paper introduces the successful application to 2008 Qingdao enteromorpha prolifra disaster emergency monitoring in Olympics Sailing Match fields. The solution can also fit other domains in remote sensing and especially it provides a clue for researchers who are in an attempt to establish a prototype to apply research fruits to practical applications.

Xu, Hua; Gu, Xingfa; Yin, Qiu; Li, Li; Chen, Qiang; Ren, Yuhuan; Chen, Hong; Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Juan

2009-10-01

258

Beyond indicators: advances in global HIV monitoring and evaluation during the PEPFAR era.  

PubMed

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is fundamental to global HIV program implementation and has been a cornerstone of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Rapid results were crucial to demonstrating feasibility and scalability of HIV care and treatment services early in PEPFAR. When national HIV M&E systems were nascent, the rapid influx of funds and the emergency expansion of HIV services contributed to the development of uncoordinated "parallel" information systems to serve donor demands for information. Close collaboration of PEPFAR with multilateral and national partners improved harmonization of indicators, standards, methods, tools, and reports. Concurrent PEPFAR investments in surveillance, surveys, program monitoring, health information systems, and human capacity development began to show signs of progress toward sustainable country-owned systems. Awareness of the need for and usefulness of data increased, far beyond discussions of indicators and reporting. Emphasis has turned toward ensuring the quality of data and using available data to improve the quality of care. Assessing progress toward an AIDS-free generation requires that the global community can measure the reduction of new HIV infections in children and adults and monitor the coverage, quality, and outcomes of highly efficacious interventions in combination. Building national M&E systems requires sustained efforts over long periods of time with effective leadership and coordination. PEPFAR, in close collaboration with its global and national partners, is well positioned to transform the successes and challenges associated with early rapid scale-up into future opportunities for sustainable, cost-effective, country-owned programs and systems. PMID:22797733

Porter, Laura E; Bouey, Paul D; Curtis, Sian; Hochgesang, Mindy; Idele, Priscilla; Jefferson, Bobby; Lemma, Wuleta; Myrick, Roger; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Prybylski, Dimitri; Souteyrand, Yves; Tulli, Tuhuma

2012-08-15

259

Kankyo chowagata seibutsu kagaku konbinato ni kansuru chosa. (Survey on bio-chemical complex harmonized with global environment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to develop the process and product harmonized with the global environment, a bio-chemical complex was structured which was focused on the biological technology. The substitution of biological technology for the conventional system of a large ener...

1994-01-01

260

Airflow-based PCO2 monitoring delivers O2 and removes CO2 from the monitored environment.  

PubMed

Previous investigation has suggested that the use of airflow-based gastrointestinal intraluminal PCO2 (GI PiCO2) monitoring systems may affect the local tissue microenvironment, making it not representative of the organ system as a whole. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using an airflow-based PCO2 monitoring system in a sealed environment. A 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask was filled with 10% CO2/90% N2 and was sealed with probes in place. Using a fiber-optic (Neotrend, Diametrix Medical, St. Paul, MN) system, the PCO2 and PO2 were continuously monitored with and without the airflow-based (Tonocap, Tonometrics, Datex-Ingstrom, Helsinki, Finland) system operating. PCO2 and PO2 remained constant when the airflow-based system was not in operation. PCO2 decreased 25.3 mmHg and PO2 increased 30 mmHg from a starting value of 0 mmHg when the airflow-based system was in operation for 12 h. The use of airflow-based methods for determining GI PiCO2 may influence the values obtained. Nonsample removing techniques such as fiber-optic methods for monitoring GI PiCO2 are preferable because they neither deliver O2 to nor remove CO2 from the local microenvironment. PMID:12166786

Vincent, Robert; Freeman, Brian; Weatherford, Eric; Henderson, LaRhee; Buising, Charisse; Wall, Piper

2002-08-01

261

Integrated global background monitoring network. Preliminary results from Torres del Paine and Olympic National Parks  

SciTech Connect

During 1984, a pilot project was initiated for monitoring pollution at Torres del Paine National Park in southern Chile and Olympic National Park in the United States. These are two of three initial sites that are to be established as part of an integrated global backgound monitoring network. Eventually, the plan is to establish a world-wide system of such sites. We collected and analyzed samples of the soil, water, air, and two species of plants (moss and lichen). We also collected and analyzed samples of the forest litter. We compared the samples of soil and vegetation against reference samples. We also compared samples of soil, vegetation, and of organic material from Torres del Paine against similar samples from Olympic and Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks in the United States. Although the data is preliminary, it is in agreement with out initial hypothesis that Torres del Paine and Olympic National Parks are not a polluted sites.

Wiersma, G.B.; Kohler, A.; Boelcke, C.; Baker, G.; Harmon, M.; Weber, C.; Gonzales, J.

1985-10-01

262

Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) - Year 5 Evaluation: Classroom Practices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report summarizes the results of the SRI, Inc. evaluation of classroom practices for the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program. For the past two years, SRI's evaluations have focused on providing data to help this international science and education program refine its partnership approach to teacher training and support. In the Year 5 evaluation, they have taken a closer look at the classroom adaptations of GLOBE, examining ways in which teachers have adapted elements of GLOBE to their particular classrooms and priorities as well as the institutional supports that facilitate sustained program participation.

Means, Barbara

2000-12-01

263

World Resources: A guide to the Global Environment, 1992-1993  

SciTech Connect

This book, produced in collaboration with the U.N., is a basic information source on the impact humans have had on the earth's environment, with a theme of sustainable development. Part I is an essay on sustainable development, examined in the contest of industrial, industrializing, and non-industrial countries. Part II is a description of the environmental devastation in central Europe. Part III examines global environmental conditions and trends, and part IV consists of tables, each with an interductory text and citations, including such topics as population, development, land cover, food, forests, wildlife, habitats, energy, water, atmosphere, and climate.

Not Available

1993-01-01

264

Pollution Monitoring Using Networks of Honey Bees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year thousands of chemicals in large quantities are introduced into the global environment and the need for effective methods of monitoring these substances has steadily increased. Most monitoring programs rely upon instrumentation to measure specifi...

J. J. Bromenshenk M. L. Dewart J. M. Thomas

1983-01-01

265

Design and implementation of agricultural environment monitoring system based on GIS and SMS/GPRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve the problem on remote data real-time transmission and the analysis and management of the data in the agricultural environment monitoring, we had a detailed study of the principle of wireless communication SMS/GPRS and the technology of seamless integration with GIS. The system achieved the wireless real-time transmission of remote monitoring data by the SMS/GPRS technology and used the GIS visualization technology to display monitoring data visually. With the aid of the function of GIS spatial analysis the system analyzed the geographic area. The software system structure and key technologies had been solved. The system is suitable for departments of agriculture to acquire and communicate the environmental monitoring data, to manage the GIS, and to analyze the decision.

Wu, Yanbin; Huang, Ming; Zhang, Xuan

266

Monitoring temporal and spatial trends of legacy and emerging contaminants in marine environment: results from the environmental specimen bank (es-BANK) of Ehime University, Japan.  

PubMed

The Environmental Specimen Bank (es-BANK) for Global Monitoring at the Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Japan has more than four decades of practical experience in specimen banking. Over the years, es-BANK has archived specimens representing a wide range of environmental matrices, i.e. fishes, reptiles, birds, aquatic mammals, terrestrial mammals, human, soils, and sediments. The samples have been collected as part of the various monitoring programs conducted worldwide. The current review is a summary of selected studies conducted at the Center for Marine Environmental Studies, on temporal and spatial trends of legacy and emerging contaminants in the marine environment. One of the major conclusions drawn from the studies is that environmental problems are no more regional issues and, thus, environmental specimen banking should not be limited to national boundaries, but should have a global outlook. PMID:22704146

Tanabe, Shinsuke; Ramu, Karri

2012-06-14

267

Global precipitation measurement (GPM) mission and its application for flood monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an expanded follow-on mission of the current Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The concept of GPM is, 1) TRMM-like, non-sun-synchronous core satellite carrying the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) to be developed by Japan and a microwave radiometer to be developed by United States, and 2) constellation of satellites in polar orbit, each carrying a microwave radiometer provided by international partner. The constellation system of GPM will make it possible every three-hour global precipitation measurement. Because of its concept on focusing high-accurate and high-frequent global precipitation observation, GPM has a unique position among future Earth observation missions. GPM international partnerships will embody concept of GEOSS. Observation data acquired by the GPM mission are expected to be used for both Earth environmental research and various societal benefit areas. One of most expected application fields is weather prediction. Use of high-frequent observation in numerical weather prediction models will improve weather forecasting especially for extreme events such as tropical cyclones and heavy rain. Another example is application to flood monitoring and forecasting. Recent increasing needs of real-time flood information required from many countries especially in Asia will strongly support operational application of GPM products in this field.

Kachi, Misako; Oki, Riko; Shimizu, Shuji; Kojima, Masahiro

2006-11-01

268

"Evolution Canyon," a potential microscale monitor of global warming across life.  

PubMed

Climatic change and stress is a major driving force of evolution. The effects of climate change on living organisms have been shown primarily on regional and global scales. Here I propose the "Evolution Canyon" (EC) microscale model as a potential life monitor of global warming in Israel and the rest of the world. The EC model reveals evolution in action at a microscale involving biodiversity divergence, adaptation, and incipient sympatric speciation across life from viruses and bacteria through fungi, plants, and animals. The EC consists of two abutting slopes separated, on average, by 200 m. The tropical, xeric, savannoid, "African" south-facing slope (AS = SFS) abuts the forested "European" north-facing slope (ES = NFS). The AS receives 200-800% higher solar radiation than the ES. The ES represents the south European forested maquis. The AS and ES exhibit drought and shade stress, respectively. Major adaptations on the AS are because of solar radiation, heat, and drought, whereas those on the ES relate to light stress and photosynthesis. Preliminary evidence suggests the extinction of some European species on the ES and AS. In Drosophila, a 10-fold higher migration was recorded in 2003 from the AS to ES. I advance some predictions that could be followed in diverse species in EC. The EC microclimatic model is optimal to track global warming at a microscale across life from viruses and bacteria to mammals in Israel, and in additional ECs across the planet. PMID:22308456

Nevo, Eviatar

2012-02-03

269

Classification of Global Urban Centers Using ASTER Data: Preliminary Results From the Urban Environmental Monitoring Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of global ecologic and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of these changes are part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument, and comprise the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program. The UEM program will acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared ASTER data twice per year for 100 global urban centers over the duration of the mission (6 years). Data are currently available for a number of these urban centers and allow for initial comparison of global city structure using spatial variance texture analysis of the 15 m/pixel visible to near infrared ASTER bands. Variance texture analysis highlights changes in pixel edge density as recorded by sharp transitions from bright to dark pixels. In human-dominated landscapes these brightness variations correlate well with urbanized vs. natural land cover and are useful for characterizing the geographic extent and internal structure of cities. Variance texture analysis was performed on twelve urban centers (Albuquerque, Baghdad, Baltimore, Chongqing, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Lisbon, Madrid, Phoenix, Puebla, Riyadh, Vancouver) for which cloud-free daytime ASTER data are available. Image transects through each urban center produce texture profiles that correspond to urban density. These profiles can be used to classify cities into centralized (ex. Baltimore), decentralized (ex. Phoenix), or intermediate (ex. Madrid) structural types. Image texture is one of the primary data inputs (with vegetation indices and visible to thermal infrared image spectra) to a knowledge-based land cover classifier currently under development for application to ASTER UEM data as it is acquired. Collaboration with local investigators is sought to both verify the accuracy of the knowledge-based system and to develop more sophisticated classification models.

Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Christensen, P. R.

2001-05-01

270

Low-Cost Autonomous 3-D Monitoring Systems for Hydraulic Engineering Environments and Applications With Limited Accuracy Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The details of developing autonomous 3-D motion monitoring systems based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) motion sensors for hydraulic environments are discussed. Possible areas of application, are river bed sediment transport monitoring and monitoring the agitation and other physical parameters inside milk vats with a mechanized agitator. Simplified calculations of inertial navigation systems (INSs) such as Euler angle method, MATLAB programs

Nihal Kularatna; J. McDowall; Bruce Melville; Dulsha Kularatna-Abeywardana; Aiguo Patrick Hu; Ambuj Dwivedi

2010-01-01

271

Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response  

SciTech Connect

Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

2009-02-25

272

Development of a Micro Quad-Rotor UAV for Monitoring an Indoor Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to develop a micro UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) as the platform for monitoring an indoor environment,\\u000a more specifically, a quad-rotor aircraft that has strong advantages of its small size, stable hovering and precise flight.\\u000a To begin with, we analyze the dynamics of a quad-rotor aircraft, and introduce control strategies based on the PD control.

B. C. Min; C. H. Cho; K. M. Choi; D. H. Kim

2009-01-01

273

Mental performance in extreme environments: results from a performance monitoring study during a 438-day spaceflight  

Microsoft Academic Search

During their stay in a space habitat, astronauts are exposed to many diŒerent stressors that may entail detrimental eŒects on mood and performance. In order to monitor the eŒects of the space environment on diŒerent human information processing functions during an extraordinary long-term space mission, the cognitive, visuo-motor and time-sharing performance of one Russian cosmonaut was repeatedly assessed (29 times)

DIETRICH MANZEY; BERND LORENZ; VALERI POLJAKOV

1998-01-01

274

Monitoring of Chinese coastal zone eco-environments based on bio-physical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biophysical parameters such as albedo, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land surface temperature (LST) and rainfall etc. are indicators of eco-environments. In this paper, monthly and yearly average albedos, NDVI and LST are retrieved using NOAA\\/AVHRR images over 1981-2000. Then, eco-environmental monitoring indices are established based on those parameters with the combination of rainfall data which are obtained from China

Qiming Qin; A. Ghulam; Zhiming Zhan; Zhe Li; Lihua Xia

2005-01-01

275

Pixel unmixing for urban environment monitoring using multi-temporal satellite images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban environment monitoring is one of the most important applications of Remote Sensing. In this paper, two images, acquired by Landsat-7 ETM+ on 14 September 2000 and Landsat-5 TM on 12 August 2005 respectively, are used to learn land-cover changes. The study area is within the round-city highway of Xuzhou city, China. Firstly, image registration and haze removal are performed.

Yindi Zhao; Huijian Du; Peijun Du; Yan Cai

2010-01-01

276

The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.  

PubMed Central

Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems.

McMichael, A. J.

2000-01-01

277

The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.  

PubMed

Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems. PMID:11019460

McMichael, A J

2000-01-01

278

Integrity mechanism for eHealth tele-monitoring system in smart home environment.  

PubMed

During the past few years, a lot of effort has been invested in research and development of eHealth tele-monitoring systems that will provide many benefits for healthcare delivery from the healthcare provider to the patient's home. However, there is a plethora of security requirements in eHealth tele-monitoring systems. Data integrity of the transferred medical data is one of the most important security requirements that should be satisfied in these systems, since medical information is extremely sensitive information, and even sometimes life threatening information. In this paper, we present a data integrity mechanism for eHealth tele-monitoring system that operates in a smart home environment. Agent technology is applied to achieve data integrity with the use of cryptographic smart cards. Furthermore, the overall security infrastructure and its various components are described. PMID:19964802

Mantas, Georgios; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios; Komninos, Nikos

2009-01-01

279

Can the ASAR Global Monitoring Mode Product Adequately Capture Spatial Soil Moisture Variability?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global soil moisture (SM) monitoring in the past several decades has been undertaken mainly at coarse spatial resolution, which is not adequate for addressing small-scale phenomena and processes. The currently operational Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (NASA) and future planned missions such as the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (ESA) and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (NASA) will remain resolution limited. Finer scale soil moisture estimates can be achieved either by down-scaling the available coarse resolution radiometer and scatterometer (i.e. ERS1/2, ASCAT) observations or by using high resolution active microwave SAR type systems (typical resolution is in the order of meters). Considering the complex land surface - backscatter signal interaction, soil moisture inversion utilizing active microwave observations is difficult and generally needs supplementary data. Algorithms based on temporal change detection offer an alternative less complex approach for deriving (and disaggregating coarse) soil moisture estimates. Frequent monitoring and low frequency range along with a high pixel resolution are essential preconditions when characterizing spatial and temporal soil moisture variability. An alternative active system that meets these requirements is the Advance Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) on ENVISAT [C-band, global, 1 km in Global Monitoring (GM) Mode]. The Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) has developed a 1 km soil moisture product using the temporal change detection approach and the ASAR GM. The TU Wien SM product sensitivity was evaluated at two scales: point (using in situ data from permanent soil moisture stations) and regional [using ground measured data and aircraft estimates derived from the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR)] over the National Airborne Field Experiment (NAFE'05) area located in the Goulburn catchment, SE Australia. The month long (November 2005) campaign was undertaken in a region predominantly covered by grasslands and partly by forests and croplands. Point scale analysis revealed high ASAR sensitivity and adequate response to changes in moisture conditions (R = 0.69 and RMSE = 0.08 v/v). Regional analysis was performed at several different spatial resolutions (1 km to 25 km). ASAR exhibited high noise level and significant wet bias. Increase in pixel size resulted in improving R and RMSE from R = 0.59 and RMSE = 0.14 to R = 0.91 and RMSE = 0.05 at 1 km and 25 km respectively; however, despite the reasonable statistical agreement at 1 km, the soil moisture spatial patterns clearly visible in the PLMR images, the later were verified with ground data, were lacking in the ASAR product.

Mladenova, I.; Lakshmi, V.; Walker, J.; Panciera, R.; Wagner, W.; Doubkova, M.

2008-12-01

280

CHRM2, parental monitoring, and adolescent externalizing behavior: evidence for gene-environment interaction.  

