Science.gov

Sample records for global environment monitoring

  1. Global Atmospheric Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Carl C.

    1975-01-01

    The global atmospheric monitoring plans of the World Meteorological Organization are detailed. Single and multipurpose basic monitoring systems and the monitoring of chemical properties are discussed. The relationship of the World Meteorological Organization with the United Nations environment program is discussed. A map of the World

  2. URBAN AIR POLLUTION WORLDWIDE: RESULTS OF THE GEMS (GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT MONITORING SYSTEM) AIR MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter in urban areas have been compiled in an international air quality monitoring project. Interpretative analyses of the 1973 to 1980 data have been completed, showing the general range of concentrations, intercity compa...

  3. Environment Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Viking landers touched down on Mars equipped with a variety of systems to conduct automated research, each carrying a compact but highly sophisticated instrument for analyzing Martian soil and atmosphere. Instrument called a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) had to be small, lightweight, shock resistant, highly automated and extremely sensitive, yet require minimal electrical power. Viking Instruments Corporation commercialized this technology and targeted their primary market as environmental monitoring, especially toxic and hazardous waste site monitoring. Waste sites often contain chemicals in complex mixtures, and the conventional method of site characterization, taking samples on-site and sending them to a laboratory for analysis is time consuming and expensive. Other terrestrial applications are explosive detection in airports, drug detection, industrial air monitoring, medical metabolic monitoring and for military, chemical warfare agents.

  4. Stimulating innovation for global monitoring of agriculture and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydekerke, Lieven; Gilliams, Sven; Gobin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need to ensure food supply for a growing global population. To enable a sustainable growth of agricultural production, effective and timely information is required to support decision making and to improve management of agricultural resources. This requires innovative ways and monitoring methods that will not only improve short-term crop production forecasts, but also allow to assess changes in cultivation practices, agricultural areas, agriculture in general and, its impact on the environment. The G20 launched in June 2011 the "GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM), requesting the GEO (Group on Earth Observations) Agricultural Community of Practice to implement GEOGLAM with the main objective to improve crop yield forecasts as an input to the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS), in order to foster stabilisation of markets and increase transparency on agricultural production. In response to this need, the European Commission decided in 2013 to fund an international partnership to contribute to GEOGLAM and its research agenda. The resulting SIGMA project (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture), a partnership of 23 globally distributed expert organisations, focusses on developing datasets and innovative techniques in support of agricultural monitoring and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM. SIGMA has 3 generic objectives which are: (i) develop and test methods to characterise cropland and assess its changes at various scales; (ii) develop and test methods to assess changes in agricultural production levels; and; (iii) study environmental impacts of agriculture. Firstly, multi-scale remote sensing data sets, in combination with field and other ancillary data, will be used to generate an improved (global) agro-ecological zoning map and crop mask. Secondly, a combination of agro-meteorological models, satellite-based information and long-term time series will be explored to assess crop yield gaps and shifts in cultivation. The third research topic entails the development of best practices for assessing the impact of crop land and cropping system change on the environment. In support of the GEO JECAM (Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring) initiative, SIGMA has selected case studies in Ukraine, Russia, Europe, Africa, Latin America and China, coinciding with the JECAM sites in these area, to explore possible methodological synergies and particularities according to different cropping systems. In combination with research conducted at regional and global scale, it is one of the goals to improve the understanding of dynamics, interactions and validity of the developed methods at the various scales. In addition, specific activities will be dedicated to raising awareness and strengthening capacity for what concerns agro-environmental monitoring, data accessibility and interoperability in line with the GEOSS Data-core principles. The SIGMA project will also anticipate on the availability of the SENTINEL satellites for agricultural applications as open-data in the near future. References http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/ http://www.geoglam-sigma.info/

  5. Monitoring global vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Houston, A. G.; Heydorn, R. P.; Botkin, D. B.; Estes, J. E.; Strahler, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to identify the need for, and the current capability of, a technology which could aid in monitoring the Earth's vegetation resource on a global scale. Vegetation is one of our most critical natural resources, and accurate timely information on its current status and temporal dynamics is essential to understand many basic and applied environmental interrelationships which exist on the small but complex planet Earth.

  6. Global change monitoring with lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Insarov, G.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental monitoring involves observations and assessment of changes in ecosystems and their components caused by anthropogenetic influence. An ideal monitoring system enables quantification of the contemporary state of the environment and detect changes in it. An important function of monitoring is to assess environment quality of areas that are not affected by local anthropogenic impacts, i.e. background areas. In background areas terrestrial ecosystems are mainly affected by such anthropogenic factors as lowered air pollution and global climate change. Assessment of biotic responses to altered climatic and atmospheric conditions provides an important basis for ecosystem management and environmental decision making. Without the ability to make such assessment, sustainability of ecosystems as a support system for humans remains uncertain.

  7. Review of the Applications of Formosat-2 on Rapidly Responding to Global Disasters and Monitoring Earth Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.

    2009-12-01

    Formosat-2 is the first satellite with high-spatial-resolution sensor deployed in a daily-revisit orbit in the world. Together with its agility of pointing 45 degree both across and along track, we are able to observe each accessible scene from the same angle under the similar illumination conditions. These characteristics make Formosat-2 an ideal satellite for site surveillance. We developed a Formosat-2 automatic image processing system (F-2 AIPS) that can accurately and rapidly process a large amount of Formosat-2 images to produce the higher levels of products, including rigorous band-to-band coregistration, automatic orthorectification, multi-temporal image coregistration and radiance normalization, and pan-sharpening. This system has been successfully employed to rapidly respond to many international disaster events in the past five years, including flood caused by Typhoon Mindulle (2004), landslide caused by Typhoon Aere (2004), South Asia earthquake and tsunami (2004), Hurricane Katrina (2005), California wildfire (2007), Sichuan Earthquake (2008), Typhoon Kalmaegi (2008), Typhoon Sinlaku (2008), Mountain Ali wildfire (2009), Victoria bushfire in Australia (2009), Honduras earthquake (2009), Typhoon Morakot (2009). This paper reviews the applications of Formosat-2 on rapidly responding to global disasters and monitoring earth environment.

  8. GLobal Integrated Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunkel, Matthew; McGuire, Melissa; Smith, David A.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2011-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a collaborative engineering application built to resolve the design session issues of real-time passing of data between multiple discipline experts in a collaborative environment. Utilizing Web protocols and multiple programming languages, GLIDE allows engineers to use the applications to which they are accustomed in this case, Excel to send and receive datasets via the Internet to a database-driven Web server. Traditionally, a collaborative design session consists of one or more engineers representing each discipline meeting together in a single location. The discipline leads exchange parameters and iterate through their respective processes to converge on an acceptable dataset. In cases in which the engineers are unable to meet, their parameters are passed via e-mail, telephone, facsimile, or even postal mail. The result of this slow process of data exchange would elongate a design session to weeks or even months. While the iterative process remains in place, software can now exchange parameters securely and efficiently, while at the same time allowing for much more information about a design session to be made available. GLIDE is written in a compilation of several programming languages, including REALbasic, PHP, and Microsoft Visual Basic. GLIDE client installers are available to download for both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems. The GLIDE client software is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2000 or later on Windows systems, and with Microsoft Excel X or later on Macintosh systems. GLIDE follows the Client-Server paradigm, transferring encrypted and compressed data via standard Web protocols. Currently, the engineers use Excel as a front end to the GLIDE Client, as many of their custom tools run in Excel.

  9. Global nuclear material monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Monlove, H.O.; Goulding, C.A.; Martinez, B.J.; Coulter, C.A.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project provided a detailed systems design for advanced integrated facility monitoring and identified the components and enabling technologies required to facilitate the development of the monitoring system of the future.

  10. The Global Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2003-10-01

    What can we teachers do? For students we can provide a strong background in the process of science and in scientific ethics. We can encourage students to apply such knowledge wisely throughout their lives. For the public at large, we can speak out in favor of real science at every opportunity. It is possible that the current scientific consensus on global warming is based on incomplete evidence, but global warming ought not be dismissed as unscientific or a hoax, and scientists ought not allow that to happen. As we celebrate National Chemistry Week, we should resolve to support chemistry and science as strongly as we can.

  11. Teaching about the Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Anne M.

    1985-01-01

    Social studies educators hold an important key to our future success in the management of "spaceship earth." Students must be made aware of the global environment and the many problems facing it. These problems are discussed. (RM)

  12. Providing global WLCG transfer monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, J.; Dieguez Arias, D.; Campana, S.; Flix, J.; Keeble, O.; Magini, N.; Molnar, Z.; Oleynik, D.; Petrosyan, A.; Ro, G.; Saiz, P.; Salichos, M.; Tuckett, D.; Uzhinsky, A.; Wildish, T.

    2012-12-01

    The WLCG[1] Transfers Dashboard is a monitoring system which aims to provide a global view of WLCG data transfers and to reduce redundancy in monitoring tasks performed by the LHC experiments. The system is designed to work transparently across LHC experiments and across the various technologies used for data transfer. Currently each LHC experiment monitors data transfers via experiment-specific systems but the overall cross-experiment picture is missing. Even for data transfers handled by FTS, which is used by 3 LHC experiments, monitoring tasks such as aggregation of FTS transfer statistics or estimation of transfer latencies are performed by every experiment separately. These tasks could be performed once, centrally, and then served to all experiments via a well-defined set of APIs. In the design and development of the new system, experience accumulated by the LHC experiments in the data management monitoring area is taken into account and a considerable part of the code of the ATLAS DDM Dashboard is being re-used. The paper describes the architecture of the Global Transfer monitoring system, the implementation of its components and the first prototype.

  13. Integrated Global Background Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, G.B.; Franklin, J.F.; Kohler, A.; Croze, H.; Boelcke, C.

    1986-12-01

    One of the more significant problems when trying to determine what impact is having on global cycles is not knowing what ''natural'' levels should be for both abiotic (gases, trace elements) and biotic (ecosystem functions) processes. The authors believe that a well designed, coordinated network of baseline stations in remote areas around the world can provide a data base will allow best current estimates to be made of biotic and abiotic baseline conditions. These baseline conditions will then help us make better comparisons with more impacted areas, and thus help us more fully understand the impact man is having on his world. This paper examines the history of background pollution monitoring at the international level, describes current activities in the field of ''integrated'' background monitoring, and proposes criteria for the development of a global network of baseline stations to coordinate background monitoring for the presence, accumulation and behavior of pollutants in remote ecosystems. In this paper, this network is called the Integrated Global Background Monitoring Network.

  14. Environment surveys. [monitoring and protection of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    Environment applications are concerned with the quality, protection, and improvement of water, land, and air resources and, in particular, with the pollution of these resources caused by man and his works, as well as changes to the resources due to natural phenomena (for example, drought and floods). The broad NASA objectives related to the environment are directed toward the development and demonstration of the capability to monitor remotely and assess environmental conditions related to water quality, land and vegetation quality, wildlife resources, and general environment. The contributions of ERTS-1 to these subdiscipline areas are broadly summarized.

  15. Monitoring the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heins, Conrad F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    New ways of obtaining environmental data are being developed to meet the demand for comprehensive, accurate, and timely information on the environment. This article examines four developments that are transforming the entire field of environmental measurement: spectroscopy; satellite transmission of environmental data; remote sensing; and

  16. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. PMID:24074215

  17. Global monitoring in the neurocritical care unit.

    PubMed

    Olson, DaiWai M; Andrew Kofke, W; O'Phelan, Kristine; Gupta, Puneet K; Figueroa, Stephen A; Smirnakis, Stelios M; Leroux, Peter D; Suarez, Jose I

    2015-06-01

    Effective methods of monitoring the status of patients with neurological injuries began with non-invasive observations and evolved during the past several decades to include more invasive monitoring tools and physiologic measures. The monitoring paradigm continues to evolve, this time back toward the use of less invasive tools. In parallel, the science of monitoring began with the global assessment of the patient's neurological condition, evolved to focus on regional monitoring techniques, and with the advent of enhanced computing capabilities is now moving back to focus on global monitoring. The purpose of this session of the Second Neurocritical Care Research Conference was to collaboratively develop a comprehensive understanding of the state of the science for global brain monitoring and to identify research priorities for intracranial pressure monitoring, neuroimaging, and neuro-electrophysiology monitoring. PMID:25846709

  18. Global Resources, Environment, and Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jimmy

    1984-01-01

    Former President Jimmy Carter discusses the "Global 2000 Report" and the need for coordination, political leadership, unified action, research and development, and for education. A list of recommendations based on the issues and topics discussed is included. (JN)

  19. MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.

    2007-08-01

    The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has conducted first studies on a Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (MEMOS). The MEMOS microsatellite (mass < 20 kg) will accommodate four scientific instruments: solar EUV/UV monitor (SEM), solar wind monitor (SWIM), magnetometer (MAG) and radiation environment monitor (REM). The payload monitors the solar conditions at Mars and characterizes the Mars environment to support other missions and science investigations. Monitoring of the solar wind parameters (velocity, density, and field) is the key for any aeronomy and solar wind interaction mission at Mars. The solar EUV / UV (HeII 30.4 nm and HII 121.6 nm) flux monitoring is required for upper atmosphere / ionosphere studies. The radiation environment monitoring is needed to study space weather effects on the near-Mars environment as well as for the preparations for man-flights. MEMOS follows the design philosophy of a detached and autonomously flying instrument for achieving the mentioned objectives. It is intended to be carried "piggy-back" to Mars on a suitable mission. Potential missions are: ESA Mars orbiters within the NEXT or Cosmic Vision programs, NASA Mars orbiters, national / bilateral Mars missions. At Mars MEMOS is separated from its carrier (parent satellite) via the release mechanism implemented in the dual formation flight mission PRISMA. The separation will take place during the orbit insertion scenario of the parent satellite at Mars thus placing MEMOS in a highly elliptical orbit guarantying sufficient observation time in the solar wind. In orbit MEMOS will autonomously detumble and spin-up to ~1 rpm for reasons of stabilization and to fulfill instrument requirements. Such a low spin-rate is sufficient for a required inertial pointing accuracy of 2.5° because of the small external disturbance torques (< 10-7 Nm) predominant at Mars responsible for nutation and precession of the spin-axis. The advances in micropropulsion systems providing μNmN adjustable thrust levels and reducing the dry mass to ~2 kg respectively are key factors in keeping the microsatellite stabilized and sun-pointed without stressing the mass budget. The low thrust level enables precise and active nutation damping. Moreover the system offers the possibility of implementing active orbit control or formation flight demonstrations at Mars. Attitude will be determined on-board with an accuracy < 1.0° using miniaturized Horizon Crossing Indicators, a two-axis sun sensor and in support accelerometers and gyroscopes based on MEMS-technology. TM/TC will be relayed via the parent satellite in the UHF frequency range. Therefore the Electra Lite (ELT) Proximity-1 transceiver will autonomously communicate with the parent satellite at inter-satellite ranges < 10 000 km featuring adaptive bit rates > 2 kbit/s. The transceiver also implements a coherent transponding mode for orbit determination through two-way Doppler ranging between the parent satellite and MEMOS. In addition ELT is compatible with a future Martian communication and navigation network pursued by NASA, which could be taken advantage of in the future for relaying data or performing ranging via other satellites part of the network. A system design driver for inter-satellite communication at Mars is the high demand of power. This leads to a disk-shape and thus easy to accommodate spacecraft configuration of MEMOS comprising a single sun-pointing solar array favourable in terms of power and spin stability. Multi-junction solar cells, which currently have an efficiency of ~29% under laboratory conditions are a key factor to keep MEMOS solar array area of ~1.15 m2 small compared to the worst case system power requirements of ~105 W. During eclipse periods high-efficient Li-ion batteries (6 x 20 Wh) will ensure power supply. The spacecraft and payload design will incorporate new technology developments such as autonomous navigation, MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS, Micro- Opto-ElectroMechanical Systems MOEMS and new materials to achieve low mass at high performance. Thereby it will profit from Swedish developments and heritage in small- / microsatellites like Astrid-2, SMART-1 or the upcoming rendezvous and formation flying demonstration mission PRISMA.

  20. Global temperature monitoring from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Global and regional temperature variations in the lower troposphere and lower stratosphere are examined for the period 1979-92 from Microwave Sounder Unit (MSU) data obtained by the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS)-N series of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operational satellites. In the lower troposphere, globally-averaged temperature variations appear to be dominated by tropical El Nino (warm) and La Nina (cool) events and volcanic eruptions. The Pinatubo volcanic eruption in June 1991 appears to have initiated a cooling trend which persisted through the most recent data analyzed (July, 1992), and largely overwhelmed the warming from the 1991-92 El Nino. The cooling has been stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. The temperature trend over the 13.5 year satellite record is small (+0.03 C) compared to the year-to-year variability (0.2-0.4 C), making detection of any global warming signal fruitless to date. However, the future global warming trend, currently predicted to be around 0.3 C/decade, will be much easier to discern should it develop. The lower stratospheric temperature record is dominated by warm episodes from the Pinatubo eruption and the March 1982 eruption of El Chichon volcano.

  1. Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Henrique M; David Cooper, H

    2006-03-01

    Governments have set the ambitious target of reducing biodiversity loss by the year 2010. The scientific community now faces the challenge of assessing the progress made towards this target and beyond. Here, we review current monitoring efforts and propose a global biodiversity monitoring network to complement and enhance these efforts. The network would develop a global sampling programme for indicator taxa (we suggest birds and vascular plants) and would integrate regional sampling programmes for taxa that are locally relevant to the monitoring of biodiversity change. The network would also promote the development of comparable maps of global land cover at regular time intervals. The extent and condition of specific habitat types, such as wetlands and coral reefs, would be monitored based on regional programmes. The data would then be integrated with other environmental and socioeconomic indicators to design responses to reduce biodiversity loss. PMID:16701487

  2. People and Environment: Understanding Global Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses impacts of global resources and environment, focusing on food, fisheries, forests, energy, water, and air. Includes graphs, charts, maps, and tables of the current environmental situation; they are suitable for classroom use. Also includes suggested guidelines for implementing a global studies program and an annotated list of resource

  3. Autonomous Environment-Monitoring Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hand, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous environment-monitoring networks (AEMNs) are artificial neural networks that are specialized for recognizing familiarity and, conversely, novelty. Like a biological neural network, an AEMN receives a constant stream of inputs. For purposes of computational implementation, the inputs are vector representations of the information of interest. As long as the most recent input vector is similar to the previous input vectors, no action is taken. Action is taken only when a novel vector is encountered. Whether a given input vector is regarded as novel depends on the previous vectors; hence, the same input vector could be regarded as familiar or novel, depending on the context of previous input vectors. AEMNs have been proposed as means to enable exploratory robots on remote planets to recognize novel features that could merit closer scientific attention. AEMNs could also be useful for processing data from medical instrumentation for automated monitoring or diagnosis. The primary substructure of an AEMN is called a spindle. In its simplest form, a spindle consists of a central vector (C), a scalar (r), and algorithms for changing C and r. The vector C is constructed from all the vectors in a given continuous stream of inputs, such that it is minimally distant from those vectors. The scalar r is the distance between C and the most remote vector in the same set. The construction of a spindle involves four vital parameters: setup size, spindle-population size, and the radii of two novelty boundaries. The setup size is the number of vectors that are taken into account before computing C. The spindle-population size is the total number of input vectors used in constructing the spindle counting both those that arrive before and those that arrive after the computation of C. The novelty-boundary radii are distances from C that partition the neighborhood around C into three concentric regions (see Figure 1). During construction of the spindle, the changing spindle radius is denoted by h. It is the final value of h, reached before beginning construction on the next spindle, that is denoted by r. During construction of a spindle, if a new vector falls between C and the inner boundary, the vector is regarded as completely familiar and no action is taken. If the new vector falls into the region between the inner and outer boundaries, it is considered unusual enough to warrant the adjustment of C and r by use of the aforementioned algorithms, but not unusual enough to be considered novel. If a vector falls outside the outer boundary, it is considered novel, in which case one of several appropriate responses could be initiation of construction of a new spindle.

  4. Towards a global terrestrial species monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeller, Dirk S.; Julliard, Romain; Bellingham, Peter J.; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Couvet, Denis; Elmendorf, Sarah; Forsyth, David M.; Moreno, Jaime García; Gregory, Richard D.; Magnusson, William E.; Martin, Laura J.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Pereira, Henrique M.; Proença, Vânia; van Swaay, Chris A.M.; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Convention for Biological Diversity’s (CBD) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 envisions that “By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.” Although 193 parties have adopted these goals, there is little infrastructure in place to monitor global biodiversity trends. Recent international conservation policy requires such data to be up-to-date, reliable, comparable among sites, relevant, and understandable; as is becoming obvious from the work plan adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES: www.ipbes.net/; http://tinyurl.com/ohdnknq). In order to meet the five strategic goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its 20 accompanying Aichi Targets for 2020 (www.cbd.int/sp/targets/), advances need to be made in coordinating large-scale biodiversity monitoring and linking these with environmental data to develop a comprehensive Global Observation Network, as is the main idea behind GEOSS the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (Christian 2005)...Here we identify ten requirements important for the successful implementation of a global biodiversity monitoring network under the flag of GEO BON and especially a global terrestrial species monitoring program.

  5. A comparison of two phenological variables derived from VEGETATION NDVI and MERIS MTCI: A feasibility study in the context of Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Jadunandan; Rumsey, Jonathan; Lankester, Thomas; Hubbard, Steven; Curran, Paul

    Terrestrial carbon sequestration is the process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is absorbed by plants through photosynthesis and stored as carbon in biomass and soil. Change in climate can influence the growth, health and phenology (e.g., season length) of vegetation and so change productivity and the degree of carbon sequestration. Phenological variables are a key input to global carbon modelling and as a result the GMES Land Monitoring Core Services are developing and validating remotely-sensed products that are related to seasonal vegetation growth cycles and similar change indicators. Many attempts have been made to define and estimate the two key phenological variables of start of growing season (greening up') and end of growing season (senescence') using remotely sensed data. However, no standard definition or methodology has yet emerged. This paper compares these two phenological variables derived from two different vegetation indices (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from a SPOT VEGETATION dekad (10 days) time series and MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) derived from an Envisat MERIS dekad time series. Both dataset were processed using the same techniques to ensure spatial and temporal comparability. These two phenological variables were derived for eight dominant landcovers in Africa using a methodology developed for the generation of operational products in the VGT4AFRICA project. Start of growing season was defined as the local minima before a constant rise in vegetation index values. End of growing season was defined as the point of half senescence' where the vegetation index value was less than half of its growth amplitude (difference between maximum and minimum index value). There was a statistically significant difference between phenological variables calculated using the NDVI and MTCI time series. MTCI detected an earlier start and end of growing season than NDVI. The degree of difference varied with landcover class; for example, in open shrubland the start of growing season detected by MTCI was nearly 6 dekad earlier than that derived by NDVI whereas for woodland it was 1 dekad earlier. This could be because these vegetation indices estimate different biophysical variables and have different sensitivities to non-canopy variables. However, further validation with field data is required to determine which vegetation index is related most closely with the actual growing season.

  6. Global meteorological drought - Part 1: Probabilistic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Naumann, G.; Barbosa, P.; Vogt, J.; Pozzi, W.; Pappenberger, F.

    2014-07-01

    Near-real-time drought monitoring can provide decision-makers with valuable information for use in several areas, such as water resources management, or international aid. One of the main constrains of assessing the current drought situation is associated with the lack of reliable sources of observed precipitation on a global scale available in near-real time. Furthermore, monitoring systems also need a long record of past observations to provide mean climatological conditions. To address these problems, a novel probabilistic drought monitoring methodology based on ECMWF probabilistic forecasts is presented, where probabilistic monthly means of precipitation were derived from short-range forecasts and merged with the long-term climatology of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) data set. From the merged data set, the standardised precipitation index (SPI) was estimated. This methodology was compared with the GPCC first guess precipitation product as well as SPI calculations using the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation data sets. ECMWF probabilistic forecasts for near-real-time monitoring are similar to GPCC and TRMM in terms of correlation and root mean square errors, with the added value of including an estimate of the uncertainty given by the ensemble spread. The real-time availability of this product and its stability (i.e. that it does not directly depend on local rain gauges or single satellite products) are also beneficial in the light of an operational implementation.

  7. Satellite global monitoring of environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The missions of two NASA satellites for the monitoring of environmental quality are described: Nimbus G, the Air Pollution and Oceanographic Observing Satellite, and the Applications Explorer Mission (AEM) satellite to be used in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE). The scientific payload of Nimbus G is described in detail with a discussion of limb infrared monitoring of the stratosphere, the stratospheric and mesospheric sounder, stratospheric aerosol measurement, the solar and backscatter UV spectrometer for ozone mapping, the earth radiation budget experiment, the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer, the coastal zone color scanner and the temperature-humidity infrared radiometer. A brief description is given of the SAGE program and future NASA plans relating to the global monitoring of environmental quality are outlined.

  8. Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Farahmand, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Drought is by far the most costly natural disaster that can lead to widespread impacts, including water and food crises. Here we present data sets available from the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS), which provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators. The system provides meteorological and agricultural drought information based on multiple satellite-, and model-based precipitation and soil moisture data sets. GIDMaPS includes a near real-time monitoring component and a seasonal probabilistic prediction module. The data sets include historical drought severity data from the monitoring component, and probabilistic seasonal forecasts from the prediction module. The probabilistic forecasts provide essential information for early warning, taking preventive measures, and planning mitigation strategies. GIDMaPS data sets are a significant extension to current capabilities and data sets for global drought assessment and early warning. The presented data sets would be instrumental in reducing drought impacts especially in developing countries. Our results indicate that GIDMaPS data sets reliably captured several major droughts from across the globe. PMID:25977759

  9. Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Farahmand, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Drought is by far the most costly natural disaster that can lead to widespread impacts, including water and food crises. Here we present data sets available from the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS), which provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators. The system provides meteorological and agricultural drought information based on multiple satellite-, and model-based precipitation and soil moisture data sets. GIDMaPS includes a near real-time monitoring component and a seasonal probabilistic prediction module. The data sets include historical drought severity data from the monitoring component, and probabilistic seasonal forecasts from the prediction module. The probabilistic forecasts provide essential information for early warning, taking preventive measures, and planning mitigation strategies. GIDMaPS data sets are a significant extension to current capabilities and data sets for global drought assessment and early warning. The presented data sets would be instrumental in reducing drought impacts especially in developing countries. Our results indicate that GIDMaPS data sets reliably captured several major droughts from across the globe. PMID:25977759

  10. Monitoring Seasons Through Global Learning Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Robin, J. H.; Jeffries, M. O.; Gordon, L. S.; Verbyla, D. L.; Levine, E. R.

    2006-12-01

    Monitoring Seasons through Global Learning Communities (MSTGLC) is an inquiry- and project-based project that monitors seasons, specifically their interannual variability, in order to increase K-12 students' understanding of the Earth system by providing teacher professional development in Earth system science and inquiry, and engaging K-12 students in Earth system science research relevant to their local communities that connect globally. MSTGLC connects GLOBE students, teachers, and communities, with educators and scientists from three integrated Earth systems science programs: the International Arctic Research Center, and NASA Landsat Data Continuity and Terra Satellite Missions. The project organizes GLOBE schools by biomes into eight Global Learning Communities (GLCs) and students monitor their seasons through regional based field campaigns. The project expands the current GLOBE phenology network by adapting current protocols and making them biome-specific. In addition, ice and mosquito phenology protocols will be developed for Arctic and Tropical regions, respectively. Initially the project will focus on Tundra and Taiga biomes as phenological changes are so pronounced in these regions. However, our long-term goal is to determine similar changes in other biomes (Deciduous Forest, Desert, Grasslands, Rain Forest, Savannah and Shrubland) based upon what we learn from these two biomes. This project will also contribute to critically needed Earth system science data such as in situ ice, mosquito, and vegetation phenology measurements for ground validations of remotely sensed data, which are essential for regional climate change impact assessments. Additionally it will contribute environmental data critical to prevention and management of diseases such as malaria in Asian, African, and other countries. Furthermore, this project will enable students to participate in the International Polar Year (IPY) (2007-2009) through field campaigns conducted by students in polar regions, and web chats between IPY scientists and GLOBE students from all eight GLCs that include non-polar countries.

  11. AVHRR for monitoring global tropical deforestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malingreau, J. P.; Laporte, N.; Tucker, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data have been used to assess the dynamics of forest trnsformations in three parts of the tropical belt. A large portion of the Amazon Basin has been systematically covered by Local Area Coverage (LAC) data in the 1985-1987 period. The analysis of the vegetation index and thermal data led to the identification and measurement of large areas of active deforestation. The Kalimantan/Borneo forest fires were monitored and their impact was evaluated using the Global Area Coverage (GAC) 4 km resolution data. Finally, High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data have provided preliminary information on current activities taking place at the boundary between the savanna and the forest in the Southern part of West Africa. The AVHRR approach is found to be a highly valuable means for carrying out deforestation assessments in regional and global perspectives.

  12. Satellite Constellation Monitors Global and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chio-Zong Frank; Kuo, Ying-Hwa; Anthes, Richard A.; Wu, Lance

    2006-04-01

    Six identical microsatellites were successfully launched into a circular low Earth orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., at 0140 UTC on 15 April 2006. Termed the Formosa Satellite 3 and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC) mission, the new constellation's primary science goal is to obtain vertical profiles in near-real time of temperature, pressure, and water vapor in the neutral atmosphere and electron density in the ionosphere. The observations will be used to support operational global weather prediction, climate monitoring and research, space weather forecasting, and ionospheric research.

  13. A global approach to resistance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sivasupramaniam, Sakuntala; Head, Graham P; English, Leigh; Li, Yue Jin; Vaughn, Ty T

    2007-07-01

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been grown in many parts of the world since 1996. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required that industry submit insect resistance management (IRM) plans for each Bt corn and cotton product commercialized. A coalition of stakeholders including the EPA, USDA, academic scientists, industry, and grower organizations have cooperated in developing specific IRM strategies. Resistance monitoring (requiring submission of annual reports to the EPA), and a remedial action plan addressing any contingency if resistance should occur, are important elements of these strategies. At a global level, Monsanto conducts baseline susceptibility studies (prior to commercialization), followed by monitoring studies on target pest populations, for all of its commercialized Bt crop products. To date, Monsanto has conducted baseline/monitoring studies in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, the Philippines, South Africa, Spain, and the United States. Examples of pests on which resistance monitoring has been conducted include cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea, European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella, tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, and western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, in the United States, cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, in China, India and Australia, and H. virescens and H. zea in Mexico. No field-selected resistance to Bt crops has been documented. PMID:17467005

  14. Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids by Space Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Dehant, V.; Gross, R. S.; Ray, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.; Watkins, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since its establishment on 1/1/1998 by the International Earth Rotation Service, the Coordinating Center for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids (MGGF) and its seven Special Bureaus have engaged in an effort to support and facilitate the understanding of the geophysical fluids in global geodynamics research. Mass transports in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") will cause the following geodynamic effects on a broad time scale: (1) variations in the solid Earth's rotation (in length-of-day and polar motion/nutation) via the conservation of angular momentum and effected by torques at the fluid-solid Earth interface; (2) changes in the global gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law; and (3) motion in the center of mass of the solid Earth relative to that of the whole Earth ("geocenter") via the conservation of linear momentum. These minute signals have become observable by space geodetic techniques, primarily VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS, with ever increasing precision/accuracy and temporal/spatial resolution. Each of the seven Special Bureaus within MGGF is responsible for calculations related to a specific Earth component or aspect -- Atmosphere, Ocean, Hydrology, Ocean Tides, Mantle, Core, and Gravity/Geocenter. Angular momenta and torques, gravitational coefficients, and geocenter shift will be computed for geophysical fluids based on global observational data, and from state-of-the-art models, some of which assimilate such data. The computed quantities, algorithm and data formats are standardized. The results are archived and made available to the scientific research community. This paper reports the status of the MGGF activities and current results.

  15. Linking global turnover of species and environments.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lauren B; Jetz, Walter

    2008-11-18

    Patterns of species turnover are central to the geography of biodiversity and resulting challenges for conservation, but at broad scales remain relatively little understood. Here, we take a first spatially-explicitly and global perspective to link the spatial turnover of species and environments. We compare how major groups of vertebrate ectotherms (amphibians) and endotherms (birds) respond to spatial environmental gradients. We find that high levels of species turnover occur regardless of environmental turnover rates, but environmental turnover provides a lower bound for species turnover. This lower bound increases more steeply with environmental turnover in tropical realms. While bird and amphibian turnover rates are correlated, the rate of amphibian turnover is four times steeper than bird rates. This is the same factor by which average geographic ranges of birds are larger than those of amphibians. Narrow-ranged birds exhibit rapid rates of species turnover similar to those for amphibians, while wide-ranged birds largely drive the aggregate patterns of avian turnover. We confirm a strong influence of the environment on species turnover that is mediated by range sizes and regional history. In contrast to geographic patterns of species richness, we find that the turnover in one group (amphibians) is a much better predictor for the turnover in another (birds) than is environment. This result confirms the role of amphibian sensitivity to environmental conditions for patterns of turnover and supports their value as a surrogate group. This spatially-explicit analysis of environmental turnover provides understanding for conservation planning in changing environments. PMID:19001274

  16. Global Disease Monitoring and Forecasting with Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Priedhorsky, Reid

    2014-01-01

    Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based on social internet data, such as social media and search queries, are emerging. These efforts are promising, but important challenges in the areas of scientific peer review, breadth of diseases and countries, and forecasting hamper their operational usefulness. We examine a freely available, open data source for this use: access logs from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Using linear models, language as a proxy for location, and a systematic yet simple article selection procedure, we tested 14 location-disease combinations and demonstrate that these data feasibly support an approach that overcomes these challenges. Specifically, our proof-of-concept yields models with up to 0.92, forecasting value up to the 28 days tested, and several pairs of models similar enough to suggest that transferring models from one location to another without re-training is feasible. Based on these preliminary results, we close with a research agenda designed to overcome these challenges and produce a disease monitoring and forecasting system that is significantly more effective, robust, and globally comprehensive than the current state of the art. PMID:25392913

  17. Global disease monitoring and forecasting with Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y; Priedhorsky, Reid

    2014-11-01

    Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based on social internet data, such as social media and search queries, are emerging. These efforts are promising, but important challenges in the areas of scientific peer review, breadth of diseases and countries, and forecasting hamper their operational usefulness. We examine a freely available, open data source for this use: access logs from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Using linear models, language as a proxy for location, and a systematic yet simple article selection procedure, we tested 14 location-disease combinations and demonstrate that these data feasibly support an approach that overcomes these challenges. Specifically, our proof-of-concept yields models with r2 up to 0.92, forecasting value up to the 28 days tested, and several pairs of models similar enough to suggest that transferring models from one location to another without re-training is feasible. Based on these preliminary results, we close with a research agenda designed to overcome these challenges and produce a disease monitoring and forecasting system that is significantly more effective, robust, and globally comprehensive than the current state of the art. PMID:25392913

  18. Global disease monitoring and forecasting with Wikipedia

    SciTech Connect

    Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Priedhorsky, Reid; Salathé, Marcel

    2014-11-13

    Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based on social internet data, such as social media and search queries, are emerging. These efforts are promising, but important challenges in the areas of scientific peer review, breadth of diseases and countries, and forecasting hamper their operational usefulness. We examine a freely available, open data source for this use: access logs from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Using linear models, language as a proxy for location, and a systematic yet simple article selection procedure, we tested 14 location-disease combinations and demonstrate that these data feasibly support an approach that overcomes these challenges. Specifically, our proof-of-concept yields models with up to 0.92, forecasting value up to the 28 days tested, and several pairs of models similar enough to suggest that transferring models from one location to another without re-training is feasible. Based on these preliminary results, we close with a research agenda designed to overcome these challenges and produce a disease monitoring and forecasting system that is significantly more effective, robust, and globally comprehensive than the current state of the art.

  19. Global disease monitoring and forecasting with Wikipedia

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Priedhorsky, Reid; Salathé, Marcel

    2014-11-13

    Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based on social internet data, such as social media and search queries, are emerging. These efforts are promising, but important challenges in the areas of scientific peer review, breadth of diseases and countries, and forecasting hamper their operational usefulness. We examine a freely available, open data source for this use: accessmore » logs from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Using linear models, language as a proxy for location, and a systematic yet simple article selection procedure, we tested 14 location-disease combinations and demonstrate that these data feasibly support an approach that overcomes these challenges. Specifically, our proof-of-concept yields models with up to 0.92, forecasting value up to the 28 days tested, and several pairs of models similar enough to suggest that transferring models from one location to another without re-training is feasible. Based on these preliminary results, we close with a research agenda designed to overcome these challenges and produce a disease monitoring and forecasting system that is significantly more effective, robust, and globally comprehensive than the current state of the art.« less

  20. Global Seismic Monitoring: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M.; Benz, H.; Oppenheimer, D.

    2007-12-01

    Global seismological observations began in April 1889 when an earthquake in Tokyo, Japan was accurately recorded in Germany on two different horizontal pendulum instruments. However, modern global observational seismology really began 46 years ago when the 120-station World Wide Standard Seismograph Network was installed by the US to monitor underground nuclear tests and earthquakes using well-calibrated short- and long- period stations. At the same time rapid advances in computing technology enabled researchers to begin sophisticated analysis of the increasing amount of seismic data, which led to better understanding of earthquake source properties and their use in establishing plate tectonics. Today, global seismic networks are operated by German (Geophon), France (Geoscope), the United States (Global Seismograph Network) and the International Monitoring System. Presently, the Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks registers more than 1,000 broadband stations world-wide, a small percentage of the total number of digital seismic stations around the world. Following the devastating Kobe, Japan and Northridge, California earthquakes, Japan and the US have led the world in the integration of existing seismic sensor systems (weak and strong motion) into development of near-real-time, post-earthquake response products like ShakeMap, detailing the spatial distribution of strong shaking. Future challenges include expanding real-time integration of both seismic and geodetic sensor systems to produce early warning of strong shaking, rapid source determination, as well as near-realtime post- earthquake damage assessment. Seismic network data, hydro-acoustic arrays, deep water tide gauges, and satellite imagery of wave propagation should be integrated in real-time to provide input for hydrodynamic modeling yielding the distribution, timing and size of tsunamis runup--which would then be available instantly on the web, e.g. in a Google Earth format. Dense arrays of strong motion sensors together with deployment of MEMS-type accelerometers in buildings and equipment routinely connected to the Web could potentially provide thousands of measurements of damaging strong ground motion. This technology could ultimately become part of smart building design enabling critical facilities to change their structural response to imminent strong shaking. Looking further forward, it is likely that a continuously observing spaceborne system could image the occurrence of "silent" or "slow" earthquakes as well as the propagation of ground displacement by surface waves at scales of continents.

  1. Monitoring, analyzing, and modeling global climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Diabatic heating rate estimates as residuals of the dry thermodynamic equation were generated for May 1, 1985 to December 1989 in pentad resolution. Published results show moderate correlations (approx. .6) between heating rate and outgoing long wave radiation for periods under 90 days in the tropics and many extratropical locations. Nine years of simulation with the Community Climate Model 1 (CCM1) using R15 and observed sea surface temperatures shows that the model retains significantly more heat at the surface and in the free atmosphere than does the actual earth system. A post-processor for the CCM1, with capabilities to produce simulated microwave sounding unit (MSU) brightness temperatures was written. Techniques were refined considerably and validation studies were carried out to verify the globally distributed free atmosphere temperature anomalies derived from MSU data. The precision is such that detailed, long-term climate monitoring is well within the capability of these data.

  2. Monitoring tropical environments with Space Shuttle photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfert, Michael R.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital photography from the Space Shuttle missions (1981-88) and earlier manned spaceflight programs (1962-1975) allows remote sensing time series to be constructed for observations of environmental change in selected portions of the global tropics. Particular topics and regions include deforestation, soil erosion, supersedimentation in streams, lacustrine, and estuarine environments, and desertification in the greater Amazon, tropical Africa and Madagascar, South and Southeast Asia, and the Indo-Pacific archipelagoes.

  3. Monitoring Global Freshwater Resources with GRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matt; Famiglietti, Jay; Velicogna, Isabella; Swenson, Sean; Chambers, Don

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater resources include surface waters, groundwater, and seasonal snowpack. Given adequate ground based measurements, all of these can be monitored effectively, however, outside of the developed world such measurements often are not systematic and the data not centralized, and as a result reports of freshwater availability may be largely anecdotal. Even in the developed world it can be difficult to quantify changes in groundwater storage over large scales. Owing to its global coverage, satellite remote sensing has become a valuable tool for freshwater resources assessment. In particular, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has demonstrated an unequaled ability to monitor total terrestrial water storage including groundwater at regional to continental scales. In this presentation we will identify apparent trends in terrestrial water storage observed by GRACE over the past nine years and attempt to explain their origins and predict whether they are likely to continue. Trends in certain regions where groundwater extraction has significantly depleted aquifers, including northern India and California, will be discussed in detail.

  4. Tele-monitoring system for water environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, George; Tecu, Georgiana R.; Fratu, Octavian; Ochian, Adelina; Suciu, Victor

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach for a monitoring system, with applicability for water environments, based on a previous state of the art regarding both communication challenges in water and underwater monitoring but also the technologies which may be used in such surroundings. The system is based on an underwater sensors network which is connected to a cloud platform by means of a reconfigurable wireless transceiver. The sensor network integrates several low cost sensors that can measure different parameters such as water level, the water flow, temperature, pressure etc. The paper analyzes the measured parameters that will be transmitted through an operational communication node, which is able to ensure a reliable communication with timing and variation delay constraints. The cloud platform collects and stores the environmental data received from the targeted locations. Finally, the paper describes the platform interface available to end users, which will provide a real time visualization of the water environment events.

  5. Population and environment: a global report.

    PubMed

    Carty, W P

    1989-01-01

    This article relates the experiences of IMPACT, a USAID-funded project to involve the international press in reporting on the link between the environment and population growth. A conference, cohosted by the UN Environmental Program, was held in Nairobi, Kenya for 11 editors of Third World countries. A special supplement of 16 pages, "The Global Edition," was to be published in their journals. It focused on the challenges of sustainable development. All the editors contributed to the 1st 8 pages on worldwide issues. The theme of the "Child 5 Billion" was used, and population data and demographic information was reported. Each editor contributed the last 8 pages. The target audience was 2 million readers of Arabic, Bengali, English, French, Spanish, and Thai. Censorship was a concern in some countries. Examples were given of approaches used in Kenya, Zimbabwe, English-speaking Africa, Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand. In Kenya, the population growth problem was identified as the "hardened attitudes" of the childbearing population and not technology and drugs. Poverty was considered the cause of environmental destruction. Proper allocation of resources by young persons will lead to achievement of wealth. The poor must stop resisting change. Foreign aid has failed. Government is caught in the middle. In Zimbabwe, economic growth and population declines were objectives. The failures of neighboring countries were pointed out. The change agents were Africans themselves. The English-speaking African magazine emphasized the problem of desertification and population explosion, and suggested vigorous family planning (FP) efforts. The magazine does not appear in the Arab world where FP is not accepted. In Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand greater attention was paid to environmental issues. In Colombia and Bangladesh, economic factors were considered the cause of environmental degradation. In Mexico and Thailand, the environment was something to be protected or defended, and the link to population ignored. The accomplishment was in the sense of common purpose felt by the 11 editors, who thought their problems were regional or national. The next topic suggested was the urban environment, followed, after some discussion on feasibility, by global warming. PMID:12282935

  6. Space radiation environment monitoring onboard Chinese spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijin; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Xianguo

    The space particle radiation can cause harsh hazards to spacecraft performance and lifetime. Numerous operational anomalies and several Chinese satellites failures have been attributed to radiation effects. The failure of FY-1 satellite, in 1991, increased awareness of space radiation effects and enhanced monitoring in situ. From then on, Space Environment Monitors (SEM) have been widely used in a great number of Chinese spacecrafts, such as SZ-4 manned spacecraft, FY-1, FY-3 sun-synchronous orbit satellites, FY-2 geo-synchronous orbit satellite, CE-1 lunar probe satellite, and so on. In particular, the SJ-4 and the SJ-5 satellites, which were used for special experiments of space radiation and theirs effects on spacecrafts, had been launched in 1990's. The sustained space radiation monitoring on LEO and GEO has accumulated a mass of data and can promote studies for empirical model of space radiation. In this article, monitoring at the Chinese spacecrafts from 1990's to the predictive future will be described, and cross-calibration of data and their typical results will be given.

  7. Industrial Lead in the Global Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flegal, A. R.; Ericson, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    Although the rates of emission, fluxes and recycling of natural and industrial lead in biogeochemical systems are needed to quantify environmental lead pollution, those geochemical processes are rarely incorporated in either Earth Science or Environmental Health Science curriculum. The need for an understanding of the global lead cycle in those diverse fields is due to the omnipresence of industrial lead contamination that was initiated over five millennia ago, which has often exceeded natural emissions of lead by orders of magnitude. That contamination has been repeatedly demonstrated in environmental analyses ranging from the most remote polar regions and oceans of the Earth to urban and industrial regions. The latter include studies of soil lead in Baltimore, New Orleans, St. Paul-Minneapolis, Los Angeles, Tijuana, and Ottawa, which show that lead from past combustion of leaded gasoline remains in those cities and it is bioavailable. With the protracted residence time of that soil lead (102 - 103 years), it is estimated that generations of urban children will continue to be exposed to this toxicant, unless there is abatement. Moreover, many third world countries are still using leaded gasoline and other sources of industrial lead continue to be emitted into the environment, albeit at reduced levels. Consequently, the geochemical cycling of lead is and will continue to be a most appropriate and topical subject of study in the curriculum of earth science and environmental health science.

  8. Pharmaceuticals in the environment-Global occurrences and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Aus der Beek, Tim; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Bergmann, Axel; Hickmann, Silke; Ebert, Ina; Hein, Arne; Küster, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are known to occur widely in the environment of industrialized countries. In developing countries, more monitoring results have recently become available, but a concise picture of measured environmental concentrations (MECs) is still elusive. Through a comprehensive literature review of 1016 original publications and 150 review articles, the authors collected MECs for human and veterinary pharmaceutical substances reported worldwide in surface water, groundwater, tap/drinking water, manure, soil, and other environmental matrices in a comprehensive database. Due to the heterogeneity of the data sources, a simplified data quality assessment was conducted. The database reveals that pharmaceuticals or their transformation products have been detected in the environment of 71 countries covering all continents. These countries were then grouped into the 5 regions recognized by the United Nations (UN). In total, 631 different pharmaceutical substances were found at MECs above the detection limit of the respective analytical methods employed, revealing distinct regional patterns. Sixteen substances were detected in each of the 5 UN regions. For example, the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac has been detected in environmental matrices in 50 countries, and concentrations found in several locations exceeded predicted no-effect concentrations. Urban wastewater seems to be the dominant emission pathway for pharmaceuticals globally, although emissions from industrial production, hospitals, agriculture, and aquaculture are important locally. The authors conclude that pharmaceuticals are a global challenge calling for multistakeholder approaches to prevent, reduce, and manage their entry into and presence in the environment, such as those being discussed under the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management, a UN Environment Program. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:823-835. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26666847

  9. Microbial monitoring of spacecraft and associated environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Duc, M. T.; Kern, R.; Venkateswaran, K.

    2004-01-01

    Rapid microbial monitoring technologies are invaluable in assessing contamination of spacecraft and associated environments. Universal and widespread elements of microbial structure and chemistry are logical targets for assessing microbial burden. Several biomarkers such as ATP, LPS, and DNA (ribosomal or spore-specific), were targeted to quantify either total bioburden or specific types of microbial contamination. The findings of these assays were compared with conventional, culture-dependent methods. This review evaluates the applicability and efficacy of some of these methods in monitoring the microbial burden of spacecraft and associated environments. Samples were collected from the surfaces of spacecraft, from surfaces of assembly facilities, and from drinking water reservoirs aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Culture-dependent techniques found species of Bacillus to be dominant on these surfaces. In contrast, rapid, culture-independent techniques revealed the presence of many Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms, as well as actinomycetes and fungi. These included both cultivable and noncultivable microbes, findings further confirmed by DNA-based microbial detection techniques. Although the ISS drinking water was devoid of cultivable microbes, molecular-based techniques retrieved DNA sequences of numerous opportunistic pathogens. Each of the methods tested in this study has its advantages, and by coupling two or more of these techniques even more reliable information as to microbial burden is rapidly obtained. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Remote sensing monitoring of the global ozonosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, S.; Bortoli, D.; Ravegnani, F.

    2013-10-01

    The use of CFCs, which are the main responsible for the ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere and the formation of the so-called "ozone hole" over Antarctic Region, was phase out by Montreal Protocol (1989). CFCs' concentration is recently reported to decrease in the free atmosphere, but severe episodes of ozone depletion in both Arctic and Antarctic regions are still occurring. Nevertheless the complete recovery of the Ozone layer is expected by about 2050. Recent simulation of perturbations in stratospheric chemistry highlight that circulation, temperature and composition are strictly correlated and they influence the global climate changes. Chemical composition plays an important role in the thermodynamic of the atmosphere, as every gaseous species can absorb and emit in different wavelengths, so their different concentration is responsible for the heating or cooling of the atmosphere. Therefore long-term observations are required to monitor the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer. Measurements from satellite remote sensing instruments, which provide wide coverage, are supplementary to selective ground-based observations which are usually better calibrated, more stable in time and cover a wider time span. The combination of the data derived from different space-borne instruments calibrated with ground-based sensors is needed to produce homogeneous and consistent long-term data records. These last are required for robust investigations and especially for trend analysis. Here, we perform a review of the major remote-sensing techniques and of the principal datasets available to study the evolution of ozone layer in the past decades and predict future behavio

  11. Monitoring product safety in the postmarketing environment.

    PubMed

    Sharrar, Robert G; Dieck, Gretchen S

    2013-10-01

    The safety profile of a medicinal product may change in the postmarketing environment. Safety issues not identified in clinical development may be seen and need to be evaluated. Methods of evaluating spontaneous adverse experience reports and identifying new safety risks include a review of individual reports, a review of a frequency distribution of a list of the adverse experiences, the development and analysis of a case series, and various ways of examining the database for signals of disproportionality, which may suggest a possible association. Regulatory agencies monitor product safety through a variety of mechanisms including signal detection of the adverse experience safety reports in databases and by requiring and monitoring risk management plans, periodic safety update reports and postauthorization safety studies. The United States Food and Drug Administration is working with public, academic and private entities to develop methods for using large electronic databases to actively monitor product safety. Important identified risks will have to be evaluated through observational studies and registries. PMID:25114782

  12. Monitoring product safety in the postmarketing environment

    PubMed Central

    Dieck, Gretchen S

    2013-01-01

    The safety profile of a medicinal product may change in the postmarketing environment. Safety issues not identified in clinical development may be seen and need to be evaluated. Methods of evaluating spontaneous adverse experience reports and identifying new safety risks include a review of individual reports, a review of a frequency distribution of a list of the adverse experiences, the development and analysis of a case series, and various ways of examining the database for signals of disproportionality, which may suggest a possible association. Regulatory agencies monitor product safety through a variety of mechanisms including signal detection of the adverse experience safety reports in databases and by requiring and monitoring risk management plans, periodic safety update reports and postauthorization safety studies. The United States Food and Drug Administration is working with public, academic and private entities to develop methods for using large electronic databases to actively monitor product safety. Important identified risks will have to be evaluated through observational studies and registries. PMID:25114782

  13. Global monitoring of wetlands--the value of ENVISAT ASAR Global mode.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, A; Wagner, W; Scipal, K; Pathe, C; Sabel, D; Wolski, P

    2009-05-01

    This paper elaborates on recent advances in the use of ScanSAR technologies for wetland-related research. Applications of active satellite radar systems include the monitoring of inundation dynamics as well as time series analyses of surface soil wetness. For management purposes many wetlands, especially those in dry regions, need to be monitored for short and long-term changes. Another application of these technologies is monitoring the impact of climate change in permafrost transition zones where peatlands form one of the major land cover types. Therefore, examples from boreal and subtropical environments are presented using the analysed ENVISAT ASAR Global mode (GM, 1 km resolution) data acquired in 2005 and 2006. In the case of the ENVISAT ASAR instrument, data availability of the rather coarse Global Mode depends on request priorities of other competing modes, but acquisition frequency may still be on average fortnightly to monthly depending on latitude. Peatland types covering varying permafrost regimes of the West Siberian Lowlands can be distinguished from each other and other land cover by multi-temporal analyses. Up to 75% of oligotrophic bogs can be identified in the seasonal permafrost zone in both years. The high seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of the subtropic Okavango Delta can also be captured by GM time series. Response to increased precipitation in 2006 differs from flood propagation patterns. In addition, relative soil moisture maps may provide a valuable data source in order to account for external hydrological factors of such complex wetland ecosystems. PMID:18343560

  14. The Environment to Come: A Global Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    Six major reports have recently assessed the state of the world in terms of energy, food, population, natural resources, pollution, and economic development. These reports include: (1) "The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century"; (2) "Global Future: Time to Act"; (3) "World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource

  15. The Environment to Come: A Global Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    Six major reports have recently assessed the state of the world in terms of energy, food, population, natural resources, pollution, and economic development. These reports include: (1) "The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century"; (2) "Global Future: Time to Act"; (3) "World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource…

  16. Globalization Contextualized: An Organization-Environment Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, changes in higher education, the emerging global economy, and other social changes all influence the environment in which community colleges operate. This article investigates leadership perceptions of adaptation to a rapidly globalizing education environment. Data were collected through a multisite case study that

  17. Globalization Contextualized: An Organization-Environment Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, changes in higher education, the emerging global economy, and other social changes all influence the environment in which community colleges operate. This article investigates leadership perceptions of adaptation to a rapidly globalizing education environment. Data were collected through a multisite case study that…

  18. Coastal environment: historical and continuous monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivaldi, Roberta; Surace, Luciano

    2010-05-01

    The monitoring is a tool providing essential data to study the process dynamic. The formation and transformation of coastal environment involve physical, chemical, geological and biological processes. The knowledge of the littoral systems and marine seafloor therefore requires a multidisciplinary approach. Since the phenomena observation occurs in a short period of time it requires the use of high quality data acquired with high accuracy and suitable processing procedures. This knowledge considerable increased during the past 50 years closely following significant progress in the methods of investigation at sea and laboratory. In addition seafloor exploration is deeply rooted in History. A sector actually subject to control results the coastal zone for its position as transition component between continental and marine environments with closely connected natural and human actions. Certainly these activities are important in the time to develop the technologies suited for the knowledge and to increase different protection, prevention, intervention and management tools. In this context the Istituto Idrografico della Marina (Hydrographic Institute of Italian Navy - I.I.M.) is a precursor because since its foundation (in 1872) it contributed to the monitoring activities related to charting and navigation, including hydrologic surveying, seafloor measurements and in consequence the landward limit, the shoreline. The coastal area is certainly the most changeable sector either natural or socio-economic causes. This is the most dynamic environment, subject both to marine (waves and currents) and continental (river and ice) actions, and continuously changing the intended use for the increase of industrial, commercial, recreation and the need for new structures to support. The coast has more recently taken on a growing value determined by some processes, including erosion and retreat are evidence of a transformation of which, however, undermine the system and impoverishing the existing one. The constant monitoring activities of I.I.M. are the production of nautical paper charts and electronic navigational charts (ENC) together other specialised nautical charts and publications to aid safe navigation, the processing of the oldest data from analogical to digital and the care preservation in the archives of all hydrographic survey information. This process is occurred according to an international recognized standard, such as to allow a continuous improvement of all acquired data, even if with more advanced tools and technologies for the development of cartography in constant update both in content and in restitution. In this research the archives infrastructure is used to conduct hydrographic data collection and processing to follow the secular variation and its evolution of the shoreline and coastal seafloor. A key element in monitoring these changes, both of the sub-aerial and submarine beach, is the determination of the shoreline and restitution as the coastline, which already includes the definition of its complexity, in a time period that must be long enough. We present some examples of the Italian littoral evolution with evident changes of coastal morphology in support of present monitoring.

  19. Remote sensing of the global environment with satellite scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of satellite scatterometry for remote sensing of the global environment from the tropics to polar regions. Results were derived from microwave backscatter data acquired by the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer aboard the QuikSCAT (QSCAT) satellite. QSCAT observed two successive super cyclones that hit the Orissa coastal region of India, affecting 15 million people in 1999. The extent of soil moisture change was delineated after Cyclone Nargis made landfall in Myanmar in May 2008. QSCAT detected excessive rainwater followed by a severe drought leading to widespread wildfires in California, U.S., in 2007. QSCAT tracked vegetation change in an extreme drought in Nairobi, Kenya, affecting 3 million people in 2000. QSCAT monitored snowmelt patterns over the Northern Hemisphere, which showed poleward oscillations of melt bands. QSCAT revealed a record reduction in Arctic perennial sea ice in this decade and a further drastic decline of perennial ice in 2008. At 1-km posting, QSCAT identified urban and suburban areas where backscatter was shown to correlate with population density. QSCAT delineated wind shadow areas near small islands in the Asia-Pacific region. These results demonstrate that satellite scatterometer can provide numerous crucial data products to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems.

  20. Remote monitoring: A global partnership for safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, J.

    1996-08-01

    With increased awareness of the significant changes of the past several years and their effect on the expectations to international safeguards, it is necessary to reflect on the direction for development of nuclear safeguards in a new era and the resulting implications. The time proven monitoring techniques, based on quantitative factors and demonstrated universal application, have shown their merit. However, the new expectations suggest a possibility that a future IAEA safeguards system could rely more heavily on the value of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime. With the establishment of such a regime, it is highly likely that remote monitoring will play a significant role. Several states have seen value in cooperating with each other to address the many problems associated with the remote interrogation of integrated monitoring systems. As a consequence the International Remote Monitoring Project was organized to examine the future of remote monitoring in International Safeguards. This paper provides an update on the technical issues, the future plans, and the safeguards implications of cooperative programs relating to remote monitoring. Without providing answers to the policy questions involved, it suggests that it is timely to begin addressing these issues.

