Sample records for global health informatics

  1. [Strengthening global health informatics research within the andean region through international collaboration].

    PubMed

    Curioso, Walter H; García, Patricia J; Castillo, Greta M; Blas, Magaly M; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Zimic, Mirko

    2010-09-01

    To improve global health and the welfare of a population, skilled human resources are required, not only in medicine and health, but also in the field of informatics. Unfortunately, training and research programs specific to biomedical informatics in developing countries are both scarce and poorly documented. The aim of this paper is to report the results from the first Informatics Expert Meeting for the Andean Region, including, nine Latin American based institutional case studies. This two-day event occurred in March 2010 and brought together twenty-three leaders in biomedical informatics from around the world. The blend of practical and experiential advice from these experts contributed to rich discussions addressing both challenges and applications of informatics within Latin American. In addition, to address the needs emphasized at the meeting, the QUIPU Network was established to expand the research consortium in the Andean Region, Latin America, and internationally. The use of these new technologies in existing public health training and research programs will be key to improving the health of populations in the Andean Region and around the globe. PMID:21152740

  2. winter 2015 Health Informatics

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    fall 2014/ winter 2015 Health Informatics Health Information Exchange Healthcare Analytics COntinUinG anD PrOfeSSiOnal eDUCatiOn HEALTH INFORMATICS ANd ANALYTICS #12;2 Advancing Health Care Through healthcare delivery and clinical effectiveness. UC Davis Extension, a leader in health informatics education

  3. GRADUATE STUDENT Department of Health Informatics and

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    1 GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK Department of Health Informatics and Information Management College.............................................................................. 4 In order to meet the minimum qualification for the Master's in Health Informatics, all applicants ................................................................................................................. 14 Department of Health Informatics and Information Management

  4. Core Competencies in Public Health Informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janise Richards

    The challenge facing public health informatics is educating the public health workforce in the knowledge domains that are\\u000a the framework for public health informatics. This chapter is an initial step. It sets forth baseline, or broad, informatics\\u000a competencies that public health practitioners and public health informaticians, respectively, need to possess. Efforts to\\u000a further test and improve these competencies need to

  5. Health care informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keng Siau

    2003-01-01

    The health care industry is currently experiencing a fundamental change. Health care organizations are reorganizing their processes to reduce costs, be more competitive, and provide better and more personalized customer care. This new business strategy requires health care organizations to implement new technologies, such as Internet applications, enterprise systems, and mobile technologies in order to achieve their desired business changes.

  6. Health care informatics.

    PubMed

    Siau, Keng

    2003-03-01

    The health care industry is currently experiencing a fundamental change. Health care organizations are reorganizing their processes to reduce costs, be more competitive, and provide better and more personalized customer care. This new business strategy requires health care organizations to implement new technologies, such as Internet applications, enterprise systems, and mobile technologies in order to achieve their desired business changes. This article offers a conceptual model for implementing new information systems, integrating internal data, and linking suppliers and patients. PMID:12670013

  7. NIDCR Supported Oral Health Informatics Postdoctoral Fellowship WHAT IS DENTAL INFORMATICS ?

    E-print Network

    Senes, Alessandro

    NIDCR Supported Oral Health Informatics Postdoctoral Fellowship WHAT IS DENTAL INFORMATICS ? Dental informatics is a sub-discipline of biomedical informatics which focuses on the application of computer and information science to improve dental practice, research, education and management. ORAL HEALTH INFORMATICS

  8. Entry Level Masters of Health Informatics and Information

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    Entry ­ Level Masters of Health Informatics and Information Management Post-Graduate Masters of Health Informatics and Information Management Certificate in Health Informatics and Information of Management 3 Personnel Administration/ Human Resources 3 English Composition and Literature 12 Social Science

  9. Health Informatics Journal 16(3) 211223

    E-print Network

    Austin, Mark

    Article Health Informatics Journal 16(3) 211­223 © The Author(s) 2010 Reprints and permission, may result in identity theft, incorrect diagnosis and treatment, #12;212 Health Informatics Journal 16 in energy-constrained and computationally limited systems. An interesting architecture and implementation

  10. Health informatics 3.0.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Dipak

    2011-01-01

    Web 3.0 promises us smart computer services that will interact with each other and leverage knowledge about us and our immediate context to deliver prioritised and relevant information to support decisions and actions. Healthcare must take advantage of such new knowledge-integrating services, in particular to support better co-operation between professionals of different disciplines working in different locations, and to enable well-informed co-operation between clinicians and patients. To grasp the potential of Web 3.0 we will need well-harmonised semantic resources that can richly connect virtual teams and link their strategies to real-time and tailored evidence. Facts, decision logic, care pathway steps, alerts, education need to be embedded within components that can interact with multiple EHR systems and services consistently. Using Health Informatics 3.0 a patient's current situation could be compared with the outcomes of very similar patients (from across millions) to deliver personalised care recommendations. The integration of EHRs with biomedical sciences ('omics) research results and predictive models such as the Virtual Physiological Human could help speed up the translation of new knowledge into clinical practice. The mission, and challenge, for Health Informatics 3.0 is to enable healthy citizens, patients and professionals to collaborate within a knowledge-empowered social network in which patient specific information and personalised real-time evidence are seamlessly interwoven. PMID:21938318

  11. A National Agenda for Public Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Yasnoff, William A.; Overhage, J. Marc; Humphreys, Betsy L.; LaVenture, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The AMIA 2001 Spring Congress brought together members of the the public health and informatics communities to develop a national agenda for public health informatics. Discussions of funding and governance; architecture and infrastructure; standards and vocabulary; research, evaluation, and best practices; privacy, confidentiality, and security; and training and workforce resulted in 74 recommendations with two key themes—that all stakeholders need to be engaged in coordinated activities related to public health information architecture, standards, confidentiality, best practices, and research; and that informatics training is needed throughout the public health workforce. Implementation of this consensus agenda will help promote progress in the application of information technology to improve public health. PMID:11687561

  12. Identifying a Prudent Informatics Praxis for Public Health Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor T. Nwankwo

    The tools afforded by biomedical informatics enable not only the critique of modern global intervention strategies but to offer strategies for improving sustainable health care. Often, short-term medical care trips break raise ethical concerns. The concept of 'duffle bag medicine' is introduced as ineffectual health care trips with cultural, social, and environmental flaws. Communication is identified as the mechanism through

  13. The Current Status of Health Informatics Higher Education in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. X. Wu; P Yu; J Soar

    2003-01-01

    There are likely to be many opportunities and challenges for health informatics and health informatics higher education in China following her acceptance as a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The purpose of the article is to review the current status and consider future directions for health informatics and health informatics higher education in China. Today, China’s educators are

  14. [Informatics in the Croatian health care system].

