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Sample records for global fate intake

  1. BETR Global - A geographically explicit global-scale multimedia contaminant fate model

    SciTech Connect

    Macleod, M.; Waldow, H. von; Tay, P.; Armitage, J. M.; Wohrnschimmel, H.; Riley, W.; McKone, T. E.; Hungerbuhler, K.

    2011-04-01

    We present two new software implementations of the BETR Global multimedia contaminant fate model. The model uses steady-state or non-steady-state mass-balance calculations to describe the fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants using a desktop computer. The global environment is described using a database of long-term average monthly conditions on a 15{sup o} x 15{sup o} grid. We demonstrate BETR Global by modeling the global sources, transport, and removal of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

  2. Modeling the fate of methane hydrates under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretschmer, Kerstin; Biastoch, Arne; Rüpke, Lars; Burwicz, Ewa

    2015-05-01

    Large amounts of methane hydrate locked up within marine sediments are vulnerable to climate change. Changes in bottom water temperatures may lead to their destabilization and the release of methane into the water column or even the atmosphere. In a multimodel approach, the possible impact of destabilizing methane hydrates onto global climate within the next century is evaluated. The focus is set on changing bottom water temperatures to infer the response of the global methane hydrate inventory to future climate change. Present and future bottom water temperatures are evaluated by the combined use of hindcast high-resolution ocean circulation simulations and climate modeling for the next century. The changing global hydrate inventory is computed using the parameterized transfer function recently proposed by Wallmann et al. (2012). We find that the present-day world's total marine methane hydrate inventory is estimated to be 1146 Gt of methane carbon. Within the next 100 years this global inventory may be reduced by ˜0.03% (releasing ˜473 Mt methane from the seafloor). Compared to the present-day annual emissions of anthropogenic methane, the amount of methane released from melting hydrates by 2100 is small and will not have a major impact on the global climate. On a regional scale, ocean bottom warming over the next 100 years will result in a relatively large decrease in the methane hydrate deposits, with the Arctic and Blake Ridge region, offshore South Carolina, being most affected.

  3. The role of the global cryosphere in the fate of organic contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannas, A. M.; Bogdal, C.; Hageman, K. J.; Halsall, C.; Harner, T.; Hung, H.; Kallenborn, R.; Klán, P.; Klánová, J.; Macdonald, R. W.; Meyer, T.; Wania, F.

    2013-03-01

    The cryosphere is an important component of global organic contaminant cycles. Snow is an efficient scavenger of atmospheric organic pollutants while a seasonal snowpack, sea ice, glaciers and ice caps are contaminant reservoirs on time scales ranging from days to millennia. Important physical and chemical processes occurring in the various cryospheric compartments impact contaminant cycling and fate. A variety of interactions and feedbacks also occur within the cryospheric system, most of which are susceptible to perturbations due to climate change. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the transport and processing of organic contaminants in the global cryosphere with an emphasis on the role of a changing climate. Given the complexity of contaminant interactions with the cryosphere and limitations on resources and research capacity, interdisciplinary research and extended collaborations are essential to close identified knowledge gaps and to improve our understanding of contaminant fate under a changing climate.

  4. INFLUENCE OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON CHEMICAL FATE AND BIOACCUMULATION: THE ROLE OF MULTIMEDIA MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Todd; Armitage, James M; Cousins, Ian T; Muir, Derek CG; Ng, Carla A; Reid, Liisa; Tao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Multimedia environmental fate models are valuable tools for investigating potential changes associated with global climate change, particularly because thermodynamic forcing on partitioning behavior as well as diffusive and nondiffusive exchange processes are implicitly considered. Similarly, food-web bioaccumulation models are capable of integrating the net effect of changes associated with factors such as temperature, growth rates, feeding preferences, and partitioning behavior on bioaccumulation potential. For the climate change scenarios considered in the present study, such tools indicate that alterations to exposure concentrations are typically within a factor of 2 of the baseline output. Based on an appreciation for the uncertainty in model parameters and baseline output, the authors recommend caution when interpreting or speculating on the relative importance of global climate change with respect to how changes caused by it will influence chemical fate and bioavailability. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:20–31. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23136071

  5. The role of the global cryosphere in the fate of organic contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannas, A. M.; Bogdal, C.; Hageman, K. J.; Halsall, C.; Harner, T.; Hung, H.; Kallenborn, R.; Klán, P.; Klánová, J.; Macdonald, R. W.; Meyer, T.; Wania, F.

    2012-07-01

    The cryosphere is an important component of global organic contaminant cycles. Snow is an efficient scavenger of atmospheric organic pollutants while a seasonal snowpack, sea ice, glaciers and ice caps are contaminant reservoirs on time scales ranging from days to millennia. Important physical and chemical processes occurring in the various cryospheric compartments impact contaminant cycling and fate. A variety of interactions and feedbacks also occur within the cryospheric system, most of which are susceptible to perturbations due to climate change. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the transport and processing of organic contaminants in the global cryosphere with an emphasis on the role of a changing climate.

  6. Fate of dietary cadmium at two intake levels in the odonate nymph, Aeshna canadensis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.A.; Lasenby, D.C.; Evans, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    While it is known that Cadmium (Cd) is concentrated from the water to the tissues of aquatic biota through respiration and surface adsorption, the role of food in the uptake of Cd is not well understood, and current evidence is contradictory. In study the flux of dietary Cd through aquatic invertebrates, it has been repeatedly noted that the Cd concentration of faecal pellets is much greater than that of the food source. This seems to indicate that the majority of dietary Cd is subsequently egested, and that food is therefore not an important source of Cd accumulation. In the present study the authors monitored the flux of dietary Cd using the mass balance technique with the dragonfly nymph (Aeshna canadensis). The use of a predatory test organism eliminates the problem of the predator selecting food of high C4 concentration, as the animals are fed discrete, quantifiable prey items of known metal concentration. Faeces of predatory invertebrates are generally excreted in the form of compact pellets facilitating chemicals analysis of determination of metal egestion. Nymphs were first fed rations of a Cd concentration typical of prey items found in relatively unpolluted waters, and were then exposed to a Cd-enriched diet to determine if a change in metal flux and body accumulation occurred at elevated levels of dietary intake.

  7. Maternal Methyl-Group Donor Intake and Global DNA (Hydroxy)Methylation before and during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Sara; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Devlieger, Roland; Freson, Kathleen; Straetmans, Dany; Van Herck, Erik; Huybrechts, Inge; Koppen, Gurdun; Godderis, Lode

    2016-01-01

    It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxyl)methylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring’s Epigenome) study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline) using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation levels were highest pre-pregnancy and at weeks 18–22 of pregnancy. We observed a positive relation between folic acid and global DNA methylation (p = 0.04) and hydroxymethylation (p = 0.04). A high intake of methionine pre-pregnancy and in the first trimester showed lower (hydroxy)methylation percentage in weeks 11–13 and weeks 18–22, respectively. Choline and betaine intake in the first weeks was negatively associated with hydroxymethylation. Women with a high intake of these three methyl groups in the second and third trimester showed higher hyrdoxymethylation/methylation levels in the third trimester. To conclude, a time trend in DNA (hydroxy)methylation was found and women with higher methyl-group intake showed higher methylation in the third trimester, and not in earlier phases of pregnancy. PMID:27509522

  8. Maternal Methyl-Group Donor Intake and Global DNA (Hydroxy)Methylation before and during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Sara; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Devlieger, Roland; Freson, Kathleen; Straetmans, Dany; Van Herck, Erik; Huybrechts, Inge; Koppen, Gurdun; Godderis, Lode

    2016-01-01

    It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxyl)methylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome) study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline) using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation levels were highest pre-pregnancy and at weeks 18-22 of pregnancy. We observed a positive relation between folic acid and global DNA methylation (p = 0.04) and hydroxymethylation (p = 0.04). A high intake of methionine pre-pregnancy and in the first trimester showed lower (hydroxy)methylation percentage in weeks 11-13 and weeks 18-22, respectively. Choline and betaine intake in the first weeks was negatively associated with hydroxymethylation. Women with a high intake of these three methyl groups in the second and third trimester showed higher hyrdoxymethylation/methylation levels in the third trimester. To conclude, a time trend in DNA (hydroxy)methylation was found and women with higher methyl-group intake showed higher methylation in the third trimester, and not in earlier phases of pregnancy. PMID:27509522

  9. The environmental fate of organic pollutants through the global microbial metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Manuel J; Pazos, Florencio; Guijarro, Francisco J; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Valencia, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    The production of new chemicals for industrial or therapeutic applications exceeds our ability to generate experimental data on their biological fate once they are released into the environment. Typically, mixtures of organic pollutants are freed into a variety of sites inhabited by diverse microorganisms, which structure complex multispecies metabolic networks. A machine learning approach has been instrumental to expose a correlation between the frequency of 149 atomic triads (chemotopes) common in organo-chemical compounds and the global capacity of microorganisms to metabolise them. Depending on the type of environmental fate defined, the system can correctly predict the biodegradative outcome for 73–87% of compounds. This system is available to the community as a web server (http://www.pdg.cnb.uam.es/BDPSERVER). The application of this predictive tool to chemical species released into the environment provides an early instrument for tentatively classifying the compounds as biodegradable or recalcitrant. Automated surveys of lists of industrial chemicals currently employed in large quantities revealed that herbicides are the group of functional molecules more difficult to recycle into the biosphere through the inclusive microbial metabolism. PMID:17551509

  10. Biogeochemical drivers of the fate of riverine mercury discharged to the global and Arctic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanxu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Amos, Helen M.; Long, Michael S.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2015-06-01

    Rivers discharge 28 ± 13 Mmol yr-1 of mercury (Hg) to ocean margins, an amount comparable to atmospheric deposition to the global oceans. Most of the Hg discharged by rivers is sequestered by burial of benthic sediment in estuaries or the coastal zone, but some is evaded to the atmosphere and some is exported to the open ocean. We investigate the fate of riverine Hg by developing a new global 3-D simulation for Hg in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ocean general circulation model. The model includes plankton dynamics and carbon respiration (DARWIN project model) coupled to inorganic Hg chemistry. Results are consistent with observed spatial patterns and magnitudes of surface ocean Hg concentrations. We use observational constraints on seawater Hg concentrations and evasion to infer that most Hg from rivers is sorbed to refractory organic carbon and preferentially buried. Only 6% of Hg discharged by rivers (1.8 Mmol yr-1) is transported to the open ocean on a global basis. This fraction varies from a low of 2.6% in East Asia due to the barrier imposed by the Korean Peninsula and Japanese archipelago, up to 25% in eastern North America facilitated by the Gulf Stream. In the Arctic Ocean, low tributary particle loads and efficient degradation of particulate organic carbon by deltaic microbial communities favor a more labile riverine Hg pool. Evasion of Hg to the Arctic atmosphere is indirectly enhanced by heat transport during spring freshet that accelerates sea ice melt and ice rafting. Discharges of 0.23 Mmol Hg yr-1 from Arctic rivers can explain the observed summer maximum in the Arctic atmosphere, and this magnitude of releases is consistent with recent observations. Our work indicates that rivers are major contributors to Hg loads in the Arctic Ocean.

  11. Need for coordinated programs to improve global health by optimizing salt and iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm R C; Dary, Omar; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Harding, Kim B; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-10-01

    High dietary salt is a major cause of increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that salt intake be less than 5 g/day, a goal that only a small proportion of people achieve. Iodine deficiency can cause cognitive and motor impairment and, if severe, hypothyroidism with serious mental and growth retardation. More than 2 billion people worldwide are at risk of iodine deficiency. Preventing iodine deficiency by using salt fortified with iodine is a major global public health success. Programs to reduce dietary salt are technically compatible with programs to prevent iodine deficiency through salt fortification. However, for populations to fully benefit from optimum intake of salt and iodine, the programs must be integrated. This review summarizes the scientific basis for salt reduction and iodine fortification programs, the compatibility of the programs, and the steps that need to be taken by the WHO, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that populations fully benefit from optimal intake of salt and iodine. Specifically, expert groups must be convened to help countries implement integrated programs and context-specific case studies of successfully integrated programs; lessons learned need to be compiled and disseminated. Integrated surveillance programs will be more efficient and will enhance current efforts to optimize intake of iodine and salt. For populations to fully benefit, governments need to place a high priority on integrating these two important public health programs. PMID:23299289

  12. The influence of climate change on the global distribution and fate processes of anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kallenborn, Roland; Halsall, Crispin; Dellong, Maud; Carlsson, Pernilla

    2012-11-01

    The effect of climate change on the global distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is of growing interest to both scientists and policy makers alike. The impact of warmer temperatures and the resulting changes to earth system processes on chemical fate are, however, unclear, although there are a growing number of studies that are beginning to examine these impacts and changes in a quantitative way. In this review, we examine broad areas where changes are occurring or are likely to occur with regard to the environmental cycling and fate of chemical contaminants. For this purpose we are examining scientific information from long-term monitoring data with particular emphasis on the Arctic, to show apparent changes in chemical patterns and behaviour. In addition, we examine evidence of changing chemical processes for a number of environmental compartments and indirect effects of climate change on contaminant emissions and behaviour. We also recommend areas of research to address knowledge gaps. In general, our findings indicate that the indirect consequences of climate change (i.e. shifts in agriculture, resource exploitation opportunities, etc.) will have a more marked impact on contaminants distribution and fate than direct climate change. PMID:23014859

  13. Monitoring and Predicting the Export and Fate of Global Ocean Net Primary Production: The EXPORTS Field Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exports Science Definition Team

    2016-04-01

    Ocean ecosystems play a critical role in the Earth's carbon cycle and its quantification on global scales remains one of the greatest challenges in global ocean biogeochemistry. The goal of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing (EXPORTS) science plan is to develop a predictive understanding of the export and fate of global ocean primary production and its implications for the Earth's carbon cycle in present and future climates. NASA's satellite ocean-color data record has revolutionized our understanding of global marine systems. EXPORTS is designed to advance the utility of NASA ocean color assets to predict how changes in ocean primary production will impact the global carbon cycle. EXPORTS will create a predictive understanding of both the export of organic carbon from the euphotic zone and its fate in the underlying "twilight zone" (depths of 500 m or more) where variable fractions of exported organic carbon are respired back to CO2. Ultimately, it is the sequestration of deep organic carbon transport that defines the impact of ocean biota on atmospheric CO2 levels and hence climate. EXPORTS will generate a new, detailed understanding of ocean carbon transport processes and pathways linking upper ocean phytoplankton processes to the export and fate of organic matter in the underlying twilight zone using a combination of field campaigns, remote sensing and numerical modeling. The overarching objective for EXPORTS is to ensure the success of future satellite missions by establishing mechanistic relationships between remotely sensed signals and carbon cycle processes. Through a process-oriented approach, EXPORTS will foster new insights on ocean carbon cycling that will maximize its societal relevance and be a key component in the U.S. investment to understand Earth as an integrated system.

  14. Global, spatial, and temporal sensitivity analysis for a complex pesticide fate and transport model.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Questions/Methods As one ofthe most heavily used exposure models by U.S. EPA, Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM) is a one-dimensional, dynamic, compartment model that predicts the fate and transport of a pesticide in the unsaturated soil system around a plant's root zo...

  15. Estimating the Global Prevalence of Inadequate Zinc Intake from National Food Balance Sheets: Effects of Methodological Assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Wessells, K. Ryan; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population’s theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1) evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2) generate a model considered to provide the best estimates. Methodology and Principal Findings National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation). Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12–66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57–0.99, P<0.01). A “best-estimate” model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%. Conclusions and Significance Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health

  16. The Fate of Public Scholarship in the Global University: The Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Rob; Buckeridge, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the proposition that modern universities have been changed radically by globalization not least of which has been the erosion of "public scholarship". The paper argues that whatever the kind or scale of changes which have occurred in the past few decades, "globalization" does not provide an explanation of…

  17. Mercury (Hg) accumulation in terrestrial carbon (C) reservoirs: magnitude, spatial patterns, fate upon C losses, and implications of global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrist, D.; Johnson, D. W.; Lindberg, S. E.; Luo, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are strong natural reservoirs that retain the bulk of atmospheric Hg deposition. As a result, a long-term legacy of past and present Hg pollution is sequestered in surface litter and soil pools. Hg shows a particular affinity to—and hence tends to accumulate in—terrestrial organic C. We present a summary of a comprehensive five-year investigation where we quantified: (i) relationships between Hg and C across 14 forests sites to assess the affinity of Hg to C accumulation across spatial scales; (ii) the degree to which C determines net retention and spatial accumulation of Hg; (iii) the fate of Hg upon losses of C, including losses though wildfires and mineralization; (iv) the coupling of gaseous Hg losses to CO2 respiration; and (v) the potential sensitivity of climate-change induced changes in C on terrestrial Hg sequestration. Results show that continental-scale spatial distribution of Hg in soils and litter is strongly related to C, and that old terrestrial C pools (as determined by C/N ratios) are particularly prone to Hg enrichment. The correlation of Hg and C is likely responsible for increasing Hg levels (concentrations and pools of total Hg, as well as methylated Hg) with higher latitude, which we attribute to a legacy of Hg sequestration in C-rich layers of northern ecosystems. Experimental studies and field observations to address fate of Hg sequestered in organic C show that: (i) fires leads to up-to-complete Hg losses in either gaseous elemental or particulate-bound form; (ii) litter decomposition also leads to evasion losses of Hg in the range of 50% of initial Hg, but little Hg is subject to runoff as dissolved Hg; (iii) soils effectively retain Hg with only about 3% of Hg subject to volatilization upon C loss during respiration; (iv) no links between CO2 and gaseous Hg concentrations are observed in soil depth profiles in the field, indicating that fate and movement of gaseous Hg is decoupled from that of CO2. We calculate

  18. Global assessment of select phytonutrient intakes by level of fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary M; Barraj, Leila M; Spungen, Judith H; Herman, Dena R; Randolph, R Keith

    2014-09-28

    Despite dietary recommendations that have repeatedly underscored the importance of increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, intakes worldwide are lower than recommended levels. Consequently, the diets of many individuals may be lacking in nutrients and phytonutrients typical of a diet rich in a variety of fruits and vegetables. In the present study, we estimated phytonutrient intakes by adults categorised by sex, level of fruit and vegetable consumption (< 5 v. ≥ 5 servings/d), and geographic diet cluster. Intakes of nine select phytonutrients were estimated from the 2002-4 World Health Survey fruit and vegetable servings intake data (n 198,637), the FAO supply utilisation accounts data, and phytonutrient concentration data obtained from the US Department of Agriculture databases and the published literature. Percentage contributions to each phytonutrient intake from fruit and vegetable sources were also estimated. Estimated intakes of phytonutrients from fruits and vegetables varied across the thirteen geographic diet clusters, reflecting regional differences in both numbers and proportions of fruit and vegetable servings consumed, and the specific types of fruits and vegetables available in the diet. The mean phytonutrient intakes by adults consuming ≥ 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables were approximately 2- to 6-fold the mean phytonutrient intakes by adults with low fruit and vegetable consumption (< 5 servings/d). In some cases, phytonutrient intakes by adults consuming ≥ 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables in one geographic diet cluster were lower than the intakes by adults reporting < 5 servings/d in another cluster. The findings from this assessment provide important information regarding the major dietary patterns of phytonutrient intakes across geographic diet clusters. PMID:25108700

  19. The impact of organochlorines cycling in the cryosphere on their global distribution and fate--1. Sea ice.

    PubMed

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    Global fate and transport of γ-HCH and DDT was studied using a global multicompartment chemistry-transport model, MPI-MCTM, with and without a dynamic sea ice compartment. The MPI-MCTM is based on coupled ocean and atmosphere general circulation models. Sea ice hosts 7-9% of the burden of the surface ocean. Without cycling in sea ice the geographic distributions are shifted from land to sea. This shift of burdens exceeds the sea ice burden by a factor of ≈8 for γ-HCH and by a factor of ≈15 for DDT. As regional scale seasonal sea ice melting may double surface ocean contamination, a neglect of cycling in sea ice (in an otherwise unchanged model climate) would underestimate ocean exposure in high latitudes. Furthermore, it would lead to overestimates of the residence times in ocean by 40% and 33% and of the total environmental residence times, τ(overall), of γ-HCH and DDT by 1.6% and 0.6%, respectively. PMID:22055446

  20. The impact of organochlorines cycling in the cryosphere on global distributions and fate--2. Land ice and temporary snow cover.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Lorenz; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    Global fate and transport of γ-HCH and DDT was studied using a global multicompartment chemistry-transport model, MPI-MCTM, with and without inclusion of land ice (in Antarctica and Greenland) or snow cover (dynamic). MPI-MCTM is based on coupled ocean and atmosphere general circulation models. After a decade of simulation 4.2% γ-HCH and 2.3% DDT are stored in land ice and snow. Neglection of land ice and snow in modelling would underestimate the total environmental residence time, τ(ov), of γ-HCH and overestimate τ(ov) for DDT, both on the order of 1% and depending on actual compartmental distribution. Volatilisation of DDT from boreal, seasonally snow covered land is enhanced throughout the year, while volatilisation of γ-HCH is only enhanced during the snow-free season. Including land ice and snow cover in modelling matters in particular for the Arctic, where higher burdens are predicted to be stored. PMID:22054697

  1. Landfill CH{sub 4}: Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

    1991-12-31

    Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

  2. Landfill CH sub 4 : Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

    1991-01-01

    Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

  3. Comparative assessment of the global fate of α- and β-hexachlorocyclohexane before and after phase-out.

    PubMed

    Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; Tay, Pascal; von Waldow, Harald; Hung, Hayley; Li, Yi-Fan; Macleod, Matthew; Hungerbuhler, Konrad

    2012-02-21

    Technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) was one of the most widely used pesticides during the 20th century. Although production and use were phased-out during the 1990s, two of its major components, α- and β-HCH, are still ubiquitous in the environment. Here, we have collected and analyzed data on concentrations of α- and β-HCH in the atmosphere and oceans, including spatial and temporal trends and seasonalities. We apply a global fate and transport model to both isomers over the period 1950 to 2050 to rationalize current levels and trends at remote locations with estimated emissions and to forecast into the near future. Our model results indicate that secondary emissions from soils and oceans are currently controlling the observed rates of decline in the atmosphere. β-HCH is declining more slowly than α-HCH due to its higher persistence, and we hypothesize that it will eventually become the predominant isomer of HCH in the environment. The model reproduces over 70% of measured concentrations of α-HCH in air and ocean water within factors of 3 and 5, respectively, and over 70% of measured concentrations of β-HCH within factors of 8 and 20, respectively. The model results are only weakly sensitive to climate change-induced trends in Arctic sea-ice cover and temperature. PMID:22320168

  4. Dietary Reference Intakes: development and uses for assessment of micronutrient status of women--a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Meyers, Linda

    2005-05-01

    This paper reviews the process of developing the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and provides a synopsis of the micronutrient status of women worldwide. At a 1993 symposium held by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), it was decided that the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) would be replaced by the DRIs, which would address several issues that the RDAs did not, including chronic disease risk reduction, upper levels for nutrients where toxicity data existed, and the possible health benefits of some food components that did not meet the traditional definition of a nutrient. Another important distinction is that because the DRIs are comprised of 4 reference values -the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), RDA, Adequate Intake (AI), and a tolerable Upper Level (UL) -and not a single reference value like the previous RDAs, they could be used to differentiate planning from diagnosis or assessment. The latest DRIs and nutrient intakes are shown for iron, zinc, calcium, Vitamin A and folate status in women in the United States. Data on the micronutrient status of women globally are much more limited. Summary statistics on iron deficiency anemia, night blindness, and risk of zinc deficiency are summarized. PMID:15883451

  5. A comparison between the multimedia fate and exposure models CalTOX and uniform system for evaluation of substances adapted for life-cycle assessment based on the population intake fraction of toxic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Huijbregts, Mark A J; Geelen, Loes M J; Hertwich, Edgar G; McKone, Thomas E; van de Meent, Dik

    2005-02-01

    In life-cycle assessment (LCA) and comparative risk assessment, potential human exposure to toxic pollutants can be expressed as the population intake fraction (iF), which represents the fraction of the quantity emitted that enters the human population. To assess the influence of model differences in the calculation of the population iF ingestion and inhalation iFs of 365 substances emitted to air, freshwater, and soil were calculated with two commonly applied multimedia fate and exposure models, CalTOX and the uniform system for evaluation of substances adapted for life-cycle assessment (USES-LCA). The model comparison showed that differences in the iFs due to model choices were the lowest after emission to air and the highest after emission to soil. Inhalation iFs were more sensitive to model differences compared to ingestion iFs. The choice for a continental seawater compartment, vertical stratification of the soil compartment, rain and no-rain scenarios, and drinking water purification mainly clarify the relevant model differences found in population iFs. Furthermore, pH correction of chemical properties and aerosol-associated deposition on plants appeared to be important for dissociative organics and metals emitted to air, respectively. Finally, it was found that quantitative structure-activity relationship estimates for superhydrophobics may introduce considerable uncertainty in the calculation of population intake fractions. PMID:15720012

  6. Modelling the fate of nonylphenolic compounds in the Seine River--part 2: assessing the impact of global change on daily concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cladière, Mathieu; Bonhomme, Céline; Vilmin, Lauriane; Gasperi, Johnny; Flipo, Nicolas; Habets, Florence; Tassin, Bruno

    2014-01-15

    This study aims at modelling the daily concentrations of nonylphenolic compounds such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC) within the Seine River downstream of Paris City for over a year, firstly in the present state (year 2010) and for years 2050 and 2100 in order to assess the consequences of global change on the fate of nonylphenolic compounds in the Seine river. Concentrations were first simulated for the year 2010 and compared to monthly measured values downstream of Paris. To achieve this goal, the hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model, ProSe, was updated to simulate the fate of 4-NP, NP1EO and NP1EC. The Seine upstream and Oise River (tributaries of the Seine River) concentrations are estimated according to concentrations-flow relationships. For Seine Aval wastewater treatment plant (SA-WWTP), the concentrations are considered constant and the median values of 11 campaigns are used. The biodegradation kinetics of 4-NP, NP1EO and NP1EC in the Seine River were deduced from the results of the companion paper. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient indicates a good efficiency to simulate the concentrations of 4-NP, NP1EC and NP1EO over an entire year. Eight scenarios were built to forecast the impacts of global warming (flow decrease), population growth (SA-WWTP flow increase) and optimisation of wastewater treatment (improvement of the quality of effluents) on annual concentrations of 4-NP, NP1EO and NP1EC at Meulan by 2050 and 2100. As a result, global warming and population growth may increase the concentrations of 4-NP, NP1EC and NP1EO, especially during low-flow conditions, while the optimisation of wastewater treatment is an efficient solution to balance the global change by reducing WWTP outflows. PMID:24095968

  7. Global, Regional, and National Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Fruit Juices, and Milk: A Systematic Assessment of Beverage Intake in 187 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G.; Engell, Rebecca E.; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fruit juice, and milk are components of diet of major public health interest. To-date, assessment of their global distributions and health impacts has been limited by insufficient comparable and reliable data by country, age, and sex. Objective To quantify global, regional, and national levels of SSB, fruit juice, and milk intake by age and sex in adults over age 20 in 2010. Methods We identified, obtained, and assessed data on intakes of these beverages in adults, by age and sex, from 193 nationally- or subnationally-representative diet surveys worldwide, representing over half the world’s population. We also extracted data relevant to milk, fruit juice, and SSB availability for 187 countries from annual food balance information collected by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to account for measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modeling uncertainty, and to combine and harmonize nationally representative dietary survey data and food availability data. Results In 2010, global average intakes were 0.58 (95%UI: 0.37, 0.89) 8 oz servings/day for SSBs, 0.16 (0.10, 0.26) for fruit juice, and 0.57 (0.39, 0.83) for milk. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of each beverage by region and age. Intakes of SSB were highest in the Caribbean (1.9 servings/day; 1.2, 3.0); fruit juice consumption was highest in Australia and New Zealand (0.66; 0.35, 1.13); and milk intake was highest in Central Latin America and parts of Europe (1.06; 0.68, 1.59). Intakes of all three beverages were lowest in East Asia and Oceania. Globally and within regions, SSB consumption was highest in younger adults; fruit juice consumption showed little relation with age; and milk intakes were highest in older adults. Conclusions Our analysis highlights the enormous spectrum of beverage intakes worldwide, by country, age, and sex. These data are

  8. A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Ajit K; Meyer, Michael T; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2006-10-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely used in many countries worldwide to treat disease and protect the health of animals. They are also incorporated into animal feed to improve growth rate and feed efficiency. As antibiotics are poorly adsorbed in the gut of the animals, the majority is excreted unchanged in faeces and urine. Given that land application of animal waste as a supplement to fertilizer is often a common practice in many countries, there is a growing international concern about the potential impact of antibiotic residues on the environment. Frequent use of antibiotics has also raised concerns about increased antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. We have attempted in this paper to summarize the latest information available in the literature on the use, sales, exposure pathways, environmental occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics in animal agriculture. The review has focused on four important groups of antibiotics (tylosin, tetracycline, sulfonamides and, to a lesser extent, bacitracin) giving a background on their chemical nature, fate processes, occurrence, and effects on plants, soil organisms and bacterial community. Recognising the importance and the growing debate, the issue of antibiotic resistance due to the frequent use of antibiotics in food-producing animals is also briefly covered. The final section highlights some unresolved questions and presents a way forward on issues requiring urgent attention. PMID:16677683

  9. Global, regional and national sodium intakes in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis of 24 h urinary sodium excretion and dietary surveys worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Powles, John; Fahimi, Saman; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Ezzati, Majid; Engell, Rebecca E; Lim, Stephen S; Danaei, Goodarz; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate global, regional (21 regions) and national (187 countries) sodium intakes in adults in 1990 and 2010. Design Bayesian hierarchical modelling using all identifiable primary sources. Data sources and eligibility We searched and obtained published and unpublished data from 142 surveys of 24 h urinary sodium and 103 of dietary sodium conducted between 1980 and 2010 across 66 countries. Dietary estimates were converted to urine equivalents based on 79 pairs of dual measurements. Modelling methods Bayesian hierarchical modelling used survey data and their characteristics to estimate mean sodium intake, by sex, 5 years age group and associated uncertainty for persons aged 20+ in 187 countries in 1990 and 2010. Country-level covariates were national income/person and composition of food supplies. Main outcome measures Mean sodium intake (g/day) as estimable by 24 h urine collections, without adjustment for non-urinary losses. Results In 2010, global mean sodium intake was 3.95 g/day (95% uncertainty interval: 3.89 to 4.01). This was nearly twice the WHO recommended limit of 2 g/day and equivalent to 10.06 (9.88–10.21) g/day of salt. Intake in men was ∼10% higher than in women; differences by age were small. Intakes were highest in East Asia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe (mean >4.2 g/day) and in Central Europe and Middle East/North Africa (3.9–4.2 g/day). Regional mean intakes in North America, Western Europe and Australia/New Zealand ranged from 3.4 to 3.8 g/day. Intakes were lower (<3.3 g/day), but more uncertain, in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Between 1990 and 2010, modest, but uncertain, increases in sodium intakes were identified. Conclusions Sodium intakes exceed the recommended levels in almost all countries with small differences by age and sex. Virtually all populations would benefit from sodium reduction, supported by enhanced surveillance. PMID:24366578

  10. Global transformation and fate of SOA: Implications of low-volatility SOA and gas-phase fragmentation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Manish; Easter, Richard C.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zelenyuk, Alla; Singh, Balwinder; Zhang, Kai; Ma, Po-Lun; Chand, Duli; Ghan, Steven; Jimenez, Jose L.; Zhang, Qi; Fast, Jerome; Rasch, Philip J.; Tiitta, Petri

    2015-05-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are large contributors to fine-particle loadings and radiative forcing but are often represented crudely in global models. We have implemented three new detailed SOA treatments within the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) that allow us to compare the semivolatile versus nonvolatile SOA treatments (based on some of the latest experimental findings) and to investigate the effects of gas-phase fragmentation reactions. The new treatments also track SOA from biomass burning and biofuel, fossil fuel, and biogenic sources. For semivolatile SOA treatments, fragmentation reactions decrease the simulated annual global SOA burden from 7.5 Tg to 1.8 Tg. For the nonvolatile SOA treatment with fragmentation, the burden is 3.1 Tg. Larger differences between nonvolatile and semivolatile SOA (up to a factor of 5) exist in areas of continental outflow over the oceans. According to comparisons with observations from global surface Aerosol Mass Spectrometer measurements and the U.S. Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network measurements, the FragNVSOA treatment, which treats SOA as nonvolatile and includes gas-phase fragmentation reactions, agrees best at rural locations. Urban SOA is underpredicted, but this may be due to the coarse model resolution. All three revised treatments show much better agreement with aircraft measurements of organic aerosols (OA) over the North American Arctic and sub-Arctic in spring and summer, compared to the standard CAM5 formulation. This is mainly due to the oxidation of SOA precursor gases from biomass burning, not included in standard CAM5, and long-range transport of biomass burning OA at high altitudes. The revised model configurations that include fragmentation (both semivolatile and nonvolatile SOA) show much better agreement with MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometers (MODIS) aerosol optical depth data over regions dominated by biomass burning during the summer

  11. Global transformation and fate of SOA: Implications of Low Volatility SOA and Gas-Phase Fragmentation Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Easter, Richard C.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zelenyuk, Alla; Singh, Balwinder; Zhang, Kai; Ma, Po-Lun; Chand, Duli; Ghan, Steven J.; Jiminez, J. L.; Zhang, Qibin; Fast, Jerome D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Tiitta, P.

    2015-05-16

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are large contributors to fine particle loadings and radiative forcing, but are often represented crudely in global models. We have implemented three new detailed SOA treatments within the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) that allow us to compare the semi-volatile versus non-volatile SOA treatments (based on some of the latest experimental findings) and also investigate the effects of gas-phase fragmentation reactions. For semi-volatile SOA treatments, fragmentation reactions decrease simulated SOA burden from 7.5 Tg to 1.8 Tg. For the non-volatile SOA treatment with fragmentation, the burden is 3.1 Tg. Larger differences between non-volatile and semi-volatile SOA (upto a factor of 5) correspond to continental outflow over the oceans. Compared to a global dataset of surface Aerosol Mass Spectrometer measurements and the US IMPROVE network measurements, the non-volatile SOA with fragmentation treatment (FragNVSOA) agrees best at rural locations. Urban SOA is under-predicted but this may be due to the coarse model resolution. All our three revised treatments show much better agreement with aircraft measurements of organic aerosols (OA) over the N. American Arctic and sub-Arctic in spring and summer, compared to the standard CAM5 formulation. This is due to treating SOA precursor gases from biomass burning, and long-range transport of biomass burning OA at elevated levels. The revised model configuration that include fragmentation (both semi-volatile and non-volatile SOA) show much better agreement with MODIS AOD data over regions dominated by biomass burning during the summer, and predict biomass burning as the largest global source of OA followed by biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The non-volatile and semi-volatile configuration predict the direct radiative forcing of SOA as -0.5 W m-2 and -0.26 W m-2 respectively, at top of the atmosphere, which are higher than previously estimated by most models, but in reasonable

  12. Prediction of the fate of radioactive material in the South Pacific Ocean using a global high-resolution ocean model.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Douglas R; England, Matthew H

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the release of radioactive contaminants from Moruroa Atoll in a global high-resolution off-line model. The spread of tracer is studied in a series of simulations with varying release depths and time-scales, and into ocean velocity fields corresponding to long-term annual mean, seasonal, and interannually varying scenarios. In the instantaneous surface release scenarios we find that the incorporation of a seasonal cycle greatly influences tracer advection, with maximum concentrations still found within the French Polynesia region after 10 years. In contrast, the maximum trace is located in the southeast Pacific when long-term annual mean fields are used. This emphasizes the importance of the seasonal cycle in models of pollution dispersion on large scales. We further find that during an El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event reduced currents in the region of Moruroa Atoll result in increased concentrations of radioactive material in French Polynesia, as direct flushing from the source is reduced. In terms of the sensitivity to tracer release time-rates, we find that a gradual input results in maximum concentrations in the near vicinity of French Polynesia. This contrasts the instantaneous-release scenarios, which see maximum concentrations and tracer spread across much of the South Pacific Ocean. For example, in as little as seven years radioactive contamination can reach the east coast of Australia diluted by only a factor of 1,000 of the initial concentration. A comparison of results is made with previous studies. Overall, we find much higher concentrations of radionuclides in the South Pacific than has previously been predicted using coarser-resolution models. PMID:12573864

  13. Improving the global SST record: estimates of biases from engine room intake SST using high quality satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carella, Giulia; Kent, Elizabeth C.; Berry, David I.; Morak-Bozzo, Simone; Merchant, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is the marine component of the global surface temperature record, a primary metric of climate change. SST observations from ships form one of the longest instrumental records of surface marine climate. However, over the years several different methods of measuring SST have been used, each with different bias characteristics. The estimation of systematic biases in the SST record is critical for climatic decadal predictions, and uncertainties in long-term trends are expected to be dominated by uncertainties in biases introduced by changes of instrumentation and measurement practices. Although the largest systematic errors in SST observations relate to the period before about 1940, where SST measurements were mostly made using buckets, there are also issues with modern data, in particular when the SST reported is the temperature of the engine-room cooling water intake (ERI). Physical models for biases in ERI SSTs have not been developed as the details of the individual setup on each ship are extremely important, and almost always unknown. Existing studies estimate that the typical ERI biases are around 0.2°C and most estimates of the mean bias fall between 0.1°C and 0.3°C, but there is some evidence of much larger differences. However, these analyses provide only broad estimates, being based only on subsamples of the data and ignoring ship-by-ship differences. Here we take advantage of a new, high spatial resolution, gap-filled, daily SST for the period 1992-2010 from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) for SST dataset version 1.1. In this study, we use a Bayesian statistical model to characterise the uncertainty in reports of ERI SST for individual ships using the ESA CCI SST as a reference. A Bayesian spatial analysis is used to model the differences of the observed SST from the ESA CCI SST for each ship as a constant offset plus a function of the climatological SST. This was found to be an important term

  14. Comparative assessment of the global fate and transport pathways of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorocarboxylates (PFCs) emitted from direct sources.

    PubMed

    Armitage, James M; Macleod, Matthew; Cousins, Ian T

    2009-08-01

    A global-scale multispecies mass balance model was used to simulate the long-term fate and transport of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with eight to thirteen carbons (C8-C13) and their conjugate bases, the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCs). The main purpose of this study was to assess the relative long-range transport (LRT) potential of each conjugate pair, collectively termed PFC(A)s, considering emissions from direct sources (i.e., manufacturing and use) only. Overall LRT potential (atmospheric + oceanic) varied as a function of chain length and depended on assumptions regarding pKa and mode of entry. Atmospheric transport makes a relatively higher contribution to overall LRT potential for PFC(A)s with longer chain length, which reflects the increasing trend in the air-water partition coefficient (K(AW)) of the neutral PFCA species with chain length. Model scenarios using estimated direct emissions of the C8, C9, and C11 PFC(A)s indicate that the mass fluxes to the Arctic marine environment associated with oceanic transport are in excess of mass fluxes from indirect sources (i.e., atmospheric transport of precursor substances such as fluorotelomer alcohols and subsequent degradation to PFCAs). Modeled concentrations of C8 and C9 in the abiotic environment are broadly consistent with available monitoring data in surface ocean waters. Furthermore, the modeled concentration ratios of C8 to C9 are reconcilable with the homologue pattern frequently observed in biota, assuming a positive correlation between bioaccumulation potential and chain length. Modeled concentration ratios of C11 to C10 are more difficult to reconcile with monitoring data in both source and remote regions. Our model results for C11 and C10 therefore imply that either (i) indirect sources are dominant or (ii) estimates of direct emission are not accurate for these homologues. PMID:19731684

  15. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  16. FATE, THE ENVIRONMENTAL FATE CONSTANTS INFORMATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An online database, FATE, has been developed for the interactive retrieval of kinetic and equilibrium constants that are needed for assessing the fate of chemicals in the environment. he database contains values for up to 12 parameters for each chemical. s of December 1991, FATE ...