  1. International Trade in a Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the world market and trade deficits and surpluses are used to examine global economics. The GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) is discussed and presented with the various perspectives on the agreement. A forecast for economics of the '90s and a quiz are included. (EH)

  2. Teaching Global Perspectives in a Rural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Mary Ann

    1980-01-01

    Rural students can understand global perspectives by developing pride as food providers who share "kinship of the soil" with the developing world. Important lessons include man's dependence on the land; philosophy of environmental protection; agricultural technology; political influence over soil use; and five factors controlling crop production.…

  3. Monitoring global monthly mean surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Christy, John R.; Hurrell, James W.

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy of the global surface air temperature (SST) estimates for a particular month over the past decade is assessed using all of the in situ observations available today. The sources of noise in the data, the numbers of observations, and the spatial coverage are appraised for the comparison with the climate signal, and different analyzed results are compared to determine their reproducibility. The data are further evaluated by comparing anomalies of near-global monthly mean surface temperatures with those of global satellite channel 2 microwave sounding unit temperatures for 144 months from 1979 to 1990. The results indicate that the inherent noise level in an SST observation is about 1.0 C, and this is compounded when the observation is made in regions of large temperature gradient.

  4. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  5. Global rainfall monitoring by SSM/I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Eric C.; Kidd, C.; Kniveton, D.

    1993-01-01

    Significant accomplishments in the last year of research are presented. During 1991, three main activities were undertaken: (1) development and testing of a preliminary global rainfall algorithm; (2) researching areas of strong surface scattering; and (3) formulation of a program of work for the WetNet PrecipWG. Focus of present research and plans for next year are briefly dismissed.

  6. Applications of the EOS SAR to monitoring global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schier, Marguerite; Way, Jobea; Holt, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    The SAR employed by NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a multifrequency multipolarization radar which can conduct global monitoring of geophysical and biophysical parameters. The present discussion of the EOS SAR's role in global monitoring emphasizes geophysical product variables applicable to global hydrologic, biogeochemical, and energy cycle models. EOS SAR products encompass biomass, wetland areas, and phenologic and environmental states, in the field of ecosystem dynamics; soil moisture, snow moisture and extent, and glacier and ice sheet extent and velocity, in hydrologic cycle studies; surface-wave fields and sea ice properties, in ocean/atmosphere circulation; and the topography, erosion, and land forms of the solid earth.

  7. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.; Rossow, W.; Fung, I.

    1993-09-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  8. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. (Editor); Rossow, W. (Editor); Fung, I. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

  9. Creating healthy food environments through global benchmarking of government nutrition policies and food industry practices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy processed food products are increasingly dominating over healthy foods, making food and nutrition environments unhealthier. Development and implementation of strong government healthy food policies is currently being circumvented in many countries by powerful food industry lobbying. In order to increase accountability of both governments and the private sector for their actions, and improve the healthiness of food environments, INFORMAS (the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support) has recently been founded to systematically and comprehensively monitor food environments and policies in countries of varying size and income. This will enable INFORMAS to rank both governments and private sector companies globally according to their actions on food environments. Identification of those countries which have the healthiest food and nutrition policies and using them as international benchmarks against which national progress towards best practice can be assessed, should support reductions in global obesity and diet-related NCDs. PMID:24594359

  10. The global forum on environment and development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The first Global Conference of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival was held in Oxford, England not to discuss world issues, but to test the ability of 100 spiritual leaders and 100 parliamentarians to work together in a world which has preferred to separate church and state. This conference, held in Moscow, attracted more than 1,000 people. The main purpose was to find common solutions to environmental quality, economic development, and human survival as citizens of planet Earth. Notable addresses were heard from Javier Perez de Cuellar, Senator Albert Gore, Carl Sagan, Lester Brown, Nafis Sadik, Evguenij Velikhov, and Mikhail Gorbachev who advocated an International Green Cross.

  11. Distributed computing environment monitoring and user expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, R.L.A.; Logg, C.A.

    1995-11-01

    This paper discusses the growing needs for distributed system monitoring and compares it to current practices. It then goes on to identify the components of distributed system monitoring and shows how they are implemented and successfully used at one site today to address the Local Area Network (LAN), network services and applications, the Wide Area Network (WAN), and host monitoring. It shows how this monitoring can be used to develop realistic service level expectations and also identifies the costs. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the future challenges in network monitoring.

  12. Seagrass meadows in a globally changing environment.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Richard K F; van Keulen, Mike; Coles, Rob G

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass meadows are valuable ecosystem service providers that are now being lost globally at an unprecedented rate, with water quality and other localised stressors putting their future viability in doubt. It is therefore critical that we learn more about the interactions between seagrass meadows and future environmental change in the anthropocene. This needs to be with particular reference to the consequences of poor water quality on ecosystem resilience and the effects of change on trophic interactions within the food web. Understanding and predicting the response of seagrass meadows to future environmental change requires an understanding of the natural long-term drivers of change and how these are currently influenced by anthropogenic stress. Conservation management of coastal and marine ecosystems now and in the future requires increased knowledge of how seagrass meadows respond to environmental change, and how they can be managed to be resilient to these changes. Finding solutions to such issues also requires recognising people as part of the social-ecological system. This special issue aims to further enhance this knowledge by bringing together global expertise across this field. The special issues considers issues such as ecosystem service delivery of seagrass meadows, the drivers of long-term seagrass change and the socio-economic consequences of environmental change to seagrass. PMID:24874505

  13. Monitoring and control of atmosphere in a closed environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, R.; Perry, J.

    1991-01-01

    Applications requiring new technologies for atmosphere monitoring and control in the closed environment and their principal functions aboard the Space Station Freedom are described. Oxygen loop closure, involving the conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen; carbon dioxide reduction and removal; and monitoring of atmospheric contamination are discussed. The Trace Contaminant Monitor, the Major Constituent Analyzer, the Carbon Dioxide Monitor, and the Particulate Counter Monitor are discussed.

  14. Using the Global Electric Circuit to monitor global climate change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C. G.

    2013-12-01

    The global atmospheric electric circuit describes the global link between fair weather electric fields and currents measured at the Earth's surface, and the generator of these fields and currents in regions of stormy weather. Ever since the 1920s we have known about the global nature of these electric parameters, which appear to vary as a function of universal time (UT) and not local time (LT). It was also shown in the late 1920s that the "batteries" of the GEC are related to thunderstorm activity around the globe, that produce a clear global diurnal cycle due to the longitudinal distribution of the tropical landmasses. Due to the global nature of these electric fields and currents, the GEC supplies perhaps the only global geophysical index that can be measured at a single location on the Earth's surface, representing global electrical activity on the planet. The GEC can be broken down into a DC (direct current) part, and an AC (alternating current) part. Due to the global nature of the electric circuit it has been proposed by some to use geo-electric indices as proxies for changes in the global climate. If global warming results in changes in thunderstorm distribution, number and/or intensity, the GEC may allow us to monitor these changes from only a few ground stations. The advantages and disadvantages of using the GEC to monitor climate change will be presented together with some examples of how the global electric circuit has already been used to monitor changes in the Earth's climate.

  15. Impacts for medicine of global monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pager, David

    2002-01-01

    In his 1998 Turing Award speech, Jim Gray described a number of research goals including those of building what he referred to as a Personal Memex and a World Memex. The Personal Memex is a system for recording everything one saw, heard, or read, while the World Memex is a system to contain all professionally produced information. In this paper we discuss the consequences to medicine of an additional type of monitoring, that of movement and position via GPS devices. The paper argues that such devices will be incorporated into hand-helds, telephones, and wristwatches, and that a World Memex will (with appropriate permissions) monitor and record all personal movement. The motivation for such a development is the many uses to which the system can be put. The paper restricts itself to discussing those uses that apply to physical safety and medical research studies. Examples relating to safety include the detection of, and notification of emergency authorities about, accidents involving unusual motion, such as occur e.g. in car accidents or when people fall off ladders. Examples of medical research studies include those that involve the effects of exercise, or exposure to different environmental conditions. Precise quantitative statistics can be gathered, providing answers to such questions as what the optimum amounts of exercise are for various health-related conditions. The paper discusses these among other such applications. PMID:12085617

  16. Impacts for medicine of global monitoring.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Pager D

    2002-01-01

    In his 1998 Turing Award speech, Jim Gray described a number of research goals including those of building what he referred to as a Personal Memex and a World Memex. The Personal Memex is a system for recording everything one saw, heard, or read, while the World Memex is a system to contain all professionally produced information. In this paper we discuss the consequences to medicine of an additional type of monitoring, that of movement and position via GPS devices. The paper argues that such devices will be incorporated into hand-helds, telephones, and wristwatches, and that a World Memex will (with appropriate permissions) monitor and record all personal movement. The motivation for such a development is the many uses to which the system can be put. The paper restricts itself to discussing those uses that apply to physical safety and medical research studies. Examples relating to safety include the detection of, and notification of emergency authorities about, accidents involving unusual motion, such as occur e.g. in car accidents or when people fall off ladders. Examples of medical research studies include those that involve the effects of exercise, or exposure to different environmental conditions. Precise quantitative statistics can be gathered, providing answers to such questions as what the optimum amounts of exercise are for various health-related conditions. The paper discusses these among other such applications.

  17. Human population and the global environment.

    PubMed

    Holdren, J P; Ehrlich, P R

    1974-01-01

    A stable ecosystem resists large, rapid changes in the sizes of its constituent populations which upset the orderly flow of energy and nutrients. An early example of such alteration was the conversion to desert of the rich Tigris and Euphrates valleys through erosion and salt accumulation resulting from faulty irrigation practices that caused the downfall of the great Mesopotamian civilization. Overgrazing and poor cultivation practices have contributed over the millennia to the expansion of the Sahara Desert. Attempts to cultivate too intensively the fragile soil of tropical rainforest areas are suspected of being in part responsible for the collapse of the Mayan civilization. The 19th century Irish potato famine because of heavy reliance of the Irish population on a single, highly productive crop led to 1.5 million deaths when the potato monoculture, a simple agricultural ecosystem, fell victim to a fungus. Modern agriculture's desire to maximize yields per acre are worrisome ecologically (increases in the use of pesticides and inorganic fertilizers). The liabilities include that as larger land areas are farmed the tracts available for reservoirs of species diversity and for natural ecosystems become smaller. Pressure to expand agriculture to steep hillsides unsuitable for cultivation has led to serious erosion in Indonesia, and increasing slash-and-burn practices are destroying tropical forests in the Philippines. The enormous expansion of wheat or rice monoculture has increased the probability of epidemic crop failure from insects or disease. 37% of the world's population is under 15 years of age which means that population will grow for 50-70 years more before leveling off. Despite a declining growth rate population would still increase 30% or more during the transition to stability. Zero global population growth is required for a prosperous and environmentally sustainable civilization. PMID:4832978

  18. Operational satellites and the global monitoring of snow and ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, John E.

    1991-01-01

    The altitudinal dependence of the global warming projected by global climate models is at least partially attributable to the albedo-temperature feedback involving snow and ice, which must be regarded as key variables in the monitoring for global change. Statistical analyses of data from IR and microwave sensors monitoring the areal coverage and extent of sea ice have led to mixed conclusions about recent trends of hemisphere sea ice coverage. Seasonal snow cover has been mapped for over 20 years by NOAA/NESDIS on the basis of imagery from a variety of satellite sensors. Multichannel passive microwave data show some promise for the routine monitoring of snow depth over unforested land areas.

  19. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  20. Global Infrasonic Monitoring of Large Bolides.

    SciTech Connect

    ReVelle, D. O.

    2001-01-01

    Using recent infrasonic data (1995-2001) and older infrasonic data recorded by AFTAC (1960-1974), we have refined our estimates of the global influx rate (cumulative influx) of large bolides with sufficient strength to deeply penetrate the atmosphere (below {approx} 50 km). The number of bolides arriving as a function of their initial source energy has been estimated from a least-squares curve-fit of our database of 19 bolides (for a source energy > 0.053 kt) with the resulting values and an estimate of the associated statistical counting errors: 30.3{+-} 6 bolides at {ge}0.1 kt, 5.8{+-} 2 at {ge}1 kt and 0.84{+-} 0.25 at {ge}15 kt. In this work we also used these estimates to infer the recurrence interval for energy levels slightly outside the original source energy range, The Tunguska bolide of 1908 ({approx}10 Mt) is a prime example of a previously observed body of great interest. Almost regardless of how we analyze the recent data, the conclusion is that bolides with Tunguska type energy levels should reoccur on the average every 120{+-}10 years.

  1. Using the Global GPS Network and Other Satellite Data to Monitor Ionospheric Total Electron Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannucci, Anthony J.; Wilson, Brian D.; Yuan, Dah-Ning; Lindqwister, Ulf

    1994-01-01

    A globally distributed network of dual-frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers is the primary source of data used to measure ionospheric total electron content (TEC) on global scales. Maps of TEC useful for calibrating propagation delays, or monitoring the solar-terrestrial environment, can be produced using this continuously operating network. The maps can also form the basis of a TEC calibration service for users around the world. Potential users may include single-frequency satellite altimetry missions, satellite tracking stations, and astronomical observatories.

  2. The Global Geodetic Infrastructure for Accurate Monitoring of Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Neil; Blackwell, Juliana; Wang, Yan; Willis, Zdenka

    2014-05-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), two Program Offices within the National Ocean Service, NOAA, routinely collect, analyze and disseminate observations and products from several of the 17 critical systems identified by the U.S. Group on Earth Observations. Gravity, sea level monitoring, coastal zone and ecosystem management, geo-hazards and deformation monitoring and ocean surface vector winds are the primary Earth systems that have active research and operational programs in NGS and IOOS. These Earth systems collect terrestrial data but most rely heavily on satellite-based sensors for analyzing impacts and monitoring global change. One fundamental component necessary for monitoring via satellites is having a stable, global geodetic infrastructure where an accurate reference frame is essential for consistent data collection and geo-referencing. This contribution will focus primarily on system monitoring, coastal zone management and global reference frames and how the scientific contributions from NGS and IOOS continue to advance our understanding of the Earth and the Global Geodetic Observing System.

  3. Recognition of Sound Environment by a Bathroom Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komoguchi, Naoyuki; Yamane, Kenji; Tanaka, Shogo

    Developing a monitoring system for a bathroom is important to prevent aged persons from accidents. The authors previously developed a bathroom monitoring system using an acoustic sensor which measured the water level of a bathtub and the temperature and also recognized the sound environment. The sound environment was however occasionally mis-recognized with the system. The present paper proposes a new method which recognizes the sound environment in the bathroom more accurately. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  4. The UARS particle environment monitor. [Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winningham, J. D.; Sharber, J. R.; Frahm, R. A.; Burch, J. L.; Eaker, N.; Black, R. K.; Blevins, V. A.; Andrews, J. P.; Rudzki, J.; Sablik, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objective of the particle environment monitor (PEM) is to provide comprehensive measurements of both local and global energy inputs into the earth's atmosphere by charged particles and Joule dissipation using a carefully integrated set of instruments. PEM consists of four instruments: the atmospheric X-ray imaging spectrometer (AXIS), the high-energy particle spectrometer (HEPS), the medium-energy particle spectrometer (MEPS), and the vector magnetometer (VMAG). AXIS provides global scale images and energy spectra of 3- to 100-keV bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by electron precipitation into the atmosphere. HEPS and MEPS provide in situ measurements of precipitating electrons in the energy range from 1 eV to 5 MeV and protons in the energy range from 1 eV to 150 MeV. Particles in this energy range deposit their energy in the atmosphere at altitudes extending from several hundred kilometers down to as low as about 30 km. VMAG provides the magnetic field direction needed to indicate and interpret the locations and intensities of ionospheric and field-aligned currents as well as providing a reference for the particle measurements. Examples of data acquired early in the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) mission are presented.

  5. Global nuclear radiation monitoring using plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Kostov, Dan; Wang, Wanpeng; Liu, Zhongchi; Hussey, Daniel S.; Baltic, Eli; Jacobson, David L.; Gu, Jerry; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2005-05-01

    Plants exhibit complex responses to changes in environmental conditions such as radiant heat flux, water quality, airborne pollutants, soil contents. We seek to utilize the natural chemical and electrophysiological response of plants to develop novel plant-based sensor networks. Our present work focuses on plant responses to high-energy radiation - with the goal of monitoring natural plant responses for use as benchmarks for detection and dosimetry. For our study, we selected a plants cactus, Arabidopsis, Dwarf mango (pine), Euymus and Azela. We demonstrated that the ratio of Chlorophyll a to Chlorophyll b of the leaves has changed due to the exposure gradually come back to the normal stage after the radiation die. We used blue laser-induced blue fluorescence-emission spectra to characterize the pigment status of the trees. Upon blue laser excitation (400 nm) leaves show a fluorescence emission in the red spectral region between 650 and 800nm (chlorophyll fluorescence with maxima near 690nm and 735 nm). Sample tree subjects were placed at a distance of 1m from NIST-certified 241AmBe neutron source (30 mCi), capable of producing a neutron field of about 13 mrem/h. This corresponds to an actual absorbed dose of ~ 1 mrad/h. Our results shows that all plants are sensitive to nuclear radiation and some take longer time to recover and take less. We can use their characteristics to do differential detection and extract nuclear activity information out of measurement results avoid false alarms produced environmental changes. Certainly the ultimate verification can be obtained from genetic information, which only need to be done when we have seen noticeable changes on plant optical spectra, mechanical strength and electrical characteristics.

  6. Global Earth Observation and Monitoring - GEOmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciais, Philippe; Keckhut, Philippe; Minnock, Mary; Kirschke, Stefanie

    2010-05-01

    GEOmon is an Integrated Project of the 6th European frame work program that has started in early 2007. The overall goal of the GEOmon project is to sustain and analyze European ground-based observations of atmospheric composition, complementary with airborne and satellite measurements, in order to quantify and understand the ongoing changes and trends. GEOmon contributes to building a future integrated pan-European Atmospheric Observing System acquiring, providing and maintaining systematic observations of long-lived greenhouse gases, reactive gases, aerosols, and stratospheric ozone. GEOmon intends to lay the foundations for a European contribution to GEOSS and to optimize the European strategy of environmental monitoring in the field of atmospheric composition observations, e.g. in the framework of GMES. Specifically, the main European networks of surface and aircraft-based measurements of atmospheric composition parameters are unified and harmonized, and integrated with satellite measurements. Up to now, GEOmon has been supporting various data gathering activities at existing networks, rescuing and compiling existing ground-based data, and developing new methodologies to use these data for satellite validation, interpretation and various modeling and trend analysis studies. In addition, GEOmon has been enabling innovative ground based measurements and measurement campaigns complementary to satellites, made by upward looking ground based remote sensing instruments like MAXDOAS, FTIR (installation of two new FTIR's at Bialystok and Orleans), and LIDAR, and by systematic measurement programs of upper-tropospheric composition using the passenger aircrafts CARIBIC and MOZAIC. These data have been shown to reduce biases and random errors in satellite observations and facilitate interpretation of the columnar measurements in combination with surface data. Overall, this will continue to result in a significant improvement in the use of existing and future satellite data. Access to data, data-products and metadata is coordinated at the GEOmon Distributed Data Base for more efficient use. Common techniques and modeling tools are applied in order to add value to the GEOmon data observations and data products, to facilitate their use in satellite validation and help design an optimal network. Please visit the GEOMON web site for more information: http://www.geomon.eu GEOmon Distributed Data Base: http://dev0.nilu.no/geomon/ The Description of Work can be found under http://www.geomon.eu /documents/GEOMON_DOW_fina11072006.pdf

  7. A proactive system for maritime environment monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Davide; Pieri, Gabriele; Tampucci, Marco; Salvetti, Ovidio

    2016-01-30

    The ability to remotely detect and monitor oil spills is becoming increasingly important due to the high demand of oil-based products. Indeed, shipping routes are becoming very crowded and the likelihood of oil slick occurrence is increasing. In this frame, a fully integrated remote sensing system can be a valuable monitoring tool. We propose an integrated and interoperable system able to monitor ship traffic and marine operators, using sensing capabilities from a variety of electronic sensors, along with geo-positioning tools, and through a communication infrastructure. Our system is capable of transferring heterogeneous data, freely and seamlessly, between different elements of the information system (and their users) in a consistent and usable form. The system also integrates a collection of decision support services providing proactive functionalities. Such services demonstrate the potentiality of the system in facilitating dynamic links among different data, models and actors, as indicated by the performed field tests. PMID:26233300

  8. Diagnostics for Dust Monitoring in Tokamak Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rosanvallon, S.; Grisolia, C.; Hong, S. H.; Worms, J.

    2008-03-12

    During ITER lifetime, dusts and flakes will be produced due to the interaction of plasmas with the in-vessel materials or due to maintenance. They will be made of carbon, beryllium and tungsten and will be activated, tritiated and chemically reactive and toxic. Safety limits have been set in order to reduce dust hazards. Thus dust diagnostics and removal methods need to be developed for ITER within the constraints linked to magnetic field, radiation, vacuum and temperature. This paper reviews potential diagnostics to monitor the dust content using techniques already used for erosion or deposition monitoring or techniques specially developed for measuring dust in suspension.

  9. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United

  10. Monitoring the Effects of the Global Crisis on Education Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Gwang-Chol

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience and findings from the monitoring work carried out by UNESCO throughout 2009 to examine and assess the possible effects of the global financial and economic crisis on education provision in its Member States. The findings showed that although it was too early to ascertain the full extent of the impact of the…

  11. Incremental costs of global environmental benefits. Global Environment Facility Working Paper 5

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.

    1993-11-01

    The report covers the conceptual, analytical, and strategic issues involved in measuring the costs and potential benefits of environmental programs. This paper surveys the core issues that will be explored in the Global Environment Facility`s (GEF) Program for Measuring Incremental Costs for the Environment (PRINCE). This research examines the measurement of incremental costs associated with reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases, protecting international waters, and conserving global biodiversity. An appendix provides examples of environmental protection efforts that incur net incremental costs. Another delineates principles for equitable resource transfers.

  12. Global development and the environment: Perspectives and sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Darmstadter, J.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty years after the landmark Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment in 1972, the United Nations has convened a Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The 1989 UN resolution calling for the conference singles out -- among other global problems -- issues of biodiversity, water and other natural resources, atmospheric integrity, and human health as ones whose management requires strengthened international cooperation and attention.

  13. Monitoring of Sedimentary Fluxes in Cold Environments: The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.

    2014-05-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists` (I.A.G. / A.I.G.) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Program (2005 - 2017) is addressing this existing key knowledge gap. The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Research carried out at each of the ca. 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by program, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of geomorphologists, hydrologists, ecologists, permafrost scientists and glaciologists. SEDIBUD has developed manuals and protocols (SEDIFLUX Manual) with a key set of primary surface process monitoring and research data requirements to incorporate results from these diverse projects and allow coordinated quantitative analysis across the program. Defined SEDIBUD key tasks for the coming years include (i) The continued generation and compilation of comparable longer-term datasets on contemporary sedimentary fluxes and sediment yields from SEDIBUD key test sites worldwide, (ii) The continued extension of the SEDIBUD metadata database with these datasets, (iii) The testing of defined SEDIBUD hypotheses (available online, see below) by using datasets continuously compiled in the SEDIBUD metadata database, (iv) The publication of a SEDIBUD book (synthesis book). The title of the currently prepared SEDIBUD book is Source-to-sink fluxes in undisturbed cold environments. The synthesis book will compile results from longer-term studies conducted at undisturbed Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine SEDIBUD key test sites. A synthesis chapter will integrate field data from the different study sites and shall provide a better understanding of (i) The key environmental drivers and rates of contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes in largely undisturbed cold climate environments and (ii) Possible effects of projected climate change on solute and sedimentary fluxes in cold climate environments. Detailed information on the SEDIBUD Program, SEDIBUD meetings, publications and online documents and databases is available at the SEDIBUD website under http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wgsb.html.

  14. IMPROVE (INTERAGENCY MONITORING OF PROTECTED VISUAL ENVIRONMENTS) SITES DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1987, EPA has supported the IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) network in cooperation with the National Park Service, Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, and State organizations. One of the principal purposes ...

  15. Remote Dosimetry Monitoring Unit for Human Unfriendly Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eli, Andrej; Zvack, Pavol

    2015-08-01

    This article deals with the design of a mobile monitoring vehicle which is intended to measure radioactivity in the human unfriendly environmental conditions. The prototype of such unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) was successfully built and tested in our controlled environment.

  16. Toxicity monitoring of aerosols in working environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnar, M.; Starc, V.; Cindro, V.; Ramšak, V.; Ravnikar, M.; Šmit, Ž.; Modic, S.

    1984-04-01

    The aerosols from a factory producing lead batteries and their influence on the health of workers working in the lead polluted environment were studied. The aerosols were characterized with regard to their cutoff diameters and elemental composition. Simultaneously the whole blood of the exposed workers was analyzed. The elemental composition of blood was measured by the PIXE method and lead contents by AAS.

  17. International Management: Creating a More Realistic Global Planning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Darryl G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need for realistic global planning environments in international business education, introducing a strategic planning model that has teams interacting with teams to strategically analyze a selected multinational company. This dynamic process must result in a single integrated written analysis that specifies an optimal strategy for

  18. Environment monitoring using LabVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Hawtree, J.

    1995-01-01

    A system has been developed for electronically recording and monitoring temperature, humidity, and other environmental variables at the Silicon Detector Facility located in Lab D. The data is collected by LabVIEW software, which runs in the background on an Apple Macintosh. The software is completely portable between Macintosh, MS Windows, and Sun platforms. The hardware includes a Macintosh with 8 MB of RAM; an external ADC-1 analog-to-digital converter that uses a serial port; LabVIEW software; temperature sensors; humidity sensors; and other voltage/current sensing devices. ADC values are converted to ASCII strings and entered into files which are read over Ethernet. Advantages include automatic logging, automatic recovery after power interruptions, and the availability of stand-alone applications for other locations with inexpensive software and hardware.

  19. Global satellite monitoring of climate-induced vegetation disturbances.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Nate G; Coops, Nicholas C; Beck, Pieter S A; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Gangodagamage, Chandana; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Huang, Cho-ying; Kennedy, Robert; Krofcheck, Dan J; Litvak, Marcy; Meddens, Arjan J H; Muss, Jordan; Negrn-Juarez, Robinson; Peng, Changhui; Schwantes, Amanda M; Swenson, Jennifer J; Vernon, Louis J; Williams, A Park; Xu, Chonggang; Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steve W; Allen, Craig D

    2015-02-01

    Terrestrial disturbances are accelerating globally, but their full impact is not quantified because we lack an adequate monitoring system. Remote sensing offers a means to quantify the frequency and extent of disturbances globally. Here, we review the current application of remote sensing to this problem and offer a framework for more systematic analysis in the future. We recommend that any proposed monitoring system should not only detect disturbances, but also be able to: identify the proximate cause(s); integrate a range of spatial scales; and, ideally, incorporate process models to explain the observed patterns and predicted trends in the future. Significant remaining challenges are tied to the ecology of disturbances. To meet these challenges, more effort is required to incorporate ecological principles and understanding into the assessments of disturbance worldwide. PMID:25500552

  20. Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Mhurchu, C N; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S; Hawkes, C; L'abbé, M; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. PMID:24074213

  1. A Seamless Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Fisher, C. K.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ('From Observations to Decisions') recognizes that 'water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity', and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the development of a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions, flood potential and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of water variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed. Future changes in water availability and drought risk are quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land surface models. For regions with lack of on-the-ground data we are field-testing low-cost environmental sensors and along with new satellite products for terrestrial hydrology and vegetation, integrating these into the system for improved monitoring and prediction. We provide an overview of the system and some examples of real-world applications to flood and drought events, with a focus on Africa.

  2. Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth.

  3. Biological approaches to global environment change mitigation and remediation.

    PubMed

    Woodward, F Ian; Bardgett, Richard D; Raven, John A; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2009-07-28

    One of the most pressing and globally recognized challenges is how to mitigate the effects of global environment change brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO(2). In this review we evaluate the potential contribution of four biological approaches to mitigating global environment change: reducing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations through soil carbon sequestration and afforestation; reducing predicted increases in global surface temperatures through increasing the albedo of crop plants; and fertilizing the oceans to increase primary productivity and CO(2) drawdown. We conclude that none of these biological approaches are 'magic bullets' capable of reversing environmental changes brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, it is possible that increasing crop albedo and soil carbon sequestration might contribute towards mitigation on a regional scale. In the absence of legally binding international agreements to reduce CO(2) emissions, we propose that: increased efforts are made to identify novel biological mitigatory strategies; further research is conducted to minimise the uncertainties present in all four of the biological approaches described; and pilot-level field work is conducted to examine the feasibility of the most promising strategies. Finally, it is essential to engage with the public concerning strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change because the majority of the biological approaches have effects, quite possibly of a negative nature, on ecosystem services and land usage. PMID:19640500

  4. Global Agricultural Monitoring (GLAM) using MODAPS and LANCE Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyamba, A.; Pak, E. E.; Majedi, A. H.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Reynolds, C. A.; Pinzon, J. E.; Smith, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies / Global Agricultural Monitoring (GIMMS GLAM) system is a web-based geographic application that offers Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and user interface tools to data query and plot MODIS NDVI time series. The system processes near real-time and science quality Terra and Aqua MODIS 8-day composited datasets. These datasets are derived from the MOD09 and MYD09 surface reflectance products which are generated and provided by NASA/GSFC Land and Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and NASA/GSFC MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS). The GIMMS GLAM system is developed and provided by the NASA/GSFC GIMMS group for the U.S. Department of Agriculture / Foreign Agricultural Service / International Production Assessment Division (USDA/FAS/IPAD) Global Agricultural Monitoring project (GLAM). The USDA/FAS/IPAD mission is to provide objective, timely, and regular assessment of the global agricultural production outlook and conditions affecting global food security. This system was developed to improve USDA/FAS/IPAD capabilities for making operational quantitative estimates for crop production and yield estimates based on satellite-derived data. The GIMMS GLAM system offers 1) web map imagery including Terra & Aqua MODIS 8-day composited NDVI, NDVI percent anomaly, and SWIR-NIR-Red band combinations, 2) web map overlays including administrative and 0.25 degree Land Information System (LIS) shape boundaries, and crop land cover masks, and 3) user interface tools to select features, data query, plot, and download MODIS NDVI time series.

  5. Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael

    1999-09-01

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  6. Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Lloyd; W. G. Reuter; D. M. Weinberg

    1999-09-19

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique is applicable to many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  7. The Global Atmospheric Environment for the Next Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dentener, F; Stevenson, D; Ellingsen, K; van Joije, T; Schultz, M; Amann, M; Atherton, C; Bell, N; Bergmann, D; Bey, I; Bouwman, L; Butler, T; Cofala, J; Collins, B; Drevet, J; Doherty, R; Eickhout, B; Eskes, H; Fiore, A; Gauss, M; Hauglustaine, D; Horowitz, L; Isaksen, I A; Josse, B; Lawrence, M; Krol, M; Lamarque, J F; Montanaro, V; Muller, J F; Peuch, V H; Pitari, G; Pyle, J; Rast, S; Rodriguez, J; Sanderson, M; Savage, N H; Shindell, D; Strahan, S; Szopa, S; Sudo, K; Van Dingenen, R; Wild, O; Zeng, G

    2005-12-07

    Air quality, ecosystem exposure to nitrogen deposition, and climate change are intimately coupled problems: we assess changes in the global atmospheric environment between 2000 and 2030 using twenty-five state-of-the-art global atmospheric chemistry models and three different emissions scenarios. The first (CLE) scenario reflects implementation of current air quality legislation around the world, whilst the second (MFR) represents a more optimistic case in which all currently feasible technologies are applied to achieve maximum emission reductions. We contrast these scenarios with the more pessimistic IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Ensemble simulations for the year 2000 are consistent among models, and show a reasonable agreement with surface ozone, wet deposition and NO{sub 2} satellite observations. Large parts of the world are currently exposed to high ozone concentrations, and high depositions of nitrogen to ecosystems. By 2030, global surface ozone is calculated to increase globally by 1.5 {+-} 1.2 ppbv (CLE), and 4.3 {+-} 2.2 ppbv (A2). Only the progressive MFR scenario will reduce ozone by -2.3 {+-} 1.1 ppbv. The CLE and A2 scenarios project further increases in nitrogen critical loads, with particularly large impacts in Asia where nitrogen emissions and deposition are forecast to increase by a factor of 1.4 (CLE) to 2 (A2). Climate change may modify surface ozone by -0.8 {+-} 0.6 ppbv, with larger decreases over sea than over land. This study shows the importance of enforcing current worldwide air quality legislation, and the major benefits of going further. Non-attainment of these air quality policy objectives, such as expressed by the SRES-A2 scenario, would further degrade the global atmospheric environment.

  8. Monitoring Global Precipitation Using Satellite Observations: Status and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

    2002-01-01

    The current status of monitoring global precipitation amounts and patterns is described using data sets from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and from recent research satellites, especially the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The GPCP monthly (and pentad) data set is a 23-year, globally complete precipitation analysis that is used to explore global and regional variations and trends. The data set is a blend of data mainly from low-orbit microwave satellites and geosynchronous infrared satellites, with additional input from satellite sounder data, Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) data and raingauges. The monthly GPCP data set shows no significant global trend in precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. Regional trends are also analyzed. A trend pattern that is a combination of both El Nino and La Nina precipitation features is evident in the 23-year data set. This pattern is related to an increase with time in the number of combined months of El Nino and La Nina during the 23-year period. This apparent trend may be a short-term variation, but also might be related to the increase with time of extreme precipitation events reported elsewhere. Patterns of precipitation variation related to ENSO and other phenomena are shown with clear signals extending from the Tropics into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. Also shown, as an example of higher time resolution data is the GPCP daily analysis, which is available for the last six years. A second focus of the talk is on TRMM precipitation data and how these newer data sets incorporating information from the first space-borne meteorological radar compare with the established GPCP data sets.

  9. Ozone Profiles and Tropospheric Ozone from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Sioris, C. E.; Sparr, R. J. D.; Kuregm, T. P.; Martin, R. V.; Newchurch, M. J.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Ozone profiles are derived from backscattered radiances in the ultraviolet spectra (290-340 nm) measured by the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment using optimal estimation. Tropospheric O3 is directly retrieved with the tropopause as one of the retrieval levels. To optimize the retrieval and improve the fitting precision needed for tropospheric O3, we perform extensive wavelength and radiometric calibrations and improve forward model inputs. Retrieved O3 profiles and tropospheric O3 agree well with coincident ozonesonde measurements, and the integrated total O3 agrees very well with Earth Probe TOMS and Dobson/Brewer total O3. The global distribution of tropospheric O3 clearly shows the influences of biomass burning, convection, and air pollution, and is generally consistent with our current understanding.

  10. A Global Framework for Monitoring Phenological Responses to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    White, Michael A; Hoffman, Forrest M; Hargrove, William Walter; Nemani, Ramakrishna R

    2005-01-01

    Remote sensing of vegetation phenology is an important method with which to monitor terrestrial responses to climate change, but most approaches include signals from multiple forcings, such as mixed phenological signals from multiple biomes, urbanization, political changes, shifts in agricultural practices, and disturbances. Consequently, it is difficult to extract a clear signal from the usually assumed forcing: climate change. Here, using global 8 km 1982 to 1999 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data and an eight-element monthly climatology, we identified pixels whose wavelet power spectrum was consistently dominated by annual cycles and then created phenologically and climatically self-similar clusters, which we term phenoregions. We then ranked and screened each phenoregion as a function of landcover homogeneity and consistency, evidence of human impacts, and political diversity. Remaining phenoregions represented areas with a minimized probability of non-climatic forcings and form elemental units for long-term phenological monitoring.

  11. Potential global fire monitoring from EOS-MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Justice, Christopher O.; Flynn, Luke P.; Kendall, Jackie D.; Prins, Elaine M.; Giglio, Louis; Ward, Darold E.; Menzel, W. Paul; Setzer, Alberto W.

    1998-12-01

    The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the polarorbiting Earth Observation System (EOS) providing morning and evening global observations in 1999 and afternoon and night observations in 2000. These four MODIS daily fire observations will advance global fire monitoring with special 1 km resolution fire channels at 4 and 11 ?m, with high saturation of about 450 and 400 K, respectively. MODIS data will also be used to monitor burn scars, vegetation type and condition, smoke aerosols, water vapor, and clouds for overall monitoring of the fire process and its effects on ecosystems, the atmosphere, and the climate. The MODIS fire science team is preparing algorithms that use the thermal signature to separate the fire signal from the background signal. A database of active fire products will be generated and archived at a 1 km resolution and summarized on a grid of 10 km and 0.5, daily, 8 days, and monthly. It includes the fire occurrence and location, the rate of emission of thermal energy from the fire, and a rough estimate of the smoldering/flaming ratio. This information will be used in monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of fires in different ecosystems, detecting changes in fire distribution and identifying new fire frontiers, wildfires, and changes in the frequency of the fires or their relative strength. We plan to combine the MODIS fire measurements with a detailed diurnal cycle of the fires from geostationary satellites. Sensitivity studies and analyses of aircraft and satellite data from the Yellowstone wildfire of 1988 and prescribed fires in the Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation (SCAR) aircraft field experiments are used to evaluate and validate the fire algorithms and to establish the relationship between the fire thermal properties, the rate of biomass consumption, and the emissions of aerosol and trace gases from fires.

  12. SPECTRAL MONITORING OF FUGITIVE CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    The accidental or intentional release of hazardous chemical substances into the environment is an inevitable consequence of anthropogenic activity. The detection, monitoring and remediation of fugitive contaminants is a major risk factor for human and ecological health and i...

  13. WESTERN ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT MONITORING STUDY: PLANNING AND COORDINATION SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a summary of the planning, coordination and implementation mechanisms which provide the framework for the Western Energy/Environment Monitoring Study. This Study involves participation by elements of EPA, NASA, NOAA, and USGS and is a segment of the Interagency Ene...

  14. Agricultural environment information monitoring instruments based on integrated intelligent sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guoqing, Sr.; Sha, Zhanyou; Cai, Mingwei

    2009-07-01

    With the rapid development of facility agriculture in rural areas in China, the technology reform related to the auxiliary facilities has become the key factor to promote its development. And how to acquire the agricultural environment information effectively and rapidly becomes the most important factor. This article is aimed to make a study on the technical project of developing high performance and low cost environment monitoring instruments based on integrated intelligent sensors, which includes relative humidity/temperature monitor, intelligent turbidity sensor system with Microprocessor( ?C) and single-bus interface and smog auto-detection and alarm system. The monitoring instruments can be applied to the overground information collecting, processing and alarming in greenhouses, poultry houses, livestock stables and so on.

  15. Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Corrales, Jone; Kristofco, Lauren A.; Steele, W. Baylor; Yates, Brian S.; Breed, Christopher S.; Williams, E. Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs. PMID:26674671

  16. GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

  17. Global monitoring of atmospheric properties by the EOS MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) being developed for the Earth Observing System (EOS) is well suited to the global monitoring of atmospheric properties from space. Among the atmospheric properties to be examined using MODIS observations, clouds are especially important, since they are a strong modulator of the shortwave and longwave components of the earth's radiation budget. A knowledge of cloud properties (such as optical thickness and effective radius) and their variation in space and time, which are our task objectives, is also crucial to studies of global climate change. In addition, with the use of related airborne instrumentation, such as the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) in intensive field experiments (both national and international campaigns, see below), various types of surface and cloud properties can be derived from the measured bidirectional reflectances. These missions have provided valuable experimental data to determine the capability of narrow bandpass channels in examining the Earth's atmosphere and to aid in defining algorithms and building an understanding of the ability of MODIS to remotely sense atmospheric conditions for assessing global change. Therefore, the primary task objective is to extend and expand our algorithm for retrieving the optical thickness and effective radius of clouds from radiation measurements to be obtained from MODIS. The secondary objective is to obtain an enhanced knowledge of surface angular and spectral properties that can be inferred from airborne directional radiance measurements.

  18. Global Communications Infrastructure: CTBT Treaty monitoring using space communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebeasy, R.; Abaya, E.; Ricker, R.; Demeules, G.

    Article 1 on Basic Obligations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) states that: "Each State Party undertakes not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control. Each State Party undertakes, furthermore, to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion." To monitor States Parties compliance with these Treaty provisions, an International Monitoring System (IMS) consisting of 321 monitoring stations and 16 laboratories in some 91 countries is being implemented to cover the whole globe, including its oceans and polar regions. The IMS employs four technologies--seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide--to detect,locate and identify any seismic event of Richter magnitude 4 and above (equivalent to one kiloton of TNT) that may be associated with a nuclear test explosion. About one-half of this monitoring system is now operational in 67 countries. Monitoring stations send data in near real-time to an International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna over a Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI) incorporating 10 geostationary satellites plus three satellites in inclined orbits. The satellites relay the data to commercial earth stations, from where they are transferred by terrestrial circuits to the IDC. The IDC automatically processes and interactively analyzes the monitoring data, and distributes the raw data and reports relevant to Treaty verification to National Data Centers in Member States over the same communications network. The GCI will eventually support about 250 thin route VSAT links to the monitoring stations, many of them at remote or harsh locations on the earth, plus additional links to national data centres in various countries. Off-the-shelf VSAT and networking hardware are deployed. This is the first global integrated satellite communications network based on VSAT technology. Space segment has been leased to carry more than 9 gigabytes/day of data to the IDC with a designed annual availability of 99.5%. This paper explains the topology of this satellite-based network, and practical limitations encountered in organizing a single network with 250 links that span the majority of countries in the world, plus the Antarctic regions and the earth's oceans. Having now installed about half of the satellite links in 67 countries, CTBTO has had to hurdle regulatory challenges to install VSAT equipment, and operational challenges to keep the earth stations running in unmanned remote locations. Despite the challenges, the GCI has proven its worth in reliably collecting monitoring data and making such available to authorized users. It has also been useful to give scientists real-time access for controlling their remote monitoring stations.

  19. Mycotoxins in a changing global environment--a review.

    PubMed

    Marroqun-Cardona, A G; Johnson, N M; Phillips, T D; Hayes, A W

    2014-07-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision a stricter control of mycotoxins, however, the changing global environment may not be the ideal setting to control and reduce the exposure to these toxins. Although new technologies allow us to inspect the multi-mycotoxin presence in foods, new sources of exposure, gaps in knowledge of mycotoxins interactions, appearance of "emergent" mycotoxins and elucidation of consequent health effects can complicate their control even more. While humans are adapting to cope with environmental changes, such as food scarcity, decreased food quality, mycotoxin regulations, crop production and seasonality, and other climate related modifications, fungal species are also adapting and increased cases of mycotoxin adverse health effects are likely to occur in the future. To guarantee access to quality food for all, we need a way to balance global mycotoxin standards with the realistic feasibility of reaching them, considering limitations of producers and designing strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure based on sound research. PMID:24769018

  20. Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments: A New GLORIA Site in Southwestern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, M. E.; Pullman, T. Y.; Mitman, G. G.

    2007-12-01

    Global climate change is expected to have pronounced effects on the alpine environments and thus the alpine plants of western North America. Predicted responses include an upward migration of treelines, altered species compositions, changes in the percentage of land covered by vegetation, and a change in the phenology of alpine plants. To determine the effects of climate change on the alpine flora of southwestern Montana, we are installing a GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) site in order to monitor temperature, species composition, and percent cover of vascular plants, lichens, and mosses along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We are including lichens and mosses because of their importance as ecological indicator species. The abundance and spatial distribution of lichens and mosses provides essential baseline data for long-term monitoring of local and global impacts on the environment. Mt. Fleecer (9250 ft.), which is west of the continental divide and semi-isolated from other peaks in the Anaconda-Pintlar Range, is currently the most likely location for the southwestern Montana GLORIA site. Mt. Fleecer is accessible because it does not have the steep and hazardous glaciated talus cirques that characterize many of the neighboring, higher peaks. However, if an accessible and suitable higher summit is found, then it will be included as the highest summit in the GLORIA site. Interesting species at Mt. Fleecer include the whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, which is a keystone species in high mountain ecosystems of the western United States and Canada, the green gentian, Frasera speciosa, and the shooting star, Dodecatheon pulchellum. Data from this site will become part of a global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora. Information gained from this GLORIA site can also be used as a link between studies of alpine climate change and related investigations on the timing of snowmelt and its influence on riparian ecosystems in western Montana.

  1. Nitrous oxide fluxes in estuarine environments: response to global change.

    PubMed

    Murray, Rachel H; Erler, Dirk V; Eyre, Bradley D

    2015-09-01

    Nitrous oxide is a powerful, long-lived greenhouse gas, but we know little about the role of estuarine areas in the global N2 O budget. This review summarizes 56 studies of N2 O fluxes and associated biogeochemical controlling factors in estuarine open waters, salt marshes, mangroves, and intertidal sediments. The majority of in situ N2 O production occurs as a result of sediment denitrification, although the water column contributes N2 O through nitrification in suspended particles. The most important factors controlling N2 O fluxes seem to be dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and oxygen availability, which in turn are affected by tidal cycles, groundwater inputs, and macrophyte density. The heterogeneity of coastal environments leads to a high variability in observations, but on average estuarine open water, intertidal and vegetated environments are sites of a small positive N2 O flux to the atmosphere (range 0.15-0.91; median 0.31; Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) ). Global changes in macrophyte distribution and anthropogenic nitrogen loading are expected to increase N2 O emissions from estuaries. We estimate that a doubling of current median NO3 (-) concentrations would increase the global estuary water-air N2 O flux by about 0.45 Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) or about 190%. A loss of 50% of mangrove habitat, being converted to unvegetated intertidal area, would result in a net decrease in N2 O emissions of 0.002 Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) . In contrast, conversion of 50% of salt marsh to unvegetated area would result in a net increase of 0.001 Tg N2 O-N yr(-1) . Decreased oxygen concentrations may inhibit production of N2 O by nitrification; however, sediment denitrification and the associated ratio of N2 O:N2 is expected to increase. PMID:25752934

  2. Global Monitoring of the CTBT: Progress, Capabilities and Plans (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbo, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), established in 1996, is tasked with building up the verification regime of the CTBT. The regime includes a global system for monitoring the earth, the oceans and the atmosphere for nuclear tests, and an on-site inspection (OSI) capability. More than 80% of the 337 facilities of the International Monitoring System (IMS) have been installed and are sending data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria for processing. These IMS data along with IDC processed and reviewed products are available to all States that have signed the Treaty. Concurrent with the build-up of the global monitoring networks, near-field geophysical methods are being developed and tested for OSIs. The monitoring system is currently operating in a provisional mode, as the Treaty has not yet entered into force. Progress in installing and operating the IMS and the IDC and in building up an OSI capability will be described. The capabilities of the monitoring networks have progressively improved as stations are added to the IMS and IDC processing techniques refined. Detection thresholds for seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide events have been measured and in general are equal to or lower than the predictions used during the Treaty negotiations. The measurements have led to improved models and tools that allow more accurate predictions of future capabilities and network performance under any configuration. Unplanned tests of the monitoring network occurred when the DPRK announced nuclear tests in 2006, 2009, and 2013. All three tests were well above the detection threshold and easily detected and located by the seismic monitoring network. In addition, noble gas consistent with the nuclear tests in 2006 and 2013 (according to atmospheric transport models) was detected by stations in the network. On-site inspections of these tests were not conducted as the Treaty has not entered into force. In order to achieve a credible and trustworthy Verification System, increased focus is being put on the development of OSI operational capabilities while operating and sustaining the existing monitoring system, increasing the data availability and quality, and completing the remaining facilities of the IMS. Furthermore, as mandated by the Treaty, the CTBTO also seeks to continuously improve its technologies and methods through interaction with the scientific community. Workshops and scientific conferences such as the CTBT Science and Technology Conference series provide venues for exchanging ideas, and mechanisms have been developed for sharing IMS data with researchers who are developing and testing new and innovative methods pertinent to the verification regime. While progress is steady on building up the verification regime, there is also progress in gaining entry into force of the Treaty, which requires the signatures and ratifications of the DPRK, India and Pakistan; it also requires the ratifications of China, Egypt, Iran, Israel and the United States. Thirty-six other States, whose signatures and ratifications are needed for entry into force have already done so.

  3. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David K. A.; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C.; Barlaz, Morton

    2009-01-01

    One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly understood. PMID:19528051

  4. Noninvasive Brain Physiology Monitoring for Extreme Environments: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Hiles, Laura A; Donoviel, Dorit B; Bershad, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Our ability to monitor the brain physiology is advancing; however, most of the technology is bulky, expensive, and designed for traditional clinical settings. With long-duration space exploration, there is a need for developing medical technologies that are reliable, low energy, portable, and semiautonomous. Our aim was to review the state of the art for noninvasive technologies capable of monitoring brain physiology in diverse settings. A literature review of PubMed and the Texas Medical Center library sites was performed using prespecified search criteria to identify portable technologies for monitoring physiological aspects of the brain physiology. Most brain-monitoring technologies require a moderate to high degree of operator skill. Some are low energy, but many require a constant external power supply. Most of the technologies lack the accuracy seen in gold standard measures, due to the need for calibration, but may be useful for screening or monitoring relative changes in a parameter. Most of the technologies use ultrasound or electromagnetic radiation as energy sources. There is an important need for further development of portable technologies that can be operated in a variety of extreme environments to monitor brain health. PMID:25811362

  5. Web based remote monitoring and controlling system for vulnerable environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Aparna; George, Minu

    2016-03-01

    The two major areas of concern in industrial establishments are monitoring and security. The remote monitoring and controlling can be established with the help of Web technology. Managers can monitor and control the equipment in the remote area through a web browser. The targeted area includes all type of susceptible environment like gas filling station, research and development laboratories. The environmental parameters like temperature, light intensity, gas etc. can be monitored. Security is a very important factor in an industrial setup. So motion detection feature is added to the system to ensure the security. The remote monitoring and controlling system makes use of the latest, less power consumptive and fast working microcontroller like S3C2440. This system is based on ARM9 and Linux operating system. The ARM9 will collect the sensor data and establish real time video monitoring along with motion detection feature. These captured video data as well as environmental data is transmitted over internet using embedded web server which is integrated within the ARM9 board.

  6. GEOGLAM Crop Assessment Tool: Adapting from global agricultural monitoring to food security monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nordling, J.; Barker, B.; McGaughey, K.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's Crop Assessment Tool was released in August 2013 in support of the GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's objective to develop transparent, timely crop condition assessments in primary agricultural production areas, highlighting potential hotspots of stress/bumper crops. The Crop Assessment Tool allows users to view satellite derived products, best available crop masks, and crop calendars (created in collaboration with GEOGLAM Crop Monitor partners), then in turn submit crop assessment entries detailing the crop's condition, drivers, impacts, trends, and other information. Although the Crop Assessment Tool was originally intended to collect data on major crop production at the global scale, the types of data collected are also relevant to the food security and rangelands monitoring communities. In line with the GEOGLAM Countries at Risk philosophy of "foster[ing] the coordination of product delivery and capacity building efforts for national and regional organizations, and the development of harmonized methods and tools", a modified version of the Crop Assessment Tool is being developed for the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). As a member of the Countries at Risk component of GEOGLAM, FEWS NET provides agricultural monitoring, timely food security assessments, and early warnings of potential significant food shortages focusing specifically on countries at risk of food security emergencies. While the FEWS NET adaptation of the Crop Assessment Tool focuses on crop production in the context of food security rather than large scale production, the data collected is nearly identical to the data collected by the Crop Monitor. If combined, the countries monitored by FEWS NET and GEOGLAM Crop Monitor would encompass over 90 countries representing the most important regions for crop production and food security.

  7. Design of the Resources and Environment Monitoring Website in Kashgar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Lin, Q. Z.; Wang, Q. J.

    2014-03-01

    Despite the development of the web geographical information system (web GIS), many useful spatial analysis functions are ignored in the system implementation. As Kashgar is rich in natural resources, it is of great significance to monitor the ample natural resource and environment situation in the region. Therefore, with multiple uses of spatial analysis, resources and environment monitoring website of Kashgar was built. Functions of water, vegetation, ice and snow extraction, task management, change assessment as well as thematic mapping and reports based on TM remote sensing images were implemented in the website. The design of the website was presented based on database management tier, the business logic tier and the top-level presentation tier. The vital operations of the website were introduced and the general performance was evaluated.

  8. A quasi-global precipitation time series for drought monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Chris C.; Peterson, Pete J.; Landsfeld, Martin F.; Pedreros, Diego H.; Verdin, James P.; Rowland, James D.; Romero, Bo E.; Husak, Gregory J.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating precipitation variations in space and time is an important aspect of drought early warning and environmental monitoring. An evolving drier-than-normal season must be placed in historical context so that the severity of rainfall deficits may quickly be evaluated. To this end, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, working closely with collaborators at the University of California, Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group, have developed a quasi-global (50°S–50°N, 180°E–180°W), 0.05° resolution, 1981 to near-present gridded precipitation time series: the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) data archive.

  9. Resources, environment and population. The Global Tomorrow Coalition Conference.

    PubMed

    Olson, R K

    1983-01-01

    The challenge for environmental action has been direct and powerful for the Global Tomorrow Coalition. In June 1983 a major international conference was held by the Coalition in Washington, D.C., the Conference examined the issues of acid rain, biological diversity, foresight capability, hazardous exports, water resources, the oceans, sustainable development, population, and nuclear issues. The Conference presented a unique portrait of the US environmental movement, its problems and the possibilities for US leadership at the international level. The Coalition issued an indictment of the Reagan Administration, charging that it had reversed American domestic and international policies and was threatening the foundation on international cooperation which the US had worked hard to establish. Specifically, the Administration did the following: prevented cooperative international action on acid rain; destroyed the effectiveness of the Council on Environmental Quality by cutting its budget by 2/3 and replacing the entire professional staff with new personnel lacking environmental expertise; withdrew US participation from the Law of the Sea Conference; discouraged initiatives and programs on environment and resource trends by OECD; obstructed OECD's efforts to harmonize testing for new chemicals; sought more than a 25% reduction in US fiscal 1984 support for the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA); opposed UN efforts to control hazardous exports and removed US governmental restraints on this trade; withdrew support for the Internatioanl Man and the Biopshere program; proposed cutting the US voluntary contribution to the UN Environment Program by 2/3; proposed weakening the rules under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species and withdrew support for the World Heritage Convention and the Convention for the Protection of Nature and Preservation of Wildlife in the Western hemisphere; and withdrew funding for participation in US and international Antarctic research programs. On the eve of the Conference, the Heritage Foundation of Washington issued a rebuttal to the Coalition maintaining the following: things are getting better and not worse; the "Global 2000 Report" is a doomsday projection of some current trends but natural course corrections will occur of their own accord; and government should not take primary responsibility for environmental management. The Conference produced an activist package of recommendations, primarily for building domestic strength but also with an eye toward international affairs. The Conference concluded that an urgent need exists for government cooperation with the private sector to improve its capacity to collect data on global trends in environment, population, and natural resources. It called for stronger US leadership in preventing nuclear war. PMID:12339306

  10. Metagenomic Frameworks for Monitoring Antibiotic Resistance in Aquatic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Port, Jesse A.; Cullen, Alison C.; Wallace, James C.; Smith, Marissa N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: High-throughput genomic technologies offer new approaches for environmental health monitoring, including metagenomic surveillance of antibiotic resistance determinants (ARDs). Although natural environments serve as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes that can be transferred to pathogenic and human commensal bacteria, monitoring of these determinants has been infrequent and incomplete. Furthermore, surveillance efforts have not been integrated into public health decision making. Objectives: We used a metagenomic epidemiologybased approach to develop an ARD index that quantifies antibiotic resistance potential, and we analyzed this index for common modal patterns across environmental samples. We also explored how metagenomic data such as this index could be conceptually framed within an early risk management context. Methods: We analyzed 25 published data sets from shotgun pyrosequencing projects. The samples consisted of microbial community DNA collected from marine and freshwater environments across a gradient of human impact. We used principal component analysis to identify index patterns across samples. Results: We observed significant differences in the overall index and index subcategory levels when comparing ecosystems more proximal versus distal to human impact. The selection of different sequence similarity thresholds strongly influenced the index measurements. Unique index subcategory modes distinguished the different metagenomes. Conclusions: Broad-scale screening of ARD potential using this index revealed utility for framing environmental health monitoring and surveillance. This approach holds promise as a screening tool for establishing baseline ARD levels that can be used to inform and prioritize decision making regarding management of ARD sources and human exposure routes. Citation: Port JA, Cullen AC, Wallace JC, Smith MN, Faustman EM. 2014. Metagenomic frameworks for monitoring antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments. Environ Health Perspect 122:222228;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307009 PMID:24334622

  11. Landsat: The Backbone for Mapping and Monitoring Global Ecological Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveland, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Long-term ecological monitoring requires consistent observation of key variables, long-term measurement continuity, and open and affordable access to measurements. The Landsat series of Earth observation missions uniquely meet those criteria, and Landsat's 30m-observation scale permits the detection and differentiation of natural versus human-caused land change. Landsat is the longest and most comprehensive record of the state of the global land surface in existence. No other high-resolution satellite program is either capable or committed to the systematic monitoring of global scale human and natural land change. Beginning with Landsat 1 in 1972, six Landsat missions have continuously recorded images of the Earth. As we near the fortieth anniversary of Landsat, we now have an archive of millions of repetitive images of the Earth with multispectral properties suited to assessing both biotic and abiotic conditions and at a scale appropriate for resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Landsat archive contains nearly three million scenes and all are available to users at no cost. Furthermore, the entire Landsat record, Landsats 1-7, is now calibrated to a common radiometric standard and the majority of the data are orthorectified - enabling immediate assessment of long-term ecological conditions and land change. Landsats 5 and 7 continue to collect imagery and together they provide the potential to cover a significant portion of the Earth's land surfaces every eight days. Both of these missions now use a long-term acquisition plan designed to improve the collection of seasonal global coverage. Furthermore, recent agreements with international Landsat receiving stations are bringing previously inaccessible contemporary Landsat 5 data into the EROS archive. The amount of global coverage being acquired annually is the highest level in the history of the Landsat program. The EROS global historical archive is rapidly expanding because of the addition of 1972-present Landsat holdings from ground stations worldwide. More than three million Landsat scenes not currently found in the EROS archive exist in archives around the world and many of these data are at risk due to aging storage media and inadequate preservation practices. The repatriation of these data into the EROS archive will potentially double the number of no-cost Landsat scenes available to users. The uncertainty of future Landsat missions has challenged operational monitoring of ecological systems. However, that may be changing. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) being developed by NASA and the USGS is slated for a December 2012 launch. LDCM (which will be renamed Landsat 8 following launch) will use new imaging technology to provide improved multispectral measurements, and offers additional spectral bands and increased daily imaging capacity. While missions beyond LDCM are uncertain, the President's Fiscal Year 2012 budget requests funds for the planning and development of Landsats 9 and 10, and includes language that will make Landsat an operational program - ending the decades of uncertainty.