    PubMed

    Kern, Josipa; Strnad, Marija

    2005-01-01

    Informatization process of the Croatian health care system started relatively early. Computer processing of data of persons not covered by health insurance started in 1968 in Zagreb. Remetinec Health Center served as a model of computer data processing (CDP) in primary health care and Sveti Duh General Hospital in inpatient CDP, whereas hospital administration and health service were first introduced to Zagreb University Hospital Center and Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital. At Varazdin Medical Center CDP for health care services started in 1970. Several registries of chronic diseases have been established: cancer, psychosis, alcoholism, and hospital registries as well as pilot registries of lung tuberculosis patients and diabetics. Health statistics reports on healthcare services, work accidents and sick-leaves as well as on hospital mortality started to be produced by CDP in 1977. Besides alphanumeric data, the modern information technology (IT) can give digital images and signals. Communication in health care system demands a standardized format of all information, especially for telemedicine. In 2000, Technical Committee for Standardization in Medical Informatics was founded in Croatia, in order to monitor the activities of the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and Comite Européen de Normalisation (CEN), and to implement their international standards in the Croatian standardization procedure. The HL7 Croatia has also been founded to monitor developments in the communication standard HL7. So far, the Republic of Croatia has a number of acts regulating informatization in general and consequently the informatization of the health care system (Act on Personal Data Confidentiality, Act on Digital Signature, Act of Standardization) enacted. The ethical aspect of data security and data protection has been covered by the Code of Ethics for medical informaticians. It has been established by the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), and the Croatian Society of Medical Informatics (CSMI) has translated it into Croatian and published it on its website. Based on a survey of medical staff attitudes toward health care system informatization, the Croatian health system appears to be ready for informatization. The only requirement is that the present and future health care providers have appropriate medical informatics education, proper computer equipment at their workplace, and an opportunity to participate in the development and/or improvement of the health information system. One of the EU health strategy priorities is the improvement of health information and knowledge. It means that integrated health information systems are required, i.e. systems able to provide key information on health and health care system to the politicians, health professionals and public in general. PMID:16095187

  15. Clinical informatics in undergraduate teaching of health informatics.

    PubMed

    Pantazi, Stefan V; Pantazi, Felicia; Daly, Karen

    2011-01-01

    We are reporting on a recent experience with Health Informatics (HI) teaching at undergraduate degree level to an audience of HI and Pharmacy students. The important insight is that effective teaching of clinical informatics must involve highly interactive, applied components in addition to the traditional theoretical material. This is in agreement with general literature underlining the importance of simulations and role playing in teaching and is well supported by our student evaluation results. However, the viability and sustainability of such approaches to teaching hinges on significant course preparation efforts. These efforts consist of time-consuming investigations of informatics technologies, applications and systems followed by the implementation of workable solutions to a wide range of technical problems. In effect, this approach to course development is an involved process that relies on a special form of applied research whose technical complexity could explain the dearth of published reports on similar approaches in HI education. Despite its difficulties, we argue that this approach can be used to set a baseline for clinical informatics training at undergraduate level and that its implications for HI education in Canada are of importance. PMID:21335688

  16. Indiana University School of Informatics, IUPUI Open Rank Tenure Track Faculty Position in Health Informatics

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Indiana University School of Informatics, IUPUI Open Rank Tenure Track Faculty Position in Health Informatics The Indiana University School of Informatics (SoI) at Indiana University Purdue University. For information on the Indiana University School of Informatics, IUPUI, please see http

  17. INFORMATICS CORE The Research Informatics Core (RIC) is funded by the Health Center Research

    E-print Network

    Kim, Duck O.

    RESEARCH INFORMATICS CORE Who We Are The Research Informatics Core (RIC) is funded by the Health Center Research Advisory Council (HCRAC) and provides informatics (computer hardware, software, data and software technical support Consultation services on data management, data sharing plan, and informatics

  18. Tier 2 Canada Research Chair Medical Health Informatics

    E-print Network

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    Tier 2 Canada Research Chair in Medical Health Informatics Schulich School of Medicine intensive universities, seeks applicants for a Tier 2 Canada Research Chair in Medical Health Informatics, and the potential to achieve international recognition in the field of medical health informatics within the next

  19. Health informatics: linking investment to value.

    PubMed

    Stead, W W; Lorenzi, N M

    1999-01-01

    Informatics and information technology do not appear to be valued by the health industry to the degree that they are in other industries. The agenda for health informatics should be presented so that value to the health system is linked directly to required investment. The agenda should acknowledge the foundation provided by the current health system and the role of financial issues, system impediments, policy, and knowledge in effecting change. The desired outcomes should be compelling, such as improved public health, improved quality as perceived by consumers, and lower costs. Strategies to achieve these outcomes should derive from the differentia of health, opportunities to leverage other efforts, and lessons from successes inside and outside the health industry. Examples might include using logistics to improve quality, mass customization to adapt to individual values, and system thinking to change the game to one that can be won. The justification for the informatics infrastructure of a virtual health care data bank, a national health care knowledge base, and a personal clinical health record flows naturally from these strategies. PMID:10495093

  20. Capstone Project and Graduation Requirements Master of Health Informatics

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Capstone Project and Graduation Requirements Master of Health Informatics A Capstone Project is one of the requirements of the MS in Health Informatics degree at IUPUI. By the end of the first year the student in the School of Informatics. The student may select to have a partner/sponsor from outside of the department

  1. Launching: university partnership for health informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Jacko; Terrence Adam; Bonnie L. Westra; Marty Witrak; Ron Berkeland; Andrew F. Nelson; Adel L. Ali; Layne Johnson; Rui Kuang; Kathy LaTour; Sandra Potthoff; Amy Watters

    2010-01-01

    The University Partnership for Health Informatics (UP-HI) is a private-public partnership between the University of Minnesota and the College of St. Scholastica that builds on 11 existing health information technology (HIT) certificates and degrees. It is a newly funded University-Based Training Program enabled by the ARRA HITECH Act. The overall goals and objectives of this partnership are to: 1) rapidly