  17. Burden of Ischemic Heart Disease Attributable to Low Omega-3 Fatty Acids Intake in Iran: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    Nejatinamini, Sara; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Kelishadi, Roya; Khajavi, Alireza; Kasaeian, Amir; Djalalinia, Shirin; Saqib, Fahad; Majidi, Somayye; Abdolmaleki, Roxana; Hosseini, Mehrnaz; Asayesh, Hamid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary risk factors constitute some of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Iran. The current study reports the burden of ischemic heart disease (IHD) attributable to a low omega-3 fatty acids intake in Iran using the data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2010. Methods: We used data on Iran for the years 1990, 2005, and 2010 derived from the GBD Study conducted by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) in 2010. Using the comparative risk assessment, we calculated the proportion of death, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) caused by IHD attributable to a low omega-3 fatty acids intake in the GBD studies from 1990 to 2010. Results: In 1990, a dietary pattern low in seafood omega-3 fatty acids intake was responsible for 423 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 300 to 559), 3000 (95% UI, 2182 to 3840), and 4743 (95% UI, 3280 to 6047) DALYs per 100000 persons in the age groups of 15 to 49 years, 50 to 69 years, and 70+ years — respectively — in both sexes. The DALY rates decreased to 250 (95% UI, 172 to 331), 2078 (95% UI, 1446 to 2729), and 3911 (95% UI, 2736 to 5142) in 2010. The death rates per 100000 persons in the mentioned age groups were 9 (95% UI, 6 to 12), 113 (95% UI, 82 to 144), and 366 (95% UI, 255 to 469) in 1990 versus 6 (95% UI, 4 to 7), 76 (95% UI, 53 to 99), and 344 (95% UI, 241 to 453) in 2010. The burden of IHD attributable to diet low in seafood omega-3 was 1.3% (95% UI, 0.97 to 1.7) of the total DALYs in 1990 and 2.0% (95% UI, 1.45 to 2.63) in 2010 for Iran. Conclusion: The findings of the GBD Study 2010 showed a declining trend in the burden of IHD attributable to a low omega-3 fatty acids intake in a period of 20 years. Additional disease burden studies at national and sub-national levels in Iran using more data sources are suggested for public health priorities and planning public health strategies. PMID:27403186

  18. [The two components of carbon monoxide global exchange: CO intake and ductance. Relations with hematosis in invalidating chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy (COBP) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Breant, J; Fleury, M F

    1980-01-01

    In lasting rest, V'COs (or CO intake standardized for FICO = 0.0001) measures for this gas the activity of the exchange and its yield by DuCO. When V'COs (ml) is expressed for one litre of CO2 reject measured simultaneously, that is for a given metabolic activity, a constant standard is obtained in a healthy non smoking subject independent of its age and of ventilatory or morphometric data. Its lower limit (-2 standard deviations) is 12. V'COs/v'co2 and DuCO express 2 complementary data of the global CO exchange: the specific capacity of CO exchange (relatively to the exchange of the respiratory gas) and its quality. They are linked by ERCO2 indicating the degree of ventilatory compensation. In 65 cases of invalidating chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy (COBP), the proposed test and the classic CO criteria were measured. A sample was taken simultaneously for arterial gasometry. Among all criteria of CO exchange, V'COs/V'CO2 appears as the most closely related to blood gases. The relationships of PaCO2 with the elements of the CO global exchange reflect and explain in the exchanges the clinical diversities of COBP. PMID:6770356

  19. Global metabolomic profiling of human serum from obese individuals by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry to evaluate the intake of breakfasts prepared with heated edible oils.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Calderón-Santiago, Mónica; Luque de Castro, María D

    2013-12-01

    The metabolic profile of human serum after intake of breakfasts prepared with different heated vegetable oils has been studied. Four oils (olive and sunflower oils, pure and enriched with natural and artificial oxidation inhibitors) were subjected to a simulated heated process prior to breakfast preparation. A metabolomics global profiling approach performed on post-basal serum samples revealed statistical differences among individuals based on breakfast intake, and identified compounds responsible for such differences. Serum samples obtained in basal state (control samples) and 2 and 4h after programmed intakes were analyzed by LC-TOF/MS. The resulting fingerprints were compared and differences between basal and post-basal states evaluated, observing that the intake of different breakfasts altered the metabolic signature of serum. Analysis models based on PLS algorithms were developed to discriminate individuals in post-basal state for each intervention breakfast. Then, Volcano tests enabled to detect significant molecular entities explaining the variability associated to each breakfast. It is worth emphasizing the importance of fatty acids, their derivatives and phospholipids for tentative identification. PMID:23870884

  20. 90Sr dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: global fallout and the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Bezhenar, Roman; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli; Casacuberta, Nuria; Masque, Pere

    2014-05-01

    The 3D compartment model POSEIDON-R (Maderich et al., 2013) was applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of 90Sr in the period 1945-2010 and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of 90Sr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi (FDNPP) accident (2011-2040). The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in marine sediments, and the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and the subsequent doses to the population due to the consumption of marine products. The contamination due to runoff of 90Sr from terrestrial surfaces was taken in account using generic predictive model (Smith et al., 2004). A dynamical food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue (bones for 90Sr ). The model was compared with observation data on 90Sr for the period 1955-2010 and the budget of its activity was estimated. It was found that in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea the riverine influx was 1.5% of ocean influx only with local importance. Calculated concentrations of 90Sr in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal box around the FDNPP before and after the accident are in agreement with measurements from the Japanese databases (TEPCO, MEXT) and publications (Casacuberta et al., 2013; Oikawa et al., 2013). The dynamical food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web and specific accumulation of 90Sr, the concentration for piscivorous fishes return to background level only in 2015. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture (except FDNPP vicinity) due to consumption of fishery products is an order less than the maximal dose rate caused by nuclear weapon testing in 1960.

  1. Global 3-D model of oceanic mercury coupled to carbon biogeochemistry and particle dynamics: application to the transport and fate or riverine mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Jacob, D. J.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Amos, H. M.; Long, M. S.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers are estimated to deliver 27 Mmol a-1 of mercury (Hg) to ocean margins, which is comparable to the global atmospheric deposition flux of Hg to the ocean. Previous studies presumed that most of this riverine Hg is sequestered by settling to the coastal regions. However, there has been little investigation of the mechanism and efficiency with which this sequestration takes place, and the implications for riverine influence in different ocean regions. Here we develop a global 3-D chemical transport model for Hg in the ocean (MITgcm-Hg) with ecology (DARWIN model). We track offshore export of the discharged Hg from heterogeneous river systems over different ocean regions, and how it is influenced by the interaction of Hg in a variety of geochemical forms with carbon and suspended particles. We constrain our model assumptions with available offshore observations that bear strong riverine signals. Modeling results suggest that some of the riverine Hg is highly refractory, sorbs strongly to particles and does not follow equilibrium partitioning with the dissolved phase. Simulated global Hg evasion from riverine sources is 50 times larger without this refractory particulate pool, which results in a total evasion flux two times larger than our current best estimate. Based on a typology system of global rivers, we calculate that 10% to 60% of the particulate Hg from different rivers settles in ocean margin sediments because of subgrid sedimentation processes. The remaining 7.5 Mmol a-1 (28% of total river discharge) is available for offshore transport, where it undergoes further sedimentation to the shelf (5.3 Mmol a-1) as well as evasion to the atmosphere (0.44 Mmol a-1). Only 1.7 Mmol a-1 (6.4% of the global riverine Hg) reaches the open ocean, although that fraction varies from 2.6% in East Asia because of the blockage of Korean Peninsula to 25% in east North America facilitated by the Gulf Stream. We find large riverine influences over coastal oceans off East Asia

  2. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  3. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  4. Lineage, fate, and fate potential of NG2-glia.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Akiko; Boshans, Linda; Goncalves, Christopher M; Wegrzyn, Jill; Patel, Kiran D

    2016-05-01

    NG2 cells represent a fourth major glial cell population in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They arise from discrete germinal zones in mid-gestation embryos and expand to occupy the entire CNS parenchyma. Genetic fate mapping studies have shown that oligodendrocytes and a subpopulation of ventral protoplasmic astrocytes arise from NG2 cells. This review describes recent findings on the fate and fate potential of NG2 cells under physiological and pathological conditions. We discuss age-dependent changes in the fate and fate potential of NG2 cells and possible mechanisms that could be involved in restricting their oligodendrocyte differentiation or fate plasticity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:NG2-glia(Invited only). PMID:26301825

  5. Specifying and protecting germ cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Strome, Susan; Updike, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Germ cells are the special cells in the body that undergo meiosis to generate gametes and subsequently entire new organisms after fertilization, a process that continues generation after generation. Recent studies have expanded our understanding of the factors and mechanisms that specify germ cell fate, including the partitioning of maternally supplied ‘germ plasm’, inheritance of epigenetic memory and expression of transcription factors crucial for primordial germ cell (PGC) development. Even after PGCs are specified, germline fate is labile and thus requires protective mechanisms, such as global transcriptional repression, chromatin state alteration and translation of only germline-appropriate transcripts. Findings from diverse species continue to provide insights into the shared and divergent needs of these special reproductive cells. PMID:26122616

  6. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Lokesh P

    2016-10-01

    This annual review covers the literature published in 2015 on topics related to the occurrence and fate of emerging environmental pollutants in wastewater. Due to the vast amount of literature published on this topic, I have discussed only a fraction of the quality research publications, up to maximum 20 relevant articles per section, due to limitation of space. The abstract search was carried out using Web of Science, and the abstracts were selected based on their relevance. In few cases, full-text articles were referred to better understand new findings. This review is divided into the following sections: biological agents, disinfection by-products (DBPs), halogenated compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and other emerging contaminants. PMID:27620105

  7. Tuning cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Kami, Daisuke; Gojo, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic interventions are required to induce reprogramming from one cell type to another. At present, various cellular reprogramming methods such as somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, and direct reprogramming using transcription factors have been reported. In particular, direct reprogramming from somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been achieved using defined factors that play important epigenetic roles. Although the mechanisms underlying cellular reprogramming and vertebrate regeneration, including appendage regeneration, remain unknown, dedifferentiation occurs at an early phase in both the events, and both events are contrasting with regard to cell death. We compared the current status of changes in cell fate of iPSCs with that of vertebrate regeneration and suggested that substantial insights into vertebrate regeneration should be helpful for safe applications of iPSCs to medicine. PMID:24736602

  8. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  9. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19525100

  10. The "occlusis" model of cell fate restriction.

    PubMed

    Lahn, Bruce T

    2011-01-01

    A simple model, termed "occlusis", is presented here to account for both cell fate restriction during somatic development and reestablishment of pluripotency during reproduction. The model makes three assertions: (1) A gene's transcriptional potential can assume one of two states: the "competent" state, wherein the gene is responsive to, and can be activated by, trans-acting factors in the cellular milieu, and the "occluded" state, wherein the gene is blocked by cis-acting, chromatin-based mechanisms from responding to trans-acting factors such that it remains silent irrespective of whether transcriptional activators are present in the milieu. (2) As differentiation proceeds in somatic lineages, lineage-inappropriate genes shift progressively and irreversibly from competent to occluded state, thereby leading to the restriction of cell fate. (3) During reproduction, global deocclusion takes place in the germline and/or early zygotic cells to reset the genome to the competent state in order to facilitate a new round of organismal development. PMID:20954221

  11. Cadmium in wheat grain: its nature and fate after ingestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.J.; Nulty, E.; LeFevre, M.

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium intake in humans derives primarily from vegetable foods, yet the extent to which the chemical form and dose of cadmium in such foods influences the fate and toxicity of this metal is poorly understood. We have compared the fate in mice of trace levels-approximating that in agriculturally produced grain-and high levels of cadmium supplied as wheat grain with that of cadmium supplied as CdCl/sub 2/. The amounts and forms of the metal in kidney and liver, target organs in cadmium accumulation, were compared. Results indicate that, in mice, cadmium orally administered as grain and that as CdCl/sub 2/ have a similar fate in terms of organ distribution and the nature of the Cd-forms in kidney and liver. A low dose of either form resulted in higher kidney versus liver cadmium. Preliminary characterization studies indicate that cadmium in wheat grain occurs primarily as an 11,000-dalton, aqueous-soluble complex, which is not inducible by cadmium. 23 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  12. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, while 7% was distributed into the eggs and 6% was stored in different tissues. In contrast, ~8% of the iron provided as transferrin was excreted and of that absorbed, 77% was allocated to the eggs and 15% distributed in the tissues. Further analyses indicate that of the iron supplied in a blood meal, ~7% appears in the eggs and of this iron 98% is from hemoglobin and 2% from ferric-transferrin. Whereas of iron from a blood meal retained in body of the female, ~97% is from heme and <1 % is from transferrin. Evaluation of iron-binding proteins in hemolymph and egg following intake of 59Fe-transferrin revealed that ferritin is iron loaded in these animals, and indicate that this protein plays a critical role in meal iron transport and iron storage in eggs in A. aegypti. PMID:17689557

  13. FATE, THE ENVIRONMENTAL FATE CONSTANTS INFORMATION SYSTEM DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new online database, designated the FATE database, has been developed for the interactive retrieval of kinetic and equilibrium constants that are needed for assessing the fe of chemicals in the environment. he database contains values for twelve parameters, but may not contain ...

  14. [The tragic fate of physicians].

    PubMed

    Ohry, Avi

    2013-10-01

    Physicians and surgeons were always involved in revolutions, wars and political activities, as well as in various medical humanities. Tragic fate met these doctors, whether in the Russian prisons gulags, German labor or concentration camps, pogroms or at the hands of the Inquisition. PMID:24450039

  15. Fate of the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, J.

    1982-01-01

    In defining the shape and the dimensions of the nuclear predicament, Schell describes, within the limits of what is dependably and unarguably known to science, a full-scale nuclear holocaust and how the world would end. In his search for the meaning of human extinction, he examines personal, individual death and the more terrifying idea of the extinction of the species. He suggests that a fully human life must feel the connections with the generations that came before and those that will follow. Schell demonstrates how nuclear weapons have undone the institution of war as a means of settling disputes between sovereign nations. He analyzes the doctrine of deterrence and discloses its inner contradictions and irrationality. He suggests a new global political arrangement that is more appropriate to a nuclear world.

  16. Spatialised fate factors for nitrate in catchments: modelling approach and implication for LCA results.

    PubMed

    Basset-Mens, Claudine; Anibar, Lamiaa; Durand, Patrick; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2006-08-15

    The challenge for environmental assessment tools, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is to provide a holistic picture of the environmental impacts of a given system, while being relevant both at a global scale, i.e., for global impact categories such as climate change, and at a smaller scale, i.e., for regional impact categories such as aquatic eutrophication. To this end, the environmental mechanisms between emission and impact should be taken into account. For eutrophication in particular, which is one of the main impacts of farming systems, the fate factor of eutrophying pollutants in catchments, and particularly of nitrate, reflects one of these important and complex environmental mechanisms. We define this fate factor as: the ratio of the amount of nitrate at the outlet of the catchment over the nitrate emitted from the catchment's soils. In LCA, this fate factor is most often assumed equal to 1, while the observed fate factor is generally less than 1. A generic approach for estimating the range of variation of nitrate fate factors in a region of intensive agriculture was proposed. This approach was based on the analysis of different catchment scenarios combining different catchment types and different effective rainfalls. The evolution over time of the nitrate fate factor as well as the steady state fate factor for each catchment scenario was obtained using the INCA simulation model. In line with the general LCA model, the implications of the steady state fate factors for nitrate were investigated for the eutrophication impact result in the framework of an LCA of pig production. A sensitivity analysis to the fraction of nitrate lost as N(2)O was presented for the climate change impact category. This study highlighted the difference between the observed fate factor at a given time, which aggregates both storage and transformation processes and a "steady state fate factor", specific to the system considered. The range of steady state fate factors obtained for

  17. [Quality of life and fate].

    PubMed

    Spaemann, C

    1992-01-01

    While the term "happiness of life", the "eudaimonia" of the greek philosophers, includes the good as such and therefore a metaphysical and moral component, the modern term of the "quality of life" is wholly defined by the criteria of a person's functional capacity and subjective wellbeing. The doctor's orientation by these criteria meets its limits, where he is confronted with fatality. This shows that we cannot really comprehend the quality of life without man's fundamental task of mastering his fate. PMID:1296397

  18. Modelling the fate of organic micropollutants in stormwater ponds.

    PubMed

    Vezzaro, Luca; Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna; Mikkelsen, Peter S

    2011-06-01

    Urban water managers need to estimate the potential removal of organic micropollutants (MP) in stormwater treatment systems to support MP pollution control strategies. This study documents how the potential removal of organic MP in stormwater treatment systems can be quantified by using multimedia models. The fate of four different MP in a stormwater retention pond was simulated by applying two steady-state multimedia fate models (EPI Suite and SimpleBox) commonly applied in chemical risk assessment and a dynamic multimedia fate model (Stormwater Treatment Unit Model for Micro Pollutants--STUMP). The four simulated organic stormwater MP (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate--IPBC, benzene, glyphosate and pyrene) were selected according to their different urban sources and environmental fate. This ensures that the results can be extended to other relevant stormwater pollutants. All three models use substance inherent properties to calculate MP fate but differ in their ability to represent the small physical scale and high temporal variability of stormwater treatment systems. Therefore the three models generate different results. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) highlighted that settling/resuspension of particulate matter was the most sensitive process for the dynamic model. The uncertainty of the estimated MP fluxes can be reduced by calibrating the dynamic model against total suspended solids data. This reduction in uncertainty was more significant for the substances with strong tendency to sorb, i.e. glyphosate and pyrene and less significant for substances with a smaller tendency to sorb, i.e. IPBC and benzene. The results provide support to the elaboration of MP pollution control strategies by limiting the need for extensive and complex monitoring campaigns targeting the wide range of specific organic MP found in stormwater runoff. PMID:21496881

  19. On the fate of anthropogenic nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of literature values to trace the fate of 150 Tg/yr anthropogenic nitrogen applied by humans to the Earth's land surface. Approximately 9 TgN/yr may be accumulating in the terrestrial biosphere in pools with residence times of ten to several hundred years. Enhanced fluvial transport of nitrogen in rivers and percolation to groundwater accounts for ≈35 and 15 TgN/yr, respectively. Greater denitrification in terrestrial soils and wetlands may account for the loss of ≈17 TgN/yr from the land surface, calculated by a compilation of data on the fraction of N2O emitted to the atmosphere and the current global rise of this gas in the atmosphere. A recent estimate of atmospheric transport of reactive nitrogen from land to sea (NOx and NHx) accounts for 48 TgN/yr. The total of these enhanced sinks, 124 TgN/yr, is less than the human-enhanced inputs to the land surface, indicating areas of needed additional attention to global nitrogen biogeochemistry. Policy makers should focus on increasing nitrogen-use efficiency in fertilization, reducing transport of reactive N to rivers and groundwater, and maximizing denitrification to its N2 endproduct. PMID:19118195

  20. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  1. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  2. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  3. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hilger, Jennifer; Goerig, Tatiana; Weber, Peter; Hoeft, Birgit; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Costa Carvalho, Nina; Goldberger, Ursula; Hoffmann, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps. PMID:26295254

  4. Fate of Dietary Tryptophan in Young Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, using the high-performance liquid chromatographic methods recently modified by us, the fate of dietary tryptophan in 17 healthy female Japanese adults who ate self-selected food. The experimental period was 22 days. The habitual intake of tryptophan was 3328.4 μmol/day. 24-hour urine samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment and then once per week. Blood was collected at the beginning and end of the experiment. Levels of tryptophan and its metabolites were measured in blood and urine. Tryptophan, nicotinamide and 2-oxoadipic acid were the major compounds of the blood. The urinary excretion amounts of tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid, kynurenine, anthranilic acid, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, xanthurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and quinolinic acid were about 40, 20, 4, 1, 10, 4, 3, 5 and 20 μmol/day, respectively. PMID:23150724

  5. Mechanotransduction: Tuning Stem Cells Fate

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Francesco; Tiribuzi, Roberto; Armentano, Ilaria; Kenny, Josè Maria; Martino, Sabata; Orlacchio, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    It is a general concern that the success of regenerative medicine-based applications is based on the ability to recapitulate the molecular events that allow stem cells to repair the damaged tissue/organ. To this end biomaterials are designed to display properties that, in a precise and physiological-like fashion, could drive stem cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. The rationale is that stem cells are highly sensitive to forces and that they may convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. In this review, we describe novelties on stem cells and biomaterials interactions with more focus on the implication of the mechanical stimulation named mechanotransduction. PMID:24956164

  6. MicroRNAs: regulators of neuronal fate

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Alfred X; Crabtree, Gerald R; Yoo, Andrew S

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian neural development has been traditionally studied in the context of evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways and neurogenic transcription factors. Recent studies suggest that microRNAs, a group of highly conserved non-coding regulatory small RNAs also play essential roles in neural development and neuronal function. A part of their action in the developing nervous system is to regulate subunit compositions of BAF complexes (ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes), which appear to have dedicated functions during neural development. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of a set of brain-enriched microRNAs, miR-9/9* and miR-124 that promote the assembly of neuron-specific BAF complexes, convert the nonneuronal fate of human dermal fibroblasts towards post-mitotic neurons, thereby revealing a previously unappreciated instructive role of these microRNAs. In addition to these global effects, accumulating evidence indicate that many microRNAs could also function locally, such as at the growth cone or at synapses modulating synaptic activity and neuronal connectivity. Here we discuss some of the recent findings about microRNAs’ activity in regulating various developmental stages of neurons. PMID:23374323

  7. Fate and transport of reproductive hormone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An invited overview of the NSF funded projects 0730492 "Effects of Animal Manure Storage and Disposal on the Fate and Transport of Manure-Borne Hormones," and 0244169 "Fate and Transport of an Endocrine Disruptor in Soil-Water Systems." We will highlight the Research and Educational contributions by...

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans vulval cell fate patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Félix, Marie-Anne

    2012-08-01

    The spatial patterning of three cell fates in a row of competent cells is exemplified by vulva development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The intercellular signaling network that underlies fate specification is well understood, yet quantitative aspects remain to be elucidated. Quantitative models of the network allow us to test the effect of parameter variation on the cell fate pattern output. Among the parameter sets that allow us to reach the wild-type pattern, two general developmental patterning mechanisms of the three fates can be found: sequential inductions and morphogen-based induction, the former being more robust to parameter variation. Experimentally, the vulval cell fate pattern is robust to stochastic and environmental challenges, and minor variants can be detected. The exception is the fate of the anterior cell, P3.p, which is sensitive to stochastic variation and spontaneous mutation, and is also evolving the fastest. Other vulval precursor cell fates can be affected by mutation, yet little natural variation can be found, suggesting stabilizing selection. Despite this fate pattern conservation, different Caenorhabditis species respond differently to perturbations of the system. In the quantitative models, different parameter sets can reconstitute their response to perturbation, suggesting that network variation among Caenorhabditis species may be quantitative. Network rewiring likely occurred at longer evolutionary scales.

  9. Stem Cell Fate Is a Touchy Subject.

    PubMed

    Smith, Quinton; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Uncoupling synergistic interactions between physio-chemical cues that guide stem cell fate may improve efforts to direct their differentiation in culture. Using supramolecular hydrogels, Alakpa et al. (2016) demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cell differentiation is paired to depletion of bioactive metabolites, which can be utilized to chemically induce osteoblast and chondrocyte fate. PMID:27588745

  10. Why people are reluctant to tempt fate.

    PubMed

    Risen, Jane L; Gilovich, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    The present research explored the belief that it is bad luck to "tempt fate." Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that people do indeed have the intuition that actions that tempt fate increase the likelihood of negative outcomes. Studies 3-6 examined our claim that the intuition is due, in large part, to the combination of the automatic tendencies to attend to negative prospects and to use accessibility as a cue when judging likelihood. Study 3 demonstrated that negative outcomes are more accessible following actions that tempt fate than following actions that do not tempt fate. Studies 4 and 5 demonstrated that the heightened accessibility of negative outcomes mediates the elevated perceptions of likelihood. Finally, Study 6 examined the automatic nature of the underlying processes. The types of actions that are thought to tempt fate as well as the role of society and culture in shaping this magical belief are discussed. PMID:18665703

  11. Inhibition of food intake.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, Flood, and Edwards (Edwards and Morley, 1992; Flood and Morley, 1992; Macintosh et al., 2000; Morley and Flood, 1991, 1994; Morley et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997). Lutz, Geary, and others (Barth et al., 2003; Del Prete et al., 2002; Lutz et al., 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998a,b,c, 2000a,b, 2001a,b,c, 2003; Mollet et al., 2001, 2003a,b, 2004; Riediger et al., 2002, 2004; Rushing et al., 2000a,b, 2001, 2002). Workers at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or their collaborators (Bhavsar et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1998; Birkemo et al., 1995; Chapman et al., 2004a,b; Edwards et al., 1998; Feinle et al., 2002; Mack et al., 2003; Riediger et al., 1999; Roth et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 1996; Weyer et al., 2004; Young, 1997; Young and Bhavsar, 1996). Arnelo, Reidelberger, and others (Arnelo et al., 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998, 2000; Fruin et al., 1997; Granqvist et al., 1997; Reidelberger et al., 2001, 2002, 2004). The magnitude of amylin inhibition of food intake, and its potency for this effect when delivered peripherally, suggests a physiological role in satiogenesis. Increases in food intake following disruption of amylin signal-signaling (e.g., with amylin receptor blockade, or with amylin gene knock-out mice) further support a role of endogenous amylin to tonically restrict nutrient intake. In addition, synergies with other endogenous satiety agents may be present, and convey greater physiological importance than is conveyed by single signals. The anorectic effect of amylin is consistent with a classic amylin pharmacology. The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the area postrema

  12. Intake flow modeling in a four stroke diesel using KIVA3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hessel, R. P.; Rutland, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Intake flow for a dual intake valved diesel engine is modeled using moving valves and realistic geometries. The objectives are to obtain accurate initial conditions for combustion calculations and to provide a tool for studying intake processes. Global simulation parameters are compared with experimental results and show good agreement. The intake process shows a 30 percent difference in mass flows and average swirl in opposite directions across the two intake valves. The effect of the intake process on the flow field at the end of compression is examined. Modeling the intake flow results in swirl and turbulence characteristics that are quite different from those obtained by conventional methods in which compression stroke initial conditions are assumed.

  13. Fate Mapping of Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Poltorak, Mateusz Pawel; Schraml, Barbara Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous group of mononuclear phagocytes with versatile roles in immunity. They are classified predominantly based on phenotypic and functional properties, namely their stellate morphology, expression of the integrin CD11c, and major histocompatibility class II molecules, as well as their superior capacity to migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and stimulate naïve T cells. However, these attributes are not exclusive to DCs and often change within inflammatory or infectious environments. This led to debates over cell identification and questioned even the mere existence of DCs as distinct leukocyte lineage. Here, we review experimental approaches taken to fate map DCs and discuss how these have shaped our understanding of DC ontogeny and lineage affiliation. Considering the ontogenetic properties of DCs will help to overcome the inherent shortcomings of purely phenotypic- and function-based approaches to cell definition and will yield a more robust way of DC classification. PMID:25999945

  14. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  15. Epigenetic regulation of early neural fate commitment.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yunbo; Yang, Xianfa; Jing, Naihe

    2016-04-01

    Early neural fate commitment is a key process in neural development and establishment of the central nervous system, and this process is tightly controlled by extrinsic signals, intrinsic factors, and epigenetic regulation. Here, we summarize the main findings regarding the regulatory network of epigenetic mechanisms that play important roles during early neural fate determination and embryonic development, including histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, DNA modifications, and RNA-level regulation. These regulatory mechanisms coordinate to play essential roles in silencing of pluripotency genes and activating key neurodevelopmental genes during cell fate commitment at DNA, histone, chromatin, and RNA levels. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between epigenetic regulation, signaling pathways, and intrinsic factors during early neural fate specification. PMID:26801220

  16. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  17. Fate Mapping Mammalian Corneal Epithelia.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Alexander; Wakefield, Denis; Di Girolamo, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The anterior aspect of the cornea consists of a stratified squamous epithelium, thought to be maintained by a rare population of stem cells (SCs) that reside in the limbal transition zone. Although migration of cells that replenish the corneal epithelium has been studied for over a century, the process is still poorly understood and not well characterized. Numerous techniques have been employed to examine corneal epithelial dynamics, including visualization by light microscopy, the incorporation of vital dyes and DNA labels, and transplantation of genetically marked cells that have acted as cell and lineage beacons. Modern-day lineage tracing utilizes molecular methods to determine the fate of a specific cell and its progeny over time. Classically employed in developmental biology, lineage tracing has been used more recently to track the progeny of adult SCs in a number of organs to pin-point their location and understand their movement and influence on tissue regeneration. This review highlights key discoveries that have led researchers to develop cutting-edge genetic tools to effectively and more accurately monitor turnover and displacement of cells within the mammalian corneal epithelium. Collating information on the basic biology of SCs will have clinical ramifications in furthering our knowledge of the processes that govern their role in homeostasis, wound-healing, transplantation, and how we can improve current unsatisfactory SC-based therapies for patients suffering blinding corneal disease. PMID:26774909

  18. Toxic chemicals in environment and models for predicting their degradation and fate

    SciTech Connect

    Sabljic, A.

    1996-12-31

    During the last 50 years many man-made chemicals have reached every corner of the global environment despite the limitations on their use in some regions and the fact that many of them were not deliberately released into the environment. Both the mobility and persistence of commercial chemicals are the key factors for evaluating their ultimate fate and possible adverse effects on mankind and environment. The notorious global adverse effects are climate changes such as global warming, acid rain, forest decline, as well as permanent degradation of the environment and quality of life. Global and regional models have been developed for predicting transport of chemicals in atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere and hence their ultimate fate or their environmental sinks. Performance of these models will be demonstrated on several classes of persistent organic chemicals. However, in order to work reliably, global and regional models for environmental fate of chemicals require, as input parameters, their physico-chemical properties and reactivity data. Unfortunately, these data are unavailable for the majority of commercial chemicals and necessary data must be calculated or estimated. The present state of the art on the calculation and estimation of several critical environmental parameters, i.e. soil sorption coefficients, tropospheric and microbiological degradation rates will be presented and evaluated including the most recent results from our laboratory.

  19. Dietary indicators for assessing the adequacy of population zinc intakes.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Christine

    2007-09-01

    The assessment of dietary zinc intakes is an important component of evaluating the risk of zinc deficiency in populations, and for designing appropriate food-based interventions, including fortification, to improve zinc intakes. The prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes can describe the relative magnitude of the risk of zinc deficiency in the population and identify subpopulations at elevated risk. As a cornerstone to evaluating the adequacy of population zinc intakes globally, a set of internationally appropriate dietary reference intakes must be defined. The World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (WHO/FAO/IAEA) and the Food and Nutrition Board/US Institute of Medicine (FNB/IOM) have presented estimated average requirements (EAR) for dietary zinc intake, and, more recently, the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) presented a revised set of recommendations for international use. A prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes greater than 25% is considered to represent an elevated risk of population zinc deficiency. As the requirement estimates are derived from smaller, clinical studies and, for children, most components of the estimates are extrapolated from data for adults, it was desirable to evaluate their internal validity. The estimated physiological requirements for adult men and women appear to adequately predict zinc status as determined by biochemical indicators of status and/or zinc balance. With the use of data from available studies, the reported prevalence of low serum zinc concentration and the estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes predict similar levels of risk of zinc deficiency, particularly among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Conformity between these two indicators is less consistent for children, suggesting that further data and/or direct studies of zinc requirements among children are needed. PMID:17988006

  20. Multi-Scale, Multimedia Modeling With Pangea: Local To Global Evaluation Of The Human Health Impacts Of Emissions From Coal Power To Bar Soap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, A. D.; Wannaz, C.; Jolliet, O.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental impact and risk assessments of chemical emissions have often been local, regional, or global. However, linking such models is difficult, hindering comparison of impacts across these scales. Such links are important, as local risk assessments might only account for a fraction of global impacts for some compounds. For example, 90% of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) might be deposited more than 100km away from sources (1). There is therefore a need for a flexible, fate/transport, and multi-pathway exposure model that spans scales. We have developed a model, called Pangea, which models the intake of emissions as the intake fraction - the fraction of an emission that is ultimately taken in by the population, from local to global scale. Studies of a single-source emission in various parts of the world (e.g., Europe or East Asia) provide critical insight for effective understanding of geospatial distribution of impacts. The model is spatially explicit, building on a set of environmental process models (EPMs) to cover a range of multimedia exposure pathways. These EPMs describe interactions between environmental compartments, as well as internal processes such as degradation. Atmosphere, fresh water networks, oceans, sediments, and land cover data are projected onto multi-scale grids at runtime. Multi-scale refinement is based on factors including distance from the source and population density, creating a computationally effficient grid that can be adapted to the specific needs of individual studies. Spatial analysis of the intake of an emission of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from northern France shows that most of the impact takes place in western Germany, due to the high population density of that region and the prevailing wind direction. Emissions in highly populated area or area with high agriculture production intensities in China and Japan may lead to even higher intake fractions. Results indicate that for

  1. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  2. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  3. Cell fate regulation governed by a repurposed bacterial histidine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, W. Seth; Xu, Qingping; Mann, Thomas H.; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Blair, Jimmy A.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Shapiro, Lucy; Stock, Ann M.

    2014-10-28

    One of the simplest organisms to divide asymmetrically is the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The DivL pseudo-histidine kinase, positioned at one cell pole, regulates cell-fate by controlling the activation of the global transcription factor CtrA via an interaction with the response regulator (RR) DivK. DivL uniquely contains a tyrosine at the histidine phosphorylation site, and can achieve these regulatory functions in vivo without kinase activity. Determination of the DivL crystal structure and biochemical analysis of wild-type and site-specific DivL mutants revealed that the DivL PAS domains regulate binding specificity for DivK~P over DivK, which is modulated by an allosteric intramolecular interaction between adjacent domains. We discovered that DivL's catalytic domains have been repurposed as a phosphospecific RR input sensor, thereby reversing the flow of information observed in conventional histidine kinase (HK)-RR systems and coupling a complex network of signaling proteins for cell-fate regulation.

  4. Cell Fate Regulation Governed by a Repurposed Bacterial Histidine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Thomas H.; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Blair, Jimmy A.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    One of the simplest organisms to divide asymmetrically is the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The DivL pseudo-histidine kinase, positioned at one cell pole, regulates cell-fate by controlling the activation of the global transcription factor CtrA via an interaction with the response regulator (RR) DivK. DivL uniquely contains a tyrosine at the histidine phosphorylation site, and can achieve these regulatory functions in vivo without kinase activity. Determination of the DivL crystal structure and biochemical analysis of wild-type and site-specific DivL mutants revealed that the DivL PAS domains regulate binding specificity for DivK∼P over DivK, which is modulated by an allosteric intramolecular interaction between adjacent domains. We discovered that DivL's catalytic domains have been repurposed as a phosphospecific RR input sensor, thereby reversing the flow of information observed in conventional histidine kinase (HK)-RR systems and coupling a complex network of signaling proteins for cell-fate regulation. PMID:25349992

  5. Cell fate regulation governed by a repurposed bacterial histidine kinase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Childers, W. Seth; Xu, Qingping; Mann, Thomas H.; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Blair, Jimmy A.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Shapiro, Lucy; Stock, Ann M.

    2014-10-28

    One of the simplest organisms to divide asymmetrically is the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The DivL pseudo-histidine kinase, positioned at one cell pole, regulates cell-fate by controlling the activation of the global transcription factor CtrA via an interaction with the response regulator (RR) DivK. DivL uniquely contains a tyrosine at the histidine phosphorylation site, and can achieve these regulatory functions in vivo without kinase activity. Determination of the DivL crystal structure and biochemical analysis of wild-type and site-specific DivL mutants revealed that the DivL PAS domains regulate binding specificity for DivK~P over DivK, which is modulated by an allosteric intramolecular interactionmore » between adjacent domains. We discovered that DivL's catalytic domains have been repurposed as a phosphospecific RR input sensor, thereby reversing the flow of information observed in conventional histidine kinase (HK)-RR systems and coupling a complex network of signaling proteins for cell-fate regulation.« less

  6. Cell fate control by pioneer transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Iwafuchi-Doi, Makiko; Zaret, Kenneth S

    2016-06-01

    Distinct combinations of transcription factors are necessary to elicit cell fate changes in embryonic development. Yet within each group of fate-changing transcription factors, a subset called 'pioneer factors' are dominant in their ability to engage silent, unmarked chromatin and initiate the recruitment of other factors, thereby imparting new function to regulatory DNA sequences. Recent studies have shown that pioneer factors are also crucial for cellular reprogramming and that they are implicated in the marked changes in gene regulatory networks that occur in various cancers. Here, we provide an overview of the contexts in which pioneer factors function, how they can target silent genes, and their limitations at regions of heterochromatin. Understanding how pioneer factors regulate gene expression greatly enhances our understanding of how specific developmental lineages are established as well as how cell fates can be manipulated. PMID:27246709

  7. A minimal fate-selection switch.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Leor S

    2015-12-01

    To preserve fitness in unpredictable, fluctuating environments, a range of biological systems probabilistically generate variant phenotypes--a process often referred to as 'bet-hedging', after the financial practice of diversifying assets to minimize risk in volatile markets. The molecular mechanisms enabling bet-hedging have remained elusive. Here, we review how HIV makes a bet-hedging decision between active replication and proviral latency, a long-lived dormant state that is the chief barrier to an HIV cure. The discovery of a virus-encoded bet-hedging circuit in HIV revealed an ancient evolutionary role for latency and identified core regulatory principles, such as feedback and stochastic 'noise', that enable cell-fate decisions. These core principles were later extended to fate selection in stem cells and cancer, exposed new therapeutic targets for HIV, and led to a potentially broad strategy of using 'noise modulation' to redirect cell fate. PMID:26611210

  8. Steviol glycosides in purified stevia leaf extract sharing the same metabolic fate.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Sidd; Markosyan, Avetik; Prakash, Indra; Bhusari, Sachin; Pugh, George; Lynch, Barry; Roberts, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    The safety of steviol glycosides is based on data available on several individual steviol glycosides and on the terminal absorbed metabolite, steviol. Many more steviol glycosides have been identified, but are not yet included in regulatory assessments. Demonstration that these glycosides share the same metabolic fate would indicate applicability of the same regulatory paradigm. In vitro incubation assays with pooled human fecal homogenates, using rebaudiosides A, B, C, D, E, F and M, as well as steviolbioside and dulcoside A, at two concentrations over 24-48 h, were conducted to assess the metabolic fate of various steviol glycoside classes and to demonstrate that likely all steviol glycosides are metabolized to steviol. The data show that glycosidic side chains containing glucose, rhamnose, xylose, fructose and deoxy-glucose, including combinations of α(1-2), β-1, β(1-2), β(1-3), and β(1-6) linkages, were degraded to steviol mostly within 24 h. Given a common metabolite structure and a shared metabolic fate, safety data available for individual steviol glycosides can be used to support safety of purified steviol glycosides in general. Therefore, steviol glycosides specifications adopted by the regulatory authorities should include all steviol glycosides belonging to the five groups of steviol glycosides and a group acceptable daily intake established. PMID:26924787

  9. Occurrence, fate, behavior and ecotoxicological state of phthalates in different environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Net, Sopheak; Sempéré, Richard; Delmont, Anne; Paluselli, Andrea; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-04-01

    Because of their large and widespread application, phthalates or phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in all the environmental compartements. They have been widely detected throughout the worldwide environment. Indoor air where people spend 65-90% of their time is also highly contaminated by various PAEs released from plastics, consumer products as well as ambient suspended particulate matter. Because of their widespread application, PAEs are the most common chemicals that humans are in contact with daily. Based on various exposure mechanisms, including the ingestion of food, drinking water, dust/soil, air inhalation and dermal exposure the daily intake of PAEs may reach values as high as 70 μg/kg/day. PAEs are involved in endocrine disrupting effects, namely, upon reproductive physiology in different species of fish and mammals. They also present a variety of additional toxic effects for many other species including terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. Therefore, their presence in the environment has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health. This paper is a synthesis of the extensive literature data on behavior, transport, fate and ecotoxicological state of PAEs in environmental matrices: air, water, sediment, sludge, wastewater, soil, and biota. First, the origins and physicochemical properties of PAEs that control the behavior, transport and fate in the environment are reviewed. Second, the compilation of data on transport and fate, adverse environmental and human health effects, legislation, restrictions, and ecotoxicological state of the environment based on PAEs is presented. PMID:25730609

  10. GUIDELINES FOR FIELD TESTING AQUATIC FATE AND TRANSPORT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guidance has been developed for those attempting to field validate aquatic fate and transport models. Included are discussions of the major steps in validating models and sections on the individual fate and transport processes: biodegradation, oxidation, hydrolysis, photolys...

  11. Salt intake and hypertension therapy.

    PubMed

    Milan, Alberto; Mulatero, Paolo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal organ damage. Environmental conditions affect the development of high blood pressure (BP), although genetic influences are also important. Current international guidelines recommend reducing dietary sodium to no more than 100 mmol (about 2.4 g sodium or approximately 6 g salt) per day to prevent BP rising; the current intake of sodium in industrialized countries is approximately double the recommended amount. Clinical trials (DASH and TOHP studies) have shown that dietary factors are fundamental in the prevention and control of BP. Low dietary sodium intake is particularly effective in preventing hypertension in subjects with an increased risk such as the overweight, borderline hypertensives or the elderly. A low-salt diet combined with anti-hypertensive therapies facilitates BP reduction independent of race. The hypotensive effect of calcium channel blockers is less dependent on salt intake than other drugs, such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics. Reduced sodium intake associated with other dietary changes (such as weight loss, and increasing potassium, calcium and magnesium intake) are important instruments for the prevention and therapy of hypertension. PMID:11936420

  12. 40 CFR 158.1300 - Environmental fate data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental fate data requirements table. 158.1300 Section 158.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Environmental Fate § 158.1300 Environmental fate data requirements table. (a) General....

  13. FATE OF COAL NITROGEN DURING COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the burning of 21 coals, covering all ranks and under a wide variety of conditions, to ascertain the impact of coal properties on the fate of fuel nitrogen. Fuel NC was identified by using a nitrogen-free oxidant consisting of Ar/O2/CO2. It was found that fuel...