  12. Monitoring the impacts of trade agreements on food environments.

    PubMed

    Friel, S; Hattersley, L; Snowdon, W; Thow, A-M; Lobstein, T; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Mohan, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbe, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    The liberalization of international trade and foreign direct investment through multilateral, regional and bilateral agreements has had profound implications for the structure and nature of food systems, and therefore, for the availability, nutritional quality, accessibility, price and promotion of foods in different locations. Public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade and investment agreements, diets and health, and there is currently no systematic monitoring of this area. This paper reviews the available evidence on the links between trade agreements, food environments and diets from an obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) perspective. Based on the key issues identified through the review, the paper outlines an approach for monitoring the potential impact of trade agreements on food environments and obesity/NCD risks. The proposed monitoring approach encompasses a set of guiding principles, recommended procedures for data collection and analysis, and quantifiable 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' measurement indicators to be tailored to national priorities, capacity and resources. Formal risk assessment processes of existing and evolving trade and investment agreements, which focus on their impacts on food environments will help inform the development of healthy trade policy, strengthen domestic nutrition and health policy space and ultimately protect population nutrition. PMID:24074216

  13. Global lightning and severe storm monitoring from GPS orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Suszcynsky, D. M.; Jacobson, A. R.; Linford, J; Pongratz, M. B.; Light, T.; Shao, X.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been a growing interest to develop and deploy an automated and continuously operating satellite-based global lightning mapper [e.g. Christian et al., 1989; Weber et al., 1998; Suszcynsky et al., 2000]. Lightning is a direct consequence of the electrification and breakdown processes that take place during the convective stages of thunderstorm development. Satellite-based lightning mappers are designed to exploit this relationship by using lightning detection as a proxy for remotely identifying, locating and characterizing strong convective activity on a global basis. Global lightning and convection mapping promises to provide users with (1) an enhanced global severe weather monitoring and early warning capability [e.g. Weber et al., 1998] (2) improved ability to optimize aviation flight paths around convective cells, particularly over oceanic and remote regions that are not sufficiently serviced by existing weather radar [e.g. Weber et al., 1998], and (3) access to regional and global proxy data sets that can be used for scientific studies and as input into meteorological forecast and global climatology models. The physical foundation for satellite-based remote sensing of convection by way of lightning detection is provided by the basic interplay between the electrical and convective states of a thundercloud. It is widely believed that convection is a driving mechanism behind the hydrometeor charging and transport that produces charge separation and lightning discharges within thunderclouds [e.g. see chapter 3 in MacGorman and Rust, 1998]. Although cloud electrification and discharge processes are a complex function of the convective dynamics and microphysics of the cloud, the fundamental relationship between convection and electrification is easy to observe. For example, studies have shown that the strength of the convective process within a thundercell can be loosely parameterized (with large variance) by the intensity of the electrical activity within that cell as measured by the lightning flash rate. Williams [2001] has provided a review of experimental work that shows correlations between the total lightning flash rate and the fifth power of the radar cloud-top height (i.e. convective strength) of individual thunder cells. More recently, Ushio et al., [2001] used a large statistical sampling of optical data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) in conjunction with data provided by the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) satellite to conclude that the total lightning flash rate increases exponentially with storm height. Lightning activity levels have also been correlated to cloud ice content, a basic product of the convective process. For example, Blyth et al. [2001] used the Thermal Microwave Imager (TMI) aboard the TRMM satellite to observe a decrease in the 37 and 85 GHz brightness temperatures of upwelling terrestrial radiation during increased lightning activity. This reduction in brightness temperature is believed to be the result of increased ice scattering in the mixed phase region of the cloud. Toracinta and Zipser [2001] have found similar relationships using the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite instrument and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) aboard the DMSP satellites.

  14. Global Monitoring of Air Pollution Using Spaceborne Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Remer, L. A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The MODIS sensor onboard EOS-Terra satellite provides not only daily global coverage but also high spectral (36 channels from 0.41 to 14 microns wavelength) and spatial (250m, 500m and 1km) resolution measurements. A similar MODIS instrument will be also configured into EOS-Aqua satellite to be launched soon. Using the complementary EOS-Terra and EOS-Aqua sun-synchronous orbits (10:30 AM and 1:30 PM equator-crossing time respectively), it enables us also to study the diurnal changes of the Earth system. It is unprecedented for the derivation of aerosol properties with such high spatial resolution and daily global converge. Aerosol optical depth and other aerosol properties, e.g., Angstrom coefficient over land and particle size over ocean, are derived as standard products at a spatial resolution of 10 x 10 sq km. The high resolution results are found surprisingly useful in detecting aerosols in both urban and rural regions as a result of urban/industrial pollution and biomass burning. For long-lived aerosols, the ability to monitoring the evolution of these aerosol events could help us to establish an system of air quality especially for highly populated areas. Aerosol scenarios with city pollution and biomass burning will be presented. Also presented are the method used in the derivation of aerosol optical properties and preliminary results will be presented, and issue as well as obstacles in validating aerosol optical depth with AERONET ground-based observations.

  15. Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, K.M.; Cervelli, Peter; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, Asta; Segall, P.; Owen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates are valuable. Strategies have been researched for obtaining station coordinates every 15 min using a Kalman filter; these strategies have been tested on data collected by a GPS network on Kilauea Volcano. Data from this network are tracked continuously, recorded every 30 s, and telemetered hourly to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. A white noise model is heavily impacted by data outages and poor satellite geometry, but a properly constrained random walk model fits the data well. Using a borehole tiltmeter at Kilauea's summit as ground-truth, solutions using different random walk constraints were compared. This study indicates that signals on the order of 5 mm/h are resolvable using a random walk standard deviation of 0.45 cm/???h. Values lower than this suppress small signals, and values greater than this have significantly higher noise at periods of 1-6 hours. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Risser, P.G.

    1990-02-01

    The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

  17. Experiences with systematic triangulation at the Global Environment Facility.

    PubMed

    Carugi, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Systematic triangulation may address common challenges in evaluation, such as the scarcity or unreliability of data, or the complexities of comparing and cross-checking evidence from diverse disciplines. Used to identify key evaluation findings, its application has proven to be effective in addressing the limitations encountered in country-level evaluation analysis conducted by the Independent Evaluation Office of the Global Environment Facility (GEF). These include the scarcity or unreliability of national statistics on environmental indicators and data series, especially in Least Developed Countries; challenges in evaluating the impacts of GEF projects; and inherent difficulties in defining the GEF portfolio of projects prior to the undertaking of the evaluation. In addition to responding to the need for further developing triangulation protocols, procedures and/or methodologies advocated by some authors, the approach offers a contribution to evaluation practice. This applies particularly to those evaluation units tasked with country-level evaluations in international organizations, facing similar constraints. PMID:26724715

  18. Near-Real Time Monitoring of Global Lakes and Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckley, B. D.; Birkett, C. M.; Doorn, B.; Reynolds, C.; Baldwin, B.

    2004-12-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has the ability to monitor variations in surface water height (stage) for large lakes and reservoirs. A clear advantage is the provision of data where traditional gauges are lacking or where there is restricted access to ground-based measurements. As part of a new USDA-funded program, near-real time altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs in the world is taking place. Data ingestion and manipulation, to some degree, follows the concepts of the NASA Ocean Altimeter Pathfinder although extra provisions have to be made regarding these smaller targets. Archived data from the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) mission are utilized to provide a historical time series of height variations from 1992-2002. Near-real time stage measurements with respect to the T/P historical mean reference are derived from incoming data from the Jason-1 mission. The project utilizes the IGDR Jason-1 data with its <5 cm orbit accuracy and delivery time of <4 days after satellite overpass. A USDA maintained web site (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir) provides free access to new measurements to the public about a week to ten days after the satellite passes over. Currently there are stage levels from 70 lakes/reservoirs worldwide being made available. As the project progresses, other data from the ERS and ENVISAT missions will also be included. The Foreign Agricultural Service's, Precipitation Estimation and Crop Assessment Division utilize these observations to note potential flood/drought conditions, and to estimate reservoir volume and irrigation potential. In this presentation we demonstrate the current capabilities and limitations of ocean radar altimetry for inland water level monitoring.

  19. PROBA-V, the small saellite for global vegetation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deronde, Bart; Benhadj, Iskander; Clarijs, Dennis; Dierckx, Wouter; Dries, Jan; Sterckx, Sindy; van Roey, Tom; Wolters, erwin

    2015-04-01

    PROBA-V, the small satellite for global vegetation monitoring Bart Deronde, Iskander Benhadj, Dennis Clarijs, Wouter Dierckx, Jan Dries, Sindy Sterck, Tom Van Roey, Erwin Wolters (VITO NV) Exactly one year ago, in December 2013, VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research) started up the real time operations of PROBA-V. This miniaturised ESA (European Space Agency) satellite was launched by ESA's Vega rocket from Kourou, French-Guyana on May 7th, 2013. After six months of commissioning the mission was taken into operations. Since mid-December 2013 PROBA-V products are processed on an operational basis and distributed to a worldwide user community. PROVA-V is tasked with a full-scale mission: to map land cover and vegetation growth across the entire planet every two days. It is flying a lighter but fully functional redesign of the 'VEGETATION' imaging instruments previously flown on France's full-sized SPOT-4 and SPOT-5 satellites, which have been observing Earth since 1998. PROBA-V, entirely built by a Belgian consortium, continues this valuable and uninterrupted time series with daily products at 300 m and 1 km resolution. Even 100 m products will become available early 2015, delivering a global coverage every 5 days. The blue, red, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavebands allow PROBA-V to distinguish between different types of land cover/use and plant species, including crops. Vital uses of these data include day-by-day tracking of vegetation development, alerting authorities to crop failures, monitoring inland water resources and tracing the steady spread of deserts and deforestation. As such the data is also highly valuable to study climate change and the global carbon cycle. In this presentation we will discuss the in-flight results, one year after launch, from the User Segment (i.e. the processing facility) point of view. The focus will be on geometric and radiometric accuracy and stability. Furthermore, we will elaborate on the lessons learnt from the operational day-to-day activities. Data acquisition, input data quality, instrument programming, image processing and data distribution are some of the topics that will be highlighted. Finally, the synergy with other European missions like the Copernicus Sentinel 3 satellite will be handled.

  20. Sentinel-3 for the Copernicus Global Land Service: Monitoring the Continental Ecosystems at Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, R.; Smets, B.; Calvet, J.-C.; Camacho, F.; Tansey, K.; Baret, F.; Ramon, D.; Montersleet, B.; Roujean, J.-L.; Wandrebeck, L.; Swinnen, E.; Freitas, S.; Paulik, C.; Jann, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus Global Land service provides continuously bio-geophysical variables describing, over the whole globe, the vegetation dynamic, the energy budget at the continental surface and some components of the water cycle. Some of these variables were derived from SPOT/VGT, and are now based upon the PROBA-V data. The evolution of the service towards a production at 333m resolution is prepared, using PROBA-V data, in the FP7/ImagineS project focusing on the LAI, FAPAR, FCover, normalized TOC reflectance and Albedo. The next major evolution of the service will be the exploitation of the Sentinel-3 data: for the continuity of 1km and 333m resolution production, jointly with the PROBA-V data; for the evolution of the service, jointly with Sentinel-2 data, to set-up a high resolution monitoring service. For that, timeliness, for NRT production, spatial coverage for a daily global monitoring, and the consistency, for a joint use of multi-mission data, are mandatory.

  1. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our own research to develop a library of immersive visualization stories and templates that explore ecological relationships across time at cosmic, global, and bioregional scales, with learning goals aligned to climate and earth science literacy principles. These experiential narratives are used to increase participants' awareness of global change issues as well as to engage them in dialogues and design processes focused on steps they can take within their own communities to systemically address these interconnected challenges. More than 600 digital planetariums in the U.S. collectively represent a pioneering opportunity for distributing Earth systems messages over large geographic areas. By placing the viewer-and Earth itself-within the context of the rest of the universe, digital planetariums can uniquely provide essential transcalar perspectives on the complex interdependencies of Earth's interacting physical and biological systems. The Worldviews Network is creating innovative, data-driven approaches for engaging the American public in dialogues about human-induced global changes.

  2. Monitoring mobility in older adults using global positioning system (GPS) watches and accelerometers: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Webber, Sandra C; Porter, Michelle M

    2009-10-01

    This exploratory study examined the feasibility of using Garmin global positioning system (GPS) watches and ActiGraph accelerometers to monitor walking and other aspects of community mobility in older adults. After accuracy at slow walking speeds was initially determined, 20 older adults (74.4 +/- 4.2 yr) wore the devices for 1 day. Steps, distances, and speeds (on foot and in vehicle) were determined. GPS data acquisition varied from 43 min to over 12 hr, with 55% of participants having more than 8 hr between initial and final data-collection points. When GPS data were acquired without interruptions, detailed mobility information was obtained regarding the timing, distances covered, and speeds reached during trips away from home. Although GPS and accelerometry technology offer promise for monitoring community mobility patterns, new GPS solutions are required that allow for data collection over an extended period of time between indoor and outdoor environments. PMID:19940324

  3. A Geomagnetic Meridian Ring for global ionospheric studies and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, E. R.; van Eyken, A. P.; Kelly, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Aeronomers have made huge strides in understanding the detailed physics and chemistry of the upper atmosphere and in designing, constructing and operating advanced facilities to monitor, measure, and, in some cases, perturb that medium. Satellite-borne imagers and field/particle instruments, as well as ground-based instruments such as coherent scatter radars, optical imagers, and magnetometers, have already started to expose and document fundamental clues about the onset and development of the principal mechanisms of transient energy transfer from the solar wind to the Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere (AIM) system. However, the big picture, with its accompanying ability to predict the behavior of the geospace system both in response to solar and anthropogenic factors, remains somewhat elusive. This is due in part to the inherent limited spatial coverage of individual isolated instruments. Neither existing ground-based facilities, nor current or planned space missions, can provide the detailed, reliable, global coverage of geospace required to support either new and insightful scientific understanding or future operational capabilities to trace AIM weather, climate, and global change. Horizontal and vertical propagation effects quickly limit the effective interpretation of phenomena that have global impact. This limitation can be addressed with an array of instruments densely distributed along magnetic meridians and/or lines of constant latitude. Vertical sampling of the AIM system can be achieved with incoherent scatter radars, lidars and multi-spectral images while latitudinal or longitudinal tracking of propagating disturbances can be achieved by the dense distribution of these instruments. Incoherent scatter radars have developed considerably in recent years with the deployment of multiple new systems (Poker Flat, Alaska, Resolute Bay, Canada, and in development in Russia, China, and Scandinavia, as well as a second system at Resolute Bay). Operational changes now support continuous and remote measurements. For the first time, it is now practical to envisage a global ISR deployment capable of providing the precision measurements required. We will present plans to add further observational sites, built around phased array incoherent scatter radars, to cover a complete geomagnetic meridian. We elaborate on how this major initiative will illuminate new science and exploit the potential for international cooperation with other major initiatives, such as the Chinese Meridian Project, not only with regard to new radars and sites (with the potential for hardware collaboration for future incoherent scatter radar systems), but also to further integrate the routine operation of the existing radars around the globe.

  4. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  5. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  6. Monitoring and Evaluating the Transition of Large-Scale Programs in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Bao, James; Rodriguez, Daniela C; Paina, Ligia; Ozawa, Sachiko; Bennett, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Donors are increasingly interested in the transition and sustainability of global health programs as priorities shift and external funding declines. Systematic and high-quality monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of such processes is rare. We propose a framework and related guiding questions to systematize the M&E of global health program transitions. Methods: We conducted stakeholder interviews, searched the peer-reviewed and gray literature, gathered feedback from key informants, and reflected on author experiences to build a framework on M&E of transition and to develop guiding questions. Findings: The conceptual framework models transition as a process spanning pre-transition and transition itself and extending into sustained services and outcomes. Key transition domains include leadership, financing, programming, and service delivery, and relevant activities that drive the transition in these domains forward include sustaining a supportive policy environment, creating financial sustainability, developing local stakeholder capacity, communicating to all stakeholders, and aligning programs. Ideally transition monitoring would begin prior to transition processes being implemented and continue for some time after transition has been completed. As no set of indicators will be applicable across all types of health program transitions, we instead propose guiding questions and illustrative quantitative and qualitative indicators to be considered and adapted based on the transition domains identified as most important to the particular health program transition. The M&E of transition faces new and unique challenges, requiring measuring constructs to which evaluators may not be accustomed. Many domains hinge on measuring “intangibles” such as the management of relationships. Monitoring these constructs may require a compromise between rigorous data collection and the involvement of key stakeholders. Conclusion: Monitoring and evaluating transitions in global health programs can bring conceptual clarity to the transition process, provide a mechanism for accountability, facilitate engagement with local stakeholders, and inform the management of transition through learning. Further investment and stronger methodological work are needed. PMID:26681706

  7. A Remote Sensing-based Global Agricultural Drought Monitoring and Forecasting System for Supporting GEOSS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, L.; Yu, G.; Han, W.; Deng, M.

    2010-12-01

    Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations. GEO is coordinating the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a worldwide effort to make Earth observation resources more useful to the society. As one of the important technical contributors to GEOSS, the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems (CSISS), George Mason University, is implementing a remote sensing-based global agricultural drought monitoring and forecasting system (GADMFS) as a GEOSS societal benefit areas (agriculture and water) prototype. The goals of the project are 1) to establish a system as a component of GEOSS for providing global on-demand and systematic agriculture drought information to users worldwide, and 2) to support decision-making with improved monitoring, forecasting, and analyses of agriculture drought. GADMFS has adopted the service-oriented architecture and is based on standard-compliant interoperable geospatial Web services to provide online on-demand drought conditions and forecasting at ~1 km spatial and daily and weekly temporal resolutions for any part of the world to world-wide users through the Internet. Applicable GEOSS recommended open standards are followed in the system implementation. The systems drought monitoring relies on drought-related parameters, such as surface and root-zone soil moisture and NDVI time series derived from remote sensing data, to provide the current conditions of agricultural drought. The system links to near real-time satellite remote sensing data sources from NASA and NOAA for the monitoring purpose. For drought forecasting, the system utilizes a neural-network based modeling algorithm. The algorithm is trained with inputs of current and historic vegetation-based and climate-based drought index data, biophysical characteristics of the environment, and time-series weather data. The trained algorithm will establish per-pixel model for drought forecasting. The model will produce on-demand drought prediction in ~1km or higher spatial resolution, covering whole world by using weather forecasting data as the input. The system will be implemented in multiple phases. Phase I is concentrated only on NDVI-based drought monitoring to demonstrate the concept and feasibility. In phase I, 30-year calibrated global weekly NDVI composites from AVHRR and MODIS are used to establish the baseline and dynamics of vegetation conditions for each co-registered pixel. Multiple NDVI based agricultural drought indices will be computed (e.g., normalized agricultural drought index (NADI), SVI, VegDRI) from the baseline and dynamics for drought monitoring. Phase I prototype will be demonstrated in December 2010.

  8. The Node Monitoring Component of a Scalable Systems Software Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel James Miller

    2006-08-09

    This research describes Fountain, a suite of programs used to monitor the resources of a cluster. A cluster is a collection of individual computers that are connected via a high speed communication network. They are traditionally used by users who desire more resources, such as processing power and memory, than any single computer can provide. A common drawback to effectively utilizing such a large-scale system is the management infrastructure, which often does not often scale well as the system grows. Large-scale parallel systems provide new research challenges in the area of systems software, the programs or tools that manage the system from boot-up to running a parallel job. The approach presented in this thesis utilizes a collection of separate components that communicate with each other to achieve a common goal. While systems software comprises a broad array of components, this thesis focuses on the design choices for a node monitoring component. We will describe Fountain, an implementation of the Scalable Systems Software (SSS) node monitor specification. It is targeted at aggregate node monitoring for clusters, focusing on both scalability and fault tolerance as its design goals. It leverages widely used technologies such as XML and HTTP to present an interface to other components in the SSS environment.

  9. Water erosion monitoring and experimentation for global change studies

    SciTech Connect

    Poesen, J.W.; Boardman, J.; Wilcox, B.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the need for monitoring the effects of climatic change on soil erosion. The importance of monitoring not only runoff, but monitoring and experimental studies at the larger scale of hillslope and catchments is stressed.

  10. Monitoring of fatigue crack under complex environment using guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianfei; Yan, Gang; Xu, Xiwu

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on monitoring of fatigue crack under complex environment using guided waves. An experimental set-up consisting of an electrical oven, a MTS testing machine and a monitoring system is established to perform the study. First, the combined effects of temperature, load and vibration on the propagation of guided waves in metallic structure is studied. Then, a statistical approach is proposed to detect fatigue crack under these combined effects. Damage feature is extracted after the guided wave signals are processed by Fourier transform. A Monte Carlo procedure is employed to estimate the probability density functions of the feature before and after cracking, respectively. By comparing the probability density functions, the probability of existence of fatigue crack is determined. Experimental study on a fatigue coupon under combined effects of temperature, load and vibration is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Monitoring of fatigue crack under complex environment using guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianfei; Yan, Gang; Xu, Xiwu

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on monitoring of fatigue crack under complex environment using guided waves. An experimental set-up consisting of an electrical oven, a MTS testing machine and a monitoring system is established to perform the study. First, the combined effects of temperature, load and vibration on the propagation of guided waves in metallic structure is studied. Then, a statistical approach is proposed to detect fatigue crack under these combined effects. Damage feature is extracted after the guided wave signals are processed by Fourier transform. A Monte Carlo procedure is employed to estimate the probability density functions of the feature before and after cracking, respectively. By comparing the probability density functions, the probability of existence of fatigue crack is determined. Experimental study on a fatigue coupon under combined effects of temperature, load and vibration is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. A Global Rapid Integrated Monitoring System for Water Cycle and Water Resource Assessment (Global-RIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roads, John; Voeroesmarty, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The main focus of our work was to solidify underlying data sets, the data processing tools and the modeling environment needed to perform a series of long-term global and regional hydrological simulations leading eventually to routine hydrometeorological predictions. A water and energy budget synthesis was developed for the Mississippi River Basin (Roads et al. 2003), in order to understand better what kinds of errors exist in current hydrometeorological data sets. This study is now being extended globally with a larger number of observations and model based data sets under the new NASA NEWS program. A global comparison of a number of precipitation data sets was subsequently carried out (Fekete et al. 2004) in which it was further shown that reanalysis precipitation has substantial problems, which subsequently led us to the development of a precipitation assimilation effort (Nunes and Roads 2005). We believe that with current levels of model skill in predicting precipitation that precipitation assimilation is necessary to get the appropriate land surface forcing.

  13. An Induced Environment Contamination Monitor for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R. (Editor); Decher, R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM), a set of ten instruments integrated into a self-contained unit and scheduled to fly on shuttle Orbital Flight Tests 1 through 6 and on Spacelabs 1 and 2, is described. The IECM is designed to measure the actual environment to determine whether the strict controls placed on the shuttle system have solved the contamination problem. Measurements are taken during prelaunch, ascent, on-orbit, descent, and postlanding. The on-orbit measurements are molecular return flux, background spectral intensity, molecular deposition, and optical surface effects. During the other mission phases dew point, humidity, aerosol content, and trace gas are measured as well as optical surface effects and molecular deposition. The IECM systems and thermal design are discussed. Preflight and ground operations are presented together with associated ground support equipment. Flight operations and data reduction plans are given.

  14. An Environment Monitoring Package for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. Ralph; Clifton, Kenneth S.

    1998-01-01

    The first elements of the International Space Station (ISS) will soon be launched into space and over the next few years ISS will be assembled on orbit into its final configuration. Experiments will be performed on a continuous basis both inside and outside the station. External experiments will be mounted on attached payload locations specifically designed to accommodate experiments, provide data and supply power from ISS. From the beginning of the space station program it has been recognized that experiments will require knowledge of the external local environment which can affect the science being performed and may impact lifetime and operations of the experiment hardware. Recently an effort was initiated to design and develop an Environment Monitoring Package (EMP). This paper describes the derivation of the requirements for the EMP package, the type of measurements that the EMP will make and types of instruments which will be employed to make these measurements.

  15. Satellite-Based Monitoring of Global Freshwater Resources (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodell, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Beaudoing, H.; Li, B.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater resources are changing worldwide due to both direct human impacts and climate change. Shifting precipitation regimes, changes in the magnitude and timing of seasonal snowpack accumulation and melt, competition for surface water, and increasing reliance on aquifers are testing the ability of the water cycle to provide and the ability of humanity to adapt. Accurate accounting of water cycle fluxes and how they respond to these pressures is critical. While ground based measurements are considered to be the 'gold standard', long-term, systematic measurements are scarce, and what data records do exist are rarely centralized and made publicly available by other than a few developed countries. Owing to its global coverage, satellite remote sensing has become a valuable tool for freshwater resources assessment. In particular, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has demonstrated an unequaled ability to monitor total terrestrial water storage, including groundwater, at regional to continental scales. In this presentation we will describe recent space-based estimates of large scale terrestrial water fluxes and trends and their relationships with known climatic and human forcings.

  16. Global Wetland Monitoring with AMSR-E Passive Microwave Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K.; Podest, E.; Heimann, M.; Zimmermann, R.

    2006-12-01

    Methane is the most potent green house gas in Earth's atmosphere. Recent findings have raised wide concern as to whether living plants have a significant role in producing large amounts of methane. Although such findings may contradict the common understanding of many atmospheric scientists, laboratory studies have demonstrated that it is not clear how accurately natural methane production can be measured. Our study investigates the impact of natural wetlands on variations in methane out-gassing within a global modeling construct. At a first step, we utilize newly available passive microwave measurements from the AMSR-E radiometer to observe Earth's largest wetland regions and to monitor their seasonal behavior. A remote sensing technique is presented that exploits the temporal variability of daily AMSR-E brightness temperature observations to detect changes in water distribution that control inundation patterns for large wetlands in Siberia, North America, and the Amazon Basin susceptible to strong seasonal shifts in surface water retention or precipitation amounts. Initial results demonstrate that our method can be applied directly and without any tuning applied to the input remote sensing signal, though careful evaluation of our product with in-situ information remains to be carried out. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. The Global Communication Infrastructure of the International Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastowka, L.; Gray, A.; Anichenko, A.

    2007-05-01

    The Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI) employs 6 satellites in various frequency bands distributed around the globe. Communications with the PTS (Provisional Technical Secretariat) in Vienna, Austria are achieved through VSAT technologies, international leased data circuits and Virtual Private Network (VPN) connections over the Internet. To date, 210 independent VSAT circuits have been connected to Vienna as well as special circuits connecting to the Antarctic and to independent sub-networks. Data volumes from all technologies currently reach 8 Gigabytes per day. The first level of support and a 24/7 help desk remains with the GCI contractor, but performance is monitored actively by the PTS/GCI operations team. GCI operations are being progressively introduced into the PTS operations centre. An Operations centre fully integrated with the GCI segment of the IMS network will ensure a more focused response to incidents and will maximize the availability of the IMS network. Existing trouble tickets systems are being merged to ensure the commission manages GCI incidents in the context of the IMS as a whole. A focus on a single source of data for GCI network performance has enabled reporting systems to be developed which allow for improved and automated reports. The contracted availability for each individual virtual circuit is 99.5% and this performance is regularly reviewed on a monthly basis

  18. Monitoring global atmospheric constituents capable of forcing climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Russell C.

    1999-12-01

    Relative to a standard one-foot diameter globe of the Earth the thickness of the atmosphere is comparable to a sheet of plastic food warp covering the globe. Within this thin, fluid membrane long established balances in chemical and radiative processes are being altered by anthropogenic activities. For instance, each year about 50% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the combustion of fossil fuels and burning of forests remains in the atmosphere. This 1% yr-1 increase in CO2 traps solar energy leading to a rise in atmospheric temperatures known popularly as 'greenhouse warming.' Halocarbons from escaped refrigerants and other sources are destroying the stratospheric ozone layer allowing increased levels of UV to reach the Earth's surface. To monitor these changes in the atmosphere, a global network of atmospheric baseline stations tracks the health of the atmosphere. Some manned stations are in weather challenged locations such as the South Pole, Spitzbergen, Ellesmere Island and the Tibetan Plateau; others are in more benign climates such as Hawaii, Samoa, Tasmania, Reunion, and Kenya. Data from these and others stations are presented and discussed.

  19. Monitoring the Earth's Atmosphere with the Global IMS Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachet, Nicolas; Brown, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Bras, Ronan; Coyne, John; Given, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is tasked with monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) which bans nuclear weapon explosions underground, in the oceans, and in the atmosphere. The verification regime includes a globally distributed network of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations which collect and transmit data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria shortly after the data are recorded at each station. The infrasound network defined in the Protocol of the CTBT comprises 60 infrasound array stations. Each array is built according to the same technical specifications, it is typically composed of 4 to 9 sensors, with 1 to 3 km aperture geometry. At the end of 2000 only one infrasound station was transmitting data to the IDC. Since then, 41 additional stations have been installed and 70% of the infrasound network is currently certified and contributing data to the IDC. This constitutes the first global infrasound network ever built with such a large and uniform distribution of stations. Infrasound data at the IDC are processed at the station level using the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) method for the detection and measurement of infrasound signals. The algorithm calculates the signal correlation between sensors at an infrasound array. If the signal is sufficiently correlated and consistent over an extended period of time and frequency range a detection is created. Groups of detections are then categorized according to their propagation and waveform features, and a phase name is assigned for infrasound, seismic or noise detections. The categorization complements the PMCC algorithm to avoid overwhelming the IDC automatic association algorithm with false alarm infrasound events. Currently, 80 to 90% of the detections are identified as noise by the system. Although the noise detections are not used to build events in the context of CTBT monitoring, they represent valuable data for other civil applications like monitoring of natural hazards (volcanic activity, storm tracking) and climate change. Non-noise detections are used in network processing at the IDC along with seismic and hydroacoustic technologies. The arrival phases detected on the three waveform technologies may be combined and used for locating events in an automatically generated bulletin of events. This automatic event bulletin is routinely reviewed by analysts during the interactive review process. However, the fusion of infrasound data with the other waveform technologies has only recently (in early 2010) become part of the IDC operational system, after a software development and testing period that began in 2004. The build-up of the IMS infrasound network, the recent developments of the IDC infrasound software, and the progress accomplished during the last decade in the domain of real-time atmospheric modelling have allowed better understanding of infrasound signals and identification of a growing data set of ground-truth sources. These infragenic sources originate from natural or man-made sources. Some of the detected signals are emitted by local or regional phenomena recorded by a single IMS infrasound station: man-made cultural activity, wind farms, aircraft, artillery exercises, ocean surf, thunderstorms, rumbling volcanoes, iceberg calving, aurora, avalanches. Other signals may be recorded by several IMS infrasound stations at larger distances: ocean swell, sonic booms, and mountain associated waves. Only a small fraction of events meet the event definition criteria considering the Treaty verification mission of the Organization. Candidate event types for the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin include atmospheric or surface explosions, meteor explosions, rocket launches, signals from large earthquakes and explosive volcanic eruptions.

  20. Global monitoring of Sea Surface Salinity with Aquarius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, G. S. E.; LeVine, D. M.; Chao, Yi; Colomb, R.; Nollmann, I.

    2005-01-01

    Aquarius is a microwave remote sensing system designed to obtain global maps of the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for late in 2008. The objective of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This will provide data to address scientific questions associated with ocean circulation and its impact on climate. For example, salinity is needed to understand the large scale thermohaline circulation, driven by buoyancy, which moves large masses of water and heat around the globe. Of the two variables that determine buoyancy (salinity and temperature), temperature is already being monitored. Salinity is the missing variable needed to understand this circulation. Salinity also has an important role in energy exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, for example in the development of fresh water lenses (buoyant water that forms stable layers and insulates water below from the atmosphere) which alter the air-sea coupling. Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument,for measuring salinity is the radiometer which is able to detect salinity because of the modulation salinity produces on the thermal emission from sea water. This change is detectable at the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the greatest unknowns in the retrieval. The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6am/6pm. The antenna for these two instruments is a 3 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds arranged in pushbroom fashion looking away from the sun toward the shadow side of the orbit to minimize sunglint. The mission goal is to produce maps of the salinity field globally once each month with an accuracy of 0.2 psu and a spatial resolution of 100 km. This will be adequate to address l&ge scale features of the salinity field of the open ocean. The temporal resolution is sufficient to address seasonal changes and a three year mission is planned to-collect sufficient data to look for interannual variation. Aquarius is being developed by NASA as part of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The SAC-D mission is being developed by CONAE and will include the space craft and several additional instruments, including visible and infrared cameras and a microwave radiometer to monitor rain and wind velocity over the oceans, and sea ice.

  1. Monitoring the marine environment using marine mammal tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Day, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Marine environments, both inshore and open ocean, receive numerous inputs of anthropogenic chemicals. Cetaceans provide a valuable resource for monitoring the low level contamination of marine environments with persistent organic contaminants. Comparative studies using inshore and offshore southern ocean cetaceans have revealed significant differences in the types of contamination in these two environments. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) deposited in the southern oceans are characterized by an abundance of lower chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are not present at significant concentrations in cetaceans from the open southern ocean. In contrast significant concentrations of PCDD/F congeners are detected in the blubber of the inshore living Hector`s dolphin. This species lives close to the shore and has a very small home range (approximately 30 km) for a cetacean. Analysis of tissue PCDD/F and PCB profiles from different populations and their food sources will be presented. The data are being used to determine if there are local variations in the contamination of the New Zealand inshore marine environment.

  2. GEMS: Assimilation of Satellite and In-Situ Observations to Monitor and Forecast Global and Regional Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, J. W.; Engelen, R. J.; Hollingsworth, A.; Textor, C.; Benedetti, A.; Boucher, O.; Chevallier, F.; Dethof, A.; Elbern, H.; Eskes, H.; Flemming, J.; Granier, C.; Morcrette, J.; Rayner, P.; Peuch, V.; Rouil, L.; Schultz, M.; Serrar, S.; Simmons, A.

    2007-12-01

    Under the umbrella of European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) the Global and regional Earth-system (Atmosphere) Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data (GEMS) project has been running since March 2005. The aim of the project is to build a pre-operational system that will assimilate both satellite and in- situ observations to monitor atmospheric composition. Greenhouse gases, reactive gases, and aerosol are all monitored in a global 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system running at about 1 degree resolution. These global fields are then used as boundary conditions for regional air quality modelling on the European scale. Both the global and regional component will improve our understanding of surface fluxes, long- range transport, and in general the causes of poor air quality. We will present an overview of the project and show how we combine state-of-the-art modelling, data assimilation and retrieval techniques to support scientific research, air quality forecasters, and environmental policy makers.

  3. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Hancock, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  4. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Lobos, Gustavo A; Hancock, James F

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  5. The development of airborne video system for monitoring of river environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Shigeya; Mizutani, Nobuyuki; Mizukami, Masumi; Koyano, Toshirou

    1996-11-01

    Recently, airborne videography is widely used by many monitoring for environmental resources, such as rivers, forests, ocean, and so on. Although airborne videography has a low resolution than aerial photographs, it can effectively reduce the cost of continuous monitoring of wide area. Furthermore video images can easily be processed with personal computer. This paper introduces an airborne video system for monitoring of Class A river environment. This system consists of two sub-systems. One is the data collection system that is composed of a video camera, a Global Positioning System(GPS) and a personal computer. This sub-system records information of rivers by video images and their corresponding location data. A GPS system is used for calculating location data and navigating the airplane to the destination of monitoring site. Other is a simplified digital video editing system. This system runs on a personal computer with Microsoft Windows 3.1. This system can also be used for management and planning of road environment, marine resources, forest resources and for prevention of disasters. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  7. Designing Training for Global Environments: Knowing What Questions To Ask.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayeski, Diane M.; Sanchirico, Christine; Anderson, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework for identifying important issues for instructional design and delivery in global settings. Highlights include cultural factors in global training; an instructional design model; corporate globalization strategy; communication and training norms; language barriers; implicit value differences; and technical and legal…

  8. Global Monitoring of Martian Surface Albedo Changes from Orbital Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, P.; Enga, M.; Mukherjee, P.

    2013-12-01

    Martian surface changes were first observed from orbit during the Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter missions. They were found to be caused by eolian processes, produced by deposition of dust during regional and global dust storms and subsequent darkening of the surface through erosion and transportation of dust and sand. The albedo changes accumulated in the 20 years between Viking and Mars Global Surveyor were sufficient to alter the global circulation of winds and the climate of Mars according to model calculations (Fenton et al., Nature 2007), but little was known about the timing or frequency of the changes. Since 1999, we have had the benefit of continuous monitoring by a series of orbiting spacecraft that continues today with Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express. Daily synoptic observations enable us to determine whether the surface albedo changes are gradual or episodic in nature and to record the seasons that the changes take place. High resolution images of surface morphology and atmospheric phenomena help identify the physical mechanisms responsible for the changes. From these data, we hope to learn the combinations of atmospheric conditions and sediment properties that produce surface changes on Mars and possibly predict when they will take place in the future. Martian surface changes are particularly conspicuous in low albedo terrain, where even a thin layer of bright dust brightens the surface drastically. Equatorial dark areas are repeatedly coated and recoated by dust, which is later shed from the surface by a variety of mechanisms. An example is Syrtis Major, suddenly buried in bright dust by the global dust storm of 2001. Persistent easterly winds blew much of the dust cover away over the course of the next Martian year, but episodic changes continue today, particularly during southern summer when regional dust storms are rife. Another such region is Solis Planum, south of the Valles Marineris, where changes take place relentlessly in all seasons as bright dust and dark sand battle to dominate the landscape. Elsewhere, gradual processes steadily shift albedo boundaries between bright and dark terrain. Dark terrain near the Spirit rover landing site is gradually spreading to the north, driven by seasonal southerly winds. A bright fringe of newly deposited dust appears ahead of the moving boundary, populated by wind streaks and dust avalanches. Dark terrain at higher latitudes gradually creeps towards the equator by the dust cleaning action of dust devils, for example at Nilosytis (43N, 85E). Much less obvious is the deposition and erosion of dust on already bright, dust-covered terrain. Changes in the distribution of fresh dust take place frequently in the region surrounding the Tharsis Montes. Dust in this high altitude zone is constantly on the move as faint dark streaks mark the removal of recently deposited dust that is only slightly brighter than the dust already settled on the surface. Dramatic deposition of dust onto dusty terrain took place at much lower elevations in northwestern Amazonis between 2002 and 2005. Since then, the dust has been energetically eroded by towering dust devils that cluster here each summer.

  9. AVHRR-based drought-observing system for monitoring the environment and socioeconomic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, F.

    From all natural disaster, drought is the least understandable and the most damaging environmental phenomenon. Although in pre-satellite era, climate data were used for drought monitoring, drought specifics created problems in early drought detection start/end, monitoring its expansion/contraction, intensity and area coverage and the most important, timely estimation of the impacts on the environment and socioeconomic activities. The latest prevented to take prompt measures in mitigating negative consequences of drought for the society. Advances in remote sensing of the past ten years, contributed to the development of comprehensive drought monitoring system and numerous applications, which helped to make decisions for monitoring the environment and predicting sustainable socioeconomic activities. This paper discusses satellite-based land-surface observing system, which provides wells of information used for monitoring such unusual natural disaster as drought. This system was developed from the observations of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) flown on NOAA operational polar-orbiting satellites. The AVHRR data were packed into the Global Vegetation Index (GVI) product, which have served the global community since 1981. The GVI provided reflectances and indices (4 km spacial resolution) every seven days for each 16 km map cell between 75EN and 55ES covering all land ecosystems. The data includes raw and calibrated radiances in the visible, near infrared and infrared spectral bands, processed (with eliminated high frequency noise) radiances, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), 20-year climatology, vegetation condition indices and also products, such as vegetation health, drought, vegetation fraction, fire risk etc. In the past ten years, users around the world used this information addressing different issues of drought impacts on socioeconomic activities and responded positively to real time drought information place regularly on the following web site http://orbit-net.nesdis.noaa.gov/crad/sat/surf/vci/. Drought assessments were compared with ground observations in twenty two countries around the world and showed good results in early drought detection and monitoring its development and impacts on the environment and socioeconomic activities, for assessment of biomass/crop production losses and fire risk. In addition, the AVHRR-based products showed potential in monitoring mosquito-born epidemics, amount of water required for irrigation, and predicting ENSO impacts on productivity of land ecosystems. These applications were used in agriculture, forestry, weather models, climatology. This presentation will be illustrated with many examples of data applications and also with explanations of data structure and use.

  10. A framework for the implementation of the comprehensive plan for the global investigation of pollution in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Prepared to provide guidance to the IOC and its Member States on implementing the IOC/GIPME program in general and on developing the Marine Pollution Monitoring System (MARPOLMON), this document outlines the components and essential features of the Comprehensive Plan for the Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment (GIPME), assesses the validity of the approach advocated in it, and offers a strategic framework for GIPME activities.

  11. Spot-4 vegetation instrument: Vegetation monitoring on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durpaire, J.-P.; Gentet, T.; Phulpin, T.; Arnaud, M.

    1995-04-01

    Vegetation plays a major role in global climatic change. It is a major contributor to the hydrological cycle and carbon exchanges between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. A new space-based system dedicated to vegetation would be a boom to climatic and environmental studies. The additional possibilities of evaluating agricultural, pasture and forest production would be major contributions to improved natural resources management and a special benefit to agriculture and the general economy in developing countries. A space mission for monitoring terrestrial vegetation at global and local levels is proposed for inclusion in the Spot-4 payload, scheduled for launch around 1997. The "vegetation" concept is more than just an on-board package; it is a complete system with its own space and ground segments. The vegetation instrument (VI) on-board package is designed as an add-on payload that is quite independent of the host satellite. In addition to the basic imaging instrument, the add-on payload includes a solid-state recorder, an image telemetry subsystem and a computer to manage the work plan. To accommodate future long-term missions and achieve a lifetime in excess of 5 years, no moving parts are included in either the imaging instrument proper or the recorder subsystem. The innovative, large field-of-view (101∘) imaging instrument features telecentric lenses and focal-plane illumination compensation. Despite the large FOV, pixel size varies extremely little across the swath. Overall, the instrument offers an excellent revisit capability at the highest resolution. The inclusion of the VI package alongside Spot-4's prime payload of two HRVIR (high resolution visible and i.r.) imaging instruments will open the way to studies requiring both high accuracy satellite imagery and short revisit intervals. The combination of HRVIR and VI imagery will pave the way to powerful new multi-scale interpretation models, particularly as the instruments will share the same spectral bands, have a common reference frame and be synchronized in time.

  12. Ionospheric monitoring by the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihye

    The ionosphere reacts to geophysical events, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, surface explosions, underground nuclear explosions (UNE), etc. The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote sensing (RS) enables monitoring of the ionospheric disturbances excited by these events. The purpose of this dissertation is to use GNSS RS to detect, discriminate, model and monitor ionospheric disturbances induced by earthquakes and UNEs. Ionospheric delay, which can be derived from dual frequency GNSS signals, is converted to the total electron contents (TEC) along the signal path. After eliminating the main trend of TEC by taking the numerical third order horizontal 3-point derivatives, the traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are isolated. Since a TID can be generated due to various events, the source of TID must be verified. In this dissertation, the characteristics of the TID waves induced by an earthquake and an UNE are examined. The case studies are: (1) M9.0 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake, (2) 2006 North Korean UNE, and (3) 2009 North Korean UNE. From these experiments, the TIDs resulting from different types of events were characterized and discriminated due to the different waveform properties. In addition, the epicenter of the point source can be determined by TID observations. In experiment (2), the 2009 North Korean UNE was examined, using data from eleven nearby GNSS stations. Within a few hours from the explosion, the GNSS stations detected the TIDs, whose arrival time for each station formulated the linear model with respect to the distance to the station. TIDs were observed to propagate with speeds of roughly 150 - 400 m/s at stations about 365 km to 1330 km from the explosion site. Considering the wind effect, the wind-adjusted TIDs located the UNE to within about 2.7 km of its seismically determined epicenter. Through the case studies, the distinctive signatures of different events were demonstrated, which suggests the uniqueness of TIDs excited by different types of events. The major contributions of this dissertation is a demonstration of the applicability of GNSS RS to detect and discriminate geophysical events causing TIDs, and its ability to determine the epicenter of the point source.

  13. Health and the environment: a global challenge. WHO Commission on Health and Environment.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    A healthy environment is not only a need, it is also a right; the right to live and work in an environment conducive to physical and mental health is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Everyone shares the responsibility for ensuring that this right is duly acknowledged. The responsibility for action lies with individuals and with business. Governments have the responsibility of setting up the strategic and institutional framework within which action is taken. There are three main global objectives: achieving a sustainable basis for health for all--by slowing down population growth as soon as possible, and promoting life-styles and patterns of consumption among affluent groups and countries that are consistent with ecological sustainability; providing an environment that promotes health--by reducing the risk of physical, chemical and biological hazards and ensuring that everyone has the means to acquire the resources on which health depends; making all individuals and organizations aware of their responsibilities for health and its environmental basis. PMID:1394773

  14. Space Environment Monitor for NPOESS (SEM-N) Sensor Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, K.; Hamilton, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Space Environment Monitor for NPOESS (SEM-N) is a compliment of three space particle sensors to be flown on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) which will take measurements to produce space environment data products for the near earth environment. SEM-N will fly on the first NPOESS spacecraft to be launched in 2013. Five Environmental Data Records will be retrieved by the SEM-N instrument package: auroral boundary, auroral energy deposition, energetic ions, medium energy charged particles, supra-thermal through aurora particles. Multiple angle, continuous energy spectral coverage will be provided for electrons from 30 eV to 1 MeV and for protons from 30 eV to >1000 MeV. The SEM-N coverage extends that of the current SEM-2 instrument and fills gaps in the present energy spectrum. The heritage-based SEM-N complement consists of the DMSP Special Sensor J5 (SSJ-5) for low energy measurements, the APL Energetic Particle Sensor (EPS) for medium energies, and an omnidirectional High Energy Sensor (HES) for high energy protons. This paper will present details on the SEM-N sensors and their expected performance.

  15. Surface Emissivity Retrieved with Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements for Monitoring Global Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Surface and atmospheric thermodynamic parameters retrieved with advanced ultraspectral remote sensors aboard Earth observing satellites are critical to general atmospheric and Earth science research, climate monitoring, and weather prediction. Ultraspectral resolution infrared radiance obtained from nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud information. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity retrieved from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements under "clear-sky" conditions. Fast radiative transfer models, applied to the cloud-free (or clouded) atmosphere, are used for atmospheric profile and surface parameter (or cloud parameter) retrieval. The inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface (or cloud microphysical) parameters. Rapidly produced surface emissivity is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted atmospheric and surface parameters. Surface emissivity and surface skin temperature from the current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information on the Earth s ecosystem and land surface type properties, which can be utilized as part of long-term monitoring for the Earth s environment and global climate change.

  16. Ancestral populations perform better in a novel environment: domestication of medfly populations from five global regions

    PubMed Central

    Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Carey, James R.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2010-01-01

    Geographically isolated populations of a species may differ in several aspects of life-history, morphology, behavior, and genetic structure as a result of adaptation in ecologically diverse habitats. We used a global invasive species, the Mediterranean fruit fly to investigate, whether adaptation to a novel environment differs among geographically isolated populations that vary in major life history components such as life span and reproduction. We used wild populations from five global regions (Kenya, Hawaii, Guatemala, Portugal, and Greece). Adult demographic traits were monitored in F2, F5, F7 and F9 generations in captivity. Although domestication in constant laboratory conditions had a different effect on the mortality and reproductive rates of the different populations, a general trend of decreasing life span and age of first reproduction was observed for most medfly populations tested. However, taking into account longevity of both sexes, age-specific reproductive schedules, and average reproductive rates we found that the ancestral Kenyan population kept the above life history traits stable during domestication compared to the other populations tested. These findings provide important insights in the life-history evolution of this model species, and suggest that ancestral medfly populations perform better than the derived invasive ones in a novel environment. PMID:21278856

  17. Monitoring of plant development in controlled environment with machine vision.

    PubMed

    Ling, P P; Giacomelli, G A; Russell, T

    1996-01-01

    Information acquisition is the foremost requirement for the control and continued operation of any complex system. This is especially true when a plant production system is used as a major component in a sustainable life support system. The plant production system not only provides food and fiber but is a means of providing critically needed life supporting elements such as O2 and purified H2O. The success of the plant production system relies on close monitoring and control of the production system. Machine vision technology was evaluated for the monitoring of plant health and development and showed promising results. Spectral and morphological characteristics of a model plant were studied under various artificially induced stress conditions. From the spectroscopic studies, it was found that the stresses can be determined from visual and non-visual symptoms. The development of the plant can also be quantified using a video image analysis base approach. The correlations between the qualities of the model plant and machine vision measured spectral features were established. The success of the research has shown a great potential in building an automated, closed-loop plant production system in controlled environments. PMID:11538786

  18. Monitoring and Forecasting Space Weather in Geospace Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.

    2008-01-01

    For improving the reliability of Space Weather prediction, we developed a new, Polar Magnetic (PM) index of geomagnetic activity, which shows high correlation with both upstream solar wind data and related events in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Similarly to the existing polar cap PC index, the new PM index was computed from data from two near-pole geomagnetic observatories; however, the method for computing the PM index is different. The high correlation of the PM index with both solar wind data and events in Geospace environment makes possible to improve significantly forecasting geomagnetic disturbances and such important parameters as the cross-polar-cap voltage and global Joule heating, which play an important role in the development of geomagnetic, ionospheric and thermospheric disturbances. We tested the PM index for 10-year period (1995-2004). The correlation between PM index and upstream solar wind data for these years is very high (the average correlation coefficient R approximately equal to 0.86). The PM index also shows the high correlation with the cross-polar-cap voltage and hemispheric Joule heating (the correlation coefficient between the actual and predicted values of these parameters approximately equal to 0.9), which results in significant increasing the prediction reliability of these parameters. Using the PM index of geomagnetic activity provides a significant increase in the forecasting reliability of geomagnetic disturbances and related events in Geospace environment. The PM index may be also used as an important input parameter in modeling ionospheric, magnetospheric, and thermospheric processes.

  19. Global ocean monitoring for the World Climate Research Programme.

    PubMed

    Revelle, R; Bretherton, F

    1986-07-01

    Oceanic research and modelling for the World Climate Research Program will utilize several recently-developed instruments and measuring techniques as well as well-tested, long-used instruments. Ocean-scanning satellites will map the component of the ocean-surface topography related to ocean currents and mesoscale eddies and to fluctuating water volumes caused by ocean warming and cooling. Other satellite instruments will measure the direction and magnitude of wind stress on the sea surface, surface water temperatures, the distribution of chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments, the characteristics of internal waves, and possible precipitation over the ocean. Networks of acoustic transponders will obtain a three-dimensional picture of the distribution of temperature from the surface down to mid-depth and of long-term changes in temperature at depth. Ocean research vessels will determine the distribution and fate of geochemical tracers and will also make high-precision, deep hydrographic casts. Ships of opportunity, using expendable instruments, will measure temperature, salinity and currents in the upper water layers. Drifting and anchored buoys will also measure these properties as well as those of the air above the sea surface. Tide gauges installed on islands and exposed coastal locations will measure variations in monthly and shorter-period mean sea level. These tide gauges will provide 'ground truth' for the satellite maps of sea-surface topography, and will also determine variations in ocean currents and temperature.All these instruments will be used in several major programs, the most ambitious of which is the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) designed to obtain global measurements of major currents throughout the world ocean, greater understanding of the transformation of water masses, and the role of advective, convective, and turbulent processes in exchange of properties between surface and deep-ocean layers.A five- to ten-year experiment-"Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere (TOGA)"-will be undertaken to sudy the sequence of events of air-sea interactions in the tropical oceans and their impact on climatic variations on land-for example, variations in the strength and location of the Indian Ocean monsoon, droughts in low latitudes, and climatic fluctuations in temperate latitudes.Experimental and continuing time series will be taken at fixed locations to obtain a better picture of the magnitude and causes of ocean climate variability. National and multinational systematic repeated measurements along selected ocean transects or in specific ocean areas will be taken to determine oceanic variability and teleconnections between oceanic and atmospheric processes. Examples are the long Japanese section along the meridian of 137 E and the 'Sections' program of the USSR and several other countries in Energy-Active zones.The results from this wide range of observations and experiments will be used to guide and define mathematical models of the ocean circulation and its interactions with the atmosphere.It can be shown that biogeochemical processes in the ocean play an important role in determining the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere and thus in causing long-term climatic changes. Variations in the biological productivity of sub-surface waters cause variations in the effectveness of the biological pump which carries organic carbon down into deeper waters where it is oxidized. Studies of ice cores from 20 000 to 30 000 yr before the present indicate that atmospheric carbon dioxide varied by a factor of 2 within times of the order of 100 yr, and these variations were accompanied by large excursions in atmospheric temperature. Thus, ocean climatic monitoring must take into account measurements of both biological and physical variations in the ocean. PMID:24254799

  20. Big Data Solution for CTBT Monitoring Using Global Cross Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, P.; Bobrov, D.; Dupont, A.; Grenouille, A.; Kitov, I. O.; Rozhkov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the mismatch between data volume and the performance of the Information Technology infrastructure used in seismic data centers, it becomes more and more difficult to process all the data with traditional applications in a reasonable elapsed time. To fulfill their missions, the International Data Centre of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO/IDC) and the Département Analyse Surveillance Environnement of Commissariat à l'Energie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA/DASE) collect, process and produce complex data sets whose volume is growing exponentially. In the medium term, computer architectures, data management systems and application algorithms will require fundamental changes to meet the needs. This problem is well known and identified as a "Big Data" challenge. To tackle this major task, the CEA/DASE takes part during two years to the "DataScale" project. Started in September 2013, DataScale gathers a large set of partners (research laboratories, SMEs and big companies). The common objective is to design efficient solutions using the synergy between Big Data solutions and the High Performance Computing (HPC). The project will evaluate the relevance of these technological solutions by implementing a demonstrator for seismic event detections thanks to massive waveform correlations. The IDC has developed an expertise on such techniques leading to an algorithm called "Master Event" and provides a high-quality dataset for an extensive cross correlation study. The objective of the project is to enhance the Master Event algorithm and to reanalyze 10 years of waveform data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) network thanks to a dedicated HPC infrastructure operated by the "Centre de Calcul Recherche et Technologie" at the CEA of Bruyères-le-Châtel. The dataset used for the demonstrator includes more than 300,000 seismic events, tens of millions of raw detections and more than 30 terabytes of continuous seismic data from the primary IMS stations. In this talk, we will present the Master Event algorithm and the associated workflow, we will give an overview of the designed technical solutions (from the building blocks to the global infrastructure), and we will show the preliminary results at a regional scale.

  1. Global 2000: The Presidential Task Force on Resources and the Environment--A Series of Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; And Others

    A series of responses to "The Global 2000 Report to the President" is presented. The Global 2000 Report examines the issues and interdependencies of population, resources, and environment in the long term global perspective (ED 188 935). According to the above report, if present trends continue, serious stresses of overcrowding, pollution,

  2. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and pressure via satellite. The GEMS data will be validated against reference observations provided by current weather instrumentation located at KSC. This paper will report on the results of the GEMSTONE project and discuss the challenges encountered in developing an airborne sensor system.

  3. An artificial reality environment for remote factory control and monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles Paul; Krolak, Patrick D.

    1993-01-01

    Work has begun on the merger of two well known systems, VEOS (HITLab) and CLIPS (NASA). In the recent past, the University of Massachusetts Lowell developed a parallel version of NASA CLIPS, called P-CLIPS. This modification allows users to create smaller expert systems which are able to communicate with each other to jointly solve problems. With the merger of a VEOS message system, PCLIPS-V can now act as a group of entities working within VEOS. To display the 3D virtual world we have been using a graphics package called HOOPS, from Ithaca Software. The artificial reality environment we have set up contains actors and objects as found in our Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future project. The environment allows us to view and control the objects within the virtual world. All communication between the separate CLIPS expert systems is done through VEOS. A graphical renderer generates camera views on X-Windows devices; Head Mounted Devices are not required. This allows more people to make use of this technology. We are experimenting with different types of virtual vehicles to give the user a sense that he or she is actually moving around inside the factory looking ahead through windows and virtual monitors.

  4. Harsh-environment fiber optic sensors for structural monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.; Palmer, Matthew E.

    2004-07-01

    The objective of the work presented was to develop a suite of sensors for use in high-temperature aerospace environments, including turbine engine monitoring, hypersonic vehicle skin friction measurements, and support ground and flight test operations. A fiber optic sensor platform was used to construct the sensor suite. Successful laboratory demonstrations include calibration of a pressure sensor to 100psi at a gas temperature of 800C, calibration of an accelerometer to 2.5g at a substrate temperature of 850C. Temperature sensors have been field tested up to 1400C, and a skin friction sensor designed for 870C operation has been constructed. The key advancement that enabled the operation of these novel harsh environment sensors was a fiber optic packaging methodology that allowed the coupling of alumina and sapphire transducer components, optical fiber, and high-temperature alloy housing materials. The basic operation of the sensors and early experimental results are presented. Each of the sensors described here represent a quantifiable advancement in the state of the art in high-temperature physical sensors and will have a significant impact on the aerospace propulsion instrumentation industry.