  2. IMIA Accreditation of Health Informatics Programs

    PubMed Central

    Mantas, John

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Health informatics programs usually are evaluated by national accreditation committees. Not always are the members of these committees well informed about the international level of (education in) health informatics. Therefore, when a program is accredited by a national accreditation committee, this does not always mean that the program is of an international level. The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) has expertise in the field of education. The IMIA Recommendations on Education in Biomedical and Health Informatics guide curricula development. The goal of this article is to show that IMIA can also play the role of accreditation agency and to present the IMIA accreditation protocol and experiences obtained with it. Methods The accreditation procedure used in the Netherlands and Belgium was taken as a template for the design of the IMIA accreditation protocol. In a trial period of one and a half year the protocol is tested out on six health informatics programs. Results An accreditation protocol was designed. For judging the curriculum of a program the IMIA Recommendations are used. The institution has to write a self-assessment report and a site visit committee visits the program and judges its quality, supported by the self-assessment report and discussions with all stakeholders of the program. Conclusions After having visited three programs it appears that the IMIA accreditation procedure works well. Only a few changes had to be introduced. Writing the self-assessment report already appears to be beneficial for the management of the program to obtain a better insight in the quality of their program. PMID:24175114

  3. Social Informatics and Consumer Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Sawyer

    The dominant contemporary conceptualization of consumers is as individual seekers of health information for their personal use. This individualistic view informs the development and deployment of technically sophisticated systems and is flawed in two ways. First, an individualistic view overlooks the socially embedded nature of consumer health engagements. Second, such a view reifies the rather problematic expert-centric view of health

  4. The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform

    E-print Network

    Rubin, Daniel L.

    The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform Yueyi I. Liu, MD, PhD, Daniel L. Rubin, MD, MS reform. Informatics is crucial in tackling this challenge. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act will highlight several areas in which informatics can make significant contributions, with a focus on radiology

  5. Social Care Informatics - The Missing Partner in eHealth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Rigby; Penny Hill; Sabine Koch; Jarmo Kärki

    2009-01-01

    To the individual, social care can be an es sential part of maintaining health, as is reflected by the WHO definition of health as being one of wellbeing. However, health informatics currently narrowly restricts itself to health organizations' activities. Digital records in social care are increasing, raising the need to recognize the area of social care informatics. This new domain

  6. Challenges and opportunities in cardiovascular health informatics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Zheng, Ya-Li; Lin, Wan-Hua; Zhang, He-Ye; Zhou, Xiao-Lin

    2013-03-01

    Cardiovascular health informatics is a rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field concerning the processing, integration/interpretation, storage, transmission, acquisition, and retrieval of information from cardiovascular systems for the early detection, early prediction, early prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Based on the first author's presentation at the first IEEE Life Sciences Grand Challenges Conference, held on October 4-5, 2012, at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA, this paper, focusing on coronary arteriosclerotic disease, will discuss three significant challenges of cardiovascular health informatics, including: 1) to invent unobtrusive and wearable multiparameter sensors with higher sensitivity for the real-time monitoring of physiological states; 2) to develop fast multimodal imaging technologies with higher resolution for the quantification and better understanding of structure, function, metabolism of cardiovascular systems at the different levels; and 3) to develop novel multiscale information fusion models and strategies with higher accuracy for the personalized predication of the CVDs. At the end of this paper, a summary is given to suggest open discussions on these three and more challenges that face the scientific community in this field in the future. PMID:23380853

  7. Food Safety Informatics: A Public Health Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Cynthia A.; Larkin, Stephanie N.; Akers, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    To date, little has been written about the implementation of utilizing food safety informatics as a technological tool to protect consumers, in real-time, against foodborne illnesses. Food safety outbreaks have become a major public health problem, causing an estimated 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths in the U.S. each year. Yet, government inspectors/regulators that monitor foodservice operations struggle with how to collect, organize, and analyze data; implement, monitor, and enforce safe food systems. Currently, standardized technologies have not been implemented to efficiently establish “near-in-time” or “just-in-time” electronic awareness to enhance early detection of public health threats regarding food safety. To address the potential impact of collection, organization and analyses of data in a foodservice operation, a wireless food safety informatics (FSI) tool was pilot tested at a university student foodservice center. The technological platform in this test collected data every six minutes over a 24 hour period, across two primary domains: time and temperatures within freezers, walk-in refrigerators and dry storage areas. The results of this pilot study briefly illustrated how technology can assist in food safety surveillance and monitoring by efficiently detecting food safety abnormalities related to time and temperatures so that efficient and proper response in “real time” can be addressed to prevent potential foodborne illnesses. PMID:23569605

  8. Commentary: Informatics in biomedicine and health care.

    PubMed

    Greenes, Robert A; Shortliffe, Edward H

    2009-07-01

    During the last two decades, biomedical informatics (BMI) has become a critical component in biomedical research and health care delivery, as evidenced by two recent phenomena. One, as discussed in the article by Bernstam and colleagues in this issue, has been the introduction of Clinical and Translational Science Awards. Perhaps even more important has been the recent, arguably long overdue, emphasis on deployment of health information technology (IT) nationally. BMI utilizes IT and computer science as tools and methods for improving data acquisition, data management, data analysis, and knowledge generation, but it is driven by a focus on applications based in deep understanding of the science and practice, problems, interactions, culture, and milieu of biomedicine and health. Building from Bernstam and colleagues' distinction between BMI and other IT disciplines, the authors discuss the evolving role of BMI professionals as individuals uniquely positioned to work within the human and organizational context and culture in which the IT is being applied. The focus is not on the IT but on the combination--the interactions of IT systems, human beings, and organizations aimed at achieving a particular purpose. There has never been a time when the need for individuals well trained in BMI--those who understand the complexities of the human, social, and organizational milieu of biomedicine and health--has been more critical than it is now, as the nation seeks to develop a national infrastructure for biomedicine and health care, and as these fields seek to broadly deploy IT wisely and appropriately. PMID:19550167

  9. electronic Journal of Health Informatics http://www.ejhi.net

    E-print Network

    Yu, Ping

    in Australian Aged Care Homes Ning Wang1 , Ping Yu1 , David Hailey1 , Deborah Oxlade2 1 Health Informatics Research Laboratory, Faculty of Informatics, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia 2 RSL Care, Australia documentation in residential aged care homes. Methods: Three information sources were reviewed to explore

  10. Biomedical and health informatics education at UMIT - approaches and strategies at a newly founded university

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhold Haux

    2004-01-01

    Based on the recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA, http:\\/\\/www.IMIA.org) on education in health and medical informatics and on experiences in founding a new school, the University for Health Informatics and Technology Tyrol (UMIT, http:\\/\\/www.UMIT.at), at Innsbruck, Austria, questions on education in health informatics, medical informatics, and biomedical informatics are discussed.Suggestions are made on (1) appropriate approaches for

  11. Medical Informatics in Academic Health Science Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisse, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of the state of medical informatics, the application of computer and information technology to biomedicine, looks at trends and concerns, including integration of traditionally distinct enterprises (clinical information systems, financial information, scholarly support activities, infrastructures); informatics career choice and…

  12. Informatics

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Imaging Program (CIP) is a driver of imaging informatics research at NCI. The CIP Informatics Team provides critical services and infrastructure to both the intramural and extramural imaging research communities. Major ongoing initiatives include:

  13. Health informatics and the delivery of care to older people.

    PubMed

    Koch, Sabine; Hägglund, Maria

    2009-07-20

    In the light of an aging society, effective delivery of healthcare will be more dependent on different technological solutions supporting the decentralization of healthcare, higher patient involvement and increased societal demands. The aim of this article is therefore, to describe the role of health informatics in the care of elderly people and to give an overview of the state of the art in this field. Based on a review of the existing scientific literature, 29 review articles from the last 15 years and 119 original articles from the last 5 years were selected and further analysed. Results show that review articles cover the fields of information technology in the home environment, integrated health information systems, public health systems, consumer health informatics and non-technology oriented topics such as nutrition, physical behaviour, medication and the aging process in general. Articles presenting original data can be divided into 5 major clusters: information systems and decision support, consumer health informatics, emerging technologies, home telehealth, and informatics methods. Results show that health informatics in elderly care is an expanding field of interest but we still do lack knowledge about the elderly person's needs of technology and how it should best be designed. Surprisingly, few studies cover gender differences related to technology use. Further cross-disciplinary research is needed that relates informatics and technology to different stages of the aging process and that evaluates the effects of technical solutions. PMID:19487092

  14. Developing an interdisciplinary health informatics security and privacy program (abstract only)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaohong Yuan; Jinsheng Xu; Kossi Edoh; Hong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Health informatics is one of the nation's largest growth industries. With the government's increasing interest in electronic health records and growing investment by healthcare organizations in technology, there is a large demand for a health informatics and health information technology workforce. To protect health information systems, it is highly important for health informatics professionals to be well educated and trained

  15. Cardiovascular health informatics: risk screening and intervention.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Craig J; Naghavi, Morteza; Parodi, Oberdan; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2012-09-01

    Despite enormous efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the past, it remains the leading cause of death in most countries worldwide. Around two-thirds of these deaths are due to acute events, which frequently occur suddenly and are often fatal before medical care can be given. New strategies for screening and early intervening CVD, in addition to the conventional methods, are therefore needed in order to provide personalized and pervasive healthcare. In this special issue, selected emerging technologies in health informatics for screening and intervening CVDs are reported. These papers include reviews or original contributions on 1) new potential genetic biomarkers for screening CVD outcomes and high-throughput techniques for mining genomic data; 2) new imaging techniques for obtaining faster and higher resolution images of cardiovascular imaging biomarkers such as the cardiac chambers and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries, as well as possible automatic segmentation, identification, or fusion algorithms; 3) new physiological biomarkers and novel wearable and home healthcare technologies for monitoring them in daily lives; 4) new personalized prediction models of plaque formation and progression or CVD outcomes; and 5) quantifiable indices and wearable systems to measure them for early intervention of CVD through lifestyle changes. It is hoped that the proposed technologies and systems covered in this special issue can result in improved CVD management and treatment at the point of need, offering a better quality of life to the patient. PMID:22997187

  16. Cardiovascular Health Informatics: Risk Screening and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Craig J.; Naghavi, Morteza; Parodi, Oberdan; Pattichis, Constantinos S.; Poon, Carmen C. Y.; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Despite enormous efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the past, it remains the leading cause of death in most countries worldwide. Around two-thirds of these deaths are due to acute events, which frequently occur suddenly and are often fatal before medical care can be given. New strategies for screening and early intervening CVD, in addition to the conventional methods, are therefore needed in order to provide personalized and pervasive healthcare. In this special issue, selected emerging technologies in health informatics for screening and intervening CVDs are reported. These papers include reviews or original contributions on 1) new potential genetic biomarkers for screening CVD outcomes and high-throughput techniques for mining genomic data; 2) new imaging techniques for obtaining faster and higher resolution images of cardiovascular imaging biomarkers such as the cardiac chambers and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries, as well as possible automatic segmentation, identification, or fusion algorithms; 3) new physiological biomarkers and novel wearable and home healthcare technologies for monitoring them in daily lives; 4) new personalized prediction models of plaque formation and progression or CVD outcomes; and 5) quantifiable indices and wearable systems to measure them for early intervention of CVD through lifestyle changes. It is hoped that the proposed technologies and systems covered in this special issue can result in improved CVD management and treatment at the point of need, offering a better quality of life to the patient. PMID:22997187

  17. Juris Doctor/Master of science in HealtH inforMatics (JD/MHi)

    E-print Network

    Acosta, Charles A.

    Juris Doctor/Master of science in HealtH inforMatics (JD/MHi) Our unique program combining legal education and health science informatics will give you a powerful advantage in the competitive environment Outcomes and People's Lives NKU CHase Law + INfOrMaTICs INsTITUTe NKU COLLege Of INfOrMaTICs Northern

  18. Health Informatics for Pediatric Disaster Preparedness Planning

    PubMed Central

    Burke, R.V.; Ryutov, T.; Neches, R.; Upperman, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective 1. To conduct a review of the role of informatics in pediatric disaster preparedness using all medical databases. 2. To provide recommendations to improve pediatric disaster preparedness by the application of informatics. Methods A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINHL and the Cochrane Library using the key words “children” AND “disaster preparedness and disaster” AND “informatics”. Results A total of 314 papers were initially produced by the search and eight that met the selection criteria were included in the review. Four themes emerged: tools for disaster preparedness, education, reunification and planning and response. Conclusion The literature pertaining to informatics and pediatric disaster preparedness is sparse and many gaps still persist. Current disaster preparedness tools focus on the general population and do not specifically address children. The most progress has been achieved in family reunification; however, the recommendations delineated are yet to be completed. PMID:23616840

  19. PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES Programme name MSc Health Informatics

    E-print Network

    Weyde, Tillman

    and undertake research in health informatics. Use computers and models to develop knowledge-based systems of the influences of information and communication technology standards in the context of clinical and heath systems classification, and how there concepts may realised in computerised health systems. Transform complex health