PubMed

Psychologists, with their long-standing tradition of studying mechanistic processes, can make important contributions to further characterizing the risk associated with genes identified as influencing risk for psychiatric disorders. We report one such effort with respect to CHRM2, which codes for the cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor and was of interest originally for its association with alcohol dependence. We tested for association between CHRM2 and prospectively measured externalizing behavior in a longitudinal, community-based sample of adolescents, as well as for moderation of this association by parental monitoring. We found evidence for an interaction in which the association between the genotype and externalizing behavior was stronger in environments with lower parental monitoring. There was also suggestion of a crossover effect, in which the genotype associated with the highest levels of externalizing behavior under low parental monitoring had the lowest levels of externalizing behavior at the extreme high end of parental monitoring. The difficulties involved in distinguishing mechanisms of gene-environment interaction are discussed. PMID:21441226

Dick, Danielle M; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Latendresse, Shawn J; Creemers, Hanneke E; Lansford, Jennifer E; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Budde, John; Goate, Alison; Buitelaar, Jan K; Ormel, Johannes; Verhulst, Frank C; Huizink, Anja C

2011-03-24

281

The zCOSMOS redshift survey: how group environment alters global downsizing trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Groups of galaxies are a common environment, bridging the gap between starforming field galaxies and quiescent cluster galaxies. Within groups secular processes could be at play, contributing to the observed strong decrease of star formation with cosmic time in the global galaxy population. Aims: We took advantage of the wealth of information provided by the first 10 000 galaxies of the zCOSMOS-bright survey and its group catalogue to study in detail the complex interplay between group environment and galaxy properties. Methods: The classical indicator Fblue, i.e., the fraction of blue galaxies, proved to be a simple but powerful diagnostic tool. We studied its variation for different luminosity and mass selected galaxy samples, divided as to define groups/field/isolated galaxy subsamples. Results: Using rest-frame evolving B-band volume-limited samples, the groups galaxy population exhibits significant blueing as redshift increases, but maintains a systematic difference (a lower Fblue) with respect to the global galaxy population, and an even larger difference with respect to the isolated galaxy population. However moving to mass selected samples it becomes apparent that such differences are largely due to the biased view imposed by the B-band luminosity selection, being driven by the population of lower mass, bright blue galaxies for which we miss the redder, equally low mass, counterparts. By carefully focusing the analysis on narrow mass bins such that mass segregation becomes negligible we find that only for the lowest mass bin explored, i.e., log ({\\cal M}*/{\\cal M}?) ? 10.6 , does a significant residual difference in color remain as a function of environment, while this difference becomes negligible toward higher masses. Conclusions: Our results indicate that red galaxies of mass log ({\\cal M}*/{\\cal M}?) ? 10.8 are already in place at z 1 and do not exhibit any strong environmental dependence, possibly originating from so-called nature or internal mechanisms. In contrast, for lower galaxy masses and redshifts lower than z 1, we observe the emergence in groups of a population of nurture red galaxies: slightly deviating from the trend of the downsizing scenario followed by the global galaxy population, and more so with cosmic time. These galaxies exhibit signatures of group-related secular physical mechanisms directly influencing galaxy evolution. Our analysis implies that these mechanisms begin to significantly influence galaxy evolution after z 1, a redshift corresponding to the emergence of structures in which these mechanisms take place. based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, program 175.A-0839, PI: S. Lilly.

Iovino, A.; Cucciati, O.; Scodeggio, M.; Knobel, C.; Kova?, K.; Lilly, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Caputi, K.; Pozzetti, L.; Oesch, P.; Lamareille, F.; Halliday, C.; Bardelli, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Guzzo, L.; Kampczyk, P.; Maier, C.; Tanaka, M.; Vergani, D.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Mignoli, M.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tresse, L.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Schiminovich, D.; Scoville, N.

2010-01-01

282

The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale  

PubMed Central

Background The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. Objective To produce maps of the baseline and future bioclimate that allows a direct comparison of the differences in the vulnerability of populations to thermal stress across the world. Design The required climatological data fields are obtained from climate simulations with the global General Circulation Model ECHAM4 in T106-resolution. For the thermo-physiologically relevant assessment of these climate data a complete heat budget model of the human being, the ‘Perceived Temperature’ procedure has been applied which already comprises adaptation by clothing to a certain degree. Short-term physiological acclimatisation is considered via Health Related Assessment of the Thermal Environment. Results The global maps 1971–1980 (control run, assumed as baseline climate) show a pattern of thermal stress intensities as frequencies of heat. The heat load for people living in warm–humid climates is the highest. Climate change will lead to clear differences in health-related thermal stress between baseline climate and the future bioclimate 2041–2050 based on the ‘business-as-usual’ greenhouse gas scenario IS92a. The majority of the world's population will be faced with more frequent and more intense heat strain in spite of an assumed level of acclimatisation. Further adaptation measures are crucial in order to reduce the vulnerability of the populations. Conclusions This bioclimatology analysis provides a tool for various questions in climate and climate change impact research. Considerations of regional or local scale require climate simulations with higher resolution. As adaptation is the key term in understanding the role of climate/climate change for human health, performance and well-being, further research in this field is crucial.

Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

2009-01-01

283

Wireless Sensor Network-Based Greenhouse Environment Monitoring and Automatic Control System for Dew Condensation Prevention  

PubMed Central

Dew condensation on the leaf surface of greenhouse crops can promote diseases caused by fungus and bacteria, affecting the growth of the crops. In this paper, we present a WSN (Wireless Sensor Network)-based automatic monitoring system to prevent dew condensation in a greenhouse environment. The system is composed of sensor nodes for collecting data, base nodes for processing collected data, relay nodes for driving devices for adjusting the environment inside greenhouse and an environment server for data storage and processing. Using the Barenbrug formula for calculating the dew point on the leaves, this system is realized to prevent dew condensation phenomena on the crop’s surface acting as an important element for prevention of diseases infections. We also constructed a physical model resembling the typical greenhouse in order to verify the performance of our system with regard to dew condensation control.

Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo

2011-01-01

284

The galaxy stellar mass function and its evolution with time show no dependence on global environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of the galaxy stellar mass function in different environments at intermediate redshift (0.3 ? z ? 0.8) for two mass-limited galaxy samples. We use the IMACS Cluster Building Survey (ICBS; M? ? 1010.5 M?) to study cluster, group and field galaxies at z = 0.3-0.45, and the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS; M? ? 1010.2 M?) to investigate cluster and group galaxies at z = 0.4-0.8. Our analysis thus includes galaxies with masses reaching just below that of the Milky Way. Excluding the brightest cluster galaxies, we show that the shape of the mass distribution does not seem to depend on global environment, Our two main results are: (1) Galaxies in the virialised regions of clusters, in groups, and in the field follow similar mass distributions. (2) Comparing the ICBS and EDisCS mass functions to mass functions in the local universe, we detect evolution from z ~ 0.4-0.6 to z ~ 0.07 in the sense that the population of low-mass galaxies has grown with time with respect to the population of massive galaxies. This evolution is independent of environment, i.e., the same for clusters and the field. Furthermore, considering only cluster galaxies, we find that no differences can be detected in their mass functions either within the virialised regions, or when we compare galaxies inside and outside the virial radius. Finally, we find that red and blue galaxies have different mass functions. However, the shapes of the mass functions of blue and red galaxies do not seem to depend on their environment (clusters groups and the field). This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

Vulcani, B.; Poggianti, B. M.; Oemler, A.; Dressler, A.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; De Lucia, G.; Moretti, A.; Gladders, M.; Abramson, L.; Halliday, C.

2013-02-01

285

Inferential monitoring of global change impact on biodiversity through remote sensing and species distribution modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is suffering from rapid changes in both climate and land cover which are the main factors affecting global biodiversity. These changes may affect ecosystems by altering species distributions, population sizes, and community compositions, which emphasizes the need for a rapid assessment of biodiversity status for conservation and management purposes. Current approaches on monitoring biodiversity rely mainly on long term observations of predetermined sites, which require large amounts of time, money and personnel to be executed. In order to overcome problems associated with current field monitoring methods, the main objective of this dissertation is the development of framework for inferential monitoring of the impact of global change on biodiversity based on remotely sensed data coupled with species distribution modeling techniques. Several research pieces were performed independently in order to fulfill this goal. First, species distribution modeling was used to identify the ranges of 6362 birds, mammals and amphibians in South America. Chapter 1 compares the power of different presence-only species distribution methods for modeling distributions of species with different response curves to environmental gradients and sample sizes. It was found that there is large variability in the power of the methods for modeling habitat suitability and species ranges, showing the importance of performing, when possible, a preliminary gradient analysis of the species distribution before selecting the method to be used. Chapter 2 presents a new methodology for the redefinition of species range polygons. Using a method capable of establishing the uncertainty in the definition of existing range polygons, the automated procedure identifies the relative importance of bioclimatic variables for the species, predicts their ranges and generates a quality assessment report to explore prediction errors. Analysis using independent validation data shows the power of this methodology to redefine species ranges in a more biophysically reasonable way. If a specific variable is important for a species, a change in that variable is likely to impact the species. Chapter 3 presents a methodology to identify the impact of environmental changes on 6362 species of mammals, amphibians and birds of South America, based on per-species measures of sensitivity, marginality, range restriction and trends in remotely sensed bioclimatic variables. Maps of the impact of environmental changes on vertebrates of South America were generated, with the Andes, Patagonia and the Atlantic Forest experiencing the strongest impact of environmental change in this over the past quarter century. Contributions of this dissertation include the development of new range polygons for all mammals, amphibians and birds of South America, as well as a methodology to re-draw the polygons in any other region of the world. This dataset is essential for both biodiversity analysis and conservation prioritization. Other contributions are the generation of maps of impact of global change on biodiversity, together with a framework for the development and updating of those maps. Conservation and monitoring agencies will find this research useful not only for the selection of new conservation areas but also for prioritizing areas for field monitoring.

Sangermano, Florencia

286

Climate monitoring using NCAR global, 2-hourly, GPS-derived atmospheric precipitable water dataset: Value and Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global, 2-hourly atmospheric precipitable water (PW) dataset has been produced from ground-based GPS products of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) using the International GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) Service (IGS) tropospheric products (~80-370 stations, 1997-2009), U.S. SuomiNet products (169 stations, 2003-2009) and Japanese GEONET data (>1000 stations, 1997-2005).The GPS measurement is valuable for climate monitoring, considering its availability under all

L. Zhang; J. Wang; P. Thorne; C. A. Mears

2010-01-01

287

Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements (7 channels: 0.47–2.1 ?m, 250–500 m resolutions) provide us with new insights into the characteristics of global aerosols. MODIS retrieves not only aerosol loading but also the fraction of fine mode particle. In this paper we demonstrate MODIS capability for use in monitoring global, regional, and local air pollution. Three case studies in northern

D. A. Chu; Y. J. Kaufman; G. Zibordi; J. D. Chern; Jietai Mao; Chengcai Li; B. N. Holben

2003-01-01

288

Leading and Managing in a Global Environment: Developing Executive Competencies for the World Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the challenges of developing the executive competencies needed to successfully lead and manage global enterprises. It reviews global competency models and the problems of identifying global skills. It looks at the difficulties of developing global competencies, particularly through overseas assignments. Finally, it considers other methods of developing global skills and the implications for both individuals and firms.

Paul Dainty

289

Global environment: An emerging challenge for international cooperation building a legal regime for ozone layer depletion  

SciTech Connect

Global environment is presenting new opportunities and challenges for international cooperation. The depletion of the ozone layer is one of the successful cases where the world community has demonstrated a rare consensus to address a global problem. This study: (1) examines the role of international law and institutions in shaping a regime for ozone layer depletion as formalized in the 1987 Montreal Protocol; (2) evaluates contributions of the ozone regime to the development of international environmental law; and (3) analyzes its implications for future international cooperation. Using regime theories as a methodological framework, the study integrates science, policy, law and institutions to show how they interact to create understandings, practices, and procedures in international relations. Traditionally, regime theorists have focused on power and interest to explain international cooperation. The existing theories were found to be inadequate for the analysis of ozone regime. The author offers an alternate explanation by incorporating the element of [open quotes]law[close quotes] into regime studies and linking regimes with [open quotes]institutions[close quotes] - the raison d'etre of the regimes. This modified explanation helps to provide a better understanding of the formation of the ozone regime. The study suggests that the ozone regime has produced a new generation of environmental norms. These norms, both procedural and substantive, put [open quotes]flesh on the bone[close quotes] of environmental law and keep ozone regime as a political process in motion, thus, adapting to the changing technological and scientific environment. Moreover, the ozone regime marks a turning point in the shift of emphasis from single-issue pollution laws to an encompassing law of the atmosphere. A new form of international cooperation also emerged from ozone negotiations.

Hosseini, J.

1992-01-01

290

Sensing the environment: regulation of local and global homeostasis by the skin's neuroendocrine system.  

PubMed

Skin, the body's largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates, and responds to a diverse range of stressors including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuro-endocrine-immune organ that is tightly networked to central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. Such production is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and noninfectious), and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, beta-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-delta steroids), secosteroids, opioids, and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid, and endocannbinoid systems. Dysregulation of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/ or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks are also addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve endings to alert the brain on changes in the epidermal or dermal environments, or alternatively to activate other coordinating centers by direct (spinal cord) neurotransmission without brain involvement. Furthermore, rapid and reciprocal communications between epidermal and dermal and adnexal compartments are also mediated by neurotransmission including antidromic modes of conduction. In conclusion, skin cells and skin as an organ coordinate and/or regulate not only peripheral but also global homeostasis. PMID:22894052

Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zbytek, Blazej; Slominski, Radomir M; Steketee, Jeffery D

2012-01-01

291

Observing Earth's Changing Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, a wide variety of spaceborne instruments have been developed and deployed to observe the Earth's environment on a global and almost continuous basis. Today, we have the capability to map solid surface topography, cover and subtle motion; to monitor on a global basis the ocean topography, circulation, temperature and near-surface wind; the atmospheric temperature and aerosol

Charles Elachi

2008-01-01

292

Large meteoroid detection using the global International Monitoring System infrasound system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will review the subject of infrasound from large bolides (large meteor-fireballs) entering the atmosphere at hypersonic speeds and their expected rate of detection by the 60 infrasonic arrays of the global IMS network (International Monitoring System). This will include the details of the generation of a quasiline source blast wave and its subsequent decay for near-continuum flow conditions. We will also discuss new highly refined models of bolide ablation and fragmentation and of known compositional types and their effect on sound and light production. In addition, we will consider the effects of refraction of the waves by the middle atmospheric and tropospheric thermodynamic sound speed and horizontal wind profiles in a range-independent atmosphere so that the characteristic velocity and wave normal directions radiated at the source are conserved during the propagation. Next, we will discuss the detection of the signals and their interpretation in terms of plane wave arrivals regarding the 3-D source location (latitude, longitude, height), the source energy level, etc. Finally, we will use the infrasound data from bolides to estimate the expected steady-state global influx rate, including formal errors, as a function of their observed source energy. Infrasound from recent large events will also be examined.

ReVelle, Douglas O.

2002-11-01

293

Laboratory test simulation for non-flat response calibration of global Earth albedo monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, we present laboratory test simulation for directional responsivity of a global Earth albedo monitoring instrument. The sensor is to observe the Sun and the Earth, alternately, and measure their shortwave (<4?m) radiations around the L1 halo orbit to obtain global Earth albedo. The instrument consists of a broadband scanning radiometer (energy channel instrument) and an imager (visible channel instrument) with ±2° field-of-view. In the case of the energy channel instrument, radiations arriving at the viewing ports from the Sun and the Earth are directed toward the pyroelectric detector via two spherical folding mirrors and a 3D compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The instrument responsivity is defined by the ratio of the incident radiation input to the instrument output signal. The radiometer's relative directional responsivity needs to be characterized across the field-of-view to assist output signal calibration. For the laboratory test, the distant small source configuration consists of an off-axis collimator and the instrument with adjustable mounts. Using reconstructed 3D CPC surface, the laboratory test simulation for predicting the instrument directional responsivity was conducted by a radiative transfer computation with ray tracing technique. The technical details of the laboratory test simulation are presented together with future plan.

Seong, Sehyun; Kim, Sug-Whan; Ryu, Dongok; Hong, Jinsuk; Lockwood, Mike

2012-09-01

294

Using animation quality metric to improve efficiency of global illumination computation for dynamic environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider applications of perception-based video quality metrics to improve the performance of global lighting computations for dynamic environments. For this purpose we extend the Visible Difference Predictor (VDP) developed by Daly to handle computer animations. We incorporate into the VDP the spatio-velocity CSF model developed by Kelly. The CSF model requires data on the velocity of moving patterns across the image plane. We use the 3D image warping technique to compensate for the camera motion, and we conservatively assume that the motion of animated objects (usually strong attractors of the visual attention) is fully compensated by the smooth pursuit eye motion. Our global illumination solution is based on stochastic photon tracing and takes advantage of temporal coherence of lighting distribution, by processing photons both in the spatial and temporal domains. The VDP is used to keep noise inherent in stochastic methods below the sensitivity level of the human observer. As a result a perceptually-consistent quality across all animation frames is obtained.

Myszkowski, Karol; Tawara, Takehiro; Seidel, Hans-Peter

2002-06-01

295

Climate-monitoring CubeSat mission (CM2): a project for global mesopause temperature sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goals of the Climate Monitoring CubeSat Mission (CM2) are to accelerate climate projection by obtaining global temperature, tidal and wave measurements with a simple CubeSat-based imaging spectrograph; and to demonstrate how a high-resolution imaging spectrograph can be deployed on a CubeSat satellite. In the middle atmosphere (50 - 100 km), beyond the reach of balloons or satellites, thermal signatures of CO2 radiation and wave activity have been largely missing from climate model inputs. This paper outlines an instrument to advance the state of the art in atmospheric climate projection by providing critical global measurements of middle-atmosphere temperatures and waves with a CubeSatscale imaging spectrograph. The CM2 will remotely sense middle-atmosphere temperatures and waves at ~90 km by analyzing spectra of intrinsically bright molecular oxygen emissions at near-infrared wavelengths in the O2 atmospheric band. The core instrument will be a miniaturized imaging spectrograph based on a monolithic spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS). This spectrograph will have sensitivity and spectral resolution to extract temperatures with 10° K precision and waves with 4 km scale resolution along a ~200 km cross-track swath. The SHS is significantly more robust than conventional interferometers, and thus better suited to space-based observation. Acquiring high-resolution middle-atmosphere temperature, tidal, and wave data on a daily, global basis will significantly improve climate models, and will help assess long-term greenhouse gas mitigation policy impact on upper-atmosphere thermal signatures. The CM2 program will also establish the efficacy of highresolution CubeSat-based broadband (near-IR to UV) spectroscopy for application to other atmospheric research missions.

Doe, Richard A.; Watchorn, Steven

2011-09-01

296

Global Monitoring of Relativistic Electron Precipitation with Balloon Networks: MINIS and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MINIS balloon campaign was conducted in January 2005 to obtain the first multi-point balloon measurements of relativistic electron precipitation. A total of six small (~50-90 lbs) payloads, were launched from the South African Antarctica Station (SANAE) and Churchill, Manitoba. Each payload carried a NaI scintillator to measure bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by precipitating electrons, and the southern payloads carried electric and magnetic field instruments. Three MINIS payloads (at L=3.5,4.1,and L~10) simultaneously detected bursts of relativistic precipitation on January 21, 2005 between 1700-2000 UT (1230-1500 MLT). We summarize the MINIS results, focusing on the spatial structure of precipitation during these events. These observations reveal the large spatial extent and complicated spatial structure of precipitation, and demonstrate the importance of simultaneously monitoring precipitation over a wide range of latitudes and local times to obtain accurate estimates of the relativistic electron loss rate. In particular, multiple-balloon observations will be an essential tool for globally monitoring precipitation during upcoming radiation belt missions such as the RBSP mission.