  5. Camera Monitoring of Coastal Dune Erosion in a Macrotidal Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taerim; Kim, Dongsoo

    2015-04-01

    The recent dune erosion in the west coast of Korea is serious in terms of its speed and harmful influence on the adjacent coastal waters as well as dune forest. The west coast of Korea is in the macro-intertidal environment and aeolian sediment transport on the intertidal flat is very active during an ebb tide, especially in winter. There is strong interaction between sand beach and dune by supplying or depositing sand. Coastal dune, as one part of beach system, contributes for beach recovery as well as preventing beach erosion by exchanging sands between beach and dune. Due to high tidal range, the boundary of sand dunes is outside the high water line during spring tide and it makes people think coastal dune is safe from wave forces causing beach erosion. However it seems that high waves during spring high tide cause serious erosion in a relatively short period. This paper investigates the erosion status of the dunes located in the JangHang beach in the southwest coast of Korean Peninsula, by analyzing images from camera monitoring system, and tide and wave data observed adjacent to the study site during the passage of 4 typhoons in 2012. It shows the importance of the timing of wave and tide condition in coastal dune erosion in macrotidal environment.

  6. Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N. (Editor); Itabe, Toshikazu (Editor); Sugimoto, Nobuo (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Keynote paper: Overview of lidar technology for industrial and environmental monitoring in Japan. 2. lidar technology I: NASA's future active remote sensing mission for earth science. Geometrical detector consideration s in laser sensing application (invited paper). 3. Lidar technology II: High-power femtosecond light strings as novel atmospheric probes (invited paper). Design of a compact high-sensitivity aerosol profiling lidar. 4. Lasers for lidars: High-energy 2 microns laser for multiple lidar applications. New submount requirement of conductively cooled laser diodes for lidar applications. 5. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds I: Lidar monitoring of clouds and aerosols at the facility for atmospheric remote sensing (invited paper). Measurement of asian dust by using multiwavelength lidar. Global monitoring of clouds and aerosols using a network of micropulse lidar systems. 6. Troposphere aerosols and clouds II: Scanning lidar measurements of marine aerosol fields at a coastal site in Hawaii. 7. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds III: Formation of ice cloud from asian dust particles in the upper troposphere. Atmospheric boundary layer observation by ground-based lidar at KMITL, Thailand (13 deg N, 100 deg. E). 8. Boundary layer, urban pollution: Studies of the spatial correlation between urban aerosols and local traffic congestion using a slant angle scanning on the research vessel Mirai. 9. Middle atmosphere: Lidar-observed arctic PSC's over Svalbard (invited paper). Sodium temperature lidar measurements of the mesopause region over Syowa Station. 10. Differential absorption lidar (dIAL) and DOAS: Airborne UV DIAL measurements of ozone and aerosols (invited paper). Measurement of water vapor, surface ozone, and ethylene using differential absorption lidar. 12. Space lidar I: Lightweight lidar telescopes for space applications (invited paper). Coherent lidar development for Doppler wind measurement from the International Space Station. 13. Space lidar II: Using coherent Doppler lidar to estimate river discharge. 14. Poster session: Lidar technology, optics for lidar. Laser for lidar. Middle atmosphere observations. Tropospheric observations (aerosols, clouds). Boundary layer, urban pollution. Differential absorption lidar. Doppler lidar. and Space lidar.

  7. Regulatory challenges for in vitro diagnostics in a global environment.

    PubMed

    Longwell, A

    1994-06-01

    U.S. medical products are marketed globally and are designed to meet needs of medical practitioners and their patients throughout the world. However, differences in how these products are regulated in different countries can pose challenges for the global marketer. This paper explores some of the differences between proposed and extant U.S. and European regulations for in vitro diagnostic products in terms of documentation, records, and labelling. It will describe some of the practical implications of these differences. PMID:7804632

  8. Issues to be addressed by the program for measuring incremental costs for the environment. Global Environment Facility Working Paper 8

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.

    1993-12-01

    Describes the five key research areas to be addressed by the Program for Measuring Incremental Costs for the Environment (PRINCE). This paper outlines incremental cost concepts, operational interpretations, national climate change studies, country studies on ozone protection, and transaction costs. It also develops a broad interpretation of `incremental cost` that can be used across the range of issues covered by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Those issues include global warming, pollution of international waters, destruction of biodiversity, and ozone depletion. This is one of five GEF Working Papers to explore the PRINCE program and is co-published with the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Environment Programme.

  9. Global Ionospheric Perturbations Monitored by the Worldwide GPS Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Mannucci, A. T.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Pi, X. Q.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the delays of these (Global Positioning System-GPS)signals, we have generated high resolution global ionospheric TEC (Total Electronic Changes) maps at 15-minute intervals. Using a differential method comparing storm time maps with quiet time maps, we find that the ionopshere during this time storm has increased significantly (the percentage change relative to quiet times is greater than 150 percent) ...These preliminary results (those mentioned above plus other in the paper)indicate that the differential maping method, which is based on GPS network measurements appears to be a useful tool for studying the global pattern and evolution process of the entire ionospheric perturbation.

  10. University Leaders' Strategies in the Global Environment: A Comparative Study of Universitas Indonesia and the Australian National University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2006-01-01

    In a global environment in which global, national and local nodes relate freely within common networks, all research universities must pursue strategies for building global capacity and facilitating cross-border staff and student movement and research collaboration. The study compares readings of the global environment, global and international

  11. A Collaborative Decision Environment to Support UAV Wildfire Monitoring Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, C. R.; Enomoto, F. Y.; D'Ortenzio, M. V.; Nguyen, Q. B.

    2006-12-01

    NASA developed the Collaborative Decision Environment (CDE), the ground-based component of its Intelligent Mission Management (IMM) technology for science missions employing long endurance unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The CDE was used to support science mission planning and decision-making for a NASA- and U.S. Forest Service-sponsored mission to monitor wildfires in the western United States using a multi- spectral imager flown onboard the General Atomics Altair UAV in summer of 2006. The CDE is a ground-based system that provides the mission/science team with situational awareness, collaboration, and decision tools. The CDE is used for pre-flight planning, mission monitoring, and visualization of acquired data. It integrates external data products used for planning and executing a mission, such as weather, large wildfire locations, satellite-derived fire detection data, temporarily restricted airspace, and satellite imagery. While a prototype CDE was developed as a Java-based client/server application in 2004-2005, the team investigated the use of Google Earth to take advantage of its 3-D visualization capabilities, friendly user interface, and enhanced graphics performance. External data is acquired via the Internet by leveraging established and emerging Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards and is re-formatted into the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) specification used by Google Earth. Aircraft flight position and sensor data products are relayed from the instrument ground station to CDE servers where they are made available to users. An instant messaging chat server is used to facilitate real-time communication between remote users. This paper will present an overview of the CDE system architecture, and discuss how science user input was crucial to shaping and developing the system. Examples from the UAV mission will be used to illustrate the presentation. Plans for future development work to improve mission operations, such as integration with autonomous planning tools, will be described.

  12. MONITORING ECOSYSTEMS FROM SPACE: THE GLOBAL FIDUCIALS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Images from satellites provide valuable insights to changes in land-cover and ecosystems. Long- term monitoring of ecosystem change using historical satellite imagery can provide quantitative measures of ecological processes and allows for estimation of future ecosystem condition...

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF CONCURRENT MONITORING AND MODELING FOR UNDERSTANDING MERCURY EXPOSURE IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the cycling processes governing mercury exposure in the environment requires sufficient process-based modeling and monitoring data. Monitoring provides ambient concentration data for specific sample times and locations. Modeling provides a tool for investigating the...

  14. From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent technological advances have driven rapid development of DNA-based methods designed to facilitate detection and monitoring of invasive species in aquatic environments. These tools promise to significantly alleviate difficulties associated with traditional monitoring approac...

  15. Sustaining Breakthrough Research in a Changing Global Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    As companies face ever-increasing economic and competitive pressures, the imperative to deliver real, sustained growth through innovation is clear. Corporations need to develop and maintain a research and development portfolio that recognizes this reality. This talk examines how General Electric's Global Research Center is implementing a technology portfolio that balances long- and shorter-term R&D across four global facilities. Examples from medical imaging and energy business segments will be used to illustrate strategies for delivering growth through sustained investment in technology.

  16. Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Haffeld, Just

    2013-11-01

    Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities. PMID:24315062

  17. An Acoustic Communication Network for Monitoring of the Underwater Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Walree, P. A.; Driesenaar, M. L.

    2003-04-01

    An Acoustic Communication network for Monitoring of underwater Environments in coastal areas (ACME) is being developed by a consortium of 6 partners within the EU's Fifth Framework Programme. These partners are TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory (NL), Thales Underwater Systems (FR), ORCA Instrumentation (FR), the University of Newcastle (UK), TNO-TPD (NL), and the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management. The main goal of the project is the development and deployment of a prototype underwater acoustic communication network for the readout of a number of sensors in the Westerschelde in the south west of the Netherlands. The project focusses on coastal areas such as shipping lanes, fishing grounds and estuaries, when conventional data transport with cables or radio links is impossible. The challenges are numerous: multiple echoes of the sound give rise to inter-symbol interference and complicate data retrieval; noise of shipping traffic lowers the signal-to-noise ratio, in particular along busy freighter routes; practical matters such as battery lifetime and hardware for deployment must be dealt with as well. The results so far show that the point-to-point communication and the network protocols are functioning correctly, ready for the last phase of the project in which the autonomous working of the prototype network will be realized.

  18. A Global Overview: Trends in Environment and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    The conditions and trends for four clusters of global issues--the air and the sky, the fishes and the sea, the creatures and the land, and people and poverty--are presented. The topics of climate change, the ozone hole, air pollution, biological diversity, deforestation, and desertification are discussed. (KR)

  19. Constructing Meaning in a Technology-Rich, Global Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Ian W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the Global Forum on School Leadership (GFSL) as a Type II application of interactive computing technology suitable for 21st century learners, teachers, and school leaders. Simply put, the concept of the GFSL brings together learners who share a common goal, a common subject area, or a common profession, and encourages them to

  20. Global environment facility: Independent evaluation of the pilot phase

    SciTech Connect

    Edgren, G.; Htun, N.; Picciotto, R.

    1994-05-01

    ;Contents: Introduction; Assessment overview and recommendations; Profile of the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) pilot phase; Policy framework for the GEF pilot phase; Strategies and projects of the GEF focal areas; GEF Small Grants Program; GEF and national development; Project development procedures for the GEF pilot phase; Organization and management; and Annexes.

  1. Educating Part-Time MBAs for the Global Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, W. Alan

    2008-01-01

    To be successful managers in the business world of the 21st century, MBA students must acquire global skills of business acumen, reflection, cultural sensitivity, and multi-cultural teamwork. Developing these skills requires international experience, but educating part-time MBAs creates a special challenge demanding both rigor and efficiency. This

  2. Educating Part-Time MBAs for the Global Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, W. Alan

    2008-01-01

    To be successful managers in the business world of the 21st century, MBA students must acquire global skills of business acumen, reflection, cultural sensitivity, and multi-cultural teamwork. Developing these skills requires international experience, but educating part-time MBAs creates a special challenge demanding both rigor and efficiency. This…

  3. A global change data base using Thematic Mapper data - Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Antoni, Hector L.; Peterson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the main directions in creating an education program in earth system science aimed at combining top science and technology with high academic performance are presented. The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES) integrated with the research interests of the NASA Ames Research Center and one or more universities is proposed. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, EMES would promote degrees at all levels in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extracurricular courses for multilevel audiences. EMES objectives are to: train specialists; establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool; and transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project.

  4. Global Ionosphere Perturbations Monitored by the Worldwide GPS Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Manucci, A. T.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Pi, X.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) worldwide network are employed to study the global ionospheric total electron content(TEC) changes during a magnetic storm (November 26, 1994). These measurements are obtained from more than 60 world-wide GPS stations which continuously receive dual-frequency signals. Based on the delays of the signals, we have generated high resolution global ionospheric maps (GIM) of TEC at 15 minute intervals. Using a differential method comparing storm time maps with quiet time maps, we find that significant TEC increases (the positive effect ) are the major feature in the winter hemisphere during this storm (the maximum percent change relative to quiet times is about 150 percent).

  5. Global characterization and monitoring of forest cover using Landsat data: opportunities and challanges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The compilation of global Landsat data-sets and the ever-lowering costs of computing now make it feasible to monitor the Earth’s land cover at Landsat resolutions of 30 m. In this article, we describe the methods to create global products of forest cover and cover change at Landsat resolutions. Neve...

  6. Linking Geophysical Networks to International Economic Development Through Integration of Global and National Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner-Lam, A.

    2007-05-01

    Outside of the research community and mission agencies, global geophysical monitoring rarely receives sustained attention except in the aftermath of a humanitarian disaster. The recovery and rebuilding period focuses attention and resources for a short time on regional needs for geophysical observation, often at the national or sub-national level. This can result in the rapid deployment of national monitoring networks, but may overlook the longer-term benefits of integration with global networks. Even in the case of multinational disasters, such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, it has proved difficult to promote the integration of national solutions with global monitoring, research and operations infrastructure. More importantly, continuing operations at the national or sub-national scale are difficult to sustain once the resources associated with recovery and rebuilding are depleted. Except for some notable examples, the vast infrastructure associated with global geophysical monitoring is not utilized constructively to promote the integration of national networks with international efforts. This represents a missed opportunity not only for monitoring, but for developing the international research and educational collaborations necessary for technological transfer and capacity building. The recent confluence of highly visible disasters, global multi-hazard risk assessments, evaluations of the relationships between natural disasters and socio-economic development, and shifts in development agency policies, provides an opportunity to link global geophysical monitoring initiatives to central issues in international development. Natural hazard risk reduction has not been the first priority of international development agendas for understandable, mainly humanitarian reasons. However, it is now recognized that the so-called risk premium associated with making development projects more risk conscious or risk resilient is relatively small relative to potential losses. Thus there is an attitudinal shift emerging whereby disaster risk management can be "mainstreamed" into the sustainable development programs in many countries. Consequently, it is incumbent to demonstrate that multi-scale geophysical monitoring, comprising integration of global networks with national and sub-national operations, is a foundational component of sustainable development infrastructure. This suggests even greater emphasis on developing dynamic and adaptive multi- hazard risk assessments, encompassing valid estimates of social and physical vulnerabilities; designing multi- scale network integration strategies that consider risk as well as hazard; providing operational and flexible templates for developing national networks in a global context; emphasizing the backbone characteristics of global geophysical monitoring to nations seeking to develop their own monitoring capacity; promoting sustained international research, education and training collaborations coinciding with the development of monitoring capacity; and continuing to promote the free and open exchange of data as a necessary component of sustained intellectual interest in monitoring. A combination of these strategies may counteract the decay of interest in regional geophysical monitoring after a disaster.

  7. Global styrene oligomers monitoring as new chemical contamination from polystyrene plastic marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Koizumi, Koshiro; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Jong-Oh; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-30

    Polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution is an environmental concern. However, a reliable and objective assessment of the scope of this problem, which can lead to persistent organic contaminants, has yet to be performed. Here, we show that anthropogenic styrene oligomers (SOs), a possible indicator of PS pollution in the ocean, are found globally at concentrations that are higher than those expected based on the stability of PS. SOs appear to persist to varying degrees in the seawater and sand samples collected from beaches around the world. The most persistent forms are styrene monomer, styrene dimer, and styrene trimer. Sand samples from beaches, which are commonly recreation sites, are particularly polluted with these high SOs concentrations. This finding is of interest from both scientific and public perspectives because SOs may pose potential long-term risks to the environment in combination with other endocrine disrupting chemicals. From SOs monitoring results, this study proposes a flow diagram for SOs leaching from PS cycle. Using this flow diagram, we conclude that SOs are global contaminants in sandy beaches around the world due to their broad spatial distribution. PMID:26218303

  8. Global nuclear material monitoring with NDA and C/S data through integrated facility monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Argo, P.; Goulding, C.; Klosterbuer, S.; Halbig, J.

    1996-09-01

    This paper focuses on a flexible, integrated demonstration of a monitoring approach for nuclear material monitoring. This includes aspects of item signature identification, perimeter portal monitoring, advanced data analysis, and communication as a part of an unattended continuous monitoring system in an operating nuclear facility. Advanced analysis is applied to the integrated nondestructive assay and containment and surveillance data that are synchronized in time. End result will be the foundation for a cost-effective monitoring system that could provide the necessary transparency even in areas that are denied to foreign nationals of both US and Russia should these processes and materials come under full-scope safeguards or bilateral agreements. Monitoring systems of this kind have the potential to provide additional benefits including improved nuclear facility security and safeguards and lower personnel radiation exposures. Demonstration facilities in this paper include VTRAP-prototype, Los Alamos Critical Assemblies Facility, Kazakhstan BM-350 Reactor monitor, DUPIC radiation monitoring, and JOYO and MONJU radiation monitoring.

  9. Food systems change and the environment: local and global connections.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Darcy A; Bess, Kimberly D

    2011-06-01

    Making changes to the way food is produced, distributed, and processed is one strategy for addressing global climate change. In this case study, we examine the "forming" stage of an emergent and locally-based coalition that is both participatory and focused on promoting food security by creating food systems change. Social network analysis is used to compare network density, centrality, and centralization among coalition partners before the formation of the coalition and at its one-year anniversary. Findings reveal that the coalition facilitated information seeking, assistance seeking, and collaborative efforts related to food security among a group of organizational stakeholders that were relatively disconnected pre-coalition. Results also illuminate tensions related to increased centralization of the network, coalition efficiency, and the goals of democratic decision-making. This study highlights the utility of social network analysis as a tool for evaluating the aims and trajectory of locally-based coalitions focused on global concerns. PMID:21207132

  10. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Using the Local Environment to Explore Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that water pollution is a global problem and presents statistics indicating how much of the world's water is threatened. Presents three elementary school classroom activities on water quality and local water resources. Includes a figure describing the work of the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network. (CFR)

  11. Global Hawk monitors hurricane eye wall development - Duration: 41 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Global Hawk UAV flies over Hurricane Karl to reveal a hot tower. Red shows reflectivity that is 12 km from the surface, orange is 10 km, yellow is 7.5 km, green is 6 km, and blue is under 6 km....

  12. Validation of the ASAR Global Monitoring Mode Soil Moisture Product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well established in literature that integration of land surface variables such as soil moisture into forecasting models will lead to improved hydrologic prediction. Furthermore, most hydrological processes are best monitored at spatial scales of 1 km or higher. However, current and future pas...

  13. Monitoring fault zone environments with correlations of earthquake waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Philippe; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2014-02-01

    We develop a new technique for monitoring temporal changes in fault zone environments based on cross-correlation of earthquake waveforms recorded by pairs of stations. The method is applied to waveforms of 10 000 earthquakes observed during 100 d around the 1999 M 7.1 Duzce mainshock by a station located in the core damage zone of the North Anatolian Fault and a nearby station. To overcome clock problems, the correlation functions are realigned on a dominant peak. Consequently, the analysis focuses on measurements of coherency rather than traveltimes, and is associated with correlation coefficient of groups of events with a reference wavelet. Examination of coherency in different frequency bands reveals clear changes at a narrow band centred around 0.8 Hz. The results show a rapid drop of 1-2 per cent of the coherency at the time of the Duzce event followed by gradual recovery with several prominent oscillations over 4 d. The observed changes likely reflect evolution of permeability and fluid motion in the core damage zone of the North Anatolian Fault. Compared to noise correlation processing, our analysis of earthquake waveform correlation (i) benefits from high level of coherence with short duration recorded signals, (ii) has considerably finer temporal sampling of fault dynamics after mainshocks than is possible with noise correlation, (iii) uses the coherence level to track property variations, which may be more robust than traveltime fluctuations in the coda of noise correlations. Studies utilizing both earthquake and noise waveforms at multiple pairs of stations across fault damage zones can improve significantly the understanding of fault zone processes.

  14. Global Trends in Environment and Development. Presentation Set [Slides].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Resources Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 50 slide set of presentation graphs and maps illustrates some of the major conditions and trends in population, agriculture, biodiversity, forests, water resources, energy, climate, and social and economic development that determine the state of the world's environment. Graphs and maps can be used by those in academic, professional, and

  15. Geothermal energy and the environment - The global experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualetti, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The paper discusses the impact of environmental problems on the world's geothermal generating stations. The significant impacts include conflicts in land use, air pollution, subsidence, water pollution, induced seismicity, blowouts, and noise. Development of geothermal resources has been slowed down in some countries: in U.S., the emission of hydrogen sulfide produced a problem; in Japan, land use in national parks and waste-water disposal resulted in difficulties; and in El Salvador, waste-water disposal presented a difficulty. Geothermal development faces many regulations and difficulties, particularly in U.S., a country which could stimulate a global acceleration in this field with appropriately relaxed controls.

  16. Global monitoring of large reservoir storage from satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Birkett, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Reservoir management is a key human activity that affects water resources over land. Some studies suggest that filling of reservoirs may have reduced sea level rise as much as 30 millimeters since the era of large dam construction began about 80 years ago. However, observations of reservoir storage are limited mostly to developed countries, and even there are often difficult to access. This lack of observational data hampers the ability to model the effects of reservoir storage on the global water cycle. Starting about two decades ago, satellite remote sensing has offered a unique opportunity to estimate water storage in some large reservoirs from space. In this study, we chose 34 global reservoirs for which good quality surface elevation data were obtained through radar altimetry data (Topex/Poseidon, ERS, Envisat, Jason, and GFO) from 1992 to 2010. For these reservoirs, an unsupervised classification approach was applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 16-day 250m vegetation indexes data to estimate their surface water area from 2000 to 2010. We then derived depth-area relationships for each of the reservoirs. With a priori knowledge of the reservoir capacity and level/area at capacity, storage for each reservoir from 1992 to 2010 was estimated. This global data are evaluated in comparison with gage observations for the five largest reservoirs in the United States (Lake Mead, Lake Powell, Lake Sakakawea, Lake Oahe, and Fort Peck Lake).

  17. Global and environmental monitoring: the challenge to educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beek, K. J.; van Gils, H. A. M. J.

    The public's increasing concern about environmental degradation is creating new demands for environmental monitoring and appropriate interventions to reduce or eliminate the sources and causes of environmental damage. We have two invaluable tools for addressing environmental problems: satellite remote sensing for collecting the essential data, and geographic information systems (GIS) for processing and evaluating these data and modelling the effects of various environmental management options. As educators, we have a special challenge to train the scientists who will be responsible for carrying out this work. An interdisciplinary approach is required to understand the multiple causes and effects of environmental problems, and special skills are needed to convey this information to the government agencies and individuals who can implement corrective measures. We have been quite successful at ITC in integrating remote sensing and GIS for environmental monitoring within our research and education programmes. Our present (and future) efforts are directed towards reinforcing the interdisciplinary approach considered essential in environmental management.

  18. Taiga forest stands and SAR: Monitoring for subarctic global change

    SciTech Connect

    Way, J.; Kwok, R.; Viereck, L.; Slaughter, C.; Dobson, C.

    1992-03-01

    In preparation for the first European Earth Remote Sensing (ERS-1) mission, a series of multitemporal, multifrequency, multipolarization aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data sets were acquired over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska in March 1988. Significant change in radar backscatter was observed over the two-week experimental period due to changing environmental conditions. These preliminary results are presented to illustrate the opportunity afforded by the ERS-1 SAR to monitor temporal change in forest ecosystems.

  19. A WHO global programme for monitoring vector resistance to pesticides.

    PubMed Central

    Shidrawi, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the programme for monitoring vector resistance to pesticides and how it was established. It presents a summary of the computer baseline data and the cumulative number of vector species developing resistance at intervals of 5 years, starting in 1956, as well as information derived from Expert Committee reports dating back to 1947. The problems and concerns of the programme and envisaged solutions are also discussed. PMID:2208555

  20. Veterinary medicine, food security and the global environment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, A M; Marshak, R R

    2009-08-01

    The authors focus on the role of veterinary medicine in feeding the nine billion people projected to inhabit the planet by 2050, despite the problems of global warming, political constraints and environmental destruction. Population growth, predominantly urban, will occur mainly in developing countries, at a magnitude comparable to creating a city the size of Los Angeles, the second largest city in the United States of America, every three weeks for the next 40 years. Accompanying this growth will be a greatly increased demand for animal protein. How this burgeoning demand can be met by intensive and extensive systems of animal production is discussed, with particular reference to the immensely important role that the veterinary profession and schools must play. PMID:20128458

  1. Global Ionospheric TEC Perturbations Monitored by the GPS Global Network During Two Northern Hemisphere Winter Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Mannucci, A. J.; Sparks, L.; Pi, X.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Wilson, B. D.; Reyes, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    The global evolution of two major ionospheric storms, occurring on November 4, 1993 and November 26, 1994, respectively, is studied using measurements of total electron content (TEC) obtained from a worldwide network of ground-based GPS receivers.

  2. Space Geodesy Monitoring Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid Earth-core system (the 'global geophysical fluids') are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, oceanic and solid tides, hydrological water and idsnow redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. The temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have proven to be an effective tool in monitorihg certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in observing and understanding of these geodynamic effects. This paper will use several prominent examples to illustrate the triumphs in research over the past years under a 'Moore's law' in space geodesy. New space missions and projects promise to further advance our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as of the solid Earth's response to such changes in terms of Earth's mechanical properties.

  3. Integration of drought monitoring with remote sensing into the global drought information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jinlong; Zhang, Mingwei; Cao, Guangzheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Jianjun

    2012-09-01

    Drought occurs everywhere in the world and is one of the costliest natural hazards. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has advocated implementing a Global Drought Early Warning System (GDEWS) since 2007. Various indices have been developed and used to depict drought. According to the survey, various drought monitoring system with remote sensing at regional, national or local level are existing, but the integration with the drought system based on the weather station data, in particular at the global level is still weak. However, the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative was recognized by the G20 agricultural ministers and will enhance the linkage between GEO-GLAM and GDEWS. The capability for a component of drought monitoring with remote sensing is there in place. MODIS data have been used to globally track the distribution of crop failures due to droughts. In China, the Chinese meteorological satellite, FY is also ready to monitoring drought globally. MERSI onboard FY-3 is similar with MODIS and helpful to monitor the occurrence, development of drought at different scales. JRC MARS issues periodical bulletin on agricultural conditions. Agricultural Division of Statistics, Canada issues weekly crop condition reports. In India, the biweekly drought bulletin and monthly reports is issued under National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS). Similar program is followed in many countries world-wide. The informed information of drought is helpful for governmental officials and formers to in advance prepare for coping with the likely coming drought. The global efforts should be in place to promote the global drought information system with a remote sensing drought component.

  4. Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (gems) Over the Korea Peninsula and Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasnik, J.; Stephens, M.; Baker, B.; Randall, C.; Ko, D. H.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, E. S.; Chang, S.; Park, J. M.; SEO, S. B.; Youk, Y.; Kong, J. P.; Lee, D.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is one of two instruments manifested aboard the South Korean Geostationary Earth Orbit KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-2B (GEO-KOMPSAT-2B or GK2B), which is scheduled to launch in 2018. Jointly developed/built by KARI and Ball Aerospace, GEMS is a geostationary UV-Vis hyperspectral imager designed to monitor trans-boundary tropospheric pollution events over the Korean peninsula and Asia-Pacific region. The spectrometer provides high temporal and spatial resolution (3.5 km N/S by 7.2 km E/W) measurements of ozone, its precursors, and aerosols. Over the short-term, hourly measurements by GEMS will improve early warnings for potentially dangerous pollution events and monitor population exposure. Over the 10-year mission-life, GEMS will serve to enhance our understanding of long-term climate change and broader air quality issues on both a regional and global scale. The GEMS sensor design and performance are discussed, which includes an overview of measurement capabilities and the on-orbit concept of operations. GEMS Sensor Overview: The GEMS hyperspectral imaging system consists of a telescope and Offner grating spectrometer that feeds a single CCD detector array. A spectral range of 300-500 nm and sampling of 0.2 nm enables NO2, SO2, HCHO, O3, and aerosol retrieval. The GEMS field of regard (FOR), which extends from 5°S to 45°N in latitude and 75°E to 145°E in longitude, is operationally achieved using an onboard two-axis scan mirror. On-orbit, the radiometric calibration is maintained using solar measurements, which are performed using two onboard diffusers: a working diffuser that is deployed routinely for the purpose of solar calibration, and a reference diffuser that is deployed sparingly for the purpose of monitoring working diffuser performance degradation.

  5. Flood monitoring for ungauged rivers: the power of combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Netgeka, Victor; Raynaud, Damien; Thielen, Jutta

    2013-04-01

    Flood warning systems typically rely on forecasts from national meteorological services and in-situ observations from hydrological gauging stations. This capacity is not equally developed in flood-prone developing countries. Low-cost satellite monitoring systems and global flood forecasting systems can be an alternative source of information for national flood authorities. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been develop jointly with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the Joint Research Centre, and it is running quasi operational now since June 2011. The system couples state-of-the art weather forecasts with a hydrological model driven at a continental scale. The system provides downstream countries with information on upstream river conditions as well as continental and global overviews. In its test phase, this global forecast system provides probabilities for large transnational river flooding at the global scale up to 30 days in advance. It has shown its real-life potential for the first time during the flood in Southeast Asia in 2011, and more recently during the floods in Australia in March 2012, India (Assam, September-October 2012) and Chad Floods (August-October 2012).The Joint Research Centre is working on further research and development, rigorous testing and adaptations of the system to create an operational tool for decision makers, including national and regional water authorities, water resource managers, hydropower companies, civil protection and first line responders, and international humanitarian aid organizations. Currently efforts are being made to link GloFAS to the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS). GFDS is a Space-based river gauging and flood monitoring system using passive microwave remote sensing which was developed by a collaboration between the JRC and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. GFDS provides flood alerts based on daily water surface change measurements from space. Alerts are shown on a world map, with detailed reports for individual gauging sites. A comparison of discharge estimates from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) and the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) with observations for representative climatic zones is presented. Both systems have demonstrated strong potential in forecasting and detecting recent catastrophic floods. The usefulness of their combined information on global scale for decision makers at different levels is discussed. Combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models is an innovative approach and has significant benefits for international river commissions as well as international aid organisations. This is in line with the objectives of the Hyogo and the Post-2015 Framework that aim at the development of systems which involve trans-boundary collaboration, space-based earth observation, flood forecasting and early warning.

  6. A Review of Global Learning & Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Office of the President, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program is a worldwide, hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education program. GLOBE supports students, teachers, and scientists in collaborations using inquiry-based investigations of the environment and the earth system. GLOBE currently works in close…

  7. Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks in Marine Environment Monitoring: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guobao; Shen, Weiming; Wang, Xianbin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of society and the economy, an increasing number of human activities have gradually destroyed the marine environment. Marine environment monitoring is a vital problem and has increasingly attracted a great deal of research and development attention. During the past decade, various marine environment monitoring systems have been developed. The traditional marine environment monitoring system using an oceanographic research vessel is expensive and time-consuming and has a low resolution both in time and space. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently been considered as potentially promising alternatives for monitoring marine environments since they have a number of advantages such as unmanned operation, easy deployment, real-time monitoring, and relatively low cost. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of marine environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks. It first describes application areas, a common architecture of WSN-based oceanographic monitoring systems, a general architecture of an oceanographic sensor node, sensing parameters and sensors, and wireless communication technologies. Then, it presents a detailed review of some related projects, systems, techniques, approaches and algorithms. It also discusses challenges and opportunities in the research, development, and deployment of wireless sensor networks for marine environment monitoring. PMID:25215942

  8. Applications of wireless sensor networks in marine environment monitoring: a survey.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guobao; Shen, Weiming; Wang, Xianbin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of society and the economy, an increasing number of human activities have gradually destroyed the marine environment. Marine environment monitoring is a vital problem and has increasingly attracted a great deal of research and development attention. During the past decade, various marine environment monitoring systems have been developed. The traditional marine environment monitoring system using an oceanographic research vessel is expensive and time-consuming and has a low resolution both in time and space. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently been considered as potentially promising alternatives for monitoring marine environments since they have a number of advantages such as unmanned operation, easy deployment, real-time monitoring, and relatively low cost. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of marine environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks. It first describes application areas, a common architecture of WSN-based oceanographic monitoring systems, a general architecture of an oceanographic sensor node, sensing parameters and sensors, and wireless communication technologies. Then, it presents a detailed review of some related projects, systems, techniques, approaches and algorithms. It also discusses challenges and opportunities in the research, development, and deployment of wireless sensor networks for marine environment monitoring. PMID:25215942

  9. Precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Christy, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Passive microwave radiometry from satellites provides more precise atmospheric temperature information than that obtained from the relatively sparse distribution of thermometers over the earth's surface. Accurate global atmospheric temperature estimates are needed for detection of possible greenhouse warming, evaluation of computer models of climate change, and for understanding important factors in the climate system. Analysis of the first 10 years (1979 to 1988) of satellite measurements of lower atmospheric temperature changes reveals a monthly precision of 0.01 C, large temperature variability on time scales from weeks to several years, but no obvious trend for the 10-year period. The warmest years, in descending order, were 1987, 1988, 1983, and 1980. The years 1984, 1985, and 1986 were the coolest.

  10. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industry technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    A global CO2 recycling system which combines utilization of natural energy and CO2 recovered from combustion of fossil fuel is studied. In the model, CO2 recovered at the place of energy demand is transported to the place where energy is produced, and from the CO2 fuels are synthesized by use of solar energy and transported to the place of energy demand. Facilities worth a large amount of money are required to transmit electric power generated by the photovoltaic power generation in the desert to the fuel synthesizing plant. Therefore, production of electrolytic hydrogen by the on-site power generation and transport by pipe may be considered. As a synthetic fuel being sent back by ocean transport, methanol is considered, and synthetic methane (LNG) can also be a candidate. CO2 is recovered as liquid carbon dioxide. Possibility of CO2 recycling is dependent on development of the desert solar base, as well as depletion of fossil fuel and price increase, CO2 penalty. It has still been difficult to say which of the fuel synthesis, CO2 tanker or securing of the solar base becomes a bottleneck. Entry of recycling fuels to the market will be possible in proportion to restrictions on fossil fuels, and evaluation of the system depends almost on the rate of energy arriving from the energy-producing region.

  11. Large space-based systems for dealing with global environment change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Increased concern over the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in support for the Global Change Research Program and the Mission to Planet Earth. Research to understand Earth system processes is critical, but it falls short of providing ways of mitigating the effects of change. Geoengineering options and alternatives to interactively manage change need to be developed. Space-based concepts for dealing with changes to the environment should be considered in addition to Earth-based actions. 'Mission for Planet Earth' describes those space-based geoengineering solutions that may combine with an international global change program to stabilize the Global environment. Large space systems that may be needed for this response challenge guidance and control engineering and technology. Definition, analysis, demonstration, and preparation of geoengineering technology will provide a basis for policy response if global change consequences are severe.

  12. Global Future: Time to Act. Report to the President on Global Resources, Environment and Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillman, Katherine, Ed.; And Others

    This report presents recommendations and ideas for actions the United States could take, in concert with other nations, for a vigorous response to urgent global problems. The goal of the report is to further public discussion of these important issues and to offer ideas to government leaders who will be developing U.S. policy in the years ahead. A…

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR MONITORING THE ENVIRONMENT. WATER AND WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This first EPA manual contains uniform laboratory and field methods for microbiological analyses of waters and wastewaters, and is recommended in enforcement, monitoring and research activities. The procedures are prepared in detailed, stepwise form for the bench worker. The manu...

  14. A monitoring sensor management system for grid environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian; Crowley, Brian; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Thompson, Mary

    2001-06-01

    Large distributed systems, such as computational grids,require a large amount of monitoring data be collected for a variety oftasks, such as fault detection, performance analysis, performance tuning,performance prediction and scheduling. Ensuring that all necessarymonitoring is turned on and that the data is being collected can be avery tedious and error-prone task. We have developed an agent-basedsystem to automate the execution of monitoring sensors and the collectionof event data.

  15. Iron Resources and Oceanic Nutrients: Advancement of Global Environment Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaar, H. J.

    2002-12-01

    The concept of a single factor limiting plankton blooms, is presently giving way to co-limitation by light, and the nutrients N, P, Si and Fe. Primary production, export into the deep sea, and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere together form the 'biological pump' in Ocean Biogeochemical Climate Models (OBCM's). Thus far OBCM's assume just one limiting nutrient (P) and one universal phytoplankton species, for C budgets and CO2 exchange. New realistic OBCM's are being developed for budgeting and exchanges of both CO2 and DMS, implementing (i) co-limitation by 4 nutrients of 5 major taxonomic classes of phytoplankton, (ii) DMS(P) pathways, (iii) global iron cycling, (iv) chemical forms of iron and (v) iron supply into surface waters. The new OBCM's will predict realistic climate scenario's, notably climatic feedbacks on oceanic biogeochemistry. IRONAGES is a European consortium of twelve institutes and is coordinated by Royal NIOZ. Input from below of iron from anoxic sediments of coastal margins has been assessed (March 2002) along a 2-D vertical section from Europe into the centre of the north Atlantic. Input from above of Fe(II) dissolved in rainwater from Sahara dust blown over the central Atlantic will be quantified at sea (October 2002), and related to observed plankton production. Different chemical forms of iron are being assessed and a certification excercise for Fe in seawater also under aegis of SCOR Working Group 109 is being completed (December 2002). For two major DMS-producing algal groups Phaeocystis sp. and Emiliania huxleyi the life cycle, Fe limitation, export production, CO2 uptake and DMS emissions have been synthesized from existing literature and laboratory experiments. This is being fed into ecosystem modeling, as well as into DMS(P) pathway modeling. Also know-how has been synthesized for three other major classes (diatoms, N2-fixing Trichodesmium and nano-pico-plankton) and fed into the ecosystem modeling. Pathways of DMS(P) in blooms are being simulated. An existing plankton ecosystem model already well predicts limitation by four nutrients (N, P, Si, Fe) of two algal groups (diatoms and nanoplankton) including export and CO2 air/sea exchange. This is being expanded with 3 other groups of algae and DMS(P)pathways. Next this extended ecosystem model is being simplified while maintaining reliable output for export and CO2/DMS gas exchange. This unit will then be put into two existing OBCM's. Inputs of Fe from above and below into the oceans have been modeled. Moreover a simple global Fe cycling model has been verified versus field data and insights. Two different OBCM's with same upper ocean ecosystem/DMS unit and Fe cycling will be verified versus pre-industrial and present conditions. Next climate change scenario's, notably changes in Fe inputs, will be run, with special attention to climatic feedbacks (warming) on the oceanic cycles and fluxes.

  16. Global monitoring of large reservoir storage from satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huilin; Birkett, Charon; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2012-09-01

    We studied 34 global reservoirs for which good quality surface elevation data could be obtained from a combination of five satellite altimeters for the period from 1992 to 2010. For each of these reservoirs, we used an unsupervised classification approach using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 16-day 250 m vegetation product to estimate the surface water areas over the MODIS period of record (2000 to 2010). We then derived elevation-area relationships for each of the reservoirs by combining the MODIS-based estimates with satellite altimeter-based estimates of reservoir water elevations. Through a combination of direct observations of elevation and surface area along with documented reservoir configurations at capacity, we estimated storage time histories for each reservoir from 1992 to 2010. We evaluated these satellite-based data products in comparison with gauge observations for the five largest reservoirs in the United States (Lakes Mead, Powell, Sakakawea, Oahe, and Fort Peck Reservoir). The storage estimates were highly correlated with observations (R = 0.92 to 0.99), with values for the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) ranging from 3% to 15%. The storage mean absolute error (expressed as a percentage of reservoir capacity) for the reservoirs in this study was 4%. The multidecadal reconstructed reservoir storage variations are in accordance with known droughts and high flow periods on each of the five continents represented in the data set.

  17. School Projects for Monitoring the State of the Marine Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benkendorff, Kirsten

    Australia's marine environment hosts a high level of diverse endemic species along with some of the highest biodiversity in the world. Two-thirds of the population of Australia are living in coastal areas and can be considered a threat to marine life which is very vulnerable to human impacts. Although marine environments conserve high economic…

  18. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Peter G.; Moore, Charles J.; van Franeker, Jan A.; Moloney, Coleen L.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infrequent surveys of the standing stock of litter on beaches provide crude estimates of debris types and abundance, but are biased by differential removal of litter items by beachcombing, cleanups and beach dynamics. Monitoring the accumulation of stranded debris provides an index of debris trends in adjacent waters, but is costly to undertake. At-sea sampling requires large sample sizes for statistical power to detect changes in abundance, given the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Another approach is to monitor the impacts of plastics. Seabirds and other marine organisms that accumulate plastics in their stomachs offer a cost-effective way to monitor the abundance and composition of small plastic litter. Changes in entanglement rates are harder to interpret, as they are sensitive to changes in population sizes of affected species. Monitoring waste disposal on ships and plastic debris levels in rivers and storm-water runoff is useful because it identifies the main sources of plastic debris entering the sea and can direct mitigation efforts. Different monitoring approaches are required to answer different questions, but attempts should be made to standardize approaches internationally. PMID:19528052

  19. Autonomous global sky monitoring with real-time robotic follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Vestrand, W Thomas; Davis, H; Wren, J; Wozniak, P; Norman, B; White, R; Bloch, J; Fenimore, E; Hodge, Barry; Jah, Moriba; Rast, Richard

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the development of prototypes for a global grid of advanced 'thinking' sky sentinels and robotic follow-up telescopes that observe the full night sky to provide real-time monitoring of the night sky by autonomously recognizing anomalous behavior, selecting targets for detailed investigation, and making real-time anomaly detection to enable rapid recognition and a swift response to transients as they emerge. This T3 global EO grid avoids the limitations imposed by geography and weather to provide persistent monitoring of the night sky.

  20. Advanced Oil Spill Detection Algorithms For Satellite Based Maritime Environment Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radius, Andrea; Azevedo, Rui; Sapage, Tania; Carmo, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    During the last years, the increasing pollution occurrence and the alarming deterioration of the environmental health conditions of the sea, lead to the need of global monitoring capabilities, namely for marine environment management in terms of oil spill detection and indication of the suspected polluter. The sensitivity of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to the different phenomena on the sea, especially for oil spill and vessel detection, makes it a key instrument for global pollution monitoring. The SAR performances in maritime pollution monitoring are being operationally explored by a set of service providers on behalf of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), which has launched in 2007 the CleanSeaNet (CSN) project - a pan-European satellite based oil monitoring service. EDISOFT, which is from the beginning a service provider for CSN, is continuously investing in R&D activities that will ultimately lead to better algorithms and better performance on oil spill detection from SAR imagery. This strategy is being pursued through EDISOFT participation in the FP7 EC Sea-U project and in the Automatic Oil Spill Detection (AOSD) ESA project. The Sea-U project has the aim to improve the current state of oil spill detection algorithms, through the informative content maximization obtained with data fusion, the exploitation of different type of data/ sensors and the development of advanced image processing, segmentation and classification techniques. The AOSD project is closely related to the operational segment, because it is focused on the automation of the oil spill detection processing chain, integrating auxiliary data, like wind information, together with image and geometry analysis techniques. The synergy between these different objectives (R&D versus operational) allowed EDISOFT to develop oil spill detection software, that combines the operational automatic aspect, obtained through dedicated integration of the processing chain in the existing open source NEST software, with new detection, filtering and classification algorithms. Particularly, dedicated filtering algorithm development based on Wavelet filtering was exploited for the improvement of oil spill detection and classification. In this work we present the functionalities of the developed software and the main results in support of the developed algorithm validity.

  1. Applications of TRMM-based Multi-Satellite Precipitation Estimation for Global Runoff Simulation: Prototyping a Global Flood Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Pierce, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Advances in flood monitoring/forecasting have been constrained by the difficulty in estimating rainfall continuously over space (catchment-, national-, continental-, or even global-scale areas) and flood-relevant time scale. With the recent availability of satellite rainfall estimates at fine time and space resolution, this paper describes a prototype research framework for global flood monitoring by combining real-time satellite observations with a database of global terrestrial characteristics through a hydrologically relevant modeling scheme. Four major components included in the framework are (1) real-time precipitation input from NASA TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA); (2) a central geospatial database to preprocess the land surface characteristics: water divides, slopes, soils, land use, flow directions, flow accumulation, drainage network etc.; (3) a modified distributed hydrological model to convert rainfall to runoff and route the flow through the stream network in order to predict the timing and severity of the flood wave, and (4) an open-access web interface to quickly disseminate flood alerts for potential decision-making. Retrospective simulations for 1998-2006 demonstrate that the Global Flood Monitor (GFM) system performs consistently at both station and catchment levels. The GFM website (experimental version) has been running at near real-time in an effort to offer a cost-effective solution to the ultimate challenge of building natural disaster early warning systems for the data-sparse regions of the world. The interactive GFM website shows close-up maps of the flood risks overlaid on topography/population or integrated with the Google-Earth visualization tool. One additional capability, which extends forecast lead-time by assimilating QPF into the GFM, also will be implemented in the future.

  2. Study on an Agricultural Environment Monitoring Server System using Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Shin, Changsun; Yoe, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an agricultural environment monitoring server system for monitoring information concerning an outdoors agricultural production environment utilizing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology. The proposed agricultural environment monitoring server system collects environmental and soil information on the outdoors through WSN-based environmental and soil sensors, collects image information through CCTVs, and collects location information using GPS modules. This collected information is converted into a database through the agricultural environment monitoring server consisting of a sensor manager, which manages information collected from the WSN sensors, an image information manager, which manages image information collected from CCTVs, and a GPS manager, which processes location information of the agricultural environment monitoring server system, and provides it to producers. In addition, a solar cell-based power supply is implemented for the server system so that it could be used in agricultural environments with insufficient power infrastructure. This agricultural environment monitoring server system could even monitor the environmental information on the outdoors remotely, and it could be expected that the use of such a system could contribute to increasing crop yields and improving quality in the agricultural field by supporting the decision making of crop producers through analysis of the collected information. PMID:22163520

  3. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level. PMID:26387506

  4. Monitoring Natural Events Globally in Near Real-Time Using NASA's Open Web Services and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boller, Ryan A.; Ward, Kevin Alan; Murphy, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1960, NASA has been making global measurements of the Earth from a multitude of space-based missions, many of which can be useful for monitoring natural events. In recent years, these measurements have been made available in near real-time, making it possible to use them to also aid in managing the response to natural events. We present the challenges and ongoing solutions to using NASA satellite data for monitoring and managing these events.

  5. Virtual groups for patient WBAN monitoring in medical environments.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Stepan; Foley, Christopher; Balasubramaniam, Sasitharan; Botvich, Dmitri

    2012-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) provide a tremendous opportunity for remote health monitoring. However, engineering WBAN health monitoring systems encounters a number of challenges including efficient WBAN monitoring information extraction, dynamically fine tuning the monitoring process to suit the quality of data, and to allow the translation of high-level requirements of medical officers to low-level sensor reconfiguration. This paper addresses these challenges, by proposing an architecture that allows virtual groups to be formed between devices of patients, nurses, and doctors in order to enable remote analysis of WBAN data. Group formation and modification is performed with respect to patients' conditions and medical officers' requirements, which could be easily adjusted through high-level policies. We also propose, a new metric called the Quality of Health Monitoring, which allows medical officers to provide feedback on the quality of WBAN data received. The WBAN data gathered are transmitted to the virtual group members through an underlying environmental sensor network. The proposed approach is evaluated through a series of simulation. PMID:22801487

  6. Monitoring of global geodynamic processes using satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatevian, S. K.; Attia, G. F.; Abou-Aly, N.; Ghoneim, R.; Hegazy, M.

    2014-06-01

    To study mechanisms of destructive geodynamic phenomena including determination of places of possible severe earthquakes, volcano eruptions and some other natural hazards, it is important to have means to evolve areas where maximum changes of the displacement velocities and the terrestrial crust vertical movements are possible. The previous experience has shown that the satellite geodesy techniques including global navigation systems and satellite laser ranging are the most effective for research activities in this field. Permanent control of secular movement of GPS-stations of the international geodynamic network, located in Russia, has allowed improving the reference coordinate frame for North Eurasia since Russian network stations provide representative covering of the largest stable areas (the Siberian and the East European) of the Eurasian plate. Along its southern border, there is a zone consisting of a great number of microplates surrounding the South-Eurasian stable plate. Interaction of these small plates and blocks influences distribution of seismic stresses in internal parts of the continent that is confirmed by the highest seismic activity of the triangle bordered by thrusts of the Himalayas and faults of the Pamirs, the Tien-Shan, the Baikal and the North-Eastern China. One of the active tectonic zones of Egypt located in Aswan, is characterized by regional basement rock uplift and regional faulting. In 1997, the African Regional Geodynamic Network was developed around the northern part of Lake Nasser, consists of 11 points, on both sides of the Lake. Its main goal is to study the geodynamical behavior around the northern part of the lake. The collected data were processed using the Bernese software version 5.0. From the velocity results, including also the African plate motion, it can be noticed that all stations of this network are moved to the northeast direction and it is typically the direction of the African plate motion.

  7. Global Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollutants from the Aura Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Johnson, J.; Farley, J.; Kempler, S.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric measurements of O3, CO, NO2, SO2, HCHO, Aerosol and other pollutants are routinely made by the OMI, MLS, HIRDLS and TES instruments flown on the EOS Aura satellite since its launch in July 2004. These measurements provide information on the vertical and horizontal distribution of atmospheric pollutants. High concentrations of these pollutants come principally from motor vehicle exhaust, coal and oil combustion, refineries, and biomass burning. These gases play a major role in the formation of unhealthy ground level ozone (or smog) and can trigger serious respiratory problems. The convective transport of these gases, smoke and dust also pollute the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere where the residence time of these pollutants is relatively long and atmospheric winds transport these pollutants to far distances across the oceans and continents. This presentation provides some examples of how Aura data can be used in monitoring air quality by identifying sources of air pollution and understanding the distribution of these pollutants as they get transported extensive distances from their source. In this study we have also used the Aerosol Index data from TOMS, CO data from MOPITT and AIRS, Aerosol data from MODIS, Aerosol layer height information from CALIPSO, and wind information from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. This study uses the web based data exploration and analysis tool Giovanni developed at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Services and Information Center (GES DSIC). Giovanni provides easy access to satellite data, eliminating the need to download large data sets and thus saving the user time. Giovanni capabilities include on- line animations of 2D maps, time-series plots (including statistics), several combinations of 2D cross-section maps (latitude/longitude/height/time), scatter plots, correlation maps, and collocated subsets of the data along CALIPSO tracks.

  8. Towards monitoring land-cover and land-use changes at a global scale: the global land survey 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutman, G.; Byrnes, Raymond A.; Masek, J.; Covington, S.; Justice, C.; Franks, S.; Headley, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Land cover is a critical component of the Earth system, infl uencing land-atmosphere interactions, greenhouse gas fl uxes, ecosystem health, and availability of food, fi ber, and energy for human populations. The recent Integrated Global Observations of Land (IGOL) report calls for the generation of maps documenting global land cover at resolutions between 10m and 30m at least every fi ve years (Townshend et al., in press). Moreover, despite 35 years of Landsat observations, there has not been a unifi ed global analysis of land-cover trends nor has there been a global assessment of land-cover change at Landsat-like resolution. Since the 1990s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have supported development of data sets based on global Landsat observations (Tucker et al., 2004). These land survey data sets, usually referred to as GeoCover ™, provide global, orthorectifi ed, typically cloud-free Landsat imagery centered on the years 1975, 1990, and 2000, with a preference for leaf-on conditions. Collectively, these data sets provided a consistent set of observations to assess land-cover changes at a decadal scale. These data are freely available via the Internet from the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) (see http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov or http://glovis.usgs.gov). This has resulted in unprecedented downloads of data, which are widely used in scientifi c studies of land-cover change (e.g., Boone et al., 2007; Harris et al., 2005; Hilbert, 2006; Huang et al. 2007; Jantz et al., 2005, Kim et al., 2007; Leimgruber, 2005; Masek et al., 2006). NASA and USGS are continuing to support land-cover change research through the development of GLS2005 - an additional global Landsat assessment circa 20051 . Going beyond the earlier initiatives, this data set will establish a baseline for monitoring changes on a 5-year interval and will pave the way toward continuous global land-cover monitoring at Landsat-like resolution in the next decade.

  9. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I. -I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  10. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I-I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  11. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I.-I.; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-05-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas.

  12. Gene-environment interaction and biological monitoring of occupational exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Hirvonen, Ari . E-mail: Ari.Hirvonen@ttl.fi

    2005-09-01

    Biological monitoring methods and biological limit values applied in occupational and environmental medicine have been traditionally developed on the assumption that individuals do not differ significantly in their biotransformation capacities. It has become clear, however, that this is not the case, but wide inter-individual differences exist in the metabolism of chemicals. Integration of the data on individual metabolic capacity in biological monitoring studies is therefore anticipated to represent a significant refinement of the currently used methods. We have recently conducted several biological monitoring studies on occupationally exposed subjects, which have included the determination of the workers' genotypes for the metabolic genes of potential importance for a given chemical exposure. The exposure levels have been measured by urine metabolites, adducts in blood macromolecules, and cytogenetic alterations in lymphocytes. Our studies indicate that genetic polymorphisms in metabolic genes may indeed be important modifiers of individual biological monitoring results of, e.g., carbon disulphide and styrene. The information is anticipated to be useful in insuring that the workplace is safe for everyone, including the most sensitive individuals. This knowledge could also be useful to occupational physicians, industrial hygienists, and regulatory bodies in charge of defining acceptable exposure limits for environmental and/or occupational pollutants.

  13. Introduction to Monitoring and Surveillance of the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champlin, Robert L.; And Others

    This text on monitoring and surveillance is intended for the undergraduate college student and the professional technician. The materials contained within the book are presented from both a practical and philosophical standpoint. The "reason for" and the "how to" are examined within each section, including problems at the end of each chapter which…

  14. Mobile Monitoring and Embedded Control System for Factory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones. PMID:24351642

  15. Mobile monitoring and embedded control system for factory environment.

    PubMed

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones. PMID:24351642

  16. RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR MONITORING VIRUSES IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conference was held and a report prepared at the invitation of USEPA for the purpose of receiving recommendations for research in the area of viruses. High priority and priority research areas were identified, and included monitoring, indicators, methods development, and qualit...

  17. Application for temperature and humidity monitoring of data center environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Ş.; Truşcǎ, M. R. C.; Soran, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The technology and computer science registered a large development in the last years. Most systems that use high technologies require special working conditions. The monitoring and the controlling are very important. The temperature and the humidity are important parameters in the operation of computer systems, industrial and research, maintaining it between certain values to ensure their proper functioning being important. Usually, the temperature is maintained in the established range using an air conditioning system, but the humidity is affected. In the present work we developed an application based on a board with own firmware called "AVR_NET_IO" using a microcontroller ATmega32 type for temperature and humidity monitoring in Data Center of INCDTIM. On this board, temperature sensors were connected to measure the temperature in different points of the Data Center and outside of this. Humidity monitoring is performed using data from integrated sensors of the air conditioning system, thus achieving a correlation between humidity and temperature variation. It was developed a software application (CM-1) together with the hardware, which allows temperature monitoring and register inside Data Center and trigger an alarm when variations are greater with 3°C than established limits of the temperature.

  18. Global pollution monitoring of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, D; Takahashi, S; Tanaka, H; Subramanian, A N; Fillmann, G; Nakata, H; Lam, P K S; Zheng, J; Muchtar, M; Prudente, M; Chung, K H; Tanabe, S

    2003-10-01

    Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters of various regions in the world (offshore waters around Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the North Pacific Ocean). OCs were detected in livers of all of the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed, supporting the thesis that there is widespread contamination of persistent OCs in the marine environment. Within a location, no significant relationship between growth-stage (body length and weight) and OC concentrations (lipid weight basis) was observed, and the OC residue levels were rather uniform among the individuals. Interestingly, the distribution of OC concentrations in skipjack tuna was similar to those in surface seawaters from which they were taken. These results suggest that OC concentrations in skipjack tuna could reflect the pollution levels in seawater from which they are collected and that this species is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of OCs in offshore waters and the open ocean. Concentrations of PCBs and CHLs in skipjack tuna were higher in offshore waters around Japan (up to 1100 and 250 ng/g lipid wt, respectively), suggesting the presence of sources of PCBs and CHLs in Japan. High concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were observed in samples from the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, and the Bay of Bengal (up to 1300 and 22 ng/g lipid wt, respectively). This result suggests recent use of technical DDT and HCH for agricultural and/or public health purposes in Russia, China, India, and some other developing Asian countries. Relatively high concentrations of PCBs, CHLs, HCHs, and HCB were also observed in samples collected from some locations in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, indicating the expansion of OC contamination on a global scale. Considering these facts, continuous studies monitoring these compounds in offshore waters and the open seas, using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator, are needed to further understand the future trend of contamination. PMID:14674591

  19. OSF-distributed computing environment for multimedia telemedicine services in global PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Alsafadi, Yasser H.; Kim, Jinman

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, we present our approach to developing global picture archiving and communication system (PACS) remote consultation and diagnosis (RCD) application using the Open Software Foundation (OSF) Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) services and toolkits. The current RCD system now uses programming services similar to those offered by OSF DCE, the Cell Directory Service, the Distributed Time Service, the Security Service, the RPC Facility, and the Threads Facility. In this research we have formally applied OSF DCE services to the Global PACS RCD software. The use of OSF DCE services for Global PACS enables us to develop a robust distributed structure and new user services which feature reliability and scalability for Global PACS environments.

  20. Global and time-resolved monitoring of crop photosynthesis with chlorophyll fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global monitoring of agricultural productivity is critical in a world under a continuous increase of food demand. Here we have used new spaceborne retrievals of chlorophyll fluorescence, an emission quantity intrinsically linked to photosynthesis, to derive spatially explicit photosynthetic uptake r...