  20. Patterns and Correlates of Public Health Informatics Capacity Among Local Health Departments: An Empirical Typology

    PubMed Central

    Mac McCullough, J.; Goodin, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the nationwide patterns in the use of public health informatics systems by local health departments (LHDs) and whether LHDs tend to possess informatics capacity across a broad range of information functionalities or for a narrower range. This study examined patterns and correlates of the presence of public health informatics functionalities within LHDs through the creation of a typology of LHD informatics capacities. Methods: Data were available for 459 LHDs from the 2013 National Association of County and City Health Officials Profile survey. An empirical typology was created through cluster analysis of six public health informatics functionalities: immunization registry, electronic disease registry, electronic lab reporting, electronic health records, health information exchange, and electronic syndromic surveillance system. Three-categories of usage emerged (Low, Mid, High). LHD financial, workforce, organization, governance, and leadership characteristics, and types of services provided were explored across categories. Results: Low-informatics capacity LHDs had lower levels of use of each informatics functionality than high-informatics capacity LHDs. Mid-informatics capacity LHDs had usage levels equivalent to high-capacity LHDs for the three most common functionalities and equivalent to low-capacity LHDs for the three least common functionalities. Informatics capacity was positively associated with service provision, especially for population-focused services. Conclusion: Informatics capacity is clustered within LHDs. Increasing LHD informatics capacity may require LHDs with low levels of informatics capacity to expand capacity across a range of functionalities, taking into account their narrower service portfolio. LHDs with mid-level informatics capacity may need specialized support in enhancing capacity for less common technologies. PMID:25598871

  1. August 23September 26, 2010 Introduction to IM Motivational Interviewing Legal Issues Leadership Health Care Informatics

    E-print Network

    Wong, Pak Kin

    · Legal Issues · Leadership · Health Care Informatics September 27­December 19, 2010 Nutrition & Health Approaches to Cardiovascular Health · *Nutrition & Cardiovascular Health · Approaches to Diabetes · Energy

  2. Assistant to Full Professor, Department of BioHealth Informatics Join the faculty of an exciting and growing academic Department of BioHealth Informatics (BHI) at the

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Assistant to Full Professor, Department of BioHealth Informatics Join the faculty of an exciting and growing academic Department of BioHealth Informatics (BHI) at the new Indiana University School of Informatics and Computing (SoIC) at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)! The So

  3. The synergism of Health Information Science/Health Informatics.

    PubMed

    Protti, D J

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is threefold: to review the status of Health Information Science (Health Informatics) as reported in the literature; to suggest a taxonomy to integrate the many varied concepts being discussed under the rubric of Health Information Science; and to propose a framework into which research can be classified and potential research hypotheses generated. It is suggested that such a framework is needed if generalizations are to be made to the end that the knowledge produced from research efforts may be cumulative with that from other studies. A framework for research is needed if the field is to become an established academic discipline; whether or not it takes on the mantel of a "science" is another matter. PMID:3333021

  4. An Informatics Approach to Establishing a Sustainable Public Health Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriseman, Jeffrey Michael

    2012-01-01

    This work involved the analysis of a public health system, and the design, development and deployment of enterprise informatics architecture, and sustainable community methods to address problems with the current public health system. Specifically, assessment of the Nationally Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) was instrumental in…

  5. PhD SCHOLARSHIPS in Computers, Systems and Health Centre for Health Informatics

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    PhD SCHOLARSHIPS in Computers, Systems and Health Innovation Centre for Health Informatics We, systems safety, decision support, biosurveillance, social media/computing, virtual reality, human/biomedical informatics; 3. Potential for completing a PhD; 4. Good organisational skills and demonstrated capacity

  6. Global Health Seminar Series

    E-print Network

    Klein, Ophir

    Bay Area Global Health Seminar Series Moving beyond millennium targets in global health: The challenges of investing in health and universal health coverage Although targets can help to focus global health efforts, they can also detract attention from deeper underlying challenges in global health

  7. Global Health

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is confronting the global burden of cancer by creating sustainable international partnerships, supporting programs that address global gaps in research and scientific training, and disseminating information and best practices that drive improvements in cancer research and cancer control.

  8. A stimulus to define informatics and health information technology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the growing interest by leaders, policy makers, and others, the terminology of health information technology as well as biomedical and health informatics is poorly understood and not even agreed upon by academics and professionals in the field. Discussion The paper, presented as a Debate to encourage further discussion and disagreement, provides definitions of the major terminology used in biomedical and health informatics and health information technology. For informatics, it focuses on the words that modify the term as well as individuals who practice the discipline. Other categories of related terms are covered as well, from the associated disciplines of computer science, information technolog and health information management to the major application categories of applications used. The discussion closes with a classification of individuals who work in the largest segment of the field, namely clinical informatics. Summary The goal of presenting in Debate format is to provide a starting point for discussion to reach a documented consensus on the definition and use of these terms. PMID:19445665

  9. electronic Journal of Health Informatics www.eJHI.net

    E-print Network

    Yu, Ping

    electronic Journal of Health Informatics www.eJHI.net 2012; Vol 7(2):e12 Aged Care IT in Australia of Wollongong Abstract This paper reviews the development of aged care IT innovations in Australia in the past decade. It starts with a brief description of the establishment of the Aged Care eConnect project

  10. Understanding South Australian GP Attitudes Towards Health Informatics Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Knight; Margaret Patrickson; Bruce Gurd

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the attitudes of 20 practitioners in South Australian General Practice towards adopting Health Informatics (HI) systems. HI systems are aimed at improving the overall quality and management of healthcare, but adoption of the technology may require a change in the General Practitioner’s (GP) approach to the way they perform their healthcare delivery role. This qualitative study

  11. BERNARDO RAMIREZ, M.D., M.B.A. Department of Health Management and Informatics

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    ). Courses Developed: International Healthcare Systems; Strategic Management; Health Ethics, Managed Care Study Abroad; Health Care Quality Management; Health Informatics Applications in Health Care Management for Health Systems Performance and Quality Improvement. COHPA Research Fellows 2010-11. Peered Reviewed

  12. A review of analytics and clinical informatics in health care.

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Ahumada, Luis M; Gálvez, Jorge A; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Federal investment in health information technology has incentivized the adoption of electronic health record systems by physicians and health care organizations; the result has been a massive rise in the collection of patient data in electronic form (i.e. "Big Data"). Health care systems have leveraged Big Data for quality and performance improvements using analytics-the systematic use of data combined with quantitative as well as qualitative analysis to make decisions. Analytics have been utilized in various aspects of health care including predictive risk assessment, clinical decision support, home health monitoring, finance, and resource allocation. Visual analytics is one example of an analytics technique with an array of health care and research applications that are well described in the literature. The proliferation of Big Data and analytics in health care has spawned a growing demand for clinical informatics professionals who can bridge the gap between the medical and information sciences. PMID:24696396

  13. Global Health Field Experience

    E-print Network

    Global Health Field Experience Guide Yale College Center for International and Professional in global health and looking for guidance on where to begin. It provides valuable information about choosing of global health field work. With the suggestions and tools listed here, we hope that students new to global

  14. Global Health Seminar Series

    E-print Network

    Klein, Ophir

    Bay Area Global Health Seminar Series Global HIV/AIDS at the crossroads: Where do we go from here? Join us for the inaugural Bay Area Global Health Seminar, a quarterly series of moderated salon seminar will feature a different global health topic and be hosted by one of the four participating

  15. The New Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Patricia M.; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set. PMID:23876365

  16. State Mental Health Authorities and Informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Drake; Gregory B. Teague; Ken Gersing

    2005-01-01

    As state mental health authorities (SMHAs) attempt to promote evidence-based practices within their systems of care, they often ignore the enormous potential of information technology. Most of the tasks that Charles Rapp and colleagues have expertly identified in the preceding article can be addressed more efficiently with computerized approaches than with traditional approaches to education, implementation, training, and quality assurance.