Millan, R. M.; Smith, D. M.; Sample, J. G.; Bale, S.; Bering, E. A.; Blake, J. B.; Collier, A. B.; Holzworth, R. H.; Hughes, A. R.; Kokorowski, M.; Lay, E.; Lin, R. P.; McCarthy, M. P.; Moraal, H.; O'Brien, T. P.; Parks, G. K.; Pulupa, M.; Reddell, B. D.; Stoker, P.; Woodger, L. A.

2005-12-01

297

Development of a passive microwave global snow monitoring algorithm for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research conducted to develop an integrated snow monitoring algorithm at global and regional scales for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E) due for launch on Aqua in 2001. The AMSR-E will have improved spatial and spectral resolution for snow cover monitoring compared with the currently available Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM\\/I) instrument. Two algorithm calibration

R. E. J. Kelly; A. T. C. Chang; J. L. Foster; D. K. Hai

2001-01-01

298

Feasibility of integrating other federal information systems into the Global Network of Environment and Technology, GNET{reg_sign}  

SciTech Connect

The Global Environment and Technology Enterprise (GETE) of the Global Environment and Technology Foundation (GETF) has been tasked by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to assist in reducing DOE`s cost for the Global Network of Environment and Technology (GNET{reg_sign}). As part of this task, GETE is seeking federal partners to invest in GNET{reg_sign}. The authors are also seeking FETC`s commitment to serve as GNET`s federal agency champion promoting the system to potential agency partners. This report assesses the benefits of partnering with GNET{reg_sign} and provides recommendations for identifying and integrating other federally funded (non-DOE) environmental information management systems into GNET{reg_sign}.

NONE

1998-05-01

299

[Morphophysiological monitoring of winter wheat at spring in connection with problem of global climate change].  

PubMed

Data on morphophysiological monitoring of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Mironovskaya 808 grown in Hoagland and Arnon solution in a greenhouse and transferred to natural conditions in March-April 2004 with the mean daily temperature of 0.6 +/- 0.7 degrees C within the exposure period of 42 days are presented. Water content, dry weight of plants and their organs, frost hardiness of plants, degree of tissue damage by frost, CO2 metabolism (photosynthesis and respiration), concentrations of sugars in tissues and proportions between different sugar forms, and activities of soluble and insoluble acid and alkaline phosphatases were monitored. Monitoring was carried out for three experimental variants simulating different microclimatic conditions in spring: after snow melting (experiment I), under ice crust (experiment II), and under snow cover (experiment III). Plants in experiments III and II demonstrated a higher water content in tissues, lower frost hardiness, higher rates of biomass loss, lower concentration of sugars and lower di- to monosaccharide ratio in tissues, and higher total invertase activity, particularly, cell wall-associated acid invertase activity. The dark respiration rates at 0 degrees C did not significantly differ between experimental variants. The photosynthetic capacity at this measurement temperature was maintained in all experimental variants being most pronounced in experiment II with the most intense photoinhibition under natural conditions. Comparison of experiments III and II with experiment I is used to discuss the negative effect of changes in certain microclimatic variables associated with global warming and leading to plant extortion and death from frost in spring. PMID:17022477

Klimov, S V; Burakhanova, E A; Dubinina, I M; Alieva, G P; Sal'nikova, E B; Trunova, T I

300

Clapp, Jennifer , and Peter Dauvergne . 2005. Paths to a Green World: The Political Economy of the Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This intelligent, well-written and informative book provides a fresh analysis of global environmental politics and ªlls a soft spot in the literature by concentrating explicitly and exclusively on its political economy. Clapp and Dauvergne use a typology of four worldviews—Market Liberals, Institutionalists, Bioenvironmentalists, and Social Greens—as a framework to examine how forces in global political economy impact the environment. Each

David Downie

2006-01-01

301

Development of a Drought Monitoring and Seasonal Forecast System at Regional to Global Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental real time drought monitoring and seasonal forecast system has been developed for the USA and is being extended globally. High resolution fields of hydrologic variables are generated from land surface model simulations and are used to represent agricultural and hydrologic drought severity. The system comprises three parts: a 50-yr retrospective simulation that forms a drought climatology; a real time monitoring component that updates hydrologic fields daily; and a forecast component that currently makes seasonal forecasts on a monthly basis using ensemble (probabilistic) forecast techniques with lead times up to 9 months. The soil moisture fields from these simulations are used as an index of drought, which has been used to analyze drought variation over the past 50 years. Current conditions and seasonal forecasts for soil moisture and other fields (evaporation, snow cover and basin streamflow) and are available on the web. For the USA, soil moisture data are derived from 1/8th degree simulations of the land surface water budget. The drought climatology over 1950-2000 is derived from a simulation driven by a gauge-based forcing dataset and real-time monitoring is achieved using forcing data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) real time product. Hydrologic fields are updated every day, at a lag of 1 to 2 days to real time. The forecast system uses seasonal precipitation and temperature forecasts from the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS). Ensemble forecasts are bias corrected and downscaled to 1/8 degree via a Bayesian merging technique. The land surface initial conditions are taken from the real-time fields. Seasonal hindcasts of soil moisture and other variables show reasonable skill in replicating historic data, but this is highly dependent on the skill of the precipitation and temperature forecasts. Improved forecast skill can be obtained by adding information derived from observed teleconnections and improved downscaling methods. The flexibility of the forecast system will enable other climate forecast products and hydrologic models to be incorporated in the future and we are extending the system globally.

Wood, E. F.; Luo, L.; Sheffield, J.

2006-12-01

302

The sperm whale sonar: Monitoring and use in mitigation of anthropogenic noise effects in the marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise pollution in the marine environment is an emerging but serious concern. Its implications are less well understood than other global threats and largely undetectable to everyone but the specialist. In addition, the assessment of the acoustic impact of artificial sounds in the sea is not a trivial task, certainly because there is a lack of information on how the marine organisms process and analyse sounds and how relevant these sounds are for the balance and development of the populations. Further, this possible acoustic impact not only concerns the hearing systems but may also affect other sensory or systemic levels and result equally lethal for the animal concerned. If we add that the negative consequences of a short or long term exposure to artificial sounds may not be immediately observed one can understood how challenging it is to obtain objective data allowing an efficient control of the introduction of anthropogenic sound in the sea. To answer some of these questions, the choice to investigate cetaceans and their adaptation to an aquatic environment is not fortuitous. Cetaceans, because of their optimum use of sound as an ad-hoc source of energy and their almost exclusive dependence on acoustic information, represent not only the best bio-indicator of the effects of noise pollution in the marine environment, but also a source of data to improve and develop human underwater acoustic technology. Here, we present how the characteristics and performance of the sperm whale mid-range biosonar can be used to develop a mitigation solution based on passive acoustics and ambient noise imaging to prevent negative interactions with human activities by monitoring cetacean movements in areas of interest, e.g. deep-sea observatories.

André, Michel

2009-04-01

303

High frequency monitoring of the coastal marine environment using the MAREL buoy.  

PubMed

The MAREL Iroise data buoy provides physico-chemical measurements acquired in surface marine water in continuous and autonomous mode. The water is pumped 1.5 m from below the surface through a sampling pipe and flows through the measuring cell located in the floating structure. Technological innovations implemented inside the measuring cell atop the buoy allow a continuous cleaning of the sensor, while injection of chloride ions into the circuit prevents biological fouling. Specific sensors for temperature, salinity, oxygen and fluorescence investigated in this paper have been evaluated to guarantee measurement precision over a 3 month period. A bi-directional link under Internet TCP-IP protocols is used for data, alarms and remote-control transmissions with the land-based data centre. Herein, we present a 29 month record for 4 parameters measured using a MAREL buoy moored in a coastal environment (Iroise Sea, Brest, France). The accuracy of the data provided by the buoy is assessed by comparison with measurements of sea water weekly sampled at the same site as part of SOMLIT (Service d'Observation du Milieu LIToral), the French network for monitoring of the coastal environment. Some particular events (impact of intensive fresh water discharges, dynamics of a fast phytoplankton bloom) are also presented, demonstrating the worth of monitoring a highly variable environment with a high frequency continuous reliable system. PMID:15173911

Blain, S; Guillou, J; Tréguer, P; Woerther, P; Delauney, L; Follenfant, E; Gontier, O; Hamon, M; Leilde, B; Masson, A; Tartu, C; Vuillemin, R

2004-04-07

304

The French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative on global observations of atmospheric CH4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a new French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative targeting on global measurements of atmospheric methane (CH4). Among the greenhouse gases banned by the Kyoto protocol, CH4 contributes most to global warming after CO2. Questions arise whether global warming in Arctic regions might foster the melting of permafrost soils which contain significant amounts of carbon in organic form which under anaerobic conditions might be converted to CH4 and partially released to the atmosphere. Also the development of natural wetlands which are the biggest methane source, play an important role in climate prediction. Up to now, there is very little knowledge about CH4 sources and sinks in connection with changes in the agro-industrial era of predominant human influence or the very large deposits of CH4 as gas hydrates on ocean shelves that are vulnerable to ocean warming. The objective of this initiative is to improve our knowledge on regional to synoptic scale methane sources, globally. This will be obtained by the measurement of the column-weighted dry-air mixing ratio of CH4, commonly referred to XCH4 which can be used as input for flux inversion models. As a novel feature, the observational instrument will have its own light source emitting pulsed narrow-line laser radiation, not relying on sunlight. The XCH4 values will be provided by a lidar technique with no bias due to particles scattering in the light path, which can have strong regional variability. Using a range-gated receiver for detection of the signals scattered from the Earth surface, the lidar can distinguish surface from cloud or aerosol backscatter, permitting high-precision retrievals of XCH4 in the presence of thin cirrus or aerosol layers. The proposed measurement approach is also capable of providing measurements in partially cloudy conditions. The emitted laser pulses can reach the surface when gaps between clouds occur due to the near-nadir view and the small lidar footprint. The instrument will also provide XCH4 measurements above dense stratiform clouds to be used as reflective target instead of the surface. Using this observational method an unique dataset with sampling twice daily and with all-season and all-latitude coverage will be provided. In our presentation we focus on the measurement concept of XCH4 using an active optical instrument and discuss the expected performance in connection to the needs of flux inversion experiments. Finally, we will give an overview on supporting activities related to lidar measurements of greenhouse gas concentrations from ground-based and airborne platforms.

Ehret, Gerhard; Flamant, Pierre; Amediek, Axel; Ciais, Philippe; Fabien, Gibert; Fix, Andreas; Kiemle, Christoph; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Wirth, Martin

2010-05-01

305

The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission Concept and First Scientific Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a new instrument aboard the European Space Agency's (ESA) Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2), which was launched in April 1995. The main scientific objective of the GOME mission is to determine the global distribution of ozone and several other trace gases, which play an important role in the ozone chemistry of the earth's stratosphere and troposphere. GOME measures the sunlight scattered from the earth's atmosphere and/or reflected by the surface in nadir viewing mode in the spectral region 240-790 nm at a moderate spectral resolution of between 0.2 and 0.4 nm. Using the maximum 960-km across-track swath width, the spatial resolution of a GOME ground pixel is 40 × 320 km2 for the majority of the orbit and global coverage is achieved in three days after 43 orbits.Operational data products of GOME as generated by DLR-DFD, the German Data Processing and Archiving Facility (D-PAF) for GOME, comprise absolute radiometrically calibrated earthshine radiance and solar irradiance spectra (level 1 products) and global distributions of total column amounts of ozone and NO2 (level 2 products), which are derived using the DOAS approach (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy). (Under certain conditions and some restrictions, the operational data products are publically available from the European Space Agency via the ERS Helpdesk.)In addition to the operational data products, GOME has delivered important information about other minor trace gases such as OClO, volcanic SO2, H2CO from biomass burning, and tropospheric BrO. Using an iterative optimal estimation retrieval scheme, ozone vertical profiles can be derived from the inversion of the UV/VIS spectra. This paper reports on the GOME instrument, its operation mode, and the retrieval techniques, the latter with particular emphasis on DOAS (total column retrieval) and advanced optimal estimation (ozone profile retrieval).Observation of ozone depletion in the recent polar spring seasons in both hemispheres are presented. OClO observed by GOME under twilight conditions provides valuable information on the chlorine activation inside the polar vortex, which is believed to be responsible for the rapid catalytic destruction of ozone. Episodes of enhanced BrO in the Arctic, most likely contained in the marine boundary layer, were observed in early and late spring. Excess tropospheric nitrogen dioxide and ozone have been observed during the recent Indonesian fire in fall 1997. Formaldehyde could also clearly be identified by GOME and is known to be a by-product resulting from biomass burning.

Burrows, John P.; Weber, Mark; Buchwitz, Michael; Rozanov, Vladimir; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Richter, Andreas; Debeek, Rüdiger; Hoogen, Ricarda; Bramstedt, Klaus; Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; Eisinger, Michael; Perner, Dieter

1999-01-01

306

Tunable Diode Laser Sensor for Monitoring and Control of Harsh Combustion Environments  

SciTech Connect

This work represents the collaborative effort between American Air Liquide and Physical Sciences, Inc. for developing a sensor based on near-IR tunable diode lasers (TDL). The multi-species capability of the sensor for simultaneous monitoring of CO, O2, and H2O concentration as well as gas temperature is ideal for in-situ monitoring on industrial furnaces. The chemical species targeted are fundamental for controlling the combustion space for improved energy efficiency, reduced pollutants, and improved product quality, when coupling the measurement to a combustion control system. Several add-on modules developed provide flexibility in the system configuration for handling different process monitoring applications. For example, the on-Demand Power Control system for the 1.5 ?m laser is used for high particle density exhaust streams where laser transmission is problematic. For long-distance signal collection a fiber optic communication system is used to reduce noise pick-up. Finally, hardened modules to withstand high ambient temperatures, immune to EMF interference, protection from flying debris, and interfaced with pathlength control laser beam shielding probes were developed specifically for EAF process monitoring. Demonstration of these different system configurations was conducted on Charter Steel's reheat furnace, Imco Recycling, Inc. (now Aleris International, Inc.) aluminum reverberatory furnace, and Gerdau Ameristeel's EAF. Measurements on the reheat furnace demonstrated zone monitoring with the measurement performed close to the steel billet. Results from the aluminum furnace showed the benefit of measuring in-situ near the bath. In this case, low-level furnace optimization was performed and demonstrated 5% fuel savings. Monitoring tests on the EAF off-gas demonstrated the level of industrialization of the sensor to survive the harsh EAF environment. Long-term testing on the EAF has been on-going for over 6 months with essentially zero maintenance. Validation of the TDL measurement on the EAF was confirmed by comparison with extractive sampling CO measurements.

VonDrasek, William; Melsio-Pubill, Anna

2006-05-30

307

Remote Environmental Monitoring of Hydrologic/ Biotic Interaction in a Mountain Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless sensor networks offer several advantages in monitoring of dynamic environmental variables in remote landscapes and offer a promising approach to realize the full potential of environmental monitoring. Wireless sensors also offer the advantage of real time data collection and sensor/network management and reduced long-term costs. Better understanding of surface water budgets in remote landscapes warrants close monitoring of moisture and temperature variability in near surfaces soils. This work describes field data demonstrating the functionality of four different wireless networks, at two field sites, both part of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). Equipment used varied from traditional point to point radio communication to a wireless mote based, distributed network. Sensors measuring water potential, volumetric water content, and soil temperature were deployed at a variety of sites including, a remote alpine meadow, along a topographic gradient with a dense tree canopy and within the root structure of an individual tree. The sensors were reactive to moisture and temperature variations and the wireless systems met the goal of providing informative data on dynamic responses of soil moisture to precipitation, snow melt and changes in vegetative demand. The systems were dependable, with low power consumption and were robust enough to withstand harsh winter conditions at a high elevation site. The study highlights measurement accuracy, power consumption, and data transmission limitations of the three systems. We demonstrate that deployment, implementation and long-term field monitoring in remote and challenging environments is possible with a variety of wireless systems.

Hartsough, P. C.; Malazian, A.; Tuli, A.; Kamai, T.; Kizito, F.; Bales, R.; Broad, A.; Hopmans, J.

2008-12-01

308

Development cooperation for health: reviewing a dynamic concept in a complex global aid environment  

PubMed Central

The 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, held in Busan, South Korea in November 2011 again promised an opportunity for a "new consensus on development cooperation" to emerge. This paper reviews the recent evolution of the concept of coordination for development assistance in health as the basis from which to understand current discourses. The paper reviews peer-reviewed scientific literature and relevant 'grey' literature, revisiting landmark publications and influential authors, examining the transitions in the conceptualisation of coordination, and the related changes in development assistance. Four distinct transitions in the understanding, orientation and application of coordination have been identified: coordination within the sector, involving geographical zoning, sub-sector specialisation, donor consortia, project co-financing, sector aid, harmonisation of procedures, ear-marked budgetary support, donor agency reform and inter-agency intelligence gathering; sector-wide coordination, expressed particularly through the Sector-Wide Approach; coordination across sectors at national level, expressed in the evolution of Poverty Strategy Reduction Papers and the national monitoring of the Millennium Development Goals; and, most recently, global-level coordination, embodied in the Paris Principles, and the emergence of agencies such as the International Health Partnerships Plus. The transitions are largely but not strictly chronological, and each draws on earlier elements, in ways that are redefined in the new context. With the increasing complexity of both the territory of global health and its governance, and increasing stakeholders and networks, current imaginings of coordination are again being challenged. The High Level Forum in Busan may have been successful in recognising a much more complex landscape for development than previously conceived, but the challenges to coordination remain.

2012-01-01

309

Sensor Selection to Support Practical Use of Health-Monitoring Smart Environments.  

PubMed

The data mining and pervasive sensing technologies found in smart homes offer unprecedented opportunities for providing health monitoring and assistance to individuals experiencing difficulties living independently at home. In order to monitor the functional health of smart home residents, we need to design technologies that recognize and track activities that people normally perform as part of their daily routines. One question that frequently arises, however, is how many smart home sensors are needed and where should they be placed in order to accurately recognize activities? We employ data mining techniques to look at the problem of sensor selection for activity recognition in smart homes. We analyze the results based on six data sets collected in five distinct smart home environments. PMID:21760755

Cook, Diane J; Holder, Lawrence B

2011-07-01

310

Qualification, monitoring, and integration into a production environment of the world's first fully programmable illuminator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will describe the development, qualification, monitoring, and integration into a production environment of the world's first fully programmable illuminator for optical lithography. FlexRay TM, a programmable illuminator based on a MEMs multi-mirror array that was developed for TWINSCAN XT:19x0i and TWINSCAN NXT series ASML immersion scanners, was first installed in January 2010 at Albany Nanotech, with subsequent tools installed in IBM's East Fishkill Manufacturing facility. After a brief overview of the concept and benefits of FlexRay, this paper will provide a comprehensive assessment of its reliability and imaging performance. A CD-based pupil qualification (CDPQ) procedure will be introduced and shown to be an efficient and effective way to monitor pupil performance. Various CDPQ and in-resist measurement results will be described, offering convincing evidence that FlexRay reliably generates high-quality pupils and is well suited for high volume manufacturing at lithography's leading edge.