  1. 75 FR 62837 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Building Global Capacity for the Surveillance and Monitoring of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing its intention to accept and consider a single source application for award of a cooperative agreement to the World Health Organization (WHO) in support of building a global surveillance and monitoring system for combating counterfeit/falsified medicines and risks and breaches in the...

  2. STS-2, -3, -4 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (ICEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The second, third, and fourth space transportation system missions are described including the location of the IECM in the payload bay and the shuttle coordinate systems used. Measurement results from the three flights are given for each instrument with comparisons to original goals for preflight environment and induced environment contamination. These results include very low levels of molecular mass accumulation rates, absence of molecular films on optical samples, outgassing species above 50 amu undetectable generally low levels of on-orbit particulates, and decay rates for early mission water dump particulates. Results of exposure of several optical materials and coatings to atomic oxygen are also presented. From these results, it is concluded that the space shuttle met the established induced environment contamination goals.

  3. Oversight role of the Independent Monitoring Board of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Paul D; Donaldson, Liam J

    2014-11-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) established its Independent Monitoring Board (IMB) in 2010 to monitor and guide its progress toward stopping polio transmission globally. The concept of an IMB is innovative, with no clear analogue in the history of the GPEI or in any other global health program. The IMB meets with senior program officials every 3-6 months. Its reports provide analysis and recommendations about individual polio-affected countries. The IMB also examines issues affecting the global program as a whole. Its areas of focus have included escalating the level of priority afforded to polio eradication (particularly by recommending a World Health Assembly resolution to declare polio eradication a programmatic emergency, which was enacted in May 2012), placing greater emphasis on people factors in the delivery of the program, encouraging innovation, strengthening focus on the small number of so-called sanctuaries where polio persists, and continuous quality improvement to reach every missed child with vaccination. The IMB's true independence from the agencies and countries delivering the program has enabled it to raise difficult issues that others cannot. Other global health programs might benefit from establishing similar independent monitoring mechanisms. PMID:25316831

  4. Geotechnical monitoring systems and performance in dynamic ice environments

    SciTech Connect

    Berzins, W.E.; Melrose, G.R.; Mitchell, D.E.

    1984-05-01

    The design and operation of a geotechnical stability monitoring system for a steel drilling caisson is presented. A methodology is developed whereby this system is integrated into the safe operation of the structure, and the long term development of design criteria. Details are provided on the design of instrument grids which measure contact stresses, berm deformations, and structural deformation in response to environmental loads. The performance of these grids is evaluated through a review of behavior under wave, ice and explosive loading.

  5. Induced environment contamination monitor: Preliminary results from the Spacelab 1 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    The STS-9/Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM) mission is briefly described. Preliminary results and analyses are given for each of the 10 instruments comprising the IECM. The final section presents a summary of the major results.

  6. CTFS/ForestGEO: A global network to monitor forest interactions with a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Muller-Landau, H.; McMahon, S.; Davies, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are an influential component of the global carbon cycle and strongly influence Earth's climate. Climate change is altering the dynamics of forests globally, which may result in significant climate feedbacks. Forest responses to climate change entail both short-term ecophysiological responses and longer-term directional shifts in community composition. These short- and long-term responses of forest communities to climate change may be better understood through long-term monitoring of large forest plots globally using standardized methodology. Here, we describe a global network of forest research plots (CTFS/ForestGEO) of utility for understanding forest responses to climate change and consequent feedbacks to the climate system. CTFS/ForestGEO is an international network consisting of 51 sites ranging in size from 2-150 ha (median size: 25 ha) and spanning from 25S to 52N latitude. At each site, every individual > 1cm DBH is mapped and identified, and recruitment, growth, and mortality are monitored every 5 years. Additional measurements include aboveground productivity, carbon stocks, soil nutrients, plant functional traits, arthropod and vertebrates monitoring, DNA barcoding, airborne and ground-based LiDAR, micrometeorology, and weather monitoring. Data from this network are useful for understanding how forest ecosystem structure and function respond to spatial and temporal variation in abiotic drivers, parameterizing and evaluating ecosystem and earth system models, aligning airborne and ground-based measurements, and identifying directional changes in forest productivity and composition. For instance, CTFS/ForestGEO data have revealed that solar radiation and night-time temperature are important drivers of aboveground productivity in moist tropical forests; that tropical forests are mixed in terms of productivity and biomass trends over the past couple decades; and that the composition of Panamanian forests has shifted towards more drought-tolerant species. Ongoing monitoring will be vital to understanding global forest dynamics in an era of climate change.

  7. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffe, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivpalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  8. An integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines--Wireless Sensor Network subsystem with multi-parameter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-01-01

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected. PMID:25051037

  9. An Integrated Environment Monitoring System for Underground Coal Mines—Wireless Sensor Network Subsystem with Multi-Parameter Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-01-01

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected. PMID:25051037

  10. Problems of monitoring the environment of the shallow nearshore zone of the Volga mouth

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnozhon, G.F.; Konyushko, V.S.

    1987-11-01

    This article describes problems involved in monitoring the environment of the Volga River delta from the standpoints of drainage and flooding behavior, pollutant concentration and transport, eutrophication, water quality, water current regimes, and bioproductivity. It also discusses monitoring strategies ranging from chemical methods to satellite surveys and calls for a comprehensive water management and planning program for the area.

  11. Keeping Scores: Audited Self-Monitoring of High-Stakes Testing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Raymond; Richards, Michael

    2006-01-01

    To address a public relations problem faced by a large urban public school district in Texas, we conducted action research that resulted in an audited self-monitoring system for high-stakes testing environments. The system monitors violations of testing protocols while identifying and disseminating best practices to improve the education of…

  12. Design of a Water Environment Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Xia, Hongbo; He, Zhiye; Wang, Zheming

    2009-01-01

    A water environmental monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network is proposed. It consists of three parts: data monitoring nodes, data base station and remote monitoring center. This system is suitable for the complex and large-scale water environment monitoring, such as for reservoirs, lakes, rivers, swamps, and shallow or deep groundwaters. This paper is devoted to the explanation and illustration for our new water environment monitoring system design. The system had successfully accomplished the online auto-monitoring of the water temperature and pH value environment of an artificial lake. The system's measurement capacity ranges from 0 to 80 °C for water temperature, with an accuracy of ±0.5 °C; from 0 to 14 on pH value, with an accuracy of ±0.05 pH units. Sensors applicable to different water quality scenarios should be installed at the nodes to meet the monitoring demands for a variety of water environments and to obtain different parameters. The monitoring system thus promises broad applicability prospects. PMID:22454592

  13. Study on monitoring global warming by using the data of Schumann resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobara, Y.; Harada, T.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Ohta, K.

    2009-12-01

    Identifying the global warming has become a more and more important issue for the present society and monitoring the global temperature is indispensable for measures against global warming. In this paper we use a long time record of the Schumann resonance (SR) intensity observed in Nakatsugawa, Japan and global lighting activity to study the global temperature change. SR is the electromagnetic resonance phenomenon in the earth-ionosphere waveguide driven by a cumulative effect of the global thunderstorm activity and observed anywhere on the earth round the clock. The cumulative magnetic field energy from the first and second modes of SR intensity for 4 years is derived for two horizontal components. The monthly dependence of field energy is compared with the global lightning and temperature data for the corresponding time period. As a result SR energy is found to be correlated well with the temperature in the middle latitude and global lightning activity especially in Africa. Further more the principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract the periodical component in each data set. The annual component of SR energy has a significant correlation with the middle latitude temperature, whilst the semi-annual component of the SR energy has a significant correlation with low latitude temperature.

  14. Configuration Management and Infrastructure Monitoring Using CFEngine and Icinga for Real-time Heterogeneous Data Taking Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poat, M. D.; Lauret, J.; Betts, W.

    2015-12-01

    The STAR online computing environment is an intensive ever-growing system used for real-time data collection and analysis. Composed of heterogeneous and sometimes groups of custom-tuned machines, the computing infrastructure was previously managed by manual configurations and inconsistently monitored by a combination of tools. This situation led to configuration inconsistency and an overload of repetitive tasks along with lackluster communication between personnel and machines. Globally securing this heterogeneous cyberinfrastructure was tedious at best and an agile, policy-driven system ensuring consistency, was pursued. Three configuration management tools, Chef, Puppet, and CFEngine have been compared in reliability, versatility and performance along with a comparison of infrastructure monitoring tools Nagios and Icinga. STAR has selected the CFEngine configuration management tool and the Icinga infrastructure monitoring system leading to a versatile and sustainable solution. By leveraging these two tools STAR can now swiftly upgrade and modify the environment to its needs with ease as well as promptly react to cyber-security requests. By creating a sustainable long term monitoring solution, the detection of failures was reduced from days to minutes, allowing rapid actions before the issues become dire problems, potentially causing loss of precious experimental data or uptime.

  15. Developing and implementing a data acquisition strategy for global agricultural monitoring: an inter-agency initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, C. O.; Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Killough, B.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, in response to global food crises, the G20 Agricultural Ministers launched a satellite-based global agricultural monitoring initiative to develop the Group on Earth Observations Global Agriculture Monitoring (GEOGLAM) system. The GEO is aimed at enhancing the availability and use of both satellite and in situ data for societal benefit. This initiative builds on the observation requirements developed by the GEO Agricultural Community of Practice, the understanding that no one satellite system can currently provide all the data needed for agricultural monitoring and the resulting recommendation for improved acquisition and availability of data by the World's space agencies. Implicit in this recommendation is the fact that certain regions of the Earth are imagery rich while others are imagery poor, leaving knowledge gaps about agricultural processes and food supply for certain areas of the World. In order to respond to these knowledge gaps and to strengthen national, regional, and global agricultural monitoring networks, GEOGLAM is working with the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS), the space arm of GEO, to develop a coordinated global acquisition strategy. A key component of GEOGLAM is an effort to articulate the temporal and spatial Earth Observation (EO) requirements for monitoring; second, the identification of current and planned missions which are capable of fulfilling these EO requirements; and third, the development of a multi-agency, multi-mission image acquisition strategy for agricultural monitoring. CEOS engineers and GEOGLAM scientists have been collaborating on the EO requirements since 2012, and are now beginning the first implementation phase of the acquisition strategy. The goal is to put in place an operational system of systems using a virtual constellation of satellite-based sensors acquiring data to meet the needs for monitoring and early warning of shortfalls in agricultural production, a goal that was articulated in the 1970's, which has yet to be met. Although technically feasible, the challenges are largely institutional and speak to issues of coordination, data policy, data continuity and political will. The GEOGLAM initiative provides an opportunity to address and overcome these challenges to implement a global image acquisition strategy designed to meet critical societal needs.

  16. Mapping and Modeling Web Portal to Advance Global Monitoring and Climate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, G.; Malhotra, S.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathulla, S.; Goodale, C. E.; Ramirez, P.; Kim, R. M.; Rodriguez, L.; Law, E.

    2011-12-01

    Today, the principal investigators of NASA Earth Science missions develop their own software to manipulate, visualize, and analyze the data collected from Earth, space, and airborne observation instruments. There is very little, if any, collaboration among these principal investigators due to the lack of collaborative tools, which would allow these scientists to share data and results. At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), under the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP), we have built a web portal that exposes a set of common services to users to allow search, visualization, subset, and download lunar science data. Users also have access to a set of tools that visualize, analyze and annotate the data. These services are developed according to industry standards for data access and manipulation, such REST and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) web services. As a result, users can access the datasets through custom written applications or off-the-shelf applications such as Google Earth. Even though it's currently used to store and process lunar data, this web portal infrastructure has been designed to support other solar system bodies such as asteroids and planets, including Earth. The infrastructure uses a combination of custom, commercial, and open-source software as well as off-the-shelf hardware and pay-by-use cloud computing services. The use of standardized web service interfaces facilitates platform and application-independent access to the services and data. For instance, we have software clients for the LMMP portal that provide a rich browsing and analysis experience from a variety of platforms including iOS and Android mobile platforms and large screen multi-touch displays with 3-D terrain viewing functions. The service-oriented architecture and design principles utilized in the implementation of the portal lends itself to be reusable and scalable and could naturally be extended to include a collaborative environment that enables scientists and principal investigators to share their research and analysis seamlessly. In addition, this extension will allow users to easily share their tools and data, and to enrich their mapping and analysis experiences. In this talk, we will describe the advanced data management and portal technologies used to power this collaborative environment. We will further illustrate how this environment can enable, enhance and advance global monitoring and climate research.

  17. The SysMan monitoring service and its management environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debski, Andrzej; Janas, Ekkehard

    1996-06-01

    Management of modern information systems is becoming more and more complex. There is a growing need for powerful, flexible and affordable management tools to assist system managers in maintaining such systems. It is at the same time evident that effective management should integrate network management, system management and application management in a uniform way. Object oriented OSI management architecture with its four basic modelling concepts (information, organization, communication and functional models) together with widely accepted distribution platforms such as ANSA/CORBA, constitutes a reliable and modern framework for the implementation of a management toolset. This paper focuses on the presentation of concepts and implementation results of an object oriented management toolset developed and implemented within the framework of the ESPRIT project 7026 SysMan. An overview is given of the implemented SysMan management services including the System Management Service, Monitoring Service, Network Management Service, Knowledge Service, Domain and Policy Service, and the User Interface. Special attention is paid to the Monitoring Service which incorporates the architectural key entity responsible for event management. Its architecture and building components, especially filters, are emphasized and presented in detail.

  18. Regional Monitoring of Ocean Acidification in Coral Reef Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gledhill, D. K.; Eakin, C.; Wanninkhof, R.; Liu, G.; Christensen, T.; Heron, S.; Morgan, J.; Skirving, W.; Strong, A.

    2009-05-01

    The surface oceans serve as an important natural sink for increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. As this CO2 reacts with seawater it reduces pH (acidification) and redistributes inorganic carbon species. A growing number of experimental studies now document adverse effects on a range of coral and related species as a consequence of ocean acidification. Mapping and monitoring the distribution of such changes in ocean chemistry provides an important context for understanding the potential impacts and identifying the most susceptible regions. NOAA Coral Reef Watch (CRW) and the AOML Ocean Chemistry Division now offer an experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite that provides a synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to derive a synoptic estimate of sea surface carbonate chemistry in regions occupied by prominent coral reef ecosystems. This tool compliments on-going geochemical surveys and monitoring efforts in the region by providing estimates of changing ocean chemistry on a broader spatial and temporal scale than shipboard observations alone can permit. The data are web accessible providing monthly regional maps of a variety of relevant parameters including sea surface aragonite saturation state, pCO2(sw), total alkalinity, carbonate ion, and bicarbonate ion and are available in multiple of formats including .gif and Google Earth and HDF. We will discuss recent advances in algorithm refinements and progress of expanding such efforts beyond the Greater Caribbean Region.

  19. Full time and full coverage global observation system for ecological monitoring base on MEO satellite grid constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Rui; Liu, Shuhao

    Human life more and more rely on earth environment and atmosphere, environmental information required by space based monitor is a crucial importance, although GEO and polar weather satellite in orbit by several countries, but it can’t monitor all zone of earth with real time. This paper present a conception proposal which can realize stable, continue and real time observation for any zone(include arctic and ant-arctic zone) of earth and its atmosphere, it base on walker constellation in 20000Km high medium orbit with 24 satellites, payloads configuration with infrared spectrometer, visible camera, ultraviolet ray camera, millimeter wave radiometer, leaser radar, spatial resolution are 1km@ infrared,0.5km@ visible optical. This satellite of grid constellation can monitor any zone of global with 1-3hours retrial observation cycles. Air pollution, ozone of atmosphere, earth surface pollution, desert storm, water pollution, vegetation change, natural disasters, man-made emergency situations, agriculture and climate change can monitor by this MEO satellite grid constellation. This system is a international space infrastructure, use of mature technologies and products, can build by co-operation with multi countries.

  20. Water in the Global Environment. Pathways in Geography Series, Title No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterstone, Marvin

    This report deals with the importance of water to life. The physical characteristics of water, its distribution, and a number of current water-related problems are examined. The issue of water management is discussed, along with the ways water is made available for our many uses in life. The introductory essay, "Water in the Global Environment,"

  1. Man in the Living Environment. A Report on Global Ecological Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inger, Robert F.; And Others

    The findings of four groups of ecologists are synthesized in chapter I of this report on global ecological problems prepared as a data base for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. The other chapters contain the reports of each group. In "Cycles of Elements" the biologically important elements, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen,

  2. New Challenges Facing Universities in the Internet-Driven Global Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajasingham, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores some new challenges facing universities in a global multimediated Internet-based environment, as they seek alternative paradigms and options to remain true to their core business. At a time of rapid technological change, and contested, complex concepts associated with globalisation, knowledge is becoming a primary factor of

  3. Man in the Living Environment. A Report on Global Ecological Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inger, Robert F.; And Others

    The findings of four groups of ecologists are synthesized in chapter I of this report on global ecological problems prepared as a data base for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. The other chapters contain the reports of each group. In "Cycles of Elements" the biologically important elements, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen,…

  4. Two Frameworks for Preparing Teachers for the Shift from Local to Global Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Barbara; Stevens, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The research outlined in this paper is based on the convergence of two conceptual frameworks that guide the transfer of knowledge and skills from traditional teacher education, which focused on teaching in single classrooms, to open networked learning environments that include both inter-institutional teaching and learning and local and global

  5. Monitoring the Environment in a Lava Tube with a Wireless Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Wilson, J. L.; Rendon, N. M.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring cave environments is important for several reasons. For instance, through the studies of cave environments, we can better protect cave ecology. Past experiments have monitored cave environments, although most of those were based on individual sensor nodes such as data loggers. In this paper we introduce and discuss a ZigBee wireless sensor network-based platform used for cave environment monitoring. The platform is based on a Freescale ZigBee evaluation kit. We carried out a proof-of-concept experiment in Junction Cave, a lava tube, at El Malpais National Monument in New Mexico. That experiment monitored temperature, humidity, and air turbulence inside the cave. The instrumentation consisted of a turbulence tower with five thermocouple-based sensors, reaching from the floor to the ceiling of the cave, temperature/humidity sensors distributed throughout the cave, and a low-power embedded Linux computer for data collection and storage. The experiment measured interesting air turbulence variations at different heights, which we related to to weather changes outside the cave and human activities inside the cave. The experiment also observed variations of air temperature at different locations inside the cave. In this presentation we will discuss the instrumentation as well as interpretations of the observations. The experiment demonstrated that a ZigBee wireless sensor network-based monitoring system is a potentially feasible platform for a cave environment monitoring system. We also found that network reliability, node cost, and power consumption need to be improved for future systems.

  6. Automated video screening for unattended background monitoring in dynamic environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2004-03-01

    This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A threat of specific interest to this project is the covert placement and subsequent remote detonation of bombs (e.g., briefcase bombs) inside crowded public facilities. Different from existing video motion detection systems, the video-screening technology described in this report is capable of detecting changes in the static background of an otherwise, dynamic environment - environments where motion and human activities are persistent. Our goal was to quickly detect changes in the background - even under conditions when the background is visible to the camera less than 5% of the time. Instead of subtracting the background to detect movement or changes in a scene, we subtracted the dynamic scene variations to produce an estimate of the static background. Subsequent comparisons of static background estimates are used to detect changes in the background. Detected changes can be used to alert security forces of the presence and location of potential threats. The results of this research are summarized in two MS Power-point presentations included with this report.

  7. Global Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation: History, Methods and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bartram, Jamie; Brocklehurst, Clarissa; Fisher, Michael B.; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hossain, Rifat; Wardlaw, Tessa; Gordon, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally-representative and internationally-comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation. PMID:25116635

  8. Global optimal design of ground water monitoring network using embedded kriging.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Anirban; Datta, Bithin

    2009-01-01

    We present a methodology for global optimal design of ground water quality monitoring networks using a linear mixed-integer formulation. The proposed methodology incorporates ordinary kriging (OK) within the decision model formulation for spatial estimation of contaminant concentration values. Different monitoring network design models incorporating concentration estimation error, variance estimation error, mass estimation error, error in locating plume centroid, and spatial coverage of the designed network are developed. A big-M technique is used for reformulating the monitoring network design model to a linear decision model while incorporating different objectives and OK equations. Global optimality of the solutions obtained for the monitoring network design can be ensured due to the linear mixed-integer programming formulations proposed. Performances of the proposed models are evaluated for both field and hypothetical illustrative systems. Evaluation results indicate that the proposed methodology performs satisfactorily. These performance evaluation results demonstrate the potential applicability of the proposed methodology for optimal ground water contaminant monitoring network design. PMID:19563421

  9. Joint IAMAS/IAHS Symposium J1 on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohring, G.; Aoki, T.; Halpern D.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; Charlock, T.; Joseph, J.; Labitzke, K.; Raschke, E.; Smith, W.

    1994-01-01

    Seventy papers were presented at the two-and-a-half-day Symposium on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. The symposium was jointly organized by the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). Global observing systems are receiving increased attention in connection with such problems as monitoring global climate change. The symposium included papers on observational requirements; measurement methodologies; descriptions of available datasets; results of analysis of observational data; plans for future observing systems, including the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS); and the programs and plans of the space agencies.

  10. MONITORING WASTE HEAT REJECTION TO THE ENVIRONMENT VIA REMOTE SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A

    2009-01-13

    Nuclear power plants typically use waste heat rejection systems such as cooling lakes and natural draft cooling towers. These systems are designed to reduce cooling water temperatures sufficiently to allow full power operation even during adverse meteorological conditions. After the power plant is operational, the performance of the cooling system is assessed. These assessments usually rely on measured temperatures of the cooling water after it has lost heat to the environment and is being pumped back into the power plant (cooling water inlet temperature). If the cooling system performance is not perceived to be optimal, the utility will collect additional data to determine why. This paper discusses the use of thermal imagery collected from aircraft and satellites combined with numerical simulation to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of nuclear power plant waste heat dissipation systems. The ANS meeting presentation will discuss analyses of several power plant cooling systems based on a combination of remote sensing data and hydrodynamic modeling.

  11. A New ERA in Global Temperature Monitoring with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D.; Christy, John R.

    1999-01-01

    The launch of the first Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on the NOAA-15 spacecraft on 13 May 1998 marked a significant advance in our ability to monitor global temperatures. Compared to the Microwave Sounding Units (MSU) flying since 1978 on the TIROS-N series of NOAA polar orbiters, the AMSU offers better horizontal, vertical, and radiometric resolutions. It will allow routine monitoring of 1 1 (mostly) separate layers, compared to 2 or 3 with the MSU, including layers in the middle and upper stratosphere (2.5 hPa) where increasing carbon dioxide concentrations should be causing a cooling rate of about 1 deg. C per decade. More precise limb corrections combined with low noise will allow identification of subtle spatial temperature patterns associated with global cyclone activity.

  12. Feedback following the Industry Engagement of the NNSA Unique Identifier and Global Monitoring 5 year plan

    SciTech Connect

    White-Horton, Jessica L; Whitaker, J Michael; Durbin, Karyn R.

    2013-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration s project for developing a unique identifier and a concept for a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders made significant progress on developing functional requirements and a concept of operation for such a system. The multi-laboratory team is working to define the functional requirements for both the unique identifier and the global monitoring system and to develop a preliminary concept of operations to discuss with key industry stakeholders. Team members began meeting with industry representatives in January 2013 to discuss the preliminary concept and solicit feedback and suggestions. The team has met with representatives from United States Enrichment Corporation, Cameco, URENCO, Honeywell/ConverDyn, and others. This paper presents an overview of the preliminary concept of operations and shares the feedback obtained from the industry engagement meetings.

  13. Global cytosine methylation in Daphnia magna depends on genotype, environment, and their interaction.

    PubMed

    Asselman, Jana; De Coninck, Dieter I M; Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Jansen, Mieke; Decaestecker, Ellen; De Meester, Luc; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2015-05-01

    The authors characterized global cytosine methylation levels in 2 different genotypes of the ecotoxicological model organism Daphnia magna after exposure to a wide array of biotic and abiotic environmental stressors. The present study aimed to improve the authors' understanding of the role of cytosine methylation in the organism's response to environmental conditions. The authors observed a significant genotype effect, an environment effect, and a genotype??environment effect. In particular, global cytosine methylation levels were significantly altered after exposure to Triops predation cues, Microcystis, and sodium chloride compared with control conditions. Significant differences between the 2 genotypes were observed when animals were exposed to Triops predation cues, Microcystis, Cryptomonas, and sodium chloride. Despite the low global methylation rate under control conditions (0.49-0.52%), global cytosine methylation levels upon exposure to Triops demonstrated a 5-fold difference between the genotypes (0.21% vs 1.02%). No effects were found in response to arsenic, cadmium, fish, lead, pH of 5.5, pH of 8, temperature, hypoxia, and white fat cell disease. The authors' results point to the potential role of epigenetic effects under changing environmental conditions such as predation (i.e., Triops), diet (i.e., Cryptomonas and Microcystis), and salinity. The results of the present study indicate that, despite global cytosine methylation levels being low, epigenetic effects may be important in environmental studies on Daphnia. PMID:25639773

  14. Monitoring Global Food Security with New Remote Sensing Products and Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Magadzire, T.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Global agriculture monitoring is a crucial aspect of monitoring food security in the developing world. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has a long history of using remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pests, and climate change. In recent years, it has become apparent that FEWS NET requires the ability to apply monitoring and modeling frameworks at a global scale to assess potential impacts of foreign production and markets on food security at regional, national, and local levels. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) Climate Hazards Group have provided new and improved data products as well as visualization and analysis tools in support of the increased mandate for remote monitoring. We present our monitoring products for measuring actual evapotranspiration (ETa), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a near-real-time mode, and satellite-based rainfall estimates and derivatives. USGS FEWS NET has implemented a Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to produce operational ETa anomalies for Africa and Central Asia. During the growing season, ETa anomalies express surplus or deficit crop water use, which is directly related to crop condition and biomass. We present current operational products and provide supporting validation of the SSEB model. The expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) production system provides FEWS NET with an improved NDVI dataset for crop and rangeland monitoring. eMODIS NDVI provides a reliable data stream with a relatively high spatial resolution (250-m) and short latency period (less than 12 hours) which allows for better operational vegetation monitoring. We provide an overview of these data and cite specific applications for crop monitoring. FEWS NET uses satellite rainfall estimates as inputs for monitoring agricultural food production and driving crop water balance models. We present a series of derived rainfall products and provide an update on efforts to improve satellite-based estimates. We also present advancements in monitoring tools, namely, the Early Warning eXplorer (EWX) and interactive rainfall and NDVI time series viewers. The EWX is a data analysis and visualization tool that allows users to rapidly visualize multiple remote sensing datasets and compare standardized anomaly maps and time series. The interactive time series viewers allow users to analyze rainfall and NDVI time series over multiple spatial domains. New and improved data products and more targeted analysis tools are a necessity as food security monitoring requirements expand and resources become limited.

  15. Volcanic Environments Monitoring by Drones Mud Volcano Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amici, S.; Turci, M.; Giulietti, F.; Giammanco, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; La Spina, A.; Spampinato, L.

    2013-08-01

    Volcanic activity has often affected human life both at large and at small scale. For example, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption caused severe economic damage at continental scale due to its strong effect on air traffic. At a local scale, ash fall and lava flow emission can cause harm and disruption. Understanding precursory signals to volcanic eruptions is still an open and tricky challenge: seismic tremor and gas emissions, for example, are related to upcoming eruptive activity but the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Furthermore, information related to gases emission mostly comes from the summit crater area of a volcano, which is usually hard to investigate with required accuracy. Although many regulation problems are still on the discussion table, an increasing interest in the application of cutting-edge technology like unmanned flying systems is growing up. In this sense, INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) started to investigate the possibility to use unmanned air vehicles for volcanic environment application already in 2004. A flight both in visual- and radio-controlled mode was carried out on Stromboli volcano as feasibility test. In this work we present the preliminary results of a test performed by INGV in collaboration with the University of Bologna (aerospace division) by using a multi-rotor aircraft in a hexacopter configuration. Thermal camera observations and flying tests have been realised over a mud volcano located on its SW flank of Mt. Etna and whose activity proved to be related to early stages of magma accumulation within the volcano.

  16. Monitoring the intracellular calcium response to a dynamic hypertonic environment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaowen; Yue, Wanqing; Liu, Dandan; Yue, Jianbo; Li, Jiaqian; Sun, Dong; Yang, Mengsu; Wang, Zuankai

    2016-01-01

    The profiling of physiological response of cells to external stimuli at the single cell level is of importance. Traditional approaches to study cell responses are often limited by ensemble measurement, which is challenging to reveal the complex single cell behaviors under a dynamic environment. Here we report the development of a simple microfluidic device to investigate intracellular calcium response to dynamic hypertonic conditions at the single cell level in real-time. Interestingly, a dramatic elevation in the intracellular calcium signaling is found in both suspension cells (human leukemic cell line, HL-60) and adherent cells (lung cancer cell line, A549), which is ascribed to the exposure of cells to the hydrodynamic stress. We also demonstrate that the calcium response exhibits distinct single cell heterogeneity as well as cell-type-dependent responses to the same stimuli. Our study opens up a new tool for tracking cellular activity at the single cell level in real time for high throughput drug screening. PMID:27004604

  17. Monitoring the intracellular calcium response to a dynamic hypertonic environment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaowen; Yue, Wanqing; Liu, Dandan; Yue, Jianbo; Li, Jiaqian; Sun, Dong; Yang, Mengsu; Wang, Zuankai

    2016-01-01

    The profiling of physiological response of cells to external stimuli at the single cell level is of importance. Traditional approaches to study cell responses are often limited by ensemble measurement, which is challenging to reveal the complex single cell behaviors under a dynamic environment. Here we report the development of a simple microfluidic device to investigate intracellular calcium response to dynamic hypertonic conditions at the single cell level in real-time. Interestingly, a dramatic elevation in the intracellular calcium signaling is found in both suspension cells (human leukemic cell line, HL-60) and adherent cells (lung cancer cell line, A549), which is ascribed to the exposure of cells to the hydrodynamic stress. We also demonstrate that the calcium response exhibits distinct single cell heterogeneity as well as cell-type-dependent responses to the same stimuli. Our study opens up a new tool for tracking cellular activity at the single cell level in real time for high throughput drug screening. PMID:27004604

  18. Qualification of the MyOcean Global Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting System Skill Assessment for Various Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, Charly; Drevillon, Marie; Desportes, Charles; Greiner, Eric; Hernandez, Fabrice

    2010-05-01

    The operational oceanography European project MyOcean is part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security GMES program. During the next 3 years, 61 European partners in 29 different countries will work to build a pan European ocean monitoring and forecasting capacity. The "marine core service" will be produced by ocean forecast centers and data centers working together. MyOcean is particularly attentive with the setting of quality control, including the scientific validation of the products. The computation of various forecast scores and the inter-comparison of these scores between the various systems is done with an ensemble of metrics defined in the context of MERSEA and GODAE. Based on these metrics and on various data comparisons, this contribution will give an overview of the quality of the product of the state-of-the-art analysis and forecast system. We will look at the global Ocean system which is run at Mercator-Ocean and is based on the ocean and sea ice modelling system NEMO and on an assimilation system based on Kalman filter/SEEK. It is declined in eddy permitting and eddy resolving configurations: The current version of the global system has a horizontal resolution, with a North Atlantic (including the tropics) and Mediterranean zoom at 1/12 , and a global 1/12 system is under development which will be the reference global system at the end of MyOcean. One of the aims of this quality report (which will probably be updated on a quarterly basis) is to interact with the scientific community and other users so that one can derive the level of confidence (or the correction one can make) for the use of the products in one's own application. We will show that measuring the quality of the systems points out the importance of the real time observation network. In order to monitor the ocean we need a perpetual relatively high resolution spatial and temporal coverage, as an input for ocean analysis and forecast systems as well as for a validation purpose. We also need reliable references like long ocean reanalyses in order to validate these systems but also to provide useful information such as interannual or decadal anomalies (for instance for users who whish to initialize seasonal forecast, decadal forecast).

  19. Coastal Louisiana Wetlands Restoration Monitoring with Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, G.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana has experienced dramatic landscape change over the past century due to human induced changes to the environment as well as an onslaught of major coastal storms. Coastal Louisiana loses on average 25-35 square miles of land per year. The USGS has partnered with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - National Marine Fisheries Service to provide cyclical remote sensing data for selected restoration sites along the coast of Louisiana. Three of these sites are actively maintained in the GFP archive - Atchafalaya River Delta, East Timbalier Island, and Pecan Island. These three sites coincide with NOAA restoration sites that have been monitored since early 2000. The GFP has provided a consistent set of remote sensing data that has greatly benefited the long-term monitoring of these restoration sites. Long-term monitoring of these sites includes both pre- and post-hurricane season data collection used to identify landscape change along the coast. The long-term monitoring also has helped to identify areas of success in the restoration projects, as well as areas that have continued to decline in spite of restoration efforts. These three sites are significant to the program because they provide a variety of coastal landscape types: an open water barrier island environment at East Timbalier Island; coastal wetlands at Pecan Island, which have experienced subsidence of the marsh and convergence to an open water environment; and a deltaic marsh environment at Atchafalaya River Delta. Long-term monitoring of these sites has provided a wealth of knowledge about the changes occurring, as well as a valuable tool for reliable shoreline measurements. Continued monitoring is necessary to accurately assess the condition of these areas as environmental conditions continue to shape the landscape.

  20. Global calibration of terrestrial reference cells and errors involved in using different irradiance monitoring techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of global calibration of terrestrial reference cells is discussed. A simple, accurate 'secondary' calibration technique based on ratios of test to reference cell currents measured in natural sunlight is described. Different techniques for monitoring incident irradiance during solar cell performance measurements are also examined and assessed, including the techniques of black-body detectors, calibrated reference cells, and the convolution of spectral response with solar irradiance.

  1. GLOBAL MONITORING OF URANIUM HEXIFLORIDE CYLINDERS NEXT STEPS IN DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTION PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, D.

    2010-06-09

    Over 40 industrial facilities world-wide use standardized uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders for transport, storage and in-process receiving in support of uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication processes. UF{sub 6} is processed and stored in the cylinders, with over 50,000 tU of UF{sub 6} transported each year in these International Organization for Standardization (ISO) qualified containers. Although each cylinder is manufactured to an ISO standard that calls for a nameplate with the manufacturer's identification number (ID) and the owner's serial number engraved on it, these can be quite small and difficult to read. Recognizing that each facility seems to use a different ID, a cylinder can have several different numbers recorded on it by means of metal plates, sticky labels, paint or even marker pen as it travels among facilities around the world. The idea of monitoring movements of UF{sub 6} cylinders throughout the global uranium fuel cycle has become a significant issue among industrial and safeguarding stakeholders. Global monitoring would provide the locations, movements, and uses of cylinders in commercial nuclear transport around the world, improving the efficiency of industrial operations while increasing the assurance that growing nuclear commerce does not result in the loss or misuse of cylinders. It should be noted that a unique ID (UID) attached to a cylinder in a verifiable manner is necessary for safeguarding needs and ensuring positive ID, but not sufficient for an effective global monitoring system. Modern technologies for tracking and inventory control can pair the UID with sensors and secure data storage for content information and complete continuity of knowledge over the cylinder. This paper will describe how the next steps in development of an action plan for employing a global UF{sub 6} cylinder monitoring network could be cultivated using four primary UID functions - identification, tracking, controlling, and accounting.

  2. Aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment. Part III: personal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgen, E.; Levsen, K.; Angerer, J.; Schneider, P.; Heinrich, J.; Wichmann, H.-E.

    As part of a larger study, personal sampling of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the isomeric xylenes (BTEX) was carried out by 55 nonsmoking volunteers for a period of 14 days. Thirty-nine persons lived in a rural area near Hannover (Germany) with hardly any traffic at all, while 16 persons lived in a high-traffic city street in Hannover. The personal exposure level of the persons in the rural area (some commuting to Hannover) was: 2.9, 24.8, 2.4 and 7.7 ?g m -3 for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the sum of xylenes, respectively, while the corresponding data for the high traffic city streets were 4.0, 22.2, 2.8 and 9.7 ?g m -3 (geometric means). Four microenvironments have been monitored which contribute to the total exposure to BTEX, i.e. the home, the outdoor air, the workplace and the car cabin. The most important microenvironment for non-working persons is the private home. The concentration of most BTEX in the private home is almost equal to the personal exposure level, demonstrating that the indoor pollution in the home makes by far the highest contribution to the total exposure. For working people (mostly office workers), the workplace is the second most important microenvironment contributing to the total BTEX exposure. Taking all working persons into consideration (independent of the location of their private home) the personal exposure level is higher by a factor of 1.2-1.4 than that of the workplace (for toluene this factor is 2.2). As already found by others, very high BTEX concentrations may be found in car cabins, in particular, if the engine is gasoline-driven. In the cabin of 44 cars in the rural/urban area average benzene concentrations (geometric mean) of 12/14 ?g m -3 and a maximum value of 550 ?g m -3 were found. On average, the participating volunteers drove their car for 45 min day -1 (i.e. 3% of the day). Nevertheless, the car cabin constitutes about 10% of the total benzene exposure. Refueling of the car during the 14-day sampling period has only a small effect on the personal exposure level.

  3. Aerosols and past environments: A global investigation into cave aerosol identification, distribution, and contribution to speleothem geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dredge, J. A.; Fairchild, I. J.; Harrison, R. M.; Woodhead, J. D.; Hellstrom, J.; Mattey, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new sector of interest is developing within cave science regarding the influence of aerosols on the cave environment and the potential speleothem palaeoenvironmental aerosol record which may be preserved. This paper presents the results from a global collaboration project which explored all aspects of aerosols in the cave environment. Cave aerosol identification, introduction and distribution Cave aerosol multivariable environmental monitoring projects were carried out in the UK, Spain, Austria and Australia. Results demonstrate that cave ventilation is the predominant control on the introduction and distribution of aerosols throughout the cave environment (Dredge et al., 2013). Consequently, aerosol transportation processes vary as a result of seasonal ventilation changes and cave morphological features. Cave aerosol contribution to speleothem geochemistry Aerosol contributions to speleothem geochemistry were determined by comparing monitored aerosol deposition to speleothem trace element data. Significant aerosol contribution scenarios were identified as: hiatus events, high aerosol flux situations and secondary microbial concentration processes. Modelling indicates that a >99.9% reduction in drip water flow rates is required to reduce trace element supply quantities to equal that of aerosol supply (Dredge et al., 2013). Aerosol palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironmental records Aerosol contributions and the ability to utilise aerosol records in speleothem are investigated in samples from Gibraltar and Australia. Long range dust sources and past atmospheric circulation over several glacial cycles is studied through Sr isotope analysis of a Flowstone core from Gibraltar. Results of organic fire proxy analysis from Australian speleothem samples indicate an aerosol deposition forest fire record. In addition to primary fire deposition, secondary biological feedbacks and subsequent bioaccumulation processes in the cave environment are explored by microbial analysis. References Dredge, J., Fairchild, I.J., Harrison, R.M., Fernandez-Cortes, A., Sanchez-Moral, S. Jurado, V., Gunn, J., Smith, A., Sptl, C., Mattey, D., Wynn, P.M., Grassineau, N. 2013. Cave aerosols: distribution and contribution to speleothem geochemistry. Quaternary Science Reviews, 63, 23-41

  4. Cellular biomarkers for monitoring estuarine environments: transplanted versus native mussels.

    PubMed

    Nigro, M; Falleni, A; Barga, I Del; Scarcelli, V; Lucchesi, P; Regoli, F; Frenzilli, G

    2006-05-25

    In developed countries, estuarine environments are often subjected to chemical pollution, whose biological impact is profitably evaluated by the use of multi-biomarker approaches on sentinel species. In this paper, we investigate genotoxicity and lysosomal alterations in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), from the estuary of the River Cecina (Tuscany, Italy), selected as "pilot basin" within the Water Frame Directive (2000/60 European Community). Both native and 1 month transplanted mussels were used in order to compare these two approaches in terms of sensitiveness of specific biomarker responses. Genotoxic effects were evaluated as strand breaks, by single cell gel electrophoresis (or Comet assay), and as chromosomal alterations, by the micronucleus test in gill cells. Lysosomal alterations were assessed by the neutral red retention time (in haemocytes), lipofuscin accumulation and ultrastructure (in digestive cells). Heavy metal bioaccumulation was also analysed. Mussels from the River Cecina showed a general alteration of all the biomarkers investigated, accompanied by an elevation of tissue metal levels. However, some differences in specific responses occurred between transplanted and native mussels. Early biomarkers, such as those based on DNA and lysosomal membrane integrity, were induced at similar degree in native and transplanted mussels; while alterations resulting from cumulative events, as the increase of micronuclei frequency were much more elevated in native specimens (23.1+/-7.6) than in transplanted (9.3+/-4.7) and reference ones (5.8+/-5.2). Similarly, the comparison between lipofuscin accumulation and mean lysosomal diameter in impacted and control sites, gave significant differences exclusively with transplanted mussels. These results suggest that the parallel use of caged and native mussels in environmental biomonitoring can improve the characterization of the study area. PMID:16480782

  5. New indicators for global crop monitoring in CropWatch -case study in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingfang, Wu; Miao, Zhang; Hongwei, Zeng; Guoshui, Liu; Sheng, Chang; Gommes, Ren

    2014-03-01

    CropWatch is a monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information. Now in its 15th year of operation, CropWatch was modified several times to be a timely, comprehensive and independent global agricultural monitoring system using advanced remote sensing technology. Currently CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite (FY-3A) and cloud classification products of FY-2. With new satellite data, CropWatch will generate new indicators such as fallow land ratio (FLR), crop condition for irrigated (CCI) and non-irrigated (CCNI) areas separately, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), radiation use efficiency for the photosynthetically active radiation (RUEPAR) and cropping index (CI) with crop rotation information (CRI). In this paper, the methods for monitoring the new indicators are applied to the North China Plain which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. This paper shows the preliminary results of the new indicators and methods; they still need to be thoroughly validated before being incorporated into the operational CropWatch system. In the future, the new and improved indicators will help us to better understand the global situation of food security.

  6. Design and package of a 14CO2 field analyzer: the Global Monitor Platform (GMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Bruno D. V.; Bright, Michelle; Gronniger, Glen

    2011-09-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is widely accepted as a means to reduce and eliminate the fossil fuel CO2 (ff- CO2) emissions from coal fired power plants. Success of CCS depends on near zero leakage rates over decadal time scales. Currently no commercial methods to determine leakage of ff-CO2 are available. The Global Monitor Platform (GMP) field analyzer provides high precision analysis of CO2 isotopes [12C (99%), 13C (<1%), 14C (1.2x10-10 %)] that can differentiate between fossil and biogenic CO2 emissions. Fossil fuels contain no 14C; their combustion should lower atmospheric amounts on local to global scales. There is a clear mandate for monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) of CCS systems nationally and globally to verify CCS integrity, treaty verification (Kyoto Protocol) and to characterize the nuclear fuel cycle. Planetary Emissions Management (PEM), working with the National Secure Manufacturing Center (NSMC), has the goal of designing, ruggedizing and packaging the GMP for field deployment. The system will conduct atmosphere monitoring then adapt to water and soil evaluations. Measuring 14CO2 in real time will provide quantitative concentration data for ff-CO2 in the atmosphere and CCS leakage detection. Initial results will be discussed along with design changes for improved detection sensitivity and manufacturability.

  7. Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Booth, Cormac G

    2016-01-01

    The use of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) around marine developments is commonplace. A buffer-based PAM system (e.g., C-POD) is a cost-effective method for assessing cetacean acoustic presence. Devices have been deployed by Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) Marine around the United Kingdom, allowing an examination of the performance of C-PODs with respect to background noise, tilt angle, and environmental factors. C-PODs were found to often only monitor for a few seconds of each minute, resulting in significant loss of monitoring time. Issues were likely driven by environmental and deployment factors. The practical limitations of buffer-based PAM systems in high-energy/noisy environments are indicated here. PMID:26610949

  8. Monitoring global change with phenology: The case of the spring green wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Mark D.

    1994-03-01

    The centuries-old practice of recording plant and animal events that take place at specific times each year (phenology) should play an important role in monitoring mid-latitude global changes. At least three problems related to the detection of biosphere changes could be investigated using this information. Firstly, the technique can be generalized from the local to global scale. Secondly, an integrated approach could be developed to represent biome diversity effectively. Lastly, physical mechanisms responsible for the events can be deduced in order to incorporate the phenological information into global-scale models, and detect changes in related environmental factors. With these goals in mind, regional phenological data collection networks were initiated in eastern North America during the early 1960s, using cloned lilacs and several species of honeysuckle. This paper reviews research projects which address the problems outlined above, using first leaf data (associated with spring green-up or “green wave” in mid-latitudes) gathered from these networks. The results of such studies in North America have demonstrated the potential of phenology as an efficient monitor of global change throughout mid-latitude regions. Future research efforts will concentrate on the development of a coordinated strategy to link phenological information from satellites, indicator plants (such as the lilac), and representative species from each biome.

  9. Monitoring Progress towards Universal Health Coverage at Country and Global Levels

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Ties; Eozenou, Patrick; Evans, David; Evans, Tim; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Wagstaff, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has been defined as the desired outcome of health system performance whereby all people who need health services (promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation) receive them, without undue financial hardship. UHC has two interrelated components: the full spectrum of good-quality, essential health services according to need, and protection from financial hardship, including possible impoverishment, due to out-of-pocket payments for health services. Both components should benefit the entire population. This paper summarizes the findings from 13 country case studies and five technical reviews, which were conducted as part of the development of a global framework for monitoring progress towards UHC. The case studies show the relevance and feasibility of focusing UHC monitoring on two discrete components of health system performance: levels of coverage with health services and financial protection, with a focus on equity. These components link directly to the definition of UHC and measure the direct results of strategies and policies for UHC. The studies also show how UHC monitoring can be fully embedded in often existing, regular overall monitoring of health sector progress and performance. Several methodological and practical issues related to the monitoring of coverage of essential health services, financial protection, and equity, are highlighted. Addressing the gaps in the availability and quality of data required for monitoring progress towards UHC is critical in most countries. PMID:25243899

  10. An Experimental Global Monitoring System for Rainfall-triggered Landslides using Satellite Remote Sensing Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2006-01-01

    Landslides triggered by rainfall can possibly be foreseen in real time by jointly using rainfall intensity-duration thresholds and information related to land surface susceptibility. However, no system exists at either a national or a global scale to monitor or detect rainfall conditions that may trigger landslides due to the lack of extensive ground-based observing network in many parts of the world. Recent advances in satellite remote sensing technology and increasing availability of high-resolution geospatial products around the globe have provided an unprecedented opportunity for such a study. In this paper, a framework for developing an experimental real-time monitoring system to detect rainfall-triggered landslides is proposed by combining two necessary components: surface landslide susceptibility and a real-time space-based rainfall analysis system (http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.aov). First, a global landslide susceptibility map is derived from a combination of semi-static global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, and land cover classification etc.) using a GIs weighted linear combination approach. Second, an adjusted empirical relationship between rainfall intensity-duration and landslide occurrence is used to assess landslide risks at areas with high susceptibility. A major outcome of this work is the availability of a first-time global assessment of landslide risk, which is only possible because of the utilization of global satellite remote sensing products. This experimental system can be updated continuously due to the availability of new satellite remote sensing products. This proposed system, if pursued through wide interdisciplinary efforts as recommended herein, bears the promise to grow many local landslide hazard analyses into a global decision-making support system for landslide disaster preparedness and risk mitigation activities across the world.

  11. Land-atmosphere coupling metrics from satellite remote sensing as a global drought-monitoring tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, Joshua K.; Santanello, Joseph A.

    2015-04-01

    Drought causes significant economic impact to society that can be reduced through preparations made possible by monitoring and prediction. Most drought monitoring systems utilize a variety of metrics to assess and understand drought. Feedbacks induced through land-atmosphere interactions are an important mechanism of drought intensification and persistence that is often not considered in current drought monitors due to a lack of spatially consistent observations. Recent work has developed a new classification of land-atmosphere interactions that summarizes the net impact of these interactions on drought intensification and recovery through the Coupling Drought Index (CDI). One thing that makes the CDI unique is that it can be calculated based on estimates from satellite remote sensing, which makes it particularly useful for global drought monitoring. Furthermore, the persistent nature of these coupling regimes provides a means of prediction through a Markov Chain Coupling Statistical Model (CSM). Previous work has shown that the CDI based on satellite remote sensing compares well with the U.S. Drought monitor in terms of drought intensification and recovery. On the other hand, the skill of the CSM forecasts over the U.S. is limited and still needs improvement. In this work the extent to which the CDI and CSM can be extended to other areas of the globe are explored. In particular, the ability of the satellite remote sensing based CDI to capture drought intensification and recovery over Africa and Europe are assessed. The benefits and limitations of using a metric of land-atmosphere interactions for global drought monitoring are also discussed.

  12. Monitoring global land surface drought based on a hybrid evapotranspiration model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Qin, Qiming; Wang, Kaicun; Zhao, Shaohua

    2011-06-01

    The latent heat of evapotranspiration (ET) plays an important role in the assessment of drought severity as one sensitive indicator of land drought status. A simple and accurate method of estimating global ET for the monitoring of global land surface droughts from remote sensing data is essential. The objective of this research is to develop a hybrid ET model by introducing empirical coefficients based on a simple linear two-source land ET model, and to then use this model to calculate the Evaporative Drought Index (EDI) based on the actual estimated ET and the potential ET in order to characterize global surface drought conditions. This is done using the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) products, AVHRR-NDVI products from the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group, and National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis-2 (NCEP-2) datasets. We randomly divided 22 flux towers into two groups and performed a series of cross-validations using ground measurements collected from the corresponding flux towers. The validation results from the second group of flux towers using the data from the first group for calibration show that the daily bias varies from -6.72 W/m 2 to 12.95 W/m 2 and the average monthly bias is -1.73 W/m 2. Similarly, the validation results of the first group of flux towers using data from second group for calibration show that the daily bias varies from -12.91 W/m 2 to 10.26 W/m 2 and the average monthly bias is -3.59 W/m 2. To evaluate the reliability of the hybrid ET model on a global scale, we compared the estimated ET from the GEWEX, AVHRR-GIMMS-NDVI, and NECP-2 datasets with the latent heat flux from the Global Soil Wetness Project-2 (GSWP-2) datasets. We found both of them to be in good agreement, which further supports the validity of our model's global ET estimation. Significantly, the patterns of monthly EDI anomalies have a good spatial and temporal correlation with the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) anomalies from January 1984 to December 2002, which indicates that the method can be used to accurately monitor long-term global land surface drought.

  13. An Intelligent System for Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Paul P.; Jules, Kenol

    2002-01-01

    An intelligent system for monitoring the microgravity environment quality on-board the International Space Station is presented. The monitoring system uses a new approach combining Kohonen's self-organizing feature map, learning vector quantization, and back propagation neural network to recognize and classify the known and unknown patterns. Finally, fuzzy logic is used to assess the level of confidence associated with each vibrating source activation detected by the system.

  14. Remote sensing and spatial-analytic techniques for monitoring landscape structure in disturbed and restored coastal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phinn, Stuart Ross

    The purpose of this work is to design and evaluate a framework that integrates remote sensing and spatial analytic techniques for providing information on the spatial characteristics of vegetation structures. Vegetation structures are horizontal and vertical arrangements of plant species and biomass that control levels of ground cover. Information on the spatial characteristics of vegetation structures can be used to define landscape structure. Environmental monitoring and management activities from local to global scales require this information to assess ecosystem structure, dynamics and disturbance impacts. This is especially the case in coastal areas at local scales, up to 100 kmsp2, where disturbed landscapes and restoration activities are common. Remotely sensed data and spatial analytic techniques are capable of providing information on vegetation structures at local scales. Two problems limit the application of these techniques: (1) identifying suitable spectral, radiometric, spatial and temporal data resolutions and (2) defining analytic techniques to provide appropriate information for specific monitoring objectives and environments. Both of these "scaling" problems result from not utilizing prior knowledge on the forms and processes controlling an environment's spatial structure, to select and interpret data. Therefore, this dissertation research addresses the problem of determining suitable dimensions of remotely sensed data for deriving information on vegetation structures. A framework integrating exiting concepts in physical geography, hierarchy theory and remote sensing was developed to monitor the spatial characteristics of vegetation structures in disturbed and restored coastal environments at local scales. The first stages identify the type and scales of information required on the spatial characteristics of vegetation structures for disturbance and restoration monitoring. The spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal resolution(s) of remotely sensed data are specified by combining the scale and type of information required on vegetation structures in a scene model and checking this with exploratory analysis of existing remotely sensed data. Scene model dimensions provide a basis to evaluate potential data sets and select suitable analytic techniques to produce the required information on vegetation structure. Three case studies requiring information on vegetation structures for disturbance and restoration monitoring in a coastal environment were conducted for evaluating the framework's utility, sources of uncertainty and error, and overall strengths and weaknesses. The framework's principal strength was its function as a general construct for providing synthetic assessment of the utility and limitation of different types of remotely sensed data and analysis techniques. The case studies demonstrated the framework's capability to address previous limitations of applying remotely sensed data to examine terrestrial landscape-ecosystem-vegetation structure by: (1) selecting spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal data resolutions and analytic techniques suitable for the target environment; and (2) providing information able to address a particular management objective or research question.

  15. A Future Network for Monitoring the Driving Function of Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, W. F.

    2007-12-01

    A new future network is proposed to monitor the radiative forcing of global warming by greenhouse gases. The greenhouse radiation is the downward infrared heat radiation from greenhouse gases, otherwise known as the surface forcing radiation. The increase in this radiation due to increased carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is the driving function of global warming. In an experimental project, the calibrated spectrum of the greenhouse radiation at the surface has been measured for the last 10 years in the Great Lakes area. From these measurements the radiative flux from each greenhouse gas has been extracted. There is a 10 year record of the radiative fluxes from carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and CFCs. The increases in these fluxes represent the forcing function of global warming. It is an experimental version of radiative forcing similar to but different from the radiative forcing used by IPCC. It is proposed that this radiative forcing should be monitored in a fashion similar to our monitoring of the ozone layer. A world monitoring network like the world total ozone monitoring network of Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers should be setup. The AERI instrument already exists and there are 12 of them deployed around the world; it is manufactured by ABB BOMEM. The methodology will be to process the AERI infrared spectrometer measurements into the downward surface radiation flux in W/m2 from each of the major greenhouse gases. Well calibrated infrared spectral measurements of the downward infrared long wave radiation have been routinely made by the AERI instruments at the three main DOE ARM sites for over 7 years with a 12 year record at the SGP site. These are being processed into long wave radiation fluxes from each of the major greenhouse gases using a methodology already developed for similar measurements at 44 N in the Great Lakes area. The uses of the data would be to investigate the seasonal and climate regime variations of the surface greenhouse radiation flux, compare the measurements with climate model simulations of the surface forcing radiation fluxes for each greenhouse gas, evaluate the reduction of the surface forcing radiation by various types of clouds by measuring the reduction in surface radiation forcing under cloudy conditions, conduct complementary measurements of surface radiation forcing with radiative trapping measured from space with overpasses of satellites and monitor the increase with time of the forcing radiation from each gas. This network will provide a new experimental dataset which would complement the calculated radiative forcings from climate models which are currently used for policy determination of safe levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The new network will give us the experimental capability to conduct long-term monitoring of the increases in greenhouse radiation due to increases in the individual greenhouse gases without using an intervening climate model. This also adds a new climate observable which could potentially be used to compare changes in the long wave radiation balance of the atmosphere with other climate variables. Hence, the world should monitor this important variable instead of relying solely on model calculations of radiative forcing since it is the fundamental forcing function of global warming. The analysis of the data from ARM AERI sites would represent a big step towards building a world monitoring network for this very important climate observable. With AERI instruments deployed around the globe, a first step in building a network to monitor radiative forcing similar to the world ozone monitoring network has already taken place. This future network emphasizes the extreme importance of continuing the DOE ARM AERI measurements for the foreseeable future.

  16. Workshop on Pervasive Computing and Cooperative Environments in a Global Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvarajah, Kirusnapillai; Speirs, Neil

    The increasing number of devices that are invisibly embedded into our surrounding environment as well as the proliferation of wireless communication and sensing technologies are the basis for visions like ambient intelligence, ubiquitous and pervasive computing. In this context, the objective of PECES EU project is the creation of a comprehensive software layer to enable the seamless cooperation of embedded devices across various smart spaces on a global scale in a context-dependent, secure and trustworthy manner.

  17. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission: Monitoring the Global Tropics for 3 Years and Beyond. 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Marshall; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was launched in November 1997 as a joint U.S.-Japanese mission to advance understanding of the global energy and water cycle by providing distributions of rainfall and latent heating over the global tropics. As a part of NASA's Earth System Enterprise, TRMM seeks to understand the mechanisms through which changes in tropical rainfall influence global circulation. Additionally, a goal is to improve the ability to model these processes in order to predict global circulations and rainfall variability at monthly and longer time scales. Such understanding has implications for assessing climate processes related to El Nino/La Nina and Global Warming. TRMM has also provided unexpected and exciting new knowledge and applications in areas related to hurricane monitoring, lightning, pollution, hydrology, and other areas. This CD-ROM includes a self-contained PowerPoint presentation that provides an overview of TRMM and significant science results; a set of data movies or animation; and listings of current TRMM-related publications in the literature.