  17. Clinical Research Informatics and Electronic Health Record Data

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, M. M.; Rusincovitch, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The goal of this survey is to discuss the impact of the growing availability of electronic health record (EHR) data on the evolving field of Clinical Research Informatics (CRI), which is the union of biomedical research and informatics. Results Major challenges for the use of EHR-derived data for research include the lack of standard methods for ensuring that data quality, completeness, and provenance are sufficient to assess the appropriateness of its use for research. Areas that need continued emphasis include methods for integrating data from heterogeneous sources, guidelines (including explicit phenotype definitions) for using these data in both pragmatic clinical trials and observational investigations, strong data governance to better understand and control quality of enterprise data, and promotion of national standards for representing and using clinical data. Conclusions The use of EHR data has become a priority in CRI. Awareness of underlying clinical data collection processes will be essential in order to leverage these data for clinical research and patient care, and will require multi-disciplinary teams representing clinical research, informatics, and healthcare operations. Considerations for the use of EHR data provide a starting point for practical applications and a CRI research agenda, which will be facilitated by CRI’s key role in the infrastructure of a learning healthcare system. PMID:25123746

  18. Evidence-based Patient Choice and Consumer health informatics in the Internet age

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we explore current access to and barriers to health information for consumers. We discuss how computers and other developments in information technology are ushering in the era of consumer health informatics , and the potential that lies ahead. It is clear that we witness a period in which the public will have unprecedented ability to access information and to participate actively in evidence-based health care. We propose that consumer health informatics be regarded as a whole new academic discipline, one that should be devoted to the exploration of the new possibilities that informatics is creating for consumers in relation to health and health care issues. PMID:11720961

  19. Understanding public health informatics competencies for mid-tier public health practitioners—a Web-based survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiehwen Ed Hsu; Kim Dunn; Hsin-Hsuan Juo; Rick Danko; Drew Johnson; Francisco Soto Mas; Jiunn-Jye Sheu

    2012-01-01

    The abstract of this article was orally presented at American Public Health Association Annual Conference Health Informatics Information Technology Section in Philadelphia, PA, USA, November 2009.The literature suggests that there is a need for measuring public health informatics (PHI) competency to further understand whether current educational modules and modalities meet the needs of PHI practitioners and researchers to perform their

  20. The State of Information and Communication Technology and Health Informatics in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633

  1. The Future of Public Health Informatics: Alternative Scenarios and Recommended Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Margo; Thorpe, Lorna; Sepulveda, Martin; Bezold, Clem; Ross, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In October 2013, the Public Health Informatics Institute (PHII) and Institute for Alternative Futures (IAF) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to evaluate forces shaping public health informatics (PHI) in the United States, with the aim of identifying upcoming challenges and opportunities. The PHI workshop was funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as part of its larger strategic planning process for public health and primary care. Workshop Context: During the two-day workshop, nine experts from the public and private sectors analyzed and discussed the implications of four scenarios regarding the United States economy, health care system, information technology (IT) sector, and their potential impacts on public health in the next 10 years, by 2023. Workshop participants considered the potential role of the public health sector in addressing population health challenges in each scenario, and then identified specific informatics goals and strategies needed for the sector to succeed in this role. Recommendations and Conclusion: Participants developed recommendations for the public health informatics field and for public health overall in the coming decade. These included the need to rely more heavily on intersectoral collaborations across public and private sectors, to improve data infrastructure and workforce capacity at all levels of the public health enterprise, to expand the evidence base regarding effectiveness of informatics-based public health initiatives, and to communicate strategically with elected officials and other key stakeholders regarding the potential for informatics-based solutions to have an impact on population health. PMID:25848630

  2. News from the Health Services Administration Alumni Chapter Fall 2008 Department of Health Management and Informatics College of Health and Public Affairs

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    in the College of Health and Public Affairs for health services administration graduate students. ScholarshipsNews from the Health Services Administration Alumni Chapter · Fall 2008 Department of Health Management and Informatics · College of Health and Public Affairs

  3. A Systematic Approach to Using Case Studies in Health Informatics Education

    PubMed Central

    Kagolovsky, Yuri; Brillinger, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of health informatics (HI) projects necessitates a solid base of skills and knowledge in a variety of different fields. Case studies are an excellent way to introduce this complexity without overwhelming students. This paper makes a contribution to HI education by presenting a systematic approach to introducing HI concepts to future health informatics professionals (HIPs) and to health care professionals and administrators who need a solid grounding to participate in HI projects. PMID:20351869

  4. HCFA's health care quality improvement program: the medical informatics challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, J B; Hayes, R P; Pates, R D; Elward, K S; Ballard, D J

    1996-01-01

    The peer-review organizations (PROs) were created by Congress in 1984 to monitor the cost and quality of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. In order to do this, the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) contracted with the PROs through a series of contracts referred to as "Scopes of Work." Under the Fourth Scope of Work, the HCFA initiated the Health Care Quality Improvement Program (HCQIP) in 1990, as an application of the principles of continuous quality improvement. Since then, the PROs have participated with health care providers in cooperative projects to improve the quality of primarily inpatient care provided to Medicare beneficiaries. Through HCFA-supplied administrative data and clinical data abstracted from patient records, the PROs have been able to identify opportunities for improvements in patient care. In May 1995, the HCFA proposed a new Fifth Scope of Work, which will shift the focus of HCQIP from inpatient care projects to projects in outpatient and managed care settings. This article describes the HCQIP process, the types of data used by the PROs to conduct cooperative projects with health care providers, and the informatics challenges in improving the quality of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. PMID:8750387

  5. Global Health Seminar Series

    E-print Network

    Klein, Ophir

    , and natural environments affect population health in developing countries using a mix of experimental is the Dean and a Professor of Health Policy and Management at the University of California, Berkeley SchoolBay Area Global Health Seminar Series Monday, January 27, 2014 2:30pm ­ 4:00pm (Reception to follow

  6. [Professional health cards (CPS): informatic health care system in France].