McIntyre, Gregory; Corliss, Daniel; Groenendijk, Remco; Carpaij, Rene; van Niftrik, Ton; Landie, Guillaume; Tamura, Takao; Pepin, Thomas; Waddell, James; Woods, Jerry; Robinson, Chris; Tian, Kehan; Johnson, Richard; Halle, Scott; Kim, Ryoung-Han; McLellan, Erin; Kato, Hirokazu; Scaduto, Anthony; Maier, Carl; Colburn, Matt

2011-03-01

311

Air-quality monitoring and detection of air contamination in an enclosed environment.  

PubMed

We report on the development of an air-quality monitoring and early detection system for an enclosed environment with specific emphasis on manned spacecraft. The proposed monitoring approach is based on a distributed parameter model of contaminant dispersion and real-time contaminant concentration measurements. Kalman filtering is identified as a suitable method for generating on-line estimation of the spatial contamination profile, and an implicit Kalman filtering algorithm is shown to be preferable for rear-time implementation. The identification of the contaminant concentration profile allows for a straightforward solution of the early detection of an air contamination event and provides information that enables potential automatic diagnosis of an unknown contamination source. PMID:11542301

Skliar, M; Ramirez, W F

312

Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling issues that must be addressed to link ground measurements to

P. T URNER; THOMAS K. M AEIRSPERGER; S TITH T. G OWER; A. K I R S C H B A U Mz; STEVE W. R UNNING; M AOSHENG; Z HAO; S TEVEN C. W OFSY; J OHN; L. C AMPBELL; H Y O J U N G K W O Nk; TILDEN P. M EYERS; A. K URC; J O H N A. G A M O N zz

2005-01-01

313

Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment measurements: Method and applications to test cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite monitoring of aerosol properties using passive techniques is widely considered a crucial tool for the study of climatic effects of atmospheric particulate [Kaufman et al., 1997]. Only space-based observations can provide the required global coverage information on spatial distribution and temporal variation of the aerosol field. This paper describes a method for deriving aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm

Francesca Torricella; Elsa Cattani; Marco Cervino; Rodolfo Guzzi; Chiara Levoni

1999-01-01

314

Scene selection and the use of NASA's global orthorectified Landsat dataset for land cover and land use change monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the utility of NASA's circa 1990 and circa 2000 global orthorectified Landsat dataset for land cover and land use change mapping and monitoring across Africa. This is achieved by comparing the temporal and spatial variation of NDVI, measured independently by the NOAA-AVHRR at the time of Landsat scene acquisition, against the seasonal mean for each Landsat scene

Andrew J. Tatem; Anjali Nayar; Simon I. Hay

2006-01-01

315

The ERS-1 Central Africa Mosaic: a new perspective in radar remote sensing for the global monitoring of vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Africa Mosaic Project (CAMP) is an attempt to bring spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing into an entirely new perspective for tropical forest monitoring, this goal represents a drastic change in the use of radar data, as it brings high-resolution SAR from the role of gap-filler and local hot spot analysis to the role of global mapping

Gianfranco De Grandi; Jean-Paul Malingreau; Marc Leysen

1999-01-01

316

Global positioning system measurements over a strain monitoring network in the eastern two-thirds of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 45-station geodetic network was established in 1987 using global positioning system (GPS) technology to provide a means of monitoring strain and deformation in the central and eastern United States. Reduction of the initial epoch data showed that accuracies of 1 to 3 cm can be achieved for horizontal position, provided sufficient observations are available and there are four or

Strange

1991-01-01

317

Strategy for monitoring the exposure and effects of contaminants in the aquatic environment. Scientific Series No. 172  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines a monitoring strategy for determining the exposure and effects of contaminants in the aquatic environment. It covers present water quality issues in Canada; reviews past and present Water Quality Branch activities responding to these issues; and proposes an operational framework within which contaminant monitoring of the aquatic environment can be carried out. A basic conceptual model, a flowchart relating assessment activities, and tables describing the tools available for sampling and interpretation are also provided.

Desilets, L.; Kwiatkowski, R.

1989-01-01

318

Biomedical real-time monitoring in restricted and safety-critical environments  

PubMed Central

Biomedical signal monitoring can counteract the risk of human operator error due to inattention or fatigue in safetycritical and restrictive environments, such as in aviation, space, automobile and heavy industrial machinery operation. Real-time biomedical data acquisition is changing through advances in microelectronics fabrication, bio-MEMS and power micro-generators. Such data acquisition and processing systems are becoming increasingly miniaturised, flexible and pervasive, while data is being collected from inside the human body as well as around it. In this paper we review two related research projects exploiting this technological convergence, discuss its implications and suggest future innovation prospects through further similar cross-disciplinary synergies.

Astaras, A; Bamidis, P D; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Maglaveras, N

2008-01-01

319

Dynamic sensor deployment for the monitoring of chemical releases in urban environments (DYCE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present findings of the DYCE project, which addresses the needs of military and blue light responders to provide a rapid, reliable on-scene analysis of the dispersion of toxic airborne chemical threat agents following their release into the environment. We describe the development and experimental results for a small network of ad-hoc deployable chemical and meteorological sensors capable of identifying and locating the source of the contaminant release, as well as monitoring and estimating the dispersion characteristics of the plume. We further present deployment planning methodologies to optimize the data gathering mission given a constrained asset base.

Lepley, Jason J.; Lloyd, David R.; Robins, Alan; Rudd, Alison; Wilks, Ashley

2011-05-01

320

Development of a Micro Quad-Rotor UAV for Monitoring an Indoor Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to develop a micro UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) as the platform for monitoring an indoor environment, more specifically, a quad-rotor aircraft that has strong advantages of its small size, stable hovering and precise flight. To begin with, we analyze the dynamics of a quad-rotor aircraft, and introduce control strategies based on the PD control. Then, the developed micro quad-rotor UAV, equipped with micro controllers, various sensors, and a wireless camera, is presented and is compared with the DraganFlyer commercial quad-rotor aircraft. Finally, experimental results are also provided so as to illustrate stable flight performances.

Min, B. C.; Cho, C. H.; Choi, K. M.; Kim, D. H.

321

Searching for global descriptors of engineered nanomaterial fate and transport in the environment.  

PubMed

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are a new class of environmental pollutants. Researchers are beginning to debate whether new modeling paradigms and experimental tests to obtain model parameters are required for ENMs or if approaches for existing pollutants are robust enough to predict ENM distribution between environmental compartments. This Account outlines how experimental research can yield quantitative data for use in ENM fate and exposure models. We first review experimental testing approaches that are employed with ENMs. Then we compare and contrast ENMs against other pollutants. Finally, we summarize the findings and identify research needs that may yield global descriptors for ENMs that are suitable for use in fate and transport modeling. Over the past decade, researchers have made significant progress in understanding factors that influence the fate and transport of ENMs. In some cases, researchers have developed approaches toward global descriptor models (experimental, conceptual, and quantitative). We suggest the following global descriptors for ENMs: octanol-water partition coefficients, solid-water partition coefficients, attachment coefficients, and rate constants describing reactions such as dissolution, sedimentation, and degradation. ENMs appear to accumulate at the octanol-water interface and readily interact with other interfaces, such as lipid-water interfaces. Batch experiments to investigate factors that influence retention of ENMs on solid phases are very promising. However, ENMs probably do not behave in the same way as dissolved chemicals, and therefore, researchers need to use measurement techniques and concepts more commonly associated with colloids. Despite several years of research with ENMs in column studies, available summaries tend to discuss the effects of ionic strength, pH, organic matter, ENM type, packing media, or other parameters qualitatively rather than reporting quantitative values, such as attachment efficiencies, that would facilitate comparison across studies. Only a few structure-activity relationships have been developed for ENMs so far, but such evaluations will facilitate the understanding of the reactivities of different forms of a single ENM. The establishment of predictive capabilities for ENMs in the environment would enable accurate exposure assessments that would assist in ENM risk management. Such information is also critical for understanding the ultimate disposition of ENMs and may provide a framework for improved engineering of nanomaterials that are more environmentally benign. PMID:22950943

Westerhoff, Paul; Nowack, Bernd

2012-09-05

322

International Emissions Trading Approach to Meet the Kyoto Protocol: The Implications of Hot Air Trading on Global Environment and Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol came into effect in early 2005, following the formal ratification of the Russian Federation. Starting from 2008, the Russian Federation can sell its reductions in emissions, normally referred to as hot air, in the international trading system. This paper aims to examine the quantitative effects of trading hot air among the Annex-I countries on global environment and

Tsung-Chen Lee; Chien-Ming Lee; Chiung-Yao Tseng

2007-01-01

323

Endosulfan, a global pesticide: A review of its fate in the environment and occurrence in the Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review investigates the fate and behaviour of endosulfan, a current-use organochlorine pesticide, in temperate environments and the Arctic. Usage data and patterns, physical–chemical properties, environmental partitioning and degradation, environmental levels, global distribution and temporal trends are evaluated and discussed in the context of criteria that designate a substance as a persistent organic pollutant. Endosulfan is one of the most

Jan Weber; Crispin J. Halsall; Derek Muir; Camilla Teixeira; Jeff Small; Keith Solomon; Mark Hermanson; Hayley Hung; Terry Bidleman

2010-01-01

324

Cross-Cultural Collisions in Cyberspace: Case Studies of International Legal Issues for Educators Working in Globally Networked Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores some of the legal and law-related challenges educators face in designing, implementing, and sustaining globally networked learning environments (GNLEs) in the context of conflicting international laws on intellectual property and censorship/free speech. By discussing cases and areas involving such legal issues, the article…

Rife, Martine Courant

2010-01-01

325

Financial Institutions between Effectiveness and Legitimacy – A Legal Analysis of the World Bank, Global Environment Facility and Prototype Carbon Fund  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental financing is one of the crucial issues of international environmental law and its implementation. From an environmental perspective a prerequisite for success is that financial resources are used in an environmentally effective way. Whether the World Bank, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) can be perceived as effective environmental actors has to be measured

Nele Matz

2005-01-01

326

Monitoring soil and vegetation fluxes of carbon and water at the global scale: the land carbon core information service of GEOLAND2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global component of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Land Monitoring Core service (LMCS) is being developed in the framework of the GEOLAND2 European project (FP7, 2008-2012). Land Data Assimilation Systems (LDAS) for the carbon and water cycles have been proposed as a core activity of the LMCS Global component and are developed by the Land Carbon Core Information Service (LC-CIS) of GEOLAND2. Both water and carbon terrestrial cycles require a similar data assimilation approach in which a model is constrained by as many relevant data as possible. Indeed, water and carbon cycles are closely linked and it is possible to build an integrated LDAS which includes all the processes. The advantage is that consistency can be achieved across a range of products based on satellite data. The LC-CIS performs modeling and data assimilation tasks, associated to a verification component based on in situ observations. The LC-CIS links the LMCS to the atmosphere component of GMES using the existing infrastructure/tools developed by meteorological services (ECMWF and national meteorological services). Leaf area index and surface soil moisture products derived from SPOT/VGT and from ASCAT are used to analyze the vegetation biomass and the root-zone soil moisture. The first 16km x 16km resolution products of the global LDAS operated by ECMWF are presented, together with 8km x 8km resolution products over France and Hungary of regional LDAS operated by Meteo-France and OMSZ, respectively.

Calvet, J.-C.; Albergel, C.; Balsamo, G.; Balzarolo, M.; Barbu, A.; Boussetta, S.; Cescatti, A.; Chevallier, F.; de Vries, J.; Kullmann, L.; Lafont, S.; Mahfouf, J.-F.; Maignan, F.; Papale, D.; Poulter, B.; Szczypta, C.; Szintai, B.

2012-04-01

327

Monitoring stream aquifer interaction and ground water evapotranspiration in a humid shallow water table environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In humid environments, like the southern U.S., a dynamic shallow water table controls many hydrological fluxes across the ground water-vadose zone-atmosphere continuum. Heterogeneity in the vegetative cover of these environments influences lateral water table gradients in the surficial aquifer and associated stream aquifer interaction fluxes. In this study, we monitor the shallow water table fluctuation along two flow paths (transects) encompassing two types of vegetative landscapes: a pasture upland and a riparian zone with dense canopy lowland. The monitoring system consists of a series of observation wells along the flow path, soil moisture sensors, continuous rainfall gaging, total weather station, a stage recorder in the creek, and an evaporation pan. All instruments are automated with pressure transducers and data loggers providing continuous recording at time intervals in minutes. In addition, soil cores were removed and analyzed in the lab from selected locations and depths. The cores were used to determine hydraulic conductivity, aquifer thickness, and texture distribution of the shallow surficial aquifer. The objectives of this study are (1) to estimate specific yield variation with water table depth (specific yield is the depth of water released per unit fluctuation in water table), (2) to quantify ground water evapotranspiration as a function of depth to water table, (3) to compare groundwater evapotranspiration for the two vegetated landscapes.

Nachabe, M.; Thompson, D.; de Silva, M.

2003-04-01

328

Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment: Algorithm description and validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone profiles are derived from back scattered radiance spectra in the ultraviolet (289-339 nm) measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) using the optimal estimation technique. Tropospheric Column Ozone (TCO) is directly derived using the known tropopause to divide the stratosphere and troposphere. To optimize the retrieval and improve the fitting precision needed for tropospheric ozone, we perform extensive wavelength and radiometric calibrations and improve forward model inputs. The a priori influence of retrieved TCO is ˜15% in the tropics and increases to ˜50% at high latitudes. The dominant error terms are the smoothing errors, instrumental random-noise errors, and systematic temperature errors. We compare our GOME retrievals with Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Total column Ozone (TO), Dobson/Brewer (DB) TO, and ozonesonde TCO at 33 World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC) stations between 71°S and 75°N during 1996-1999. The mean biases with TOMS and DB TO are within 6 DU (2%, 1 DU = 2.69 × 1016 molecules cm-2) at most of the stations. The retrieved Tropospheric Column Ozone (TCO) captures most of the temporal variability in ozonesonde TCO; the mean biases are mostly within 3 DU (15%) and the standard deviations (1?) are within 3-8 DU (13-27%). We also compare our retrieved ozone profiles above ˜15 km against Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements from 1996 to 1999. The mean biases and standard deviations are usually within 15%.

Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Sioris, C. E.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Kurosu, T. P.; Martin, R. V.; Newchurch, M. J.

2005-10-01

329

Use of business planning methods to monitor global health budgets in Turkmenistan.  

PubMed Central

After undergoing many changes, the financing of health care in countries of the former Soviet Union is now showing signs of maturing. Soon after the political transition in these countries, the development of insurance systems and fee-for-service payment systems dominated the discussions on health reform. At present there is increasing emphasis on case mix adjusted payments in larger hospitals and on global budgets in smaller district hospitals. The problem is that such systems are often mistrusted for not providing sufficient financial control. At the same time, unless further planned restructuring is introduced, payment systems cannot on their own induce the fundamental change required in the health care system. As described in this article, in Tejen etrap (district), Turkmenistan, prospective business plans, which link planned objectives and activities with financial allocations, provide a framework for setting and monitoring budget expenditure. Plans can be linked to the overall objectives of the restructuring system and can be used to ensure sound financial management. The process of business planning, which calls for a major change in the way health facilities examine their activities, can be used as a vehicle to increase awareness of management issues. It also provides a way of satisfying the requirement for a rigorous, bottom-up planning of financial resources.

Ensor, T.; Amannyazova, B.

2000-01-01

330

Use of business planning methods to monitor global health budgets in Turkmenistan.  

PubMed

After undergoing many changes, the financing of health care in countries of the former Soviet Union is now showing signs of maturing. Soon after the political transition in these countries, the development of insurance systems and fee-for-service payment systems dominated the discussions on health reform. At present there is increasing emphasis on case mix adjusted payments in larger hospitals and on global budgets in smaller district hospitals. The problem is that such systems are often mistrusted for not providing sufficient financial control. At the same time, unless further planned restructuring is introduced, payment systems cannot on their own induce the fundamental change required in the health care system. As described in this article, in Tejen etrap (district), Turkmenistan, prospective business plans, which link planned objectives and activities with financial allocations, provide a framework for setting and monitoring budget expenditure. Plans can be linked to the overall objectives of the restructuring system and can be used to ensure sound financial management. The process of business planning, which calls for a major change in the way health facilities examine their activities, can be used as a vehicle to increase awareness of management issues. It also provides a way of satisfying the requirement for a rigorous, bottom-up planning of financial resources. PMID:10994288

Ensor, T; Amannyazova, B

2000-01-01

331

On the demands on imaging spectrometry for the monitoring of global vegetation fluorescence from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation fluorescence when measured from space contributes only a tiny fraction of the signal coming on top of the reflected radiance by the Earth surface and the atmosphere. As a consequence, imaging spectrometers have to provide sufficient throughput and radiometric accuracy to enable accurate global monitoring of the daily to seasonal variations of the Earth's vegetation breath, which is particularly challenging if ground resolutions of a few hundred meters are targeted. Since fluorescence retrieval algorithms have to make corrections for atmospheric effects, it is necessary to provide sufficient spectral resolution, so that signal alterations due to the main parameters such as surface pressure, atmospheric temperature profile, vertical distribution of aerosols concentration, and water vapour content can be accurately modelled. ESA's Earth Explorer 8 candidate mission FLEX carries a Fluorescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS), which has been designed and optimised to enable such measurement. The spectrometer will measure in a spectral range between 500 and 780 nm and provide high spectral resolution of 0.3 nm in particular at the Oxygen-A and -B bands. It will also cover the photochemical reflection features between 500 and 600 nm, the Chlorophyll absorption region between 600 and 677 nm, and the red-edge in the region of 697 to 755 nm. FLEX will fly in formation with Sentinel-3 in order to further enhance the spectral coverage from measurements made by the Sentinel-3 instruments OLCI and SLSTR, particularly for cloud screening and proper characterization of the atmospheric status.

Kraft, S.; Del Bello, U.; Drusch, M.; Gabriele, A.; Harnisch, B.; Moreno, J.