  18. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative to reduce obesity and diet-related NCDs. PMID:24833697

  19. Prioritizing GM crop monitoring sites in the dynamics of cultivation systems and their environment.

    PubMed

    Bethwell, Claudia; Mller, Hans-Jrgen; Eulenstein, Frank; Graef, Frieder

    2012-05-01

    EU legislation stipulates that GM crops have to be monitored for potential adverse environmental effects. Monitoring preferably should take place in the most exposed areas-the cultivated fields and their neighbouring environment. Current monitoring designs do not give detailed consideration to the different exposure intensities in agricultural practice. At the same time, the selection of specific, more exposed sites is difficult considering the dynamic and diversity of crop cultivation and rotation systems and their environments. We developed an approach for prioritising the monitoring of on-farm and neighbouring sites based on differing exposure levels using a minimum dataset of cultivation and land use information. Applying a Bt-maize cultivation scenario to Brandenburg, Germany, where presently no GM crops are cultivated, we systemised and categorised areas with different spatio-temporal exposure intensities including 50 m, 200 m and 1000 m buffers. These categories correspond to different suitabilities to serve as monitoring sites. Sites are prioritised using a sequential scheme. This yields an improved and objective spatial monitoring design providing detailed exposure information. This methodology is flexible and transferable to any agricultural setting, therefore enabling superior statistical comparisons between locations and regions and thus enhancing monitoring data quality. PMID:22495474

  20. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Davies, Stuart J; Bennett, Amy C; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Wright, S Joseph; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Almeyda Zambrano, Anglica M; Alonso, Alfonso; Baltzer, Jennifer L; Basset, Yves; Bourg, Norman A; Broadbent, Eben N; Brockelman, Warren Y; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Burslem, David F R P; Butt, Nathalie; Cao, Min; Cardenas, Dairon; Chuyong, George B; Clay, Keith; Cordell, Susan; Dattaraja, Handanakere S; Deng, Xiaobao; Detto, Matteo; Du, Xiaojun; Duque, Alvaro; Erikson, David L; Ewango, Corneille E N; Fischer, Gunter A; Fletcher, Christine; Foster, Robin B; Giardina, Christian P; Gilbert, Gregory S; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Gunatilleke, Savitri; Hao, Zhanqing; Hargrove, William W; Hart, Terese B; Hau, Billy C H; He, Fangliang; Hoffman, Forrest M; Howe, Robert W; Hubbell, Stephen P; Inman-Narahari, Faith M; Jansen, Patrick A; Jiang, Mingxi; Johnson, Daniel J; Kanzaki, Mamoru; Kassim, Abdul Rahman; Kenfack, David; Kibet, Staline; Kinnaird, Margaret F; Korte, Lisa; Kral, Kamil; Kumar, Jitendra; Larson, Andrew J; Li, Yide; Li, Xiankun; Liu, Shirong; Lum, Shawn K Y; Lutz, James A; Ma, Keping; Maddalena, Damian M; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marthews, Toby; Mat Serudin, Rafizah; McMahon, Sean M; McShea, William J; Memiaghe, Herv R; Mi, Xiangcheng; Mizuno, Takashi; Morecroft, Michael; Myers, Jonathan A; Novotny, Vojtech; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Ong, Perry S; Orwig, David A; Ostertag, Rebecca; den Ouden, Jan; Parker, Geoffrey G; Phillips, Richard P; Sack, Lawren; Sainge, Moses N; Sang, Weiguo; Sri-Ngernyuang, Kriangsak; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I-Fang; Sungpalee, Witchaphart; Suresh, Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana; Tan, Sylvester; Thomas, Sean C; Thomas, Duncan W; Thompson, Jill; Turner, Benjamin L; Uriarte, Maria; Valencia, Renato; Vallejo, Marta I; Vicentini, Alberto; Vrka, Tom; Wang, Xihua; Wang, Xugao; Weiblen, George; Wolf, Amy; Xu, Han; Yap, Sandra; Zimmerman, Jess

    2015-02-01

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. Within very large plots (median size 25 ha), all stems ? 1 cm diameter are identified to species, mapped, and regularly recensused according to standardized protocols. CTFS-ForestGEO spans 25 S-61 N latitude, is generally representative of the range of bioclimatic, edaphic, and topographic conditions experienced by forests worldwide, and is the only forest monitoring network that applies a standardized protocol to each of the world's major forest biomes. Supplementary standardized measurements at subsets of the sites provide additional information on plants, animals, and ecosystem and environmental variables. CTFS-ForestGEO sites are experiencing multifaceted anthropogenic global change pressures including warming (average 0.61 C), changes in precipitation (up to 30% change), atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds (up to 3.8 g N m(-2) yr(-1) and 3.1 g S m(-2) yr(-1)), and forest fragmentation in the surrounding landscape (up to 88% reduced tree cover within 5 km). The broad suite of measurements made at CTFS-ForestGEO sites makes it possible to investigate the complex ways in which global change is impacting forest dynamics. Ongoing research across the CTFS-ForestGEO network is yielding insights into how and why the forests are changing, and continued monitoring will provide vital contributions to understanding worldwide forest diversity and dynamics in an era of global change. PMID:25258024

  1. Strengthening of accountability systems to create healthy food environments and reduce global obesity.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, Boyd; Kraak, Vivica; Rutter, Harry; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lobstein, Tim; Sacks, Gary; Gomes, Fabio; Marsh, Tim; Magnusson, Roger

    2015-06-20

    To achieve WHO's target to halt the rise in obesity and diabetes, dramatic actions are needed to improve the healthiness of food environments. Substantial debate surrounds who is responsible for delivering effective actions and what, specifically, these actions should entail. Arguments are often reduced to a debate between individual and collective responsibilities, and between hard regulatory or fiscal interventions and soft voluntary, education-based approaches. Genuine progress lies beyond the impasse of these entrenched dichotomies. We argue for a strengthening of accountability systems across all actors to substantially improve performance on obesity reduction. In view of the industry opposition and government reluctance to regulate for healthier food environments, quasiregulatory approaches might achieve progress. A four step accountability framework (take the account, share the account, hold to account, and respond to the account) is proposed. The framework identifies multiple levers for change, including quasiregulatory and other approaches that involve government-specified and government-monitored progress of private sector performance, government procurement mechanisms, improved transparency, monitoring of actions, and management of conflicts of interest. Strengthened accountability systems would support government leadership and stewardship, constrain the influence of private sector actors with major conflicts of interest on public policy development, and reinforce the engagement of civil society in creating demand for healthy food environments and in monitoring progress towards obesity action objectives. PMID:25703108

  2. The Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS): Overview and Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AghaKouchak, A.; Hao, Z.; Farahmand, A.; Nakhjiri, N.

    2013-12-01

    Development of reliable monitoring and prediction indices and tools are fundamental to drought preparedness and management. Motivated by the Global Drought Information Systems (GDIS) activities, this paper presents the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS) which provides near real-time drought information using both remote sensing observations and model simulations. The monthly data from the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-Land), North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), and remotely sensed precipitation data are used as input to GIDMaPS. Numerous indices have been developed for drought monitoring based on various indicator variables (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, water storage). Defining droughts based on a single variable (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture or runoff) may not be sufficient for reliable risk assessment and decision making. GIDMaPS provides drought information based on multiple indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) and the Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) which combines SPI and SSI probabilistically. In other words, MSDI incorporates the meteorological and agricultural drought conditions for overall characterization of droughts. The seasonal prediction component of GIDMaPS is based on a persistence model which requires historical data and near-past observations. The seasonal drought prediction component is based on two input data sets (MERRA and NLDAS) and three drought indicators (SPI, SSI and MSDI). The drought prediction model provides the empirical probability of drought for different severity levels. In this presentation, both monitoring and prediction components of GIDMaPS will be discussed, and the results from several major droughts including the 2013 Namibia, 2012-2013 United States, 2011-2012 Horn of Africa, and 2010 Amazon Droughts will be presented. The results indicate that GIDMaPS advances our drought monitoring and prediction capabilities through integration of multiple data and indicators.

  3. FBG and FOPS for local and global structural health monitoring on a single fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Muneesh; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Ching, Wei Wen; Asundi, A.

    2015-04-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and fiber optic polarimetric sensors (FOPS) have been widely researched and implemented for structural health monitoring (SHM). FBG essentially provides localized strain information, while FOPS gives a global indication of the structural health of materials. An FBG written on the polarization maintaining (PM) fiber can thus be used for both global structural monitoring and local strain sensing. However each sensor has to be used with its own hardware and processing. For gratings written on PM fibers two Bragg reflections, corresponding to two modes of polarization, are observed. While both Bragg wavelengths shift under longitudinal strain in unison, their relative peak amplitude does not change. In this paper, a novel concept is proposed which makes the peak amplitudes responsive to the longitudinal strain. This relative amplitude of both the peaks is used for the first time to determine the state of polarization (SOP) with no additional optical systems. With this additional information on SOP, PM-FBGs can be used for both, local and global SHM simultaneously. Further, a new design has been proposed which gives improved information on the damaged location in beam structures. This can be further extended to other complex geometries.

  4. A 3-year hygiene and safety monitoring of a meat processing plant which uses raw materials of global origin.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos C; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Doultsos, Dimitrios A; Zilelidou, Evangelia A; Gialitaki, Maria A; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-09-16

    A systematic approach in monitoring the hygiene of a meat processing plant using classical microbiological analyses combined with molecular characterization tools may assist in the safety of the final products. This study aimed: (i) to evaluate the total hygiene level and, (ii) to monitor and characterize the occurrence and spread of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the environment and the final products of a meat industry that processes meat of global origin. In total, 2541 samples from the processing environment, the raw materials, and the final products were collected from a Greek meat industry in the period 2011-2013. All samples were subjected to enumeration of total viable counts (TVC), Escherichia coli (EC) and total coliforms (TCC) and the detection of Salmonella spp., while 709 of these samples were also analyzed for the presence L. monocytogenes. Pathogen isolates were serotyped and further characterized for their antibiotic resistance and subtyped by PFGE. Raw materials were identified as the primary source of contamination, while improper handling might have also favored the proliferation of the initial microbial load. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes reached 5.5% and 26.9%, respectively. Various (apparent) cross-contamination or persistence trends were deduced based on PFGE analysis results. Salmonella isolates showed wide variation in their innate antibiotic resistance, contrary to L. monocytogenes ones, which were found susceptible to all antibiotics except for cefotaxime. The results emphasize the biodiversity of foodborne pathogens in a meat industry and may be used by meat processors to understand the spread of pathogens in the processing environment, as well as to assist the Food Business Operator (FBO) in establishing effective criteria for selection of raw materials and in improving meat safety and quality. This approach can limit the increase of microbial contamination during the processing steps observed in our study as well as the cross contamination of meat products. PMID:25600954

  5. Global seamless network demonstrator: carrier grade automatic switched transport network implementation in realistic telecom field environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foisel, Hans-Martin; Hanik, Norbert; Braun, Ralf-Peter; Lehr, Georg; Gladisch, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    The Global Seamless Network (GSN) Demonstrator is presented, a joint effort of system vendors and Deutsche Telekom Group R&D to demonstrate network functions and management integration and enable, for the first time, experiences with a carrier grade Automatically Switched Transport Network (ASTN) implementation and the envisaged main ASTN clients, IP and Ethernet. For end-to-end monitoring capability, integrating the view on the ASTN and Ethernet-MAN configuration, an UMS (Upper Monitoring System) is being developed. Furthermore broadband application were implemented to visualise the network functions. The ASTN backbone consists of four cross connects and an ULH-WDM system with 3x 10Gbit/s channels (OCh) between Berlin and Darmstadt, whereby each OCh is treated as a virtual fibre.

  6. Silver-based electrochemical sensors for sulfide monitoring in deep-sea environments: New approaches based on autonomous measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreira Pereira, Leonardo; Peru, Erwan; Le Bris, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    A large variety of sulfidic environments have been described in the deep-sea since the late seventies, such as hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, organic falls or sub-seafloor microbial habitats. The reactivity of sulfide toward living organisms is a key concern in the exploration and study of these ecosystems, especially at hydrothermal vents where sulfide is a predominant energy source for chemosynthesis. However, the dynamics of sulfide gradients in these marine environments are still poorly documented, constraining the knowledge of their biogeochemical and ecological consequences. In this context, the development of sulfide autonomous sensors became a primary challenge. Measurement tools capable to capture the temporal variability of sulfide concentrations and related parameters are particularly needed, owing to the variability of environments at hydrothermal vents. Silver sulfide potentiometry, which was already applied in situ for punctual measurements, and a new voltammetric method based on bare silver, an electrode material which avoids the need for complex and repeated conditioning of the electrodes, are particularly suitable for unattended use. The advantages and limits of the potentiometric and voltammetric sensing techniques using solid-state electrodes were compared, with respect to the major requirements: concentration ranges; sensitivity to change of pH and temperature; minimum measurement rate; spatial resolution; autonomy; stability and reliability over time. Laboratory tests, combined with unprecedented series of in situ deployments in deep sea and other shallow water sulfidic environments, depict the potential of these tools for monitoring sulfide fluctuations in deep-sea habitats over weeks to months, and their use for investigation of the biogeochemical transformation of sulfur over time. Such sensors, improves the knowledge from these hardly accessible environments and could also reveal usefull to study shallow coastal waters, where sulfidic environments have been known for long. Mangroves, salt-marshes and submarine groundwater discharge zones had proven their importance in local, regional and even global scale processes. The need to monitor sulfide in this context is increasing, due to the probable increase of sulfide exposure episodes as a result of global changes, particularly with the increase of coastal anoxia.

  7. Environmental exposure modeling and monitoring of human pharmaceutical concentrations in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Versteeg, D.J.; Alder, A. C.; Cunningham, V. L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Murray-Smith, R.; Ternes, T.

    2005-01-01

    Human pharmaceuticals are receiving increased attention as environmental contaminants. This is due to their biological activity and the number of monitoring programs focusing on analysis of these compounds in various environmental media and compartments. Risk assessments are needed to understand the implications of reported concentrations; a fundamental part of the risk assessment is an assessment of environmental exposures. The purpose of this chapter is to provide guidance on the use of predictive tools (e.g., models) and monitoring data in exposure assessments for pharmaceuticals in the environment. Methods to predict environmental concentrations from equations based on first principles are presented. These equations form the basis of existing GIS (geographic information systems)-based systems for understanding the spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals in the environment. The pharmaceutical assessment and transport (PhATE), georeferenced regional exposure assessment tool for European rivers (GREAT-ER), and geographical information system (GIS)-ROUT models are reviewed and recommendations are provided concerning the design and execution of monitoring studies. Model predictions and monitoring data are compared to evaluate the relative utility of each approach in environmental exposure assessments. In summary, both models and monitoring data can be used to define representative exposure concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the environment in support of environmental risk assessments.

  8. Meeting Report: Long Term Monitoring of Global Vegetation using Moderate Resolution Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Heinsch, Fath Ann; Running, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    The international community has long recognized the need to coordinate observations of Earth from space. In 1984, this situation provided the impetus for creating the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), an international coordinating mechanism charged with coordinating international civil spaceborne missions designed to observe and study planet Earth. Within CEOS, its Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) is tasked with coordinating satellite-based global observations of vegetation. Currently, several international organizations are focusing on the requirements for Earth observation from space to address key science questions and societal benefits related to our terrestrial environment. The Global Vegetation Workshop, sponsored by the WGCV and held in Missoula, Montana, 7-10 August, 2006, was organized to establish a framework to understand the inter-relationships among multiple, global vegetation products and identify opportunities for: 1) Increasing knowledge through combined products, 2) Realizing efficiency by avoiding redundancy, and 3) Developing near- and long-term plans to avoid gaps in our understanding of critical global vegetation information. The Global Vegetation Workshop brought together 135 researchers from 25 states and 14 countries to advance these themes and formulate recommendations for CEOS members and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The eighteen oral presentations and most of the 74 posters presented at the meeting can be downloaded from the meeting website (www.ntsg.umt.edu/VEGMTG/). Meeting attendees were given a copy of the July 2006 IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Special Issue on Global Land Product Validation, coordinated by the CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV). This issue contains 29 articles focusing on validation products from several of the sensors discussed during the workshop.

  9. STS-2 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM): Quick-Look Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The STS-2/induced environment contamination monitor (IECM) mission is described. The IECM system performance is discussed, and IECM mission time events are briefly described. Quick look analyses are presented for each of the 10 instruments comprising the IECM on the flight of STS-2. A short summary is presented.

  10. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union (EU), the United States(USA), and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR), and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpola...

  11. Monitoring Children's Growth in Early Literacy Skills: Effects of Feedback on Performance and Classroom Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Carrie; Gettinger, Maribeth

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the benefits of providing kindergarten teachers with feedback about students' performance on early literacy progress-monitoring probes. Students were administered the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)" in fall, winter, and spring; classroom environment was evaluated using the "Early Language and

  12. Heisenberg versus standard scaling in quantum metrology with Markov generated states and monitored environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catana, Catalin; Guţ?, M?d?lin

    2014-07-01

    Finding optimal and noise robust probe states is a key problem in quantum metrology. In this paper we propose Markov dynamics as a possible mechanism for generating such states, and show how the Heisenberg scaling emerges for systems with multiple "dynamical phases" (stationary states), and noiseless channels. We model noisy channels by coupling the Markov output to "environment" ancillas, and consider the scenario where the environment is monitored to increase the quantum Fisher information of the output. In this setup we find that the survival of the Heisenberg limit depends on whether the environment receives "which phase" information about the memory system.

  13. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie -Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; et al

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased geneticmore » and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation.« less

  14. Mutations in Global Regulators Lead to Metabolic Selection during Adaptation to Complex Environments

    PubMed Central

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie-Thrse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes if many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that subtle modulations of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order metabolic selection that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism, and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a one-step mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation. PMID:25501822

  15. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments.

    PubMed

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D; Merkley, Eric D; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Valovska, Marie-Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T; Prakash, Vittal P; Leiser, Owen P; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S; Kreuzer, Helen W; Shamoo, Yousif

    2014-12-01

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes if many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that subtle modulations of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order metabolic selection that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism, and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a "one-step" mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation. PMID:25501822

  16. Nonthreshold-based event detection for 3d environment monitoring in sensor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Liu, Y.H.; Chen, L.

    2008-12-15

    Event detection is a crucial task for wireless sensor network applications, especially environment monitoring. Existing approaches for event detection are mainly based on some predefined threshold values and, thus, are often inaccurate and incapable of capturing complex events. For example, in coal mine monitoring scenarios, gas leakage or water osmosis can hardly be described by the overrun of specified attribute thresholds but some complex pattern in the full-scale view of the environmental data. To address this issue, we propose a nonthreshold-based approach for the real 3D sensor monitoring environment. We employ energy-efficient methods to collect a time series of data maps from the sensor network and detect complex events through matching the gathered data to spatiotemporal data patterns. Finally, we conduct trace-driven simulations to prove the efficacy and efficiency of this approach on detecting events of complex phenomena from real-life records.

  17. Beyond indicators: advances in global HIV monitoring and evaluation during the PEPFAR era.

    PubMed

    Porter, Laura E; Bouey, Paul D; Curtis, Sian; Hochgesang, Mindy; Idele, Priscilla; Jefferson, Bobby; Lemma, Wuleta; Myrick, Roger; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Prybylski, Dimitri; Souteyrand, Yves; Tulli, Tuhuma

    2012-08-15

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is fundamental to global HIV program implementation and has been a cornerstone of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Rapid results were crucial to demonstrating feasibility and scalability of HIV care and treatment services early in PEPFAR. When national HIV M&E systems were nascent, the rapid influx of funds and the emergency expansion of HIV services contributed to the development of uncoordinated "parallel" information systems to serve donor demands for information. Close collaboration of PEPFAR with multilateral and national partners improved harmonization of indicators, standards, methods, tools, and reports. Concurrent PEPFAR investments in surveillance, surveys, program monitoring, health information systems, and human capacity development began to show signs of progress toward sustainable country-owned systems. Awareness of the need for and usefulness of data increased, far beyond discussions of indicators and reporting. Emphasis has turned toward ensuring the quality of data and using available data to improve the quality of care. Assessing progress toward an AIDS-free generation requires that the global community can measure the reduction of new HIV infections in children and adults and monitor the coverage, quality, and outcomes of highly efficacious interventions in combination. Building national M&E systems requires sustained efforts over long periods of time with effective leadership and coordination. PEPFAR, in close collaboration with its global and national partners, is well positioned to transform the successes and challenges associated with early rapid scale-up into future opportunities for sustainable, cost-effective, country-owned programs and systems. PMID:22797733

  18. Global atmospheric temperature monitoring with satellite microwave measurements - Method and results 1979-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Christy, John R.; Grody, Norman C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining global atmospheric-temperature anomalies by means of satellite microwave radiometry. It is shown that microwave measurements of molecular oxygen thermal emission by the Microwave Sounding Units (MSUs) flying aboard the NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 can be used to monitor tropospheric temperature anomalies on global basis to a high level of precision. Comparisons between monthly MSU-derived hemispheric temperature anomalies with those computed from surface thermometer data show a very good agreement over the United States, although not for the hemispheres, especially the Southern Hemisphere. In this latter case, the poor agreement is ascribed to weaker thermal coupling between the ocean and the deep troposphere than that over the U.S. Annual anomalies for the hemispheres exhibit better correlations than do monthly anomalies.

  19. Integrated global background monitoring network. Preliminary results from Torres del Paine and Olympic National Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, G.B.; Kohler, A.; Boelcke, C.; Baker, G.; Harmon, M.; Weber, C.; Gonzales, J.

    1985-10-01

    During 1984, a pilot project was initiated for monitoring pollution at Torres del Paine National Park in southern Chile and Olympic National Park in the United States. These are two of three initial sites that are to be established as part of an integrated global backgound monitoring network. Eventually, the plan is to establish a world-wide system of such sites. We collected and analyzed samples of the soil, water, air, and two species of plants (moss and lichen). We also collected and analyzed samples of the forest litter. We compared the samples of soil and vegetation against reference samples. We also compared samples of soil, vegetation, and of organic material from Torres del Paine against similar samples from Olympic and Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks in the United States. Although the data is preliminary, it is in agreement with out initial hypothesis that Torres del Paine and Olympic National Parks are not a polluted sites.

  20. Physical and performance characteristics of instruments selected for global change monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Cheryl L.

    1991-01-01

    The following appendix (appendix B) lists the instruments chosen for the Global Change Monitoring program. The instruments are described according to the following categories: (1) Title; (2) Measurement; (3) Contact; (4) Instrument Type; (5) Dimensions; (6) Mass; (7) Average Operational Power; (8) Data Rate; (9) Spectral/Frequency Range; (10) Number of Channels/Frequencies; (11) Viewing Field; (12) Scanning Characteristics; (13) Resolution (Horizontal/Vertical); (14) Swath Width; (15) Satellite Application; and (16) Technology Status. A technical drawing of each instrument is also provided.

  1. An evaluation of monthly mean MSU and ECMWF global atmospheric temperatures for monitoring climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurrell, James W.; Trenberth, Kevin E.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of global satellite sounding data for monitoring climate was assessed by comparing monthly mean brightness temperature anomalies derived from channel 2 of the microwave sounding units (MSUs) on board NOAA satellites over the past decade with both weighted and pressure-level ECMWF monthly mean temperatures for 96 months from 1982 to 1989. Results show that very good agreement exists between the MSU and the weighted ECMWF temperatures over the period considered, with grid-point correlations exceeding 0.85. Comparisons with individual pressure-level temperatures from ECMWF showed high correlations at 300 mb over most of the globe.

  2. Using Spaceborne Ku-Band Scatterometer for Global Snow Cover Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Tsai, W.-Y.

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the utility of spaceborne Ku-band scatterometer for global snow cover monitoring. Satellite radar data were collected over the globe by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) operated at 14 GHz on board the Japanese ADEOS spacecraft from September 1996 to June 1997, spanning the 1997 seasonal snow season. First, we present backscatter signature of dry and wet snow to facilitate the interpretation of NSCAT backscatter evolution over snow cover regions. Surface field experiments indicated that dry snow backscatter at Ku band is approximately 40 times stronger than that at C band. Thus, Ku-band scatterometer measurements are sensitive to snow cover, which is typically transparent to C-band scatterometer returns. Furthermore, Ku-band backscatter does not saturate for most of natural snow depths as compared to radar responses at 19 GHz and 37 GHz or higher frequencies which have more limited penetration depths into snow. Ku-band backscatter is also sensitive to wetness in snow, which is appropriate to detect early snow melt conditions. Using the snow backscatter characteristics, we investigate NSCAT backscatter evolution over global snow cover regions throughout the 1997 snow season. The results reveal detail delineations between different regional snow areas. We show the correlation of these delineations with the boundaries of different global snow classes defined by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory snow classification system. Using in-situ snow depth data from the U.S. National Climatic Data Center, we show that Ku-band backscatter corresponds very well to the trend of snow melt while snow mapping products (U.S. Climate Prediction Center gridded snow charts) from visible sensors does not reflect the fast snow melt trend. To illustrate the practical application of global snow monitoring with spaceborne Ku-band scatterometer, we present NSCAT backscatter response corresponding to the snow event leading to the 1997 Flood of the Century over the U.S. Northern plains and the Canadian prarie region, which caused loss of lives and several billion dollars in flood related damages and cleanup costs. Finally, we show that the fixed incidence configuration of Seawinds scatterometers, to be launched on QuickSCAT and on ADEOS-2 in the near future, is better for snow monitoring and then discuss the use of future high-resolution scatterometers for global snow mapping.

  3. Multi-Index Drought Monitoring: A Prototype Global Drought GeoServe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghakouchak, A.; Hao, Z.; Nakhjiri, N.

    2013-05-01

    Development of reliable monitoring and prediction indices are fundamental to drought monitoring and prediction. Numerous indices have been developed for drought monitoring based on various indicator variables (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, water storage). Defining droughts based on a single variable (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture or runoff) may not be sufficient for reliable risk assessment and decision making. In this presentation, a multivariate multi-index drought monitoring framework is suggested using the concept of joint empirical probability. The suggested Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) combines Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) probabilistically for drought characterization. In other words, MSDI incorporates the meteorological and agricultural drought conditions for overall characterization of droughts. MSDI is compared with SPI and SSI for characterizing drought condition across the globe using NASA MERRA-Land data. The results revealed that MSDI indicated drought onsite and termination based on the combination of all two indices with onsite time being dominated by SPI and drought enduring being more similar to SSI behavior. Overall, MSDI seems to be a reasonable model for combining multiple indices probabilistically. This paper presents an online drought portal (GeoServer), designed to provide access to global drought data based on the MSDI. The objective of the drought GeoServer is to provide interactive access to a composite multi-index drought data.

  4. Temperature sensitive glassware for monitoring liquid or surface temperatures in a high power microwave environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSherry, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Lewis, E.

    2005-06-01

    Temperature sensitive glassware has been developed to monitor liquid chemical temperature in a microwave environment. A combination of two phosphor powders is coated to the base of a Pyrex beaker & Quartz tube, which fluoresce under blue light stimulation. These temperature sensitive glassware monitors changes in liquid or surface temperature by observing ratios of peak emission intensities of the phosphors. The temperature sensitive Pyrex beaker is placed on an oven so that surface temperature can be accurately monitored. A fabricated coated Quartz tube is placed in an Industrial Free Electron Laser (IFEL), which provides the necessary microwave radiation to heat liquids and therefore provide liquid measurements. This paper describes the testing of the coating and its application in monitoring liquid temperature in an Industrial Free Electron Laser.

  5. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the latest spectacular images from NASA's remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man's impact on our world's environment. Visualizations of global data currently available from Earth orbiting satellites include the Earth at night with its city lights, high resolutions of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique as well as flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001. Visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown and demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricane and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites are are presented with other topics with a dynamic theater-style , along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  6. Building a data set over 12 globally distributed sites to support the development of agriculture monitoring applications with Sentinel-2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing better agricultural monitoring capabilities based on Earth Observation data is critical for strengthening food production information and market transparency. The coming Sentinel-2 mission has the optimal capacity for regional to global agriculture monitoring in terms of resolution (10-20...

  7. Youth, Skills Development, and Work in the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2012: Learning from Asia or for Asia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The article underlines the historic importance of the treatment of skills development, finally, by the Education for All Global Monitoring Report (GMR) team. Among the many challenges in its analysis are the multiple and overlapping meanings of the word skill, and the consequent difficulties of quantifying and monitoring efforts at skills…

  8. Youth, Skills Development, and Work in the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2012: Learning from Asia or for Asia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The article underlines the historic importance of the treatment of skills development, finally, by the Education for All Global Monitoring Report (GMR) team. Among the many challenges in its analysis are the multiple and overlapping meanings of the word skill, and the consequent difficulties of quantifying and monitoring efforts at skills

  9. IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN HEALTH RISKS OF CHEMICALS IN THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair BA; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:62–78. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23147420

  10. Effective sensing approach for assessment and monitoring of in-situ biodegradation in a subsurface environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong X.

    1999-02-01

    Rapid assessment and monitoring of biological conditions in a subsurface environment is becoming more and more important as bioremediation approaches become widely used in environmental cleanup. Remediation monitoring is also more challenging for in-situ remedial approaches, such as bioventing, biosparging, or passive bioremediation, where conventional 'inlet' and 'outlet' monitoring can no longer be applied. A sensing approach using subsurface chemical sensors offers a cost- effective alternative for remediation monitoring. Additional benefits of deploying subsurface sensors include continuous and unattended measurement with minimum disturbance to the subsurface condition. In a series of field studies, an electrochemical oxygen sensor, a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) carbon dioxide sensor, and two hydrocarbons sensors were employed for monitoring in-situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Biodegradation rates were effectively measured through an in-situ respiration measurement using subsurface oxygen and carbon dioxide sensors. The high sensitivity of the carbon dioxide sensor to small change in the concentration enables rapid respiration measurements. Subsurface hydrocarbon sensors offer a means to monitor the progress of remediation and the migration of contaminant vapors during the remediation. The chemical sensors tested are clearly cost effective for remediation monitoring. The strengths of oxygen and carbon dioxide sensors are complimentary to each other. Strengths and limitations of different hydrocarbon sensors were also noted. Balancing cost and performance of sensors is crucial for environmental remediation application.

  11. Cycling of DDT in the global environment 1950-2002: World ocean returns the pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2009-12-01

    The global distribution and fate of the insecticide DDT was modeled for the first time using a spatially resolved global multicompartment chemistry-transport model comprising a 3D coupled atmosphere and ocean GCM, coupled to 2D vegetation surfaces and top soils. DDT enters the model environment as a pesticide in agriculture only. Final sinks of DDT in the total environment are degradation in air (hydroxyl radical reaction), on vegetation surfaces, in ocean sediments and soils. The process resolution of the ocean compartment, i.e., either a fixed or variable size and sinking velocity of suspended particles, has almost no effect on the large-scale cycling and fate of DDT. The residence times in various ocean basins were declining but varied regionally. The global ocean absorbed until 1977 and since then has been losing DDT, while large sea areas are still accumulating the pollutant. The main sink is volatilization to the atmosphere. In 1990, the year when emissions ceased, 292 kt of DDT were deposited to the global ocean, 301 kt were volatilized, and 41 kt were exported from the surface layer to the deeper levels. The sea region that has been representing the most significant (secondary) DDT source is the western N Atlantic (Gulf stream and N Atlantic Drift regions). It has been a source since approximately 1970. Also large parts of the tropical ocean and the southern mid-latitude ocean have turned net volatilizational (i.e., volatilization flux > deposition flux) during the 1980s. Despite the emissions migrating southward as a consequence of substance ban in mid latitudes, the geographic distribution of the contaminant (and, hence, environmental exposure) has been migrating steadily northward since the 1960s.

  12. Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Global Drought Monitor Portal: Adding Capabilities for Forecasting Hydrological Extremes and Early Warning Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, W.; de Roo, A.; Vogt, J.; Lawford, R. G.; Pappenberger, F.; Heim, R. R.; Stefanski, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2007) has suggested the hydrometeorological extremes of both drought and flooding may increase under climate change. Drought zones can grow over large tracts of continental area and are a global-scale phenomenon (Sheffield and Wood 2011). The Group on Earth Observations Global Drought Monitor Portal (GDMP) was established as a demonstration for the 5th Earth Observation Ministerial Summit in Beijing in 2010. The European Drought Observatory, the North American Drought Monitor, the Princeton University experimental African Drought Monitor, and the University College London experimental global drought monitor were made "interoperable" through installation of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Services (WMS) on their respective servers, allowing maps of current drought conditions to be exchanged and assembled into maps of global drought coverage on the NIDIS portal. Partners from the Republic of Argentina, the Commonwealth of Australia, China, Jordan, Brazil, and Uruguay have also joined. The GEO Global Drought Monitoring, Forecasting, and Early Warning effort involves multiple parties and institutions, including the World Meteorological Organization, the World Climate Research Program Drought Interest Group, NASA, and others. The GEO Secretariat held a launch workshop in Geneva on 4-6 May 2010 to initiate drafting the final GEO Work Plan, and, during this meeting, additional capabilities were added to the existing GDMP: 1) drought forecasting was added to drought "current conditions" monitoring, in a partnership with Joint Research Centre (and other partners) aiming at a combined platform for Hydrological Extremes (drought and flooding); 2) extending drought forecasts from the medium-range 15-day window to a 30-day window; this will be tested through pilot projects over Europe and Africa, as part of the Global Water Scarcity Information Service (GLOWASIS)and the Improved Drought Early Warning Forecasting for Africa (DEWFORA) to strengthen preparedness and adaptation; 3) setting up an Early Warning System network for drought ( to be developed through World Meteorological Organization WMO); and 4) adding global remote sensing drought monitoring capabilities (soil moisture anomalies). Flooding represents positive precipitation anomalies, whereas drought represents negative precipitation anomalies. The JRC combined Hydrologic Extremes platform will include multiple models and tools, such as; 1) JRC Global Flood Detection System and Global Flood Early Warning System; 2) the WMO Flash Flood Guidance system; 3) the Dartmouth Flood Observatory; 4) a suite of monitored and forecasted drought and water scarcity indicators through the various drought observatories accessible through the GEO Global Drought Monitor Portal. The GEO Global Drought and Flooding systems represent the "applications-side" of water activities within the GEO Work Plan and are supported by the "Research and Development (R&D) side" of water activities within the new 2012-2015 GEO Work Plan.

  13. A Low-Cost Sensor Buoy System for Monitoring Shallow Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Albaladejo, Cristina; Soto, Fulgencio; Torres, Roque; Sánchez, Pedro; López, Juan A.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of marine ecosystems is essential to identify the parameters that determine their condition. The data derived from the sensors used to monitor them are a fundamental source for the development of mathematical models with which to predict the behaviour of conditions of the water, the sea bed and the living creatures inhabiting it. This paper is intended to explain and illustrate a design and implementation for a new multisensor monitoring buoy system. The system design is based on a number of fundamental requirements that set it apart from other recent proposals: low cost of implementation, the possibility of application in coastal shallow-water marine environments, suitable dimensions for deployment and stability of the sensor system in a shifting environment like the sea bed, and total autonomy of power supply and data recording. The buoy system has successfully performed remote monitoring of temperature and marine pressure (SBE 39 sensor), temperature (MCP9700 sensor) and atmospheric pressure (YOUNG 61302L sensor). The above requirements have been satisfactorily validated by operational trials in a marine environment. The proposed buoy sensor system thus seems to offer a broad range of applications. PMID:23012562

  14. Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment: Review and Analysis of Its Occurrence and Bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Jone; Kristofco, Lauren A; Steele, W Baylor; Yates, Brian S; Breed, Christopher S; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W

    2015-01-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs. PMID:26674671

  15. Review of country case studies on climate change. Global Environment Facility Paper 7

    SciTech Connect

    Fuglesvedt, J.; Hanisch, T.; Isaksen, I.; Selrod, R.; Strand, J.

    1994-02-01

    The report provides an overview of the status of country studies on climate change by drawing on the experience to date. Comparisons of ecological and economic efficiency are essential in determining the eligibility of projects to receive funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF). This paper examines several methodological and reporting issues and stresses the importance of comparability. Areas examined include inventories of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, impacts and vulnerability assessments, response strategies and their cost-effectiveness, the implications of country projects that have transnational benefits, and the usefulness of country studies for government policymakers.

  16. An eDNA Assay to Monitor a Globally Invasive Fish Species from Flowing Freshwater.

    PubMed

    Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Ponto-Caspian gobies are a flock of five invasive fish species that have colonized freshwaters and brackish waters in Europe and North America. One of them, the round goby Neogobius melanostomus, figures among the 100 worst invaders in Europe. Current methods to detect the presence of Ponto-Caspian gobies involve catching or sighting the fish. These approaches are labor intense and not very sensitive. Consequently, populations are usually detected only when they have reached high densities and when management or containment efforts are futile. To improve monitoring, we developed an assay based on the detection of DNA traces (environmental DNA, or eDNA) of Ponto-Caspian gobies in river water. The assay specifically detects invasive goby DNA and does not react to any native fish species. We apply the assay to environmental samples and demonstrate that parameters such as sampling depth, sampling location, extraction protocol, PCR protocol and PCR inhibition greatly impact detection. We further successfully outline the invasion front of Ponto-Caspian gobies in a large river, the High Rhine in Switzerland, and thus demonstrate the applicability of the assay to lotic environments. The eDNA assay requires less time, equipment, manpower, skills, and financial resources than the conventional monitoring methods such as electrofishing, angling or diving. Samples can be taken by untrained individuals, and the assay can be performed by any molecular biologist on a conventional PCR machine. Therefore, this assay enables environment managers to map invaded areas independently of fishermen's' reports and fish community monitorings. PMID:26814998

  17. A novel technique for acoustic emission monitoring in civil structures with global fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstrynge, E.; Pfeiffer, H.; Wevers, M.

    2014-06-01

    The application of acoustic emission (AE)-based damage detection is gaining interest in the field of civil structural health monitoring. Damage progress can be detected and located in real time and the recorded AEs hold information on the fracture process which produced them. One of the drawbacks for on-site application in large-scale concrete and masonry structures is the relatively high attenuation of the ultrasonic signal, which limits the detection range of the AE sensors. Consequently, a large number of point sensors are required to cover a certain area. To tackle this issue, a global damage detection system, based on AE detection with a polarization-modulated, single mode fiber optic sensor (FOS), has been developed. The sensing principle, data acquisition and analysis in time and frequency domain are presented. During experimental investigations, this AE-FOS is applied for the first time as a global sensor for the detection of crack-induced AEs in a full-scale concrete beam. Damage progress is monitored during a cyclic four-point bending test and the AE activity, detected with the FOS, is related to the subsequent stages of damage progress in the concrete element. The results obtained with the AE-FOS are successfully linked to the mechanical behavior of the concrete beam and a qualitative correspondence is found with AE data obtained by a commercial system.

  18. The use of PROBA-V data for Global Agricultural Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydekerke, Lieven; Gilliams, Sven; Kempeneers, Pieter; Piccard, Isabelle; Deronde, Bart; Eerens, Herman; Gobin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Land conversion, forest cutting, urban growth, agricultural expansion, take place at an unprecedented rate and scale such that they have a strong economic and environmental impact. Understanding and measuring dynamics becomes a prerequisite for companies, governments, agencies, NGO's, research institutes and society in general. In many cases the temporal frequency of the information is a requirement to detect phenomena that can occur within a few days and at a certain geographic scale. For example frequent updates on crop condition and projected production are needed to stabilise agricultural markets. Large initiatives such as the GEOGLAM AMIS (Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring - Agricultural Market Information System) respond to this increased need. Observations over large areas are available through satellites, however, the following challenges remain: • obtaining frequent and consistent observations at sufficient level of detail to identify spatial phenomena. At present, no single mission is capable of providing near daily information of any place in the world at scales appropriate to detect land cover/use changes in a consistent manner. • the need for a historical reference. For agricultural monitoring and early warning purposes the comparison of the actual data with a historical reference is of the utmost importance. The PROBA-V mission is an important attempt to overcome these challenges. From its design and within the GIO-Global Land component a lot of work has been done to ensure the consistency between the PROBA-V data and the 15 years historical archive of SPOT-VEGETATION. In this respect PROBA-V observations are comparable with the SPOT-VEGETATION historical baseline and will therefore ensure the continuation of the standard agricultural monitoring products. Next to this integration with the historical archive, PROBA -V also provides an increase in spatial resolution from 1km to 300m and even 100m. The latter ensures a global coverage every 5 days, while daily global coverage is provided at 1 km and 300 m. Within the framework of the FP7 SIGMA project (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture), currently Europe's largest contribution to the abovementioned GEOGLAM initiative, the use of the 100m data set for agricultural monitoring is investigated. To overcome the problem of the reduced revisit time of the 100 m data, the SIGMA projects foresees in a data assimilation of the 100 m and 300 m products. The data assimilation is based on a Kalman filter approach developed by Sedano et al. (2014). As an output, a cloud free composite is produced every ten days at a spatial resolution of 100 m. References Sedano, Fernando, Pieter Kempeneers, and George Hurtt. "A Kalman Filter-Based Method to Generate Continuous Time Series of Medium-Resolution NDVI Images." Remote Sensing 6.12 (2014): 12381-12408. http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/ http://www.geoglam-sigma.info/

  19. Monitoring the fate of radionuclides released to the environment: May 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L.R.

    1992-08-13

    A review of the radiological effluent and environmental monitoring practices in use at Mound has been conducted. The radionuclides under consideration were HT, Pu-239, U-233,234, U-238, Th-230, Th-232, Co-60, Cs-137, and Ac-227. It is concluded from this analysis that additional continuous monitoring programs are not warranted. Dose contributions from these radionuclides are negligible. Further, in many cases environmental surveillance would not be practical due to the extremely low concentrations encountered in the offsite environment. For these reasons, it is believed that no additional action is required in response to DOE Tiger Team Finding R/CF-1.

  20. Observations of urban and suburban environments with global satellite scatterometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Balk, D.; Rodriguez, E.; Neumann, G.; Sorichetta, A.; Small, C.; Elvidge, C. D.

    A global and consistent characterization of land use and land change in urban and suburban environments is crucial for many fundamental social and natural science studies and applications. Presented here is a dense sampling method (DSM) that uses satellite scatterometer data to delineate urban and intraurban areas at a posting scale of about 1 km. DSM results are analyzed together with information on population and housing censuses, with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery, and with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) night-light data. The analyses include Dallas-Fort Worth and Phoenix in the United States, Bogot in Colombia, Dhaka in Bangladesh, Guangzhou in China, and Quito in Ecuador. Results show that scatterometer signatures correspond to buildings and infrastructures in urban and suburban environments. City extents detected by scatterometer data are significantly smaller than city light extents, but not all urban areas are detectable by the current SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite. Core commercial and industrial areas with high buildings and large factories are identified as high-backscatter centers. Data from DSM backscatter and DMSP nighttime lights have a good correlation with population density. However, the correlation relations from the two satellite datasets are different for different cities indicating that they contain complementary information. Together with night-light and census data, DSM and satellite scatterometer data provide new observations to study global urban and suburban environments and their changes. Furthermore, the capability of DSM to identify hydrological channels on the Greenland ice sheet and ecological biomes in central Africa demonstrates that DSM can be used to observe persistent structures in natural environments at a km scale, providing contemporaneous data to study human impacts beyond urban and suburban areas.

  1. Global structural condition assessment of highway bridges by ambient vibration monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Maria Q.; Chen, Yangbo; Tan, Chin-An

    2005-05-01

    Structural condition assessment of highway bridges has long been relying on visual inspection, which, however, involves subjective judgment of the inspector and detects only local flaws. Local flaws might not affect the global performance of the bridge. By instrumenting bridges with accelerometers and other sensors, one is able to monitor ambient or forced vibration of the bridge and assess its global structural condition. Ambient vibration measurement outwits forced vibration measurement in that it requires no special test arrangement, such as traffic control or a heavy shaker. As a result, it can be continuously executed while the bridge is under its normal serving condition. For short-to mid-span highway bridges, ambient vibration is predominantly due to traffic excitation, inducing the bridge to vibrate mainly in vertical direction. Based on its physical nature, traffic excitation is modeled as moving loads from the passing vehicles whose arrivals and speeds are extracted from digital video. Traffic-induced vibration provides valuable information for assessing the health of super-structure, but is less sensitive to possible seismic damage in the sub-structure. During earthquakes, bridges are excited in all directions by short-duration un-stationary ground motion, and are expected to better reveal their sub-structure integrity. Therefore, traffic-induced and ground-motion-induced ambient vibration data are treated separately in this paper for different assessment objectives, because of the different characteristics and measurability of the excitation. By continuously monitoring the ambient vibration of the instrumented bridge, its global structural conditions of both super- and sub-structures can be evaluated with possible damage locations identified, which will aid local non-destructive evaluation or visual inspection to further localize and access the damage.

  2. Classification of Global Urban Centers Using ASTER Data: Preliminary Results From the Urban Environmental Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2001-05-01

    Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of global ecologic and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of these changes are part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument, and comprise the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program. The UEM program will acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared ASTER data twice per year for 100 global urban centers over the duration of the mission (6 years). Data are currently available for a number of these urban centers and allow for initial comparison of global city structure using spatial variance texture analysis of the 15 m/pixel visible to near infrared ASTER bands. Variance texture analysis highlights changes in pixel edge density as recorded by sharp transitions from bright to dark pixels. In human-dominated landscapes these brightness variations correlate well with urbanized vs. natural land cover and are useful for characterizing the geographic extent and internal structure of cities. Variance texture analysis was performed on twelve urban centers (Albuquerque, Baghdad, Baltimore, Chongqing, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Lisbon, Madrid, Phoenix, Puebla, Riyadh, Vancouver) for which cloud-free daytime ASTER data are available. Image transects through each urban center produce texture profiles that correspond to urban density. These profiles can be used to classify cities into centralized (ex. Baltimore), decentralized (ex. Phoenix), or intermediate (ex. Madrid) structural types. Image texture is one of the primary data inputs (with vegetation indices and visible to thermal infrared image spectra) to a knowledge-based land cover classifier currently under development for application to ASTER UEM data as it is acquired. Collaboration with local investigators is sought to both verify the accuracy of the knowledge-based system and to develop more sophisticated classification models.

  3. Hierarchical Satellite-based Approach to Global Monitoring of Crop Condition and Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Wu, B.; Gommes, R.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, N.; Zeng, H.; Zou, W.; Yan, N.

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of global food security goes beyond the mere estimate of crop production: It needs to take into account the spatial and temporal patterns of food availability, as well as physical and economic access. Accurate and timely information is essential to both food producers and consumers. Taking advantage of multiple new remote sensing data sources, especially from Chinese satellites, such as FY-2/3A, HJ-1 CCD, CropWatch has expanded the scope of its international analyses through the development of new indicators and an upgraded operational methodology. The new monitoring approach adopts a hierarchical system covering four spatial levels of detail: global (sixty-five Monitoring and Reporting Units, MRU), seven major production zones (MPZ), thirty-one key countries (including China) and "sub- countries." The thirty-one countries encompass more that 80% of both global exports and production of four major crops (maize, rice, soybean and wheat). The methodology resorts to climatic and remote sensing indicators at different scales, using the integrated information to assess global, regional, and national (as well as sub-national) crop environmental condition, crop condition, drought, production, and agricultural trends. The climatic indicators for rainfall, temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) as well as potential biomass are first analysed at global scale to describe overall crop growing conditions. At MPZ scale, the key indicators pay more attention to crops and include Vegetation health index (VHI), Vegetation condition index (VCI), Cropped arable land fraction (CALF) as well as Cropping intensity (CI). Together, they characterise agricultural patterns, farming intensity and stress. CropWatch carries out detailed crop condition analyses for thirty one individual countries at the national scale with a comprehensive array of variables and indicators. The Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), cropped areas and crop condition are associated to derive food production estimates. Based on trends analysis, CropWatch also issues crop production supply outlooks, covering both long-term variations and short-term dynamic changes in key food exporters and importers. CropWatch bulletin can be downloaded from the CropWatch website at http://www.cropwatch.com.cn.

  4. Global Characterization and Monitoring of Forest Cover Using Landsat Data: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, John R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Huang, ChengQuan; Vermote, Eric F.; Gao, Feng; Channan, Saurabh; Sexton, Joseph O.; Feng, Min; Narasimhan, Ramghuram; Kim, Dohyung; Song, Kuan; Song, Danxia; Song, Xiao-Peng; Noojipady, Praveen; Tan, Bin; Hansen, Matthew C.; Li, Mengxue; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The compilation of global Landsat data-sets and the ever-lowering costs of computing now make it feasible to monitor the Earth's land cover at Landsat resolutions of 30 m. In this article, we describe the methods to create global products of forest cover and cover change at Landsat resolutions. Nevertheless, there are many challenges in ensuring the creation of high-quality products. And we propose various ways in which the challenges can be overcome. Among the challenges are the need for atmospheric correction, incorrect calibration coefficients in some of the data-sets, the different phenologies between compilations, the need for terrain correction, the lack of consistent reference data for training and accuracy assessment, and the need for highly automated characterization and change detection. We propose and evaluate the creation and use of surface reflectance products, improved selection of scenes to reduce phenological differences, terrain illumination correction, automated training selection, and the use of information extraction procedures robust to errors in training data along with several other issues. At several stages we use Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer data and products to assist our analysis. A global working prototype product of forest cover and forest cover change is included.

  5. Global monitoring of atmospheric properties by the EOS MODIS. Semiannual technical report, January-June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) being developed for the Earth Observing System (EOS) is well suited to the global monitoring of atmospheric properties from space. Among the atmospheric properties to be examined using MODIS observations, clouds are especially important, since they are a strong modulator of the shortwave and longwave components of the earth's radiation budget. A knowledge of cloud properties (such as optical thickness and effective radius) and their variation in space and time, is also crucial to studies of global climate change. In addition, with the use of related airborne instrumentation, such as the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) in intensive field experiments, various types of surface and cloud properties can be derived from the measured bidirectional reflectances. These missions have provided valuable experimental data to determine the capability of narrow bandpass channels in examining the Earth's atmosphere and to aid in defining algorithms and building an understanding of the ability of MODIS to remotely sense atmospheric conditions for assessing global change. Therefore, the primary task objective is to extend and expand the algorithm for retrieving the optical thickness and effective radius of clouds from radiation measurements to be obtained from MODIS. The secondary objective is to obtain an enhanced knowledge of surface angular and spectral properties that can be inferred from airborne directional radiance measurements.

  6. The Heritage of the Operational Usda/nasa Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, C. M.; Beckley, B. D.; Reynolds, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs. A clear advantage is the provision of data where in situ data are lacking or where there is restricted access to ground-based measurements. A USDA/NASA funded program is performing altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world. The near-real time height measurements are currently derived from NASA/CNES Jason-2/OSTM mission data. Archived data are also utilized from the NASA/CNES Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 missions, the NRL GFO mission, and the ESA ENVISAT mission. Lake level products are output within 1-2 weeks after satellite overpass, a time delay which will improve to a few days as the project moves into its next phase. The USDA/FAS utilize the products for assessing irrigation potential (and thus crop production estimates), and for general observation of high-water status and short-term drought. Other end-users explore the products to study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and to consider water management and regional security issues. This presentation explores the heritage of the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) which has its origins in the field of ocean surface topography and the exploration of radar altimetry techniques over non-ocean surfaces. The current system closely follows the software design of the historical NASA Ocean Pathfinder Project and utilizes a global lakes catalogue that was created for climate change/aridity studies. The output of lake level products, imagery and information also echoes an earlier trial (UNDP-funded) lakes database which first offered altimetric products via the world wide web and which enabled world-wide interest to be both assessed and highlighted.;

  7. Global ozone monitoring by occultation of stars: an overview of GOMOS measurements on ENVISAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, J. L.; Kyrl, E.; Fussen, D.; Hauchecorne, A.; Dalaudier, F.; Sofieva, V.; Tamminen, J.; Vanhellemont, F.; Fanton D'Andon, O.; Barrot, G.; Mangin, A.; Blanot, L.; Lebrun, J. C.; Prot, K.; Fehr, T.; Saavedra, L.; Fraisse, R.

    2010-04-01

    GOMOS on ENVISAT (launched in February, 2002) is the first space instrument dedicated to the study of the atmosphere of the Earth by the technique of stellar occultations (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars). From a polar orbit, it allows to have a good latitude coverage. Because it is self-calibrated, it is particularly well adapted to the long time trend monitoring of stratospheric species. With 4 spectrometers the wavelength coverage of 248 nm to 942 nm allows to monitor ozone, H2O, NO2, NO3, air, aerosols, and O2. Two additional fast photometers (1 kHz sampling rate) allow for the correction of scintillations, as well as the study of the structure of air density irregularities, resulting from gravity waves and turbulence. A high vertical resolution profile of the temperature may also be obtained from the time delay between the red and the blue photometer. Noctilucent clouds (Polar Mesospheric Clouds, PMC), are routinely observed in both polar summers, and global observations of OCLO and sodium are achieved. The instrument configuration, dictated by the scientific objectives rationale and technical constraints, are described, together with the typical operations along one orbit, and statistics over 5 years of operation. Typical atmospheric transmission spectra are presented, and some retrieval difficulties are discussed, in particular for O2 and H2O. An overview of a number of scientific results is presented, already published or found in more details as companion papers in the same ACP GOMOS special issue. This paper is particularly intended to provide the incentive for GOMOS data exploitation, available to the whole scientific community in the ESA data archive, and to help the GOMOS data users to better understand the instrument, its capabilities and the quality of its measurements, for an optimized scientific return.

  8. Global ozone monitoring by occultation of stars: an overview of GOMOS measurements on ENVISAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, J. L.; Kyrl, E.; Fussen, D.; Hauchecorne, A.; Dalaudier, F.; Sofieva, V.; Tamminen, J.; Vanhellemont, F.; Fanton D'Andon, O.; Barrot, G.; Mangin, A.; Blanot, L.; Lebrun, J. C.; Prot, K.; Fehr, T.; Saavedra, L.; Leppelmeier, G. W.; Fraisse, R.

    2010-12-01

    GOMOS on ENVISAT (launched in February, 2002) is the first space instrument dedicated to the study of the atmosphere of the Earth by the technique of stellar occultations (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars). Its polar orbit makes good latitude coverage possible. Because it is self-calibrating, it is particularly well adapted to long time trend monitoring of stratospheric species. With 4 spectrometers, the wavelength coverage of 248 nm to 942 nm enables monitoring ozone, H2O, NO2, NO3, air density, aerosol extinction, and O2. Two additional fast photometers (with 1 kHz sampling rate) enable the correction of the effects of scintillations, as well as the study of the structure of air density irregularities resulting from gravity waves and turbulence. A high vertical resolution profile of the temperature may also be obtained from the time delay between the red and the blue photometer. Noctilucent clouds (Polar Mesospheric Clouds, PMC) are routinely observed in both polar summers and global observations of OClO and sodium are achieved. The instrument configuration, dictated by the scientific objectives' rationale and technical constraints, is described, together with the typical operations along one orbit, along with the statistics from over 6 years of operation. Typical atmospheric transmission spectra are presented and some retrieval difficulties are discussed, in particular for O2 and H2O. An overview is presented of a number of scientific results already published or found in more detail as companion papers in the same ACP GOMOS special issue. This paper is particularly intended to provide an incentive for the exploitation of GOMOS data available to the whole scientific community in the ESA data archive, and to help GOMOS data users to better understand the instrument, its capabilities and the quality of its measurements, thus leading to an increase in the scientific return.

  9. Evaluation of Local Media Surveillance for Improved Disease Recognition and Monitoring in Global Hotspot Regions

    PubMed Central

    Schwind, Jessica S.; Wolking, David J.; Brownstein, John S.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Smith, Woutrina A.

    2014-01-01

    Digital disease detection tools are technologically sophisticated, but dependent on digital information, which for many areas suffering from high disease burdens is simply not an option. In areas where news is often reported in local media with no digital counterpart, integration of local news information with digital surveillance systems, such as HealthMap (Boston Children’s Hospital), is critical. Little research has been published in regards to the specific contribution of local health-related articles to digital surveillance systems. In response, the USAID PREDICT project implemented a local media surveillance (LMS) pilot study in partner countries to monitor disease events reported in print media. This research assessed the potential of LMS to enhance digital surveillance reach in five low- and middle-income countries. Over 16 weeks, select surveillance system attributes of LMS, such as simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, timeliness, and stability were evaluated to identify strengths and weaknesses in the surveillance method. Findings revealed that LMS filled gaps in digital surveillance network coverage by contributing valuable localized information on disease events to the global HealthMap database. A total of 87 health events were reported through the LMS pilot in the 16-week monitoring period, including 71 unique reports not found by the HealthMap digital detection tool. Furthermore, HealthMap identified an additional 236 health events outside of LMS. It was also observed that belief in the importance of the project and proper source selection from the participants was crucial to the success of this method. The timely identification of disease outbreaks near points of emergence and the recognition of risk factors associated with disease occurrence continue to be important components of any comprehensive surveillance system for monitoring disease activity across populations. The LMS method, with its minimal resource commitment, could be one tool used to address the information gaps seen in global ‘hot spot’ regions. PMID:25333618

  10. Public road infrastructure inventory in degraded global navigation satellite system signal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, N.; Morrison, A.; Haakonsen, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Recent advancement of land-based mobile mapping enables rapid and cost-effective collection of highquality road related spatial information. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) can provide spatial information with subdecimeter accuracy in nominal operation environments. However, performance in challenging environments such as tunnels is not well characterized. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) manages the country's public road network and its infrastructure, a large segment of which is represented by road tunnels (there are about 1 000 road tunnels in Norway with a combined length of 800 km). In order to adopt mobile mapping technology for streamlining road network and infrastructure management and maintenance tasks, it is important to ensure that the technology is mature enough to meet existing requirements for object positioning accuracy in all types of environments, and provide homogeneous accuracy over the mapping perimeter. This paper presents results of a testing campaign performed within a project funded by the NPRA as a part of SMarter road traffic with Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) (SMITS) program. The testing campaign objective was performance evaluation of high end commercial MMSs for inventory of public areas, focusing on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal degraded environments.