    PubMed

    Fortuit, P

    2005-09-01

    The Professional Health Card Public interest group (Groupement d'Intéręt Public-Carte de professionnel de Santé (GIP-CPS)) was founded in 1993 as a joint initiative by the different parties involved in health care in France: the state, the representatives of the health care professions and the compulsory and complementary health insurance organizations. The CPS system enables safe exchange and electronic sharing of medical data. Via Intranet connections and Extranet hosting of medical files, databases, the CPS system enables health care professionals who access servers to be identified with certainty. For email exhanges, the CPS systems guarantees the sender's identity and capacity. The electronic signature gives legal value to the email. The system also enables confidential email. The health card system (CPS) contributes to making the health service efficient. Shared medical files, health care networks, health warning systems or electronic requests for reimbursement of health insurance expenses all use the CPS system. More than 300,000 health care professionals use it regularly. The freedom of movement of patients throughout Europe has led to the growth of exchanges and information sharing between health professionals in the States of the Union. More and more health professionals will be leaving their own countries to work in foreign countries in the future. It is essential that their freedom of movement is accompanied by the ability to prove their rights to practice. PMID:16385785

  7. By: Latarsha Chisholm, MSW, Ph.D. Department of Health Management & Informatics

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    By: Latarsha Chisholm, MSW, Ph.D. Department of Health Management & Informatics University of Central Florida #12;Health Disparities Health disparities refers to population-specific differences in the presence of disease (www.ncsl.org) Health disparities is a particular type of health difference

  8. Why Global Health Security Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... commerce and national economies. Global Health Security Strengthens Public Health Systems CDC strengthens other global health programs—like ... centers that can respond more quickly to all public health crises; and support nationwide surveillance systems that enable ...

  9. Introduction to Health InformaticsIntroduction to Health Informatics HINF1100HINF1100

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    , communications and information technology and systems to all fields of medicine - medical care, medical education in healthcare? Information about the patient's health Medical record, lab results, medical images, disease, operation theatres Information about medical procedures to support clinical decisions Clinical protocols

  10. Global Health Council

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created in 1972, the Global Health Council (then known as the National Council of International Health) was created to identify priority world health problems and report on them to a wide range of parties, including government agencies and the global health community. In order to disseminate its findings and keep the public informed, the Council has created this well-organized website. The homepage offers visitors the basic layout of the site's contents, as it includes a selection of news briefs dealing with world health concerns and information on the most recent accomplishments of the Council. The top of the homepage offers subject links to the main programmatic areas of interest to the Council: women's health, child health, HIV/AIDS, and infectious disease. Of course, there is a strong publication section, which includes such timely documents as "Faith in Action: Examining the Role of Faith-Based Organizations in Addressing HIV/AIDS" and "Preventing Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Persons".

  11. The next generation Internet and health care: a civics lesson for the informatics community.

    PubMed Central

    Shortliffe, E. H.

    1998-01-01

    The Internet provides one of the most compelling examples of the way in which government research investments can, in time, lead to innovations of broad social and economic impact. This paper reviews the history of the Internet's evolution, emphasizing in particular its relationship to medical informatics and to the nation's health-care system. Current national research programs are summarized and the need for more involvement by the informatics community and by federal health-care agencies is emphasized. PMID:9929176

  12. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, N.; Amaechi, B.; Niederman, R.; Acevedo, A.-M.; Vianna, R.; Ganss, C.; Ismail, A.; Honkala, E.

    2011-01-01

    The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science. PMID:21490233

  13. Globalism and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of twenty-four-hour news media, local, state, and national agencies' warnings and with the explosive role of the Internet, people are more aware of global health concerns that may have significant consequences for the world's population. As international travel continues to increase, health care professionals around the world are…

  14. Global health and justice.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, James

    2005-10-01

    In Australia, Japan, Sweden, and Switzerland, the average life expectancy is now greater than 80 years. But in Angola, Malawi, Sierra Leone, and Zimbabwe, the average life expectancy is less than 40 years. The situation is even worse than these statistics suggest because average figures tend to mask inequalities within countries. What are we to make of a world with such inequal health prospects? What does justice demand in terms of global health? To address these problems, I characterize justice at the local level, at the domestic or social level, and at the international or global level. Because social conditions, structures, and institutions have such a profound influence on the health of populations, I begin by focusing attention on the relationship between social justice and health prospects. Then I go on to discuss health prospects and the problem of global justice. Here I distinguish two views: a cosmopolitan view and a political view of global justice. In my account of global justice, I modify and use the political view that John Rawls developed in The Law of Peoples. I try to show why an adequate political account must include three duties: a duty not to harm, a duty to reconstruct international arrangements, and a duty to assist. PMID:16425484

  15. MEDINFO 2007 Studies in Health Technology and Informatics

    E-print Network

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    - Informatics ­ Proceedings of MIE2005 Vol. 115. N. Saranummi, D. Piggott, D.G. Katehakis, M. Tsiknakis and K by Klaus A. Kuhn University Medical Center, Technische Universität München, Germany James R. Warren

  16. Globalization and Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Open-access peer-reviewed journals continue to grow in number and in scope, and those dealing with the future of public health are no exception. One of the latest is Globalization and Health, which provides â??a platform for research, knowledge sharing and debate on the topic of globalization and its effects on health, both positive and negative.â?ť With such a broad range, it is no surprise that the journal has included articles on the tobacco industry, intellectual property rights, the effect of trade agreements on health, and the dissemination of Western diets across the globe. The journal currently publishes everything from book reviews to debate articles, so interested parties should definitely take a look at their work and requirements for publication consideration.

  17. Integrating Experiential Learning into a Double Degree Masters Program in Nursing and Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Borycki, Elizabeth M.; Frisch, Noreen; Kushniruk, Andre W.; McIntyre, Marjorie; Hutchinson, David

    2012-01-01

    In Canada there are few nurses who have advanced practice competencies in nursing informatics. This is a significant issue for regional health authorities, governments and electronic health record vendors in Canada who are implementing electronic health records. Few Schools of Nursing provide formalized opportunities for nurses to develop informatics competencies. Many of these opportunities take the form of post-baccalaureate certificate programs or individual undergraduate or graduate level courses in nursing. The purpose of this paper will be to: (1) describe the health and human resource issues in this area in Canada, (2) provide a brief overview of the design and development of a new, innovative double degree program at the intersection of nursing and health informatics that interleaves cooperative learning, (3) describe the integration of cooperative learning into this new program, and (4) outline the lessons learned in integrating cooperative education into such a graduate program. PMID:24199044

  18. Security Informatics Security Informatics

    E-print Network

    Camp, L. Jean

    Security Informatics Security Informatics Security Informatics is the study and design of information security technologies within social and economic contexts. Security Informatics builds upon strong of security and privacy. Security Informatics addresses both immediate problems of today, such as phishing