  14. Fate of glucuronide conjugated estradiol in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive hormone, 17ß-estradiol (E2), is made more water soluble (polar) in the body by attachment of glucuronide acid to E2, facilitating urinary elimination. The fate of this potentially more mobile polar form of E2 is not well understood. Soil sorption studies were conducted using [14C] 1...

  15. Pesticide Fate in a Golf Course Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on the fate of pesticides in a golf course environment was presented to science professionals and golf course personnel at the Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents' Association March Mini-Seminar in Bloomington, MN, on 6 March 2007. Topics presented included: the definition of pesticide...

  16. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  17. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PUBLISHED ENVIRONMENTAL FATE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some of the problems associated with published data on the environmental fate of chemicals are unknown quality/reliability, misquoted numbers, citations from other publications and not the original work, data referenced as unpublished or as personal communication, non-corroborati...

  18. Zebrafish bmp4 functions during late gastrulation to specify ventroposterior cell fates

    PubMed Central

    Stickney, Heather L.; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Draper, Bruce; Moens, Cecilia; Talbot, William S.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key mediators of dorsoventral patterning in vertebrates and are required for the induction of ventral fates in fish and frogs. A widely accepted model of dorsoventral patterning postulates that a morphogenetic BMP activity gradient patterns cell fates along the dorsoventral axis. Recent work in zebrafish suggests that the role of BMP signaling changes over time, with BMPs required for global dorsoventral patterning during early gastrulation and for tail patterning during late gastrulation and early somitogenesis. Key questions remain about the late phase, including which BMP ligands are required and how the functions of BMPs differ during the early and late gastrula stages. In a screen for dominant enhancers of mutations in the homeobox genes vox and vent, which function in parallel to bmp signaling, we identified an insertion mutation in bmp4. We then performed a reverse genetic screen to isolate a null allele of bmp4. We report the characterization of these two alleles and demonstrate that BMP4 is required during the later phase of BMP signaling for the specification of ventroposterior cell fates. Our results indicate that different bmp genes are essential at different stages. In addition, we present genetic evidence supporting a role for a morphogenetic BMP gradient in establishing mesodermal fates during the later phase of BMP signaling. PMID:17727832

  19. INFLUENCE OF COUPLED PROCESSES ON CONTAMINANT FATE AND TRANSPORT IN SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    The following chapter emphasizes subsurface environmental research investigations over the past 10 to 15 years that couple hydrological, geochemical, and biological processes as related to contaminant fate and transport. An attempt is made to focus on field-scale studies with possible reference to laboratory-scale endeavors. Much of the research discussed reflects investigations of the influence of coupled processes on the fate and transport of inorganic, radionuclide, and organic contaminants in subsurface environments as a result of natural processes or energy and weapons production endeavors that required waste disposal. The chapter provides on overview of the interaction between hydro-bio-geochemical processes in structured, heterogeneous subsurface environments and how these interactions control contaminant fate and transport, followed by experimental and numerical subsurface science research and case studies involving specific classes of inorganic and organic contaminants. Lastly, thought provoking insights are highlighted on why the study of subsurface coupled processes is paramount to understanding potential future contaminant fate and transport issues of global concern.

  20. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  1. The fate of scattered planets

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J. E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-12-01

    As gas giant planets evolve, they may scatter other planets far from their original orbits to produce hot Jupiters or rogue planets that are not gravitationally bound to any star. Here, we consider planets cast out to large orbital distances on eccentric, bound orbits through a gaseous disk. With simple numerical models, we show that super-Earths can interact with the gas through dynamical friction to settle in the remote outer regions of a planetary system. Outcomes depend on planet mass, the initial scattered orbit, and the evolution of the time-dependent disk. Efficient orbital damping by dynamical friction requires planets at least as massive as the Earth. More massive, longer-lived disks damp eccentricities more efficiently than less massive, short-lived ones. Transition disks with an expanding inner cavity can circularize orbits at larger distances than disks that experience a global (homologous) decay in surface density. Thus, orbits of remote planets may reveal the evolutionary history of their primordial gas disks. A remote planet with an orbital distance ∼100 AU from the Sun is plausible and might explain correlations in the orbital parameters of several distant trans-Neptunian objects.

  2. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  3. 75 FR 3182 - Intake Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 522 RIN 1120-AB47 Intake Screening AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau... to the Rules Unit, Office of General Counsel, Bureau of Prisons, 320 First Street, NW.,...

  4. Protein intake and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

  5. Risk of retinoblastoma is associated with a maternal polymorphism in dihydrofolatereductase (DHFR) and prenatal folic acid intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of unilateral retinoblastoma varies globally, suggesting possible environmental contributors to disease incidence. Maternal intake of naturally occurring folate from vegetables during pregnancy is associated inversely with the risk of retinoblastoma in offspring. The authors used a ca...

  6. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate.

    PubMed

    Petros, Timothy J; Bultje, Ronald S; Ross, M Elizabeth; Fishell, Gord; Anderson, Stewart A

    2015-11-10

    Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination. PMID:26526999

  7. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ... they eat. Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ...

  8. Modeling the environmental fate of atrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Devillers, J.; Bintein, S.; Domine, D.

    1996-10-01

    Modeling the environmental distribution of organic pollutants from their physicochemical properties is essential for hazard assessment. For this purpose, biosphere is generally divided into a given number of compartments (e.g., air, water, soil) and the physical, chemical, and biological processes involved in the environmental fate of pollutants are defined in terms of mathematical equations. Models are then computed so that an easy and rapid handling is offered. Based on this strategy, CHEMFRANCE, a regional fugacity level III model allowing to calculate the environmental distribution of organic chemicals in France or any user-defined region is well suited for rapid screening analyses. In this study, CHEMFRANCE was used for modeling the environmental fate of atrazine. The simulations were compared with field and laboratory results recorded in Europe and North-America.

  9. Analysis of food intake profile among women from the oasis of southeastern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bidi, Amina; El Bouhali, Bachir; Nasri, Issad; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of women and food intake is known to reflect a healthy diet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on the food intake in women living in the southeastern oasis of Morocco by exploring their nutritional intake through 24-h dietary recall (n=387). Analysis of the relationship between food intake and the socioeconomic characteristics in women showed a positive correlation between daily vegetable, cereals, red and white meat intake and region of residence (p<0.001, p=0.005, p=0.001 and p=0.04 respectively). The number of persons living at home showed a positive significant correlation with the daily intake of vegetables (p=0.01) and beverage (p=0.004). For fish and cereals, a positive significant correlation with the occupation variable has been shown (p=0.04 and p<0.001 respectively). In addition, a positive correlation has been noticed between the daily intake of vegetables, cereals, white meat, and dairy product and family status in housing (p=0.03, p=0.02, p=0.03 and p=0.04 respectively). In conclusion, the level of education, family size and occupation influence the daily intake of food in this region. PMID:26246164

  10. Critical review of mercury fates and contamination in the Arctic tundra ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Poissant, Laurier; Zhang, Hong H; Canário, João; Constant, Philippe

    2008-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in tundra region has raised substantial concerns, especially since the first report of atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) in the Polar Regions. During the past decade, steady progress has been made in the research of Hg cycling in the Polar Regions. This has generated a unique opportunity to survey the whole Arctic in respect to Hg issue and to find out new discoveries. However, there are still considerable knowledge gaps and debates on the fate of Hg in the Arctic and Antarctica, especially regarding the importance and significance of AMDEs vs. net Hg loadings and other processes that burden Hg in the Arctic. Some studies argued that climate warming since the last century has exerted profound effects on the limnology of High Arctic lakes, including substantial increases in autochthonous primary productivity which increased in sedimentary Hg, whereas some others pointed out the importance of the formation and postdeposition crystallographic history of the snow and ice crystals in determining the fate and concentration of mercury in the cryosphere in addition to AMDEs. Is mercury re-emitted back to the atmosphere after AMDEs? Is Hg methylation effective in the Arctic tundra? Where the sources of MeHg are? What is its fate? Is this stimulated by human made? This paper presents a critical review about the fate of Hg in the Arctic tundra, such as pathways and process of Hg delivery into the Arctic ecosystem; Hg concentrations in freshwater and marine ecosystems; Hg concentrations in terrestrial biota; trophic transfer of Hg and bioaccumulation of Hg through food chain. This critical review of mercury fates and contamination in the Arctic tundra ecosystem is assessing the impacts and potential risks of Hg contamination on the health of Arctic people and the global northern environment by highlighting and "perspectiving" the various mercury processes and concentrations found in the Arctic tundra. PMID:18707754

  11. The Fate of the Forest in Brazil, 2000 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, V.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Better understanding the drivers of tropical deforestation is essential to research on global climate change and biodiversity loss, and would be particularly informative to ongoing international climate change negotiations. Geographically explicit maps of post-forest land cover can provide valuable information about the extent and spatial distribution of the major drivers of deforestation. Brazil is the country with the largest extent of tropical forest in the world and the one with the most tropical forest cover loss since the turn of this century. This fate of the forest study aims to determine which land covers have replaced forest cover in Brazil. Using a classification tree algorithm, we determined pasture and cropland extent in areas of forest cover loss in Brazil circa 2012. We used 30 m resolution Landsat data for the 2000-2013 time period as well as tree cover loss data from the Global Forest Change (GFC) maps published by Hansen et al. (2013). The GFC data was used to mask out areas not categorized as forest cover lost between 2000 and 2013. Additionally, the year of loss layer was used to disaggregate pasture and cropland extent by year. Our results comprehensively demonstrate the extent to which pasture is the dominant post-forest land cover in Brazil. More broadly, the product reveals spatiotemporal patterns of forest conversion to pasture and cropland in Brazil, which could lead to a better understanding of the underlying drivers of deforestation.

  12. Redox Regulation of Endothelial Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are present throughout blood vessels and have variable roles in both physiological and pathological settings. EC fate is altered and regulated by several key factors in physiological or pathological conditions. Reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species derived from NAD(P)H oxidases, mitochondria, or nitric oxide-producing enzymes are not only cytotoxic but also compose a signaling network in the redox system. The formation, actions, key molecular interactions, and physiological and pathological relevance of redox signals in ECs remain unclear. We review the identities, sources, and biological actions of oxidants and reductants produced during EC function or dysfunction. Further, we discuss how ECs shape key redox sensors and examine the biological functions, transcriptional responses, and post-translational modifications evoked by the redox system in ECs. We summarize recent findings regarding the mechanisms by which redox signals regulate the fate of ECs and address the outcome of altered EC fate in health and disease. Future studies will examine if the redox biology of ECs can be targeted in pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24633153

  13. SIRT1 and Neural Cell Fate Determination.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yulong; Xu, Le; Xu, Haiwei; Fan, Xiaotang

    2016-07-01

    During the development of the central nervous system (CNS), neurons and glia are derived from multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) undergoing self-renewal. NSC commitment and differentiation are tightly controlled by intrinsic and external regulatory mechanisms in space- and time-related fashions. SIRT1, a silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) ortholog, is expressed in several areas of the brain and has been reported to be involved in the self-renewal, multipotency, and fate determination of NSCs. Recent studies have highlighted the role of the deacetylase activity of SIRT1 in the determination of the final fate of NSCs. This review summarizes the roles of SIRT1 in the expansion and differentiation of NSCs, specification of neuronal subtypes and glial cells, and reprogramming of functional neurons from embryonic stem cells and fibroblasts. This review also discusses potential signaling pathways through which SIRT1 can exhibit versatile functions in NSCs to regulate the cell fate decisions of neurons and glia. PMID:25850787

  14. Specification of germ cell fate in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Saitou, Mitinori; Payer, Bernhard; Lange, Ulrike C; Erhardt, Sylvia; Barton, Sheila C; Surani, M Azim

    2003-01-01

    An early fundamental event during development is the segregation of germ cells from somatic cells. In many organisms, this is accomplished by the inheritance of preformed germ plasm, which apparently imposes transcriptional repression to prevent somatic cell fate. However, in mammals, pluripotent epiblast cells acquire germ cell fate in response to signalling molecules. We have used single cell analysis to study how epiblast cells acquire germ cell competence and undergo specification. Germ cell competent cells express Fragilis and initially progress towards a somatic mesodermal fate. However, a subset of these cells, the future primordial germ cells (PGCs), then shows rapid upregulation of Fragilis with concomitant transcriptional repression of a number of genes, including Hox and Smad genes. This repression may be a key event associated with germ cell specification. Furthermore, PGCs express Stella and other genes, such as Oct-4 that are associated with pluripotency. While these molecules are also detected in mature oocytes as maternally inherited factors, their early role is to regulate development and maintain pluripotency, and they do not serve the role of classical germline determinants. PMID:14511483

  15. A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON INTAKE TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...

  16. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  17. Cell Fate Decision Making through Oriented Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to dictate cell fate decisions is critical during animal development. Moreover, faithful execution of this process ensures proper tissue homeostasis throughout adulthood, whereas defects in the molecular machinery involved may contribute to disease. Evolutionarily conserved protein complexes control cell fate decisions across diverse tissues. Maintaining proper daughter cell inheritance patterns of these determinants during mitosis is therefore a fundamental step of the cell fate decision-making process. In this review, we will discuss two key aspects of this fate determinant segregation activity, cortical cell polarity and mitotic spindle orientation, and how they operate together to produce oriented cell divisions that ultimately influence daughter cell fate. Our focus will be directed at the principal underlying molecular mechanisms and the specific cell fate decisions they have been shown to control. PMID:26844213

  18. Human intake fraction of toxic pollutants: a model comparison between caltox and uses-lca

    SciTech Connect

    Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Geelen, Loes M.J.; Hertwich, Edgar G.; McKone, Thomas E.; van de Meent, Dik

    2004-01-06

    In Life Cycle Assessment and Comparative Risk Assessment potential human exposure to toxic pollutants can be expressed as the human intake fraction (iF), representing the fraction of the quantity emitted that enters the human population. To assess model uncertainty in the human intake fraction, ingestion and inhalation iFs of 367 substances emitted to air and freshwater were calculated with two commonly applied multi-media fate and exposure models, CalTOX and USES-LCA. Comparison of the model outcomes reveal that uncertainty in the ingestion iFs was up to a factor of 70. The uncertainty in the inhalation iFs was up to a factor of 865,000. The comparison showed that relatively few model differences account for the uncertainties found. An optimal model structure in the calculation of human intake fractions can be achieved by including (1) rain and no-rain scenarios, (2) a continental sea water compartment, (3) drinking water purification, (4) pH-correction of chemical properties, and (5) aerosol-associated deposition on plants. Finally, vertical stratification of the soil compartment combined with a chemical-dependent soil depth may be considered in future intake fraction calculations.

  19. Energy metabolism and energy-sensing pathways in mammalian embryonic and adult stem cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Rafalski, Victoria A.; Mancini, Elena; Brunet, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary Metabolism is influenced by age, food intake, and conditions such as diabetes and obesity. How do physiological or pathological metabolic changes influence stem cells, which are crucial for tissue homeostasis? This Commentary reviews recent evidence that stem cells have different metabolic demands than differentiated cells, and that the molecular mechanisms that control stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are functionally connected to the metabolic state of the cell and the surrounding stem cell niche. Furthermore, we present how energy-sensing signaling molecules and metabolism regulators are implicated in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Finally, we discuss the emerging literature on the metabolism of induced pluripotent stem cells and how manipulating metabolic pathways might aid cellular reprogramming. Determining how energy metabolism regulates stem cell fate should shed light on the decline in tissue regeneration that occurs during aging and facilitate the development of therapies for degenerative or metabolic diseases. PMID:23420198

  20. The Atmospheric Fate of Organic Nitrogen Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borduas, Nadine

    Organic nitrogen compounds are present in our atmosphere from biogenic and anthropogenic sources and have impacts on air quality and climate. Due to recent advances in instrumentation, these compounds are being detected in the gas and particle phases, raising questions as to their source, processing and sinks in the environment. With their recently identified role as contributors to aerosol formation and growth, their novel large scale use as solvents in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and their emissions from cigarette smoke, it is now important to address the gaps in our understanding of the fate of organic nitrogen. Experimentally and theoretically, I studied the chemical atmospheric fate of specific organic nitrogen compounds in the amine, amide and isocyanate families, yielding information that can be used in chemical transport models to assess the fate of this emerging class of atmospheric molecules. I performed kinetic laboratory studies in a smog chamber to measure the room temperature rate coefficient for reaction with the hydroxyl radical of monoethanolamine, nicotine, and five different amides. I employed online-mass spectrometry techniques to quantify the oxidation products. I found that amines react quickly with OH radicals with lifetimes of a few hours under sunlit conditions, producing amides as oxidation products. My studies on amides revealed that they have much longer lifetimes in the atmosphere, ranging from a few hours to a week. Photo-oxidation of amides produces isocyanates and I investigated these mechanisms in detail using ab initio calculations. Furthermore, I experimentally measured isocyanic acid's Henry's Law constant as well as its hydrolysis rate constants to better understand its sinks in the atmosphere. Finally, I re-examined the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of organic nitrogen molecules for improved model parameterizations.

  1. Modeling micropollutant fate at the catchment scale: from science to practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seuntjens, P.; Desmet, N.; Holvoet, K.; van Griensven, A.; van Hoey, S.; Tang, X. Y.; Nopens, I.

    2009-04-01

    Micropollutants, such as pesticides, personal care products, veterinary and human pharmaceuticals, pose a possible threat to human and ecological health. Humans and ecosystems may be exposed to these chemicals via the water system. Catchment models can be used to optimise management in view of risk reduction of the chemicals. Along the trajectory of science to practice a number of catchment models are available that simulate the fate and transport of micropollutants. They range from physically-based fully-coupled soil, groundwater, and surface water models, over empirical management models, to purely statistical database-driven models. For assessing effects on ecosystems, models need to be able to predict the observed highly dynamic behaviour of pesticide concentrations in the surface water, since adverse effects will be determined by the number, intensity and frequency of ecological threshold exceedances. For assessing effects on humans, models need to predict the dilution between areas where the pesticide is released and the location of the drinking water intake, sometimes tens or hundreds of kilometres further downstream. We adapted management models to simulate dynamic pesticide behaviour and fate at the catchment scale. The models were also used to illustrate the effects of specific management options on risk reduction and to derive the dominant sources of pollutants in a catchment area. The results show that the concentrations of pesticides in river systems are attributed to (1) fast flow over and in soils or pavements, and to (2) point sources. Therefore, future models for improved estimation of chemical fate at the catchment scale need a combination of stochastic source characterisation, higher spatial resolution and reduced complexity of the mathematical description of fast flow processes. This will be illustrated by recent developments in model simplification coupled to increased spatial detail.

  2. Modelling fate and transport of pesticides in river catchments with drinking water abstractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Nele; Seuntjens, Piet; Touchant, Kaatje

    2010-05-01

    When drinking water is abstracted from surface water, the presence of pesticides may have a large impact on the purification costs. In order to respect imposed thresholds at points of drinking water abstraction in a river catchment, sustainable pesticide management strategies might be required in certain areas. To improve management strategies, a sound understanding of the emission routes, the transport, the environmental fate and the sources of pesticides is needed. However, pesticide monitoring data on which measures are founded, are generally scarce. Data scarcity hampers the interpretation and the decision making. In such a case, a modelling approach can be very useful as a tool to obtain complementary information. Modelling allows to take into account temporal and spatial variability in both discharges and concentrations. In the Netherlands, the Meuse river is used for drinking water abstraction and the government imposes the European drinking water standard for individual pesticides (0.1 ?g.L-1) for surface waters at points of drinking water abstraction. The reported glyphosate concentrations in the Meuse river frequently exceed the standard and this enhances the request for targeted measures. In this study, a model for the Meuse river was developed to estimate the contribution of influxes at the Dutch-Belgian border on the concentration levels detected at the drinking water intake 250 km downstream and to assess the contribution of the tributaries to the glyphosate loads. The effects of glyphosate decay on environmental fate were considered as well. Our results show that the application of a river model allows to asses fate and transport of pesticides in a catchment in spite of monitoring data scarcity. Furthermore, the model provides insight in the contribution of different sub basins to the pollution level. The modelling results indicate that the effect of local measures to reduce pesticides concentrations in the river at points of drinking water

  3. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  4. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  5. An overview of salt intake reduction efforts in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries

    PubMed Central

    Almalt, Elsayed; Alamir, Najeeba; Subhakaran, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Globally, morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing steadily and at an alarming rate. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and salt reduction is an effective measure to decrease mortality rates. In the Eastern Mediterranean region, current salt intake is high, with an average intake of >12 g per person per day. Reducing the intake of salt has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce NCDs. Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) are showing a willingness to comply with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and an eagerness to reduce the burden of NCDs. However, they face some challenges, including lack of political commitment, lack of experience, and shortage of qualified human resources. Salt intake reduction efforts vary in the GCC region, from achieving 20% salt reduction in bread, to the very early stages of planning. PMID:26090327

  6. An overview of salt intake reduction efforts in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries.

    PubMed

    Alhamad, Nawal; Almalt, Elsayed; Alamir, Najeeba; Subhakaran, Monica

    2015-06-01

    Globally, morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing steadily and at an alarming rate. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and salt reduction is an effective measure to decrease mortality rates. In the Eastern Mediterranean region, current salt intake is high, with an average intake of >12 g per person per day. Reducing the intake of salt has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce NCDs. Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) are showing a willingness to comply with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and an eagerness to reduce the burden of NCDs. However, they face some challenges, including lack of political commitment, lack of experience, and shortage of qualified human resources. Salt intake reduction efforts vary in the GCC region, from achieving 20% salt reduction in bread, to the very early stages of planning. PMID:26090327

  7. Investigating Student Ideas About the Fate of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlon, Mallory; Coble, Kimberly A.; Bailey, Janelle M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2015-01-01

    Data from recent surveys have enabled astronomers to precisely quantify the composition of the Universe, though the nature of its primary component, dark energy, remains a mystery. The evolution of dark energy and how it might impact the Universe in the future is an area of intense study. As astronomers further develop an understanding of the fate of the Universe, it is essential to study student ideas on this fate so that instructors can communicate the field's current status and its underpinnings more effectively to their students. In this study, we examine undergraduate students' pre-instruction ideas of the fate of the Universe in twelve semester-long courses at four institutions. We also examine ideas about the fate of the Universe as undergraduate students progress through an introductory or advanced astronomy course at two institutions. The data include pre-course surveys given during the first week of instruction [N=291], midterm and final exam questions [N=58], post-course surveys [N=26], and student interviews [N=7]. We find that, though the term was not necessarily used, students that respond tend to describe a 'big freeze' scenario in the pre-course surveys. Students mention the Universe's expansion when describing how we know the fate of the Universe but do not discuss how we know the Universe is expanding or the relationship between expansion and the fate of the Universe. We also find that students discuss the fate of the solar system or the galaxy in the pre-course surveys instead of the fate of the Universe, suggesting conflation of the Universe with the solar system or the galaxy. At the end of the course, we find that students continue to describe a 'big freeze' scenario and fail to explain how we determine the fate of the Universe. We also find that student tendency to discuss the fate of the solar system or galaxy instead of the fate of the Universe is diminished by the end of the course.

  8. Fate of HERS during Tooth Root Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaofeng; Bringas, Pablo; Slavkin, Harold C.; Chai, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Tooth root development begins after the completion of crown formation in mammals. Previous studies have shown that Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) plays an important role in root development, but the fate of HERS has remained unknown. In order to investigate the morphological fate and analyze the dynamic movement of HERS cells in vivo, we generated K14-Cre;R26R mice. HERS cells are detectable on the surface of the root throughout root formation and do not disappear. Most of the HERS cells are attached to the surface of the cementum, and others separate to become the epithelial rest of Malasez. HERS cells secrete extracellular matrix components onto the surface of the dentin before dental follicle cells penetrate the HERS network to contact dentin. HERS cells also participate in the cementum development and may differentiate into cementocytes. During root development, the HERS is not interrupted, and instead the HERS cells continue to communicate with each other through the network structure. Furthermore, HERS cells interact with cranial neural crest derived mesenchyme to guide root development. Taken together, the network of HERS cells is crucial for tooth root development. PMID:19576204

  9. Cell fate regulation in early mammalian development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Efrat; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-08-01

    Preimplantation development in mammals encompasses a period from fertilization to implantation and results in formation of a blastocyst composed of three distinct cell lineages: epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. The epiblast gives rise to the organism, while the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm contribute to extraembryonic tissues that support embryo development after implantation. In many vertebrates, such as frog or fish, maternally supplied lineage determinants are partitioned within the egg. Cell cleavage that follows fertilization results in polarization of these factors between the individual blastomeres, which become restricted in their developmental fate. In contrast, the mouse oocyte and zygote lack clear polarity and, until the eight-cell stage, individual blastomeres retain the potential to form all lineages. How are cell lineages specified in the absence of a maternally supplied blueprint? This is a fundamental question in the field of developmental biology. The answer to this question lies in understanding the cell-cell interactions and gene networks involved in embryonic development prior to implantation and using this knowledge to create testable models of the developmental processes that govern cell fates. We provide an overview of classic and contemporary models of early lineage development in the mouse and discuss the emerging body of work that highlights similarities and differences between blastocyst development in the mouse and other mammalian species.

  10. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Astrocytic Fate and Function

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuang; Yang, Silei; Holsboer, Florian; Sousa, Nuno; Almeida, Osborne F. X.

    2011-01-01

    Glial loss in the hippocampus has been suggested as a factor in the pathogenesis of stress-related brain disorders that are characterized by dysregulated glucocorticoid (GC) secretion. However, little is known about the regulation of astrocytic fate by GC. Here, we show that astrocytes derived from the rat hippocampus undergo growth inhibition and display moderate activation of caspase 3 after exposure to GC. Importantly, the latter event, observed both in situ and in primary astrocytic cultures is not followed by either early- or late-stage apoptosis, as monitored by stage I or stage II DNA fragmentation. Thus, unlike hippocampal granule neurons, astrocytes are resistant to GC-induced apoptosis; this resistance is due to lower production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a greater buffering capacity against the cytotoxic actions of ROS. We also show that GC influence hippocampal cell fate by inducing the expression of astrocyte-derived growth factors implicated in the control of neural precursor cell proliferation. Together, our results suggest that GC instigate a hitherto unknown dialog between astrocytes and neural progenitors, adding a new facet to understanding how GC influence the cytoarchitecture of the hippocampus. PMID:21811605

  11. Autophagy: controlling cell fate in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rockel, Jason S; Kapoor, Mohit

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy, an endogenous process necessary for the turnover of organelles, maintains cellular homeostasis and directs cell fate. Alterations to the regulation of autophagy contribute to the progression of various rheumatic diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Implicit in the progression of these diseases are cell-type-specific responses to surrounding factors that alter autophagy: chondrocytes within articular cartilage show decreased autophagy in OA, leading to rapid cell death and cartilage degeneration; fibroblasts from patients with SSc have restricted autophagy, similar to that seen in aged dermal fibroblasts; fibroblast-like synoviocytes from RA joints show altered autophagy, which contributes to synovial hyperplasia; and dysregulation of autophagy in haematopoietic lineage cells alters their function and maturation in SLE. Various upstream mechanisms also contribute to these diseases by regulating autophagy as part of their signalling cascades. In this Review, we discuss the links between autophagy, immune responses, fibrosis and cellular fates as they relate to pathologies associated with rheumatic diseases. Therapies in clinical use, and in preclinical or clinical development, are also discussed in relation to their effects on autophagy in rheumatic diseases. PMID:27334205

  12. Fate dynamics of environmentally exposed explosive traces.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Roderick R; Gregory, Kerin E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Clark, Michelle L; Ostrinskaya, Alla; Fountain, Augustus W

    2012-04-12

    The chemical and physical fates of trace amounts (<50 μg) of explosives containing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were determined for the purpose of informing the capabilities of tactical trace explosive detection systems. From these measurements, it was found that the mass decreases and the chemical composition changes on a time scale of hours, with the loss mechanism due to a combination of sublimation and photodegradation. The rates for these processes were dependent on the explosive composition, as well as on both the ambient temperature and the size distribution of the explosive particulates. From these results, a persistence model was developed and applied to model the time dependence of both the mass and areal coverage of the fingerprints, resulting in a predictive capability for determining fingerprint fate. Chemical analysis confirmed that sublimation rates for TNT were depressed by UV (330-400 nm) exposure due to photochemically driven increases in the molecular weight, whereas the opposite was observed for RDX. No changes were observed for PETN upon exposure to UV radiation, and this was attributed to its low UV absorbance. PMID:22424334

  13. Mechanical Modulation of Osteochondroprogenitor Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Knothe Tate, Melissa L.; Falls, Thomas D.; McBride, Sarah H.; Atit, Radhika; Knothe, Ulf R.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal cells are natural tissue builders. They exhibit an extraordinary capacity to metamorphize into differentiated cells, using extrinsic spatial and temporal inputs and intrinsic algorithms, as well as to build and adapt their own habitat. In addition to providing a habitat for osteoprogenitor cells, tissues of the skeletal system provide mechanical support and protection for the multiple organs of vertebrate organisms. This review examines the role of mechanics on determination of cell fate during pre-, peri- and postnatal development of the skeleton as well as during tissue genesis and repair in postnatal life. The role of cell mechanics is examined and brought into context of intrinsic cues during mesenchymal condensation. Remarkable new insights regarding structure function relationships in mesenchymal stem cells, and their influence on determination of cell fate are integrated in the context of de novo tissue generation and postnatal repair. Key differences in the formation of osteogenic and chondrogenic condensations are discussed in relation to direct intramembranous and indirect endochondral ossification. New approaches are discussed to elucidate and exploit extrinsic cues to generate tissues in the laboratory and in the clinic. PMID:18620888

  14. Floating intake reduces pump damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kronig, A.

    1993-12-31

    The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

  15. Pharmaceuticals in soils of lower income countries: Physico-chemical fate and risks from wastewater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Lees, Katherine; Fitzsimons, Mark; Snape, Jason; Tappin, Alan; Comber, Sean

    2016-09-01

    Population growth, increasing affluence, and greater access to medicines have led to an increase in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) entering sewerage networks. In areas with high wastewater reuse, residual quantities of APIs may enter soils via irrigation with treated, partially treated, or untreated wastewater and sludge. Wastewater used for irrigation is currently not included in chemical environmental risk assessments and requires further consideration in areas with high water reuse. This study critically assesses the contemporary understanding of the occurrence and fate of APIs in soils of low and lower-middle income countries (LLMIC) in order to contribute to the development of risk assessments for APIs in LLMIC. The physico-chemical properties of APIs and soils vary greatly globally, impacting on API fate, bioaccumulation and toxicity. The impact of pH, clay and organic matter on the fate of organic ionisable compounds is discussed in detail. This study highlights the occurrence and the partitioning and degradation coefficients for APIs in soil:porewater systems, API usage data in LLMICS and removal rates (where used) within sewage treatment plants as key areas where data are required in order to inform robust environmental risk assessment methodologies. PMID:27349834

  16. Fate of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Sokichi; Adachi, Fumie; Miyano, Keiichi; Koizumi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Isao; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-07-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been recognized as global environmental pollutants. Although PFOS and PFOA have been detected in tap water from Japan and several other countries, very few studies have examined the fate, especially removal, of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water treatment processes. In this study, we analyzed PFOS and PFOA at every stages of drinking water treatment processes in several water purification plants that employ advanced water treatment technologies. PFOS and PFOA concentrations did not vary considerably in raw water, sand filtered water, settled water, and ozonated water. Sand filtration and ozonation did not have an effect on the removal of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water. PFOS and PFOA were removed effectively by activated carbon that had been used for less than one year. However, activated carbon that had been used for a longer period of time (>1 year) was not effective in removing PFOS and PFOA from water. Variations in the removal ratios of PFOS and PFOA by activated carbon were found between summer and winter months. PMID:21628066

  17. The Fate of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies: An Environmental Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Steven

    2003-07-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies {LCBGs} are the most rapidly evolving galaxy population between 0.4 < z < 1.0. Despite their small sizes of 2-3 kpc, LCBGs are powerful engines of star formation that dominate the global SFR over that redshift regime. They appear to be a link between local, low-mass HII galaxies and high-z, high-luminosity Lyman Break galaxies. As such, LCBGs may provide an important test of hierarchical structure-formation scenarios. Currently, a debate rages over what LCBGs are: Are we seeing proto-spheroidals or the formation of spiral bulges? We propose to identify a sample of LCBGs in 10 intermediate-z clusters areas from Archive WFPC2 images through photometric structural measurements {e.g., surface brightness, size, and concentration}. These galaxies cannot be resolved in ground-based images. We then will measure the relative number densities and photometric properties of LCBGs in clusters and the field. By combining this comparison with what we know about the morphology-density relationship today, we will gain new insight on the ultimate fate of LCBGs and the differences between galaxy evolution in field and cluster environments. The WFPC2 data, combined with our deep multi-color, ground-based imaging from the WIYN 3.5m telescope will provide the largest data set of intermediate-z LCBGs to date.

  18. FATE AND TRANSPORT OF MTBE AND OTHER GASOLINE COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter reviews the processes and interactions that control the transport and fate of MTBE and TBA in the subsurface. It describes the transport and fate of vapors of MTBE in the unsaturated zone, the partitioning of MTBE from gasoline spills directly into water, and t...

  19. Metabolic fate of dietary carnitine in human adults: Identification and quantification of urinary and fecal metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Rebouche, C.J.; Chenard, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Results of kinetic and pharmacokinetic studies have suggested that dietary carnitine is not totally absorbed and is in part degraded in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. To determine the metabolic fate of dietary carnitine in humans, we administered orally a tracer dose of methyl-{sup 3}H L-carnitine with a meal to subjects who had been adapted to a low-carnitine diet or a high-carnitine diet. Urinary and fecal excretion of radiolabeled carnitine and metabolites was monitored for 5 to 11 d following administration of the test dose. Total radioactive metabolites excreted ranged from 13 to 34% (low carnitine diet) and 27 to 46% (high carnitine diet) of the ingested tracer. Major metabolites found were ({sup 3}H)trimethylamine N-oxide (8 to 39% of the administered dose; excreted primarily in urine) and ({sup 3}H)gamma-butyrobetaine (0.09 to 8% of the administered dose; excreted primarily in feces). Urinary excretion of total carnitine was 42 to 95% (high carnitine diet) and 190 to 364% (low carnitine diet) of intake. These results indicate that oral carnitine is 54 to 87% bioavailable from normal Western diets; the percentage of intake absorbed is related to the quantity ingested.

  20. Zebrafish small molecule screen in reprogramming/cell fate modulation

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Kathleen M.; Yeh, Jing-Ruey J.

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic zebrafish have long been used for lineage tracing studies. In zebrafish embryos, the cell fate identities can be determined by whole-mount in situ hybridization, or by visualization of live embryos if using fluorescent reporter lines. We use embryonic zebrafish to study the effects of a leukemic oncogene AML1-ETO on modulating hematopoietic cell fate. Induced expression of AML1-ETO is able to efficiently reprogram hematopoietic progenitor cells from erythroid to myeloid cell fate. Using the zebrafish model of AML1-ETO, we performed a chemical screen to identify small molecules that suppress the cell fate switch in the presence of AML1-ETO. The methods discussed herein may be broadly applicable for identifying small molecules that modulate other cell fate decisions. PMID:20336532

  1. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  2. Performance of statistical methods to correct food intake distribution: comparison between observed and estimated usual intake.

    PubMed

    Verly-Jr, Eliseu; Oliveira, Dayan C R S; Fisberg, Regina M; Marchioni, Dirce Maria L

    2016-09-01

    There are statistical methods that remove the within-person random error and estimate the usual intake when there is a second 24-h recall (24HR) for at least a subsample of the study population. We aimed to compare the distribution of usual food intake estimated by statistical models with the distribution of observed usual intake. A total of 302 individuals from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) answered twenty, non-consecutive 24HR; the average length of follow-up was 3 months. The usual food intake was considered as the average of the 20 collection days of food intake. Using data sets with a pair of 2 collection days, usual percentiles of intake of the selected foods using two methods were estimated (National Cancer Institute (NCI) method and Multiple Source Method (MSM)). These estimates were compared with the percentiles of the observed usual intake. Selected foods comprised a range of parameter distributions: skewness, percentage of zero intakes and within- and between-person intakes. Both methods performed well but failed in some situations. In most cases, NCI and MSM produced similar percentiles between each other and values very close to the true intake, and they better represented the usual intake compared with 2-d mean. The smallest precision was observed in the upper tail of the distribution. In spite of the underestimation and overestimation of percentiles of intake, from a public health standpoint, these biases appear not to be of major concern. PMID:27523187

  3. Sodium intake, RAAS-blockade and progressive renal disease.

    PubMed

    de Borst, Martin H; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers is the current standard treatment to prevent progressive renal function loss in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet in many patients the renal protective effect of RAAS-blockade is incomplete. Short-term clinical studies have demonstrated that dietary sodium restriction potentiates the antiproteinuric effect of RAAS-blockade. More recently, it was shown that this effect is accompanied by a lower risk of end-stage renal disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The modulation of RAAS-blockade efficacy by sodium intake is likely multifactorial, and is mediated by effects of sodium on local tissue RAAS in kidney, vasculature and brain, and by effects on the immune system. Despite the evidence showing the beneficial effects of even a moderate sodium restriction (∼2.5g/d), it remains difficult to realize in clinical practice. In an analysis based on 24-h urinary sodium excretion data from more than 10,000 CKD patients and renal transplant recipients, we found that sodium intake in these patients is on average 3.8g/d, closely resembling the global general population (3.95g/d). Behavioral approaches including the use of online dietary coaching (ehealth) and feedback using data from 24-h urine collections may be useful to successfully lower dietary sodium intake, aiming to improve cardio-renal outcomes in patients with CKD. PMID:27041482

  4. The principle of locality: Effectiveness, fate, and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Doplicher, Sergio

    2010-01-15

    The special theory of relativity and quantum mechanics merge in the key principle of quantum field theory, the principle of locality. We review some examples of its 'unreasonable effectiveness' in giving rise to most of the conceptual and structural frame of quantum field theory, especially in the absence of massless particles. This effectiveness shows up best in the formulation of quantum field theory in terms of operator algebras of local observables; this formulation is successful in digging out the roots of global gauge invariance, through the analysis of superselection structure and statistics, in the structure of the local observable quantities alone, at least for purely massive theories; but so far it seems unfit to cope with the principle of local gauge invariance. This problem emerges also if one attempts to figure out the fate of the principle of locality in theories describing the gravitational forces between elementary particles as well. An approach based on the need to keep an operational meaning, in terms of localization of events, of the notion of space-time, shows that, in the small, the latter must loose any meaning as a classical pseudo-Riemannian manifold, locally based on Minkowski space, but should acquire a quantum structure at the Planck scale. We review the geometry of a basic model of quantum space-time and some attempts to formulate interaction of quantum fields on quantum space-time. The principle of locality is necessarily lost at the Planck scale, and it is a crucial open problem to unravel a replacement in such theories which is equally mathematically sharp, namely, a principle where the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics merge, which reduces to the principle of locality at larger scales. Besides exploring its fate, many challenges for the principle of locality remain; among them, the analysis of superselection structure and statistics also in the presence of massless particles, and to give a precise mathematical

  5. Plant uptake of pesticides and human health: dynamic modeling of residues in wheat and ingestion intake.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Charles, Raphaël; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Human intake of pesticide residues from consumption of processed food plays an important role for evaluating current agricultural practice. We take advantage of latest developments in crop-specific plant uptake modeling and propose an innovative dynamic model to estimate pesticide residues in the wheat-environment system, dynamiCROP. We used this model to analyze uptake and translocation of pesticides in wheat after foliar spray application and subsequent intake fractions by humans. Based on the evolution of residues in edible parts of harvested wheat we predict that between 22 mg and 2.1 g per kg applied pesticide are taken in by humans via consumption of processed wheat products. Model results were compared with experimentally derived concentrations in wheat ears and with estimated intake via inhalation and ingestion caused by indirect emissions, i.e. the amount lost to the environment during pesticide application. Modeled and measured concentrations in wheat fitted very well and deviate from less than a factor 1.5 for chlorothalonil to a maximum factor 3 for tebuconazole. Main aspects influencing pesticide fate behavior are degradation half-life in plant and time between pesticide application and crop harvest, leading to variations in harvest fraction of at least three orders of magnitude. Food processing may further reduce residues by approximately 63%. Intake fractions from residues in sprayed wheat were up to four orders of magnitude higher than intake fractions estimated from indirect emissions, thereby demonstrating the importance of exposure from consumption of food crops after direct pesticide treatment. PMID:21955352

  6. Jet engine air intake system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An axisymmetric air intake system for a jet aircraft engine comprising a fixed cowl extending outwardly from the face of the engine, a centerbody coaxially disposed within the cowl, and an actuator for axially displacing the centerbody within the cowl was developed. The cowl and centerbody define a main airflow passageway therebetween, the configuration of which is changed by displacement of the centerbody. The centerbody includes a forwardly-located closeable air inlet which communicates with a centerbody auxiliary airflow passageway to provide auxiliary airflow to the engine. In one embodiment, a system for opening and closing the centerbody air inlet is provided by a dual-member centerbody, the forward member of which may be displaced axially with respect to the aft member.