  11. Global Earth Monitoring Using ALOS-2/Palsar-2: Initial Status of the ALOS-2 Calibration Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Advanced Land Observation Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched on May 24, 2014, carrying the L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-2) to the low polar orbit of 628km height with 14-day revisit time. To the four mission objectives, i.e., disaster mitigation, environmental monitoring represented by the forest monitoring and cryospheric monitoring, land monitoring, and technology development, PALSAR-2 and ALOS-2 provides the 1~3m high resolution Spotlight and Strip with multi polarization with an imaging swath of 50km, ScanSAR imaging with 350~490km swath with dual polarizations, shorter temporal baseline of 14 days and spatial baseline of within 1km, shorter time delay of less than 72 hours (74 hours in worst case) for emergency observation request to the disaster area, and almost all of global beam synchronization for ScanSAR Interferometry. ALOS-2 science program initiates the JAXA's Calibration, Validation, Application researches of the PALSAR-2/ALOS-2 and Pi-SAR-L2. As the application research, the disaster mitigation and the urban area monitoring using the high-resolution data should contribute significantly to the human society since the disasters occur frequently and globally. High resolution and multi polarimetric SAR with the shorter revisit time reserves the quicker detection of the land changes. In this presentation, we will summarize the contents of the ALOS-2 science program, its expected outcomes, and comparative study results with PALSAR. Some application examples of the disaster mitigation using the recent high resolution SARs, i.e., Pi-SAR-L2 and PALSAR will be also introduced. Kyoto and Carbon Initiative project is the JAXA's Forest and related Carbon estimation project using the time series PALSAR, PALSAR-2 and ground truth dataset. It was established in 2002 and continued for KC-3 (2011/9~2014/3) and later. Main products that will be used are the forest distribution, forest change, ScanSAR mosaic, high resolution SAR mosaic (time series) and those produced for ALSO and JERS-1. Under the collaboration with 3 international institutes, estimating the forest carbon and its time series, and their relationship with the environmental change will be investigated.

  12. Searchlight Correlation Detectors: Optimal Seismic Monitoring Using Regional and Global Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Kvrna, Tormod; Nsholm, Sven Peter

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of correlation detectors increases greatly when the outputs from multiple seismic traces are considered. For single-array monitoring, a zero-offset stack of individual correlation traces will provide significant noise suppression and enhanced sensitivity for a source region surrounding the hypocenter of the master event. The extent of this region is limited only by the decrease in waveform similarity with increasing hypocenter separation. When a regional or global network of arrays and/or 3-component stations is employed, the zero-offset approach is only optimal when the master and detected events are co-located exactly. In many monitoring situations, including nuclear test sites and geothermal fields, events may be separated by up to many hundreds of meters while still retaining sufficient waveform similarity for correlation detection on single channels. However, the traveltime differences resulting from the hypocenter separation may result in significant beam loss on the zero-offset stack and a deployment of many beams for different hypothetical source locations in geographical space is required. The beam deployment necessary for optimal performance of the correlation detectors is determined by an empirical network response function which is most easily evaluated using the auto-correlation functions of the waveform templates from the master event. The correlation detector beam deployments for providing optimal network sensitivity for the North Korea nuclear test site are demonstrated for both regional and teleseismic monitoring configurations.

  13. Joint IAMAS/IAHS symposium J1 on global monitoring and advanced observing techniques in the atmosphere and hydrosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Ohring, G. ); Aoki, T. ); Halpern, D. ); Henderson-Sellers, A. ); Charlock, T. ); Joseph, J. ); Labitzke, K. ); Raschke, E. ); Smith, W. )

    1994-04-01

    Seventy papers were presented at the two-and-a-half-day Symposium on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. The symposium was jointly organized by the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) and took place in Yokohama, Japan, 13-15 July 1993, as part of the IAMAS/IAHS Join Assembly. Global observing systems are receiving increased attention in connection with such problems as monitoring global climate change. The symposium included papers on observational requirements; measurement methodologies; descriptions of available datasets; results of analysis of observational data; plans for future observing systems, including the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS); and the programs and plans of the space agencies.

  14. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old from public schools participate in science clubs outside of their regular school schedule. A comparison study was performed between different groups, in order to assess GLOBE's applicability as a learning science atmosphere and the motivation and interest it generates in students toward science. Internationally applied scales were used as tools for measuring such indicators, adapted to the Costa Rican context. The results provide evidence statistically significant that the students perceive the GLOBE atmosphere as an enriched environment for science learning in comparison with the traditional science class. Moreover, students feel more confident, motivated and interested in science than their peers who do not participate in the project. However, the results were not statistically significant in this last respect.

  15. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanaka, Takashi

    1993-12-31

    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  16. A review of the global emissions, transport and effects of heavy metals in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.R.; Ashton, W.B.; Rapoport, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the sources and quantities of heavy metal emissions, their transport and fate, their potential health and environmental effects, and strategies to control them. The approach is to review the literature on this topic and to consult with experts in the field. Ongoing research activities and research needs are discussed. Estimates of global anthropogenic and natural emissions indicate that anthropogenic emissions are responsible for most of the heavy metals released into the atmosphere and that industrial activities have had a significant impact on the global cycling of trace metals. The largest anthropogenic sources of trace metals are coal combustion and the nonferrous metal industry. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway by which trace metals enter the environment. Atmospheric deposition varies according to the solubility of the element and the length of time it resides in the atmosphere. Evidence suggests that deposition is influenced by other chemicals in the atmosphere, such as ozone and sulfur dioxide. Trace metals also enter the environment through leaching. Existing emissions-control technologies such as electrostatic precipitators, baghouses, and scrubbers are designed to remove other particulates from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants and are only partially effective at removing heavy metals. Emerging technologies such as flue gas desulfurization, lignite coke, and fluidized bed combustion could further reduce emissions. 108 refs.

  17. Application of NCEP Land Data Assimilation Systems for Global and Regional Drought Analysis, Monitoring and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ek, M. B.; Xia, Y.; Meng, C. J.; Dong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Currently, NCEP/EMC includes three Land Data Assimilation Systems (LDASs): (1) Global LDAS (GLDAS), (2) North American LDAS (NLDAS), and (3) high resolution NLDAS on the Hydrologic Rainfall Analysis Project (HRAP) grid (HRAP-NLDAS). GLDAS was developed to provide initial conditions for NCEP coupled global weather and climate models, NLDAS to provide hydrometeorological products to support the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS), and HRAP-NLDAS for long-term and near real-time high-resolution (~4 km) hydrometeorological products to support hydrological research and application at National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecast Centers and the Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). These three systems are independent but closely related. The core model of the three systems is the NCEP operational land surface model (Noah) and the OHD operational hydrological model (SAC-HT); two additional land surface/hydrological models are used in NLDAS. The three systems are all moving towards being used for global and regional drought analysis, monitoring and prediction. The uncoupled GLDAS used the Noah land model in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), with blended atmospheric model and observed precipitation forcing used to generate long-term (1979-present) global hydrometeorological products (at ~38 km) as part of the proposed Global Drought Information System (GDIS) in association with the NOAA Climate Program Office (CPO) Modeling, Analysis, Predictions and Projection (MAPP) Drought Task Force; use of GLDAS/Noah continues in the operational Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2). NLDAS is a quasi-operational system that supports U.S. operational drought monitoring and seasonal hydrological prediction, in particular for NIDIS. One key application of the near real-time updates is drought monitoring over the Continental United States (CONUS), shown at the "NLDAS Drought" tab of the NLDAS website (www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/mmb/nldas). NLDAS is mature, with NCEP operational implementation planned for the near future. At the same time, the NCEP/EMC NLDAS team is collaborating with the NASA Goddard Hydrological Sciences Laboratory to add their Land Information System (LIS) to the current NLDAS which will allow assimilation of remotely-sensed data sets and in-situ observations. HRAP-NLDAS centers on supporting NCEP and OHD operational land surface and hydrological modeling missions, as well as providing support for the NOAA Hydrology Test Bed, the NOAA Climate Test Bed, and NIDIS, with long-term retrospective (1979-present) and near real-time multi-model hydrometerological products over CONUS. New capabilities include the use of enhanced versions of the Noah and Sacramento Heat Transfer (SAC-HT) land models. As HRAP-NLDAS is developed under the NASA LIS framework, more land surface/hydrological models will be included in this system. This high resolution exercise will allow drought monitoring with spatial scales from state to sub-county levels.

  18. On the Relevance of Using Open Wireless Sensor Networks in Environment Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Bagula, Antoine B.; Inggs, Gordon; Scott, Simon; Zennaro, Marco

    2009-01-01

    This paper revisits the problem of the readiness for field deployments of wireless sensor networks by assessing the relevance of using Open Hardware and Software motes for environment monitoring. We propose a new prototype wireless sensor network that fine-tunes SquidBee motes to improve the life-time and sensing performance of an environment monitoring system that measures temperature, humidity and luminosity. Building upon two outdoor sensing scenarios, we evaluate the performance of the newly proposed energy-aware prototype solution in terms of link quality when expressed by the Received Signal Strength, Packet Loss and the battery lifetime. The experimental results reveal the relevance of using the Open Hardware and Software motes when setting up outdoor wireless sensor networks. PMID:22408557

  19. Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2009-02-25

    Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

  20. Design of GLP lab environment parameters monitor system based on Schneider PLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Xiaoqin; Xu, Huihui; Duan, Zhengang; Zhang, Yong

    2008-10-01

    According to the technological process and the requirement for system control of the GLP Laboratory, an automatic system is designed to monitor and control over the environment parameters of the GLP laboratory. The system is composed of a programmable controller and touching screen as the processing unit. The Schneider PLC TSX P57303 controller with its counterpart input/output modules is adopted as the hardware platform and the Schneider PL7-MICRO/WIN as the software platform. This paper presents the main flow process design of the control system. The test results show that the control system can run automatically and switch mutually under different modes, and the functions such as monitor and control over the environment parameters of the GLP laboratory are realized.

  1. Contribution of L-Band SAR to Systematic Global Mangrove Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, Richard; Rebelo, Lisa-Maria; Fatoyinbo, Lola; Rosenqvist, Ake; Itoh, Takuya; Shimada, Masanobu; Simard, Marc; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir; Thomas, Nathan; Trettin, Carl; Accad, Arnon; Carreiras, Joao; Hilarides, Lammert

    2014-01-01

    Information on the status of and changes in mangroves is required for national and international policy development, implementation and evaluation. To support these requirements, a component of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Kyoto and Carbon (K&C) initiative has been to design and develop capability for a Global Mangrove Watch (GMW) that routinely monitors and reports on local to global changes in the extent of mangroves, primarily on the basis of observations by Japanese L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The GMW aims are as follows: (1) to map progression of change within or from existing (e.g. Landsat-derived) global baselines of the extent of mangroves by comparing advanced land-observing satellite 2 (ALOS-2) phased array L-band SAR 2 (PALSAR-2) data from 2014 with that acquired by the Japanese earth resources satellite (JERS-1)SAR(1992-1998) and ALOSPALSAR (2006-2011); (2) to quantify changes in the structure and associated losses and gains of carbon on the basis of canopy height and aboveground biomass (AGB) estimated from the shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM; acquired 2000), the ice, cloud and land-elevation satellite (ICESAT) geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS; 2003-2010) and L-band backscatter data; (3) to determine likely losses and gains of tree species diversity through reference to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) global thematic layers on the distribution of mangrove species; and (4) to validate maps of changes in the extent of mangroves, primarily through comparison with dense time-series of Landsat sensor data and to use these same data to describe the causes and consequences of change. The paper outlines and justifies the techniques being implemented and the role that the GMW might play in supporting national and international policies that relate specifically to the long-term conservation of mangrove ecosystems and the services they provide to society.

  2. Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

    SciTech Connect

    Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie -Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif; Matic, Ivan

    2014-12-11

    Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation.

  3. Construction and application of an intelligent air quality monitoring system for healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Tung; Liao, Chi-Jui; Liu, Jung-Chun; Den, Walter; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality monitoring in healthcare environment has become a critical part of hospital management and policy. Manual air sampling and analysis are cost-inhibitive and do not provide real-time air quality data and response measures. In this month-long study over 14 sampling locations in a public hospital in Taiwan, we observed a positive correlation between CO(2) concentration and population, total bacteria, and particulate matter concentrations, thus monitoring CO(2) concentration as a general indicator for air quality could be a viable option. Consequently, an intelligent environmental monitoring system consisting of a CO(2)/temperature/humidity sensor, a digital plug, and a ZigBee Router and Coordinator was developed and tested. The system also included a backend server that received and analyzed data, as well as activating ventilation and air purifiers when CO(2) concentration exceeded a pre-set value. Alert messages can also be delivered to offsite users through mobile devices. PMID:24487985

  4. A novel integrative technique for locating and monitoring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon discharges to the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Black, J.J.; Hart, T.F. Jr.; Black, P.J.

    1982-05-01

    A simple integrative technique for locating and monitoring polynuclear aromatic hydrogen discharges to aquatic environments is described. The technique involves anchoring artificial substrates cut from a commercial oil-adsorbant cloth (3M Co.) near suspected sources of contamination. Analytical methodology involves mild ethanolic extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning to isolate a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon containing fraction that is amenable to analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

  5. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Today s presentation describes how real time space weather data is used by the International Space Station (ISS) space environments team to obtain data on auroral charging of the ISS vehicle and support ISS crew efforts to obtain auroral images from orbit. Topics covered include: Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), . Auroral charging of ISS, . Real ]time space weather monitoring resources, . Examples of ISS auroral charging captured from space weather events, . ISS crew observations of aurora.

  6. Can the ASAR Global Monitoring Mode Product Adequately Capture Spatial Soil Moisture Variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenova, I.; Lakshmi, V.; Walker, J.; Panciera, R.; Wagner, W.; Doubkova, M.

    2008-12-01

    Global soil moisture (SM) monitoring in the past several decades has been undertaken mainly at coarse spatial resolution, which is not adequate for addressing small-scale phenomena and processes. The currently operational Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (NASA) and future planned missions such as the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (ESA) and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (NASA) will remain resolution limited. Finer scale soil moisture estimates can be achieved either by down-scaling the available coarse resolution radiometer and scatterometer (i.e. ERS1/2, ASCAT) observations or by using high resolution active microwave SAR type systems (typical resolution is in the order of meters). Considering the complex land surface - backscatter signal interaction, soil moisture inversion utilizing active microwave observations is difficult and generally needs supplementary data. Algorithms based on temporal change detection offer an alternative less complex approach for deriving (and disaggregating coarse) soil moisture estimates. Frequent monitoring and low frequency range along with a high pixel resolution are essential preconditions when characterizing spatial and temporal soil moisture variability. An alternative active system that meets these requirements is the Advance Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) on ENVISAT [C-band, global, 1 km in Global Monitoring (GM) Mode]. The Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) has developed a 1 km soil moisture product using the temporal change detection approach and the ASAR GM. The TU Wien SM product sensitivity was evaluated at two scales: point (using in situ data from permanent soil moisture stations) and regional [using ground measured data and aircraft estimates derived from the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR)] over the National Airborne Field Experiment (NAFE'05) area located in the Goulburn catchment, SE Australia. The month long (November 2005) campaign was undertaken in a region predominantly covered by grasslands and partly by forests and croplands. Point scale analysis revealed high ASAR sensitivity and adequate response to changes in moisture conditions (R = 0.69 and RMSE = 0.08 v/v). Regional analysis was performed at several different spatial resolutions (1 km to 25 km). ASAR exhibited high noise level and significant wet bias. Increase in pixel size resulted in improving R and RMSE from R = 0.59 and RMSE = 0.14 to R = 0.91 and RMSE = 0.05 at 1 km and 25 km respectively; however, despite the reasonable statistical agreement at 1 km, the soil moisture spatial patterns clearly visible in the PLMR images, the later were verified with ground data, were lacking in the ASAR product.

  7. Space Environment Monitoring System in next generation Geostationary Meteorological Satellite of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Zhang

    Feng Yun 4(FY-4) is a second-generation Meteorological Remote Sensing earth observation satellite of China. On board FY-4, Space Environment Monitoring System(SEMS) consist of seven payloads, including 3 High Energy Particle Detector(HEPD), 1 Magnetometer(MTM), 1 Charging Potential Probe(CPP) and 1 Radiation Dosimeter(RD). High energy particle , magnetic field and space environment effect compose of main goals of SEMS. The HEPD instrument will detect proton with 3 directions , electron with 9 directions. Magnetometer will monitor magnetic field intensity between -400nT and +400nT. CPP will monitor Relative Surface Voltage from -10KV to +1KV, Absolute Surface Voltage from -20KV to -100V ,+100V to +1KV, Deep Surface Voltage from -2.5KV to 0V. RD will monitor dose from 0 rad to 200,000 rad. The first FY-4 satellite is planned to be launched in Dec 2015,This next-generation system will continue to provide more information about space weather, and SEMS will be playing more important role in space weather.

  8. New study on the correlation between carbon dioxide concentration in the environment and radon monitor devices.

    PubMed

    Shahrokhi, A; Burghele, B D; Fbin, F; Kovcs, T

    2015-12-01

    The influence of high geogenic carbon dioxide concentrations on monitoring devices might present a significant challenge to the measurement of radon concentrations in environments with a high level of carbon dioxide concentration such as volcano sites, mofettes, caves, etc. In this study, the influence of carbon dioxide concentration on several different types of radon monitor devices - including Alpha Spectrometry (Sarad RTM 2200, EQF 3220, RAD7), Ionizing Chamber (AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO) and Active Cell (Active scintillation cell, Pylon 300A) - was examined to represent new aspects of radon measuring in environments with carbon dioxide. In light of the results, all measuring devices were exposed to variable conditions affected by carbon dioxide concentration, except for the AlphaGUARD, which was kept in a steady state throughout the experiment. It was observed that alpha spectroscopy devices were affected by carbon dioxide, since measured radon concentrations decreased in the presence of 70% and 90% carbon dioxide concentrations by 26.52% and 14.52.5% for EQF 3220, and 322% and 35.52% for RTM 2200. However, the ionizing chamber instrument was unaffected by changes in carbon dioxide concentration. It was determined that the RAD7 performed relatively inefficiently in the presence of carbon dioxide concentrations higher than 67% by an overall efficiency factor of approximately 0.52, confirming that it is not an admissible radon monitor instrument in environments with high carbon dioxide concentrations. PMID:26281966

  9. Global warming in the palliative care research environment: adapting to change.

    PubMed

    Fainsinger, R L

    2008-06-01

    Advocates of palliative care research have often described the cold and difficult environment that has constrained the development of research internationally. The development of palliative care research has been slow over the last few decades and has met with resistance and sometimes hostility to the idea of conducting research in 'vulnerable populations'. The seeds of advocacy for research can be found in palliative care literature from the 1980s and early 1990s. Although we have much to do, we need to recognize that palliative care research development has come a long way. Of particular note is the development of well-funded collaboratives that now exist in Europe, Canada, Australia and the USA. The European Association for Palliative Care and the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care has recognized the need to develop and promote global research initiatives, with a special focus on developing countries. Time is needed to develop good research evidence and in a more complex healthcare environment takes increasingly more resources to be productive. The increased support (global warming) evident in the increased funding opportunities available to palliative care researchers in a number of countries brings both benefits and challenges. There is evidence that the advocacy of individuals such as Kathleen Foley, Neil MacDonald, Balfour Mount, Vittorio Ventafridda, Robert Twycross and Geoff Hanks is now providing fertile ground and a much friendlier environment for a new generation of interdisciplinary palliative care research. We have achieved many of the goals necessary to avoid failure of the 'palliative care experiment', and need to accept the challenge of our present climate and adapt and take advantage of the change. PMID:18541636

  10. What is a habitable environment? -answers from observations of a global transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Onofri, Silvano; Ott, Sieglinde

    Extremophiles are specialists which colonise special niches in these extreme environments due to there adaptation capacities attained during the evolution of life. Some examples of ex-tremophiles and their potential to deal with harsh conditions as well as the characterisation of their niches will be presented. Based on observations and results obtained in the 10th German Antarctic North Victoria Land Expedition (GANOVEX X) in the area of the Transantarctic Mountains led by the German Geosciences and Resource Research Society (BGR) and during an environment characterisation campaign of the European Alps and the Spanish Mountains "Sierra de Gredos" supported by the German Ministry of Economy and Technology (BMWi) a global transect from temperate Alpine regions to Mediterranean mountains and Polar Mountain regions can be analysed. Due to a summary of these results we are able to compare different strategies of colonisation in different habitats of the global mountain transect by cosmopolitan and endemic species as there are, the colonisation of rocks, fissures, cracks, polygon forming substrates, permafrost and glaciers. Data of UV B-, PAR-and IR-radiation measurements, humidity and temperature as well as the activity of microorganisms are accomplishing with more details the habitat characterisation and may give relevant information on probably niches for life on other planets as e.g. the planet Mars and may give answers on the question what is a habitable environment. These results will also form the basis of a series of new space experiments on satellites or on the International Space Station (ISS) and furthermore may lead to progress in probes-and rover-development for particular "hardly" accessible terrains.

  11. Global pollution monitoring of polybrominated diphenyl ethers using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Subramanian, Annamalai; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K S; Zheng, Gene J; Muchitar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-04-15

    To elucidate the global distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), these chemicals were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters of various regions in the world (Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Indian Ocean, and North Pacific Ocean). PBDEs were detected in almost all the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed (from < 0.1 to 53 ng/g of lipid), indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Residue levels of PBDEs in these samples from the northern hemisphere seem to be higher than those from the southern hemisphere, which is plausibly due to larger usage of these compounds in the northern hemisphere. Higher concentrations of PBDEs were detected in the samples from waters around the East China Sea (up to 53 ng/g of lipid). Developing countries around the East China Sea are supposedly the "hot spots" releasing these chemicals into the marine environment. With regard to the composition of PBDE congeners, the percentage contribution by lower brominated congeners (BDE15, -28, and -47) showed an increasing trend with increasing latitude. On the other hand, higher brominated congeners (BDE153, -154, and -183) showed a reverse trend. These patterns suggest that lower brominated congeners of PBDEs (di-, tri-, and tetra-BDEs) were preferentially transported from pollution sources to northern colder regions through the atmosphere. PBDEs may have a high potency to cause global pollution like PCBs. PMID:15116835

  12. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. See the latest spectacular images from NASA remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man s impact on our world s environment. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights. Shown in high resolution are visualizations of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique. See flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, as well as satellite imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001, and how new satellite tools can be used to help fight these disasters from spreading further. See where and when lightning occurs globally, and how dramatic urbanization has been in the desert southwest since 1910. Spectacular visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. Learn when and where carbon is absorbed by vegetation on the land and ocean as the product of photosynthesis. See demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricanes and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites, and how hurricanes can modify the sea surface temperature in their wake. See massive dust storms in the Middle East as well as dust transport sweeping from north Africa across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. Learn where and how much the temperature of the Earth s surface has changed during the 20th century, as well as how sea ice has decreased over the Arctic region, how sea level has and is likely to continue to change, and how glaciers have retreated worldwide in a response to global change. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  13. Using the international monitoring system of seismic, infrasound, and hydroacoustic sensors for global airburst detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.

    2014-07-01

    The impact of meter-sized objects with the Earth occurs every few weeks [1,2]. Most of these collisions result in airbursts, here defined as impacts where the meteoroid's initial kinetic energy is of order a small nuclear weapon (> 0.1 kilotons of TNT equivalent = 4.185×10^{11} J) and where this energy is fully deposited at high altitude in the atmosphere. Historically, the majority of these airbursts go undetected over oceans or remote land areas as dedicated fireball camera networks (eg.[ 3]) cover less than 1 % of the globe. Airbursts often produce meteorite falls and hence airburst data may yield pre-atmospheric orbits and physical properties for the impacting NEO providing context for recovered meteorite samples [4]. With the advent of more capable telescopic survey systems, pre-atmospheric detection of NEO-producing airbursts has become possible as evidenced by the impacts of 2014 AA and 2008 TC_3 [5]. Detection of ''terminal plungers'' is expected to become more common as projects such as ATLAS [6] become operational. This increases the need for instrumental data of the corresponding airburst, particularly its location and energy. Beginning in the late 1990s, a global network of seismic, infrasound, and hydroacoustic sensors has been deployed globally to provide treaty verification for a nuclear test ban. This network is the International Monitoring System (IMS) overseen by Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) [7]. The IMS is a unique global resource for detection of explosions worldwide and in recent years shock waves from many airbursts [8] have been detected by the system. Data from the IMS permits airburst location, origin time and energy to be measured. In rare cases, source heights, trajectories, and details of fragmentation may be obtained. Here the current capabilities of the IMS will be presented in the context of airburst detection and characterization. Empirical characteristics of the long-range sound produced by airbursts through comparison with other technologies will be summarized [9] and some recent examples of IMS detected airbursts presented. Finally, the inferred flux of impactors based on global airburst monitoring will also be described.

  14. Resourcesat-1: A global multi-observation mission for resources monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, K. S. V.; Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Thyagarajan, K.; Sridhara Murthi, K. R.

    2005-07-01

    With an array of Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS), a wide variety of national applications have been developed as an inter-agency effort over the past 20 years. Now, the capacity of the programme has been extended into the global arena and IRS is providing operational data services to the global user community. The recently launched IRS satellite, Resourcesat-1, was placed into perfect orbit by India's PSLV and is providing valuable imaging services. Resourcesat-1 is actually like 3 satellites "rolled" into one, imaging a wide field of 710 km area at ˜55 m resolution in multispectral bands from the AWiFS, 23 m resolution in a systematic 142 km swath from four bands of the LISS-3 and the 5.8 m multi-spectral images from the most advanced sensor—LISS-4. Yet another aspect of Resourcesat-1 is it that it marks a "watershed" in terms of a quantum jump in technological capability that India has achieved compared to past missions. The mission has many newer features—the advanced imaging sensors, the more precise attitude and orbit determination systems, the satellite positioning system onboard, the mass storage devices and many other features. This mission has led IRS into a new technological era, and when combined with the technological capability of the forthcoming Cartosat missions, India would have developed technologies that will take us into the new generation of EO satellites for the coming years. This paper provides a detailed description of the Resourcesat-1 mission. From the applications point of view, Resourcesat-1 will open up new avenues for environmental monitoring and resources management—especially for vegetation assessment and disaster management support. The monitoring capability of this mission is also extremely important for a number of applications. The mission has global imaging and servicing capabilities and could be received through the Antrix-Space Imaging network, which markets Resourcesat-1 data worldwide. This paper also describes the applications potentials and global capabilities of the mission. Resourcesat-1 will have continuity and after that a new generation system will provide enhanced and more unique imaging services. Actually, India has a 25 years strategy for EO and a perspective of the same is also described in this paper.

  15. Sub-daily periodicities in the results of local monitoring using global navigation satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaftan, Vladimir; Ustinov, Alexander

    Nowadays the more attention is focused on the continuous monitoring by using of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) in the study and control of stability of engineering structures and natural objects. The diurnal and semi-diurnal oscillations take place in high frequency GNSS observation. These waves are caused by the presence of the high frequency periodicities in changes of all geospheres, but also in systematic errors of GNSS techniques. Thus the diurnal variations are already found in the coordinates of global and regional networks of CORS stations. They are often related with the influence of Earth's diurnal tides. The purpose of this study is to examine the periodic variations in coordinate increments of local monitoring networks of engineering structures and the earth's surface. But in this case the tidal changes have a small influence because of the relative proximity of the network control points. Results of static GNSS observations in the local network with the control vectors baselines from 170 m to 4.3 km of length were used for the analysis of periodicities. The hourly time series of baseline components of the length of two months were analyzed. Three qualitatively different methods were applied: wavelet transformation (Morlet wavelet function), fast Fourier transformation (FFT), and sequential analysis of the dominant harmonics (dominant analysis) for the more sure detection of hidden periodicities. The results of determination of oscillation spectrum were obtained by the three methods mentioned above. For all baselines their good mutual agreement were obtained. Diurnal and semi-diurnal waves are mainly and the most vividly appeared in the horizontal components, in the heights component there are also other periodicity of the high and low frequencies. The oscillations amplitude reaches 4 mm. It is necessary to clarify the nature of the observed oscillations, which will be the main subject of the following more detailed studies. It is important, since the cause of the detected periodic oscillations can be the real changes, such as temperature deformation of engineering structures as well as the changes connected with the influence of systematic errors of GNSS measurements for example. The obtained results lead to the following conclusions. - In the results of GNSS geodynamic monitoring of engineering structures and objects on the earth surface the stable oscillatory components with periods of 1 and 0.5 days, and amplitudes up to 4 mm are found. - Further analysis of the reasons of identified oscillations that may be caused by the real change of monitored objects and as well as systematic errors of measurement GNSS is required.

  16. The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems. PMID:11019460

  17. A global standard for monitoring coastal wetland vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Edward L.; Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Phelps, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise threatens coastal salt-marshes and mangrove forests around the world, and a key determinant of coastal wetland vulnerability is whether its surface elevation can keep pace with rising sea level. Globally, a large data gap exists because wetland surface and shallow subsurface processes remain unaccounted for by traditional vulnerability assessments using tide gauges. Moreover, those processes vary substantially across wetlands, so modelling platforms require relevant local data. The low-cost, simple, high-precision rod surface-elevation table–marker horizon (RSET-MH) method fills this critical data gap, can be paired with spatial data sets and modelling and is financially and technically accessible to every country with coastal wetlands. Yet, RSET deployment has been limited to a few regions and purposes. A coordinated expansion of monitoring efforts, including development of regional networks that could support data sharing and collaboration, is crucial to adequately inform coastal climate change adaptation policy at several scales.

  18. Monitoring global vegetation using Nimbus-7 37 GHz data - Some empirical relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Tucker, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    The difference of the vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures observed by the 37 GHz channel of the SMMR on board the Nimbus-7 satellite are correlated temporally with three indicators of vegetation density, namely the temporal variation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa (Hawaii), rainfall over the Sahel and the normalized difference vegetation index derived from the AVHRR on board the NOAA-7 satellite. SMMR 37 GHz and AVHRR provide complementary data sets for monitoring global vegetation, the 37 GHz data being more suitable for arid and semiarid regions as these data are more sensitive to changes in sparse vegetation. The 37-GHz data might be useful for understanding desertification and indexing Co2 exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

  19. A global standard for monitoring coastal wetland vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Edward L.; Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Phelps, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    Sea-level rise threatens coastal salt-marshes and mangrove forests around the world, and a key determinant of coastal wetland vulnerability is whether its surface elevation can keep pace with rising sea level. Globally, a large data gap exists because wetland surface and shallow subsurface processes remain unaccounted for by traditional vulnerability assessments using tide gauges. Moreover, those processes vary substantially across wetlands, so modelling platforms require relevant local data. The low-cost, simple, high-precision rod surface-elevation table-marker horizon (RSET-MH) method fills this critical data gap, can be paired with spatial data sets and modelling and is financially and technically accessible to every country with coastal wetlands. Yet, RSET deployment has been limited to a few regions and purposes. A coordinated expansion of monitoring efforts, including development of regional networks that could support data sharing and collaboration, is crucial to adequately inform coastal climate change adaptation policy at several scales.

  20. Use of global navigation satellite systems for monitoring deformations of water-development works

    SciTech Connect

    Kaftan, V. I.; Ustinov, A. V.

    2013-05-15

    The feasibility of using global radio-navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to improve functional safety of high-liability water-development works - dams at hydroelectric power plants, and, consequently, the safety of the population in the surrounding areas is examined on the basis of analysis of modern publications. Characteristics for determination of displacements and deformations with use of GNSS, and also in a complex with other types of measurements, are compared. It is demonstrated that combined monitoring of deformations of the ground surface of the region, and engineering and technical structures is required to ensure the functional safety of HPP, and reliable metrologic assurance of measurements is also required to obtain actual characteristics of the accuracy and effectiveness of GNSS observations.

  1. Observations of the moon by the global ozone monitoring experiment: radiometric calibration and lunar albedo.

    PubMed

    Dobber, M R; Goede, A P; Burrows, J P

    1998-11-20

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a new instrument, which was launched aboard the second European Remoting Sensing satellite ESA-ERS2 in 1995. For its long-term radiometric and spectral calibration the GOME observes the sun and less frequently the moon on a regular basis. These measurements of the lunar radiance and solar irradiance have been used in a study to determine, for the first time to the authors' knowledge, the geometric lunar albedo from 240 to 800 nm at high spectral resolution from space. For a waning moon there is good agreement with ground-based measurements in the visible region and with recent space-based measurements in the ultraviolet region. In addition, the use of these measurements for the characterization of in-orbit degradation of instruments operating in this spectral region has been adequately demonstrated. PMID:18301626

  2. A multimedia approach to environmental monitoring in a northern environment: The Slave River environmental quality monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Peddle, J.; Stephens, G.; Robertson, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Slave River Environmental Quality Monitoring Program is a multimedia sampling program that was established in 1990 to characterize baseline conditions of the aquatic ecosystem in the Slave River at Fort Smith, NWT, Canada. The comprehensive nature of the sampling program made it the first of its kind in the Northwest Territories. The Slave River watershed drains an area of approximately 600,000 km{sup 2}, including the Peace and Athabasca Rivers, with the territorial portion being the furthest downstream. Increase in developments in the upstream portion of the basin prompted concerns by northern residents. In order to answer the questions of ``Can one drink the water?`` and ``Can one eat the fish?``, the program had to take an ecosystem approach and analyze a variety of media including water, suspended sediment and fish. In addition, benthic surveys, stable isotope work and delta coring were carried out in conjunction with this study. Samples were collected under both winter ({minus}40 C, under ice) and summer conditions. Samples were analyzed for organic and inorganic parameters including mixed function oxygenases (MFOs), dioxins, furans and other organochlorines. There was an emphasis on those contaminants likely to result from anthropogenic developments upstream, namely pulp and paper mills, agricultural activities and hydrocarbon developments. A comprehensive and extensive database was created which can be used to address concerns, aid in transboundary negotiations and monitor future changes in the quality of the aquatic environment.

  3. An eDNA Assay to Monitor a Globally Invasive Fish Species from Flowing Freshwater

    PubMed Central

    Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Ponto-Caspian gobies are a flock of five invasive fish species that have colonized freshwaters and brackish waters in Europe and North America. One of them, the round goby Neogobius melanostomus, figures among the 100 worst invaders in Europe. Current methods to detect the presence of Ponto-Caspian gobies involve catching or sighting the fish. These approaches are labor intense and not very sensitive. Consequently, populations are usually detected only when they have reached high densities and when management or containment efforts are futile. To improve monitoring, we developed an assay based on the detection of DNA traces (environmental DNA, or eDNA) of Ponto-Caspian gobies in river water. The assay specifically detects invasive goby DNA and does not react to any native fish species. We apply the assay to environmental samples and demonstrate that parameters such as sampling depth, sampling location, extraction protocol, PCR protocol and PCR inhibition greatly impact detection. We further successfully outline the invasion front of Ponto-Caspian gobies in a large river, the High Rhine in Switzerland, and thus demonstrate the applicability of the assay to lotic environments. The eDNA assay requires less time, equipment, manpower, skills, and financial resources than the conventional monitoring methods such as electrofishing, angling or diving. Samples can be taken by untrained individuals, and the assay can be performed by any molecular biologist on a conventional PCR machine. Therefore, this assay enables environment managers to map invaded areas independently of fishermen’s’ reports and fish community monitorings. PMID:26814998

  4. Monitoring human health behaviour in one's living environment: a technological review.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Shane A; laighin, Gearid

    2014-02-01

    The electronic monitoring of human health behaviour using computer techniques has been an active research area for the past few decades. A wide array of different approaches have been investigated using various technologies including inertial sensors, Global Positioning System, smart homes, Radio Frequency IDentification and others. It is only in recent years that research has turned towards a sensor fusion approach using several different technologies in single systems or devices. These systems allow for an increased volume of data to be collected and for activity data to be better used as measures of behaviour. This change may be due to decreasing hardware costs, smaller sensors, increased power efficiency or increases in portability. This paper is intended to act as a reference for the design of multi-sensor behaviour monitoring systems. The range of technologies that have been used in isolation for behaviour monitoring both in research and commercial devices are reviewed and discussed. Filtering, range, sensitivity, usability and other considerations of different technologies are discussed. A brief overview of commercially available activity monitors and their technology is also included. PMID:24388101

  5. Inferential monitoring of global change impact on biodiversity through remote sensing and species distribution modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangermano, Florencia

    2009-12-01

    The world is suffering from rapid changes in both climate and land cover which are the main factors affecting global biodiversity. These changes may affect ecosystems by altering species distributions, population sizes, and community compositions, which emphasizes the need for a rapid assessment of biodiversity status for conservation and management purposes. Current approaches on monitoring biodiversity rely mainly on long term observations of predetermined sites, which require large amounts of time, money and personnel to be executed. In order to overcome problems associated with current field monitoring methods, the main objective of this dissertation is the development of framework for inferential monitoring of the impact of global change on biodiversity based on remotely sensed data coupled with species distribution modeling techniques. Several research pieces were performed independently in order to fulfill this goal. First, species distribution modeling was used to identify the ranges of 6362 birds, mammals and amphibians in South America. Chapter 1 compares the power of different presence-only species distribution methods for modeling distributions of species with different response curves to environmental gradients and sample sizes. It was found that there is large variability in the power of the methods for modeling habitat suitability and species ranges, showing the importance of performing, when possible, a preliminary gradient analysis of the species distribution before selecting the method to be used. Chapter 2 presents a new methodology for the redefinition of species range polygons. Using a method capable of establishing the uncertainty in the definition of existing range polygons, the automated procedure identifies the relative importance of bioclimatic variables for the species, predicts their ranges and generates a quality assessment report to explore prediction errors. Analysis using independent validation data shows the power of this methodology to redefine species ranges in a more biophysically reasonable way. If a specific variable is important for a species, a change in that variable is likely to impact the species. Chapter 3 presents a methodology to identify the impact of environmental changes on 6362 species of mammals, amphibians and birds of South America, based on per-species measures of sensitivity, marginality, range restriction and trends in remotely sensed bioclimatic variables. Maps of the impact of environmental changes on vertebrates of South America were generated, with the Andes, Patagonia and the Atlantic Forest experiencing the strongest impact of environmental change in this over the past quarter century. Contributions of this dissertation include the development of new range polygons for all mammals, amphibians and birds of South America, as well as a methodology to re-draw the polygons in any other region of the world. This dataset is essential for both biodiversity analysis and conservation prioritization. Other contributions are the generation of maps of impact of global change on biodiversity, together with a framework for the development and updating of those maps. Conservation and monitoring agencies will find this research useful not only for the selection of new conservation areas but also for prioritizing areas for field monitoring.

  6. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale

    PubMed Central

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-01-01

    Background The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. Objective To produce maps of the baseline and future bioclimate that allows a direct comparison of the differences in the vulnerability of populations to thermal stress across the world. Design The required climatological data fields are obtained from climate simulations with the global General Circulation Model ECHAM4 in T106-resolution. For the thermo-physiologically relevant assessment of these climate data a complete heat budget model of the human being, the Perceived Temperature procedure has been applied which already comprises adaptation by clothing to a certain degree. Short-term physiological acclimatisation is considered via Health Related Assessment of the Thermal Environment. Results The global maps 19711980 (control run, assumed as baseline climate) show a pattern of thermal stress intensities as frequencies of heat. The heat load for people living in warmhumid climates is the highest. Climate change will lead to clear differences in health-related thermal stress between baseline climate and the future bioclimate 20412050 based on the business-as-usual greenhouse gas scenario IS92a. The majority of the world's population will be faced with more frequent and more intense heat strain in spite of an assumed level of acclimatisation. Further adaptation measures are crucial in order to reduce the vulnerability of the populations. Conclusions This bioclimatology analysis provides a tool for various questions in climate and climate change impact research. Considerations of regional or local scale require climate simulations with higher resolution. As adaptation is the key term in understanding the role of climate/climate change for human health, performance and well-being, further research in this field is crucial. PMID:20052427

  7. The zCOSMOS redshift survey: how group environment alters global downsizing trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovino, A.; Cucciati, O.; Scodeggio, M.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Lilly, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Caputi, K.; Pozzetti, L.; Oesch, P.; Lamareille, F.; Halliday, C.; Bardelli, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Guzzo, L.; Kampczyk, P.; Maier, C.; Tanaka, M.; Vergani, D.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Mignoli, M.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tresse, L.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Schiminovich, D.; Scoville, N.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Groups of galaxies are a common environment, bridging the gap between starforming field galaxies and quiescent cluster galaxies. Within groups secular processes could be at play, contributing to the observed strong decrease of star formation with cosmic time in the global galaxy population. Aims: We took advantage of the wealth of information provided by the first 10 000 galaxies of the zCOSMOS-bright survey and its group catalogue to study in detail the complex interplay between group environment and galaxy properties. Methods: The classical indicator Fblue, i.e., the fraction of blue galaxies, proved to be a simple but powerful diagnostic tool. We studied its variation for different luminosity and mass selected galaxy samples, divided as to define groups/field/isolated galaxy subsamples. Results: Using rest-frame evolving B-band volume-limited samples, the groups galaxy population exhibits significant blueing as redshift increases, but maintains a systematic difference (a lower Fblue) with respect to the global galaxy population, and an even larger difference with respect to the isolated galaxy population. However moving to mass selected samples it becomes apparent that such differences are largely due to the biased view imposed by the B-band luminosity selection, being driven by the population of lower mass, bright blue galaxies for which we miss the redder, equally low mass, counterparts. By carefully focusing the analysis on narrow mass bins such that mass segregation becomes negligible we find that only for the lowest mass bin explored, i.e., log ({\\cal M}*/{\\cal M}⊙) ≤ 10.6 , does a significant residual difference in color remain as a function of environment, while this difference becomes negligible toward higher masses. Conclusions: Our results indicate that red galaxies of mass log ({\\cal M}*/{\\cal M}⊙) ≥ 10.8 are already in place at z 1 and do not exhibit any strong environmental dependence, possibly originating from so-called nature or internal mechanisms. In contrast, for lower galaxy masses and redshifts lower than z 1, we observe the emergence in groups of a population of nurture red galaxies: slightly deviating from the trend of the downsizing scenario followed by the global galaxy population, and more so with cosmic time. These galaxies exhibit signatures of group-related secular physical mechanisms directly influencing galaxy evolution. Our analysis implies that these mechanisms begin to significantly influence galaxy evolution after z 1, a redshift corresponding to the emergence of structures in which these mechanisms take place. based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, program 175.A-0839, PI: S. Lilly.

  8. Wireless Sensor Network-Based Greenhouse Environment Monitoring and Automatic Control System for Dew Condensation Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Dew condensation on the leaf surface of greenhouse crops can promote diseases caused by fungus and bacteria, affecting the growth of the crops. In this paper, we present a WSN (Wireless Sensor Network)-based automatic monitoring system to prevent dew condensation in a greenhouse environment. The system is composed of sensor nodes for collecting data, base nodes for processing collected data, relay nodes for driving devices for adjusting the environment inside greenhouse and an environment server for data storage and processing. Using the Barenbrug formula for calculating the dew point on the leaves, this system is realized to prevent dew condensation phenomena on the crop’s surface acting as an important element for prevention of diseases infections. We also constructed a physical model resembling the typical greenhouse in order to verify the performance of our system with regard to dew condensation control. PMID:22163813

  9. Automatic Event Detection in Noisy Environment for Material Process Monitoring by Laser AE Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, K.; Kuriki, H.; Araki, H.; Kuroda, S.; Enoki, M.

    2014-06-01

    Laser acoustic emission (AE) method is a unique in-situ and non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. It has a capability to detect signals generated from crack generation and propagation, friction and other physical phenomena in materials even in high temperature environment. However, laser AE system has lower signal-to-noise ratio compared to the conventional AE system using PZT sensors, so it is difficult to apply this method in noisy environment. A novel AE measurement system to detect events in such difficult environments was developed. This system could continuously record all AE waveforms and enable unrestricted post-analyses. Noise reduction filters in frequency domain coupling with a new AE event extraction using multiple threshold values showed a good potential for AE signal processing. This system was successfully applied for crack monitoring of plasma spray deposition process of ceramic coating.

  10. Monitoring Global Precipitation through UCI CHRS's RainMapper App on Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, P.; Huynh, P.; Braithwaite, D.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Water and Development Information for Arid Lands-a Global Network (G-WADI) Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks—Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) GeoServer has been developed through a collaboration between the Center for Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing (CHRS) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) and the UNESCO's International Hydrological Program (IHP). G-WADI PERSIANN-CCS GeoServer provides near real-time high resolution (0.04o, approx 4km) global (60oN - 60oS) satellite precipitation estimated by the PERSIANN-CCS algorithm developed by the scientists at CHRS. The G-WADI PERSIANN-CCS GeoServer utilizes the open-source MapServer software from the University of Minnesota to provide a user-friendly web-based mapping and visualization of satellite precipitation data. Recent efforts have been made by the scientists at CHRS to provide free on-the-go access to the PERSIANN-CCS precipitation data through an application named RainMapper for mobile devices. RainMapper provides visualization of global satellite precipitation of the most recent 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72-hour periods overlaid with various basemaps. RainMapper uses the Google maps application programing interface (API) and embedded global positioning system (GPS) access to better monitor the global precipitation data on mobile devices. Functionalities include using geographical searching with voice recognition technologies make it easy for the user to explore near real-time precipitation in a certain location. RainMapper also allows for conveniently sharing the precipitation information and visualizations with the public through social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. RainMapper is available for iOS and Android devices and can be downloaded (free) from the App Store and Google Play. The usefulness of RainMapper was demonstrated through an application in tracking the evolution of the recent Rammasun Typhoon over the Philippines in mid July 2014.

  11. Global and time-resolved monitoring of crop photosynthesis with chlorophyll fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Jung, Martin; Joiner, Joanna; Voigt, Maximilian; Berry, Joseph A.; Frankenberg, Christian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Lee, Jung-Eun; Moran, M. Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Beer, Christian; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Buchmann, Nina; Gianelle, Damiano; Klumpp, Katja; Cescatti, Alessandro; Baker, John M.; Griffis, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harvest sunlight to produce sugars from carbon dioxide and water. It is the primary source of energy for all life on Earth; hence it is important to understand how this process responds to climate change and human impact. However, model-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP, output from photosynthesis) are highly uncertain, in particular over heavily managed agricultural areas. Recent advances in spectroscopy enable the space-based monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from terrestrial plants. Here we demonstrate that spaceborne SIF retrievals provide a direct measure of the GPP of cropland and grassland ecosystems. Such a strong link with crop photosynthesis is not evident for traditional remotely sensed vegetation indices, nor for more complex carbon cycle models. We use SIF observations to provide a global perspective on agricultural productivity. Our SIF-based crop GPP estimates are 5075% higher than results from state-of-the-art carbon cycle models over, for example, the US Corn Belt and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, implying that current models severely underestimate the role of management. Our results indicate that SIF data can help us improve our global models for more accurate projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields. Extension of our approach to other ecosystems, along with increased observational capabilities for SIF in the near future, holds the prospect of reducing uncertainties in the modeling of the current and future carbon cycle. PMID:24706867

  12. Quantifying the reliability of four global datasets for drought monitoring over a semiarid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiraie-Boroujerdy, Pari-Sima; Nasrollahi, Nasrin; Hsu, Kuo-lin; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the most relevant natural disasters, especially in arid regions such as Iran. One of the requirements to access reliable drought monitoring is long-term and continuous high-resolution precipitation data. Different climatic and global databases are being developed and made available in real time or near real time by different agencies and centers; however, for this purpose, these databases must be evaluated regionally and in different local climates. In this paper, a near real-time global climate model, a data assimilation system, and two gridded gauge-based datasets over Iran are evaluated. The ground truth data include 50 gauges from the period of 1980 to 2010. Drought analysis was carried out by means of the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) at 2-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month timescales. Although the results show spatial variations, overall the two gauge-based datasets perform better than the models. In addition, the results are more reliable for the western portion of the Zagros Range and the eastern region of the country. The analysis of the onsets of the 6-month moderate drought with at least 3 months' persistence indicates that all datasets have a better performance over the western portion of the Zagros Range, but display poor performance over the coast of the Caspian Sea. Base on the results of this study, the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset is a preferred alternative for drought analysis in the region when gauge-based datasets are not available.

  13. Forest productivity and drought in tropical Africa: observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, E. S.; Lee, J. E.; Yang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of seasonal water stress on Africa's tropical regions has yet to be characterized despite drought's potential to cause famine and a reduction of biodiversity across the continent. Through the analysis of a new data set of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2, we demonstrate that fluorescence varies with water availability, particularly over regions with distinctive wet and dry seasons. Water availability was determined via both precipitation (from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project) and daytime canopy water content measurements (from the SeaWinds Scatterometer onboard the QuickSCAT satellite). Variance in SIF values was largely explained by both canopy water content and precipitation, which paralleled one-another. When viewed in the context of the previously defined relationship between fluorescence and gross primary production (GPP) - SIF scales linearly with GPP - our results suggest that photosynthetic activity in tropical Africa is limited by water availability. The characterization of this trend is critical in defining the response of tropical ecosystems to water stress and corroborating similar relationships in other tropical regions (e.g. Amazonia). Ultimately, the viability of Africa's tropical regions amidst a changing climate is rooted in its ecosystem-wide response to water stress; the future of the African tropics is limited by how well plants cope with water stress.

  14. Global and time-resolved monitoring of crop photosynthesis with chlorophyll fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Jung, Martin; Joiner, Joanna; Voigt, Maximilian; Berry, Joseph A; Frankenberg, Christian; Huete, Alfredo R; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Lee, Jung-Eun; Moran, M Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Beer, Christian; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Buchmann, Nina; Gianelle, Damiano; Klumpp, Katja; Cescatti, Alessandro; Baker, John M; Griffis, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harvest sunlight to produce sugars from carbon dioxide and water. It is the primary source of energy for all life on Earth; hence it is important to understand how this process responds to climate change and human impact. However, model-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP, output from photosynthesis) are highly uncertain, in particular over heavily managed agricultural areas. Recent advances in spectroscopy enable the space-based monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from terrestrial plants. Here we demonstrate that spaceborne SIF retrievals provide a direct measure of the GPP of cropland and grassland ecosystems. Such a strong link with crop photosynthesis is not evident for traditional remotely sensed vegetation indices, nor for more complex carbon cycle models. We use SIF observations to provide a global perspective on agricultural productivity. Our SIF-based crop GPP estimates are 50-75% higher than results from state-of-the-art carbon cycle models over, for example, the US Corn Belt and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, implying that current models severely underestimate the role of management. Our results indicate that SIF data can help us improve our global models for more accurate projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields. Extension of our approach to other ecosystems, along with increased observational capabilities for SIF in the near future, holds the prospect of reducing uncertainties in the modeling of the current and future carbon cycle. PMID:24706867

  15. Requirements for an L-band InSAR Mission to Monitor Global Tectonic Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eineder, M.; Minet, C.; Bamler, R.; Hajnsek, I.; Friedrich, A.

    2008-12-01

    DLR is currently studying a space mission based on a formation of two L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar satellites dedicated to monitor a) the global biomass for CO2 cycle studies b) small displacements of the earth surface. The focus of this presentation is the so called deformation mode for repeated displacement measurements during the mission lifetime. Measurements shall be made on risk regions such as faults, volcanoes, landslides and urban areas - or even globally if feasible. The study is currently in the requirements definition phase where the following parameters are discussed with the scientific user community, most importantly: - signal characteristics & accuracy requirements, - areas of interest, - revisit time requirements for different application fields such as volcanic or seismic activity, landslides or anthropogenic subsidence and - definition product levels, i.e., different processing stages. The goal of the study is to design a mission optimized for the derived requirements. This includes - mission & coverage concepts, - instrument design and - 3D motion reconstruction methods. In our presentation we show the current ideas and the requirements collected for deformation measurements.

  16. Global and Time-Resolved Monitoring of Crop Photosynthesis with Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Jung, Martin; Joiner, Joanna; Voigt, Maximilian; Berry, Joseph A.; Frankenberg, Christian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Lee, Jung-Eun; Moran, M. Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Beer, Christian; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Buchmann, Nina; Gianelle, Damiano; Klumpp, Katja; Cescatti, Alessandro; Baker, John M.; Griffis, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harvest sunlight to produce sugars from carbon dioxide and water. It is the primary source of energy for all life on Earth; hence it is important to understand how this process responds to climate change and human impact. However, model-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP, output from photosynthesis) are highly uncertain, in particular over heavily managed agricultural areas. Recent advances in spectroscopy enable the space-based monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from terrestrial plants. Here we demonstrate that spaceborne SIF retrievals provide a direct measure of the GPP of cropland and grassland ecosystems. Such a strong link with crop photosynthesis is not evident for traditional remotely sensed vegetation indices, nor for more complex carbon cycle models. We use SIF observations to provide a global perspective on agricultural productivity. Our SIF-based crop GPP estimates are 50-75% higher than results from state-of-the-art carbon cycle models over, for example, the US Corn Belt and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, implying that current models severely underestimate the role of management. Our results indicate that SIF data can help us improve our global models for more accurate projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields. Extension of our approach to other ecosystems, along with increased observational capabilities for SIF in the near future, holds the prospect of reducing uncertainties in the modeling of the current and future carbon cycle.

  17. Neurocognitive monitors: toward the prevention of cognitive performance decrements and catastrophic failures in the operational environment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Maria L; Russo, Michael B

    2007-05-01

    Network-centric doctrine and the proposed C41SR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) distributions to the individual warfighter require that the cognitive performance, judgment, and decision making of warfighters must be sustained and effectively managed in the forward operating environment, where various physiological and psychological stressors abound, in order to reduce human errors and catastrophic failures. The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) established the Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-Making Research Program (CPJDRP) in 2004 to direct research to this issue. A Neurophysiological Measures and Cognition Focus Team (NMFCT) was formed to work with augmented cognition investigators and to specifically address the development of neurophysiological measures as potential monitors of alertness-cognitive state in warfighters. The USAM-RMC approach complemented the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Augmented Cognition approach, which focused on the detection of workload-related impaired cognitive state, and subsequent modification of information flow through automation. In this preface, the premise for neurophysiological measures as neurocognitive monitors is explained using an example of a neurophysiological index: the oculomotor measure, saccadic velocity. The progress of the NMFCT on the development of a neurocognitive monitor is described, as well as the recommendations of a 2005 USAMRMC/Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC)-sponsored workshop. Awareness of neurocognitive monitoring is discussed, as are future endeavors related to operational testing and fieldability. Four papers are summarized in this Neurophysiological Monitoring and Augmented Cognition section involving technologies to enhance cognitive performance in the operational environment: one on dynamic cortical electroencephalography, two on oculometrics, and one on a spatial orientation enhancement system. PMID:17547315

  18. A global assessment of civil registration and vital statistics systems: monitoring data quality and progress.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Lene; Phillips, David E; AbouZahr, Carla; Setel, Philip W; de Savigny, Don; Lozano, Rafael; Lopez, Alan D

    2015-10-01

    Increasing demand for better quality data and more investment to strengthen civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems will require increased emphasis on objective, comparable, cost-effective monitoring and assessment methods to measure progress. We apply a composite index (the vital statistics performance index [VSPI]) to assess the performance of CRVS systems in 148 countries or territories during 1980-2012 and classify them into five distinct performance categories, ranging from rudimentary (with scores close to zero) to satisfactory (with scores close to one), with a mean VSPI score since 2005 of 061 (SD 031). As expected, the best performing systems were mostly in the European region, the Americas, and Australasia, with only two countries from east Asia and Latin America. Most low-scoring countries were in the African or Asian regions. Globally, only modest progress has been made since 2000, with the percentage of deaths registered increasing from 36% to 38%, and the percentage of children aged under 5 years whose birth has been registered increasing from 58% to 65%. However, several individual countries have made substantial improvements to their CRVS systems in the past 30 years by capturing more deaths and improving accuracy of cause-of-death information. Future monitoring of the effects of CRVS strengthening will greatly benefit from application of a metric like the VSPI, which is objective, costless to compute, and able to identify components of the system that make the largest contributions to good or poor performance. PMID:25971218

  19. A new constituting lidar network for global aerosol observation and monitoring: Leone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, Simone; Sauvage Laurent, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    In order to observe and monitoring the direct and indirect impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on the radiative transfer and climate changing, it is necessary a continuous worldwide observation of the microphysical aerosol properties. A global observation it is of great support to the actual research in climate and it is a complement in the effort of monitoring trans-boundary pollution, and satellite validation, valorizing the use of lidar and passive sensors networks. In this framework, we have created the LEONET program, a new constituting worldwide network of EZ Lidar instruments. These lidars, developed by the French company LEOSPHERE, are compact and rugged eye safe UV Lidars with cross-polarisation detection capabilities, designed to monitor and study the atmospheric vertical structure of aerosols and clouds in a continuous way, night and day, over long time period in order to investigate and contribute to the climate change studies. LEONET output data, in hdf format, have the same architecture of those of NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) and will be soon available to the scientific community through the AERONET data synergy tool which provides ground-based, satellite, and model data products to characterize aerosol optical and microphysical properties, spatial and temporal distribution, transport, and chemical and radiative properties. In this work, it is presented an overview of the LEONET products and methodologies as the backscattering and extinction coefficients; the depolarization ratio, cloud layer heights and subsequent optical depths, provided to the limit of detection capability from a range of 100 m up to 20 km as well as the recent automatic height retrieval method of the different Planetary Boundary Layers (PBL). The retrieval algorithm in the future will be improved integrating, when possible, a measured Lidar ratio by a co-located sun photometer Further are presented some data examples from several diverse sites in the network.

  20. [Morphophysiological monitoring of winter wheat at spring in connection with problem of global climate change].