2013-09-01

332

Tier-Scalable Reconnaissance Missions for Autonomous Exploration and Spatio-Temporal Monitoring of Climate Change with Particular Application to Glaciers and their Environs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal monitoring of climate change and its impacts is needed globally and thus requires satellite-based observations and analysis. However, needed ground truth can only be obtained in situ. In situ exploration of extreme and often hazardous environments can pose a significant challenge to human access. We propose the use of a disruptive exploration paradigm that has earlier been introduced with autonomous robotic space exploration, termed Tier-Scalable Reconnaissance (PSS 2005; SCIENCE 2010). Tier-scalable reconnaissance utilizes orbital, aerial, and surface/subsurface robotic platforms working in concert, enabling event-driven and integrated global to regional to local reconnaissance capabilities. We report on the development of a robotic test bed for Tier-scalable Reconnaissance at the University of Arizona and Caltech (SCIENCE 2010) for distributed and science-driven autonomous exploration, mapping, and spatio-temporal monitoring of climate change in hazardous or inaccessible environments. We focus in particular on glaciers and their environs, especially glacier lakes. Such glacier lakes can pose a significant natural hazard to inhabited areas and economies downstream. The test bed currently comprises several robotic surface vehicles: rovers equipped with cameras, and boats equipped with cameras and side-scanning sonar technology for bathymetry and the characterization of subsurface structures in glacier lakes and other water bodies. To achieve a fully operational Tier-scalable Reconnaissance test bed, aerial platforms will be integrated in short order. Automated mapping and spatio-temporal monitoring of glaciers and their environs necessitate increasing degrees of operational autonomy: (1) Automatic mapping of an operational area from different vantages (i.e., airborne, surface, subsurface); (2) automatic sensor deployment and sensor data gathering; (3) automatic feature extraction and region-of-interest/anomaly identification within the mapped operational area; (4) automatic target prioritization for closer examination; and (5) subsequent automatic, targeted deployment and navigation/relocation of agents/sensors (e.g., to follow up on transient events, e.g., landslides or glacier lake outbursts). The robotic surface vehicles can be interactively or automatically controlled from anywhere in the world in near real-time via the Internet. The test bed enables the implementation, field-testing, and validation of algorithms and strategies for navigation, exploration, sensor deployment, sensor data gathering, feature extraction, anomaly detection, and science goal prioritization for autonomous mapping and monitoring. The robotic test bed enables the development, field-testing, and validation of software packages for inter-agent communication and coordination to navigate and explore operational areas with greatly reduced (ultimately without) assistance from human operators. This will enable unsupervised large-scale deployment to monitor natural hazards over time.

Fink, W.; Tarbell, M. A.; Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.

2010-12-01

333

Natural hazards education in global environment leaders education programme for designing a low-carbon society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global environmental leader (GEL) education programme at graduate school for international development and cooperation (IDEC) in Hiroshima University is an education and training programme for graduate students especially from developing countries in Asian region to build and enhance their ability to become international environmental leaders. Through this programme, they will participate in regular course works and other activities to learn how to cope with the various environment and resource management issues from global to regional scales toward a low-carbon society via multi-disciplinary approaches considering sustainable development and climate change. Under this GEL programme, there are five different research sub-groups as follows assuming a cause-effect relationship among interacting components of social, economic, and environmental systems; 1) urban system design to prevent global warming, 2) wise use of biomass resources, 3) environmental impact assessment, 4) policy and institutional design, and 5) development of environmental education programs. Candidate students of GEL programme belong to one of the five research sub-groups, perform their researches and participate in many activities under the cross-supervisions from faculty members of different sub-groups. Under the third research group for environmental impact assessment, we use numerical models named as regional environment simulator (RES) as a tool for research and education for assessing the environmental impacts due to natural hazards. Developed at IDEC, Hiroshima University, RES is a meso-scale numerical model system that can be used for regional simulation of natural disasters and environmental problems caused by water and heat circulation in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. RES has three components: i) atmosphere-surface waves-ocean part, ii) atmosphere-land surface process-hydrologic part, and iii) coastal and estuarine part. Each part is constructed with state-of-the-art public domain numerical models that are combined synchronously by an own-developed model coupler. Therefore, RES can provide detailed insights from various aspects of interaction processes between each component in the earth system. For instance, RES has been used for the study of storm surges and the abnormally high ocean waves caused by typhoons, cyclones, hurricanes, and winter monsoon winds in Asian region; dam lake circulation; air-sea interaction of momentum, heat, and tracer material exchange; heavy rainfall and runoff simulation; estuarine circulation with cohesive sediment transport; and wave overtopping in coastal regions. Most recently, a project on the impact of reduced discharge of freshwater and sediment from the Yangtze River basin on the adjacent East China Sea has been initiated by using the RES. Under the GEL programme, we found the RES can be an important and useful tool for graduate students not only from science and engineering background but also from social science so as to evaluate their policy and institutional design.

Lee, Han Soo; Yamashita, Takao; Fujiwara, Akimasa

2010-05-01

334

Practical optimization of a coating deposition process by application of hybrid monitoring strategies in an industrial production environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applicability of broadband optical monitoring to an industrial optical coating production environment is investigated. Different monitoring strategies have been applied to the deposition of beamsplitters and longpass edge filters by electron beam evaporation without any plasma or ion assistance. While the shift and reproducibility in the optical constants were poorly specified, pure optical broadband monitoring of the coatings did not prove superior to traditional quartz crystal monitoring. On the contrary, the introduction of a hybrid monitoring strategy that combines quartz crystal and broadband optical monitoring led to significant improvements in the coating performance reproducibility compared to a pure quartz crystal monitoring approach. Accompanying computational manufacturing experiments performed for the beamsplitter design reveal the same trend.

Held, Mario; Wilbrandt, Steffen; Stenzel, Olaf; Kaiser, Norbert; Tünnermann, Andreas

2013-04-01

335

Leadership development in a global environment: lessons learned from one of the world's largest employers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to share best practices from global logistics leader, UPS, for approach overhauling a company's global training, leadership development and succession planning practices. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Told from the vantage point of Anne Schwartz, UPS's vice president of global learning and development, the case study shows how UPS's internal research of focus groups and

Anne Schwartz

2011-01-01

336

Monitoring airborne biotic contaminants in the indoor environment of pig and poultry confinement buildings.  

PubMed

Given the growing concerns over human and animal health issues related to confined animal feeding operations, an in-depth examination is required to monitor for airborne bacteria and associated antibiotic resistance genes. Our 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing revealed that the airborne microbial community skewed towards a higher abundance of Firmicutes (>?59.2%) and Bacteroidetes (4.2-31.4%) within the confinement buildings, while the office environment was predominated by Proteobacteria (55.2%). Furthermore, bioaerosols in the confinement buildings were sporadically associated with genera of potential pathogens, and these genera were more frequently observed in the bioaerosols of pig and layer hen confinement than the turkey confinement buildings and office environment. High abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (9.55?×?10(2) to 1.69?×?10(6) copies?ng(-1) DNA) were also detected in the bioaerosols sampled from confinement buildings. Bacterial lineages present in the poultry bioaerosols clustered apart from those present in the pig bioaerosols and among the different phases of pig production, suggesting that different livestock as well as production phase were associated with a distinct airborne microbial community. By understanding the diversity of biotic contaminants associated with the different confinement buildings, this study facilitates the implementation of better management strategies to minimize potential health impacts on both livestock and humans working in this environment. PMID:22414212

Hong, Pei-Ying; Li, Xiangzhen; Yang, Xufei; Shinkai, Takumi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Xinlei; Mackie, Roderick I

2012-03-14

337

Chikyu kankyo kenkyu kaihatsu joho network no kochiku ni kansuru kanosei chosa. (Feasibility study to construct information networks for global environment R and D).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surveys are made on the needs for information on the global environment research and development and on the present status of arrangement of the information basis, and studies are made on information networks for international global environment R and D t...

1992-01-01

338

Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA): Results From Four Target Regions in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a worldwide network of long- term research sites established to assess the impacts of climate change in sensitive native alpine communities. Many alpine species face habitat fragmentation and loss, and even extinction because they are adapted to cold temperatures and very limited in their geographic distribution. This study summarizes the data collected from four sites comprised of three to four summits each in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountain ranges of California. The 14 summits cover elevational gradients ranging from 3170m to 4285m. On each summit, habitat characteristics, species composition, species cover, and frequency counts are recorded in sixteen 1m x 1m quadrats. Additional surveys on the percentage cover of surface types and of each species in eight larger plots extending to 10m below the summit focus on detecting changes in species richness and species migrations. Sites were analyzed both independently and as a group to explore similarities and differences in species composition, plant functional groups, phenology, and response to climate. A total of 124 species were identified across all sites. The summits within each site exhibited rich, heterogeneous plant communities, but ones in which most species were infrequent. Northern slopes generally had the highest vegetation cover and eastern slopes, the lowest. Elevation, aspect, and substrate all strongly influenced community composition. The average minimum winter soil temperature varied by more than 10C between the lowest and highest sites in the gradient. Resampling over time will allow us to discern trends in species diversity and temperature, and assess and predict losses in biodiversity and other threats to these fragile alpine ecosystems. Results from this work will contribute to a predictive understanding of shifts in the distribution of alpine species with climate warming in the western U.S.; expand existing long-term data sets on the effects of climate change in alpine environments; and provide standardized, quantitative data on the altitudinal differences in species richness, species compositions, vegetation cover, soil temperature, and snow cover period.

Butz, R. J.; Dennis, A.; Millar, C. I.; Westfall, R. D.

2008-12-01

339

Global near-realtime monitoring of Tropical Cyclones Using Weather Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Research Laboratory maintains a satellite web portal that monitors global tropical cyclones in every basin on a continuing basis. The portal is used routinely by agencies around the world in forecasting operations and the issuance of warnings. Products from this site are widely redistributed and published frequently in journal articles, seasonal storm summaries, and ongoing World Wide Web discussions. Traditionally, weather satellite reconnaissance of tropical cyclones has depended on the interpretation of visible and infrared imagery. But such methods have limitations. Visible images are not available during the nighttime, and both kinds of imagery often fail to detect important structure, including storm eyes, which are vital for determining the strength and location of tropical systems. Thus, the portal supplements visible and infrared coverage with products from satellite microwave sensors. These sensors penetrate higher clouds to reveal important detail about low-level cloud and precipitation features. The first part of the talk will discuss how these various products can be used together for improved analysis. The second part of talk will present information about tropical cyclone structure. Surface winds from aircraft will be compared to features seen in passive microwave images. We see that low brightness temperature features on 85 GHz images often corresponding to wind maxima near the sea surface. We shall make some inferences about how the observation of specific structures in satellite images can help characterize the wind field when no aircraft data are available. Special attention will be paid to multiple eye walls apparent on satellite images. These are associated with very intense storms which undergo an evolutionary process not observed in weaker systems.

Lee, T.; Hawkins, J.; Turk, F.; Miller, S.; Sampson, C.; Kuciauskas, A.; Richardson, K.; Kent, J.

2006-12-01

340

Posture recognition based fall detection system for monitoring an elderly person in a smart home environment.  

PubMed

We propose a novel computer vision based fall detection system for monitoring an elderly person in a home care application. Background subtraction is applied to extract the foreground human body and the result is improved by using certain post-processing. Information from ellipse fitting and a projection histogram along the axes of the ellipse are used as the features for distinguishing different postures of the human. These features are then fed into a directed acyclic graph support vector machine (DAGSVM) for posture classification, the result of which is then combined with derived floor information to detect a fall. From a dataset of 15 people, we show that our fall detection system can achieve a high fall detection rate (97.08%) and a very low false detection rate (0.8%) in a simulated home environment. PMID:22922730

Yu, M; Rhuma, A; Naqvi, S; Wang, L; Chambers, J

2012-08-22

341

Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as monitors for mercury contamination of aquatic environments.  

PubMed

We assessed the distribution of mercury in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) by analyzing front shoulder muscle, back leg muscle, tail muscle, blood, liver, and marginal carapacial scute (shell) of 26 adult turtles from five small lakes. Total mercury concentration in muscle ranged from 50 to 500 ng g(-1) wet weight and was highly correlated among the three tissue locations. There was no relationship between muscle mercury concentration and body size. Mercury concentration in blood was similar to muscle; the correlation with muscle mercury concentration was significant but there was some variability. Mercury concentration in shell was much higher than in muscle or blood, ranging from 500 to 3300 ng g(-1), and was highly correlated with muscle mercury concentration. Liver mercury concentration was similar to shell, but was highly variable and uncorrelated with any other tissue. We conclude that snapping turtles accumulate mercury from their environment and may be useful monitors of mercury contamination. PMID:11683228

Golet, W J; Haines, T A

2001-10-01

342

Installation of very broadband seismic stations to monitor cryospheric environment, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) has successfully installed two autonomous very broadband seismic stations in the King George Island (KGI), Antarctica, during the 24th KOPRI Antarctic Summer Expedition. The seismic observation system is originally designed by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL) Instrument Center, which are compatible with the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) seismic system. The installation is aiming at the following major subjects: 1. Monitoring local earthquakes and icequakes in and around the KGI, 2. Validating the robustness of seismic system operation under harsh environment. Once we achieve the goals, we plan to move and install them adding a couple more stations at ice shelf systems, e.g., Larsen Ice Shelf System, Antarctica (LARISSA), to figure out physical interaction between the Solid-Earth and ice shelf system in near future.

Lee, W.; Seo, K.; Yun, S.; Lee, T.; Choe, H.; Yoon, H.; Chae, N.

2011-12-01

343

An indicator device for monitoring of room illuminance level in the radiological image viewing environment.  

PubMed

Illuminance level in the softcopy image viewing room is a very important factor to optimize productivity in radiological diagnosis. In today's radiological environment, the illuminance measurements are normally done during the quality control procedure and performed annually. Although the room is equipped with dimmer switches, radiologists are not able to decide the level of illuminance according to the standards. The aim of this study is to develop a simple real-time illuminance detector system to assist the radiologists in deciding an adequate illuminance level during radiological image viewing. The system indicates illuminance in a very simple visual form by using light emitting diodes. By employing the device in the viewing room, illuminance level can be monitored and adjusted effectively. PMID:17058591

Azlan, C A; Ng, K H; Anandan, S; Nizam, M S

2006-09-01

344

ATLAS off-Grid sites (Tier-3) monitoring. From local fabric monitoring to global overview of the VO computing activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ATLAS is an LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiment at the CERN particle physics laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. The ATLAS Computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and originally included three levels of computing centers, in order to handle data volumes of multiple petabytes per year. With the formation of small computing centers, usually based at universities, the model was expanded to include them as Tier-3 sites. Tier-3 centers comprise a range of architectures and many do not possess Grid middleware, thus, monitoring of storage usage and analysis software is not possible for the typical Tier-3 site system administrator, similarly, Tier-3 site activity is not available for the virtual organization of the experiment. In this paper an ATLAS off-Grid site-monitoring software suite is presented. The software suite enables monitoring of sites not covered by the ATLAS Distributed Computing software.

Petrosyan, Artem; Oleynik, Danila; Belov, Sergey; Andreeva, Julia; Kadochnikov, Ivan

2012-12-01

345

A NASA-NOAA Update on Global Fire Monitoring Capabilities for Studying Fire-Climate Interactions: Focus on Northern Eurasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global, long-term effects of fires are not well understood and we are learning more every year about its global impacts and potential feedbacks to climate change. The frequency, intensity, severity, and emissions of fires may be changing as a result of climate warming as has been manifested by the observations in northern Eurasia. The climate-fire interaction may produce important societal and environmental impacts in the long run. NASA and NOAA have been developing long-term fire datasets and improving systems to monitor active fires, study fire severity, fire growth, emissions into the atmosphere, and fire effects on carbon stocks. Almost every year there are regions in the world that experience particularly severe fires. For example, less than two years ago the European part of Russia was the focus of attention due to the anomalous heat and dry wave with record high temperatures that caused wildfires rage for weeks and that led to thousands of deaths. The fires also have spread to agricultural land and damaged crops, causing sharp increases of global wheat commodity prices. Remote sensing observations are widely used to monitor fire occurrence, fire spread; smoke dispersion, and atmospheric pollutant levels. In the context of climate warming and acute interest to large-scale emissions from various land-cover disturbances studying spatial-temporal dynamics of forest fire activity is critical. NASA supports several activities related to fires and the Earth system. These include GOFC-GOLD Fire Project Office at University of Maryland and the Rapid Response System for global fire monitoring. NASA has funded many research projects on biomass burning, which cover various geographic regions of the world and analyze impacts of fires on atmospheric carbon in support of REDD initiative, as well as on atmospheric pollution with smoke. Monitoring active fires, studying their severity and burned areas, and estimating fire-induced atmospheric emissions has been the subject of several research projects in the NASA LCLUC program over the globe, and, in particular, in Northern Eurasia. As an operational agency, NOAA puts global fire monitoring as a priority and supports related GCOS, CEOS and GOFC-GOLD objectives. NOAA developed an operational quasi-global fire monitoring system using geostationary satellites that provides coverage over parts of Northern Eurasia. Fire products from the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite) sensor on the NPP (NPOESS Preparatory Project) satellite, launched in October 2011, and on subsequent JPSS satellites will ensure high quality global fire monitoring and will extent the AVHRR- and MODIS-based fire data record over Northern Eurasia. This overview presents an update of NASA's and NOAA's fire monitoring capability and scientific achievements on fire-climate interactions. We will illustrate how combination of coarse spatial resolution polar orbiting satellite observations are combined with moderate spatial resolution observations to better monitor the location of fires and burned areas. While coarse resolution data have been more or less easily available, the utility of moderate resolution Landsat data has increased tremendously during the past couple of years once the data became freely available. Data fusion from polar orbiting and geostationary satellites will be discussed.

Gutman, G.; Csiszar, I.

2012-04-01

346

Leakage and Seepage in the Near-Surface Environment: An Integrated Approach to Monitoring and Detection  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring and detection of leakage and seepage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the near-surface environment is needed to ensure the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration. Large leakage fluxes, e.g., through leaking wells, will be easier to detect and monitor than slow and diffuse leakage and seepage. The challenge of detecting slow leakage and seepage is discerning a leakage or seepage signal from within the natural background variations in CO{sub 2} concentration and flux that are controlled by a variety of coupled processes in soil. Although there are no direct examples of leaking geologic carbon sequestration sites on which to base a proposed verification approach, we have been guided by our prior simulation studies of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage, which showed that large CO{sub 2} concentrations can develop in the shallow subsurface even for relatively small CO{sub 2} leakage fluxes. A variety of monitoring technologies exists for measuring CO{sub 2} concentration and flux, but there is a gap between instrument performance and the detection of a leakage or seepage signal from within large natural background variability. We propose an integrated approach to monitoring and verification. The first part of our proposed approach is to characterize and understand the natural ecosystem before CO{sub 2} injection occurs so that future anomalies can be recognized. Measurements of natural CO{sub 2} fluxes using accumulation chamber (AC) and eddy correlation (EC) approaches, soil CO{sub 2} concentration profiles with depth, and carbon isotope compositions of CO{sub 2} are needed to characterize the natural state of the system prior to CO{sub 2} injection. From this information, modeling needs to be carried out to enhance understanding of carbon sources and sinks so that anomalies can be recognized and subject to closer scrutiny as potential leakage or seepage signals. Long-term monitoring using AC, EC, and soil-gas analyses along with ecosystem and flow and transport modeling should continue after CO{sub 2} injection. The integrated use of multiple measurements and modeling offers a promising approach to discerning and quantifying a small CO{sub 2} leakage or seepage signal from within the expected background variability.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

2003-12-18

347

PM2.5 carbonate concentrations at regionally representative Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environment sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experiment shows that carbonate concentrations are negligible at most Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) monitoring sites. Even when present, carbonate does not cause significant biases in total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations in the IMPROVE protocol. The analysis also shows that acidification to remove interferences from carbonates is not necessary when using a thermal evolution method in which the highest temperature is less than 800°C. Seventy-seven samples with the highest calcium concentrations from 58 sites in the IMPROVE network were analyzed for carbonate by acidification. Measured carbonate carbon concentrations at most sites were <100 ng m-3, with many less than lower quantifiable limits; the highest carbonate carbon of 420 ng m-3 was measured at Guadalupe Mountains National Park in western Texas. Comparison of EC measured at 800°C with and without acidification showed no consistent biases for the nonacidified analysis, even when carbonate levels were high. Acidification may be advisable when sampling particle sizes larger than 2.5 ?m, when samples are acquired at locations where carbonate carbon is expected to be high, or when >800°C temperatures are applied during thermal evolution carbon analysis.

Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.

2002-11-01

348

Alpine Plant Monitoring for Global Climate Change; Analysis of the Four California GLORIA Target Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is an international research project with the goal to assess climate-change impacts on vegetation in alpine environments worldwide. Standardized protocols direct selection of each node in the network, called a Target Region (TR), which consists of a set of four geographically proximal mountain summits at elevations extending from treeline to the nival zone. For each summit, GLORIA specifies a rigorous mapping and sampling design for data collection, with re-measurement intervals of five years. Whereas TRs have been installed in six continents, prior to 2004 none was completed in North America. In cooperation with the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT), California Native Plant Society, and the White Mountain Research Station, four TRs have been installed in California: two in the Sierra Nevada and two in the White Mountains. We present comparative results from analyses of baseline data across these four TRs. The number of species occurring in the northern Sierra (Tahoe) TR was 35 (16 not found in other TRs); in the central Sierra (Dunderberg) TR 65 species were found. In the White Mountains, 54 species were found on the granitic/volcanic soils TR and 46 (19 not found in other TRs) on the dolomitic soils TR. In all, we observed 83 species in the Sierra Nevada range TRs and 75 in the White Mountain TRs. Using a mixed model ANOVA of percent cover from summit-area-sections and quadrat data, we found primary differences to be among mountain ranges. Major soil differences (dolomite versus non-dolomite) also contribute to floristic differentiation. Aspect did not seem to contribute significantly to diversity either among or within target regions. Summit floras in each target region comprised groups of two distinct types of species: those with notably broad elevational ranges and those with narrow elevational ranges. The former we propose to be species that retain importance in vegetation structure across elevation and the latter to be more sensitive to climate change. In general, we find common species in the Sierra Nevada to be rare in the White Mountains, that the northern Sierra Nevada TR (Tahoe area) to be distinct in many vegetation features, and that distinct substrate differences in the White Mountains delineate significant species diversities. With four target regions, we document patterns of species composition, distribution, and diversity with respect to elevation, aspect, and geographic distance. This provides new information about summit floras in the White Mountains and Sierra Nevada, and documents baseline conditions against which we will measure response to climate change.

Dennis, A.; Westfall, R. D.; Millar, C. I.

2007-12-01

349

Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization--the integration of the world economy--has ebbed and flowed over the twentieth century. This paper surveys the varying flows of goods, people, and capital around the world. It asks also about the flow of information across national boundaries and the flows of all these various commodities and factors within countries. Goods, people, and capital flowed easily in much, but not

Peter Temin

1999-01-01

350

Think Locally, Act Globally! Linking Local and Global Communities through Democracy and Environment. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed so that it can be adapted to a wide range of student abilities and institutional settings, this learning module on the human dimensions of global change seeks to: actively engage students in problem solving, challenge them to think critically, invite them to participate in the process of scientific inquiry, and involve them in cooperative…

Dowler, Lorraine

351

Monitoring of chromium species and 11 selected metals in emission and immission of airborne environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of chromium species as hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and the determination of the total chromium concentration as well as the concentration of 11 selected metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Zn) in industrial emission of a foundry and immission studies of the nearby airborne environment were carried out. The samples were taken as industrial exhaust directly by the outlet and as airborne sample in the environment with distances between some hundred meters and 2 km from the industrial factoryE Wherefore two methods of sampling, sample pre-treatment and mass spectrometric measurement were developed and applied. With respect to different sampling duration different volumes of air were sampled and analysed. For the determination of Cr(VI) sampling in impingers (filled with carbonate-buffer) was used. A procedure of selective complex forming and extraction was developed and measured by double focussing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). For the determination of the total chromium concentration as well as of 11 metals sampling was done by using quartz-filters. After microwave digestion in the medium of aqua regia the samples were analysed by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS). The maximum concentration of Cr(VI)-species in emission samples was determined as 180 ng/m3 air which is about 2% of total Cr. The lowest concentration of Cr(VI)-species in immission was determined as 0.5 ng/m3 air.

Krystek, Petra; Ritsema, Rob

2007-08-01

352

On the modeling of planetary plasma environments by a fully kinetic electromagnetic global model HYB-em  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called

V. Pohjola; E. Kallio

2010-01-01

353

A Novel Method To On-Line Monitor Reactor Nuclear Power And In-Core Thermal Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

For current nuclear power plants, nuclear power can not be directly measured and in-core fuel thermal environments can not be monitored due to the unavailability of an appropriate measurement technology and the inaccessibility of the fuel. If the nuclear deposited power and the in-core thermal conditions (i.e. fuel or coolant temperature and heat transfer coefficient) can be monitored in-situ, then

Hanying Liu; Don W. Miller; Dongxu Li; Thomas D. Radcliff

2002-01-01

354

Analyzing Neural Correlates of Attentional Changes during the Exposure to Virtual Environments: Application of Transcranial Doppler Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Transcranial Doppler monitoring (TCD) has been proposed as a tool to be used in Augmented Cognition (AugCog) systems to monitor\\u000a brain activation during the performance of different cognitive tasks. In the present study, the main goal is to analyze variations\\u000a in blood flow velocity (BFV) measured by TCD during the exposure to a virtual reality environment when there are changes

Beatriz Rey; Vera Parkhutik; José Tembl; Mariano Alcañiz

355

U.S. Interests and the Global Environment. Occasional Paper 35.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay presents an argument for policies responsive to global environmental needs by examining the causes and consequences of six critical environmental issues, and then offering specific U.S. policy recommendations. Following an explanation of the global nature of environmental problems, a summary of the salient facts regarding the following…

Caldwell, Lynton K.

356

The European Union as an environmental leader in a global environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s the European Union has made enormous strides in the global environmental arena and developed a considerable global standing. This article assesses the nature and scope of this new international leadership. It examines the EU institutional context and historical opportunities. The article presents an analytical overview that helps explain the dimensions of the EU role, as well as

Anthony R. Zito

2005-01-01

357

Trade Environments of Chinese Farmers in the Globalization System and Countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since China's joining the World Trade Organization (WTO) and integration into the globalization system, Chinese farmers have faced tremendous challenges. With the pressure in farm produce imports, the drop in prices, increase in trade deficits, and rise in unemployment rates, Chinese farmers are becoming less and less competitive in the global market. Chinese farmers are now faced with an

Renwu Tang

2008-01-01

358

Implementing a New Learning Strategy: Organizational Change for a Global Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Globalization, new technology, and the knowledge economy are transforming the role of community colleges in learning. In an increasingly competitive and global education market community colleges in Canada and the USA are responding by changing their missions, culture, curricula, program delivery models, and organizational structures. This…

Goho, James; Webb, Ken

2004-01-01

359

Why Some Distance Education Programs Fail while Others Succeed in a Global Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many universities increase their recruiting efforts to reach a larger and more diverse audience. Some universities also extend their reach with cross-border initiatives and seek international students in order to promote enrollment growth and global learning. The economic potential of distance education and academic globalization has attracted…

Rovai, Alfred P.; Downey, James R.

2010-01-01

360

U.S. Interests and the Global Environment. Occasional Paper 35.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay presents an argument for policies responsive to global environmental needs by examining the causes and consequences of six critical environmental issues, and then offering specific U.S. policy recommendations. Following an explanation of the global nature of environmental problems, a summary of the salient facts regarding the following…

Caldwell, Lynton K.

361

The interaction of a dipolar thunderstorm with its global electrical environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the thundercloud in the global electric circuit has been considered by many researchers. Thus, Holzer and Saxon (1952) have constructed a simple model of a bipolar thunderstorm. The global models considered provide insight into the atmospheric electric circuit but are restricted, both by various analytical mathematical representations and by computer size, to a grid of about five

I. Tzur; R. G. Roble

1985-01-01

362

Protection of quantum information and optimal singlet conversion through higher-dimensional quantum systems and environment monitoring  

SciTech Connect

We study how to protect quantum information in quantum systems subjected to local dissipation. We show that combining the use of three-level systems, environment monitoring, and local feedback can fully and deterministically protect any available quantum information, including entanglement initially shared by different parties. These results can represent a gain in resources and/or distances in quantum communication protocols such as quantum repeaters and teleportation as well as time for quantum memories. Finally, we show that monitoring local environments physically implements the optimum singlet conversion protocol, which is essential for classical entanglement percolation.

Mascarenhas, E.; Marques, B.; Santos, M. Franca [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cavalcanti, D. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Cunha, M. Terra [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2010-03-15

363

Protection of quantum information and optimal singlet conversion through higher-dimensional quantum systems and environment monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how to protect quantum information in quantum systems subjected to local dissipation. We show that combining the use of three-level systems, environment monitoring, and local feedback can fully and deterministically protect any available quantum information, including entanglement initially shared by different parties. These results can represent a gain in resources and/or distances in quantum communication protocols such as quantum repeaters and teleportation as well as time for quantum memories. Finally, we show that monitoring local environments physically implements the optimum singlet conversion protocol, which is essential for classical entanglement percolation.

Mascarenhas, E.; Marques, B.; Cavalcanti, D.; Cunha, M. Terra; Santos, M. França

2010-03-01

364

Monitoring The Dynamics Of Hyper-Saline Environments With Polarimetric SAR: Death Valley, California Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil salinization in arid and semi-arid regions still remains one of the most important threats not only for socio-economical issues when dealing with water ressources management, but also for ecological matters such as: desertification, climate changes, and biomass reduction. Then, monitoring and mapping of soil salinity distribution represent today a key challenge in our understanding of such environmental processes. Being highly dependent on the dielectric properties of soils, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) appears to be an efficient tool for the remote sensing of hyper-saline environments. More precisely, the influence of saline deposits on SAR imagery lies in the solubility and ionic properties of the minerals which strongly influence both real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity of such deposits, and thus the radar backscattering coefficient. Based on temporal series acquired with spaceborne SAR systems (ALOS/PALSAR, SIR-C) over the Death Valley (CA), we show that the copolarized backscattering ratio and phase difference derived from SAR data can be used as suitable indicators to monitor the dynamics of hyper-saline deposits. In particular, we propose these copolar parameters to follow the variations in the dielectric properties of moistened and salt-affected soils on a seasonal time scale because of the close relationship between the salinity (governed by the soil moisture content) and the complex permittivity of the soils. We also highlight a strong temporal correlation between the copolar parameters and weather data since precipitation events control the soil moisture and salinity. In order to allow for a better interpretation of the saline deposits signatures observed on SAR data, we also perform analytical simulations of the radar backscattering associated with saline deposits by means of the IEM scattering model. Using laboratory and in~ situ dielectric measurements as input parameters, we simulate the copolar ratio and phase difference as function of the complex permittivity and surface roughness. Successfully reproducing the observed signature, our results indicate that the analysis of SAR data could also account for the monitoring and understanding of seasonal changes of evaporitic basins through a close correlation between the soil moisture and surface roughness related to the desiccation processes. Such results are of great interest for soil salinity monitoring and the detection of small amounts of subsurface water mixed with evaporites, not only for arid terrestrial surfaces but also for planetary missions, particularly the exploration of Mars. Both of the observation and simulation aspects of our methodology will be thouroughly described at time of the presentation as well as the sustaining measurement technique. We will also present preliminary results derived from the first high-resolution image acquired with the UAVSAR sensor operated by NASA/JPL/CalTech.

Lasne, Y.; McDonald, K.; Paillou, P.; Freeman, A.; Chapman, B.; Farr, T.; Ruffié, G.; Malézieux, J.

2008-12-01

365

On Planning and Exploiting Schumann Resonance Measurements for Monitoring the Electrical Productivity of Global Lightning Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial-temporal behavior of world-wide lightning activity can be effectively used as an indicator of various geophysical processes, the global climate change being of a special interest among them. Since it has been reliably established that the lightning activity presents a major source of natural electromagnetic background in the Schumann resonance (SR) frequency range (5 to 40 Hz), SR measurements provide a continuous flow of information about this globally distributed source, thus forming an informative basis for monitoring its behavior via an inversion of observations into the source’s properties. To have such an inversion procedure effective, there is a series of prerequisites to comply with when planning and realizing it: (a) a proper choice of observable parameters to be used in the inversion; (b) a proper choice of a forward propagation model that would be accurate enough to take into consideration the major propagation effects occurring between a source and observer; (c) a proper choice of a method for inverting the sensitivity matrix. While the prerequisite (a) is quite naturally fulfilled by considering the SR resonance characteristics (modal frequencies, intensities, and quality factors), the compliance with prerequisites (b) and (c) has benefitted greatly from earlier seminal work on geophysical inversion by T.R. Madden. Since it has been found that the electrodynamic non-uniformities of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, primarily the day/night, play an essential role in low-frequency propagation, use has been made of theory for the two-dimensional telegraph equation (TDTE; Kirillov, 2002) developed on the basis of the innovative suggestion by Madden and Thompson (1965) to consider the waveguide, both physically and mathematically, by analogy with a two-dimensional transmission line. Because of the iterative nature of the inversion procedure and the complicated, non-analytical character of the propagation theory, a special, fast-running TDTE forward algorithm has been developed for repeated numerous calculations of the sensitivity matrix. The theory for the inverse boundary value problem from Madden (1972) allows not only to correctly invert the sensitivity matrix, especially when the latter is ill-defined, but also to determine a priori the optimal observational design. The workability of the developed approaches and techniques is illustrated by estimating and processing observations from a network of SR stations located in Europe (Sopron, Hungary; Belsk, Poland), Asia (Shilong, India; Moshiri, Japan), North America (Rhode Island, USA), and Antarctica (Syowa). The spatial dynamics of major lightning “chimneys” determined via the inversion procedure had been found in a good agreement with general geophysical knowledge even when only the modal frequencies had been used. The incorporation of modal intensities greatly improves the agreement, while the Q-factors have been found of a lesser informative value. The preliminary results form a promising basis for achieving the ultimate objective of this study, The authors are deeply grateful to all the participants of the project who have generously, and on a gratis basis, invested their time and effort into preparing and providing the SR data.

Mushtak, V. C.; Williams, E.

2010-12-01

366

The Shuttle activation monitor: a system for direct comparison of gamma-ray detector materials in a space environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental system which was used to compare gamma-ray detector materials in a space environment is described. Two 3-in×3-in scintillator detectors, NaI and BGO, were flown on the Space Shuttle Columbia as part of the Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM) experiment. The goals of this experiment were to compare the performance of the two detector materials in the same environment and

P. S. Haskins; J. E. McKisson; D. W. Ely; A. G. Weisenberger; R. B. Piercey; C. S. Dyer; A. V. Ramayya; D. C. Camp

1990-01-01

367

Envisat ASAR Global Monitoring Mode: A New Approach to Monitoring Climate-Induced Change on the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent change in Antarctica and Greenland has been characterized by unexpected and apparently abrupt responses to gradual warming. The disintegration of the Larsen B ice shelf occurred suddenly in 2002 over a matter of days, and the speed of Kangerdlugssuaq glacier in Greenland doubled within a single year. In both cases increased surface melt has been implicated in mechanisms of dynamic change: at Larsen B in allowing crevasses to penetrate and weaken the ice shelf, and on the Greenland ice sheet in providing enhanced sub- glacial lubrication. Monitoring and modeling of surface melt could be vital in understanding the future behavior of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Microwave remote sensing is the most appropriate approach to measuring cryospheric melt extent because it can rapidly acquire extensive information in inaccessible regions independently of solar illumination, and microwave signals are highly sensitive to the transition between surface melting and freezing. Previous analyses using scatterometers and radiometers have successfully quantified melt extent and variability in Greenland and on Antarctic ice shelves, but have been limited in spatial resolution to tens of km. In this study we investigate a relatively new source of microwave data for monitoring melt extent: the Global Monitoring Mode (GMM) of the ESA Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR). This novel mode acquires global data as a background mission at a spatial resolution of 1 km. GMM repeat imaging frequency depends both on latitude and on other demands on the satellite, and during 2005 was normally better than 3 days for Greenland and Antarctica. Using established techniques for estimating melt by comparing daily GMM images to Winter average backscatter, we quantify melt extent through 2005 on Antarctic ice shelves and the Greenland ice sheet. These new medium spatial resolution analyses will be presented along with comparisons to meteorological data. Results suggest that Envisat ASAR GMM data is highly appropriate for understanding both the extent and pattern of melt in Greenland and Antarctica and will be extremely valuable for monitoring into the future.

Luckman, A.; Hanna, E.

2006-12-01

368

A Global-scale P-wave Tomography Model for Regional and Teleseismic Event Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a global-scale P-wave tomography model of the crust and mantle that depicts both large-scale tectonic/dynamic features, as well as detailed upper mantle heterogeneities. Fully three-dimensional ray tracing is employed to achieve accurate travel time predictions of P and Pn arrivals, necessitating the characterization of irregular and discontinuous boundaries. Therefore, we explicitly represent undulating seismic discontinuities in the crust and upper mantle within a spherical tessellation modeling framework. The tessellation-based model architecture is hierarchical in that fine node sampling is achieved by recursively subdividing a base-level tessellation. Determining the required node spacing to effectively model a given set of data is problematic, given the uneven sampling of seismic data and the differing wavelengths of actual seismic heterogeneity. To address this problem, we have developed an inversion process called Progressive Multi-level Tessellation Inversion (PMTI) that exploits the hierarchical nature of the tessellation-based design and allows the data to determine the level of model complexity. PMTI robustly images regional trends and allows localized details to emerge where resolution is sufficient. To demonstrate our complete modeling concept, we construct a velocity model based on teleseismic P and regional Pn travel time data for events occurring throughout the Middle East. Input data are a product of the statistical procedure called Bayesloc that simultaneously models all components of a multi-event system including event locations, origin times and arrival times. The initial tomographic image provides a new glimpse of the complex upper mantle velocity anomalies associated with the convergence of the Arabian and Indian plates with Eurasia. More important for event monitoring, the model accurately predicts both teleseismic and regional travel times for events occurring within the Middle East region. We present these results along with a status report on the development of a model capable of accurately predicting regional/teleseismic travel times for events worldwide. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-451511.

Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.

2010-12-01

369

Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both academic publications and public media often make inappropriate use of incommensurate conflict statistics, creating misleading impressions about patterns in global warfare. This article clarifies the distinction between combatant deaths, battle deaths, and war deaths. A new dataset of battle deaths in armed conflict is presented for the period 1946–2002. Global battle deaths have been decreasing over most of this

Bethany Lacina; Nils Petter Gleditsch

2005-01-01

370

Mapping Global Urban Extent and Intensity for Environmental Monitoring and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human dimensions of global environmental change have received increased attention in policy, decision- making, research, and even the media. However, the influence of urban areas in global change processes is still often assumed to be negligible. Although local environmental conditions such as the urban heat island effect are well-documented, little or no work has focused on cross-scale interactions, or

A. Schneider; M. A. Friedl

2007-01-01

371

Chemical fate, latitudinal distribution and long-range transport of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in the global environment: A modeling assessment.  

PubMed

Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) such as octamethycyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethycyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) are widely used as intermediates in the synthesis of high-molecular weight silicone polymers or as ingredients in the formulation of personal care products. The global environmental fate, latitudinal distribution, and long range transport of those cVMS were analyzed by two multimedia chemical fate models using the best available physicochemical properties as inputs and known persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and highly persistent volatile organic chemicals ("fliers") as reference. The global transport and accumulation characteristics of cVMS differ from those of typical POPs in three significant ways. First, a large fraction of the released cVMS tends to become airborne and is removed from the global environment by degradation in air, whereas known POPs have a tendency to be distributed and persistent in all media. Secondly, although cVMS can travel a substantial distance in the atmosphere, they have little potential for deposition to surface media in remote regions. This contrasts with a deposition potential of known POPs that exceeds that of cVMS by 4-5 orders of magnitude. Thirdly, cVMS have short global residence times with the majority of the global mass removed within 3months of the end of release. Global residence times of POPs on the other hand are in years. The persistent fliers resemble the cVMS with respect to the first two attributes, but their global residence times are more like those of the POPs. PMID:23177006

Xu, Shihe; Wania, Frank

2012-11-22

372

Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environments are effected by the organisms that live in them. An environment is everything that surrounds and influences an organism. An environmental factor is one part of an environment-it can be living or nonliving.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-07

373

The interaction of a dipolar thunderstorm with its global electrical environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of the thundercloud in the global electric circuit has been considered by many researchers. Thus, Holzer and Saxon (1952) have constructed a simple model of a bipolar thunderstorm. The global models considered provide insight into the atmospheric electric circuit but are restricted, both by various analytical mathematical representations and by computer size, to a grid of about five degrees in latitude and longitude. A need exists, therefore, for the development of a numerical regional model capable of resolving small-scale phenomena so that their coupling into the global-scale circuit can be examined. The construction of a two-dimensional quasi-static numerical model of atmospheric electricity is discussed. The model provides a basis for the calculation of the global electric field and current distribution produced by a single thunderstorm generator. In connection with the calculations, the thunderstorm was defined by a quasi-static current source function which generates a dipole charge configuration.

Tzur, I.; Roble, R. G.

1985-06-01

374

SiC Sensors in Extreme Environments: Real-time Hydrogen Monitoring for Energy Plant Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clean, efficient energy production, such as the gasification of coal (syngas), requires physical and chemical sensors for exhaust gas monitoring as well as real-time control of the combustion process. Wide-bandgap semiconducting materials systems can meet the sensing demands in these extreme environments consisting of chemically corrosive gases at high temperature and pressure. We have developed a SiC based micro-sensor for detection of hydrogen containing species with millisecond response at 600 C. The sensor is a Pt-SiO2-SiC device with a dense Pt catalytic sensing film, capable of withstanding months of continuous high temperature operation. The device was characterized in robust sensing module that is compatible with an industrial reactor. We report on the performance of the SiC sensor in a simulated syngas ambient at 370 C containing the common interferants CO2, CH4 and CO [1]. In addition we demonstrate that hours of exposure to >=1000 ppm H2S and 15% water vapor does not degrade the sensor performance. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the hydrogen response of the sensor we have modeled the hydrogen adsorptions kinetics at the internal Pt-SiO2 interface, using both the Tempkin and Langmuir isotherms. Under the conditions appropriate for energy plant applications, the response of our sensor is significantly larger than that obtained from ultra-high vacuum electrochemical sensor measurements at high temperatures. We will discuss the role of morphology, at the nano to micro scale, on the enhanced catalytic activity observed for our Pt sensing films in response to a heated hydrogen gas stream at atmospheric pressure. [1] R. Loloee, B. Chorpening, S. Beers & R. Ghosh, Hydrogen monitoring for power plant applications using SiC sensors, Sens. Actuators B:Chem. (2007), doi:10.1016/j.snb.2007.07.118

Ghosh, Ruby

2008-03-01

375

Environment and Policy Factors Shaping Global E-Commerce Diffusion: A Cross-Country Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the key global, environmental and pol- icy factors that act as determinants of e-commerce diffusion. It is based on systematic comparison of case studies from 10 countries— Brazil, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Mexico, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, and the United States. It finds that B2B e-commerce seems to be driven by global forces, whereas B2C seems to be

Jennifer Gibbs; Kenneth L. Kraemer; Jason L. Dedrick

2003-01-01

376

A remote patient monitoring system in an ad hoc sensor network environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information collection and monitoring tools are one of the most important applications of sensor networks. Wearable sensor based patient health monitoring is prevalent in healthcare industry. These monitoring systems are usually confined to hospital buildings or a comparable area. In this paper we present a solution that aims to expand patient monitoring over a wider area such as a remote

N. S. Mukunda; Thrivikrama; Vinay Padmanabhi; A. Srinivas; Ajay Gupta

2011-01-01

377

A New Generation of Mobile Surveillance Response System in the Marine Environment Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the new generation of ocean Mobile Monitoring Emergency Monitoring System multimedia approach, details of the mobile multimedia surveillance system to monitor emergency set of field test of identification, satellite broadcasting, data transmission, video conferencing, communications command in one mobile emergency monitoring platform. Extract of which involved the theory and key technology, pointed out the urgency of carrying

Jiang Duyi; Cui Wenlin; Yang Jianqiang; Wang Juan

2010-01-01

378

Mental performance in extreme environments: results from a performance monitoring study during a 438-day spaceflight.  

PubMed

During their stay in a space habitat, astronauts are exposed to many different stressors that may entail detrimental effects on mood and performance. In order to monitor the effects of the space environment on different human information processing functions during an extraordinary long-term space mission, the cognitive. visuo-motor and time-sharing performance of one Russian cosmonaut was repeatedly assessed (29 times) during his 438-day stay in space. The performance tasks used were chosen from the AGARD-STRES battery and included grammatical reasoning, Sternberg memory-search, unstable tracking, and a dual-tasks consisting of unstable tracking with concurrent memory-search. In addition to performance assessment, several subjective ratings concerning mood and workload were collected. Comparisons of pre-flight, in-flight, post-flight and two follow-up assessments 6 months after the mission revealed, (1) no impairments of basic cognitive functions during the flight, (2) clear impairments of mood, feelings of raised workload, and disturbances of tracking performance and time-sharing during the first 3 weeks in space and the first 2 weeks after return to Earth, (3) an impressive stability of mood and performance during the second to fourteenth month in space, where mood and performance had returned to pre-flight baseline level, and (4) no long-lasting performance deficits at follow-up assessments. From these results it is concluded that the first 3 weeks of long-term spaceflights and the first 2 weeks back on Earth represent critical periods where adverse effects on attentional processes are to be expected, induced by the demands to adjust to the extreme environmental changes. The stability of mood and performance observed after successful adaptation to the space environment indicates that mental efficiency and emotional state can be maintained on a level as high as on Earth even during extraordinary long-term space missions. PMID:9557591

Manzey, D; Lorenz, B; Poljakov, V

1998-04-01

379

Monitoring the global in vitro activity of ertapenem against Escherichia coli from intra-abdominal infections: SMART 2002-2010.  

PubMed

During 2002-2010, a total of 30840 Escherichia coli clinical isolates from intra-abdominal infections were collected globally in the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) surveillance programme. The incidence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates ranged from 9.2% in 2002 to 21.2% in 2010. The highest rates were observed in Asia (38.3%) and Latin America (22.9%) and the lowest rates in Africa (6.3%), North America (6%) and South Pacific (5.8%). Global susceptibility trends showed that there were only minor fluctuations in susceptibility to ertapenem and imipenem, with no significant decrease over time. Against ESBL-positive isolates, ertapenem susceptibility significantly increased during 2002-2010 globally. Moreover, susceptibility to ertapenem in the different geographical regions studied was also high, with only minor fluctuations generally observed. Notably, in Asia where the highest ESBL-positives rates (38.3%) were observed, susceptibility to ertapenem had actually significantly increased in this population during the 9-year study period. By contrast, susceptibility to amikacin, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitor combinations generally decreased over time. Further monitoring of the susceptibility to ertapenem and other antibiotics through SMART is warranted. PMID:23305657

Hawser, Stephen P; Badal, Robert E; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hoban, Daryl J; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Cantón, Rafael; Paterson, David L

2013-01-08

380

Evaluation of methods for monitoring the potential exposure of small children to pesticides in the residential environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nine-home pilot study was conducted to evaluate monitoring methods in the field that may be used to assess the potential exposures of children aged 6 months to 5 years to pesticides found in the home environment. Several methods, some of which were newly developed in this study, were tested for measuring pesticide residues in indoor air, carpet dust, outdoor

R. G. Lewis; R. C. Fortmann; D. E. Camann

1994-01-01

381

Monitoring system in the emergency planning area, integrated in the environment pollution management system from chemical platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes to present a system for environment monitoring and chemical accident prevention. The technological accident will be minimised in the pollution units, so it can be at a tolerant acceptance level, risk will be avoid and emergencies that may occur will be promptly solved. The system achievement is that it informs the decision factors in territory about what

A. Craciun; G. Vladut; C. Popa

2008-01-01

382

Ricerche paleoclimatiche in ambiente lacustre: il contributo della task force Ambiente Globale e Cambiamenti Climatici. (Paleoclimatic investigations in lacustrine basins: Contribution of task force global environment and climatic change).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the last ten years, paleoclimatic investigations on several crateric, volcano-tectonic, intermontane, and ephemeral lakes of central-southern Italy have been carried out by the researchers of the Global Environment and Climatic Changes Task Force of th...

C. Giraudi B. Narcisi

1994-01-01

383

Monitoring of the stratospheric chlorine activation by Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) OClO measurements in the austral and boreal winters 1995 through 1999  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of OClO total column amounts by means of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument conducted in the austral and boreal winter stratospheres from 1995 through 1999 are presented, GOME is a four-channel UV/visible spectrometer (240-790 nm) deployed on the polar orbiting European ERS-2 satellite since April 1995. Previous studies have shown that the observations of OClO, the symmetric chlorine dioxide formed in a side channel of the reaction of BrO + ClO, can serve as an indicator for a stratospheric chlorine activation. GOME's 3-day coverage of the global atmosphere allows us to infer the first global data set of OClO, and to study continuous time series of its occurrence in both winter stratospheres. It is found that, while OClO regularly occurs over Antarctica in similar amounts and seasonal timing during the different winters, its occurrence is much more variable in the Arctic winter stratosphere, primarily because of the larger dynamic activity that result in warmer temperatures there. About 40% higher OClO column amounts are found in the Antarctic polar stratosphere than in its northern counterpart, a further indication for a significantly more efficient chlorine activation in the Antarctic than the Arctic late winter and spring stratosphere.

Wagner, Thomas; Leue, Carsten; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Platt, Ulrich

2001-03-01

384

Monitoring of Global Acoustic Transmissions: Signal Processing and Preliminary Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A great deal of controversy exists concerning the possible global warming trend which may occur as a result of a documented increase in atmospheric greenhouse gasses. The 1991 Heard Island Feasibility Experiment tested the feasibility of using transmissio...

G. R. Frogner

1991-01-01

385

An earth-gridded SSM\\/I data set for cryospheric studies and global change monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has distributed DMSP Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM\\/I) brightness temperature grids for the Polar Regions on CD-ROM since 1987. In order to expand this product to include all potential snow covered regions, the area of coverage is now global. The format for the global SSM\\/I data set is the Equal Area SSM\\/I

R. L. Armstrong; M. J. Brodzik

1995-01-01

386

Message caching for local and global resource optimization in shared virtual environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Shared Virtual Environments is growing in areas such as multi-player video games, military and industrial training, and collaborative design and engineering. As a result, different mixes of computing power and graphics capabilities of the participating computers arise naturally as the variety of people\\/organizations sharing a virtual environment grows. This paper presents an adaptive mechanism to reduce bandwidth

Helmuth Trefftz; Ivan Marsic

2000-01-01

387

LOCAL AND GLOBAL IMPACT OF MESSAGE CACHING IN SHARED VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Shared Virtual Environments is growing in areas such as multi-player video games, military and industrial training, collaborative design and engineering. At the same time, heterogeneity in computing power and graphics capabilities of the participating computers arises naturally as the number of people\\/organizations sharing a virtual environment grows. This paper presents an adaptive mechanism to reduce bandwidth usage

HELMUTH TREFFTZ; IVAN MARSIC

2000-01-01

388

Light scattering from sea-salt aerosols at Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sites.  

PubMed

A method is described to estimate light scattering (Bsp) by sea-salt aerosols at coastal locations in the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network. Dry mass scattering efficiencies for fine and coarse sea-salt particles were based on previously measured dry sea-salt size distributions. Enhancement of sea-salt particle scattering by hygroscopic growth was based on NaCl water activity data. Sea-salt aerosol mass at the IMPROVE site in the Virgin Islands (VIIS) was estimated from strontium (Sr) concentrations in IMPROVE aerosol samples. Estimated Bsp, including contributions from sea-salt mass based on Sr, agreed well with measured Bsp at the VIIS IMPROVE site. On average, sea salt accounted for 52% of estimated Bsp at this site. Sea-salt aerosol mass cannot be reliably estimated from Sr unless its crustal enrichment factor exceeds 10. Sodium (Na) concentrations are not accurately determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis in IMPROVE samples. It is recommended that Na be measured in the fine and coarse modes by a more appropriate method, such as atomic absorption spectroscopy or ion chromatography, to account for scattering by sea-salt particles at IMPROVE sites where such contributions may be significant. PMID:16739800

Lowenthal, Douglas; Kumar, Naresh

2006-05-01

389

Novel biospectroscopy sensor technologies towards environmental health monitoring in urban environments.  

PubMed

Biospectroscopy is an emerging inter-disciplinary field that exploits the application of sensor technologies [e.g., Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy] to lend novel insights into biological questions. Methods involved are relatively non-destructive so samples can subsequently be analysed by more conventional approaches, facilitating deeper mechanistic insights. Fingerprint spectra are derived and these consist of wavenumber-absorbance intensities; within a typical biological experiment, a complex dataset is quickly generated. Biological samples range from biofluids to cytology to tissues derived from human or sentinel sources, and analyses can be carried out ex vivo or in situ in living tissue. A reference range of a designated normal state can be derived; anything outside this is potentially atypical and discriminating chemical entities identified. Computational approaches allow one to minimize within-category confounding factors. Because of ease of sample preparation, low-cost and high-throughput capability, biospectroscopy approaches herald a new greener means of environmental health monitoring in urban environments. PMID:23257285

Obinaju, Blessing E; Martin, Francis L

2012-12-17

390

The Local Environment of Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources Viewed by XMM-Newton's Optical Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used XMM-Newton's Optical Monitor (OM) images to study the local environment of a sample of 27 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in nearby galaxies. UVW1 fluxes were extracted from 100 pc regions centered on the ULX positions. We find that at least 4 ULXs (out of 10 published) have spectral types that are consistent with previous literature values. In addition, the colors are similar to those of young stars. For the highest-luminosity ULXs, the UVW1 fluxes may have an important contribution from the accretion disk. We find that the majority of ULXs are associated with recent star formation. Many of the ULXs in our sample are located inside young OB associations or star-forming regions (SFRs). Based on their colors, we estimated ages and masses for SFRs located within 1 kpc from the ULXs in our sample. The resolution of the OM was insufficient to detect young dense superclusters, but some of these SFRs are massive enough to contain such clusters. Only three ULXs have no associated SFRs younger than ~50 Myr. The age and mass estimates for clusters were used to test runaway scenarios. The data are, in general, compatible with stellar-mass binaries accreting at super-Eddington rates and ejected by natal kicks. We also tested the hypothesis that ULXs are sub-Eddington accreting intermediate mass black holes ejected by three-body interactions; however, this is not supported well by the data.

Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Tincher, J.; Winter, L. M.

2013-10-01

391

Dust storm monitoring: effects on the environment, human health, and potential security conflicts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring dust storms with recently available medium and moderate resolution satellites (Meris, Modis and SeaWiFS) is providing new global information regarding the sources, transportation tracks and affected areas. Saharan dust plumes reach the SE region of the United States and the Caribbean region in summer and the Amazon basin in winter. Generally these Saharan plumes branch off in dust tracks along the North Atlantic reaching Western Europe as far north as the Scandinavian countries. Furthermore, dust storms originating in the Eastern Sahara and Northern African deserts form dust plumes propagated by the Sirocco winds that, after crossing the Mediterranean Sea, affect Southern and Central Europe particularly during spring and summer. Dust storms originating in the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts blow in an easterly direction propagating dust plumes affecting Korea, Japan and reach the United States after crossing the Pacific Ocean. The large amount of cyclic deposition generated by dust storms produces an environmental impact that causes the decay of coral reefs in the Caribbean, the origin and distribution of red tides and the disappearance of sea grasses. The relationship of dust plumes with the increasing number of asthma and allergy cases in the Caribbean correlates well with the appearance of similar cases in Europe and elsewhere during the mid 1980s. The recurrence presence of insecticides in regions where these products were banned long ago, or where they were never used, may be partly due to Saharan dust plumes. The loss of agricultural soil, literally blown away by dust storms in the source areas, creates hardship, hunger and forced-migration. Dust storms should be considered as an important security issue.