  7. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783

  8. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783

  9. Cell Fate Decisions During Breast Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Kayla; Wronski, Ania; Skibinski, Adam; Phillips, Sarah; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    During the formation of breast cancer, many genes become altered as cells evolve progressively from normal to a pre-malignant to a malignant state of growth. How mutations in genes lead to specific subtypes of human breast cancer is only partially understood. Here we review how initial genetic or epigenetic alterations within mammary epithelial cells (MECs) can alter cell fate decisions and put pre-malignant cells on a path towards cancer development with specific phenotypes. Understanding the early stages of breast cancer initiation and progression and how normal developmental processes are hijacked during transformation has significant implications for improving early detection and prevention of breast cancer. In addition, insights gleaned from this understanding may also be important for developing subtype-specific treatment options. PMID:27110512

  10. A D Sakharov: personality and fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritus, Vladimir I.

    2012-02-01

    A D Sakharov was an amazingly gifted person for whom, with his combined talents as a physicist and inventor, "physical laws and the relation among phenomena were directly visualized and tangible in all their inherent simplicity" (I E Tamm). The author of the key ideas involved in the hydrogen weapons and fusion reactor programs, and well aware of his scientific and public status, Sakharov was, nevertheless, a modest and highly decent man, always trustful of people in discussing their or his problems. Although his greatest satisfaction lay in successfully solving fundamental problems in physics and cosmology, fate and duty made him turn to matters of universal human significance, particularly human rights, to the gruelling struggle to which he devoted many years of his life.

  11. Designing Biomaterials To Direct Stem Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Chaenyung; Liechty, William B.; Khademhosseini, Ali; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    As stem cells are a cornerstone of regenerative medicine, research efforts have been extensively focused on controlling their self-renewal and differentiation. It is well known that stem cells are tightly regulated by a combination of physical and chemical factors from their complex extracellular surroundings; thus, conventional cell culture approaches based purely on using soluble factors to direct stem cell fate have resulted in limited success. To account for the complexities of native stem-cell niches, biomaterials are actively investigated as artificial extracellular matrices in order to mimic the natural microenvironment. This Perspective highlights important areas related to the design of biomaterials to control stem cell behavior, such as cell-responsive ligands, mechanical signals, and delivery of soluble factors. PMID:23136849

  12. Designing biomaterials to direct stem cell fate.

    PubMed

    Cha, Chaenyung; Liechty, William B; Khademhosseini, Ali; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2012-11-27

    As stem cells are a cornerstone of regenerative medicine, research efforts have been extensively focused on controlling their self-renewal and differentiation. It is well-known that stem cells are tightly regulated by a combination of physical and chemical factors from their complex extracellular surroundings; thus, conventional cell culture approaches based purely on using soluble factors to direct stem cell fate have resulted in limited success. To account for the complexities of native stem-cell niches, biomaterials are actively investigated as artificial extracellular matrices in order to mimic the natural microenvironment. This Perspective highlights important areas related to the design of biomaterials to control stem cell behavior, such as cell-responsive ligands, mechanical signals, and delivery of soluble factors. PMID:23136849

  13. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved. PMID:21401094

  14. Fibronectin mediates mesendodermal cell fate decisions

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Paul; Andersen, Peter; Hassel, David; Kaynak, Bogac L.; Limphong, Pattraranee; Juergensen, Lonny; Kwon, Chulan; Srivastava, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Non-cell-autonomous signals often play crucial roles in cell fate decisions during animal development. Reciprocal signaling between endoderm and mesoderm is vital for embryonic development, yet the key signals and mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that endodermal cells efficiently promote the emergence of mesodermal cells in the neighboring population through signals containing an essential short-range component. The endoderm-mesoderm interaction promoted precardiac mesoderm formation in mouse embryonic stem cells and involved endodermal production of fibronectin. In vivo, fibronectin deficiency resulted in a dramatic reduction of mesoderm accompanied by endodermal expansion in zebrafish embryos. This event was mediated by regulation of Wnt signaling in mesodermal cells through activation of integrin-β1. Our findings highlight the importance of the extracellular matrix in mediating short-range signals and reveal a novel function of endoderm, involving fibronectin and its downstream signaling cascades, in promoting the emergence of mesoderm. PMID:23715551

  15. On the fate of ingested Bacillus spores.

    PubMed

    Spinosa, M R; Braccini, T; Ricca, E; De Felice, M; Morelli, L; Pozzi, G; Oggioni, M R

    2000-06-01

    Spores of various Bacillus species, including B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. clausii, are used as probiotics, although they are generally absent from the normal microflora of man. We used two nonpathogenic Bacillus species, B. subtilis and B. clausii, to follow the fate of spores inoculated intragastrically in mice. We did not find detectable amounts of vegetative cells in intestinal samples, probably because of high toxicity of the conjugated bile salt taurodeoxycholic acid against Bacillus species. Both spores and cells were detected in the lymph nodes and spleen of one mouse. Our results indicate that Bacillus is present in the intestinal tract solely as spores and that nonpathogenic Bacillus spores may germinate in lymphoid organs, a finding reminiscent of B. anthracis germination in macrophages. These results indicate that any claimed probiotic effect of B. subtilis should be due to spores or, alternatively, to vegetative growth outside the intestine. PMID:10919516

  16. Motorcycle with closeable engine intake exhaust passages

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuta, H.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuchida, N.

    1984-03-06

    An intake and exhaust system for a compact motorcycle including a valve arrangement for closing both the intake and exhaust systems so as to preclude the excape of fuel vapors to the surrounding area when the motorcycle is not in use.

  17. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health. PMID:24784464

  18. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R; Dalsgaard, Trine K; Bertram, Hanne C

    2015-06-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  19. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R.; Dalsgaard, Trine K.; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  20. Trans fatty acid intake and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Megan E; Lee, Jerry W; Morton, Kelly R; Tonstad, Serena

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether there is a relationship between trans fatty acid intakes and emotion regulation, mediated by positive or negative affect. Archival data on 1699 men and 3293 women were used to measure trans fatty acid intake at baseline, positive, and negative affects and emotion regulation at follow-up. Higher trans fatty acid intake related to subsequent difficulties with emotional awareness (p = 0.045), clarity (p = 0.012), and regulation strategies (p = 0.009). Affect mediated these relationships. Lower trans fatty acid intake associated with increased positive and decreased negative affects which, in turn, associated with improved emotion regulation. Trans fatty acid intakes may be associated with subsequent ability to regulate emotions. PMID:26032795

  1. Rapid assessment of dietary calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Nordblad, Mikaela; Graham, Fiona; Mughal, M Zulf; Padidela, Raja

    2016-07-01

    A five-food item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-day food diary (3DFD) were used to estimate daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake in 32 patients aged 1-17 years. Median and IQR of Ca intake from 3DFD was 840 mg and 438 mg while from FFQ it was 700 mg and 987 mg, respectively. The non-parametrical Bland-Altman limits of agreement plot between two methods showed that most of the values fell between the limits of agreement at +794 mg and -388 mg. The FFQ had a specificity of 93% in identifying children who consumed inadequate amount of dietary Ca and a sensitivity of 78% in identifying children whose dietary Ca intake exceeded UK's Reference Nutrient Intake. Thus the FFQ allows rapid estimation of children with low daily dietary Ca intake in the clinic setting; however it does not replace 3DFD. PMID:26662924

  2. Intake fraction for the indoor environment: a tool for prioritizing indoor chemical sources.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E; Bennett, Deborah H

    2012-09-18

    Reliable exposure-based chemical characterization tools are needed to evaluate and prioritize in a rapid and efficient manner the more than tens of thousands of chemicals in current use. This study applies intake fraction (iF), the integrated incremental intake of a chemical per unit of emission, for a suite of indoor released compounds. A fugacity-based indoor mass-balance model was used to simulate the fate and transport of chemicals for three release scenarios: direct emissions to room air and surface applications to carpet and vinyl. Exposure through inhalation, dermal uptake, and nondietary ingestion was estimated. To compute iF, cumulative intake was summed from all exposure pathways for 20 years based on a scenario with two adults and a 1-year-old child who ages through the simulation. Overall iFs vary by application modes: air release (3.1 × 10(-3) to 6.3 × 10(-3)), carpet application (3.8 × 10(-5) to 6.2 × 10(-3)), and vinyl application (9.0 × 10(-5) to 1.8 × 10(-2)). These iF values serve as initial estimates that offer important insights on variations among chemicals and the potential relative contribution of each pathway over a suite of compounds. The approach from this study is intended for exposure-based prioritization of chemicals released inside homes. PMID:22920860

  3. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Doets, Esmée L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Szczecińska, Anna; Dullemeijer, Carla; Souverein, Olga W; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Brzozowska, Anna; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 μg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function should be considered for underpinning vitamin B12 recommendations in the future. The authors summarized dose-response evidence from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on the relation of vitamin B12 intake and status with cognitive function in adults and elderly people. Two randomized controlled trials and 6 cohort studies showed no association or inconsistent associations between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that serum/plasma vitamin B12 (50 pmol/L) was not associated with risk of dementia (4 cohort studies), global cognition z scores (4 cohort studies), or memory z scores (4 cohort studies). Although dose-response evidence on sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status (methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin) was scarce, 4 of 5 cohort studies reported significant associations with risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or global cognition. Current evidence on the relation between vitamin B12 intake or status and cognitive function is not sufficient for consideration in the development of vitamin B12 recommendations. Further studies should consider the selection of sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status. PMID:23221971

  4. Nutrient intake: A cross-national analysis of trends and economic correlates.

    PubMed

    Dave, Dhaval; Doytch, Nadia; Kelly, Inas Rashad

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is a key input in the health production function, and a better understanding of how we eat can aid in guiding effective policy change towards better population health. This study documents prevalence rates, trends in, and potential correlates of nutrient intake for panels of countries, categorized by geographical regions and levels of development. We assemble data from 209 countries, spanning 51 years (1961-2011), based on original data compilations using 960 country-years for BMI, 370 country-years for glucose, and 321 country-years for cholesterol. Our estimates inform the nature and scope of nutrient intake on a global scale, and contribute towards an understanding of the drivers of the general upward trend in food intake and obesity. The cross-national trends, across countries spanning the spectrum of economic development and geographic regions, suggest that simply analyzing aggregate caloric intake masks the heterogeneity in trends for the various food groups. Food groups analyzed include cereals, sugars and sweeteners, vegetable oils, meat, starch, milk, fruits, animal fats, alcoholic beverages, oil crops, pulses, vegetables, fish, and eggs. Fixed effects regression analyses reveal that caloric intake is strongly associated with hunger depth, body mass index, cholesterol levels, and glucose levels. Moreover, changes in real GDP per capita, labor force participation, and health care inputs in a nation can partly explain the increase in caloric intake. We note that substantial heterogeneity remains. PMID:27161358

  5. Fate of excess sulfur in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rennenberg, H.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms which have evolved in higher plants to cope with excess sulfur in their environments are reviewed. Survival in a sulfur-rich environment is seldom achieved through avoidance of the intake of sulfur. The presence of excess sulfur in the soil or in the air usually results in an intake of excess sulfur into plants. An immediate injury by the excess sulfur taken up is, however, prevented by a series of metabolic processes. Storage of excess sulfur in a metabolically inactive compartment, i.e. the vacuole, appears to occur in most plants. The finding of a storage of glutathione is several investigations suggests that with increasing accumulation of sulfate its reduction also increases. Under these conditions the cysteine concentration in different compartments of the cell may still be maintained at a low level by the incorporation of the excess cysteine synthesized into glutathione. This peptide appears to be the storage form of reduced sulfur in higher plants. 167 references, 2 figures.

  6. Fate of the Amazon River dissolved organic matter in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Patricia M.; Seidel, Michael; Ward, Nicholas D.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Gomes, Helga R.; Niggemann, Jutta; Krusche, Alex V.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Yager, Patricia L.; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2015-05-01

    Constraining the fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) delivered by rivers is a key to understand the global carbon cycle, since DOM mineralization directly influences air-sea CO2 exchange and multiple biogeochemical processes. The Amazon River exports large amounts of DOM, and yet the fate of this material in the ocean remains unclear. Here we investigate the molecular composition and transformations of DOM in the Amazon River-ocean continuum using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and geochemical and biological tracers. We show that there is a strong gradient in source and composition of DOM along the continuum, and that dilution of riverine DOM in the ocean is the dominant pattern of variability in the system. Alterations in DOM composition are observed in the plume associated with the addition of new organic compounds by phytoplankton and with bacterial and photochemical transformations. The relative importance of each of these drivers varies spatially and is modulated by seasonal variations in river discharge and ocean circulation. We further show that a large fraction (50-76%) of the Amazon River DOM is surprisingly stable in the coastal ocean. This results in a globally significant river plume with a strong terrigenous signature and in substantial export of terrestrially derived organic carbon from the continental margin, where it can be entrained in the large-scale circulation and potentially contribute to the long-term storage of terrigenous production and to the recalcitrant carbon pool found in the deep ocean.

  7. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. PMID:25984741

  8. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition. PMID:12949379

  9. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  10. Nicotine intake by snuff users.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Devitt, G; Feyerabend, C

    1981-01-01

    Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in plasma nicotine concentrations averaged 77.7 and 12.3 nmol/l (12.6 and 2.0 ng/ml) respectively, while the novices showed no appreciable increase. The increase shown by thea daily snuffers was comparable to the average increase of 62.3 nmol/l (10.1 ng/ml) obtained from a single cigarette by a group of heavy smokers. The peak nicotine concentrations in the daily snuffers were also similar to the peak values in 136 heavy smokers--222.6 and 226-3 nmol/l (36.1 and 36.7 ng/ml), respectively. Unusual multiple-dose snuffing produced massive increases in plasma nicotine to concentrations that have never been recorded in smokers. The similarity of the concentrations produced by regular daily snuffing and regular daily smoking suggests that the plasma nicotine concentration has some controlling influence over the self-regulation of these two quite different forms of tobacco use. The rapid absorption of nicotine from snuff confirms its potential as an acceptable and relatively harmless substitute for smoking. PMID:6794710

  11. Macronutrient intake, plasma large neutral amino acids and mood during weight-reducing diets.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, U; Laessle, R; Kittl, S; Dickhaut, B; Schweiger, M; Pirke, K M

    1986-01-01

    Influence of diet composition on mood during weight-reducing diets was studied in healthy young women of normal weight. A broad range of macronutrient intake was achieved by means of divergent dietary instructions for the composition of a 1,000 kcal per day diet adhered to for six weeks. Global mood during the last three weeks of the diet was significantly better in the "vegetarian" than in the "mixed" diet group. During this time a significant correlation was observed between relative carbohydrate intake and global mood (r = -0.74; p less than 0.01) and between the ratio of plasma tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (a predictor of tryptophan flow into brain) and global mood (r = -0.52; p less than 0.05). Results suggest that group differences are related to differences in carbohydrate intake. It is hypothesized that impairment of central serotonergic function due to reduced tryptophan availability can prompt mood deterioration in situations of relatively low carbohydrate intake. PMID:3783150

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Lori G. Kays

    2000-05-01

    Burial of amine reclaimer unit sludges and system filters has resulted in contamination of soil at the CanOxy Okotoks decommissioned sour gas-processing plant with amines, amine byproducts, and salts. A three-phase research program was devised to investigate the natural attenuation process that controls the subsurface transport and fate of these contaminants and to apply the results toward the development of a strategy for the remediation of this type of contamination in soils. Phase I experimental activities examined interactions between monoethanolamine (MEA) and sediment, the biodegradability of MEA in soils at various concentrations and temperatures, and the biodegradability of MEA sludge contamination in a soil slurry bioreactor. The transport and fate of MEA in the subsurface was found to be highly dependant on the nature of the release, particularly MEA concentration and conditions of the subsurface environment, i.e., pH, temperature, and oxygen availability. Pure compound biodegradation experiments in soil demonstrated rapid biodegradation of MEA under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures (>6 C). Phase II landfarming activities confirmed that these contaminants are readily biodegradable in soil under ideal laboratory conditions, yet considerable toxicity was observed in the remaining material. Examination of water extracts from the treated soil suggested that the toxicity is water-soluble. Phase II activities led to the conclusion that landfarming is not the most desirable bioremediation technique; however, an engineered biopile with a leachate collection system could remove the remaining toxic fraction from the soil. Phase III was initiated to conduct field-based experimental activities to examine the optimized remediation technology. A pilot-scale engineered biopile was constructed at a decommissioned gas-sweetening facility in Okotoks, Alberta, Canada. On the basis of a review of the analytical and performance data generated from soil and

  13. Balancing the benefits and costs of traditional food substitution by indigenous Arctic women of childbearing age: Impacts on persistent organic pollutant, mercury, and nutrient intakes.

    PubMed

    Binnington, Matthew J; Curren, Meredith S; Chan, Hing Man; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-01

    For indigenous Arctic Canadians, traditional food consumption represents a key source of nutrients and environmental contaminants. Particularly, ingestion of marine mammal blubber and meat may lead to persistent organic pollutant levels and mercury intakes that exceed regulatory thresholds for sensitive populations. We investigated whether temporary adjustments to the consumption of traditional food derived from marine mammals appreciably impacted contaminant exposure and nutrient intakes among indigenous women of childbearing age. Such adjustments can be motivated by the desire to lower contaminant exposure or to increase nutrition, or by the diminishing availability of other traditional food sources. We combined the contaminant fate and transport model GloboPOP with the food chain bioaccumulation model ACC-Human Arctic to simulate polychlorinated biphenyl exposures in female 2007-08 Inuit Health Survey participants. We also calculated daily mercury and nutrient intake rates. Our results suggest that a temporary decrease in marine mammal consumption is largely ineffective at reducing exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, because of their long elimination half-lives. In contrast, substitution of marine mammals was highly efficient at reducing mercury intake, but also appreciably lowered intakes of iron, manganese, selenium, and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The impact of increasing intake of traditional food derived from marine mammals during childbearing age greatly depended on baseline consumption rates; replacement is ill-advised for those who already consume a lot of traditional food due to greater polychlorinated biphenyl and mercury exposures, while replacement was potentially beneficial for those with very limited marine mammal consumption due to increased nutrient intakes. Our calculations primarily suggest that considering baseline traditional food intake rates is critical to devising reproductive dietary adjustment strategies that maximize nutrient

  14. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  15. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  16. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  17. INTERNALIZATION AND FATE OF INDIVIDUAL MANUFACTURED NANOMATERIAL WITHIN LIVING CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using quantitative fluorescence imaging with single molecule sensitivity, combined with molecular biology techniques, we have been investigating the cellular interactions and fate of one nanoparticle or nanoscale aggregate at a time, identifying molecular interactions and cellula...

  18. WATERSHED AND INSTREAM MODELING OF SEDIMENT FATE AND TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively manage watersheds, the assessment of watershed ecological response to physicochemical stressors such as sediments over broad spatial and temporal scales is needed. Assessments at this level of complexity requires the development of sediment transport and fate model...

  19. CHARACTERISTICS, DEPOSITION AND FATE OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate estimates of absorption and fate for particulate matter in the respiratory track are difficult because of complexities in particle composition and morphology. Several deficiencies in information further complicate the ability to make accurate estimates. Available models ...

  20. The Importance of Soil Protein Fate to PIP Crop Registration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant Incorporated Protectant (PIP) crops are registered under the authority of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and as part of this registration certain environmental fate information is required to properly judge the environmental compatibility of n...

  1. Fate of High Priority Pesticides During Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in the presence of chlorinated oxidants was investigated under drinking water treatment conditions. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, intrinsic rate coefficients were found for the reaction of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion ...

  2. Investigating the Toxicity and Environmental Fate of Graphene Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hersam Laboratory at Northwestern University works with the Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to study the toxicity and environmental fate of emergent nanomaterials, specifically carbon-based nanomate...

  3. UNDERSTANDING MERCURY FATE AND TRANSPORT FROM SOURCES TO DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD's atmospheric mercury research produces information to improve the understanding of mercury transport and fate from the point of emission into the atmosphere to its deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Specifically, this research will produce source emission and...

  4. ENANTIOMER-SPECIFIC FATE AND EFFECTS OF MODERN CHIRAL PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation presents enantiomer-specific fate and effects of modern chiral pesticides. The research areas presented were analytical separation of enantiomers; environmental occurrence of enantiomers; transformation rates and enantioselectivity; bioaccumulation; and e...

  5. Combining insoluble and soluble factors to steer stem cell fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingal, P. C. Dave P.; Discher, Dennis E.

    2014-06-01

    Materials-based control of stem cell fate is beginning to be rigorously combined with traditional soluble-factor approaches to better understand the cells' behaviour and maximize their potential for therapy.

  6. MULTIMEDIA CONTAMINANT FATE, TRANSPORT, AND EXPOSURE MODEL (MMSOILS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multimedia Contaminant Fate, Transport, and Exposure Model (MMSOILS) estimates the human exposure and health risk associated with releases of contamination from hazardous waste sites. The methodology consists of a multimedia model that addresses the transport of a chemical in...

  7. Fate of microplastics in the marine isopod Idotea emarginata.

    PubMed

    Hämer, Julia; Gutow, Lars; Köhler, Angela; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2014-11-18

    Plastic pollution is an emerging global threat for marine wildlife. Many species of birds, reptiles, and fishes are directly impaired by plastics as they can get entangled in ropes and drown or they can ingest plastic fragments which, in turn, may clog their stomachs and guts. Microplastics of less than 1 mm can be ingested by small invertebrates, but their fate in the digestive organs and their effects on the animals are yet not well understood. We embedded fluorescent microplastics in artificial agarose-based food and offered the food to marine isopods, Idotea emarginata. The isopods did not distinguish between food with and food without microplastics. Upon ingestion, the microplastics were present in the stomach and in the gut but not in the tubules of the midgut gland which is the principal organ of enzyme-secretion and nutrient resorption. The feces contained the same concentration of microplastics as the food which indicates that no accumulation of microplastics happens during the gut passage. Long-term bioassays of 6 weeks showed no distinct effects of continuous microplastic consumption on mortality, growth, and intermolt duration. I. emarginata are able to prevent intrusion of particles even smaller than 1 μm into the midgut gland which is facilitated by the complex structure of the stomach including a fine filter system. It separates the midgut gland tubules from the stomach and allows only the passage of fluids and chyme. Our results indicate that microplastics, as administered in the experiments, do not clog the digestive organs of isopods and do not have adverse effects on their life history parameters. PMID:25289587

  8. A New Mobile Phone-Based Tool for Assessing Energy and Certain Food Intakes in Young Children: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Hanna; Bonn, Stephanie E; Bergström, Anna; Bälter, Katarina; Bälter, Olle; Delisle, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem globally. Obesity may be established already at pre-school age. Further research in this area requires accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing the intake of energy and foods. Traditional methods have limited accuracy, and place large demands on the study participants and researchers. Mobile phones offer possibilities for methodological advancements in this area since they are readily available, enable instant digitalization of collected data, and also contain a camera to photograph pre- and post-meal food items. We have recently developed a new tool for assessing energy and food intake in children using mobile phones called the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH). Objective The main aims of our study are to (1) compare energy intake by means of TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using a criterion method, the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, and (2) to compare intakes of fruits and berries, vegetables, juice, and sweetened beverages assessed by means of TECH with intakes obtained using a Web-based food frequency questionnaire (KidMeal-Q) in 3 year olds. Methods In this study, 30 Swedish 3 year olds were included. Energy intake using TECH was compared to TEE measured using the DLW method. Intakes of vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, as well as sweetened beverages were assessed using TECH and compared to the corresponding intakes assessed using KidMeal-Q. Wilcoxon matched pairs test, Spearman rank order correlations, and the Bland-Altman procedure were applied. Results The mean energy intake, assessed by TECH, was 5400 kJ/24h (SD 1500). This value was not significantly different (P=.23) from TEE (5070 kJ/24h, SD 600). However, the limits of agreement (2 standard deviations) in the Bland-Altman plot for energy intake estimated using TECH compared to TEE were wide (2990 kJ/24h), and TECH overestimated high and underestimated low energy intakes. The Bland-Altman plots for

  9. Emerging Pollutants - Part I: Occurrence, Fate and Transport.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lang; Dong, Zhanfeng; Sun, Huan; Li, Hongxiang; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Part I: Occurrence, Fate, and Transport (this review) is a sequel of Emerging Pollutants. This review compiles research in 2015 for investigating emerging pollutants in wastewater and environmental sources of emerging pollutants. It investigates the occurrence, fate, transport of emerging pollutants in the environment. This review further discusses the monitoring approaches, modeling, and toxicological impacts of these compounds that are relevant to wastewater. PMID:27620111

  10. Assessment of contaminant fate in catchments using a novel integrated hydrobiogeochemical-multimedia fate model.

    PubMed

    Nizzetto, Luca; Butterfield, Dan; Futter, Martyn; Lin, Yan; Allan, Ian; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2016-02-15

    Models for pollution exposure assessment typically adopt an overly simplistic representation of geography, climate and biogeochemical processes. This strategy is unsatisfactory when high temporal resolution simulations for sub-regional spatial domains are performed, in which parameters defining scenarios can vary interdependently in space and time. This is, for example, the case when assessing the influence of biogeochemical processing on contaminant fate. Here we present INCA-Contaminants, the Integrated Catchments model for Contaminants; a new model that simultaneously and realistically solves mass balances of water, carbon, sediments and contaminants in the soil-stream-sediment system of catchments and their river networks as a function of climate, land use/management and contaminant properties. When forced with realistic climate and contaminant input data, the model was able to predict polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in multiple segments of a river network in a complex landscape. We analyzed model output sensitivity to a number of hydro-biogeochemical parameters. The rate of soil organic matter mineralization was the most sensitive parameter controlling PCBs levels in river water, supporting the hypothesis that organic matter turnover rates will influence re-mobilization of previously deposited PCBs which had accumulated in soil organic matrix. The model was also used to project the long term fate of PCB 101 under two climate scenarios. Catchment diffuse run-off and riverine transport were the major pathways of contaminant re-mobilization. Simulations show that during the next decade the investigated boreal catchment will shift from being a net atmospheric PCB sink to a net source for air and water, with future climate perturbation having little influence on this trend. Our results highlight the importance of using credible hydro-biogeochemical simulations when modeling the fate of hydrophobic contaminants. PMID:26674684

  11. Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Reitz, Rolf; Wissink, martin; DelVescovo, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5 CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition. This allowed for the investigation of several combinations of intake temperature, intake pressure, and charge stratification at otherwise constant thermodynamic conditions. The results show that sources of engine inefficiency compete as functions of premixed and global equivalence ratios. Losses are minimized through proper balancing of intake pressure and temperature, such that the global equivalence ratio ( global) is as lean as possible without overly lean regions of the stratified charge causing an increase in incomplete combustion. The explored speed-load-phasing combination shows that losses are minimized at conditions where approximately 2/3 of the fuel is fully premixed. The results exhibit a pathway for achieving simultaneous increases in combustion and fuel efficiency through proper fuel reactivity and initial condition management.

  12. Reprogramming cell fate: a changing story

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Direct reprogramming of adult, lineage-determined cells from one cell fate to another has long been an elusive goal in developmental biology. Recent studies have demonstrated that forced expression of lineage-specific transcription factors in various differentiated cell types can promote the adoption of different lineages. These seminal findings have the potential to revolutionize the field of regenerative medicine by providing replacement cells for various degenerative disorders. Current reprogramming protocols, however, are inefficient in that relatively few cells in a given population can be made to undergo reprogramming and the completeness and extent of reprogramming that occurs has been questioned. At present, the fundamental molecular mechanisms involved are still being elucidated. Although the potential clinical applications are extensive, these issues will need to be addressed before direct reprogramming may be used clinically. This review will give an overview of pioneering studies in the field, will describe what is known about direct reprogramming to specific lineage types, will summarize what is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in reprogramming and will discuss challenges for the future. PMID:25364753

  13. The Fate of Ejecta from Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ejecta from Saturn's moon Hyperion is subject to powerful perturbations from nearby Titan, which control its ultimate fate. We have performed numerical integrations to simulate a simplified system consisting of Saturn (including oblateness), Tethys, Dione, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus, and the Sun (treated simply as a massive satellite). In addition, 1050 massless particles were ejected from Hyperion at five different points in its orbit. These particles started more or less evenly distributed over latitude and longitude, 1 km above Hyperion's mean radius, and were ejected radially outward at speeds 10\\% faster than its escape speed. Only about 4\\% of the particles survived for the 100,000-year course of the integration, while $\\sim$8/% escaped from the Saturnian system. Titan accreted $\\sim$77\\% of all the particles, while Hyperion reaccreted only $\\sim$5\\%. This may help to account for Hyperion's rugged shape. Three particles hit Rhea and 2 hit Dione, but $\\sim$5\\% of the particles were removed when they penetrated within 150,000 km of Saturn. Most removals occurred within the first few thousand years. In general, ejecta from Hyperion are much more widely scattered than previously thought, and cross the orbits of all of the other classical satellites.

  14. Environmental fate of tungsten from military use.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Jay L; Korte, Nic

    2009-04-01

    This manuscript describes the distribution, fate and transport of tungsten used in training rounds at three small arms ranges at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), USA. Practice with tungsten/nylon rounds began in 2000 subsequent to a 1997 US Environmental Protection Agency ban on training with lead. Training with the tungsten rounds was halted in 2005 because of concerns regarding tungsten's environmental mobility and potential toxicity. This study, therefore, examines how tungsten partitions in the environment when fired on a small arms training range. Soil sampling revealed surface soil concentrations, highest at the berm face, up to 2080 mg/kg. Concentrations decreased rapidly with depth--at least by an order of magnitude by 25 cm. Nonetheless, tungsten concentrations remained above background to at least 150 cm. Pore-water samples from lysimeters installed in berm areas revealed a range of concentrations (<1-400 mg/L) elevated with respect to background although there was no discernable trend with depth. Groundwater monitoring well samples collected approximately 30 m below ground surface showed tungsten (0.001-0.56 mg/L) attributable to range use. PMID:19217645

  15. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen in neutrophil fate.

    PubMed

    Witko-Sarsat, Véronique; Ohayon, Delphine

    2016-09-01

    The life span of a neutrophil is a tightly regulated process as extended survival is beneficial for pathogen elimination and cell death necessary to prevent cytotoxic content release from activated neutrophils at the inflammatory site. Therefore, the control between survival and death must be a dynamic process. We have previously described that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) which is known as a nuclear protein pivotal in DNA synthesis, is a key element in controlling neutrophil survival through its association with procaspases. Contrary to the dogma which asserted that PCNA has a strictly nuclear function, in mature neutrophils, PCNA is present exclusively within the cytosol due to its nuclear export at the end of the granulocytic differentiation. More recent studies are consistent with the notion that the cytosolic scaffold of PCNA is aimed at modulating neutrophil fate rather than simply preventing death. Ultimately, targeting neutrophil survival might have important applications not just in the field of immunology and inflammation, but also in hematology and transfusion. The neutrophil emerges as a unique and powerful cellular model to unravel the basic mechanisms governing the cell cycle-independent functions of PCNA and should be considered as a leader of the pack. PMID:27558345

  16. MicroRNAs as novel regulators of stem cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eunhyun; Choi, Eunmi; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence in stem cell biology has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in cell fate specification, including stem cell self-renewal, lineage-specific differentiation, and somatic cell reprogramming. These functions are tightly regulated by specific gene expression patterns that involve miRNAs and transcription factors. To maintain stem cell pluripotency, specific miRNAs suppress transcription factors that promote differentiation, whereas to initiate differentiation, lineage-specific miRNAs are upregulated via the inhibition of transcription factors that promote self-renewal. Small molecules can be used in a similar manner as natural miRNAs, and a number of natural and synthetic small molecules have been isolated and developed to regulate stem cell fate. Using miRNAs as novel regulators of stem cell fate will provide insight into stem cell biology and aid in understanding the molecular mechanisms and crosstalk between miRNAs and stem cells. Ultimately, advances in the regulation of stem cell fate will contribute to the development of effective medical therapies for tissue repair and regeneration. This review summarizes the current insights into stem cell fate determination by miRNAs with a focus on stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and reprogramming. Small molecules that control stem cell fate are also highlighted. PMID:24179605

  17. Application of nutrient intake values (NIVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promoti...

  18. Hormonal control of feed intake in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary feed intake is controlled by a plethora of factors including, but not limited to, day length, social interactions, environmental conditions, oronasal sensory cues (i.e., taste, smell, texture), gastrointestinal fill, health status, metabolic status, dietary composition, drug interactions, ...

  19. Sodium intake and blood pressure in children.

    PubMed

    Hanevold, Coral D

    2013-10-01

    Elevation of blood pressure (BP) and the risk for progression to hypertension (HTN) is of increasing concern in children and adolescents. Indeed, it is increasingly recognized that target organ injury may begin with even low levels of BP elevation. Sodium intake has long been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for HTN. While it seems clear that sodium impacts BP in children, its effects may be enhanced by other factors including obesity and increasing age. Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that sodium may have adverse consequences on the cardiovascular system independent of HTN. Thus, moderation of sodium intake over a lifetime may reduce risk for cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood. An appetite for salt is acquired, and intake beyond our need is almost universal. Considering that eating habits in childhood have been shown to track into adulthood, modest sodium intake should be advocated as part of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23949320

  20. Higher potato intake associated with hypertension risk.

    PubMed

    2016-06-29

    The aim of three US prospective longitudinal cohort studies was to determine whether a higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries or chips and mashed potatoes was associated with incidence of hypertension. PMID:27353785

  1. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health

  2. Silica urolithiasis without magnesium trisilicate intake.

    PubMed

    Ichiyanagi, O; Sasagawa, I; Adachi, Y; Suzuki, H; Kubota, Y; Nakada, T

    1998-10-01

    Two cases of silica stones, without previous oral intake of magnesium trisilicate, are reported. A 64-year-old Japanese woman had bilateral renal stones. Infrared spectrophotoscopy revealed that one of the fragments consisted of silicate and the others consisted of calcium oxalate. A 75-year-old woman had right renal stones. The composition of 1 stone was a mixture of silicate and unspecified matrices. Silicate urolithiasis may not necessarily be related to oral intake of silicate-containing antacids. PMID:9792982

  3. Hypospadias and Maternal Intake of Phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Suzan L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Ma, Chen; Gonzalez-Feliciano, Amparo; Olney, Richard S.; Correa, Adolfo; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that gestational exposures to estrogenic compounds impact risk of hypospadias. We examined whether risk of hypospadias (i.e., a congenital malformation in which the opening of the penile urethra occurs on the ventral side of the penis) was associated with maternal intake of phytoestrogens, given their potential impact on estrogen metabolism. The analysis included data on mothers of 1,250 hypospadias cases and 3,118 controls who delivered their infants from 1997 to 2005 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, population-based, case-control study. After adjustment for several covariates, high intakes of daidzein, genistein, glycetin, secoisolariciresinol, total isoflavones, total lignans, and total phytoestrogens were associated with reduced risks; odds ratios comparing intakes ≥90th percentile with intakes between the 11th and 89th percentiles ranged from 0.6 to 0.8. For example, the odds ratio for total phytoestrogen intake was 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 1.0). This study represents the first large-scale analysis of phytoestrogen intake and hypospadias. The observed associations merit investigation in additional populations before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:23752918

  4. Dietary intake in clients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Agnieszka; Atkins, Marlis; Mager, Diana R

    2011-01-01

    To assess relationships among food intake, anthropometrics, and wound severity, we studied 31 home care clients with pressure ulcers (PUs) or venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) were measured according to standard methodologies. Risk for PU development was assessed using the Braden Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment score and wound severity according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Three-day food records were analyzed to assess dietary adequacy. Adults with VSUs (65.8 ± 18.4 years) had a higher body mass index (48.1 vs. 25.9), WC (146.6 vs. 98.4 cm), and Braden score (20.2 vs. 17.5) than did those with PUs (67.8 ± 17.9 years) (p <0.05). Energy, protein, and zinc intake by diet alone did not meet estimated requirements in 41%, 32%, and 54.5% of clients, respectively. Intake by diet alone met the Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Nutrient supplementation resolved this for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin K, and potassium. In multivariate analysis, increasing wound severity was associated with decreased intakes of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, and protein (r2=0.90, p<0.001). Optimizing nutrient intake may be an important strategy to promote wound healing and decrease wound severity in home care clients with chronic wounds. PMID:21645427

  5. Intake technologies: Research status: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGroddy, P.M.; Matousek, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes recent research activities related to fish protection at water intake structures, with particular emphasis on research reported on or conducted at pumped cooling-water intakes. Information gathered from 51 organizations (33 utilities, seven equipment manufacturers, six research organizations, two private engineering firms, one steel mill, and two government agencies) is provided along with specific summaries of EPRI-sponsored research on behavioral barriers at pumped and hydroelectric facilities. The level of research activity indicted by utilities at pumped intakes has decreased recently, although the interest in potential plant operational impact mitigative techniques remains high. Two studies sponsored by EPRI at pumped cooling-water intake structures evaluated the individual and combined deterrent capabilities of three devices: an air bubble curtain, pneumatic guns, and underwater strobe lights. A study conducted during 1985 and 1986 at Ontario Hydro's nearshore test facility, located in Lake Ontario off the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station intake, indicated that all three devices and combinations of devices elicited an avoidance response in alewife. The pneumatic gun exhibited the highest deterrent capability and the air bubble curtain the lowest. Studies conducted using the same deterrent devices at the intake of Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporation's Roseton Generating Station on the Hudson River did not indicate an overall avoidance response; some species-specific responses to the devices were noted. 22 refs., 9 tabs.

  6. Setting dietary intake levels: problems and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Russell, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Recommended dietary intake levels are the nutrient standards used in designing food assistance programmes, institutional feeding programmes, counselling and teaching. In the USA, the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) are the basis for setting the poverty threshold and food stamp allotments. In the 1990s, a new paradigm was put forth for estimating nutrient requirements and recommended intake levels. This considered the level of nutrient needed for normal body functioning (versus the amount needed to prevent a deficiency state from occurring). An estimated average requirement (EAR), an RDA and a tolerable upper intake level (UL) were determined for most nutrients. In setting forth these nutrient intake levels (dietary reference intakes, DRIs), a number of data challenges were encountered. For example, it was recognized that for most nutrients there was an absence of dose-response data, and few chronic human or animal studies had been undertaken. In considering how to revise nutrient intake recommendations for populations in the future, the following pitfalls must be overcome: (1) invalid assumption that a threshold level for a requirement will hold for all nutrients; (2) lack of uniform criteria for the selection of the endpoints used (need for evidence-based review, consideration of comparative risk); (3) invalid extrapolations to children for many nutrients; (4) lack of information on variability of responses, and interactions with other nutrients; and (5) lack of understanding in the community of how to use the various DRI numbers. PMID:17913222

  7. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Paul, David R; Kramer, Matthew; Rhodes, Donna G; Rumpler, William V

    2005-01-01

    Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO), protein (Hi-PRO), or fat (Hi-FAT). Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs). Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05). In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions. PMID:15745452

  8. 1. INTAKE DAM NO. 1 AT HEAD OF SYSTEM (600 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE DAM NO. 1 AT HEAD OF SYSTEM (600 ALTITUDE). CONSTRUCTED WITH CONCRETE AND RUBBLE MASONRY IN 1948. INCLUDES INTAKE SCREEN AT LEFT AND SLUICE GATE AT RIGHT. TWO 8" CAST-IRON PIPES CARRY WATER FROM THE INTAKE TO THE OLD DAM (FORMER INTAKE) DOWN LINE. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  9. The Fate of Unstable Circumbinary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    What happens to Tattooine-like planets that are instead in unstable orbits around their binary star system? A new study examines whether such planets will crash into a host star, get ejected from the system, or become captured into orbit around one of their hosts.Orbit Around a DuoAt this point we have unambiguously detected multiple circumbinary planets, raising questions about these planets formation and evolution. Current models suggest that it is unlikely that circumbinary planets would be able to form in the perturbed environment close their host stars. Instead, its thought that the planets formed at a distance and then migrated inwards.One danger such planets face when migrating is encountering ranges of radii where their orbits become unstable. Two scientists at the University of Chicago, Adam Sutherland and Daniel Fabrycky, have studied what happens when circumbinary planets migrate into such a region and develop unstable orbits.Producing Rogue PlanetsTime for planets to either be ejected or collide with one of the two stars, as a function of the planets starting distance (in AU) from the binary barycenter. Colors represent different planetary eccentricities. [Sutherland Fabrycky 2016]Sutherland and Fabrycky used N-body simulations to determine the fates of planets orbiting around a star system consisting of two stars a primary like our Sun and a secondary roughly a tenth of its size that are separated by 1 AU.The authors find that the most common fate for a circumbinary planet with an unstable orbit is ejection from the system; over 80% of unstable planets were ejected. This has interesting implications: if the formation of circumbinary planets is common, this mechanism could be filling the Milky Way with a population of free-floating, rogue planets that no longer are associated with their host star.The next most common outcome for unstable planets is collision with one of their host stars (most often the secondary), resulting inaccretion of the planet

  10. Fate of manufactured nanoparticles in environmental systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelabert, A.; Sivry, Y.; Siron, V.; Akrout, A.; Ferrari, R.; Juillot, F.; Menguy, N.; Benedetti, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    Because of their specific physico-chemical properties, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have become largely widespread in numerous industrial fields such as biomedicine, cosmetics, and material sciences. However, their growing use could possibly result in the release of various NPs amounts in environmental settings. Thus, an accurate understanding of their behaviour in natural systems is required, and of first importance is an estimation of their persistence and/or physico-chemical modifications since they can greatly alter their fate and bioavailability in the biogeosphere. The present study focuses on dissolution rate estimations for commercial NPs ZnO and TiO2 in natural waters (i.e. filtered Seine river water and seawater). Both NPs were used uncoated and coated with an organic polymer. Native NPs size and shape were investigated using TEM, and appeared as 20-50 nm spheroids, with an associated specific surface area of 37.5 and 57.6 m2/g for ZnO and TiO2, respectivelly. NPs dissolution rates were determined using both ultrafiltration (UF) and Donnan Membrane Techniques (DMT, [1]). The latter method allows a direct in-situ measurement of the free metal ion concentration only (here Zn2+), while the UF membrane small nominal pore size (approx. 2 nm) results in the separation of small inorganic complexes in addition to free metal ions. After a fast dissolution step reaching 1% of total zinc within the first hour for uncoated ZnO NPs in Seine water, precipitation of new mineral phases occurred with the formation of smithonite and hydrozincite as observed by XRD and TEM and confirmed by thermodynamic calculations (Visual Minteq). Interestingly, the behaviour of the coated ZnO NPs is slightly different since the initial dissolution step takes place during the first 72 hours, to reach up to 10% of the total zinc in our system. However, despite this difference in dissolution kinetics, both systems evolve similarly after 3 days, and they reach a steady state after

  11. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  12. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.