    PubMed

    Klimov, S V; Burakhanova, E A; Dubinina, I M; Alieva, G P; Sal'nikova, E B; Trunova, T I

    2006-01-01

    Data on morphophysiological monitoring of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Mironovskaya 808 grown in Hoagland and Arnon solution in a greenhouse and transferred to natural conditions in March-April 2004 with the mean daily temperature of 0.6 +/- 0.7 degrees C within the exposure period of 42 days are presented. Water content, dry weight of plants and their organs, frost hardiness of plants, degree of tissue damage by frost, CO2 metabolism (photosynthesis and respiration), concentrations of sugars in tissues and proportions between different sugar forms, and activities of soluble and insoluble acid and alkaline phosphatases were monitored. Monitoring was carried out for three experimental variants simulating different microclimatic conditions in spring: after snow melting (experiment I), under ice crust (experiment II), and under snow cover (experiment III). Plants in experiments III and II demonstrated a higher water content in tissues, lower frost hardiness, higher rates of biomass loss, lower concentration of sugars and lower di- to monosaccharide ratio in tissues, and higher total invertase activity, particularly, cell wall-associated acid invertase activity. The dark respiration rates at 0 degrees C did not significantly differ between experimental variants. The photosynthetic capacity at this measurement temperature was maintained in all experimental variants being most pronounced in experiment II with the most intense photoinhibition under natural conditions. Comparison of experiments III and II with experiment I is used to discuss the negative effect of changes in certain microclimatic variables associated with global warming and leading to plant extortion and death from frost in spring. PMID:17022477

  1. Detection and Monitoring of Global Changes and the Evolution in the Region of Bouzina (aures) Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekaoussi, M.; Benmessaoud, H.

    2015-10-01

    The functioning of Mediterranean ecosystems to daily or interannual scale presents an ecological and socio-economic interest. The intensive exploitation of natural resources of this ecosystem by the population has now reached a critical threshold. To this is added the effect of climate change leading to a drought that occurs mainly in the southern part. This leads to accelerated degradation of the ecosystem and requires the establishment of sustainable management rules. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of multi-date satellite images in detecting global changes and monitoring of developments in the watershed of the Aurès Bouzina center. The approach is to use satellite images Landsat at different times (1986, 2001 and 2013) and sampling work for the confrontation with the ground truth, to conduct a thematic analysis of this environment, and view the global changes that have occurred in this area. The overall reading of the results of the tracking map changes, we notice a degradation of forest cover in ascending gradient from north to south and led to the reduction of vegetation cover drills. The area of irrigated crops registered an increase of grain. In favor of bare soils and wetlands, related to the influence of rivers, as well as the emergence of forage and vegetable crops. Bare soils dominated by a sandy texture are located primarily near areas of crops due to agricultural practices based on the intensification of agriculture as well as silting soil justified by an increase in bare soil. This work is a first step to track the degradation or restoration through ecological indicators field, related to remote sensing data.

  2. Sensing the environment: regulation of local and global homeostasis by the skin's neuroendocrine system.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zbytek, Blazej; Slominski, Radomir M; Steketee, Jeffery D

    2012-01-01

    Skin, the body's largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates, and responds to a diverse range of stressors including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuro-endocrine-immune organ that is tightly networked to central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. Such production is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and noninfectious), and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, beta-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-delta steroids), secosteroids, opioids, and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid, and endocannbinoid systems. Dysregulation of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/ or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks are also addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve endings to alert the brain on changes in the epidermal or dermal environments, or alternatively to activate other coordinating centers by direct (spinal cord) neurotransmission without brain involvement. Furthermore, rapid and reciprocal communications between epidermal and dermal and adnexal compartments are also mediated by neurotransmission including antidromic modes of conduction. In conclusion, skin cells and skin as an organ coordinate and/or regulate not only peripheral but also global homeostasis. PMID:22894052

  3. Global environment: An emerging challenge for international cooperation building a legal regime for ozone layer depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, J.

    1992-01-01

    Global environment is presenting new opportunities and challenges for international cooperation. The depletion of the ozone layer is one of the successful cases where the world community has demonstrated a rare consensus to address a global problem. This study: (1) examines the role of international law and institutions in shaping a regime for ozone layer depletion as formalized in the 1987 Montreal Protocol; (2) evaluates contributions of the ozone regime to the development of international environmental law; and (3) analyzes its implications for future international cooperation. Using regime theories as a methodological framework, the study integrates science, policy, law and institutions to show how they interact to create understandings, practices, and procedures in international relations. Traditionally, regime theorists have focused on power and interest to explain international cooperation. The existing theories were found to be inadequate for the analysis of ozone regime. The author offers an alternate explanation by incorporating the element of [open quotes]law[close quotes] into regime studies and linking regimes with [open quotes]institutions[close quotes] - the raison d'etre of the regimes. This modified explanation helps to provide a better understanding of the formation of the ozone regime. The study suggests that the ozone regime has produced a new generation of environmental norms. These norms, both procedural and substantive, put [open quotes]flesh on the bone[close quotes] of environmental law and keep ozone regime as a political process in motion, thus, adapting to the changing technological and scientific environment. Moreover, the ozone regime marks a turning point in the shift of emphasis from single-issue pollution laws to an encompassing law of the atmosphere. A new form of international cooperation also emerged from ozone negotiations.

  4. Big Data solution for CTBT monitoring: CEA-IDC joint global cross correlation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Bell, Randy; Brachet, Nicolas; Gaillard, Pierre; Kitov, Ivan; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Waveform cross-correlation when applied to historical datasets of seismic records provides dramatic improvements in detection, location, and magnitude estimation of natural and manmade seismic events. With correlation techniques, the amplitude threshold of signal detection can be reduced globally by a factor of 2 to 3 relative to currently standard beamforming and STA/LTA detector. The gain in sensitivity corresponds to a body wave magnitude reduction by 0.3 to 0.4 units and doubles the number of events meeting high quality requirements (e.g. detected by three and more seismic stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). This gain is crucial for seismic monitoring under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The International Data Centre (IDC) dataset includes more than 450,000 seismic events, tens of millions of raw detections and continuous seismic data from the primary IMS stations since 2000. This high-quality dataset is a natural candidate for an extensive cross correlation study and the basis of further enhancements in monitoring capabilities. Without this historical dataset recorded by the permanent IMS Seismic Network any improvements would not be feasible. However, due to the mismatch between the volume of data and the performance of the standard Information Technology infrastructure, it becomes impossible to process all the data within tolerable elapsed time. To tackle this problem known as "BigData", the CEA/DASE is part of the French project "DataScale". One objective is to reanalyze 10 years of waveform data from the IMS network with the cross-correlation technique thanks to a dedicated High Performance Computer (HPC) infrastructure operated by the Centre de Calcul Recherche et Technologie (CCRT) at the CEA of Bruyres-le-Chtel. Within 2 years we are planning to enhance detection and phase association algorithms (also using machine learning and automatic classification) and process about 30 terabytes of data provided by the IDC to update the world seismicity map. From the new events and those in the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin, we will automatically create various sets of master event templates that will be used for the event location globally by the CTBTO and CEA.

  5. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  6. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  7. Tunable Diode Laser Sensor for Monitoring and Control of Harsh Combustion Environments

    SciTech Connect

    VonDrasek, William; Melsio-Pubill, Anna

    2006-05-30

    This work represents the collaborative effort between American Air Liquide and Physical Sciences, Inc. for developing a sensor based on near-IR tunable diode lasers (TDL). The multi-species capability of the sensor for simultaneous monitoring of CO, O2, and H2O concentration as well as gas temperature is ideal for in-situ monitoring on industrial furnaces. The chemical species targeted are fundamental for controlling the combustion space for improved energy efficiency, reduced pollutants, and improved product quality, when coupling the measurement to a combustion control system. Several add-on modules developed provide flexibility in the system configuration for handling different process monitoring applications. For example, the on-Demand Power Control system for the 1.5 ?m laser is used for high particle density exhaust streams where laser transmission is problematic. For long-distance signal collection a fiber optic communication system is used to reduce noise pick-up. Finally, hardened modules to withstand high ambient temperatures, immune to EMF interference, protection from flying debris, and interfaced with pathlength control laser beam shielding probes were developed specifically for EAF process monitoring. Demonstration of these different system configurations was conducted on Charter Steel's reheat furnace, Imco Recycling, Inc. (now Aleris International, Inc.) aluminum reverberatory furnace, and Gerdau Ameristeel's EAF. Measurements on the reheat furnace demonstrated zone monitoring with the measurement performed close to the steel billet. Results from the aluminum furnace showed the benefit of measuring in-situ near the bath. In this case, low-level furnace optimization was performed and demonstrated 5% fuel savings. Monitoring tests on the EAF off-gas demonstrated the level of industrialization of the sensor to survive the harsh EAF environment. Long-term testing on the EAF has been on-going for over 6 months with essentially zero maintenance. Validation of the TDL measurement on the EAF was confirmed by comparison with extractive sampling CO measurements.

  8. Global Security Rule Sets An Analysis of the Current Global Security Environment and Rule Sets Governing Nuclear Weapons Release

    SciTech Connect

    Mollahan, K; Nattrass, L

    2004-09-30

    America is in a unique position in its history. In maintaining its position as the world's only superpower, the US consistently finds itself taking on the role of a global cop, chief exporter of hard and soft power, and primary impetus for globalization. A view of the current global situation shows an America that can benefit greatly from the effects of globalization and soft power. Similarly, America's power can be reduced significantly if globalization and its soft power are not handled properly. At the same time, America has slowly come to realize that its next major adversary is not a near peer competitor but terrorism and disconnected nations that seek nuclear capabilities. In dealing with this new threat, America needs to come to terms with its own nuclear arsenal and build a security rule set that will establish for the world explicitly what actions will cause the US to consider nuclear weapons release. This rule set; however, needs to be established with sensitivity to the US's international interests in globalization and soft power. The US must find a way to establish its doctrine governing nuclear weapons release without threatening other peaceful nations in the process.

  9. Urban ecological environment monitoring and evaluation based on remote sensing ecological index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng-gen; Tong, Cheng-zhuo; Chen, Xiao-yong; Nie, Yun-ju

    2015-12-01

    At present, the dynamic change monitoring of urban ecological environment has became an important guarantee measure for urban management, planning and construction. In this paper, taking Nanchang city as a case study, the remote sensing ecological index (RSEI) which is based on the natural factors is used to study the changes of the urban ecological environment. The Landsat images in the three different time periods of 1996, 2005, and 2013 in Nanchang were selected. To extract the four factors of green level, moisture, dryness and heat respectively as sub-indexs of the ecological assessment, in which the single window algorithm was used to calculate the heat. Based on the four factors, the RSEI in each year was finally calculated. The results show that the ecological environment in Nanchang deteriorated in the past 17 years, the value of the RSEI has decreased from 0.385 in 1996 to 0.267 in 2005, falling by 30.65%, but the ecological environment has improved in the later period, with the value of RSEI value rising to 0.413, increased by 54.68% compared with the results in 2005. It is indicates that the urban ecological environment of Nanchang has been significantly improved after some effective measures such as urban greening, pollution control, environmental protection were taken.

  10. The French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative on global observations of atmospheric CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Gerhard; Flamant, Pierre; Amediek, Axel; Ciais, Philippe; Fabien, Gibert; Fix, Andreas; Kiemle, Christoph; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Wirth, Martin

    2010-05-01

    We report on a new French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative targeting on global measurements of atmospheric methane (CH4). Among the greenhouse gases banned by the Kyoto protocol, CH4 contributes most to global warming after CO2. Questions arise whether global warming in Arctic regions might foster the melting of permafrost soils which contain significant amounts of carbon in organic form which under anaerobic conditions might be converted to CH4 and partially released to the atmosphere. Also the development of natural wetlands which are the biggest methane source, play an important role in climate prediction. Up to now, there is very little knowledge about CH4 sources and sinks in connection with changes in the agro-industrial era of predominant human influence or the very large deposits of CH4 as gas hydrates on ocean shelves that are vulnerable to ocean warming. The objective of this initiative is to improve our knowledge on regional to synoptic scale methane sources, globally. This will be obtained by the measurement of the column-weighted dry-air mixing ratio of CH4, commonly referred to XCH4 which can be used as input for flux inversion models. As a novel feature, the observational instrument will have its own light source emitting pulsed narrow-line laser radiation, not relying on sunlight. The XCH4 values will be provided by a lidar technique with no bias due to particles scattering in the light path, which can have strong regional variability. Using a range-gated receiver for detection of the signals scattered from the Earth surface, the lidar can distinguish surface from cloud or aerosol backscatter, permitting high-precision retrievals of XCH4 in the presence of thin cirrus or aerosol layers. The proposed measurement approach is also capable of providing measurements in partially cloudy conditions. The emitted laser pulses can reach the surface when gaps between clouds occur due to the near-nadir view and the small lidar footprint. The instrument will also provide XCH4 measurements above dense stratiform clouds to be used as reflective target instead of the surface. Using this observational method an unique dataset with sampling twice daily and with all-season and all-latitude coverage will be provided. In our presentation we focus on the measurement concept of XCH4 using an active optical instrument and discuss the expected performance in connection to the needs of flux inversion experiments. Finally, we will give an overview on supporting activities related to lidar measurements of greenhouse gas concentrations from ground-based and airborne platforms.

  11. Remote Environmental Monitoring of Hydrologic/ Biotic Interaction in a Mountain Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartsough, P. C.; Malazian, A.; Tuli, A.; Kamai, T.; Kizito, F.; Bales, R.; Broad, A.; Hopmans, J.

    2008-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks offer several advantages in monitoring of dynamic environmental variables in remote landscapes and offer a promising approach to realize the full potential of environmental monitoring. Wireless sensors also offer the advantage of real time data collection and sensor/network management and reduced long-term costs. Better understanding of surface water budgets in remote landscapes warrants close monitoring of moisture and temperature variability in near surfaces soils. This work describes field data demonstrating the functionality of four different wireless networks, at two field sites, both part of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). Equipment used varied from traditional point to point radio communication to a wireless mote based, distributed network. Sensors measuring water potential, volumetric water content, and soil temperature were deployed at a variety of sites including, a remote alpine meadow, along a topographic gradient with a dense tree canopy and within the root structure of an individual tree. The sensors were reactive to moisture and temperature variations and the wireless systems met the goal of providing informative data on dynamic responses of soil moisture to precipitation, snow melt and changes in vegetative demand. The systems were dependable, with low power consumption and were robust enough to withstand harsh winter conditions at a high elevation site. The study highlights measurement accuracy, power consumption, and data transmission limitations of the three systems. We demonstrate that deployment, implementation and long-term field monitoring in remote and challenging environments is possible with a variety of wireless systems.

  12. Multi-terminal remote monitoring and warning system using Micro Air Vehicle for dangerous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaoxun; He, Chengcheng; Lai, Chenlong; Liu, Yuanchao

    2015-11-01

    For overcoming the problems such as remote operation and dangerous tasks, multi-terminal remote monitoring and warning system based on STC89C52 Micro Control Unit and wireless communication technique was proposed. The system with MCU as its core adopted multiple sets of sensor device to monitor environment parameters of different locations, such as temperature, humidity, smoke other harmful gas concentration. Data information collected was transmitted remotely by wireless transceiver module, and then multi-channel data parameter was processed and displayed through serial communication protocol between the module and PC. The results of system could be checked in the form of web pages within a local network which plays a wireless monitoring and warning role. In a remote operation, four-rotor micro air vehicle which fixed airborne data acquisition device was utilized as a middleware between collecting terminal and PC to increase monitoring scope. Whole test system has characteristics of simple construction, convenience, real time ability and high reliability, which could meet the requirements of actual use.

  13. Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral components in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter's corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. The stationary simulation of this problem was done in the MHD and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the main significant results from the simplified two-fluid model simulations was a production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the I0 flyby that could not be explained by standard MHD models. In this paper, we develop a method of kinetic ion simulation. This method employs the fluid description for electrons and neutrals whereas for ions multilevel, drift-kinetic and particle, approaches are used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes. Our model provides much more accurate description for ion dynamics and allows us to take into account the realistic anisotropic ion distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations. The first results of such simulation of the dynamics of ions in the Io's environment are discussed in this paper.

  14. Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral gases in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter s corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. Stationary simulations of this problem have already been done using the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the major results of recent simplified two-fluid model simulations [Saur, J., Neubauer, F.M., Strobel, D.F., Summers, M.E., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (SMP5), 1-18] was the production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the Io flyby. These could not be explained before by standard MHD models. In this paper, we present a hybrid simulation for Io with kinetic ions and fluid electrons. This method employs a fluid description for electrons and neutrals, whereas for ions a particle approach is used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes and solve self-consistently for electric and magnetic fields. Our model may provide a much more accurate description for the ion dynamics than previous approaches and allows us to account for the realistic anisotropic ion velocity distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations with isotropic temperatures. The first results of such a simulation of the dynamics of ions in Io s environment are discussed in this paper. Comparison with the Galileo IO flyby results shows that this approach provides an accurate physical basis for the interaction and can therefore naturally reproduce all the observed salient features.

  15. Air-quality monitoring and detection of air contamination in an enclosed environment.

    PubMed

    Skliar, M; Ramirez, W F

    1997-01-01

    We report on the development of an air-quality monitoring and early detection system for an enclosed environment with specific emphasis on manned spacecraft. The proposed monitoring approach is based on a distributed parameter model of contaminant dispersion and real-time contaminant concentration measurements. Kalman filtering is identified as a suitable method for generating on-line estimation of the spatial contamination profile, and an implicit Kalman filtering algorithm is shown to be preferable for rear-time implementation. The identification of the contaminant concentration profile allows for a straightforward solution of the early detection of an air contamination event and provides information that enables potential automatic diagnosis of an unknown contamination source. PMID:11542301

  16. Qualification, monitoring, and integration into a production environment of the world's first fully programmable illuminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Gregory; Corliss, Daniel; Groenendijk, Remco; Carpaij, Rene; van Niftrik, Ton; Landie, Guillaume; Tamura, Takao; Pepin, Thomas; Waddell, James; Woods, Jerry; Robinson, Chris; Tian, Kehan; Johnson, Richard; Halle, Scott; Kim, Ryoung-Han; Mclellan, Erin; Kato, Hirokazu; Scaduto, Anthony; Maier, Carl; Colburn, Matt

    2011-04-01

    This paper will describe the development, qualification, monitoring, and integration into a production environment of the world's first fully programmable illuminator for optical lithography. FlexRay TM, a programmable illuminator based on a MEMs multi-mirror array that was developed for TWINSCAN XT:19x0i and TWINSCAN NXT series ASML immersion scanners, was first installed in January 2010 at Albany Nanotech, with subsequent tools installed in IBM's East Fishkill Manufacturing facility. After a brief overview of the concept and benefits of FlexRay, this paper will provide a comprehensive assessment of its reliability and imaging performance. A CD-based pupil qualification (CDPQ) procedure will be introduced and shown to be an efficient and effective way to monitor pupil performance. Various CDPQ and in-resist measurement results will be described, offering convincing evidence that FlexRay reliably generates high-quality pupils and is well suited for high volume manufacturing at lithography's leading edge.

  17. Selected cladding mode recoupling based on cascaded LPG and TFBG for satellites vibration environment monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weisheng; Guo, Tuan; Liu, Chao; Tam, Hwa-yaw

    2015-10-01

    Selected cladding mode recoupling between a long period grating (LPG) and a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is demonstrated for satellites vibration environment monitoring. The mode recoupling characteristic between LPGs with different resonance wavelengths and TFBGs with different tilt angles are investigated. Strong coupling occurs between the two associated cladding modes of the same order over the overlapped resonance bands of the two gratings. Suppression ratio of over 20 dB between the recoupled cladding mode and the core reflection mode is achieved when the resonance wavelength of the LPG matches the Bragg wavelength of the TFBG. The present sensor has the features of cost-effective power detection and tip-reflection sensing ability, and give a remarkably simple and elegant approach to dynamic vibration monitoring.

  18. Development cooperation for health: reviewing a dynamic concept in a complex global aid environment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, held in Busan, South Korea in November 2011 again promised an opportunity for a "new consensus on development cooperation" to emerge. This paper reviews the recent evolution of the concept of coordination for development assistance in health as the basis from which to understand current discourses. The paper reviews peer-reviewed scientific literature and relevant 'grey' literature, revisiting landmark publications and influential authors, examining the transitions in the conceptualisation of coordination, and the related changes in development assistance. Four distinct transitions in the understanding, orientation and application of coordination have been identified: coordination within the sector, involving geographical zoning, sub-sector specialisation, donor consortia, project co-financing, sector aid, harmonisation of procedures, ear-marked budgetary support, donor agency reform and inter-agency intelligence gathering; sector-wide coordination, expressed particularly through the Sector-Wide Approach; coordination across sectors at national level, expressed in the evolution of Poverty Strategy Reduction Papers and the national monitoring of the Millennium Development Goals; and, most recently, global-level coordination, embodied in the Paris Principles, and the emergence of agencies such as the International Health Partnerships Plus. The transitions are largely but not strictly chronological, and each draws on earlier elements, in ways that are redefined in the new context. With the increasing complexity of both the territory of global health and its governance, and increasing stakeholders and networks, current imaginings of coordination are again being challenged. The High Level Forum in Busan may have been successful in recognising a much more complex landscape for development than previously conceived, but the challenges to coordination remain. PMID:22420459

  19. FBG system for temperature monitoring under electromagnetic immersed and harsh oil and gas reservoir environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villnow, Michael; Bosselmann, Thomas; Willsch, Michael; Kaiser, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    A common way to explore oil out of tar sand is to use a technique called Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage SAGD. This method can be enhanced by using an inductive heater (EM-SAGD). To monitor the heat dissipation of the inductor a measurement system for this harsh electromagnetic environment is needed. In this paper different optical temperature measurement systems are compared to find the most suitable system for this kind of application. A field test with great results was performed, where the performance of the inductor and the FBG measurement system were demonstrated.

  20. Biomedical real-time monitoring in restricted and safety-critical environments

    PubMed Central

    Astaras, A; Bamidis, P D; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Maglaveras, N

    2008-01-01

    Biomedical signal monitoring can counteract the risk of human operator error due to inattention or fatigue in safetycritical and restrictive environments, such as in aviation, space, automobile and heavy industrial machinery operation. Real-time biomedical data acquisition is changing through advances in microelectronics fabrication, bio-MEMS and power micro-generators. Such data acquisition and processing systems are becoming increasingly miniaturised, flexible and pervasive, while data is being collected from inside the human body as well as around it. In this paper we review two related research projects exploiting this technological convergence, discuss its implications and suggest future innovation prospects through further similar cross-disciplinary synergies. PMID:19048087

  1. Feasibility of integrating other federal information systems into the Global Network of Environment and Technology, GNET{reg_sign}

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Global Environment and Technology Enterprise (GETE) of the Global Environment and Technology Foundation (GETF) has been tasked by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to assist in reducing DOE`s cost for the Global Network of Environment and Technology (GNET{reg_sign}). As part of this task, GETE is seeking federal partners to invest in GNET{reg_sign}. The authors are also seeking FETC`s commitment to serve as GNET`s federal agency champion promoting the system to potential agency partners. This report assesses the benefits of partnering with GNET{reg_sign} and provides recommendations for identifying and integrating other federally funded (non-DOE) environmental information management systems into GNET{reg_sign}.

  2. The sperm whale sonar: Monitoring and use in mitigation of anthropogenic noise effects in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Michel

    2009-04-01

    Noise pollution in the marine environment is an emerging but serious concern. Its implications are less well understood than other global threats and largely undetectable to everyone but the specialist. In addition, the assessment of the acoustic impact of artificial sounds in the sea is not a trivial task, certainly because there is a lack of information on how the marine organisms process and analyse sounds and how relevant these sounds are for the balance and development of the populations. Further, this possible acoustic impact not only concerns the hearing systems but may also affect other sensory or systemic levels and result equally lethal for the animal concerned. If we add that the negative consequences of a short or long term exposure to artificial sounds may not be immediately observed one can understood how challenging it is to obtain objective data allowing an efficient control of the introduction of anthropogenic sound in the sea. To answer some of these questions, the choice to investigate cetaceans and their adaptation to an aquatic environment is not fortuitous. Cetaceans, because of their optimum use of sound as an ad-hoc source of energy and their almost exclusive dependence on acoustic information, represent not only the best bio-indicator of the effects of noise pollution in the marine environment, but also a source of data to improve and develop human underwater acoustic technology. Here, we present how the characteristics and performance of the sperm whale mid-range biosonar can be used to develop a mitigation solution based on passive acoustics and ambient noise imaging to prevent negative interactions with human activities by monitoring cetacean movements in areas of interest, e.g. deep-sea observatories.

  3. Reflecting on the EFA Global Monitoring Report's Framework for Understanding Quality Education: A Teacher's Perspective in Eritrea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers issues concerning the quality of education in Eritrea using the Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report's (GMR) framework for quality education. Drawing on 2 years school-based professional experience in the country, the multiple factors affecting quality in schooling are discussed. The applicability of the GMR

  4. Evaluation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profiles from nine different algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Y. J.; Swart, D. P. J.; Baier, F.; Bhartia, P. K.; Bodeker, G. E.; Casadio, S.; Chance, K.; Del Frate, F.; Erbertseder, T.; Felder, M. D.; Flynn, L. E.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hansen, G.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Kaifel, A.; Kelder, H. M.; Kerridge, B. J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Landgraf, J.; Latter, B.; Liu, X.; McDermid, I. S.; Pachepsky, Y.; Rozanov, V.; Siddans, R.; Tellmann, S.; van der A, R. J.; van Oss, R. F.; Weber, M.; Zehner, C.

    2006-11-01

    An evaluation is made of ozone profiles retrieved from measurements of the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. Currently, four different approaches are used to retrieve ozone profile information from GOME measurements, which differ in the use of external information and a priori constraints. In total nine different algorithms will be evaluated exploiting the optimal estimation (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, University of Bremen, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory), Phillips-Tikhonov regularization (Space Research Organization Netherlands), neural network (Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Tor Vergata University), and data assimilation (German Aerospace Center) approaches. Analysis tools are used to interpret data sets that provide averaging kernels. In the interpretation of these data, the focus is on the vertical resolution, the indicative altitude of the retrieved value, and the fraction of a priori information. The evaluation is completed with a comparison of the results to lidar data from the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations in Andoya (Norway), Observatoire Haute Provence (France), Mauna Loa (Hawaii), Lauder (New Zealand), and Dumont d'Urville (Antarctic) for the years 1997-1999. In total, the comparison involves nearly 1000 ozone profiles and allows the analysis of GOME data measured in different global regions and hence observational circumstances. The main conclusion of this paper is that unambiguous information on the ozone profile can at best be retrieved in the altitude range 15-48 km with a vertical resolution of 10 to 15 km, precision of 5-10%, and a bias up to 5% or 20% depending on the success of recalibration of the input spectra. The sensitivity of retrievals to ozone at lower altitudes varies from scheme to scheme and includes significant influence from a priori assumptions.

  5. Global pollution monitoring of butyltin compounds using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, D; Inoue, S; Takahashi, S; Ikeda, K; Tanaka, H; Subramanian, A N; Fillmann, G; Lam, P K S; Zheng, J; Muchtar, M; Prudente, M; Chung, K; Tanabe, S

    2004-01-01

    Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono- (MBT), di- (DBT), tri-butyltin (TBT) and total tin (sigmaSn), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from Asian offshore waters (off-Japan, the Japan Sea, off-Taiwan, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, off-Philippines, off-Indonesia, the Bay of Bengal), off-Seychelles, off-Brazil and open seas (the North Pacific). BTs were detected in all the skipjack tuna collected, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs even in offshore waters and open seas on a global scale. Considering specific accumulation, Sex-, body length- differences and migration of skipjack tuna did not seem to affect BT concentrations, indicating rapid reflection of the pollution levels in seawater where and when they were collected. Skipjack tuna is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of BTs in offshore waters and open seas. High concentrations of BTs were observed in skipjack tuna from offshore waters around Japan, a highly developed and industrialized region (up to 400 ng/g wet weight). Moreover skipjack tuna collected from offshore waters around Asian developing countries also revealed the levels comparable to those in Japan (up to 270 ng/g wet weight) which may be due to the recent improvement in economic status in Asian developing countries. High percentages (almost 90%) of BTs in total tin (sigmaSn: sum of inorganic tin+organic tin) were found in the liver of skipjack tuna from offshore waters around Asian developing countries. This finding suggests that the anthropogenic BTs represent the major source of Sn accumulation in skipjack tuna from these regions. PMID:14553989

  6. A sensitivity study of the thermodynamic environment on GFDL model hurricane intensity: Implications for global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Tuleya, R.E.; Ginis, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the effect of thermodynamic environmental changes on hurricane intensity is extensively investigated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model for a suite of experiments with different initial upper-tropospheric temperature anomalies up to {+-}4 C and sea surface temperatures ranging from 26 to 31 C given the same relative humidity profile. The results indicate that stabilization in the environmental atmosphere and sea surface temperature (SST) increase cause opposing effects on hurricane intensity. The offsetting relationship between the effects of atmospheric stability increase (decrease) and SST increase (decrease) is monotonic and systematic in the parameter space. This implies that hurricane intensity increase due to a possible global warming associated with increased CO{sub 2} is considerably smaller than that expected from warming of the oceanic waters alone. The results also indicate that the intensity of stronger (weaker) hurricanes is more (less) sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes. The model-attained hurricane intensity is found to be well correlated with the maximum surface evaporation and the large-scale environmental convective available potential energy. The model-attained hurricane intensity if highly correlated with the energy available from wet-adiabatic ascent near the eyewall relative to a reference sounding in the undisturbed environment for all the experiments. Coupled hurricane-ocean experiments show that hurricane intensity becomes less sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes since the ocean coupling causes larger (smaller) intensity reduction for stronger (weaker) hurricanes. This implies less increase of hurricane intensity related to a possible global warming due to increased CO{sub 2}.

  7. Sample project: establishing a global forest monitoring capability using multi-resolution and multi-temporal remotely sensed data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Matt; Stehman, Steve; Loveland, Tom; Vogelmann, Jim; Cochrane, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying rates of forest-cover change is important for improved carbon accounting and climate change modeling, management of forestry and agricultural resources, and biodiversity monitoring. A practical solution to examining trends in forest cover change at global scale is to employ remotely sensed data. Satellite-based monitoring of forest cover can be implemented consistently across large regions at annual and inter-annual intervals. This research extends previous research on global forest-cover dynamics and land-cover change estimation to establish a robust, operational forest monitoring and assessment system. The approach integrates both MODIS and Landsat data to provide timely biome-scale forest change estimation. This is achieved by using annual MODIS change indicator maps to stratify biomes into low, medium and high change categories. Landsat image pairs can then be sampled within these strata and analyzed for estimating area of forest cleared.

  8. The Use of Proba-V data for Global Agricultural Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliams, S. J. B.; Bydekerke, L.; Smets, B.; De Ronde, B.

    2014-12-01

    Land conversion, forest cutting, urban growth, agricultural expansion, take place at scales which are unprecedented in history and at such a pace that they are not only subject of scientific studies but also have a strong economic impact. Understanding and measuring dynamics becomes a prerequisite for companies, governments, agencies, NGO's, research institutes and society in general. In many of these cases the temporal frequency of the information is a clear requirement to detect phenomena that can occur within a few days (related to crops, forests and other ecosystems) and at a certain geographic scale. For example frequent updates on crop condition and production is needed to stabilize agricultural markets. This is already being picked up by large initiatives like the GEOGLAM AMIS system. Observations over large areas are available through satellites, however challenges remain; on the one hand side obtaining frequent and consistent observations at sufficient level of detail to identify spatial phenomena. At present, no single mission is capable of providing near daily information of any place in the world at scales in which changes in land cover/use can be identified in a consistent manner. On the other hand side the need for a historical reference. For agricultural monitoring and early warning purposes the comparison of the actual data with the historical reference is of the utmost importance. The Proba-V mission is a first attempt to overcome these challenges. From its design and within the GIO-Global Land component a lot of work has been done to ensure the integration of the Proba-V data with the 15 years historical archive of SPOT-VEGETATION. In this respect Proba-V observation will be intercomparable with the SPOT-VGT historical baseline which will ensure the continuation of the standard agricultural monitoring products. Next to this integration with the historical archive, Proba-V also ensures an increase in spatial resolution of the data sets, from 1km to 300m and even 100m (with some loss in the temporal domain). Within the framework of the FP7 SIGMA project, currently Europe's largest contribution to the abovementioned GEOGLAM initiative, we have been looking at the use of this 100m data set for agricultural monitoring. Results of this study will be presented here.

  9. Searching for Global Descriptors of Engineered Nanomaterial Fate and Transport in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Nowack, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are a new class of environmental pollutants. Researchers are beginning to debate whether new modeling paradigms and experimental tests to obtain model parameters are required for ENMs or if approaches for existing pollutants are robust enough to predict ENM distribution between environmental compartments. This Account outlines how experimental research can yield quantitative data for use in ENM fate and exposure models. We first review experimental testing approaches that are employed with ENMs. Then we compare and contrast ENMs against other pollutants. Finally, we summarize the findings and identify research needs that may yield global descriptors for ENMs that are suitable for use in fate and transport modeling. Over the past decade, researchers have made significant progress in understanding factors that influence the fate and transport of ENMs. In some cases researchers have developed approaches toward global descriptor models (experimental, conceptual, and quantitative). We suggest the following global descriptors for ENMs: octanol-water partition coefficients, solid-water partition coefficients, attachment coefficients, and rate constants describing reactions such as dissolution, sedimentation, and degradation. ENMs appear to accumulate at the octanol-water interface and readily interact with other interfaces, such as lipid-water interfaces. Batch experiments to investigate factors that influence retention of ENMs on solid phases are very promising. However ENMs probably do not behave in the same way as dissolved chemicals, and therefore researchers need to use measurement techniques and concepts more commonly associated with colloids. Despite several years of research with ENMs in column studies, available summaries tend to discuss the effects of ionic strength, pH, organic matter, ENM type, packing media, or other parameters qualitatively rather than reporting quantitative values, such as attachment efficiencies, that would facilitate comparison across studies. Only a few structure-activity relationships have been developed for ENMs so far, but such evaluations will facilitate the understanding of the reactivities of different forms of a single ENM. The establishment of predictive capabilities for ENMs in the environment would enable accurate exposure assessments that would assist in ENM risk management. Such information is also critical for understanding the ultimate disposition of ENMs and may provide a framework for improved engineering of nanomaterials that are more environmentally benign. PMID:22950943

  10. Ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos in non-occupational environments in Tehran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Meshkani, Mohsen; Azam, Kamal

    2013-12-01

    Airborne asbestos fiber concentrations were monitored in the urban areas of Tehran, Iran during the period of 23 August to 21 September 2012. The airborne fiber concentrations of 110 air samples collected from 15 different sites in five regions of Tehran. The monitoring sites were located 2.5 m above ground nearby the main street and heavy traffic jam. The ambient air samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM). The geometric means of the airborne asbestos fiber concentrations in the outdoor living areas was 1.6 × 10-2 SEM f ml-1 (1.18 × 10-3 PCM f ml-1). This criteria is considerably higher than those reported for the levels of asbestos in outdoor living areas in the Europe and the non-occupational environment of the Korea. No clear correlation was found between asbestos fiber concentration and the relative humidity and temperature. The SEM and PLM analysis revealed that all samples examined contained only chrysotile asbestos. It can be concluded that several factor such as heavy traffic, cement sheet and pipe consumption of asbestos, and geographical conditions play an important role for the high airborne asbestos levels in the non-occupational environments.

  11. Preliminary Concept of Operations for a Global Cylinder Identification and Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J. M.; White-Horton, J. L.; Morgan, J. B.

    2013-08-01

    This report describes a preliminary concept of operations for a Global Cylinder Identification and Monitoring System that could improve the efficiency of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in conducting its current inspection activities and could provide a capability to substantially increase its ability to detect credible diversion scenarios and undeclared production pathways involving UF6 cylinders. There exist concerns that a proliferant State with access to enrichment technology could obtain a cylinder containing natural or low-enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and produce a significant quantity (SQ)1 of highly enriched uranium in as little as 30 days. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative sponsored a multi-laboratory team to develop an integrated system that provides for detecting scenarios involving 1) diverting an entire declared cylinder for enrichment at a clandestine facility, 2) misusing a declared cylinder at a safeguarded facility, and 3) using an undeclared cylinder at a safeguarded facility. An important objective in developing this integrated system was to improve the timeliness for detecting the cylinder diversion and undeclared production scenarios. Developing this preliminary concept required in-depth analyses of current operational and safeguards practices at conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The analyses evaluated the processing, movement, and storage of cylinders at the facilities; the movement of cylinders between facilities (including cylinder fabrication); and the misuse of safeguarded facilities.

  12. Online service for monitoring the ionosphere based on data from the global navigation satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, I. M.; Alpatov, V. V.; Vasil'ev, A. E.; Burguchev, S. S.; Kholodkov, K. I.; Budnikov, P. A.; Molodtsov, D. A.; Koryagin, V. N.; Perederin, F. V.

    2014-07-01

    A service is described that makes possible the effective construction of a three-dimensional ionospheric model based on the data of ground receivers of signals from global navigation satellite positioning systems (GNSS). The obtained image has a high resolution, mainly because data from the IPG GNSS network of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Rosgidromet) are used. A specially developed format and its implementation in the form of SQL structures are used to collect, transmit, and store data. The method of high-altitude radio tomography is used to construct the three-dimensional model. The operation of all system components (from registration point organization to the procedure for constructing the electron density three-dimensional distribution and publication of the total electron content map on the Internet) has been described in detail. The three-dimensional image of the ionosphere, obtained automatically, is compared with the ionosonde measurements, calculated using the two-dimensional low-altitude tomography method and averaged by the ionospheric model.

  13. Use of business planning methods to monitor global health budgets in Turkmenistan.

    PubMed Central

    Ensor, T.; Amannyazova, B.

    2000-01-01

    After undergoing many changes, the financing of health care in countries of the former Soviet Union is now showing signs of maturing. Soon after the political transition in these countries, the development of insurance systems and fee-for-service payment systems dominated the discussions on health reform. At present there is increasing emphasis on case mix adjusted payments in larger hospitals and on global budgets in smaller district hospitals. The problem is that such systems are often mistrusted for not providing sufficient financial control. At the same time, unless further planned restructuring is introduced, payment systems cannot on their own induce the fundamental change required in the health care system. As described in this article, in Tejen etrap (district), Turkmenistan, prospective business plans, which link planned objectives and activities with financial allocations, provide a framework for setting and monitoring budget expenditure. Plans can be linked to the overall objectives of the restructuring system and can be used to ensure sound financial management. The process of business planning, which calls for a major change in the way health facilities examine their activities, can be used as a vehicle to increase awareness of management issues. It also provides a way of satisfying the requirement for a rigorous, bottom-up planning of financial resources. PMID:10994288

  14. Installation of a variable-angle spectrometer system for monitoring diffuse and global solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormachea, O.; Abrahamse, A.; Tolavi, N.; Romero, F.; Urquidi, O.; Pearce, J. M.; Andrews, R.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the design and installation of a spectrometer system for monitoring solar radiation in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Both the light intensity and the spectral distribution affect the power produced by a photovoltaic device. Local variations in the solar spectrum (especially compared to the AM1.5 standard) may have important implications for device optimization and energy yield estimation. The spectrometer system, based on an Ocean Optics USB4000 (300-900nm) spectrometer, was designed to increase functionality. Typically systems only record the global horizontal radiation. Our system moves a fiber-optic cable 0-90 degrees and takes measurements in 9 degree increments. Additionally, a shadow band allows measurement of the diffuse component of the radiation at each position. The electronic controls utilize an Arduino UNO microcontroller to synchronizes the movement of two PAP bipolar (stepper) motors with the activation of the spectrometer via an external trigger. The spectrometer was factory calibrated for wavelength and calibrated for absolute irradiance using a Sellarnet SL1-Cal light source. We present preliminary results from data taken March-June, 2013, and comment on implications for PV devices in Cochabamba.

  15. Changing tides: Adaptive monitoring, assessment, and management of pharmaceutical hazards in the environment through time.

    PubMed

    Gaw, Sally; Brooks, Bryan W

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Adaptive monitoring, assessment, and management programs will be required to reduce the environmental hazards of pharmaceuticals of concern. Potentially underappreciated factors that drive the environmental dose of pharmaceuticals include regulatory approvals, marketing campaigns, pharmaceutical subsidies and reimbursement schemes, and societal acceptance. Sales data for 5 common antidepressants (duloxetine [Cymbalta], escitalopram [Lexapro], venlafaxine [Effexor], bupropion [Wellbutrin], and sertraline [Zoloft]) in the United States from 2004 to 2008 were modeled to explore how environmental hazards in aquatic ecosystems changed after patents were obtained or expired. Therapeutic hazard ratios for Effexor and Lexapro did not exceed 1; however, the therapeutic hazard ratio for Zoloft declined whereas the therapeutic hazard ratio for Cymbalta increased as a function of patent protection and sale patterns. These changes in therapeutic hazard ratios highlight the importance of considering current and future drivers of pharmaceutical use when prioritizing pharmaceuticals for water quality monitoring programs. When urban systems receiving discharges of environmental contaminants are examined, water quality efforts should identify, prioritize, and select target analytes presently in commerce for effluent monitoring and surveillance. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1037-1042. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26412644

  16. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Booij, Kees; Robinson, Craig D; Burgess, Robert M; Mayer, Philipp; Roberts, Cindy A; Ahrens, Lutz; Allan, Ian J; Brant, Jan; Jones, Lisa; Kraus, Uta R; Larsen, Martin M; Lepom, Peter; Petersen, Jördis; Pröfrock, Daniel; Roose, Patrick; Schäfer, Sabine; Smedes, Foppe; Tixier, Céline; Vorkamp, Katrin; Whitehouse, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths and shortcomings of passive sampling are assessed for water, sediments, and biota. Passive water sampling is a suitable technique for measuring concentrations of freely dissolved compounds. This method yields results that are incompatible with the EU's quality standard definition in terms of total concentrations in water, but this definition has little scientific basis. Insufficient quality control is a present weakness of passive sampling in water. Laboratory performance studies and the development of standardized methods are needed to improve data quality and to encourage the use of passive sampling by commercial laboratories and monitoring agencies. Successful prediction of bioaccumulation based on passive sampling is well documented for organisms at the lower trophic levels, but requires more research for higher levels. Despite the existence of several knowledge gaps, passive sampling presently is the best available technology for chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds. Key issues to be addressed by scientists and environmental managers are outlined. PMID:26619247

  17. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes that control change in this understudied region, particularly those concerning the primary components that influence regional climate (i.e. cloud cover, precipitation) and responses and feedbacks to and from terrestrial and aquatic systems. This provides a strong impetus for the SIRS project. SIRS was initiated at a boreal forest conference in Krasnoyarsk in 2002 under the auspices of the IGBP and ESSP regional strategy by Will Steffen (IGBP) and the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS). Russian and foreign scientific activities continued under the Siberian Center for Environmental Research and Training (SCERT) in 2003. In 2005, the Siberian Branch of the Russian National Committee (SB RNC) for IGBP endorsed these activities and recommended investigations focus on four major themes: quantification of the terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas budget, with a focus on the exchange between biota and atmosphere; monitoring and modeling of regional climate change impacts; development of SIRS informational-computational infrastructure; and development of a regional strategy of adaptation to and mitigation of the negative consequences of global change. SIRS development [10, 11] supports Siberian Earth science investigations funded by the RAS Foundation for Basic Research, the European Commission (EC), the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). SB RNC is responsible for SIRS advances, and SCERT hosts the Committee office and houses major SIRS informational-computational infrastructure development. NEESPI (www.neespi.org/) serves as an IGBP and World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) external project, and as a NEESPI mega-project, SIRS has organized distribution centers in Krasnoyarsk and Tomsk to support NEESPI activity, and has coordinated training and educational activity aimed at young scientists. SIRS approaches and outcomes Organizational activity The 'Siberian Geosphere-Biosphere Program: integrated regional study of contemporary natural and climatic changes' is one of several funded interdisciplinary projects, and it serves to unite regional studies from 14 RAS and SB RAS institutes and 5 universities. In the course of this and similar national1 and international projects, ENVIROMIS and ENVIROMIS-2 (Environmental Observations, Modelling and Information Systems) was formed, which is the SIRS professional community comprising regional, national and international specialists dealing with Siberian environmental dynamics studies. Results of those and parallel projects were analyzed in by coordinated activities: 'Enviro-RISKS-Man-induced Environmental Risks: monitoring, management and remediation of man-made changes in Siberia' [12]. Currently, a new set of SB RAS integrated2 and international projects within the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Study (APN) and ISTC are under way. While a number of projects have been initiated and clustered under the SIRS umbrella and their results and data are distributed through the SIRS web portal (http://sirs.scert.ru/), the organizational SIRS infrastructure is inadequate. SIRS has neither SB RAS stable funding nor a dedicated Project Office. Both obstacles are a major concern for the SIRS governing body. Information-computational infrastructure development The SIRS informational-computational infrastructure, which is currently under extensive development, is designed to stimulate national and international cooperative Earth science investigations, easily exchange data and knowledge, coordinate activities, and optimize the usage of resources, services and applications [13]. The infrastructure is organized as a set of thematic, bilingual (Russian and English), internet-accessible informational-computational systems, the first of which is the scientific web portal ATMOS (http://atmos.iao.ru/). ATMOS is an integrated set of distributed topical websites, combining standard multimedia information with research databases, models and analytical tools for on-line use and visualization, designed primarily for atmospheric physics and chemistry (http://risks.scert.ru/)3 [12, 14]. These powerful tools have already promoted understanding of the interactions between Siberian ecosystems, the atmosphere and human dynamics, under the impact of global climate change. For example, the climate site of the Enviro-RISKS portal (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/) processes unique data sets, from monitoring and modeling regional meteorology, atmospheric pollution transformation/transport and climate, all of which are significant for dynamic regional assessments. This is a user-friendly, interactive web system that can be used for regional climate change assessment and visualization based upon standard meteorological data. All major reanalysis and climatic characteristics are provided (surface air temperature, pressure, humidity, precipitation, soil moisture, and geopotential height), and the users can (but do not need to) access the data files directly but freely receive the results of their analyses through the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS; www.iges.org/grads/) or Interactive Data Language (IDL; www.ittvis.com/idl/). Specific spatial and temporal domains can be selected, as well as a wide range of statistical analyses, data manipulations, and visualization tools (including animation) that may be required for global, continental, and regional climate change assessments. The SIRS infrastructure has become an indispensable tool, providing researchers with an open platform (portal plus tools) that may be used, adapted, enriched or altered on the basis of the specific scientific applications in regions of Siberia, the Russian Federation, and the northern exatropics. SIRS capacity building/young scientists' education/training The SIRS educational capacity building programme includes ENVIROMIS biannual Multidisciplinary Conference, CITES (Computational and Information Technologies for Environmental Sciences) biannual Young Scientists' School (YSS) and international conferences [15]. These include lecture courses for young scientists, training sessions, invited lectures and thematic workshops (www.scert.ru/en/conferences/). The first event was organized in 2000, and thereafter each year 50-70 young scientists from Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States participate in CITES and ENVIROMIS conferences. These events are organized to support multidisciplinary education, contain no parallel sessions, are composed of about 50% students, and all presentations are posted to assist future professional activity. In the first years, these activities were supported internationally (INTAS, the EC International Cooperation Program within FP5 and FP6); however, recent activities have been supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the RF Ministry of Education and Science and the SB RAS. Some results gained in the course of SIRS projects being carried out, and current challenges While some findings on regional climate dynamics were reported in the EGU 2009 NEESPI session and in manuscripts listed on the NEESPI website (www.neespi.org/science/NEESPI_publications.pdf), a majority of them have been published in Russian journals and are still unknown in the international climatic community. However, additional reports can be found in the Enviro-RISKS final scientific report [16], mainly in the third volume devoted to climate change, terrestrial ecosystems and hydrology (www.dmi.dk/dmi/sr08-05-3.pdf). We have already established that temperatures have increased, particularly in the winter in Eastern Siberia (0.5°/decade), and the number of frost days (~1 day yr-1) and growing season length has also increased (~1 day yr-1) [17, 18]. Even more troubling is the potential for these transient phenomena to manifest themselves as nonlinear reactions to ongoing climatic change [19]. There are three main scientific research challenges to the SIRS community, which are also very important from a regional socio-economic point of view and for the global carbon cycle. Permafrost fate, especially its border shift, seriously threatens infrastructure and might form a significant carbon and methane source to the atmosphere. Climate-related drying would alter biogenic emissions in peatlands that have been deposited over millennia and would increase the potential for peat fires which cannot be extinguished. Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime change, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires, thus changing significantly the carbon, terrestrial and hydrologic cycle of the region. Desert-steppe-forest-tundra ecosystem borders northward shifts, which will also change regional input into the global carbon and radiation balance and give rise to serious socio-economical consequences for local populations (i.e. alter potential agricultural lands). New in situ instrumentation, data sets, models and research are required to address these challenges. The SB RAS has adopted a long-term integrated project 'Development of the basic network for monitoring of natural and climatic processes in Siberia' to establish a network of dedicated sites and stations equipped with modern instrumentation to monitor environmental changes in the region. One example is the Zotino tall tower observatory (ZOTTO) launched a few years ago (www.sfu-kras.ru/science/achievement/zotto/public) [20]. It is anticipated that together with ZOTTO, the future SB RAS network will serve as an important source of reliable environmental data for analyses. Another important SIRS objective is the development of a high-resolution regional climate model that properly takes into account specifics of this region (e.g., presence of permafrost, interaction of the biosphere and terrestrial hydrology, etc). Development of an integrated model was recently discussed at the NEESPI Workshop (www.scert.ru/en/conferences/cites2009/) by leading SIRS specialists and their German and US partners. Conclusions Devoted to regional-global linkages, understanding, monitoring and assessment of global change impacts on a regional level, SIRS targets provide substantiated recommendations for regional decision makers to understand and work towards mitigating the negative effects of climate change for Siberia and its population. This approach will allow the Siberian Branch of the Russian National Committee for IGBP to perform its mission, ensuring the growth of scientific knowledge of the dynamic Siberian environment and its subsystems, and to develop a solid basis for mitigation and adaptation strategies for the negative consequences of global change. 1 For example, 'Complex monitoring of the Great Vasyugan Bog: modern state and development processes investigations' and 'Ecological problems of Siberian cities'. 2 For example, 'Models of biosphere change based on the boreal ecosystems' carbon balance using field and satellite data observations' and 'Information technologies, mathematical models and methods for monitoring and control of ecosystems intended for stationary, mobile and remote observations'. 3 'Environmental observations, modeling and information systems' (http://enviromis.scert.ru/) and 'Man-induced environmental risks: monitoring, management and mitigation of man-made changes in Siberia (Enviro-RISKS)'. References [1] Brasseur G 2003 IGBP Newsletter No 50 (June 2002) IGBP II - Special Edition Issue 3rd IGBP Congress Overview Global Change Newsletter No 55 pp 2-4 [2] 2005 Bulletin of the Russian National Committee for the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme 4 [3] Ippolitov I I, Kabanov M V, Komarov A I and Kuskov A I 2004 Patterns of modern natural-climatic changes in Siberia: observed changes of annual temperature and pressure Geogr. Nat. Resources 3 90-6 [4] Volodin E M and Dianskii N A 2003 Response of a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to increased carbon dioxide Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics 239 170-86 [5] Groisman P Y et al 2009 The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership: an example of science applied to societal needs Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90 671-88 [6] Shiklomanov and Lammers R L 2009 Record Russian river discharge in 2007 and the limits of analysis Environ. Res. Lett. 4 045015 [7] Tchebakova N M, Parfenova E and Soja A J 2009 The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate Environ. Res. Lett. 4 045013 [8] Soja A et al 2007 Climate-induced boreal forest change: predictions versus current observations Global Planet. Change 56 274-96 [9] Groisman P Y and Bartalev S V 2007 Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI): science plan overview Global Planet. Change 56 215-34 [10] Gordov E P and Begni G 2005 Siberia integrated regional study development Comput. Technol. 10 149-55 [11] Gordov E P, Begni G, Heiman M, Kabanov M V, Lykossov V N, Shvidenko A Z and Vaganov E A 2006 Siberia integrated regional study as a basis for international scientific cooperation Comput. Technol. 11 16-28 [12] Baklanov A and Gordov E P 2006 Man-induced environmental risks: monitoring, management and remediation of man-made changes in Siberia Comput. Technol. 11 162-71 [13] Gordov E P 2004 Computational and information technologies for environmental sciences Comput. Technol. 9 3-10 Gordov E P 2004 Modern tendencies in regional environmental studies Geogr. Nat. Resources. (special issue) 11-18 Akhlyostin A Yu and Fazliev A Z 2003 Software for presentation of scientific information in the framework of a WEB portal Proc. SPIE 5396 111-8 Gordov E P, De Rudder A, Lykosov V N, Fazliev A Z and Fedra K 2004 Web-portal ATMOS as basis for integrated investigations of Siberia environment Comput. Technol. 9 3-13 Gordov E P, Lykosov V N and Fazliev A Z 2006 Web portal on environmental sciences 'ATMOS' Adv. Geosci. 8 33-8 Okladnikov I G and Titov A G 2006 Web-system for processing and visualization of meteorological data Environmental Observations, Modeling and Information Systems ed E P Gordov (Tomsk: Tomsk CSTI) 42 pp Gordov E P, Okladnikov I G and Titov A G 2007 Development of elements of a web-based information-computational system for studies of regional environment processes Comput. Technol. 12 20-8 Okladnikov I G, Titov A G, Melnikova V N and Shulgina T M 2008 Web-system for processing and visualization of meteorological and climatic data Comput. Technol. 13 64-9 Titov A G, Gordov E P, Okladnikov I G and Shulgina N M 2009 Web-system for processing and visualization of meteorological data for Siberian environment research International J. Digital Earth 2 105-19 Gordov E P and Lykossov V N 2007 Development of information-computational infrastructure for integrated study of Siberia environment Comput. Technol. 12 19-30 [14] Shokin Y I and Fedotov A M 2003 Integration of informational and telecommunicational resources of Siberian Branch of RAS Comput. Technol. 8 161-71 [15] Gordov E P, Kabanov M V and Lykossov V N 2006 Information-computational technologies for environmental science: young scientists training Comput. Technol. 11 3-15 Gordov E P and Lykossov V N 2008 ICT for environmental sciences: synthesis of science and education Comput. Technol. 13 3-11 [16] Baklanov A A and Gordov E P (eds) 2008 Enviro-RISKS: man-induced environmental risks: monitoring, management and remediation of man-made changes in Siberia. Final Scientific Report of EC 6FP CA Enviro-RISKS Project DMI Scientific Report 08-05 Copenhagen (ISBN: 978-87-7478-571-2) Four volumes available at www.dmi.dk/dmi/sr08-05-1.pdf, www.dmi.dk/dmi/sr08-052.pdf, www.dmi.dk/dmi/sr08-05-3.pdf and www.dmi.dk/dmi/sr08-05-4.pdf [17] Kobysheva N V (ed) 2001 Klimat Rossii (St Petersburg: Gidrometizdat) p 665 [18] Ippolitov I I, Kabanov M V and Loginov S V 2007 Spatiotemporal scales of warming observed in Siberia Reports of the Russian Academy of Sciences/Earth Science Section 413 248-51 [19] Shulgina T M, Genina E Yu, Gordov E P and Nikitchuk K 2009 Comparative analysis of atmosphere temperature variability for Northern Eurasia based on the reanalysis and in-situ observed data Geophys. Res. Abs. 11 EGU2009-880 [20] Kozlova E A, Manning A C, Kisilyakhov Y, Seifert T and Heimann M 2008 Seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal-scale variability of biogeochemical trace gases and O2 from a 300-m tall tower in central Siberia Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22 GB4020

  18. Aggregation of Real-Time System Monitoring Data for Analyzing Large-Scale Parallel and Distributed Computing Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Swen; Engelmann, Christian; Scott, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    We present a monitoring system for large-scale parallel and distributed computing environments that allows to trade-off accuracy in a tunable fashion to gain scalability without compromising fidelity. The approach relies on classifying each gathered monitoring metric based on individual needs and on aggregating messages containing classes of individual monitoring metrics using a tree-based overlay network. The MRNet-based prototype is able to significantly reduce the amount of gathered and stored monitoring data, e.g., by a factor of ~56 in comparison to the Ganglia distributed monitoring system. A simple scaling study reveals, however, that further efforts are needed in reducing the amount of data to monitor future-generation extreme-scale systems with up to 1,000,000 nodes. The implemented solution did not had a measurable performance impact as the 32-node test system did not produce enough monitoring data to interfere with running applications.

  19. The Geospace Environment Modeling Grand Challenge: Results from a Global Geospace Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeder, J.; Berchem, J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1998-07-01

    We have used our Global Geospace Circulation Model (GGCM) to simulate two time intervals that were proposed as the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Grand Challenge for modelers to investigate to what extent and accuracy models can predict the ionosphere's response to the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field. In this paper we present comparisons of our GGCM with the comprehensive experimental study by Lyons [this issue] (which provided synoptic maps of the polar cap electrodynamics and particle precipitation) for the two time intervals, January 27, 1992, 1325-1715 UT and 1730-1930 UT. We find a very good agreement between the potential patterns predicted by our model and those obtained by the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure. We also find that the separatrix and cusp locations predicted by our model generally compare well with those obtained from particle precipitation data. The soft electron zone of ionospheric precipitation, as defined by Lyons, lies almost entirely in the region for which our model predicts open field lines. However, the model predicts cross polar cap potential drops that are roughly a factor of 2 larger than those predicted by AMIE.

  20. Designing for the global environment: A US manufacturer`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, H.

    1995-12-31

    Georgia Tech is one of only two Centers of Excellence in Photovoltaic Research and Education designated by the Department of Energy. Solarex has a long relationship with Georgia Tech in cooperative research in photovoltaics and recently has had the pleasure to return some of the fruits of that research to Georgia Tech in the form of almost 3000 large area PV modules to be installed on the roof of the new Aquatic Center. This system, located on a highly visible facility that will be the site of the 1996 Olympic swimming and diving events, is a showcase for the PV technology steadfastly developed by US industry with the support of DOE over the last 20 years. It is hoped that this system will serve as a model for sustainable energy to the nations of the world present at the Olympics and viewing it on their TV screens. This paper goes on to discuss the global implications and opportunities of photovoltaics and how this energy system fits into concerns about the environment.