Davara, Fernando; de la Cruz, Antonio

2004-10-01

392

Global Retrieval of BrO, HCHO, and OClO for the EOS--Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is scheduled for launch on the EOS--Aura platform in March 2004. OMI is a nadir viewing UV/Vis instrument observing continuously from 270 to 500 nm, and thus similar to the European Space Agency's Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), from which it derives much of its heritage. Compared to GOME, OMI has about 3--5 times coarser spectral resolution but a more than 40 times smaller ground footprint of 13x24 km2, and it achieves global coverage within one day. Stratospheric bromine oxide (BrO) and chlorine dioxide (OClO) are key elements in the destruction of stratospheric ozone and the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole; in the troposphere, BrO is released from the snow and ice-pack during high-latitude Spring. Tropospheric formaldehyde (HCHO), a volatile organic compound (VOC), is an indicator of isoprene emissions and a byproduct of forest fires; it is a key measure for air quality determination from space. We present results from the operational algorithms for BrO, HCHO, and OClO, as well as auxiliary retrievals of ozone, which we are currently developing for OMI. Global retrievals of BrO and HCHO, and OClO within the polar vortex, have been performed by applying the OMI algorithms to existing GOME data. The trace gas algorithms developed for OMI are scientifically mature since they are able to fully exploit their heritage from GOME. Key elements in the retrieval are the non-linear least squares minimization procedure to derive trace gas slant columns and the conversion from slant to vertical columns using cloud information and a shape factor analysis. This poster demonstrates the capabilities of atmospheric chemistry monitoring with the OMI instrument.

Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.

2003-12-01

393

Mapping Global Urban Extent and Intensity for Environmental Monitoring and Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human dimensions of global environmental change have received increased attention in policy, decision- making, research, and even the media. However, the influence of urban areas in global change processes is still often assumed to be negligible. Although local environmental conditions such as the urban heat island effect are well-documented, little or no work has focused on cross-scale interactions, or the ways in which local urban processes cumulatively impact global changes. Given the rapid rates of rural-urban migration, economic development and urban spatial expansion, it is becoming increasingly clear that the `ecological footprint' of cities may play a critical role in environmental changes at regional and global scales. Our understanding of the cumulative impacts of urban areas on natural systems has been limited foremost by a lack of reliable, accurate data on current urban form and extent at the global scale. The data sets that have emerged to fill this gap (LandScan, GRUMP, nighttime lights) suffer from a number of limitations that prevent widespread use. Building on our early efforts with MODIS data, our current work focuses on: (1) completing a new, validated map of global urban extent; and (2) developing methods to estimate the subpixel fraction of impervious surface, vegetation, and other land cover types within urbanized areas using coarse resolution satellite imagery. For the first task, a technique called boosting is used to improve classification accuracy and provides a means to integrate 500 m resolution MODIS data with ancillary data sources. For the second task, we present an approach for estimating percent cover that relies on continuous training data for a full range of city types. These exemplars are used as inputs to fuzzy neural network and regression tree algorithms to predict fractional amounts of land cover types with increased accuracy. Preliminary results for a global sample of 100 cities (which vary in population size, level of economic development, and spatial extent) show good agreement with the expected morphology in each region.

Schneider, A.; Friedl, M. A.

2007-05-01

394

TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)  

ScienceCinema

Eric Karsenti of EMBL delivers the closing keynote on "TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

395

Smart telemedicine support for continuous glucose monitoring: the embryo of a future global agent for diabetes care.  

PubMed

Although current systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are the result of progressive technological improvement, and although a beneficial effect on glucose control has been demonstrated, few patients are using them. Something similar has happened to telemedicine (TM); in spite of the long-term experience, which began in the early 1980s, no TM system has been widely adopted, and presential visits are still almost the only way diabetologists and patients communicate. The hypothesis developed in this article is that neither CGM nor TM will ever be routinely implemented separately, and their consideration as essential elements for standard diabetes care will one day come from their integration as parts of a telemedical monitoring platform. This platform, which should include artificial intelligence for giving decision support to patients and physicians, will represent the core of a more complex global agent for diabetes care, which will provide control algorithms and risk analysis among other essential functions. PMID:21303626

Rigla, Mercedes

2011-01-01

396

Smart Telemedicine Support for Continuous Glucose Monitoring: The Embryo of a Future Global Agent for Diabetes Care  

PubMed Central

Although current systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are the result of progressive technological improvement, and although a beneficial effect on glucose control has been demonstrated, few patients are using them. Something similar has happened to telemedicine (TM); in spite of the long-term experience, which began in the early 1980s, no TM system has been widely adopted, and presential visits are still almost the only way diabetologists and patients communicate. The hypothesis developed in this article is that neither CGM nor TM will ever be routinely implemented separately, and their consideration as essential elements for standard diabetes care will one day come from their integration as parts of a telemedical monitoring platform. This platform, which should include artificial intelligence for giving decision support to patients and physicians, will represent the core of a more complex global agent for diabetes care, which will provide control algorithms and risk analysis among other essential functions.

Rigla, Mercedes

2011-01-01

397

THE GLOBAL EARTH OBSERVATION SYSTEM OF SYTEMS (GEOSS): PROACTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

Golbal secruity can be improved through strong international coopeation and using existing national monitoring systems that will provide more complete accurate and accessible data and information to users and decision-makers. Environmenatal damage is typically collateral to even...

398

Global Versus Reactive Navigation for Joint UAV-UGV Missions in a Cluttered Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents the coordination of an unmanned, multi-vehicle team that navigates through a congested environment. A novel approach is outlined that enables the control of multiple vehicles based on both computer vision and optimal trajectory algori...

M. W. Martin

2012-01-01

399

From Common Struggles to Common Dreams: Neoliberalism and Multicultural Education in a Globalized Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Major troubling contours of neoliberalism and high-stakes education have common features. Consequently, the author discusses how multicultural education can serve as praxis for collective empowerment in a globalized context. The author asserts that equitable representation and localized multicultural knowledge production are the foundation of a…

Lee, Pei-Lun

2012-01-01

400

A resource-based analysis of sustainable competitive advantage in a global environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extant business literature on global competitive advantage has been dominated by a contingency-based approach, which advocates the attainment of fit between the firm's strategy, structures and processes and its competitive conditions. However, most support for this view has been anecdotal and rigorous empirical evidence has been lacking. This study adopts a more voluntaristic stance, and integrates perspectives from international

John Fahy

2002-01-01

401

Nuclear energy for the preservation of the global environment and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an outline of the difficulties due to global Population explosion, and, the consequent energy consumption growth with its subsequent environmental problems, which are being posed or anticipated in the near future. Some possible approaches to resolve them are also provided, focusing on the roles and potentials of nuclear energy.

Yoda

1994-01-01

402

Internationalization as a Response to Globalization: Radical Shifts in University Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study probes recent developments in a number of academic and non-academic aspects of a private research university in response to current globalization trends. Under the name of internationalization, university administrators and external firms are emerging as powerful decision-makers shaping academic content and even academic…

Stromquist, Nelly P.

2007-01-01

403

Progress Toward a Global Perspective of Environmental Quality: Strategies to Affect Student Awareness of the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|National and International Conferences on Environmental Education have been held over the last three years. These provide a global perspective that is translated into goals and objectives for environmental education programs in the United States. Emphasis is on the need to educate people to the fact that all mankind shares the earth and that with…

Peters, Richard O.

404

Branching Random Walks in Space–Time Random Environment: Survival Probability, Global and Local Growth Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the survival probability and the growth rate for branching random walks in random environment (BRWRE). The particles\\u000a perform simple symmetric random walks on the d-dimensional integer lattice, while at each time unit, they split into independent copies according to time–space i.i.d. offspring\\u000a distributions. The BRWRE is naturally associated with the directed polymers in random environment (DPRE), for which

Francis Comets; Nobuo Yoshida

2011-01-01

405

Globally Distributed R&D Work in a Marketing Management Support Systems (MMSS) Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalisation, liberalization and rapid technological developments have been changing business environments drastically in\\u000athe recent decades. These trends are increasingly exposing businesses to market competition and thus intensifying competition.\\u000aIn such an environment, the role of marketing management support systems (MMSS) becomes exceedingly important for the\\u000along-term growth of an organisation?s marketing expertise and success. In this paper, we discuss

J. Eliashberg; S. Swami; C. B. Weinberg; B. Wierenga

2008-01-01

406

Unattended wireless proximity sensor networks for counter-terrorism, force protection, littoral environments, PHM, and tamper monitoring ground applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a digital-ultrasonic ground network, which forms an unique "unattended mote sensor system" for monitoring the environment, personnel, facilities, vehicles, power generation systems or aircraft in Counter-Terrorism, Force Protection, Prognostic Health Monitoring (PHM) and other ground applications. Unattended wireless smart sensor/tags continuously monitor the environment and provide alerts upon changes or disruptions to the environment. These wireless smart sensor/tags are networked utilizing ultrasonic wireless motes, hybrid RF/Ultrasonic Network Nodes and Base Stations. The network is monitored continuously with a 24/7 remote and secure monitoring system. This system utilizes physical objects such as a vehicle"s structure or a building to provide the media for two way secure communication of key metrics and sensor data and eliminates the "blind spots" that are common in RF solutions because of structural elements of buildings, etc. The digital-ultrasonic sensors have networking capability and a 32-bit identifier, which provide a platform for a robust data acquisition (DAQ) for a large amount of sensors. In addition, the network applies a unique "signature" of the environment by comparing sensor-to-sensor data to pick up on minute changes, which would signal an invasion of unknown elements or signal a potential tampering in equipment or facilities. The system accommodates satellite and other secure network uplinks in either RF or UWB protocols. The wireless sensors can be dispersed by ground or air maneuvers. In addition, the sensors can be incorporated into the structure or surfaces of vehicles, buildings, or clothing of field personnel.

Forcier, Bob

2003-09-01

407

Monitoramento do correio eletrônico em ambiente de trabalho: o conflito entre o poder diretivo do empregador e o direito à intimidade de seu preposto* Electronic mail monitoring in the work environment: the conflict between the employer's directive power and his\\/her employee's privacy right  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to deal with the monitoring practiced by entrepreneurs as to the use of information technologies by their representatives in the work environment, which was enabled by the technological revolution originated in the globalization process. The theme in study also includes the confrontation of constitutionally assured rights in the employer\\/employee relationship and the position adopted

João Carlos; Leal Júnior; Paola Maria Gallina; Valkíria Aparecida Lopes Ferraro; Wesley Tomaszewski

408

Evaluating The Global Inventory of Planetary Analog Environments on Earth: An Ontological Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Field sites on Earth are routinely used to simulate planetary environments so that we can try to understand the evidence of processes such as sedimentary deposition, weathering, evolution of habitable environments, and behavior of spacecraft and instrumentation prior to selection of mission architectures, payload investigations and landing sites for in situ exploration of other planets. The rapid evolution of astrobiology science drivers for space exploration as well as increasing capability to explore planetary surfaces in situ has led to a proliferation of declarations that various Earth environments are analogs for less accessible planetary environments. We have not yet progressed to standardized measures of analog fidelity, and the analog value of field sites can be variable de-pending upon a variety of factors. Here we present a method of evaluating the fidelity and hence utility of analog environments by using an ontological approach to evaluating how well the analogs work. The use of ontologies as specification constructs is now quite common in artificial intelligence, systems engineering, business development and various informatics systems. We borrow from these developments just as they derive from the original use of ontology in philosophy, where it was meant as a systematic approach to describing the fundamental elements that define “being,” or existence [1]. An ontology is a framework for the specification of a concept or domain of interest. The knowledge regarding that domain, eg., inventory of objects, hierarchical classes, relationships and functions is what describes and defines the domain as a declarative formalism [2]. In the case of planetary environments, one can define a list of fundamen-tal attributes without which the domain (environment) in question must be defined (classified) otherwise. In particu-lar this is problematic when looking at ancient environments because of their alteration over time. In other words, their fundamental attributes may no longer exist and have to be reconstructed. In the case of Earth analogs for Mars, there are important distinctions that cannot be duplicated in contemporary Earth environments—we cannot produce the same surface conditions with respect to thermal fluctuation, ionizing radiation and extremely oxidizing chemistry. Mars analogs on Earth: We have studied the habitability of several desert environments on Earth by measuring their chemical, physical and biological features. These locations, which include Battleship Promontory in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica; several sites in Svalbard, the arctic; the Imperial Dunes in southern California and Amboy Crater in the Mojave Desert, CA, form the basis for a trial ontology of analog environments which have varying degrees of analogy to potential environments of interest on Mars for exploration of its habitability potential. We present a trial taxonomy for Mars analog environments to which we can add the attributes of other environments advocated as Earth analogs for Mars. References: [1] Bunge,M.,Treatise on Basic Philosophy: Ontology I, The Furniture of the World, Reidel, 1977. [2] Gruber, T. R., (1993). Knowledge Acquisition, 5(2):199-220.

Conrad, P. G.

2010-12-01

409

GEMI: a non-linear index to monitor global vegetation from satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the state, spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the vegetation cover is of great scientific and economic value. Satellite platforms provide a most convenient tool to observe the biosphere globally and repetitively, but the quantitative interpretation of the observations may be difficult. Reflectance measurements in the visible and near-infrared regions have been analyzed with simple but powerful indices

B. Pinty; M. M. Verstraete

1992-01-01

410

The SMOS Mission: New Tool for Monitoring Key Elements ofthe Global Water Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well understood that data on soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS) are required to improve meteorological and climate predictions. These two quantities are not yet available globally or with adequate temporal or spatial sampling. It is recognized that a spaceborne L-band radiometer with a suitable antenna is the most promising way of fulfilling this gap. With

Yann H. Kerr; Philippe Waldteufel; Jean-Pierre Wigneron; Steven Delwart; François Cabot; Jacqueline Boutin; Maria-José Escorihuela; Nicolas Reul; Claire Gruhier; Silvia Enache Juglea; Mark R. Drinkwater; Achim Hahne; Manuel Martin-Neira; Susanne Mecklenburg

2010-01-01

411

Using ants for rangeland monitoring: Global patterns in the responses of ant communities to grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ants are a prominent invertebrate group used to assess ecological change in response to disturbance. Their application as a bioindicator group has been particularly widespread in Australia, and a recent comprehensive review of their responses to environmental disturbance identified a range of consistent and predictable patterns. Here I conduct a literature review of the responses of ants to grazing globally,

Benjamin D. Hoffmann

2010-01-01

412

Bacillus Endospores Isolated from Granite: Close Molecular Relationships to Globally Distributed Bacillus spp. from Endolithic and Extreme Environments  

PubMed Central

As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain ?500 cultivable Bacillus spores and ?104 total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted.

Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

2006-01-01

413

Biofuels Expansion in a Changing Economic Environment: A Global Modeling Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter examines the impact of expanding biofuels production and use on agricultural commodity markets. It also examines\\u000a the continued biofuels expansion under declining energy prices. The analysis uses a Partial Equilibrium Agricultural Trade\\u000a Simulation (PEATSim) model, a dynamic multi-commodity, multi-country global trade model of the agriculture sector to analyze\\u000a the interaction between biofuel, crop, and livestock sectors. The ability

May Peters; Richard Stillman; Agapi Somwaru

414

Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3\\/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: Here, we use stable carbon

Larisa R. G. DeSantis; Robert S. Feranec; Bruce J. MacFadden

2009-01-01

415

Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCurrent global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3\\/C4 transitions and relative seasonality.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes

Larisa R. G. Desantis; Robert S. Feranec; Bruce J. MacFadden; Jon Moen

2009-01-01

416

Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments  

PubMed Central

Background Current global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (?1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (?1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C4 grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with warming. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that global warming resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (?28°N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global warming in modern ecosystems.

DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Feranec, Robert S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

2009-01-01

417

Economic aspects of global warming in a post-Copenhagen environment  

PubMed Central

The science of global warming has reached a consensus on the high likelihood of substantial warming over the coming century. Nations have taken only limited steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions since the first agreement in Kyoto in 1997, and little progress was made at the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. The present study examines alternative outcomes for emissions, climate change, and damages under different policy scenarios. It uses an updated version of the regional integrated model of climate and the economy (RICE model). Recent projections suggest that substantial future warming will occur if no abatement policies are implemented. The model also calculates the path of carbon prices necessary to keep the increase in global mean temperature to 2 °C or less in an efficient manner. The carbon price for 2010 associated with that goal is estimated to be $59 per ton (at 2005 prices), compared with an effective global average price today of around $5 per ton. However, it is unlikely that the Copenhagen temperature goal will be attained even if countries meet their ambitious stated objectives under the Copenhagen Accord.

Nordhaus, William D.

2010-01-01

418

Biological monitoring and tropical biodiversity in marine environments: a critique with recommendations, and comments on the use of amphipods as bioindicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preoccupations with regulatory and legal liability issues in marine environmental monitoring have led to programmes based on reductionist models that use nonbiological parameters which are indirect measures of biotic condition. The ability to assess the effectiveness of current monitoring programmes to protect the marine environment at regional and national scales does not currently exist. Current monitoring programmes rarely serve the

J. D. Thomas

1993-01-01

419

Toward Global Content Analysis and Media Criticism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the background, rationale, and implementation prospects for an international system of monitoring media coverage of global problems such as peace and war, human rights, and the environment. Outlines the monitoring project carried out in January 1995 concerning the representation and portrayal of women in news media. (SR)|

Nordenstreng, Kaarle

1995-01-01

420

CARTOGRAPHIC AND GEOMETRIC COMPONENTS OF A GLOBAL SAMPLING DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

A comprehensive environmental monitoring program based on a sound statistical design is necessary to provide estimates of the status of, and trends in, the condition of ecological resources. ampling design based upon a systematic grid can adequately assess the condition of many t...

421

Monitoring S phase progression globally and locally using BrdU incorporation in TK+ yeast strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic chromosome replication is initiated from numerous origins and its activation is temporally controlled by cell cycle and checkpoint mechanisms. Yeast has been very useful in defining the genetic elements required for initiation of DNA replication, but simple and precise tools to monitor S phase progression are lacking in this model organism. Here we describe a TK+ yeast strain and

Armelle Lengronne; Philippe Pasero; Aaron Bensimon; Etienne Schwob

2001-01-01

422

Global long-term monitoring of the ozone layer - a prerequisite for predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Montreal Protocol now controls the production and emission of ozone depleting substances, the timing of ozone recovery is unclear. There are many other factors affecting the ozone layer, in particular climate change is expected to modify the speed of re-creation of the ozone layer. Therefore, long- term observations are needed to monitor the further evolution of the stratospheric

D. G. Loyola; R. M. Coldewey-Egbers; M. Dameris; H. Garny; A. Stenke; M. van Roozendael; C. Lerot; D. Balis; M. Koukouli

2009-01-01

423

The Global Classroom Project: Learning a Second Language in a Virtual Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the progress of a pilot project exploring the integration of a collaborative virtual learning environment (Second Life) with the instruction of English courses at Lingnan University in Hong Kong. An educational partnership was developed with two TESOL teacher-training courses at Texas A&M University in the US. The project…

Knutzen, Brant; Kennedy, David

2012-01-01