    2007-12-01

    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  13. LONG-TERM INTAKE OF NUTS IN RELATION TO COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN OLDER WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    O’BRIEN, J.; OKEREKE, O.; DEVORE, E.; ROSNER, B.; BRETELER, M.; GRODSTEIN, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nuts contain nutrients that may benefit brain health; thus, we examined long-term intake of nuts in relation to cognition in older women. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting Academic research using data from the Nurses’ Health Study. Participants Nut intake was assessed in a food-frequency questionnaire beginning in1980, and approximately every four years thereafter. Between 1995–2001, 16,010 women age 70 or older (mean age = 74 years) without a history of stroke were administered 4 repeated telephone-based cognitive interviews over 6 years. Our final sample included 15,467 women who completed an initial cognitive interview and had complete information on nut intake. Main Outcome Measures The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), a global score averaging the results of all tests (TICS, immediate and delayed verbal recall, category fluency, and attention), and a verbal memory score averaging the results of tests of verbal recall. Results In multivariable-adjusted linear regression models, higher long-term total nut intake was associated with better average cognitive status for all cognitive outcomes. For the global composite score combining all tests, women consuming at least 5 servings of nuts/week had higher scores than non-consumers (mean difference=0.08 standard units, 95% confidence interval 0.00–0.15; p-trend=0.003). This mean difference of 0.08 is equivalent to the mean difference we find between women 2 years apart in age. Long-term intake of nuts was not associated with rates of cognitive decline. Conclusions Higher nut intake may be related to better overall cognition at older ages, and could be an easily-modifiable public health intervention. PMID:24886736

  14. Fate of dietary perchlorate in lactating dairy cows: Relevance to animal health and levels in the milk supply

    PubMed Central

    Capuco, A. V.; Rice, C. P.; Baldwin, R. L.; Bannerman, D. D.; Paape, M. J.; Hare, W. R.; Kauf, A. C. W.; McCarty, G. W.; Hapeman, C. J.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Starr, J. L.; McConnell, L. L.; Van Tassell, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was unaffected, and there were no demonstrable health effects. We provide evidence that up to 80% of dietary perchlorate was metabolized, most likely in the rumen, which would provide cattle with a degree of refractoriness to perchlorate. Data presented are important for assessing the environmental impact on perchlorate concentrations in milk and potential for relevance to human health. PMID:16260728

  15. The intake of intense sweeteners - an update review.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Andrew G

    2006-04-01

    Studies on the intakes of intense sweeteners in different countries published since the author's previous review in 1999 indicate that the average and 95th percentile intakes of acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by adults are below the relevant acceptable daily intake (ADI) values. Fewer data are available for the newer sweeteners, sucralose and alitame, and because they are recent introductions to the market very low intakes were reported in those countries where they were available at the time of the intake study. Overall there has not been a significant change in the intakes of sweeteners in recent years. The only data indicating that the intake of an intense sweetener could exceed its ADI value were the 95th percentile intakes of cyclamate in children, particularly those with diabetes. This sub-group was identified as having high intakes of cyclamate in 1999, and recent studies have not generated reliable intake data to address this possibility. PMID:16546879

  16. Dairy products in global public health.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2014-05-01

    Intakes of dairy produce show enormous diversity between regions, cultures, and individuals around the world. At the geographic level, intake maps closely onto the distribution of lactase persistence (LP), a genetic trait that allows milk to be consumed beyond the weaning period without gastrointestinal side effects. The LP trait has been independently selected at least 4 times and is under rapid positive selection, which shows that dairy consumption has positive survival benefits. For people lacking the LP trait, the fermentation of milk into yogurt and related products (a process known for ≥8500 y) aids milk digestion through the breakdown of some lactose and the provision of β-galactosidase, which remains active in the gastrointestinal tract. In global ecologic comparisons, milk and dairy intakes are strongly associated with adult height, and many international advisory bodies recommend the consumption of 400-500 mL milk equivalents/d. There are very few countries where such high intakes are met, and in populations in whom intakes are much lower there is evidence of adaptations that help to maintain bone health with surprisingly low intakes. Despite concerns that the high-saturated-fat content of full-fat dairy products would promote heart disease, recent meta-analyses show that dairy consumption is neutral or beneficial for weight control, coronary disease, diabetes, hypertension, and most cancers. PMID:24646820

  17. Revised reference values for selenium intake.

    PubMed

    Kipp, A P; Strohm, D; Brigelius-Flohé, R; Schomburg, L; Bechthold, A; Leschik-Bonnet, E; Heseker, H

    2015-10-01

    The German, Austrian and Swiss nutrition societies are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of selenium and published them in February 2015. The saturation of selenoprotein P (SePP) in plasma is used as a criterion for the derivation of reference values for selenium intake in adults. For persons from selenium-deficient regions (China) SePP saturation was achieved with a daily intake of 49μg of selenium. When using the reference body weights the D-A-CH reference values are based upon, the resulting estimated value for selenium intake is 70μg/day for men and 60μg/day for women. The estimated value for selenium intake for children and adolescents is extrapolated using the estimated value for adults in relation to body weight. For infants aged 0 to under 4 months the estimated value of 10μg/day was derived from the basis of selenium intake via breast milk. For infants aged 4 to under 12 months this estimated value was used and taking into account the differences regarding body weight an estimated value of 15μg/day was derived. For lactating women compared to non-lactating women a higher reference value of 75μg/day is indicated due to the release of selenium with breast milk. The additional selenium requirement for pregnant women is negligible, so that no increased reference value is indicated. PMID:26302929

  18. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  19. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  20. Estimated daily intake and cumulative risk assessment of phthalate diesters in a Belgian general population.

    PubMed

    Dewalque, Lucas; Charlier, Corinne; Pirard, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    The daily intakes (DI) were estimated in a Belgian general population for 5 phthalates, namely diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), based on the urinary measurements of their corresponding metabolites. DI values ranged between globally higher for children than adults. They were compared to acceptable levels of exposure (tolerable daily intakes) to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQ), which highlight an intake above the dose considered as safe for values greater than 1. If very few of our Belgian participants exceeded this threshold for phthalates considered individually, 6.2% of the adults and 25% of the children showed an excessive hazard index (HI) which took into account the cumulative risk of adverse anti-androgenic effects. These results are of concern since these HI were based on only 3 phthalates (DEHP, DiBP and DnBP), and showed a median of 0.55 and 0.29 for children and adults respectively. The comparison with previously determined dietary intakes demonstrated that for DEHP, food intake was nearly the only route of exposure while other pathways occurred mainly for the other studied phthalates. PMID:24968065

  1. Factors affecting pasture intake and total dry matter intake in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, O P; Smith, T R

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the most relevant variables for estimating pasture intake and total dry matter (DM) intake in grazing dairy cows using 27 previously published studies. Variables compared were pasture allowance, days in milk, amount of forage, amount of concentrate and total supplementation, pasture allowance and supplementation interaction, fat-corrected milk, body weight (BW), metabolic BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes in pasture, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of pasture, and NDF in pasture selected. The variables were selected using stepwise regression analysis for total DM intake and pasture DM intake. Variables selected in the total DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.95) were pasture allowance, total supplementation, interaction of pasture allowance and supplementation, fat-corrected milk, BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes and pasture NDF content. Pasture DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.90) was similar to total DM intake equation, but supplementation coefficient was negative, showing substitution effect in supplementing grazing cows. The intake of NDF as a percentage of BW was higher than 1.3% when considering NDF content of the pasture allowance. Low pasture allowance groups had values higher than 1.3%. PMID:11049073

  2. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study reported here was to assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, who were surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS...

  3. THE IMPACT OF COVERT MANIPULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE ON ENERGY INTAKE (EI) AND MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of covert manipulation of macronutrient intake on energy intake (EI) and macronutrient selection. William Rumpler, David Paul, Donna Rhodes. Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705 Twelve men were fed a defined beverage continuously for two 8-week periods but ...

  4. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2007-10

    Cancer.gov

    We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the NHANES to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

  5. The use of intake condition modifications to control diesel emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, C.E.; Reader, G.T.; Potter, I.J.; Gustafson, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Diesel engines have the inherent capability of producing emissions, such as NOx, particulates, unburned hydrocarbons, and noise which at certain levels and concentrations are considered to be environmentally unfriendly. To control these emissions, techniques have been developed which are aimed at reducing the amount of pollutants formed in the combustion process or preventing them from reaching the atmosphere (after treatment). The initial condition of the in-cylinder reactants and diluents affects how the combustion process proceeds and hence influences the formation and rate of formation of the pollutants. Thus, one approach to emission control is to modify the intake oxidant conditions, i.e., the composition and thermodynamic state of the working fluid. This modification can be accomplished by the use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). EGR has been extensively developed for use with SI engine emission control systems and for specialized diesel engine operations where synthetic atmospheres are used (underwater) or where operations take place in contaminated environments (underground). More recently EGR has been considered as a technique for helping reduce NOx emissions from conventional diesel engine systems. Usually, experimental investigations involving EGR have dealt with the global effects on emissions and performance but in the research reported in this paper efforts have been made to identify the specific effects of altering intake conditions, e.g., oxygen concentration, on the operation of an Indirect-Injection (IDI) diesel engine.

  6. Is house dust the missing exposure pathway for PBDEs? An analysis of the urban fate and human exposure to PBDEs.

    PubMed

    Jones-Otazo, Heather A; Clarke, John P; Diamond, Miriam L; Archbold, Josephine A; Ferguson, Glenn; Harner, Tom; Richardson, G Mark; Ryan, John Jake; Wilford, Bryony

    2005-07-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) body burdens in North America are 20 times that of Europeans and some "high accumulation" individuals have burdens up to 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than median values, the reasons for which are not known. We estimated emissions and fate of sigma PBDEs (minus BDE-209) in a 470 km2 area of Toronto, Canada, using the Multi-media Urban Model (MUM-Fate). Using a combination of measured and modeled concentrations for indoor and outdoor air, soil, and dust plus measured concentrations in food, we estimated exposure to sigma PBDEs via soil, dust, and dietary ingestion and indoor and outdoor inhalation pathways. Fate calculations indicate that 57-85% of PBDE emissions to the outdoor environment originate from within Toronto and that the dominant removal process is advection by air to downwind locations. Inadvertent ingestion of house dust is the largest contributor to exposure of toddlers through to adults and is thus the main exposure pathway for all life stages other than the infant, including the nursing mother, who transfers PBDEs to her infant via human milk. The next major exposure pathway is dietary ingestion of animal and dairy products. Infant consumption of human milk is the largest contributor to lifetime exposure. Inadvertent ingestion of dust is the main exposure pathway for a scenario of occupational exposure in a computer recycling facility and a fish eater. Ingestion of dust can lead to almost 100-fold higher exposure than "average" for a toddler with a high dust intake rate living in a home in which PBDE concentrations are elevated. PMID:16082939

  7. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreet, Wilma S., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue contains an introduction ("The Promise and Perplexity of Globalism," by W. Longstreet) and seven articles dedicated to exploring the meaning of global education for today's schools. "Global Education: An Overview" (J. Becker) develops possible definitions, identifies objectives and skills, and addresses questions and issues in this…

  8. Global Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Approaches taken by a school science department to implement a global science curriculum using a range of available resources are outlined. Problems with current curriculum approaches, alternatives to an ethnocentric curriculum, advantages of global science, and possible strategies for implementing a global science policy are discussed. (27…

  9. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, June, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The articles in this collection deal with various methods of global education--education to prepare students to function as understanding and informed citizens of the world. Topics discussed in the 26 articles include: (1) the necessity of global education; (2) global education in the elementary school language arts curriculum; (3) science fiction…

  10. Global HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on global human resource development (HRD). "Globalization of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a global organization. "An…

  11. The Environmental Fate of C60 Fullerenes: A Holistic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, K. M.; Filley, T. R.; Blanchette, R. A.; Jafvert, C.; Bolskar, R.

    2007-12-01

    The manufacture and use of carbon-based nanoparticles, for which C60 fullerenes can be considered a proxy, has grown exponentially in the past decade, and nanotechnology is now a multi-billion dollar industry, spanning disciplines such as cosmetics, biotechnology, and agriculture. Despite this, almost nothing is known of the fate of these compounds in the environment. Based upon the strong radical scavenging properties of many of these substances there are a variety of microbial and photochemical-mediated oxidative fates that will transform the physicochemical properties and control the residence time of these compounds in nature. It is essential that these fates, as well as the fates of the products of the degradation of carbon nanoparticles, are known. For instance, conversion of C60 fullerenes to hydroxylated or carboxylated analogs will shift the manner in which they partition between soils and sediments and water as well as how they interact with cell membranes. This paper combines our findings on the microbial activity of C60 fullerenes, one of the most common types of manufactured carbon nanoparticles, along with recent literature to develop potential chemical decay trajectories in oxidative environmental settings. We show what is known about the environmental fate of this type of nanomaterial and also areas where further research is needed.

  12. Genetic Circuit Architectures Underlying Cell Fate Choices for Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinner, Aaron

    2009-03-01

    Antigen stimulated B cells follow an unusual developmental trajectory that transiently passes through a germinal center state, which promotes receptor affinity maturation and immunoglobulin class switching, before terminally differentiating into antibody secreting plasma cells. It was found that graded expression of the transcription factor IRF-4 regulates cell fate, but the relationship between antigen receptor signaling, the network of interactions with IRF-4, and cell fate was not known. This talk describes models that link ligand-receptor avidity with cell fate. The models have been validated experimentally by directly varying the levels and kinetics of IRF-4 accumulation. Furthermore, signaling through the antigen receptor is demonstrated to control the expression of IRF-4 and in turn the frequency of B cells that undergo class switching before differentiating into plasma cells. These findings provide an explanation for experiments that measure B cell numbers in transgenic mice. The architecture of our regulatory circuit provides a general mechanism for quantitative variations in a signal to be translated into a binary cell-fate choice involving transient expression of one of the two developmental fates. In collaboration with Aryeh Warmflash, Ying Li, Roger Sciammas, and Harinder Singh, The University of Chicago.

  13. Dietary intake of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P

    1983-02-01

    A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation. PMID:6841131

  14. Rodent models for compulsive alcohol intake

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, F. Woodward; Lesscher, Heidi M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Continued seeking and drinking of alcohol despite adverse legal, health, economic, and societal consequences is a central hallmark of human alcohol use disorders. This compulsive drive for alcohol, defined by resistance to adverse and deleterious consequences, represents a major challenge when attempting to treat alcoholism clinically. Thus, there has long been interest in developing pre-clinical rodent models for the compulsive drug use that characterizes drug addiction. Here, we review recent studies that have attempted to model compulsive aspects of alcohol and cocaine intake in rodents, and consider technical and conceptual issues that need to be addressed when trying to recapitulate compulsive aspects of human addiction. Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been examined by pairing intake or seeking with the bitter tastant quinine or with footshock, and exciting recent work has used these models to identify neuroadaptations in the amygdala, cortex, and striatal regions that promote compulsive intake. Thus, rodent models do seem to reflect important aspects of compulsive drives that sustain human addiction, and will likely provide critical insights into the molecular and circuit underpinnings of aversion-resistant intake as well as novel therapeutic interventions for compulsive aspects of addiction. PMID:24731992

  15. Rodent models for compulsive alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Hopf, F Woodward; Lesscher, Heidi M B

    2014-05-01

    Continued seeking and drinking of alcohol despite adverse legal, health, economic, and societal consequences is a central hallmark of human alcohol use disorders. This compulsive drive for alcohol, defined by resistance to adverse and deleterious consequences, represents a major challenge when attempting to treat alcoholism clinically. Thus, there has long been interest in developing pre-clinical rodent models for the compulsive drug use that characterizes drug addiction. Here, we review recent studies that have attempted to model compulsive aspects of alcohol and cocaine intake in rodents, and consider technical and conceptual issues that need to be addressed when trying to recapitulate compulsive aspects of human addiction. Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been examined by pairing intake or seeking with the bitter tastant quinine or with footshock, and exciting recent work has used these models to identify neuroadaptations in the amygdala, cortex, and striatal regions that promote compulsive intake. Thus, rodent models do seem to reflect important aspects of compulsive drives that sustain human addiction, and will likely provide critical insights into the molecular and circuit underpinnings of aversion-resistant intake as well as novel therapeutic interventions for compulsive aspects of addiction. PMID:24731992

  16. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  17. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions. PMID:26303312

  18. Dietary intake of acrylamide in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Svensson, K; Abramsson, L; Becker, W; Glynn, A; Hellenäs, K-E; Lind, Y; Rosén, J

    2003-11-01

    High levels of acrylamide have been found in foods heated at high temperatures, especially in carbohydrate rich foods. Several kinds of foods (industrially produced) representing different food/product groups available on the Swedish market have been analysed for acrylamide. A considerable variation in levels of acrylamide between single foodstuffs (different brands) within food categories were found, which also applies for levels in different food categories. Using recent Swedish food consumption data the dietary intake of acrylamide for the Swedish adult population was assessed based on foodstuffs with low to high levels of acrylamide (<30-2300 microg/kg), such as processed potato products, bread, breakfast cereals, biscuits, cookies, snacks and coffee. The estimated dietary intake of acrylamide per person (total population) given as the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile were 9.1, 27 and 62 microg/day respectively, from those food/product groups (mean 31 microg/day). No acrylamide was found in many other foodstuffs analysed and those were therefore not included in the dietary intake assessment of acrylamide. However, an additional minor contribution of a few microg/day of acrylamide from foods/products like poultry, meat, fish, cocoa powder and chocolates cannot be excluded. An average daily intake of 35 microg corresponds to 0.5 microg per kg body weight and day (body weight 70 kg). Risk assessments of acrylamide, made by US EPA and WHO, imply that this dietary intake of acrylamide could be associated with potential health risks. PMID:12963011

  19. Behaviour and fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Feisal; Peldszus, Sigrid; Anderson, William B

    2014-03-01

    This article reviews perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) characteristics, their occurrence in surface water, and their fate in drinking water treatment processes. PFASs have been detected globally in the aquatic environment including drinking water at trace concentrations and due, in part, to their persistence in human tissue some are being investigated for regulation. They are aliphatic compounds containing saturated carbon-fluorine bonds and are resistant to chemical, physical, and biological degradation. Functional groups, carbon chain length, and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity are some of the important structural properties of PFASs that affect their fate during drinking water treatment. Full-scale drinking water treatment plant occurrence data indicate that PFASs, if present in raw water, are not substantially removed by most drinking water treatment processes including coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, biofiltration, oxidation (chlorination, ozonation, AOPs), UV irradiation, and low pressure membranes. Early observations suggest that activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange, and high pressure membrane filtration may be effective in controlling these contaminants. However, branched isomers and the increasingly used shorter chain PFAS replacement products may be problematic as it pertains to the accurate assessment of PFAS behaviour through drinking water treatment processes since only limited information is available for these PFASs. PMID:24216232

  20. Estimation of internal radiation dose to the adult Asian population from the dietary intakes of two long-lived radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Kawamura, H; Dang, H S; Parr, R M; Wang, J W; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S Y; Natera, E; Miah, F K; Nguyen, M S

    2004-01-01

    Daily dietary intakes of two naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides, 232Th and 238U, were estimated for the adult population living in a number of Asian countries, using highly sensitive analytical methods such as instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Asian countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh (BGD), China (CPR), India (IND), Japan (JPN), Pakistan (PAK), Philippines (PHI), Republic of Korea (ROK) and Vietnam (VIE). Altogether, these countries represent more than 50% of the world population. The median daily intakes of 232Th ranged between 0.6 and 14.4 mBq, the lowest being for Philippines and the highest for Bangladesh, and daily intakes of 238U ranged between 6.7 and 62.5 mBq, lowest and the highest being for India and China, respectively. The Asian median intakes were obtained as 4.2 mBq for 232Th and 12.7 mBq for 238U. Although the Asian intakes were lower than intakes of 12.3 mBq (3.0 ug) 232Th and 23.6 mBq (1.9 ug) 238U proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the ICRP Reference Man, they were comparable to the global intake values of 4.6 mBq 232Th and 15.6 mBq 238U proposed by the United Nation Scientific Commission on Effects of Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual committed effective doses to Asian population from the dietary intake of 232Th and 238U were calculated to be 0.34 and 0.20 microSv, respectively, which are three orders of magnitude lower than the global average annual radiation dose of 2400 microSv to man from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR. PMID:15381318

  1. Cost-effectiveness of reducing salt intake in the Pacific Islands: protocol for a before and after intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is broad consensus that diets high in salt are bad for health and that reducing salt intake is a cost-effective strategy for preventing chronic diseases. The World Health Organization has been supporting the development of salt reduction strategies in the Pacific Islands where salt intakes are thought to be high. However, there are no accurate measures of salt intake in these countries. The aims of this project are to establish baseline levels of salt intake in two Pacific Island countries, implement multi-pronged, cross-sectoral salt reduction programs in both, and determine the effects and cost-effectiveness of the intervention strategies. Methods/Design Intervention effectiveness will be assessed from cross-sectional surveys before and after population-based salt reduction interventions in Fiji and Samoa. Baseline surveys began in July 2012 and follow-up surveys will be completed by July 2015 after a 2-year intervention period. A three-stage stratified cluster random sampling strategy will be used for the population surveys, building on existing government surveys in each country. Data on salt intake, salt levels in foods and sources of dietary salt measured at baseline will be combined with an in-depth qualitative analysis of stakeholder views to develop and implement targeted interventions to reduce salt intake. Discussion Salt reduction is a global priority and all Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed on a target to reduce salt intake by 30% by 2025, as part of the global action plan to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases. The study described by this protocol will be the first to provide a robust assessment of salt intake and the impact of salt reduction interventions in the Pacific Islands. As such, it will inform the development of strategies for other Pacific Island countries and comparable low and middle-income settings around the world. PMID:24495646

  2. Environmental fate and exposure; neonicotinoids and fipronil.

    PubMed

    Bonmatin, J-M; Giorio, C; Girolami, V; Goulson, D; Kreutzweiser, D P; Krupke, C; Liess, M; Long, E; Marzaro, M; Mitchell, E A D; Noome, D A; Simon-Delso, N; Tapparo, A

    2015-01-01

    -treated crops. Studies of food stores in honeybee colonies from across the globe demonstrate that colonies are routinely and chronically exposed to neonicotinoids, fipronil, and their metabolites (generally in the 1-100 ppb range), mixed with other pesticides some of which are known to act synergistically with neonicotinoids. Other nontarget organisms, particularly those inhabiting soils, aquatic habitats, or herbivorous insects feeding on noncrop plants in farmland, will also inevitably receive exposure, although data are generally lacking for these groups. We summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the environmental fate of these compounds by outlining what is known about the chemical properties of these compounds, and placing these properties in the context of modern agricultural practices. PMID:25096486

  3. Fate of Organic Micropollutants during Hydrothermal Carbonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, B.; Baskyr, I.; Pörschmann, J.; Kopinke, F.-D.

    2012-04-01

    contaminated biomass. Chlorinated aromatic compounds are not fully degraded during HTC. Therefore, the addition of catalysts and reagents for a possible reduction has been studied. Zero-valent environmentally acceptable metals, such as Fe or Si, are presented as potential additives for the dechlorination of chloronaphthalene as a representative of chloroaromatics. Furthermore, when using municipal household waste, such as the 'organic' bin, or gardening greens as biomass educts, these materials often contain traces of synthetic plastics, which can lead to problems during waste incineration. Initial studies on the fate of synthetic polymers will also be presented.

  4. The final fate of planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the first extra-solar planet around a main-sequence star in 1995 has changed the way we think about the Universe: our solar system is not unique. Twenty years later, we know that planetary systems are ubiquitous, orbit stars spanning a wide range in mass, and form in an astonishing variety of architectures. Yet, one fascinating aspect of planetary systems has received relatively little attention so far: their ultimate fate.Most planet hosts will eventually evolve into white dwarfs, Earth-sized stellar embers, and the outer parts of their planetary systems (in the solar system, Mars and beyond) can survive largely intact for billions of years. While scattered and tidally disrupted planetesimals are directly detected at a small number of white dwarfs in the form infrared excess, the most powerful probe for detecting evolved planetary systems is metal pollution of the otherwise pristine H/He atmospheres.I will present the results of a multi-cycle HST survey that has obtained COS observations of 136 white dwarfs. These ultraviolet spectra are exquisitely sensitive to the presence of metals contaminating the white atmosphere. Our sophisticated model atmosphere analysis demonstrates that at least 27% of all targets are currently accreting planetary debris, and an additional 29% have very likely done so in the past. These numbers suggest that planet formation around A-stars (the dominant progenitors of today's white dwarf population) is similarly efficient as around FGK stars.In addition to post-main sequence planetary system demographics, spectroscopy of the debris-polluted white dwarf atmospheres provides a direct window into the bulk composition of exo-planetesimals, analogous to the way we use of meteorites to determine solar-system abundances. Our ultraviolet spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to the detection of Si, a dominant rock-forming species, and we identify up to ten additional volatile and refractory elements in the most strongly

  5. MicroRNAs and cell fate in cortical and retinal development.

    PubMed

    Cremisi, Federico

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in crucial steps of neurogenesis, neural differentiation, and neuronal plasticity. Here we review experimental evidence suggesting that miRNAs may regulate the histogenesis of the cerebral cortex and neural retina. Both cortical and retinal early progenitor cells are multipotent, that is, they can generate different types of cortical or retinal cells, respectively, in one lineage. In both cortical and retinal development, the precise timing of activation of cell fate transcription factors results in a stereotyped schedule of generation of the different types of neurons. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs may play an important role in regulating such temporal programing of neuronal differentiation. Neuronal subtypes of the cortex and retina exhibit distinct miRNA signatures, implying that miRNA codes may be used to specify different types of neurons. Interfering with global miRNA activity changes the ratio of the different types of neurons produced. In fact, there are examples of cell fate genes that are regulated at the translational level, both in retinogenesis and in corticogenesis. A model depicting how miRNAs might orchestrate both the type and the birth of different neurons is presented and discussed. Glossary. • Lineage: the temporally ordered cell progeny of an individual progenitor cell. • Specification: the (reversible) process by which a cell becomes capable of, and biased toward, a particular fate. • Commitment: the process by which cell fate is fully determined and can no longer be affected by external cues. • Potency: the entire complement of cells that a progenitor can ultimately produce. • Multipotency: the ability to give rise to more than one cell type. • Progenitor: a dividing cell that, in contrast to a stem cell, cannot proliferate indefinitely. • Antago-miR: modified antisense oligonucleotide that blocks the activity of a miRNA. • Heterochronic neuron: type of neurons that is generated at

  6. Problems with estimating vitamin C intakes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R; Block, G; Taylor, P R

    1993-04-01

    The vitamin C content of foods was examined from two national databases and new values were obtained by HPLC. HPLC values were lower in four of the five highest vitamin C contributors to the US diet (orange juice, grapefruit, tomatoes and tomato juice, and potatoes), as well as in broccoli, red peppers, and cooked collard and mustard greens, compared with values from the other databases. When HPLC values were substituted in the Health Habits and History Questionnaire, the resulting estimates of dietary intake of vitamin C in two studies were lower. Despite these lower estimates of absolute intake, in one study the correlation between dietary vitamin C and plasma ascorbic acid was similar. In conclusion, the accuracy of the vitamin C content of foods is important for estimating the absolute amount of vitamin C intake in the population but may not change the ranking of people in epidemiological studies. PMID:8460610

  7. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  8. Cell fate determination by ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Achim; Iwasaki, Shintaro; McGourty, Colleen; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Teerikorpi, Nia; Fedrigo, Indro; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Rape, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metazoan development depends on accurate execution of differentiation programs that allow pluripotent stem cells to adopt specific fates 1. Differentiation requires changes to chromatin architecture and transcriptional networks, yet whether other regulatory events support cell fate determination is less well understood. Here, we have identified the vertebrate-specific ubiquitin ligase CUL3KBTBD8 as an essential regulator of neural crest specification. CUL3KBTBD8 monoubiquitylates NOLC1 and its paralog TCOF1, whose mutation underlies the neurocristopathy Treacher Collins Syndrome 2,3. Ubiquitylation drives formation of a TCOF1-NOLC1 platform that connects RNA polymerase I with ribosome modification enzymes and remodels the translational program of differentiating cells in favor of neural crest specification. We conclude that ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation is an important feature of cell fate determination. PMID:26399832

  9. Distinct interactions select and maintain a specific cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Dončić, Andreas; Falleur-Fettig, Melody; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to specify and maintain discrete cell fates is essential for development. However, the dynamics underlying selection and stability of distinct cell types remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a quantitative single-cell analysis of commitment dynamics during the mating-mitosis switch in budding yeast. Commitment to division corresponds precisely to activating the G1 cyclin positive feedback loop in competition with the cyclin inhibitor Far1. Cyclin-dependent phosphorylation and inhibition of the mating pathway scaffold Ste5 is required to ensure exclusive expression of the mitotic transcriptional program after cell cycle commitment. Failure to commit exclusively results in coexpression of both cell cycle and pheromone-induced genes, and a morphologically-mixed inviable cell fate. Thus, specification and maintenance of a cellular state are performed by distinct interactions, which is likely a consequence of disparate reaction rates and may be a general feature of the interlinked regulatory networks responsible for selecting cell fates. PMID:21855793

  10. Temporal competition between differentiation programs determines cell fate choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchina, Anna; Espinar, Lorena; Cagatay, Tolga; Balbin, Alejandro; Alvarado, Alma; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Suel, Gurol

    2011-03-01

    During pluripotent differentiation, cells adopt one of several distinct fates. The dynamics of this decision-making process are poorly understood, since cell fate choice may be governed by interactions between differentiation programs that are active at the same time. We studied the dynamics of decision-making in the model organism Bacillus subtilis by simultaneously measuring the activities of competing differentiation programs (sporulation and competence) in single cells. We discovered a precise switch-like point of cell fate choice previously hidden by cell-cell variability. Engineered artificial crosslinks between competence and sporulation circuits revealed that the precision of this choice is generated by temporal competition between the key players of two differentiation programs. Modeling suggests that variable progression towards a switch-like decision might represent a general strategy to maximize adaptability and robustness of cellular decision-making.

  11. Unambiguous observation of shape effects on cellular fate of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Zhang, Silu; Zhang, Bokai; Zhang, Chunyuan; Fang, Chia-Yi; Rehor, Ivan; Cigler, Petr; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Liu, Renbao; Li, Quan

    2014-03-01

    Cellular fate of nanoparticles is vital to application of nanoparticles to cell imaging, bio-sensing, drug delivery, suppression of drug resistance, gene delivery, and cytotoxicity analysis. However, the current studies on cellular fate of nanoparticles have been controversial due to complications of interplay between many possible factors. By well-controlled experiments, we demonstrated unambiguously that the morphology of nanoparticles independently determined their cellular fate. We found that nanoparticles with sharp shapes, regardless of their surface chemistry, size, or composition, could pierce the membranes of endosomes that carried them into the cells and escape to the cytoplasm, which in turn significantly reduced the cellular excretion rate of the nanoparticles. Such features of sharp-shaped nanoparticles are essential for drug delivery, gene delivery, subcellular targeting, and long-term tracking. This work opens up a controllable, purely geometrical and hence safe, degree of freedom for manipulating nanoparticle-cell interaction, with numerous applications in medicine, bio-imaging, and bio-sensing.

  12. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on Smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a Smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analyzed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behavior and to receive dietary recommendations to achieve weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children will also be reviewed. The body of research reviewed herein demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and the cost-effectiveness of the method. PMID:23848588

  13. Occurrence, fate and ecological risk of chlorinated paraffins in Asia: A review.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gao-Ling; Liang, Xiao-Liang; Li, Ding-Qiang; Zhuo, Mu-Ning; Zhang, Si-Yi; Huang, Qiu-Xin; Liao, Yi-Shan; Xie, Zhen-Yue; Guo, Tai-Long; Yuan, Zai-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), complex mixtures of polychlorinated alkanes, are widely used in various industries and are thus ubiquitous in the receiving environment. The present study comprehensively reviewed the occurrence, fate and ecological risk of CPs in various environmental matrices in Asia. Releases from the production and consumption of CPs or CP-containing materials, wastewater discharge and irrigation, sewage sludge application, long-range atmospheric transport and aerial deposition have been found to be most likely sources and transport mechanisms for the dispersion of CPs in various environmental matrices, such as air, water, sediment, soil and biota. CPs can be bioaccumulated in biota and biomagnified through food webs, likely causing toxic ecological effects in organisms and posing health risks to humans. Inhalation, dust ingestion and dietary intake are strongly suggested as the major routes of human exposure. Research gaps are discussed to highlight the perspectives of future research to improve future efforts regarding the analysis of CPs, the environmental occurrence and elimination of CPs, the total environmental pressure, and the risks to organisms and populations. PMID:27132163

  14. Association between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Li, Hui; Deng, Zhen-han; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Ding, Xiang; Xie, Dong-xing; Yang, Tu-bao; Lei, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and hyperuricemia (HU). Methods 5168 subjects were included in this study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Hyperuricemia (HU) was defined as uric acid ≥ 416 μmol/L for male population and ≥ 360 μmol/L for female. A multivariable logistic analysis model was applied to test the associations after adjusting a number of potential confounding factors. Results The relative odds of the overall prevalence of HU were decreased by 0.57 times in the fourth quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35–0.94) and 0.55 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30–1.01) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.091. The results of multivariable linear regression also suggested a significant inverse association between serum uric acid and Mg intake (β = -0.028, P = 0.022). For male, the relative odds of HU were decreased by 0.62 times in the third quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40–0.97), 0.40 times in the fourth quintile (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.23–0.72) and 0.35 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17–0.71) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.006. Multivariable adjusted inverse association was also existed between serum uric acid and Mg intake in male population (β = -0.061, P = 0.002). However, no significant association was observed between dietary Mg intake and HU for female. Conclusions The findings of this cross-sectional study indicated that dietary Mg intake is inversely associated with HU, independent of some major confounding factors. In addition, this association remains valid for the male subgroup, but not for the female subgroup. Level of Evidence LevelIII, cross-sectional study. PMID:26536119

  15. Regulation of Hepatocyte Fate by Interferon-γ

    PubMed Central

    Horras, Christopher J.; Lamb, Cheri L.; Mitchell, Kristen A.

    2011-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ is a cytokine known for its immunomodulatory and anti-proliferative action. In the liver, IFN-γ can induce hepatocyte apoptosis or inhibit hepatocyte cell cycle progression. This article reviews recent mechanistic reports that describe how IFN-γ may direct the fate of hepatocytes either towards apoptosis or a cell cycle arrest. This review also describes a probable role for IFN-γ in modulating hepatocyte fate during liver regeneration, transplantation, hepatitis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and highlights promising areas of research that may lead to the development of IFN-γ as a therapy to enhance recovery from liver disease. PMID:21334249

  16. Transcriptional control of cell fate in the stomatal lineage.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Abigail R; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2016-02-01

    The Arabidopsis stomatal lineage is a microcosm of development; it undergoes selection of precursor cells, asymmetric and stem cell-like divisions, cell commitment and finally, acquisition of terminal cell fates. Recent transcriptomic approaches revealed major shifts in gene expression accompanying each fate transition, and mechanistic analysis of key bHLH transcription factors, along with mathematical modeling, has begun to unravel how these major shifts are coordinated. In addition, stomatal initiation is proving to be a tractable model for defining the genetic and epigenetic basis of stable cell identities and for understanding the integration of environmental responses into developmental programs. PMID:26550955

  17. Pioneer transcription factors, chromatin dynamics, and cell fate control.

    PubMed

    Zaret, Kenneth S; Mango, Susan E

    2016-04-01

    Among the diverse transcription factors that are necessary to elicit changes in cell fate, both in embryonic development and in cellular reprogramming, a subset of factors are capable of binding to their target sequences on nucleosomal DNA and initiating regulatory events in silent chromatin. Such 'pioneer transcription factors' initiate cooperative interactions with other regulatory proteins to elicit changes in local chromatin structure. As a consequence of pioneer factor binding, the local chromatin can either become open and competent for activation, closed and repressed, or transcriptionally active. Understanding how pioneer factors initiate chromatin dynamics and how such can be blocked at heterochromatic sites provides insights into controlling cell fate transitions at will. PMID:26826681

  18. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. PMID:25668514

  19. An Analytical Pipeline for Quantitative Characterization of Dietary Intake: Application To Assess Grape Intake.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Chambers, Edward S; Nicholson, Jeremy K; C Mathers, John; Beckmann, Manfred; Draper, John; Holmes, Elaine; Frost, Gary

    2016-03-23

    Lack of accurate dietary assessment in free-living populations requires discovery of new biomarkers reflecting food intake qualitatively and quantitatively to objectively evaluate effects of diet on health. We provide a proof-of-principle for an analytical pipeline to identify quantitative dietary biomarkers. Tartaric acid was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a dose-responsive urinary biomarker of grape intake and subsequently quantified in volunteers following a series of 4-day dietary interventions incorporating 0 g/day, 50 g/day, 100 g/day, and 150 g/day of grapes in standardized diets from a randomized controlled clinical trial. Most accurate quantitative predictions of grape intake were obtained in 24 h urine samples which have the strongest linear relationship between grape intake and tartaric acid excretion (r(2) = 0.90). This new methodological pipeline for estimating nutritional intake based on coupling dietary intake information and quantified nutritional biomarkers was developed and validated in a controlled dietary intervention study, showing that this approach can improve the accuracy of estimating nutritional intakes. PMID:26909845

  20. Predicted fate and transport of mercury emitted from utility boilers in the local atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, G.E.; Lyon, B.F.; Keating, M.

    1996-12-31

    In 1990 it was estimated that utility boilers accounted for approximately 21% of anthropogenic mercury emitted to the atmosphere in the US. To characterize the utility industry a series of model plants were developed. Using a modified version of the COMPDEP air model, the fate of the mercury emissions from the model plant developed to represent large coal-burning boilers was predicted. Estimated annual air concentrations at a hypothetical site 2.5 Km downwind from the model plant were 0.001 ng/m{sup 3} and the estimated annual mercury deposition rate was less than 10 ug/m{sup 2}/yr. Of the mercury emitted from this model plant, less than 5% percent is predicted to deposit within 50 Km of the emission source. The mercury remaining in the atmosphere is thought to become part of a regional and eventually global mass of atmospheric mercury.

  1. A Mercury Transport and Fate Model for Mass Budget Assessment of Mercury Cycling in Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mercury mass balance model was developed to describe and evaluate the fate, transport, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. Coupling with total suspendable solids (TSS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the mercury transport and fate model simulates...

  2. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between residual energy intake and growth, feed intake, and carcass traits of young bulls.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J; Mao, I L; Andersen, B B; Madsen, P

    1992-02-01

    Residual energy intake, defined as actual minus predicted energy intake during a production period, was estimated for each of 650 bull calves of 31 Holstein Friesian or Brown Swiss sires. Residual energy intake, measured under ad libitum feeding, had heritabilities similar to those of growth rate and energy conversion ratio with an estimate of approximately .3. Residual energy intake was related to average daily energy intake both phenotypically and genetically such that selection for decreased residual energy intake would lead to a decrease in daily feed intake. Such selection would also tend to increase carcass fatness (i.e., genetically fat animals are the most efficient). Residual energy intake estimated with and without correction for carcass composition were closely correlated. Thus, residual energy intake may be estimated without the knowledge of carcass composition in growing bulls of dual-purpose breeds. PMID:1548200

  3. A Systematic Investigation into the Environmental Fate of Microcystins and The Potential Risk: Study in Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Junmei; Chen, Qiuwen; Lauridsen, Torben L.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic investigation was conducted in Lake Taihu in autumn of 2013 and 2014, in order to understand the environmental fate of microcystins (MCs) and evaluate the health risk from MCs. Samples of water, algal cells, macrophytes, shrimps and fish were taken to detect MCs by HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. Widespread MC contamination in water, algal cells, macrophytes, shrimps and fish was found in Lake Taihu. The ubiquitous presence of MCs in water, algal cells and biota was found in 100% of samples. MC accumulation was in the order of primary producer > tertiary consumer > secondary consumer > primary consumer. The highest levels of MCs in macrophytes, shrimps and fish tissue were found in Potamogeton maackianus, Exopalaemon modestus, and Hyporhamphus intermedius, respectively. The MCs level in shrimps and the tissues of three fish species, Neosalanx tangkahkeii taihuensis, Coilia ectenes and silver carp, was closely linked to their dietary exposure. Ceratophyllum demersum L. was an ideal plant for introduction into lakes to protect against Microcystis blooms and MCs, due to its ability to absorb nutrients, accumulate large amounts of MCs and tolerate these toxins compared to other macrophytes. The average daily intakes (ADIs) of MCs for Exopalaemon modestus and three fish species, Coilia ectenes, Hyporhamphus intermedius and Carassius carassius, were all above the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) set by the World Health Organization (WHO), implying there existed potential threats to human health. PMID:27271667

  4. A Systematic Investigation into the Environmental Fate of Microcystins and The Potential Risk: Study in Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Jia, Junmei; Chen, Qiuwen; Lauridsen, Torben L

    2016-01-01

    A systematic investigation was conducted in Lake Taihu in autumn of 2013 and 2014, in order to understand the environmental fate of microcystins (MCs) and evaluate the health risk from MCs. Samples of water, algal cells, macrophytes, shrimps and fish were taken to detect MCs by HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. Widespread MC contamination in water, algal cells, macrophytes, shrimps and fish was found in Lake Taihu. The ubiquitous presence of MCs in water, algal cells and biota was found in 100% of samples. MC accumulation was in the order of primary producer > tertiary consumer > secondary consumer > primary consumer. The highest levels of MCs in macrophytes, shrimps and fish tissue were found in Potamogeton maackianus, Exopalaemon modestus, and Hyporhamphus intermedius, respectively. The MCs level in shrimps and the tissues of three fish species, Neosalanx tangkahkeii taihuensis, Coilia ectenes and silver carp, was closely linked to their dietary exposure. Ceratophyllum demersum L. was an ideal plant for introduction into lakes to protect against Microcystis blooms and MCs, due to its ability to absorb nutrients, accumulate large amounts of MCs and tolerate these toxins compared to other macrophytes. The average daily intakes (ADIs) of MCs for Exopalaemon modestus and three fish species, Coilia ectenes, Hyporhamphus intermedius and Carassius carassius, were all above the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) set by the World Health Organization (WHO), implying there existed potential threats to human health. PMID:27271667

  5. Chlorinated paraffins in the environment: A review on their production, fate, levels and trends between 2010 and 2015.

    PubMed

    van Mourik, Louise M; Gaus, Caroline; Leonards, Pim E G; de Boer, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    This review provides an update on information regarding the production volumes, regulations, as well as the environmental levels, trends, fate and human exposure to chlorinated paraffin mixtures (CPs). CPs encompas thousands congeners with varying properties and environmental fate. Based on their carbon chain lengths, CPs are divided into short- (SCCPs; C10-13), medium- (MCCPs; C14-17) and long- (LCCPs; C ≥ 18) chained groups. They are high production volume and persistent chemicals, and their cumulative global production already surpasses that of other persistent anthropogenic chemicals (e.g. PCBs). However, international regulations are still curbed by insufficient information on their levels and fate, including bioaccumulation and toxicity potential. An increasing number of studies since 2010 demonstrate that CPs are detected in almost every compartment in the environment, including remote areas. Consensus on the long range transport and high bioaccumulation potential (BCF > 5000 & TMF > 1) has recently been reached for SCCPs, fulfilling criteria under the Stockholm Convention for designation as a persistent organic pollutant; information on their levels is, however, still sparse for many countries. M/LCCPs have received comparatively little attention in the past, but as replacement chemicals for SCCPs, MCCPs are now considered in an increasing number of studies. The limited data to date suggests MCCPs are widely used. Although data on their bioaccumulation and toxicity are still inconclusive, MCCPs and LCCPs with C<20 may also have a bioaccumulation potential. Considering this and their high production volumes, use, and ubiquitous occurrence in the environment, a better understanding on the levels and fate of all CPs is needed. PMID:27135701

  6. The medical management of unintentional radionuclide intakes.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, B D

    2003-01-01

    As a general medical problem, radionuclide intakes that may cause significant health effects are uncommon events. In preparing to manage a radionuclide accident, planning is the key. The medical aspects of such an accident are only one part of the management, and a professional team approach is required. Specific priorities and sequencing are necessary in medically managing a radionuclide intake. As soon as is reasonably practical, promptly remove the victim(s) from further radionuclide, radiation field, or chemical exposure. Life and limb-saving medical aid takes precedence over ionising radiation concerns in nearly all cases. Next are the prevention and/or minimisation of internal intake of radionuclides and evaluation and control of external radionuclide contamination, followed by institution of treatment to minimise the retained radionuclide. Communication with the accident victim, and his or her family, and public affairs/media issues are important. Finally, follow-up treatment for internal intakes that may cause delayed health effects is given. PMID:14527016

  7. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  8. Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

  9. INFORMATION SOURCE ON COOLING WATER INTAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Supports the technical and financial analysis for the cooling water intake structure rule under Section 316(b) of the CWA.
    Legislation/Enabling Authority:Section 308
    Supported Program:Water permits - implementation of Section 316(b) of ...

  10. Predicting forage intake in extensive grazing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary intake by cattle and other ruminants is controlled by a complex mix of physical and physiological factors that interact with a variety of environmental, geo-spatial, and experiential influences external to the animal. These factors are intensified in grazing ruminants, where selective gra...

  11. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Poda, G A

    1983-01-01

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry.

  12. Parents significantly overestimate zinc intakes in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary surveys (e.g., CSFII) suggest that many toddlers exceed the Institute of Medicine's tolerable upper limit (UL) for zinc. Our objective was to compare zinc intakes estimated from parental report of toddlers to weighed dietary records carried out at home and in an inpatient setting at the Gene...

  13. Protein Intake and Growth in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Emma L.; Collins, Carmel T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This review aimed to investigate the relationship between varying levels of enteral protein intake and growth in preterm infants, regardless of feeding method. Data Sources. Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies, as were review articles, reference lists, and text books. Study Selection. Trials were included if they were randomized or quasirandomized, participants were <37 weeks gestation at birth, and protein intakes were intentionally or statistically different between study groups. Trials reporting weight, length, and head circumference gains in infants fed formula, human milk, or fortified human milk were included. Data Extraction. Studies were categorized by feeding-type and relevant data were extracted into summary tables by one reviewer and cross-checked by a second. Data Synthesis. A meta-analysis could not be conducted due to extensive variability among studies; thus, results were synthesized graphically and narratively. Twenty-four trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in a narrative synthesis and 19 in a graphical synthesis of study results. Conclusions. There was extensive variability in study design, participant characteristics, and study quality. Nonetheless, results are fairly consistent that higher protein intake results in increased growth with graphical representation indicating a potentially linear relationship. Additionally, intakes as high as 4.5 g/kg/day were shown to be safe in infants weighing >1000 g. PMID:27335914

  14. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Khodarahmi, Mahdieh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case-control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations. PMID:27195249

  15. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  16. Shock Induced Separating Flows in Scramjet Intakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yufeng; Rincon, Daniel; Zheng, Yao

    Shock induced separating flows in a scramjet intake has been studied by using a computational fluid dynamics approach. A configuration of scramjet intake geometry consisting of two exterior compression ramps, followed by a subsequent inlet and interior isolator/diffuser assembly, is chosen. The flow conditions are incoming Mach 7 with free-stream static temperature of 46.3K and wall temperature of 300K, respectively. Consequently, oblique shock wave will be formed and its interaction with viscous boundary layers will lead to flow separation that is responsible for the loss of mass flow, total pressure and several other effects. Simulations confirmed that it is necessary to include the cowl wedge in order to predict wall pressure distributions along the lower surface of the intake walls. It is also shown that mesh topology has some influences on prediction results with structured mesh gives better predictions than that of hybrid mesh. A total of eight turbulence models have been applied and results have shown reasonably good agreement with the experimental measurements and other numerical predictions, with small differences occur in localized regions particularly after shock reflection inside the intake channel. Not surprisingly, shock induced flow separation occurs and it correlates well with higher wall pressure and heating downstream. This phenomenon will have significant impact on deteriorating boundary layer property and consequently the engine performance.

  17. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  18. Preconceptional Iron Intake and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Darling, Anne Marie; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the impact of preconceptional heme and non-heme iron on gestational diabetes mellitius (GDM) in the Boston University Slone Epidemiology Birth Defects Study (BDS). This retrospective cohort analysis included 7229 participants enrolled in the BDS between 1998 and 2008 who gave birth to non-malformed infants and were free of pre-existing diabetes. All data were collected through structured interviews conducted within 6 months of delivery. Calorie-adjusted and multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. Preconceptional dietary heme iron was modestly associated with an elevated risk of GDM among those (multivariable OR comparing the fifth quintile to the first: 1.55; 95% CI 0.98, 2.46). Conversely, preconceptional dietary non-heme iron was associated with a decreased risk of GDM among those in the fifth quintile of intake compared to the first (multivariable OR: 0.48; 95% CI 0.28, 0.81). Women who consumed supplemental iron during preconception also had a decreased risk of GDM (multivariable OR: 0.78; 95% CI 0.60, 1.02). In conclusion, our data support a positive association between preconceptional heme iron intake and GDM and an inverse association between preconceptional non-heme iron intake from foods and preconceptional intake from supplements. PMID:27231921

  19. Preconceptional Iron Intake and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Anne Marie; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the impact of preconceptional heme and non-heme iron on gestational diabetes mellitius (GDM) in the Boston University Slone Epidemiology Birth Defects Study (BDS). This retrospective cohort analysis included 7229 participants enrolled in the BDS between 1998 and 2008 who gave birth to non-malformed infants and were free of pre-existing diabetes. All data were collected through structured interviews conducted within 6 months of delivery. Calorie-adjusted and multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. Preconceptional dietary heme iron was modestly associated with an elevated risk of GDM among those (multivariable OR comparing the fifth quintile to the first: 1.55; 95% CI 0.98, 2.46). Conversely, preconceptional dietary non-heme iron was associated with a decreased risk of GDM among those in the fifth quintile of intake compared to the first (multivariable OR: 0.48; 95% CI 0.28, 0.81). Women who consumed supplemental iron during preconception also had a decreased risk of GDM (multivariable OR: 0.78; 95% CI 0.60, 1.02). In conclusion, our data support a positive association between preconceptional heme iron intake and GDM and an inverse association between preconceptional non-heme iron intake from foods and preconceptional intake from supplements. PMID:27231921

  20. Advantageous effect of theanine intake on cognition.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairment of recognition memory, the advantageous effect of theanine intake on recognition memory was examined in young rats, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning. The rats were subjected to object recognition test. Object recognition memory was maintained in theanine-administered rats 48 hours after the training, but not in the control rats. When in vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced, it was more greatly induced in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and nerve growth factor in the hippocampus were significantly higher in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The present study indicates the advantageous effect of theanine intake after weaning on recognition memory. It is likely that theanine intake is of advantage to the development of hippocampal function after weaning. PMID:24621060

  1. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahmi, Mahdieh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations. PMID:27195249

  2. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. With this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer...

  3. Western-Style Fast Food Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in an Eastern Country

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.; Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Western-style fast food contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. Methods and Results We examined the association of Western-style fast food intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999 –2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (≥2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 –2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Conclusions Western-style fast food intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions. PMID:22753304

  4. Daily boron intake from the American diet.

    PubMed

    Rainey, C J; Nyquist, L A; Christensen, R E; Strong, P L; Culver, B D; Coughlin, J R

    1999-03-01

    Interest in boron as a naturally occurring trace element nutrient from the food supply is increasing. Mounting evidence suggests that boron is essential to human beings. This study explores the major food and beverage contributors of boron and estimates of daily boron intake from the American diet. Previous estimates in the literature of dietary boron consumption are based on limited foods and population segments. In this study we provide a more comprehensive assessment of boron consumption by the US population. A boron nutrient database of 1,944 individual foods was developed. These foods represent 95.3% by weight of all foods consumed in the US Department of Agriculture 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1989-1991 CSFII). The Boron Nutrient Database (version 1.0) was then linked to the 3-day food records of 11,009 respondents to the 1989-1991 CSFII to generate the average daily boron intake for each person. The weighted 5th percentile, median, mean, and 95th percentile boron intakes, respectively, are 0.43, 1.02, 1.17 and 2.42 mg/day for men; 0.33, 0.83, 0.96 and 1.94 mg/day for women; and 0.40, 0.86, 1.01 and 2.18 mg/day for pregnant women. For vegetarian adults, these intakes are 0.46, 1.30, 1.47 and 2.74 mg/day for men and 0.33, 1.00, 1.29 and 4.18 mg/day for women. The top 2 boron contributors, coffee and milk, are low in boron, yet they make up 12% of the total boron intake by virtue of the volume consumed. Among the top 50 boron contributors, peanut butter, wine, raisins, peanuts, and other nuts are high in boron. As more data become available on daily boron requirements, the results of this study may be used to assess whether Americans' daily intake of boron is adequate. PMID:10076586

  5. Fruit and vegetable intake and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Numerous studies support the protective effect of high fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption on chronic disease risk, mainly against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with younger adults, older people experience additional health, social, and environmental conditions that affect dietary intake. To identify those additional dimensions and examine them in association with FV intake, data on 3,840 participants in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in South Africa were analyzed. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study in 2008 with a sample of 3,840 participants, aged 50 years or older, in South Africa. The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between socio-demographic factors, health variables, and inadequate FV consumption. Results Overall prevalence rates of insufficient FV intake were 68.5%, 64.8% among men and 71.4% among women, with a mean intake of 4.0 servings of FV among older adults (50 years and older). In multivariable analysis, coming from the Black African or Colored population group, lower educational level and daily tobacco use were associated with inadequate FV intake. Conclusions The amount of fruit and vegetables (FVs) consumed by older South African participants was considerably lower than current recommendations (daily intake of at least five servings; 400 g). Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of FVs should be promoted targeting lower educated and Black African and Colored population groups. PMID:23195518

  6. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  7. The Relationship of Caffeine Intake with Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Sleep in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Mi-Joo; Ko, Hae-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Min; Kim, A-Sol; Moon, Ha-Na; Jung, Seung-Pi

    2016-01-01

    Background In various studies in adults, caffeine may increase wakefulness and relieve pain, but caffeine overdose can cause many adverse serious effects on health. Caffeine intake has recently been increasing in adolescents. In spite of importance of caffeine effects on Korean adolescents, there are lack of scientific and systematic studies. The purpose of our study was to identify the relationship between caffeine consumption and effects on adolescents. Methods We performed study on 234 middle school students at one middle school in Daegu using a self-report questionnaire. We divided students to quartiles according to amount of caffeine intake. We used Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to evaluate the degree of depression and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) to evaluate the degree of anxiety. We also used Insomnia Severity Scale (ISI) to evaluate the degree of insomnia and Global Assessment of Recent Stress (GARS) to evaluate the stress in students. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the relationship between caffeine consumption and effects. Results Higher caffeine intake was associated with higher weight, height, lower academic achievement, and higher score in BDI, BAI, ISI, and GARS (P for trend <0.005). Higher caffeine intake quartile was associated with greater odds of having significant depression (BDI ≥10, P for trend=0.011), and insomnia (ISI ≥8, P for trend=0.015) after adjustment for factors that can affect the psychological status. Conclusion We found that caffeine intake is associated weight, height, academic achievement, and higher score in BDI, BAI, ISI, and GARS. Caffeine intake was positively associated with the severity of depression and the severity of insomnia among adolescents in Korean. PMID:27073610

  8. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M

    2015-06-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  9. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  10. Memory facilitation educed by food intake.

    PubMed

    Oomura, Y; Sasaki, K; Li, A J

    1993-09-01

    Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) in rat CSF increased 1000 times in the 2-h period after food intake, or IP, or ICV glucose infusion. The ICV application of aFGF dose dependently depresses and anti-aFGF antibody facilitates food intake. aFGF is produced in the ependymal cells and released into the CSF in response to increased glucose in the CSF caused by food intake. Released aFGF diffused into the brain parenchyma and was taken up into neurons in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, etc. IP injection of glucose 2 h before a task that combined acquisition with passive avoidance significantly increased retention of avoidance by mice tested 24 h later. In a Morris water maze task, IP glucose injection 2 h before a first trial block reduced time to find and climb onto a platform hidden just below the water surface. The glucose facilitation of these affective and spatial memory were abolished by pretreatment with anti-aFGF antibody applied ICV. Continuous ICV infusion of aFGF into rats also significantly increased the reliability of passive avoidance for several days. After food intake, centrally released aFGF reaches the hippocampus and facilitates memory; peripherally released cholecystokinin reaches the endings of the afferent vagal nerves in the portal vein and changes their activity, which modulates hippocampal activity, to lead to memory facilitation. This, however, is blocked by vagotomy below the diaphragm. The results indicate the importance of food intake, not only to maintain homeostasis, but also to prepare a readiness state for memory facilitation. PMID:7692459

  11. MODELING THE FATE OF TOXIC ORGANIC MATERIALS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Documentation is given for PEST, a dynamic simulation model for evaluating the fate of toxic organic materials (TOM) in freshwater environments. PEST represents the time-varying concentration (in ppm) of a given TOM in each of as many as 16 carrier compartments; it also computes ...

  12. Fate of 17B-estradiol in anaerobic lagoon digesters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fate of [14C]17B-estradiol ([14C]E2) was monitored for 42 d in triplicate 10 L anaerobic digesters. Total radioactive residues (TRR) decreased rapidly in the liquid layer of the digesters and reached a steady-state value of 19-24% of the initial dose after 4 days. LC/MS/MS analyses of the liqu...

  13. Integrated fate and toxicity assessment for site contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Finster, Molly; Douglas, R.

    2007-07-01

    Understanding the fate and toxicity of environmental contaminants is essential to framing practical management decisions. Forms and bioavailable concentrations often change over time due to natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. For some sites, hundreds of contaminants may be of initial interest, and even small projects can involve a substantial number of contaminants. With multiple assessments common, attention to effectiveness and efficiency is important, and integrating fate and toxicity information provides a valuable way to focus the analyses. Fate assessments help identify what forms may be present where and when, while toxicity information indicates what health effects could result if people were exposed. The integration process is illustrated by an application for the Hanford site, to support long-term management decisions for the cesium and strontium capsules. Fate data, health-based benchmarks, and related toxicity information were effectively combined to indicate performance targets for chemicals and radionuclides identified for capsule leachate that could migrate to groundwater. More than 50 relevant benchmarks and toxicity context were identified for 15 of the 17 study contaminants; values for chronic drinking water exposure provided the common basis for selected indicators. For two chemicals, toxicity information was identified from the scientific literature to guide the performance targets. (authors)

  14. Post-dispersal seed fates of four prairie species.

    PubMed

    Clark, Deborah L; Wilson, Mark V

    2003-05-01

    After dispersal, seeds can germinate and establish as seedlings, persist as seeds, or die. Knowledge of these three seed fates is crucial for understanding the abundance and distribution of plant populations and ultimately, community composition and diversity. Few studies, however, have simultaneously measured these fates, while also examining the factors causing mortality. The goal of this research was to simultaneously quantify the three seed fates and factors causing death (predation and fungal disease) for four species found in prairies in western Oregon, USA. The most common seed fate for the four study species was death (44-80%). Fungal disease, which has seldom been quantified in natural ecosystems, generally caused less than 10% mortality for each of the four species. Vertebrate predation substantially reduced seed numbers only for Bromus carinatus (21%). Of the unmeasured mortality factors, indirect evidence showed invertebrate predation was a cause of death for seeds of only one species, Prunella vulgaris. In addition, competitive pressures caused seedling death for only the two grass species, Bromus carinatus and Cynosurus echinatus. Survival as established seedlings was generally much more common than survival as persistent seed, with the exception of Daucus carota, in which 14% of the sown seeds persisted the first year. PMID:21659169

  15. FATE OF TRACE AND MINOR CONSTITUENTS OF COAL DURING GASIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the fate of selected minor and trace elements of Montana lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coals during development of the HYGAS process. Solid residue samples from various development stages were analyzed. The data indicate that certain...

  16. Fate and lability of silver in soils: Effect of ageing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate and lability of added soluble Ag in soils over time was examined by measurement of labile metal (E-value) by isotopic dilution using the 110mAg radioactive isotope and the solid-phase speciation of Ag by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrosco...

  17. Fate of estradiol and testosterone in anaerobic lagoon digestors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-scale lagoon digestors were constructed, and the fate of 14C-labelled 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (Test) were monitored for 42 d anaerobically under biological and sterile conditions. Hormone levels decreased in the liquid layer and increased in the sludge with time. At 42 d, 16-2...

  18. RIVERBANK FILTRATION: FATE OF DBP PRECURSORS AND SELECTED MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors and selected microorganisms during riverbank filtration (RBF) was monitored at three different mid-Western drinking water utilities. At all three sites, filtration (RBF) was monitored at three different mid-Western drinking wa...

  19. Models of Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Surface Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okome, Gloria Eloho

    2013-01-01

    There is the need to answer very crucial questions of "what happens to pollutants in surface waters?" This question must be answered to determine the factors controlling fate and transport of chemicals and their evolutionary state in surface waters. Monitoring and experimental methods are used in establishing the environmental states.…

  20. Fate of glucuronide conjugated estradiol in the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fate and transport of conjugated reproductive hormones, which are polar compared to parent hormones, are little understood. Laboratory bench-scale soil (Hamar; Sandy, mixed, frigid typic Endoaquolls) sorption studies were conducted using [14C] 17ß-estradiol-3-glucuronide for a range of concentra...

  1. TESTING MODELS OF THE FATE OF CHEMICALS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory ecosystems have been used to test a model for the fate of toxic chemicals. Two questions are asked in such a test. First, are the laboratory systems functional ecosystems in which primary productivity, secondary productivity, decomposition, element cycling, and various...

  2. Fate and transport of titania nanoparticles in freshwater mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Miracle, Ann L.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Ward, Jeffrey A.

    2008-10-01

    Titania nanoparticles are currently associated with air, soil, and water and with numerous products directed at human use and consumption (e.g., sunscreen, cosmetics, and food coatings). The environmental fate and transport of TiO2, or any nanomaterials entering dynamic aquatic environments are largely unknown. Because the physical and chemical properties of TiO2 are variable (size, surface chemistry, and composition), the movement, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of these materials are difficult to study in a complex ecosystem. Many metal oxide materials are durable and recalcitrant, and the accumulation of TiO2 in the environment could be significant over time and cause unforeseen impacts on ecosystems. Fate and transport of TiO2 nanomaterials in a bench-scale mesocosm system was assessed through nanomaterial partitioning and complexation in water, sediment, and tissue media characterized using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. Research data sets like these will build the foundation for future use in fate and transport of other nanomaterials in different water systems (fresh, estuarine, and marine) and in building empirical and process models that investigate environmental fate and transport and relevant freshwater ecological impacts of nanomaterials.

  3. Stochastic Cell Fate Progression in Embryonic Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ling-Nan; Doyle, Adele; Jang, Sumin; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2013-03-01

    Studies on the directed differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells suggest that some early developmental decisions may be stochastic in nature. To identify the sources of this stochasticity, we analyzed the heterogeneous expression of key transcription factors in single ES cells as they adopt distinct germ layer fates. We find that under sufficiently stringent signaling conditions, the choice of lineage is unambiguous. ES cells flow into differentiated fates via diverging paths, defined by sequences of transitional states that exhibit characteristic co-expression of multiple transcription factors. These transitional states have distinct responses to morphogenic stimuli; by sequential exposure to multiple signaling conditions, ES cells are steered towards specific fates. However, the rate at which cells travel down a developmental path is stochastic: cells exposed to the same signaling condition for the same amount of time can populate different states along the same path. The heterogeneity of cell states seen in our experiments therefore does not reflect the stochastic selection of germ layer fates, but the stochastic rate of progression along a chosen developmental path. Supported in part by the Jane Coffin Childs Fund

  4. THE LOADINGS, TRANSPORT, AND FATE OF ATRAZINE IN LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A lake wide atrazine model was developed to gain insight into the transport and fate of the herbicide in Lake Michigan. An important part of the analysis was the preparation of historical loading estimates from both tributaries and the atmosphere. Historical tributary loading est...

  5. Stochastic fate selection in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Ariel D; Weinberger, Leor S

    2013-10-24

    Classic studies proposed that stochastic variability ("noise") can drive biological fate switching, enhancing evolutionary success. Now, Ho et al. report that HIV's reactivation from dormant (latently infected) patient cells-the major barrier to an HIV cure-is inherently stochastic. Eradicating an incompletely inducible (probabilistic) viral phenotype will require inventive approaches. PMID:24243007

  6. Fgf signaling governs cell fate in the zebrafish pineal complex

    PubMed Central

    Clanton, Joshua A.; Hope, Kyle D.; Gamse, Joshua T.

    2013-01-01

    Left-right (L-R) asymmetries in neuroanatomy exist throughout the animal kingdom, with implications for function and behavior. The molecular mechanisms that control formation of such asymmetries are beginning to be understood. Significant progress has been made by studying the zebrafish parapineal organ, a group of neurons on the left side of the epithalamus. Parapineal cells arise from the medially located pineal complex anlage and migrate to the left side of the brain. We have found that Fgf8a regulates a fate decision among anterior pineal complex progenitors that occurs just prior to the initiation of leftward migration. Cell fate analysis shows that in the absence of Fgf8a a subset of cells in the anterior pineal complex anlage differentiate as cone photoreceptors rather than parapineal neurons. Fgf8a acts permissively to promote parapineal fate in conjunction with the transcription factor Tbx2b, but might also block cone photoreceptor fate. We conclude that this subset of anterior pineal complex precursors, which normally become parapineal cells, are bipotential and require Fgf8a to maintain parapineal identity and/or prevent cone identity. PMID:23250206

  7. Fate of virginiamycin through the fuel ethanol production process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are frequently used to prevent and treat bacterial contamination of commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, but there is concern that antibiotic residues may persist in the distillers grains coproducts. A study to evaluate the fate of virginiamycin during the ethanol production process wa...

  8. THE MODELING OF THE FATE AND TRANSPORT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current models that predict the fate of organic compounds released to the environment are based on the assumption that these compounds exist exclusively as neutral species. This assumption is untrue under many environmental conditions, as some molecules can exist as cations, anio...

  9. VIRAL TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELS FOR GROUND WATER VULNERABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project is to develop a model to assess the vulnerability of public water systems to pathogens. It is focused on the sources, fate and transport of viruses in aquifer systems in specific hydrologic settings. It's intended to be used by resource managers or r...

  10. THE RELATIVE FATE OF CARBON AMONG DIFFERENT INTERTIDAL MARSH COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of marsh production determines the functional role of marshes in estuarine carbon dynamics. Differences in the physicochemical environment, largely related to the mixing of fresh water and seawater, result in a variety of degradational settings and plant communities. It...

  11. AIR TOXICS CHEMISTRY: LIFETIME AND FATE OF AIR TOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full assessment of the impact of the release of air toxic compounds into the atmosphere requires a detailed understanding of their atmospheres lifetimes and fates. The objective of this task is to begin to develop such data for the 33 classes of air toxic compounds identified ...

  12. SDMProjectBuilder: SWAT Setup for Nutrient Fate and Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    This tutorial reviews some of the screens, icons, and basic functions of the SDMProjectBuilder (SDMPB) and explains how one uses SDMPB output to populate the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) input files for nutrient fate and transport modeling in the Salt River Basin. It dem...

  13. Specification of epidermal cell fate in plant shoots.

    PubMed

    Takada, Shinobu; Iida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Land plants have evolved a single layer of epidermal cells, which are characterized by mostly anticlinal cell division patterns, formation of a waterproof coat called cuticle, and unique cell types such as stomatal guard cells and trichomes. The shoot epidermis plays important roles not only to protect plants from dehydration and pathogens but also to ensure their proper organogenesis and growth control. Extensive molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis and maize have identified a number of genes that are required for epidermal cell differentiation. However, the mechanism that specifies shoot epidermal cell fate during plant organogenesis remains largely unknown. Particularly, little is known regarding positional information that should restrict epidermal cell fate to the outermost cell layer of the developing organs. Recent studies suggested that certain members of the HD-ZIP class IV homeobox genes are possible master regulators of shoot epidermal cell fate. Here, we summarize the roles of the regulatory genes that are involved in epidermal cell fate specification and discuss the possible mechanisms that limit the expression and/or activity of the master transcriptional regulators to the outermost cell layer in plant shoots. PMID:24616724

  14. FATE OF INHALED NITROGEN DIOXIDE IN ISOLATED PERFUSED RAT LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of inhaled NO2 was studied with isolated perfused rat lungs. The isolated lungs were exposed to 5 ppm NO2 for 90 min at a ventilation rate of 45 ml/min. The NO2 exposure had no adverse effects on the lungs as judged from their weights, glucose uptake, or lactate producti...

  15. UNDERSTANDING THE FATE OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN THE SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sinca a significant number of the two or more million underground storage tank (UST) systems used for petroleum products leak, their cleanup poses a major environmental challenge. Our understnading of the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment is critical t...

  16. Fate and transport of manure-borne microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This lecture presents the overview of the recent research results on the environmental microbial fate and transport in the Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory. The overview of experimental sites in Maryland and Pennsylvania, and laboratory setups will be given. The emphasis on envir...

  17. Fate and Bioavailability of Sulfamethazine in Freshwater Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibiotic sulfamethazine can be transported from manured fields to surface water bodies. We investigated the degradation, fate, and bioavailability of sulfamethazine in surface water using 14C-phenyl-sulfamethazine in small pond water microcosms. Sulfamethazine dissipated exponentially from the...

  18. Fate and transport of arsenic from organoarsenicals fed to poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the fate of arsenic (As) in land-applied litter from chickens that have been fed roxarsone, an organic feed additive containing As. This chapter seeks to review the likelyhood of the biodegradation of roxarsone and the subsequent transport of As in runoff from a case study cond...

  19. FATE OF 3,3'-DICHLOROBENZIDINE IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several aspects of the aquatic environmental fate of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine (DCB), a suspected human carcinogen, were examined. Greater than 95% of dichlorobenzidine present was adsorbed to natural pond and lake sediments in aqueous suspensions. Only a portion of the adsorbed che...

  20. Modeling Fate and Transport of Manure-borne Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure contains pathogenic microorganisms that can cause serious illness and death in humans. The objective of this work is to review the status and challenges in modeling fate and water transport of manure-borne pathogens (MBP) and organisms-indicators of fecal contamination. Approaches are outline...

  1. Sorption, fate, and mobility of sulfonamides in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sulfonamides (SAs) are one of the broadly used antibiotics in domestic animal operations and have a notable potential of entering the environment through animal manure management practices. In this study, sulfamethazine (SMZ) was used as a prototype to study the sorption, fate, and transport of SAs...

  2. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Fitting Multivariate Measurement Error Models & Estimating Multivariate Usual Intake Distributions

    Cancer.gov

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a multivariate usual intake distribution for multiple dietary components that are consumed nearly every day or episodically. A SAS macro for performing balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance estimation is also included.

  3. CONVOLUTION APPROACH TO EVALUATING INTAKE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR INHALED PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE FOR THE STOCHASTIC INTAKE PARADIGM

    EPA Science Inventory

    For airborne toxic particles, the stochastic intake (SI) paradigm involves relativelylow numbers of particles that are presented for inhalation. Each person at risk may inhale adifferent number of particles, including zero particles. For such exposure scenarios, probabilistic d...

  4. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  5. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2) who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL). Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation. PMID:23171246

  6. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010-2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min-max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0-180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. PMID:26670236

  7. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010–2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min–max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0–180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. PMID:26670236

  8. 98. (Credit BLV) Detail of gravity, flow conduit intake at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. (Credit BLV) Detail of gravity, flow conduit intake at cross Lake dam Cribbing supports extra suction intake installed in 1930. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  9. 1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS THE INTAKE CHANNEL HERE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  10. 46. INTAKE DAM NO. 2, VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM. THIS WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. INTAKE DAM NO. 2, VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM. THIS WAS FORMERLY THE MAIN INTAKE FOR THE SYSTEM. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  11. INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTHNORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Intake, North Bank of Snake River, immediately West/Northwest of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project Dam No. 1, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  12. View of Diversion Dam and Flume Intake of the Childs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Diversion Dam and Flume Intake of the Childs System at the Irving Powerhouse. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Intake & Forebay, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  13. View of Pressure Tunnel Intake at Stehr Lake. Looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Pressure Tunnel Intake at Stehr Lake. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Pressure Tunnel Intake, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  14. LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING SOUTH. (MOTTLED SKY FROM CONDENSED MOISTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING SOUTH. (MOTTLED SKY FROM CONDENSED MOISTURE ON NEGATIVE AFFECTING EVEN PROCESSING OF SKY, SAVED FOR DOCUMENTARY PURPOSES) - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Lee Vining Intake Structure, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. VIEW OF TWIN COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURES (POND SIDE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWIN COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURES (POND SIDE), TUMALO RESERVOIR FEED CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURE TO LEFT. LOOKING NORTH/NORTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  16. Dependence of the dose estimate on the time pattern of intake by the example of tritiated water intakes.

    PubMed

    Molokanov, A; Blanchardon, E

    2007-01-01

    The uncertainties related to activity measurement and time pattern of intake in routine monitoring of internal exposure are considered through the example of tritiated water intakes. For this purpose, a combination of intake-to-bioassay and bioassay-to-intake calculations with Monte Carlo integration technique is introduced as a method of investigation. The time pattern of intake and the measured activity are defined as random input quantities. The probability density functions (PDFs) of the input quantities are defined and a Monte Carlo integration is performed to obtain the PDF of the output quantity which is either the value of intake estimated from a measured value of activity or the estimated activity from a given value of intake. Different possible estimates of the intake are considered: some represent the parameters of the PDF of the output quantity, others are derived from the commonly used constant chronic, I(CC), and mid-point, I(1/2), methods. The combinations of activity and intake estimates that would provide a stable estimate of the initial intake in intake-to-bioassay and bioassay-to-intake calculations were studied. Several intake estimates satisfying this requirement can be chosen depending on the task to be solved by adjusting the proper activity estimate. PMID:17567759

  17. Genome-wide association analysis of feed intake and residual feed intake in Nellore cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feed intake plays an important economic role in beef cattle, and is related with feed efficiency, weight gain and carcass traits. However, the phenotypes collected for dry matter intake and feed efficiency are scarce when compared with other measures such as weight gain and carcass traits. The use of genomic information can improve the power of inference of studies on these measures, identifying genomic regions that affect these phenotypes. This work performed the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI) of 720 Nellore cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Results In general, no genomic region extremely associated with both phenotypic traits was observed, as expected for the variables that have their regulation controlled by many genes. Three SNPs surpassed the threshold for the Bonferroni multiple test for DMI and two SNPs for RFI. These markers are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 14 and 21 in regions near genes regulating appetite and ion transport and close to important QTL as previously reported to RFI and DMI, thus corroborating the literature that points these two processes as important in the physiological regulation of intake and feed efficiency. Conclusions This study showed the first GWAS of DMI to identify genomic regions associated with feed intake and efficiency in Nellore cattle. Some genes and QTLs previously described for DMI and RFI, in other subspecies (Bos taurus taurus), that influences these phenotypes are confirmed in this study. PMID:24517472

  18. Impact of Energy Intake and Expenditure on Neuronal Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Stranahan, Alexis M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    The Roman poet Horace was among the first to recognize that when “clogged with yesterday's excess, the body drags the mind down with it.” Although considerable attention has been paid in neuroscience to the enhancement of neuronal function by wheel running and caloric restriction, far less is known about the other side of this issue. What are the consequences of unhealthy habits to central nervous system function? Prolonged exposure to excessive caloric intake impairs neuronal function, and also contributes to obesity and other risk factors for diabetes. Diabetes, a disease characterized by reduced sensitivity to glucose and insulin, is also associated with deficits in brain structure and function. In contrast, enhancement of somatic metabolism by wheel running or caloric restriction improves central neuroplasticity. Generalizing across studies reveals a relationship between global metabolic efficiency and neuroplasticity in the hippocampus, a brain region that is essential for learning and memory. The specific principles upheld by these findings are suggestive of a continuum, with global metabolic alterations fluctuating in concert with neuroplasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:18543119

  19. The fate of soil organic carbon upon erosion, transport and deposition in agricultural landscapes - A review of different concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkels, F. M. S. A.; Cammeraat, L. H.; Kuhn, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Erosion and deposition redistribute large quantities of sediment and soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural landscapes. In the perspective of global carbon cycling, the coupling between erosion processes and the fate of SOC is of particular interest. However, different concepts have been proposed to assess the impact of erosion-induced lateral and vertical carbon fluxes. On landscape scale, this resulted in contrasting conclusions if agricultural soils represent either a carbon sink or source. The large global area of arable soil and generally high erosion rates, make these insights important. In this review, we aim to give an overview of the different conceptual relations described governing C dynamics at sites of erosion, along the transport pathway and at depositional sites and the current state of knowledge on the fate of SOC upon erosion, transport and deposition in agricultural landscapes. The impact of erosion on SOC dynamics differs for sites of erosion, deposition and during transport, with further influences by agricultural practices (e.g. tillage and fertilisation). Controlling processes are the detachment of sediment and SOC, net primary production resulting in dynamic replacement and changes in mineralisation upon transport and deposition due to aggregate breakdown and deep burial, respectively. However, the exact magnitude and dominance of these processes are debated, resulting in a controversy whether arable land functions as a sink or source for atmospheric CO2. Global estimations range between a net sink strength of 0.06-1 versus a source of 0.27-1.14 Gt C yr- 1 for agricultural soils. An eco-geomorphologic approach, which encompasses physical- and biological-driven factors (e.g. spatio-temporal variation in biological, geomorphological and biological processes, environmental conditions, mineralisation, and net primary production) is of importance to balance the carbon budget and ascertain sink or source formation at landscape scale. High spatio

  20. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that...

  1. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to...

  2. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that...

  3. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that...

  4. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooling water intake structures. 401... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  5. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  6. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  7. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  8. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that...

  9. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of...

  10. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  11. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  12. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  13. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  14. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  15. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  16. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  17. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  18. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  19. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  20. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  1. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  2. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57... and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only clean, uncontaminated air enters the compressors....

  3. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only clean, uncontaminated air enters the compressors....

  4. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  5. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  6. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  7. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  8. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  9. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  10. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  11. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  12. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  13. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The intake... operator's compartment, to shut off the air supply to the engine. This valve shall be constructed to...

  14. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The intake... operator's compartment, to shut off the air supply to the engine. This valve shall be constructed to...

  15. 40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure...

  16. 40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the air flow over the...

  17. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  18. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are...

  19. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped...

  20. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  1. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  2. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  3. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  4. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  5. Managing the herbage utilisation and intake by cattle grazing rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To be able to predict the performance of grazing cattle in extensive rangeland environments, herbage intake is paramount because it quantifies energy intake and performance. Nutrient demand of the animals is the major driver of herbage intake and characteristics of the sward dictate how this demand...

  6. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Juliet

    Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

  7. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  12. The fate of Ceres' original crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, James H.; Rivkin, Andrew S.

    2015-11-01

    The bulk density of Ceres implies that water ice comprises a substantial fraction of Ceres’ interior. However, water ice is not stable at Ceres orbital distance and if exposed would have a loss rate of 1 km Myr-1 or more. The near-hydrostatic shape of Ceres, and relatively low melting point of ice suggests that the interior is at least partly differentiated. Because Ceres’ surface remains exposed to space, it radiates very effectively, and models predicting differentiation retain an undifferentiated crust. This would be denser than the ice shell beneath it resulting in an unstable stratification. This has led to expectations that the crust would founder and the surface of Ceres might be very smooth and relaxed. But could the crust have remained to the present day?Here, we model global-scale overturn on Ceres using both analytical two-layer linear stability analyses, and numerical models to predict the most unstable wavelength, and growth timescales for Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. We find that for a 10 km-thick crust above a 75 km-thick ice layer, instabilities grow fastest at spherical harmonic degree l=4. The growth timescale is a function of the viscosity of the upper layer. This timescale is less than the age of the solar system unless the effective viscosity of the crust is > 1024 Pa s. We conclude that the crust of Ceres could remain at the surface if it either has some finite elastic strength over a ~800 km length scale, or is an unconsolidated regolith with a large, (> 50%) macro-porosity, such that the regolith is buoyant relative to water ice.Neither end-member for the crustal strength precludes convective activity in the underlying ice layer. However we note that a thick, porous regolith is a fantastic insulator and may promote heating of the interior and potential foundering of the regolith if the top of the ice becomes too warm. This possibility can be evaluated by models of thermal evolution (e.g., Castillo-Rogez et al., 2010). An episode of

  13. The changing fates of the world's mammals.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michael; Belant, Jerrold L; Chanson, Janice S; Cox, Neil A; Lamoreux, John; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Schipper, Jan; Stuart, Simon N

    2011-09-27

    A recent complete assessment of the conservation status of 5487 mammal species demonstrated that at least one-fifth are at risk of extinction in the wild. We retrospectively identified genuine changes in extinction risk for mammals between 1996 and 2008 to calculate changes in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Index (RLI). Species-level trends in the conservation status of mammalian diversity reveal that extinction risk in large-bodied species is increasing, and that the rate of deterioration has been most accelerated in the Indomalayan and Australasian realms. Expanding agriculture and hunting have been the main drivers of increased extinction risk in mammals. Site-based protection and management, legislation, and captive-breeding and reintroduction programmes have led to improvements in 24 species. We contextualize these changes, and explain why both deteriorations and improvements may be under-reported. Although this study highlights where conservation actions are leading to improvements, it fails to account for instances where conservation has prevented further deteriorations in the status of the world's mammals. The continued utility of the RLI is dependent on sustained investment to ensure repeated assessments of mammals over time and to facilitate future calculations of the RLI and measurement against global targets. PMID:21844039

  14. The changing fates of the world's mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Michael; Belant, Jerrold L.; Chanson, Janice S.; Cox, Neil A.; Lamoreux, John; Rodrigues, Ana S. L.; Schipper, Jan; Stuart, Simon N.

    2011-01-01

    A recent complete assessment of the conservation status of 5487 mammal species demonstrated that at least one-fifth are at risk of extinction in the wild. We retrospectively identified genuine changes in extinction risk for mammals between 1996 and 2008 to calculate changes in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Index (RLI). Species-level trends in the conservation status of mammalian diversity reveal that extinction risk in large-bodied species is increasing, and that the rate of deterioration has been most accelerated in the Indomalayan and Australasian realms. Expanding agriculture and hunting have been the main drivers of increased extinction risk in mammals. Site-based protection and management, legislation, and captive-breeding and reintroduction programmes have led to improvements in 24 species. We contextualize these changes, and explain why both deteriorations and improvements may be under-reported. Although this study highlights where conservation actions are leading to improvements, it fails to account for instances where conservation has prevented further deteriorations in the status of the world's mammals. The continued utility of the RLI is dependent on sustained investment to ensure repeated assessments of mammals over time and to facilitate future calculations of the RLI and measurement against global targets. PMID:21844039

  15. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  16. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  17. Protein intake and obesity in young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    XU, SHUMEI; XUE, YING

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of protein and its functional diversity in living systems makes it essential for virtually all life processes. Dietary protein and amino acid requirements are affected by age, body size, body composition, physiological state, and the level of energy output. The requirement for dietary protein is based on the indispensable amino acids under all conditions and under specific physiological and pathological conditions as well as the synthesis of dispensable amino acids and other nitrogen-containing compounds. Previous findings have shown the influence of early intake of proteins on the development of overweight in healthy children. The present review focused on the possible association (if any) between protein intake and later development of obesity. The aim is to benefit physicians, dieticians as well as parents to understand future consequences of incorrect dietary habits in young adolescents and encourage healthy dietary habits to avoid obesity. PMID:27168771

  18. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones. PMID:22489217

  19. Caffeine Intake Among Adolescents in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Gera, Mridul; Kalra, Swati; Gupta, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Background: Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. Objective: To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 300 participants (median age 15 year, 174 boys), 291 (97%) were consuming caffeine [mean (SD): 121.0 (98.2) mg/day]. Nineteen (6%) students were consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Tea/coffee contributed to more than 50% of the caffeine intake. The rest was derived from cola beverages, chocolates, and energy drinks. Conclusion: Average caffeine consumption among school-going adolescents from Delhi is high. The findings of this preliminary survey need to be confirmed in larger data sets. PMID:27051091

  20. Selected micronutrient intake and status in men with differing meat intakes, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Sinclair, A J; Mann, N J; Turner, A; Ball, M J

    2000-03-01

    Dietary factors play a critical role in human health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine micronutrient intake and status of subjects who were habitual meat eaters eating different quantities of meat with those who were habitual vegetarians or vegans. One hundred and thirty-nine healthy male subjects (vegan, n = 18; ovolacto-vegetarian, n = 46; moderate meat-eater, n = 65; and high meat-eater, n = 18) aged 20-55 years were recruited in metropolitan Melbourne. Each volunteer completed a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and gave a fasting venous blood sample. Dietary sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower and vitamin C, fibre and iron intakes were higher in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. High meat-eaters had a significantly higher calcium, retinol and zinc intake than did the other three dietary groups; moderate meateaters had the lowest mean intake of fibre, vitamin C and β-carotene. Vegans had a significantly higher β-carotene intake than did the other groups. Serum ferritin and vitamin B12 levels, and haemoglobin concentration were significantly lower in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. Vegans had a significantly higher serum folate concentration than did ovolacto-vegetarian and moderate meat-eater groups. There was no significant difference in serum α-tocopherol concentration. There are differences between the four diet groups that have potential to affect the subjects' health and susceptibility to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Based on the present data, high meat-eaters may particularly benefit from altering their dietary pattern to reduce their sodium and saturated fat intake, and moderate meat-eaters from increasing their fibre and antioxidant consumption. Vegetarians, especially vegans, may need to increase their vitamin B12 and zinc intakes. PMID:24394311

  1. Global Composite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  MISR Global Images See the Light of Day     View Larger Image ... than its nadir counterpart due to enhanced reflection of light by atmospheric particulates. MISR data are processed at the ...

  2. 2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF RUBBLE MASONRY IN 1937-1938. VIEW LOOKING DOWN LINE FORMER INTAKE GRILLE WAS TO LEFT SIDE OF DAM (TWO 8" IRON PIPES FROM NEW INTAKE NOW ENTER OLD INTAKE OPENING), BOX FLUME EXITS AT RIGHT AND CARRIES WATER TO AERATOR. NOTE THE SMALL SLUICEWAY OPENING AT CENTER ALONG WATERLINE. THIS DAM WAS SUPERCEDED BY THE NEW INTAKE DAM TO REACH THE MORE RELIABLE WATER SOURCE OF THE MAIN STREAM. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  3. Breast milk intake: 12 hour versus 24 hour assessment.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, M; Pittard, W

    1982-11-01

    Letter to the editor commenting on "Clinical and field studies of human lactation: methodological considerations," by Brown et al. The point is made that in test-weighing infants to estimate breast milk intake, culture related breastfeeding practices must be studied before a 12 hour test period is used to estimate intake for a complete 24 hour period. In western cultures milk intake between 7 am and 7 pm was found to differ significantly from intake between 7 pm and 7 am, whereas in a Bangladesh study milk intake during the 2 12 hour periods was comparable. PMID:7137079

  4. Hydraulic model studies on bulb turbine intakes. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    Intakes for bulb and rim generator turbines are very large in relation to their runner diameters. Because the water velocity is low in the intake area, the losses are small. This report describes research on the effect that simplifying the intake design has on energy losses and flow distribution. Using straight surfaces in place of curved bellmouth entrances and shortening the length of the intake could significantly reduce construction costs. In addition, reducing the intake size would reduce the size of trashracks, gates, and associated operating equipment.

  5. Television and eating: repetition enhances food intake.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Utsa; Stevenson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content). To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the "Different" session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the "Same" session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the "Same" and "Different" sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the "Different" session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect. PMID:26579040

  6. Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kristin L.; Oleski, Jessica; Gordon, Katherine; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2014-01-01

    Animal research suggests that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is associated with weight loss and decreased appetite. Results from human studies are mixed; some suggest that VNS affects weight whereas others do not, and it is unclear how VNS affects eating behaviors. Baseline body mass index (BMI) and VNS device settings may moderate the effects of VNS on caloric intake. This study investigates the association among BMI, VNS device settings, and caloric intake of highly palatable foods during VNS on versus VNS off sessions in 16 adult patients (62.5% female; BMI mean = 29.11 ± 6.65) using VNS therapy for either epilepsy or depression. Participants attended 2 experimental sessions (VNS on versus off) where they were presented with 4 preferred snack foods totaling 1600 calories. At the start of the session, they either had their VNS devices turned off or left on. Caloric intake was calculated by weighing foods before and after each session. BMI category (overweight/obese and lean) was the between group factor in the analysis. After controlling for covariates, an interaction of condition and BMI category (P = .03) was found. There was an interaction of condition and device output current (P = .05) and a trend toward an interaction of condition and device on time (P = .07). Excess weight may impact how neurobiological signals from the vagus nerve affect appetite and eating. Future research is needed to further elucidate this relationship. PMID:24876624

  7. PYY3-36: Beyond food intake.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Ulrike; Woods, Stephen C; Langhans, Wolfgang; Meyer, Urs

    2015-07-01

    The gastrointestinal hormone peptide tyrosine tyrosine 3-36 (PYY(3-36)) has attained broad recognition with respect to its involvement in energy homeostasis and the control of food intake. It is mainly secreted by distal intestinal enteroendocrine L-cells in response to eating and exerts neurally mediated, paracrine and endocrine effects on various target organs. In addition to its gastrointestinal effects, PYY(3-36) has long been known to inhibit food intake. Recent closer examination of the effects of PYY(3-36) revealed that this gut-derived peptide also influences a wide spectrum of behavioral and cognitive functions that are pivotal for basic processes of perception and judgment, including central information processing, salience learning, working memory, and behavioral responding to novelty. Here, we review the effects of PYY(3-36) that go beyond food intake and provide a conceptual framework suggesting that several apparently unrelated behavioral actions of PYY(3-36) may actually reflect different manifestations of modulating the central dopamine system. PMID:25527432

  8. Dietary intakes of age-group swimmers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, J A; Williams, M M

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to collect information regarding the dietary habits of male and female age-group swimmers and report the energy consumptions of these athletes in relation to their daily training demands. Twenty competitive swimmers, who were training 6000 m per day 6 days a week, recorded all fluid and food consumed during a 4-day period. Dietary analysis revealed that 11 swimmers (55%) had calcium intakes below recommended dietary allowances (RDA), while 13 (65%) had iron intakes lower than RDA. Despite identical training loads and body mass, male swimmers had significantly greater (P = 0.004) daily mean (s.d.) energy consumption (3072(732) kcal, 12.9(3.1) MJ) than females (2130(544) kcal, 8.9(2.3) MJ) and were maintaining energy balance. Although the contribution of carbohydrate to total daily energy intake was the same for male (55%) and female swimmers (56%), the females ingested significantly less (P = 0.011) carbohydrate (292(87) g) than the males (404(88) g) and could be considered deficient in dietary carbohydrate with respect to their daily training demands. PMID:1777785

  9. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to < 10% and < 5% energy (E) on caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is < 10% E. With the < 5% E cut-off, a significant relationship was observed, but the evidence was judged to be of very low quality. The findings are relevant to minimizing caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  10. Autophagy in the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajat

    2012-04-01

    The cellular nutrient sensing apparatus detects nutritional depletion and transmits this information to downstream effectors that generate energy from alternate sources. Autophagy is a crucial catabolic pathway that turns over redundant cytoplasmic components in lysosomes to provide energy to the starved cell. Recent studies have described a role for hypothalamic autophagy in the control of food intake and energy balance. Activated autophagy in hypothalamic neurons during starvation mobilized neuron-intrinsic lipids to generate free fatty acids that increased AgRP levels. AgRP neuron-specific inhibition of autophagy decreased fasting-induced increases in AgRP levels and food intake. Deletion of autophagy in AgRP neurons led to constitutive increases in levels of proopiomelanocortin and its active processed product, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone that contributed to reduced adiposity in these rodents. The current manuscript discusses these new findings and raises additional questions that may help understand how hypothalamic autophagy controls food intake and energy balance. These studies may have implications for designing new therapies against obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:23700515

  11. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign’s strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  12. Television and eating: repetition enhances food intake

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Utsa; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content). To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the “Different” session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the “Same” session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the “Same” and “Different” sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the “Different” session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect. PMID:26579040

  13. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Almedawar, Mohamad M; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir; Isma'eel, Hussain A

    2015-06-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign's strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  14. Fate of copper complexes in hydrothermally altered deep-sea sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Sander, Sylvia G; Jayachandran, Saranya; Nath, B Nagender; Nagaraju, G; Chennuri, Kartheek; Vudamala, Krushna; Lathika, N; Mascarenhas-Pereira, Maria Brenda L

    2014-11-01

    The current study aims to understand the speciation and fate of Cu complexes in hydrothermally altered sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin and assess the probable impacts of deep-sea mining on speciation of Cu complexes and assess the Cu flux from this sediment to the water column in this area. This study suggests that most of the Cu was strongly associated with different binding sites in Fe-oxide phases of the hydrothermally altered sediments with stabilities higher than that of Cu-EDTA complexes. The speciation of Cu indicates that hydrothermally influenced deep-sea sediments from Central Indian Ocean Basin may not significantly contribute to the global Cu flux. However, increasing lability of Cu-sediment complexes with increasing depth of sediment may increase bioavailability and Cu flux to the global ocean during deep-sea mining. PMID:25108489

  15. Greater intake of vitamins B6 and B12 spares gray matter in healthy elderly: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Suever, Barbara L; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Colcombe, Stanley J; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2008-03-14

    Previous studies have reported that high concentrations of homocysteine and lower concentrations of vitamins B6, B12, and folate increase the risk for cognitive decline and pathology in aging populations. In this cross-sectional study, high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and a 3-day food diary were collected on 32 community-dwelling adults between the ages of 59 and 79. We examined the relation between vitamins B6, B12, and folate intake on cortical volume using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method and global gray and white matter volume after correcting for age, sex, body mass index, calorie intake, and education. All participants met or surpassed the recommended daily intake for these vitamins. In the VBM analysis, we found that adults with greater vitamin B6 intake had greater gray matter volume along the medial wall, anterior cingulate cortex, medial parietal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus, whereas people with greater B12 intake had greater volume in the left and right superior parietal sulcus. These effects were driven by vitamin supplementation and were negated when only examining vitamin intake from diet. Folate had no effect on brain volume. Furthermore, there was no relationship between vitamins B6, B12, or folate intake on global brain volume measures, indicating that VBM methods are more sensitive for detecting localized differences in gray matter volume than global measures. These results are discussed in relation to a growing literature on vitamin intake on age-related neurocognitive deterioration. PMID:18281020

  16. The impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Melissa C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or various other beverages remains under-studied. This systematic review of English language studies compared the effects of drinking water and various beverage alternatives on energy intake and/or weight status. We collected relevant clinical trials, epidemiologic, and intervention studies and summarized findings across the literature. Using clinical trials, average differences in total energy intake at test meals (ΔTEI) were calculated across studies for each of several beverage categories compared to water. The literature for these comparisons is sparse and somewhat inconclusive. One of the most consistent sets of findings comes from comparing adults drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB’s) vs. water before a single meal. Total energy intakes were increased 7.8% (ΔTEI range −7.5 to 18.9) when SSBs were consumed. Studies comparing nonnutritive sweeteners with water were also relatively consistent and found no impact on energy intake among adults (ΔTEI = −1.3, range −9 to13.8). Much less conclusive evidence replacing water with milk and juice estimated increases in TEI of 14.9% (range 10.9 to 23.9). These findings, along with epidemiologic and intervention studies suggested a potentially important role for water in reducing energy intakes, and by this means a role in obesity prevention. A need for randomized-controlled trials exists. PMID:20796216

  17. Effects of fluoxetine on weight gain and food intake in smokers who reduce nicotine intake.

    PubMed

    Pomerleau, O F; Pomerleau, C S; Morrell, E M; Lowenbergh, J M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of fluoxetine hydrochloride, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor (60 mg/day PO), in preventing weight gain associated with nicotine reduction was investigated in participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled smoking-cessation trial. A lunch of cheese pizza and chocolate bars was offered, and caloric intake was monitored. The analysis focused on subjects (placebo: n = 11; fluoxetine: n = 10) who succeeded in reaching cotinine levels of less than 50% of their starting cotinine levels (signifying a stringent reduction in nicotine intake) and who participated in pre- and post-nicotine reduction lunch sessions 70 days apart. Subjects on placebo gained significantly more weight (mean +/- SEM = +3.3 +/- 0.7 kg) than subjects on fluoxetine (-0.6 +/- 1.2 kg). In fluoxetine-treated subjects, weight gain/loss was strongly correlated with initial body mass index, with higher BMI being associated with greater decreases in weight. A trend towards decreased caloric intake in the fluoxetine group was observed; the change in total calories at lunch was significantly correlated with weight change, an association accounted for principally by change in pizza intake. We conclude that fluoxetine treatment effectively prevents the weight gain that accompanies nicotine reduction and that this phenomenon is mediated, at least in part, by diminished caloric intake. PMID:1805294

  18. Global survey of CO{sub 2} in the oceans

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Since 1990, the US Department of Energy has supported a Global Survey of CO{sub 2} in the Oceans. This project arose from a long history of DOE-supported research into the fate of the energy-related pollutant CO{sub 2}, including its fate in the oceans. The survey is a key component of the international JGOFS (Joint Global Ocean Flux Study) and is closely associated with the international WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment). In the course of this project, the Science Team that oversees the project has established close links with investigators involved in NOAA`s complementary Ocean Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) as well as with numerous international investigators.

  19. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Michael B; Donnelly, Joseph E; Smith, Bryan K; Sullivan, Debra K; Richards, Joanna; Morgan-Hanusa, Danielle; Mayo, Matthew S; Sun, Xiaocun; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Bailey, Bruce W; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Washburn, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Background To compare the effects of low versus recommended levels of dairy intake on weight maintenance and body composition subsequent to weight loss. Design and Methods Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT), 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy (< 1 dairy serving/d) or recommended dairy (> 3 servings/d) diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat) from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH)2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group. Conclusion Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain

  20. Whole Grain Intake Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Qiucheng; Zheng, Huazhen; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Xu, Min; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence from epidemiology studies suggests that whole grain intake may reduce pancreatic cancer risk, but convincing evidence is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between whole grain intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Relevant observational studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases for the period from January 1980 to July 2015, with no restrictions. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer using random-effects model meta-analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was analyzed using the I2 statistic. A total of 8 studies regarding whole grain intake were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR of pancreatic cancer for those with high versus low whole grain intake was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64–0.91; P = 0.002). There was no significant heterogeneity across these studies (I2 = 11.7%; Pheterogeneity = 0.339). In the subgroup analysis by geographic area, the summary ORs of developing pancreatic cancer were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.53–0.79; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%; Pheterogeneity = 0.482) in the United States (n = 4) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.63–1.43; P = 0.803; I2 = 45.6%; Pheterogeneity = 0.175) in Europe (n = 2). In the subgroup analysis by type of whole grain, the summary ORs were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60–0.87; P = .001; I2 = 0; Pheterogeneity = 0.876) for grains (n = 4) and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.27–2.02; P = 0.554; I2 = 86.3%; Pheterogeneity = 0.007) for wheat (n = 2). A high intake of whole grains was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Because of the absent of more cohort studies, further prospective studies need to be conducted to ensure conclusions that are more robust. PMID:26945361

  1. Ultrastructural and functional fate of recycled vesicles in hippocampal synapses

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Stephanie A.; Smith, Catherine A.; Fowler, Milena W.; Crawford, Freya; Burden, Jemima J.; Staras, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Efficient recycling of synaptic vesicles is thought to be critical for sustained information transfer at central terminals. However, the specific contribution that retrieved vesicles make to future transmission events remains unclear. Here we exploit fluorescence and time-stamped electron microscopy to track the functional and positional fate of vesicles endocytosed after readily releasable pool (RRP) stimulation in rat hippocampal synapses. We show that most vesicles are recovered near the active zone but subsequently take up random positions in the cluster, without preferential bias for future use. These vesicles non-selectively queue, advancing towards the release site with further stimulation in an actin-dependent manner. Nonetheless, the small subset of vesicles retrieved recently in the stimulus train persist nearer the active zone and exhibit more privileged use in the next RRP. Our findings reveal heterogeneity in vesicle fate based on nanoscale position and timing rules, providing new insights into the origins of future pool constitution. PMID:26292808

  2. Asymmetric Cell Division in T Lymphocyte Fate Diversification.

    PubMed

    Arsenio, Janilyn; Metz, Patrick J; Chang, John T

    2015-11-01

    Immunological protection against microbial pathogens is dependent on robust generation of functionally diverse T lymphocyte subsets. Upon microbial infection, naïve CD4(+) or CD8(+) T lymphocytes can give rise to effector- and memory-fated progeny that together mediate a potent immune response. Recent advances in single-cell immunological and genomic profiling technologies have helped elucidate early and late diversification mechanisms that enable the generation of heterogeneity from single T lymphocytes. We discuss these findings here and argue that one such mechanism, asymmetric cell division, creates an early divergence in T lymphocyte fates by giving rise to daughter cells with a propensity towards the terminally differentiated effector or self-renewing memory lineages, with cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic cues from the microenvironment driving the final maturation steps. PMID:26474675

  3. Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking.

    PubMed

    de Nijs, Monique; van den Top, Hester; de Stoppelaar, Joyce; Lopez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-12-15

    The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on different days, under standardised conditions, simulating house-hold preparation. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water followed by salt-induced partitioning. The extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS. The method limits of detection were 8μg/kg for deoxynivalenol, 10μg/kg for enniatin A1 and 5μg/kg for enniatins A, B and B1. During the cooking of the five dry pasta samples, 60% of the deoxynivalenol and 83-100% of the enniatins were retained in the cooked pasta. It is recommended to study food processing fate of mycotoxins through naturally contaminated materials (incurred materials). PMID:27451245

  4. Mechanics Regulates Fate Decisions of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yubing; Villa-Diaz, Luis G.; Lam, Raymond H. W.; Chen, Weiqiang; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Fu, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Research on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has attracted much attention given their great potential for tissue regenerative therapy and fundamental developmental biology studies. Yet, there is still limited understanding of how mechanical signals in the local cellular microenvironment of hESCs regulate their fate decisions. Here, we applied a microfabricated micromechanical platform to investigate the mechanoresponsive behaviors of hESCs. We demonstrated that hESCs are mechanosensitive, and they could increase their cytoskeleton contractility with matrix rigidity. Furthermore, rigid substrates supported maintenance of pluripotency of hESCs. Matrix mechanics-mediated cytoskeleton contractility might be functionally correlated with E-cadherin expressions in cell-cell contacts and thus involved in fate decisions of hESCs. Our results highlighted the important functional link between matrix rigidity, cellular mechanics, and pluripotency of hESCs and provided a novel approach to characterize and understand mechanotransduction and its involvement in hESC function. PMID:22615930

  5. The Mammary Gland Microenvironment Directs Progenitor Cell Fate In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bussard, Karen M.; Smith, Gilbert H.

    2011-01-01

    The mammary gland is a unique organ that continually undergoes postnatal developmental changes. In mice, the mammary gland is formed via signals from terminal end buds, which direct ductal growth and elongation. Intriguingly, it is likely that the entire cellular repertoire of the mammary gland is formed from a single antecedent cell. Furthermore, in order to produce progeny of varied lineages (e.g., luminal and myoepithelial cells), signals from the local tissue microenvironment influence mammary stem/progenitor cell fate. Data have shown that cells from the mammary gland microenvironment reprogram adult somatic cells from other organs (testes, nerve) into cells that produce milk and express mammary epithelial cell proteins. Similar results were found for human tumorigenic epithelial carcinoma cells. Presently, it is unclear how the deterministic power of the mammary gland microenvironment controls epithelial cell fate. Regardless, signals generated by the microenvironment have a profound influence on progenitor cell differentiation in vivo. PMID:21647291

  6. The fate of photons absorbed by phytoplankton in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hanzhi; Kuzminov, Fedor I.; Park, Jisoo; Lee, SangHoon; Falkowski, Paul G.; Gorbunov, Maxim Y.

    2016-01-01

    Solar radiation absorbed by marine phytoplankton can follow three possible paths. By simultaneously measuring the quantum yields of photochemistry and chlorophyll fluorescence in situ, we calculate that, on average, ~60% of absorbed photons are converted to heat, only 35% are directed toward photochemical water splitting, and the rest are reemitted as fluorescence. The spatial pattern of fluorescence yields and lifetimes strongly suggests that photochemical energy conversion is physiologically limited by nutrients. Comparison of in situ fluorescence lifetimes with satellite retrievals of solar-induced fluorescence yields suggests that the mean values of the latter are generally representative of the photophysiological state of phytoplankton; however, the signal-to-noise ratio is unacceptably low in extremely oligotrophic regions, which constitute 30% of the open ocean.

  7. The Fate of Western Civilization: G. H. von Wright's Reflections on Science, Technology, and Global Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkero, Topi

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces the central ideas of G. H. von Wright's cultural philosophy concerning the techno-scientific form of life. Georg Henrik von Wright (1916-2003) was best known for his achievements in the field of modal logic and for his association with Ludwig Wittgenstein. However, his work also included a critical analysis of science and…

  8. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    PubMed

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets. PMID:26387526

  9. Phytoplankton. The fate of photons absorbed by phytoplankton in the global ocean.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hanzhi; Kuzminov, Fedor I; Park, Jisoo; Lee, SangHoon; Falkowski, Paul G; Gorbunov, Maxim Y

    2016-01-15

    Solar radiation absorbed by marine phytoplankton can follow three possible paths. By simultaneously measuring the quantum yields of photochemistry and chlorophyll fluorescence in situ, we calculate that, on average, ~60% of absorbed photons are converted to heat, only 35% are directed toward photochemical water splitting, and the rest are reemitted as fluorescence. The spatial pattern of fluorescence yields and lifetimes strongly suggests that photochemical energy conversion is physiologically limited by nutrients. Comparison of in situ fluorescence lifetimes with satellite retrievals of solar-induced fluorescence yields suggests that the mean values of the latter are generally representative of the photophysiological state of phytoplankton; however, the signal-to-noise ratio is unacceptably low in extremely oligotrophic regions, which constitute 30% of the open ocean. PMID:26743625

  10. (The fate of nuclides in natural water systems)

    SciTech Connect

    Turekian, K.K. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1989-01-01

    Our research at Yale on the fate of nuclides in natural water systems has three components to it: the study of the atmospheric precipitation of radionuclides and other chemical species; the study of the behavior of natural radionuclides in groundwater and hydrothermal systems; and understanding the controls on the distribution of radionuclides and stable nuclides in the marine realm. In this section a review of our progress in each of these areas is presented.

  11. Cell fate determination in cisplatin resistance and chemosensitization.

    PubMed

    Luong, Khanh V; Wang, Ling; Roberts, Brett J; Wahl, James K; Peng, Aimin

    2016-04-26

    Understanding the determination of cell fate choices after cancer treatment will shed new light on cancer resistance. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the individual cell fate choice in resistant UM-SCC-38 head and neck cancer cells exposed to cisplatin. Our study revealed a highly heterogeneous pattern of cell fate choices in UM-SCC-38 cells, in comparison to that of the control, non-tumorigenic keratinocyte HaCaT cells. In both UM-SCC-38 and HaCaT cell lines, the majority of cell death occurred during the immediate interphase without mitotic entry, whereas significant portions of UM-SCC-38 cells survived the treatment via either checkpoint arrest or checkpoint slippage. Interestingly, checkpoint slippage occurred predominantly in cells treated in late S and G2 phases, and cells in M-phase were hypersensitive to cisplatin. Moreover, although the cisplatin-resistant progression of mitosis exhibited no delay in general, prolonged mitosis was correlated with the induction of cell death in mitosis. The finding thus suggested a combinatorial treatment using cisplatin and an agent that blocks mitotic exit. Consistently, we showed a strong synergy between cisplatin and the proteasome inhibitor Mg132. Finally, targeting the DNA damage checkpoint using inhibitors of ATR, but not ATM, effectively sensitized UM-SCC-38 to cisplatin treatment. Surprisingly, checkpoint targeting eliminated both checkpoint arrest and checkpoint slippage, and augmented the induction of cell death in interphase without mitotic entry. Taken together, our study, by profiling cell fate determination after cisplatin treatment, reveals new insights into chemoresistance and suggests combinatorial strategies that potentially overcome cancer resistance. PMID:26993599

  12. Different cell fates after mitotic slippage: From aneuploidy to polyploidy.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Akihiro

    2016-03-01

    The molecular mechanism responsible for cell fate after mitotic slippage remains unclear. We investigated the different postmitotic effects of aneuploidy versus polyploidy using chemical inhibitors of centromere-associated protein-E (CENP-E) and kinesin family member 11 (KIF11, also known as Eg5). Aneuploidy caused substantial proteotoxic stress and DNA damage accompanied by p53-mediated postmitotic apoptosis, whereas polyploidy did not induce these antiproliferative effects. PMID:27308610

  13. Macronutrient intake induces oxidative and inflammatory stress: potential relevance to atherosclerosis and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ghanim, Husam; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Dhindsa, Sandeep; Kim, Sung Soo

    2010-01-01

    With the global increase in the epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes with a concomitant increase in atherosclerotic disease, an investigation into the effects of various macronutrients and food products has become necessary. Such investigation will allow us to better understand the relationship between the intake of various macronutrients and the pathogenesis of mechanisms underlying the regulation of insulin sensitivity and resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation, the regulation of hunger and satiety and atherogenesis. This review covers the first decade of work in this area relating the intake of usual foods and diets to their immediate and long term outcomes. The review also covers the exciting novel area of anti-inflammatory effects of certain foods. Hopefully, a comprehensive understanding of these actions of macronutrients and their long term effects will allow us to formulate food combinations which will lead to healthy eating habits and improvement in our overall health status. PMID:20200475

  14. Using Information on Uncertainty to Improve Environmental Fate Modeling: A Case Study on DDT

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, Urs; Scheringer, Martin; Sohn, Michael D.; Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Hungerbuhler, Konrad

    2008-10-01

    Present and future concentrations of DDT in the environment are calculated with the global multi-media model CliMoChem. Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the importance of uncertainties in substance property data, emission rates, and environmental parameters for model results. Uncertainties in the model results, expressed as 95percent confidence intervals of DDT concentrations in various environmental media, in different geographical locations, and at different points in time are typically between one and two orders of magnitude. An analysis of rank correlations between model inputs and predicted DDT concentrations indicates that emission estimates and degradation rate constants, in particular in the atmosphere, are the most influential model inputs. For DDT levels in the Arctic, temperature dependencies of substance properties are also influential parameters. A Bayesian Monte Carlo approach is used to update uncertain model inputs based on measurements of DDT in the field. The updating procedure suggests a lower value for half-life in air and a reduced range of uncertainty for KOW of DDT. As could be expected, the Bayesian updating yields model results that are closer to observations, and model uncertainties have decreased. The combined sensitivity analysis and Bayesian Monte Carlo approach provide new insight into important processes that govern the global fate and persistence of DDT in the environment.

  15. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ock K.; Chung, Chin E.; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059

  16. Changes in intakes of total and added sugar and their contribution to energy intake in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Chun, Ock K; Chung, Chin E; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1-18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059

  17. The Fate of the Compact Remnant in Neutron Star Mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Chris L; Belczynski, Krzysztoff; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Rosswog, Stephan; Shen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Neutron star (binary neutron star and neutron star - black hole) mergers are believed to produce short-duration gamma-ray bursts. They are also believed to be the dominant source of gravitational waves to be detected by the advanced LIGO and the dominant source of the heavy r-process elements in the universe. Whether or not these mergers produce short-duration GRBs depends sensitively on the fate of the core of the remnant (whether, and how quickly, it forms a black hole). In this paper, we combine the results of merger calculations and equation of state studies to determine the fate of the cores of neutron star mergers. Using population studies, we can determine the distribution of these fates to compare to observations. We find that black hole cores form quickly only for equations of state that predict maximum non-rotating neutron star masses below 2.3-2.4 solar masses. If quick black hole formation is essential in producing gamma-ray bursts, LIGO observed rates compared to GRB rates could be used to constrain the equation of state for dense nuclear matter.

  18. Chemicals as the Sole Transformers of Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Behnam

    2016-05-30

    Forced expression of lineage-specific transcription factors in somatic cells can result in the generation of different cell types in a process named direct reprogramming, bypassing the pluripotent state. However, the introduction of transgenes limits the therapeutic applications of the produced cells. Numerous small-molecules have been introduced in the field of stem cell biology capable of governing self-renewal, reprogramming, transdifferentiation and regeneration. These chemical compounds are versatile tools for cell fate conversion toward desired outcomes. Cell fate conversion using small-molecules alone (chemical reprogramming) has superiority over arduous traditional genetic techniques in several aspects. For instance, rapid, transient, and reversible effects in activation and inhibition of functions of specific proteins are of the profits of small-molecules. They are cost-effective, have a long half-life, diversity on structure and function, and allow for temporal and flexible regulation of signaling pathways. Additionally, their effects could be adjusted by fine-tuning concentrations and combinations of different small-molecules. Therefore, chemicals are powerful tools in cell fate conversion and study of stem cell and chemical biology in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, transgene-free and chemical-only transdifferentiation approaches provide alternative strategies for the generation of various cell types, disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. The current review gives an overview of the recent findings concerning transdifferentiation by only small-molecules without the use of transgenes. PMID:27426081

  19. The Fate of the Compact Remnant in Neutron Star Mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Chris L.; Belczynski, Krzysztoff; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Rosswog, Stephan; Shen, Gang; Steiner, Andrew W.

    2015-10-06

    Neutron star (binary neutron star and neutron star - black hole) mergers are believed to produce short-duration gamma-ray bursts. They are also believed to be the dominant source of gravitational waves to be detected by the advanced LIGO and the dominant source of the heavy r-process elements in the universe. Whether or not these mergers produce short-duration GRBs depends sensitively on the fate of the core of the remnant (whether, and how quickly, it forms a black hole). In this paper, we combine the results of merger calculations and equation of state studies to determine the fate of the cores of neutron star mergers. Using population studies, we can determine the distribution of these fates to compare to observations. We find that black hole cores form quickly only for equations of state that predict maximum non-rotating neutron star masses below 2.3-2.4 solar masses. If quick black hole formation is essential in producing gamma-ray bursts, LIGO observed rates compared to GRB rates could be used to constrain the equation of state for dense nuclear matter.

  20. The Fate of the Compact Remnant in Neutron Star Mergers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fryer, Chris L.; Belczynski, Krzysztoff; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Rosswog, Stephan; Shen, Gang; Steiner, Andrew W.

    2015-10-06

    Neutron star (binary neutron star and neutron star - black hole) mergers are believed to produce short-duration gamma-ray bursts. They are also believed to be the dominant source of gravitational waves to be detected by the advanced LIGO and the dominant source of the heavy r-process elements in the universe. Whether or not these mergers produce short-duration GRBs depends sensitively on the fate of the core of the remnant (whether, and how quickly, it forms a black hole). In this paper, we combine the results of merger calculations and equation of state studies to determine the fate of the coresmore » of neutron star mergers. Using population studies, we can determine the distribution of these fates to compare to observations. We find that black hole cores form quickly only for equations of state that predict maximum non-rotating neutron star masses below 2.3-2.4 solar masses. If quick black hole formation is essential in producing gamma-ray bursts, LIGO observed rates compared to GRB rates could be used to constrain the equation of state for dense nuclear matter.« less

  1. Stochastic simulation model of oil spill fate and transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Rabeh, A.H.; Cekirge, H.M.; Gunay, N. )

    1989-06-01

    Over the past few years, considerable research has been directed toward the development of mathematical models to describe the behavior of oil spills. A successful model would be of great value in selecting locations for the deployment of containment and collection systems to mitigate the effects of the pollutant on the environment. In this study, a comprehensive stochastic model is formulated to simulate the fate and transport of oil spills. The model consists of a set of algorithms describing the processes of advection, turbulent diffusion, surface spreading, vertical mechanical dispersion, emulsification, and evaporation. Each algorithm is developed separately and is linked to related processes and to environmental and other parameters. The model requires as input the velocity field of the transporting medium. This can be obtained from a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for tidal and wind-driven currents for the region of interest. The oil spill fate and transport model is used to simulate a surface oil spill in the Abu Ali region on the western side of the Arabian Gulf. The simulation results indicate that the model can predict the fate and transport of oil slicks with reasonable accuracy. 45 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Neural induction, neural fate stabilization, and neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moody, Sally A; Je, Hyun-Soo

    2002-04-28

    The promise of stem cell therapy is expected to greatly benefit the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. An underlying biological reason for the progressive functional losses associated with these diseases is the extremely low natural rate of self-repair in the nervous system. Although the mature CNS harbors a limited number of self-renewing stem cells, these make a significant contribution to only a few areas of brain. Therefore, it is particularly important to understand how to manipulate embryonic stem cells and adult neural stem cells so their descendants can repopulate and functionally repair damaged brain regions. A large knowledge base has been gathered about the normal processes of neural development. The time has come for this information to be applied to the problems of obtaining sufficient, neurally committed stem cells for clinical use. In this article we review the process of neural induction, by which the embryonic ectodermal cells are directed to form the neural plate, and the process of neural-fate stabilization, by which neural plate cells expand in number and consolidate their neural fate. We will present the current knowledge of the transcription factors and signaling molecules that are known to be involved in these processes. We will discuss how these factors may be relevant to manipulating embryonic stem cells to express a neural fate and to produce large numbers of neurally committed, yet undifferentiated, stem cells for transplantation therapies. PMID:12805974

  3. Chemicals as the Sole Transformers of Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Forced expression of lineage-specific transcription factors in somatic cells can result in the generation of different cell types in a process named direct reprogramming, bypassing the pluripotent state. However, the introduction of transgenes limits the therapeutic applications of the produced cells. Numerous small-molecules have been introduced in the field of stem cell biology capable of governing self-renewal, reprogramming, transdifferentiation and regeneration. These chemical compounds are versatile tools for cell fate conversion toward desired outcomes. Cell fate conversion using small-molecules alone (chemical reprogramming) has superiority over arduous traditional genetic techniques in several aspects. For instance, rapid, transient, and reversible effects in activation and inhibition of functions of specific proteins are of the profits of small-molecules. They are cost-effective, have a long half-life, diversity on structure and function, and allow for temporal and flexible regulation of signaling pathways. Additionally, their effects could be adjusted by fine-tuning concentrations and combinations of different small-molecules. Therefore, chemicals are powerful tools in cell fate conversion and study of stem cell and chemical biology in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, transgene-free and chemical-only transdifferentiation approaches provide alternative strategies for the generation of various cell types, disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. The current review gives an overview of the recent findings concerning transdifferentiation by only small-molecules without the use of transgenes. PMID:27426081

  4. FY08 LDRD Final Report Stem Cell Fate Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Hiddessen, A

    2009-03-02

    A detailed understanding of the biological control of fate decisions of stem and progenitor cells is needed to harness their full power for tissue repair and/or regeneration. Currently, internal and external factors that regulate stem cell fate are not fully understood. We aim to engineer biocompatible tools to facilitate the measurement and comparison of the roles and significance of immobilized factors such as extracellular matrix and signaling peptides, synergistic and opposing soluble factors and signals, and cell-to-cell communication, in stem cell fate decisions. Our approach is based on the development of cell microarrays to capture viable stem/progenitor cells individually or in small clusters onto substrate-bound signals (e.g. proteins), combined with conventional antibody and customized subcellular markers made in-house, to facilitate tracking of cell behavior during exposure to relevant signals. Below we describe our efforts, including methods to manipulate a model epithelial stem cell system using a custom subcellular reporter to track and measure cell signaling, arrays with surface chemistry that support viable cells and enable controlled presentation of immobilized signals to cells on the array and fluorescence-based measurement of cell response, and successful on-array tests via conventional immunofluorescence assays that indicate correct cell polarity, localization of junctional proteins, and phenotype, properties which are essential to measuring true cell responses.

  5. Dietary intake, food composition and nutrient intake in wild and captive populations of Daubentonia madagascariensis.

    PubMed

    Sterling, E J; Dierenfeld, E S; Ashbourne, C J; Feistner, A T

    1994-01-01

    Data are presented on dietary and nutrient intake in a wild population of aye-ayes. Study animals ate 4 main food types: seeds, nectar, fungus and insect larvae. Calculated calorie intake was slightly lower during the cold season than during the hot, wet and the hot, dry seasons. Total intakes almost doubled to compensate for the lower energy content of the diet during the cold season. Comparison of natural and captive diets suggests that maintenance and even growth requirements of aye-ayes can be met by relatively low-fat, low-protein diets. Daily energy requirements were estimated to average about 280 kcal metabolizable energy/day. Animals in the wild were estimated to eat between 260 and 342 kcal, while captive animals consumed 260 kcal/day. PMID:7721197

  6. Using dietary reference intake-based methods to estimate prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among female students in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Juliana Masami; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate usual nutrient intake among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study in which 119 students at a public university in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, completed 3-day estimated food records. These were analyzed for nutrient content, and intake distributions were determined. Nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the National Research Council method. For nutrients for which an Estimated Average Requirement has been established, the Estimated Average Requirement cutpoint method was used to determine the proportion of students with inadequate intake. The students' food records indicated inadequate intakes of folate (99%), zinc (47%), and copper (33%). For approximately 95% of the students in this study, calcium was less than the Adequate Intake. The results showed the need for improvement in dietary choices to minimize the prevalence of inadequate intake of folate, zinc, copper, and calcium in this group. PMID:16647333

  7. Polar bears: the fate of an icon.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Polar bears are one of the most iconic animals on our planet. Worldwide, even people who would never see one are drawn to these charismatic arctic ice hunters. They are the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, and despite being born on land, they spend most of their lives out on the sea ice and are considered a marine mammal. Current global studies estimate there are around 20,000 animals in some 19 discrete circumpolar populations. Aside from pregnant females denning in the winter months to give birth, the white bears do not hibernate. They spend their winters on the sea ice hunting seals, an activity they are spectacularly adapted for. Research on these animals is incredibly difficult because of the inhospitable surroundings they inhabit and how inaccessible they make the bears. For many years, the sum of our understanding of the natural history of polar bears came from tracks, scats, the remains of their kills, abandoned dens, and anecdotal observations of native hunters, explorers, and early biologists. Nonetheless, the last 40 years have seen a much better picture of their biology emerge thanks to, first, dedicated Canadian researchers and, later, truly international efforts of workers from many countries. Veterinarians have contributed to our knowledge of the bears by delivering and monitoring anesthesia, obtaining blood samples, performing necropsies, investigating their reproduction, conducting radiotelemetry studies, and examining their behavior. Recently, new technologies have been developed that revolutionize the study of the lives and natural history of undisturbed polar bears. These advances include better satellite radiotelemetry equipment and the development of remote-controlled miniature devices equipped with high-definition cameras. Such new modalities provide dramatic new insights into the life of polar bears. The remarkable degree of specialized adaptation to life on the sea ice that allowed the bears to be successful is the very reason that

  8. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  9. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for club A was 11.0 (2.6) MJ, and for club B 12.8 (2.2) MJ. The higher energy intake at club B was largely accounted for by a higher (P < 0.005) fat intake (118 v 93 g d-1): there was no difference in the absolute amounts of protein, carbohydrate, or alcohol consumed. When expressed as a fraction of total energy intake, mean protein intake was higher (P < 0.05) and fat intake lower (P < 0.01) at club A. CONCLUSIONS: The mean energy intake of these players was not high compared with athletes in endurance sports. Fractional contribution of the macronutrients to total energy intake was broadly similar to that of the general population. PMID:9132211

  10. Food reinforcement, energy intake, and macronutrient choice123

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. Objective: How RRVfood is related to macronutrient choice in ad libitum eating tasks in humans has not been studied; however, animal research suggests that sugar or simple carbohydrates may be a determinant of reward value in food. This study assessed which macronutrients are associated with food reinforcement. Design: Two hundred seventy-three adults with various body mass indexes were assessed for RRVfood, the relative reinforcing value of reading, food hedonics, energy intake in an ad libitum taste test, and usual energy intake derived from repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Multiple regression was used to assess the relation between predictors of total energy and energy associated with macronutrient intake after control for age, sex, income, education, minority status, and other macronutrient intakes. Results: The results showed that the relative proportion of responding for food compared with reading (RRVprop) was positively related to body mass index, laboratory-measured energy intake, and usual energy intake. In addition, RRVprop was a predictor of sugar intake but not of total carbohydrate, fat, or protein intake. Conclusion: These results are consistent with basic animal research showing that sugar is related to food reward and with the hypothesis that food reward processes are more strongly related to eating than are food hedonics. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00962117. PMID:21543545

  11. Common genes regulate food and ethanol intake in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Morgan L; Lamina, Omoteniola; Hogan, Kerry E; Kliethermes, Christopher L

    2016-06-01

    The abuse liability of alcohol (ethanol) is believed to result in part from its actions on neurobiological substrates that underlie the motivation toward food and other natural reinforcers, and a growing body of evidence indicates that these substrates are broadly conserved among animal phyla. Understanding the extent to which the substrates regulating ethanol and food intake overlap is an important step toward developing therapeutics that selectively reduce ethanol intake. In the current experiments, we measured food and ethanol intake in Recombinant Inbred (RI) lines of Drosophila melanogaster using several assays, and then calculated genetic correlations to estimate the degree to which common genes might underlie behavior in these assays. We found that food intake and ethanol intake as measured in the capillary assay are genetically correlated traits in D. melanogaster, as well as in a panel of 11 Drosophila species that we tested subsequently. RI line differences in food intake in a dyed food assay were genetically unrelated to ethanol intake in the capillary assay or to ethanol preference measured using an olfactory trap apparatus. Using publicly available gene expression data, we found that expression profiles across the RI lines of a number of genes (including the D2-like dopamine receptor, DOPA decarboxylase, and fruitless) correlated with the RI line differences in food and ethanol intake we measured, while the expression profiles of other genes, including NPF, and the NPF and 5-HT2 receptors, correlated only with ethanol intake or preference. Our results suggest that food and ethanol intake are regulated by some common genes in Drosophila, but that other genes regulate ethanol intake independently of food intake. These results have implications toward the development of therapeutics that preferentially reduce ethanol intake. PMID:27286934

  12. CADMIUM INTAKE VIA OYSTERS AND HEALTH EFFECTS IN NEW ZEALAND: CADMIUM INTAKE, METABOLISM AND EFFECTS IN PEOPLE WITH A HIGH INTAKE OF OYSTERS IN NEW ZEALAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of this study was to confirm the high dietary intakes of cadmium and other trace elements from oysters in a population associated with the oystering industry, and to determine (1) the impact of those high intakes on cadmium concentrations in accessible tissues of the stud...

  13. Gastroschisis and maternal intake of phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Elizabeth L; Ma, Chen; Shaw, Gary M; Carmichael, Suzan L

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of gastroschisis has increased significantly in the past few decades. The strongest risks have been observed for women <25 years old or of low body mass index, and maternal diet also been proposed to be associated with risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the risk of gastroschisis is associated with maternal dietary intake of phytoestrogens. The analysis includes data on mothers of 409 gastroschisis cases and 3,007 controls who delivered their infants from 2005 to 2010 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, population-based, case-control study. Detailed information was obtained from maternal telephone interviews that included a validated food frequency questionnaire. We conducted logistic regression analyses that included each phytoestrogen in its continuous form (to test for linearity) and quadratic form (to test for non-linearity), adjusted for maternal energy intake, age, BMI, race-ethnicity, and smoking in 1st trimester. Logistic regression analysis indicated that biochanin A, formonoetin, and coumestrol had a significant non-linear association with gastroschisis (P-value <0.05 for quadratic term). Lower intakes were associated with increased risk, with somewhat stronger but relatively modest associations at the lower end of the distribution; for example, the ORs for the 10th versus 50th percentiles ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. Associations were not significant for the other phytoestrogens. This study provides some evidence for association with certain phytoestrogens, after adjusting for covariates. The implications of our findings for clinical practice are uncertain pending other studies examining this association. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27232448

  14. Hybridization and hybrid speciation under global change.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Hiscock, Simon J

    2016-09-01

    Contents 1170 I. 1170 II. 1172 III. 1175 IV. 1180 V. 1183 1184 References 1184 SUMMARY: An unintended consequence of global change is an increase in opportunities for hybridization among previously isolated lineages. Here we illustrate how global change can facilitate the breakdown of reproductive barriers and the formation of hybrids, drawing on the flora of the British Isles for insight. Although global change may ameliorate some of the barriers preventing hybrid establishment, for example by providing new ecological niches for hybrids, it will have limited effects on environment-independent post-zygotic barriers. For example, genic incompatibilities and differences in chromosome numbers and structure within hybrid genomes are unlikely to be affected by global change. We thus speculate that global change will have a larger effect on eroding pre-zygotic barriers (eco-geographical isolation and phenology) than post-zygotic barriers, shifting the relative importance of these two classes of reproductive barriers from what is usually seen in naturally produced hybrids where pre-zygotic barriers are the largest contributors to reproductive isolation. Although the long-term fate of neo-hybrids is still to be determined, the massive impact of global change on the dynamics and distribution of biodiversity generates an unprecedented opportunity to study large numbers of unpredicted, and often replicated, hybridization 'experiments', allowing us to peer into the birth and death of evolutionary lineages. PMID:27214560

  15. Selenium Characterization In The Global Rice Supply Chain

    EPA Science Inventory

    For up to 1 billion people worldwide, insufficient dietary intake of selenium (Se) is a serious health constraint. Cereals are the dominant Se source for those on low protein diets, as typified by the global malnourished population. With crop Se content constrained largely by u...

  16. Global militarization

    SciTech Connect

    Wallensteen, P.; Galtung, J.; Portales, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Military Formations and Social Formations: A Structural Analysis; Global Conflict Formations: Present Developments and Future Directions; War and the Power of Warmakers in Western Europe and Elsewhere, 1600-1980; and The Urban Type of Society and International War.

  17. Global Warming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

  18. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoubrey, Sharon

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on topics related to global issues. (1) "Recycling for Art Projects" (Wendy Stephenson) gives an argument for recycling in the art classroom; (2) "Winds of Change: Tradition and Innovation in Circumpolar Art" (Bill Zuk and Robert Dalton) includes profiles of Alaskan Yupik artist, Larry Beck, who creates art from recycled…

  19. Campus Global.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sort, Josep

    2003-01-01

    Describes the development of the Campus Global portal at a public university in Spain. The project aimed to change the ways in which the university community worked, taught, and learned. Examines how the project was carried out, the transformations it instigated inside the organization, the improvements it has brought about, and the current state…

  20. Measurement of children's food intake with digital photography and the effects of second servings upon food intake.

    PubMed

    Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Anton, Stephen D; Allen, H Raymond; Alfonso, Anthony; Han, Hongmei; Stewart, Tiffany; Sothern, Melinda; Williamson, Donald A

    2007-04-01

    This study tested the reliability and validity of measuring children's food intake with the digital photography method and the effects of second servings upon food intake. Food intake was measured in a school cafeteria for 5 days. Adiposity was assessed with body impedance analysis and body mass index, expressed as percentile rank. Mood and self-esteem were assessed with questionnaires. Estimates of food intake were highly reliable between two registered dietitians who independently estimated food intake. Boys ate more food than girls. A significant association between food intake and adiposity supported convergent validity. Non-significant correlations between food intake and depressed mood and self-esteem supported discriminant validity. When second servings were available, more food was selected and discarded, but mean food intake did not increase. Children who returned for second servings, however, ate more food when second servings were available, and a trend suggested that they also ate more food when second servings were not available. These findings support the reliability and validity of measuring children's food intake using digital photography and demonstrate its utility for studies of food intake and body weight. PMID:17336784

  1. Effect of renin-angiotensin system on sodium intake.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaraviglio, E

    1976-01-01

    1. Water and saline intake was measured in rats depleted of Na by I.P. dialysis. Na intake was prevented 180 min but not 60-90 min after bilateral nephrectomy. Unilateral nephrectomy as well as ureteral ligature had no effect on Na intake. 2. Renin (3u.) injected I.P. re-established the Na appetite abolished by nephrectomy. 3. Angiotensin I (5 ng) or II (5-40 ng) injected into the 3rd ventricle, also restored the Na intake and this effect was dose-dependent. 4. The angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor Sq 20,881 (1 mg/kg) inhibited the effect of AI but not that of AII in restoring Na intake. 5. It is concluded that the kidneys might play a role in the regulation of Na intake through the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:1255521

  2. Reductions in entree energy density increase children's vegetable intake and reduce energy intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The energy density (ED; kcal/g) of an entrée influences children's energy intake (EI), but the effect of simultaneously changing both ED and portion size of an entrée on preschool children's EI is unknown. In this within-subject crossover study, 3- to 5-year-old children (30 boys, 31 girls) in a day...

  3. LCD OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS PHASE 2: FORD F250 AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The life cycle design methodology was applied to the design analysis of three alternatives for the lower plehum of the air intake manifold for us with a 5.4L F-250 truck engine: a sand cast aluminum, a lost core molded nylon composite, and a vibration welded nylon composite. The ...

  4. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the U.S. population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  5. Evaluating Impacts of CO2 and CH4 Gas Intrusion into an Unconsolidated Aquifer: Fate of As and Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Lawter, Amanda R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Shao, Hongbo; Bacon, Diana H.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-07-10

    Abstract The sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep underground reservoirs has been identified as an important strategy to decrease atmospheric CO2 levels and mitigate global warming, but potential risks on overlying aquifers currently lack a complete evaluation. In addition to CO2, other gases such as methane (CH4) may be present in storage reservoirs. This paper explores for the first time the combined effect of leaking CO2 and CH4 gasses on the fate of major, minor and trace elements in an aquifer overlying a potential sequestration site. Emphasis is placed on the fate of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) released from the sediments or present as soluble constituents in the leaking brine. Results from macroscopic batch and column experiments show that the presence of CH4 (at a concentration of 1 % in the mixture CO2/CH4) does not have a significant effect on solution pH or the concentrations of most major elements (such as Ca, Ba, and Mg). However, the concentrations of Mn, Mo, Si and Na are inconsistently affected by the presence of CH4 (i.e., in at least one sediment tested in this study). Cd is not released from the sediments and spiked Cd is mostly removed from the aqueous phase most likely via adsorption. The fate of sediment associated As [mainly sorbed arsenite or As(III) in minerals] and spiked As [i.e., As5+] is complex. Possible mechanisms that control the As behavior in this system are discussed in this paper. Results are significant for CO2 sequestration risk evaluation and site selection and demonstrate the importance of evaluating reservoir brine and gas stream composition during site selection to ensure the safest site is being chosen.

  6. Fate of water pumped from underground and contributions to sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Lo, Min-Hui; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Wu, Ren-Jie; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2016-08-01

    The contributions from terrestrial water sources to sea-level rise, other than ice caps and glaciers, are highly uncertain and heavily debated. Recent assessments indicate that groundwater depletion (GWD) may become the most important positive terrestrial contribution over the next 50 years, probably equal in magnitude to the current contributions from glaciers and ice caps. However, the existing estimates assume that nearly 100% of groundwater extracted eventually ends up in the oceans. Owing to limited knowledge of the pathways and mechanisms governing the ultimate fate of pumped groundwater, the relative fraction of global GWD that contributes to sea-level rise remains unknown. Here, using a coupled climate-hydrological model simulation, we show that only 80% of GWD ends up in the ocean. An increase in runoff to the ocean accounts for roughly two-thirds, whereas the remainder results from the enhanced net flux of precipitation minus evaporation over the ocean, due to increased atmospheric vapour transport from the land to the ocean. The contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise amounted to 0.02 (+/-0.004) mm yr-1 in 1900 and increased to 0.27 (+/-0.04) mm yr-1 in 2000. This indicates that existing studies have substantially overestimated the contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise by a cumulative amount of at least 10 mm during the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. With other terrestrial water contributions included, we estimate the net terrestrial water contribution during the period 1993-2010 to be +0.12 (+/-0.04) mm yr-1, suggesting that the net terrestrial water contribution reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report report is probably overestimated by a factor of three.

  7. Fate of Water Pumped from Underground and Contributions to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Lo, Min-Hui; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Wu, Ren-Jie; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2016-01-01

    The contributions from terrestrial water sources to sea-level rise, other than ice caps and glaciers, are highly uncertain and heavily debated1-5. Recent assessments indicate that groundwater depletion (GWD) may become the most important positive terrestrial contribution6-10 over the next 50 years, probably equal in magnitude to the current contributions from glaciers and ice caps6. However, the existing estimates assume that nearly 100% of groundwater extracted eventually ends up in the oceans. Owing to limited knowledge of the pathways and mechanisms governing the ultimate fate of pumped groundwater, the relative fraction of global GWD that contributes to sea-level rise remains unknown. Here, using a coupled climate-hydrological model11,12 simulation, we show that only 80% of GWDends up in the ocean. An increase in runo to the ocean accounts for roughly two-thirds, whereas the remainder results from the enhanced net flux of precipitation minus evaporation over the ocean, due to increased atmospheric vapour transport from the land to the ocean. The contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise amounted to 0.02 (+/- 0.004)mm yr(sup-1) in 1900 and increased to 0.27 (+/- 0.04)mm yr(sup-1) in 2000. This indicates that existing studies have substantially overestimated the contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise by a cumulative amount of at least 10 mm during the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. With other terrestrial water contributions included, we estimate the net terrestrial water contribution during the period 1993-2010 to be +0.12 +/-0.04)mm yr(sup-1), suggesting that the net terrestrialwater contribution reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report report is probably overestimated by a factor of three.

  8. High salt intake: independent risk factor for obesity?

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-10-01

    High salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure and accordingly leads to cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been shown that high salt intake is associated with an increased risk of obesity through sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Increasing evidence also suggests a direct link. Our study aimed to determine whether there was a direct association between salt intake and obesity independent of energy intake. We analyzed the data from the rolling cross-sectional study-the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 to 2011/2012. We included 458 children (52% boys; age, 10±4 years) and 785 adults (47% men; age, 49±17 years) who had complete 24-hour urine collections. Energy intake was calculated from 4-day diary and misreporting was assessed by Goldberg method. The results showed that salt intake as measured by 24-hour urinary sodium was higher in overweight and obese individuals. A 1-g/d increase in salt intake was associated with an increase in the risk of obesity by 28% (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.45; P=0.0002) in children and 26% (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.37; P<0.0001) in adults, after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, household income, physical activity, energy intake, and diet misreporting, and in adults with additional adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Higher salt intake was also significantly related to higher body fat mass in both children (P=0.001) and adults (P=0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, and energy intake. These results suggest that salt intake is a potential risk factor for obesity independent of energy intake. PMID:26238447

  9. Performance Predictions of Supersonic Intakes with Isentropic-Compression Forebody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, K.; Saito, Tsutomu

    Intake is an important component of next generation air-breathing engines such as Ram/Scram jet engines, as well as conventional jet-propulsion systems. The supersonic intake decelerates compresses the air inflow by shocks or compression waves to appropriate flow conditions for a specific engine system. The performance of supersonic intakes is evaluated mainly by the mass flow rate and the total pressure recovery rate.

  10. Brain-Specific Inactivation of the Crhr1 Gene Inhibits Post-Dependent and Stress-Induced Alcohol Intake, but Does Not Affect Relapse-Like Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Molander, Anna; Vengeliene, Valentina; Heilig, Markus; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M; Spanagel, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor, CRH receptor-1 (CRHR1), have a key role in alcoholism. Especially, post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake involve CRH/CRHR1 signaling within extra-hypothalamic structures, but a contribution of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity might be involved as well. Here we examined the role of CRHR1 in various drinking conditions in relation to HPA and extra-HPA sites, and studied relapse-like drinking behavior in the alcohol deprivation model (ADE). To dissect CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling on a molecular level, a conditional brain-specific Crhr1-knockout (Crhr1NestinCre) and a global knockout mouse line were studied for basal alcohol drinking, stress-induced alcohol consumption, deprivation-induced intake, and escalated alcohol consumption in the post-dependent state. In a second set of experiments, we tested CRHR1 antagonists in the ADE model. Stress-induced augmentation of alcohol intake was lower in Crhr1NestinCre mice as compared with control animals. Crhr1NestinCre mice were also resistant to escalation of alcohol intake in the post-dependent state. Contrarily, global Crhr1 knockouts showed enhanced stress-induced alcohol consumption and a more pronounced escalation of intake in the post-dependent state than their control littermates. Basal intake and deprivation-induced intake were unaltered in both knockout models when compared with their respective controls. In line with these findings, CRHR1 antagonists did not affect relapse-like drinking after a deprivation period in rats. We conclude that CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling may have opposing effects on stress-related alcohol consumption. CRHR1 does not have a role in basal alcohol intake or relapse-like drinking situations with a low stress load. PMID:22113086

  11. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J. Scott; Simcox, Judith A.; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T.; McClain, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression. PMID:26301810

  12. Physiology of Food Intake Control in Children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Hunschede, Sascha; Akilen, Rajadurai; Kubant, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to draw attention to the limited information available on food intake (FI) control in children and adolescents 7-17 y of age, which is essential for developing food policies and guidelines in this population. Although environmental factors have been the overwhelming focus of research on the causative factors of obesity, research focusing on the physiologic control of appetite in children and adolescents is a neglected area of research. To present this message, a review of FI regulation and the role of food and food components in signaling processes are followed by an examination of the role of hormones during puberty in intake regulation. To examine the interaction of environment and physiology on FI regulation, the effects of exercise, television programs, and food advertisements are discussed. In conclusion, although limited, this literature review supports a need for children and adolescents to be a greater focus of research that would lead to sound nutrition policies and actions to reduce chronic disease. A focus on the environment must be balanced with an understanding of physiologic and behavioral changes associated with this age group. PMID:26773031

  13. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J Scott; Simcox, Judith A; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T; McClain, Donald A

    2015-09-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression. PMID:26301810

  14. Piston engine intake and exhaust system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. O. A. L.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of intake and exhaust system design is to control the transfer of acoustic energy from the sources and its emission by the system with minimal loss of engine performance. A rational design process depends on the adoption of a design methodology based on predictive modeling of acoustic behavior. Virtually any system geometry can be modeled by breaking it down to a sequence of simple elements or chambers. An initial design layout is then produced with simple parametric models of individual element behavior. This design is then refined to prototype level by systematic modification of detail using realistic assessments of system performance in its operational environment. Following prototype validation by practical testing, further necessary development is again assisted by predictive modeling. The application of appropriate procedures is illustrated by a series of practical examples. These concern improvements in interior noise by control of intake noise, of vehicle performance by reducing flow losses, of the environment by control of exhaust emissions, and lastly with the control of flow noise. The report concludes with a brief outline of current and new developments involving integrated design procedures.

  15. Food choice and intake: the human factor.

    PubMed

    Mela, D J

    1999-08-01

    Human perceptions and selection of food are derived from the prevailing and momentary food, agro-economic and cultural environment, cognitive and biological characteristics of individuals, and the real and perceived intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of foods themselves. The range of items typically chosen and consumed within a given population is largely determined by interaction of the external environmental context with guiding sets of implicit and explicit social and psychobiological 'rules'. Within the rather broad limits of biology, individual food choices and intake behaviours relate to and reflect aspects of food availability, existing habitual behaviours, learning mechanisms, and individual beliefs and expectations. Many of the relevant features of these variables are uniquely human, together determining what is 'food', when, how, by and with whom it is chosen and eaten, and in what quantities. They also provide the opportunities for individuals to establish and maintain a relatively stable set of culturally and biologically determined affective responses ('likes') and intake behaviours. Understanding of the potential contribution of these influences under different conditions can serve to explain many of the observed characteristics of human eating, and highlight potential avenues for intervention. PMID:10604182

  16. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    PubMed

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  17. Climate-based archetypes for the environmental fate assessment of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ciuffo, Biagio; Sala, Serenella

    2013-11-15

    Emissions of chemicals have been on the rise for years, and their impacts are greatly influenced by spatial differentiation. Chemicals are usually emitted locally but their impact can be felt both locally and globally, due to their chemical properties and persistence. The variability of environmental parameters in the emission compartment may affect the chemicals' fate and the exposure at different orders of magnitude. The assessment of the environmental fate of chemicals and the inherent spatial differentiation requires the use of multimedia models at various levels of complexity (from a simple box model to complex computational and high-spatial-resolution models). The objective of these models is to support ecological and human health risk assessment, by reducing the uncertainty of chemical impact assessments. The parameterisation of spatially resolved multimedia models is usually based on scenarios of evaluative environments, or on geographical resolutions related to administrative boundaries (e.g. countries/continents) or landscape areas (e.g. watersheds, eco-regions). The choice of the most appropriate scale and scenario is important from a management perspective, as a balance should be reached between a simplified approach and computationally intensive multimedia models. In this paper, which aims to go beyond the more traditional approach based on scale/resolution (cell, country, and basin), we propose and assess climate-based archetypes for the impact assessment of chemicals released in air. We define the archetypes based on the main drivers of spatial variability, which we systematically identify by adopting global sensitivity analysis techniques. A case study that uses the high resolution multimedia model MAPPE (Multimedia Assessment of Pollutant Pathways in the Environment) is presented. Results of the analysis showed that suitable archetypes should be both climate- and chemical-specific, as different chemicals (or groups of them) have different traits

  18. Assessing the transport and fate of bioengineered microorganisms in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    We review the methods currently available for quantifying the transport and fate of microbes in atmospheric and aqueous media and assess their adequacy for purposes of risk assessment. We review the literature on transport and fate of microorganisms, including studies of: (1) pathways of migration, (2) the survival of microorganisms during transport and fate. In addition, we review the transport and fate models that have been used in environmental risk assessments for radionuclides and toxic chemicals and evaluate their applicability to the problem of assessing environmental risks of bioengineered microorganisms.

  19. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-01

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. PMID:25988761

  20. Flavonoid Intake in European Adults (18 to 64 Years)

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A.; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Luben, Robert N.; Spencer, Jeremy P. E.; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Flavonoids are a group of phenolic secondary plant metabolites that are ubiquitous in plant-based diets. Data from anthropological, observational and intervention studies have shown that many flavonoids are bioactive. For this reason, there is an increasing interest in investigating the potential health effects of these compounds. The translation of these findings into the context of the health of the general public requires detailed information on habitual dietary intake. However, only limited data are currently available for European populations. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the habitual intake and main sources of anthocyanidins, flavanols, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, theaflavins and thearubigins in the European Union. Design We use food consumption data from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the FLAVIOLA Food Composition Database to estimate intake of flavonoids. Results Mean (±SEM) intake of total flavonoids in Europe was 428±49 mg/d, of which 136±14 mg/d were monomeric compounds. Gallated flavan-3-ols (53±12 mg/d) were the main contributor. The lowest flavonoid intake was observed in Mediterranean countries (monomeric compounds: 95±11 mg/d). The distribution of intake was skewed in many countries, especially in Germany (monomeric flavonoids; mean intake: 181 mg/d; median intake: 3 mg/d). Conclusions The habitual intake of flavonoids in Europe is below the amounts found to have a significant health effect. PMID:26010916

  1. Estimated intake levels for Finnish children of methylmercury from fish.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hallikainen, Anja; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Knip, Mikael; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Leino, Olli; Simell, Olli; Sinkko, Harri; Tuomisto, Jouni T; Veijola, Riitta; Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2013-04-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well-known neurotoxic agent, and consumption of contaminated fish is the principal environmental source of MeHg exposure in humans. Children are more susceptible to adverse effects than adults. No previous specific data exist for intake by Finnish children of methylmercury from fish. We estimated fish consumption and MeHg intakes from species most commonly consumed by Finnish children aged 1-6 years. The total mercury concentrations were determined in fish species consumed, and age-specific methylmercury intakes were derived. We also examined safety margins and the proportion of children exceeding the tolerable daily intakes set by international expert bodies. The daily intake of MeHg ranged from 0 to 0.33 μg/kg bw. The strictest reference value 0.1 μg/kg bw/day for MeHg, proposed by USEPA, was exceeded by 1-15% of the study population, and FAO/WHO JECFA provisional tolerable weekly intake of 1.6 μg/kg bw was exceeded by 1% of boys and 2.5% of girls aged 6 years. Intakes of 1-year old girls were higher than of boys, whereas for 3-year olds they were the opposite. The highest intakes were observed for 6-year-old boys and girls. There was great variation in the estimated MeHg intakes among Finnish children. PMID:22425939

  2. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake. Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was greater in men. Different correlations were observed between sleep and dietary variables according to gender. The correlation between dietary and sleep variables in men indicated a negative relationship between nocturnal fat intake and the sleep latency, including REM sleep. The percentage of nocturnal fat intake correlated with sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM latency, stage 2 sleep, REM sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in women. The percentage of nocturnal caloric intake correlated with sleep latency and efficiency in women. Conclusions: We conclude that food intake during the nocturnal period is correlated with negative effects on the sleep quality of healthy individuals. Indeed, food intake near the sleeping period (dinner and late night snack) was negatively associated with sleep quality variables. More studies are necessary to elucidate the real effect of food intake on sleep. Citation: Crispim CA; Zimberg IZ; dos Reis BG; Diniz RM; Tufik S; de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):659-664. PMID:22171206

  3. Experimental studies on intake headloss of a blasted lake tap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, James; Billstein, Mats; Engström, Fredrik; Strand, Rikard

    2014-03-01

    In existing reservoirs, construction of an intake is sometimes achieved by so-called lake tapping, a submerged tunnel piercing by blasting out the rock plug at the intake. The blasting process involves phases of rock, water, air and gas released from the explosive charge; the resulting entrance profile often differs from design assumptions. The intake headloss is a factor of concern for power generation. For a vertical intake formed by lake tapping, experiments have been carried out in a 1:30 physical model to examine the effect of entrance shapes on intake headlosses. The purpose is that, if there is potential to reduce the headlosses, the originally blasted intake shape would be modified. In the model, five alternative shapes are evaluated. The test results show that to enlarge the vertical shaft area is the most effective way to reduce the intake headloss; to further blast out a narrow channel upstream does not give much effect. Bearing in mind the risk of free-surface vortex at the intake, the influence of the intake modifications on vortex is also checked.

  4. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. PMID:25988761

  5. Panwapa: Global Kids, Global Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to global communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged four to…

  6. Going Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulard, Garry

    2010-01-01

    In a move to increase its out-of-state and international student enrollment, officials at the University of Iowa are stepping up their global recruitment efforts--even in the face of criticism that the school may be losing sight of its mission. The goal is to increase enrollment across the board, with both in-state as well as out-of-state and…

  7. Fate and Transport of Perchlorate at California's Stringfellow Superfund Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenoyer, G. J.; Nuttall, H. E.; Paulson, R.; Wolfenden, A.; Aldern, J.

    2007-12-01

    Geologic conditions exert primary control over the fate and transport of perchlorate at the Stringfellow Superfund site. A buried valley filled with alluvium has been defined that extends from Pyrite Canyon, location of the former Stringfellow acid pits, down to near the Santa Ana River. The buried valley is cut into the underlying granitic bedrock, and appears to be a paleo-channel of the ancestral Pyrite Creek. The groundwater hydraulic gradient aligns closely with the buried valley, as does the perchlorate plume. The buried valley appears to be a preferential pathway for contaminant migration. Perchlorate concentrations in the downgradient portion of the plume have been slowly decreasing over time, suggesting that the groundwater extraction wells are effective at cutting off the source. Perchlorate degradation, however, appears to be minimal over most of the sandy aerobic aquifer, as concentrations of perchlorate persist over a 5-mile long plume. Scattered concentrations of perchlorate in the 1 to 12 ug/L range are widespread over a broad area adjacent to the plume and appear to be unrelated to the plume. Hydrogeologic analysis and perchlorate isotope analysis are being used to investigate whether these outlying concentrations may be related to the historic use of perchlorate- bearing mineral nitrate fertilizer. At the distal end of the plume, a marked change in the fate of perchlorate occurs beneath the Santa Ana River. Sampling of mini-piezometers installed into the river sediments shows that the perchlorate and nitrate concentrations fall to below detection as the aquifer environment changes from oxidizing to reducing conditions. In this local environment, it appears that anaerobic biodegradation reduces the perchlorate and nitrate. As a result of degradation of perchlorate, and possibly mixing of infiltrating river water beneath the losing portions of the river, perchlorate concentrations decrease to below 6 ug/L downgradient of the river. This presentation

  8. Photochemical fate of beta-blockers in NOM enriched waters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Haomin; Cooper, William J; Song, Weihua

    2012-06-01

    Beta-blockers, prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and for long-term use after a heart attack, have been detected in surface and ground waters. This study examines the photochemical fate of three beta-blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol. Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range 4-10. The rate of direct photolysis at pH 7 in a solar simulator varied from 6.1 to 8.9h(-1) at pH 7. However, the addition of a natural organic matter (NOM) isolate enhanced the photochemical loss of all three compounds. Indirect photochemical fate, generally described by reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) and singlet oxygen ((1)ΔO(2)), and, the direct reaction with the triplet excited state, (3)NOM(⁎), also varied but collectively appeared to be the major loss factor. Bimolecular reaction rate constants of the three beta-blockers with (1)ΔO(2) and OH were measured and accounted for 0.02-0.04% and 7.2-38.9% of their loss, respectively. These data suggest that the (3)NOM(⁎) contributed 50.6-85.4%. Experiments with various (3)NOM(⁎) quenchers supported the hypothesis that it was singly the most important reaction. Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC-MS analysis. The results suggested that electron-transfer could be an important mechanism in photochemical fate of beta-blockers in the presence of NOM. PMID:22503673

  9. Cytoskeleton-based forecasting of stem cell lineage fates

    PubMed Central

    Treiser, Matthew D.; Yang, Eric H.; Gordonov, Simon; Cohen, Daniel M.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Kohn, Joachim; Chen, Christopher S.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells that adopt distinct lineages cannot be distinguished based on traditional cell shape. This study reports that higher-order variations in cell shape and cytoskeletal organization that occur within hours of stimulation forecast the lineage commitment fates of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The unique approach captures numerous early (24 h), quantitative features of actin fluororeporter shapes, intensities, textures, and spatial distributions (collectively termed morphometric descriptors). The large number of descriptors are reduced into “combinations” through which distinct subpopulations of cells featuring unique combinations are identified. We demonstrate that hMSCs cultured on fibronectin-treated glass substrates under environments permissive to bone lineage induction could be readily discerned within the first 24 h from those cultured in basal- or fat-inductive conditions by such cytoskeletal feature groupings. We extend the utility of this approach to forecast osteogenic stem cell lineage fates across a series of synthetic polymeric materials of diverse physicochemical properties. Within the first 24 h following stem cell seeding, we could successfully “profile” the substrate responsiveness prospectively in terms of the degree of bone versus nonbone predisposition. The morphometric methodology also provided insights into how substrates may modulate the pace of osteogenic lineage specification. Cells on glass substrates deficient in fibronectin showed a similar divergence of lineage fates, but delayed beyond 48 h. In summary, this high-content imaging and single cell modeling approach offers a framework to elucidate and manipulate determinants of stem cell behaviors, as well as to screen stem cell lineage modulating materials and environments. PMID:20080726

  10. Building 235-F Goldsim Fate And Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G. A.; Phifer, M. A.

    2012-09-14

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, at the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP), evaluated In-Situ Disposal (ISD) alternatives that are under consideration for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of Building 235-F and the Building 294-2F Sand Filter. SRNL personnel developed and used a GoldSim fate and transport model, which is consistent with Musall 2012, to evaluate relative to groundwater protection, ISD alternatives that involve either source removal and/or the grouting of portions or all of 235-F. This evaluation was conducted through the development and use of a Building 235-F GoldSim fate and transport model. The model simulates contaminant release from four 235-F process areas and the 294-2F Sand Filter. In addition, it simulates the fate and transport through the vadose zone, the Upper Three Runs (UTR) aquifer, and the Upper Three Runs (UTR) creek. The model is designed as a stochastic model, and as such it can provide both deterministic and stochastic (probabilistic) results. The results show that the median radium activity concentrations exceed the 5 ?Ci/L radium MCL at the edge of the building for all ISD alternatives after 10,000 years, except those with a sufficient amount of inventory removed. A very interesting result was that grouting was shown to basically have minimal effect on the radium activity concentration. During the first 1,000 years grouting may have some small positive benefit relative to radium, however after that it may have a slightly deleterious effect. The Pb-210 results, relative to its 0.06 ?Ci/L PRG, are essentially identical to the radium results, but the Pb-210 results exhibit a lesser degree of exceedance. In summary, some level of inventory removal will be required to ensure that groundwater standards are met.

  11. Global Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the shared data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).

  12. Global Arrays

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore » data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less

  13. Reducing salt in food; setting product-specific criteria aiming at a salt intake of 5 g per day

    PubMed Central

    Dötsch-Klerk, M; PMM Goossens, W; Meijer, G W; van het Hof, K H

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: There is an increasing public health concern regarding high salt intake, which is generally between 9 and 12 g per day, and much higher than the 5 g recommended by World Health Organization. Several relevant sectors of the food industry are engaged in salt reduction, but it is a challenge to reduce salt in products without compromising on taste, shelf-life or expense for consumers. The objective was to develop globally applicable salt reduction criteria as guidance for product reformulation. Subjects/Methods: Two sets of product group-specific sodium criteria were developed to reduce salt levels in foods to help consumers reduce their intake towards an interim intake goal of 6 g/day, and—on the longer term—5 g/day. Data modelling using survey data from the United States, United Kingdom and Netherlands was performed to assess the potential impact on population salt intake of cross-industry food product reformulation towards these criteria. Results: Modelling with 6 and 5 g/day criteria resulted in estimated reductions in population salt intake of 25 and 30% for the three countries, respectively, the latter representing an absolute decrease in the median salt intake of 1.8–2.2 g/day. Conclusions: The sodium criteria described in this paper can serve as guidance for salt reduction in foods. However, to enable achieving an intake of 5 g/day, salt reduction should not be limited to product reformulation. A multi-stakeholder approach is needed to make consumers aware of the need to reduce their salt intake. Nevertheless, dietary impact modelling shows that product reformulation by food industry has the potential to contribute substantially to salt-intake reduction. PMID:25690867

  14. Free Will, Predestination, and the Fate of the Ottoman Empire.

    PubMed

    Menchinger, Ethan L

    2016-07-01

    Although European travelers to the Ottoman Empire often noted the inhabitants' "fatalism," historians have never seriously examined this intellectual phenomenon. Whether or not we can credit such sources, the testimony of seventeenth-and eighteenth-century Turkish and Arabic sources points to a robust debate over fate, free will, and predestination. What were the reasons behind these discussions? What issues were at stake? This article outlines the context and content of the debate. It then offers some observations about the wider significance of free will and predestination in the Ottoman intellectual universe - particularly their relation to early modern bureaucratic and military reform. PMID:27477345

  15. Fate of Yang-Mills black hole in early Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Rogatko, Marek

    2013-02-21

    According to the Big Bang Theory as we go back in time the Universe becomes progressively hotter and denser. This leads us to believe that the early Universe was filled with hot plasma of elementary particles. Among many questions concerning this phase of history of the Universe there are questions of existence and fate of magnetic monopoles and primordial black holes. Static solution of Einstein-Yang-Mills system may be used as a toy model for such a black hole. Using methods of field theory we will show that its existence and regularity depend crucially on the presence of fermions around it.

  16. Rapamycin, anti-aging, and avoiding the fate of Tithonus

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Arlan

    2013-01-01

    The discovery that rapamycin increased the lifespan of mice was recognized by Science as one of the top 10 scientific breakthroughs of 2009. In addition to increasing lifespan, Neff and colleagues show that while rapamycin improves several functions/pathologies that change with age, it has little effect on the majority of the physiological and structural parameters they evaluated. What do these data tell us about the ability of rapamycin to delay aging and improve quality of life, i.e., prevent the fate of Tithonus? PMID:24063054

  17. Detection, Occurrence and Fate of Emerging Contaminants in Agricultural Environments.

    PubMed

    Snow, Daniel D; Cassada, David A; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Li, Xu; D'Alessio, Matteo; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J Brett

    2016-10-01

    A total of 59 papers published in 2015 were reviewed ranging from detailed descriptions of analytical methods, to fate and occurrence studies, to ecological effects and sampling techniques for a wide variety of emerging contaminants likely to occur in agricultural environments. New methods and studies on veterinary pharmaceuticals, steroids, antibiotic resistance genes in agricultural environments continue to expand our knowledge base on the occurrence and potential impacts of these compounds. This review is divided into the following sections: Introduction, Analytical Methods, Steroid Hormones, Pharmaceutical Contaminants, Transformation Products, and "Antibiotic Resistance, Drugs, Bugs and Genes". PMID:27620078

  18. Designing materials to direct stem-cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Lutolf, Matthias P.; Gilbert, Penney M.; Blau, Helen M.

    2010-01-01

    Proper tissue function and regeneration rely on robust spatial and temporal control of biophysical and biochemical microenvironmental cues through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Biomaterials are rapidly being developed to display and deliver stem-cell-regulatory signals in a precise and near-physiological fashion, and serve as powerful artificial microenvironments in which to study and instruct stem-cell fate both in culture and in vivo. Further synergism of cell biological and biomaterials technologies promises to have a profound impact on stem-cell biology and provide insights that will advance stem-cell-based clinical approaches to tissue regeneration. PMID:19940913

  19. Fate and effects of heavy metals on the Arkansas river

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, W.H.

    1991-12-15

    The project examined fate and effects of heavy metals on biological communities in the upper Arkansas River Basin. The principal objectives of the research were: (1) to measure the impact of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) on benthic invertebrate communities in the Arkansas River; (2) to delineate zones of high impact, moderate impact, and recovery based on the distribution and abundance of these organisms; (3) to examine seasonal variation in effects of metals on benthic communities; (4) to examine the potential transfer of heavy metals from benthic invertebrates to brown trout, Salmo trutta.

  20. Fate of mercury collected from air pollution control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Constance L. Senior; Susan Thorneloe; Bernine Khan; David Goss

    2009-07-15

    Mercury that enters a coal-fired power plant originates from the coal that is burned and leaves through the output streams, which include stack emissions and air pollution control (APC) residues (either in solid or liquid form). This article describes recent findings on the fate and environmental stability of mercury in coal combustion residues (CCRs) such as fly ash and solid products from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers when either disposed or reused in agricultural, commercial, or engineering applications. 19 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.