  19. Vaccines and global health

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Brian; Salisbury, David; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines have made a major contribution to global health in recent decades but they could do much more. In November 2011, a Royal Society discussion meeting, ‘New vaccines for global health’, was held in London to discuss the past contribution of vaccines to global health and to consider what more could be expected in the future. Papers presented at the meeting reviewed recent successes in the deployment of vaccines against major infections of childhood and the challenges faced in developing vaccines against some of the world's remaining major infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria and tuberculosis. The important contribution that development of more effective veterinary vaccines could make to global health was also addressed. Some of the social and financial challenges to the development and deployment of new vaccines were reviewed. The latter issues were also discussed at a subsequent satellite meeting, ‘Accelerating vaccine development’, held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre. Delegates at this meeting considered challenges to the more rapid development and deployment of both human and veterinary vaccines and how these might be addressed. Papers based on presentations at the discussion meeting and a summary of the main conclusions of the satellite meeting are included in this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. PMID:21893534

  20. Informatics Department of

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Mei-Fang

    SHRP Biomedical Informatics Department of Health Informatics about it's all ChoiCes... exclusively. For additional information visit their website at: housing.newark.rutgers.edu Visit shrp.rutgers.edu/dept/informatics@shrp.rutgers.edu Professor & Chairman, Department of Health Informatics Director of Graduate Programs in Biomedical

  1. Informatic nephrology.

    PubMed

    Musso, Carlos; Aguilera, Jerónimo; Otero, Carlos; Vilas, Manuel; Luna, Daniel; de Quirós, Fernán González Bernaldo

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical informatics in Health (BIH) is the discipline in charge of capturing, handling and using information in health and biomedicine in order to improve the processes involved with assistance and management. Informatic nephrology has appeared as a product of the combination between conventional nephrology with BIH and its development has been considerable in the assistance as well as in the academic field. Regarding the former, there is increasing evidence that informatics technology can make nephrological assistance be better in quality (effective, accessible, safe and satisfying), improve patient's adherence, optimize patient's and practitioner's time, improve physical space and achieve health cost reduction. Among its main elements, we find electronic medical and personal health records, clinical decision support system, tele-nephrology, and recording and monitoring devices. Additionally, regarding the academic field, informatics and Internet contribute to education and research in the nephrological field. In conclusion, informatics nephrology represents a new field which will influence the future of nephrology. PMID:23065430

  2. Adapting social media as a scaffolding tool for teaching health informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Day; Stewart Wells

    2009-01-01

    Health informatics is an applied hybrid discipline of health and life sciences, computer science and business. Teaching this subject to undergraduate students, presents the challenge of learning without the assistance of internship or work experience that enable placing the learning in context. We used the university's learning management software as a form of social medium to stimulate discussions in preparation

  3. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics -Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Newport Beach, CA, January 2001 Effects of Geared Motor Characteristics on

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jacob

    Studies in Health Technology and Informatics - Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Newport Beach, CA samples' stiffness, but these characteristics may significantly affect the energy expenditure and time of Tissue Stiffness Studies in Health Technology and Informatics - Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Newport

  4. Informatics, evidence-based care, and research; implications for national policy: a report of an American Medical Informatics Association health policy conference

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, Don E

    2010-01-01

    There is an increased level of activity in the biomedical and health informatics world (e-prescribing, electronic health records, personal health records) that, in the near future, will yield a wealth of available data that we can exploit meaningfully to strengthen knowledge building and evidence creation, and ultimately improve clinical and preventive care. The American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) 2008 Health Policy Conference was convened to focus and propel discussions about informatics-enabled evidence-based care, clinical research, and knowledge management. Conference participants explored the potential of informatics tools and technologies to improve the evidence base on which providers and patients can draw to diagnose and treat health problems. The paper presents a model of an evidence continuum that is dynamic, collaborative, and powered by health informatics technologies. The conference's findings are described, and recommendations on terminology harmonization, facilitation of the evidence continuum in a “wired” world, development and dissemination of clinical practice guidelines and other knowledge support strategies, and the role of diverse stakeholders in the generation and adoption of evidence are presented. PMID:20190052

  5. Informatics and Telematics in Health. Present and Potential Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This report focuses on technical issues associated with informatics--a term covering all aspects of the development and operations of information systems, the supporting computer methodology and technology, and the supporting telecommunications links. The first of six chapters discusses the purpose of the report together with basic assumptions…

  6. NN. Joint JD/MHI (Master of Health Informatics) Degree Program: NKU Chase College of Law and the NKU College of Informatics offer a joint JD/MHI degree.

    E-print Network

    Acosta, Charles A.

    NN. Joint JD/MHI (Master of Health Informatics) Degree Program: NKU Chase College of Law and the NKU College of Informatics offer a joint JD/MHI degree. The following describes the JD, consisting of 78 hours in the College of Law and at least 30 hours in the College of Informatics

  7. Beyond information access: Support for complex cognitive activities in public health informatics tools

    PubMed Central

    Sedig, Kamran; Parsons, Paul; Dittmer, Mark; Ola, Oluwakemi

    2012-01-01

    Public health professionals work with a variety of information sources to carry out their everyday activities. In recent years, interactive computational tools have become deeply embedded in such activities. Unlike the early days of computational tool use, the potential of tools nowadays is not limited to simply providing access to information; rather, they can act as powerful mediators of human-information discourse, enabling rich interaction with public health information. If public health informatics tools are designed and used properly, they can facilitate, enhance, and support the performance of complex cognitive activities that are essential to public health informatics, such as problem solving, forecasting, sense-making, and planning. However, the effective design and evaluation of public health informatics tools requires an understanding of the cognitive and perceptual issues pertaining to how humans work and think with information to perform such activities. This paper draws on research that has examined some of the relevant issues, including interaction design, complex cognition, and visual representations, to offer some human-centered design and evaluation considerations for public health informatics tools. PMID:23569645

  8. August 2009 INFORMATICS TOOLS

    E-print Network

    McShea, Daniel W.

    1 August 2009 INFORMATICS TOOLS FOR FOOD SAFETY AND DEFENSE Project Leads Noel Greis, Ph. Further, most of the public health and food safety informatics work1 in the 1 While many use the terms informatics and information science interchangeably, we use the term informatics to refer specifically

  9. Methodologic Issues in Health Informatics Trials: The Complexities of Complex Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbatykh, Ivan; Holbrook, Anne; Thabane, Lehana; Dolovich, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective All electronic health (e-health) interventions require validation as health information technologies, ideally in randomized controlled trial settings. However, as with other types of complex interventions involving various active components and multiple targets, health informatics trials often experience problems of design, methodology, or analysis that can influence the results and acceptance of the research. Our objective was to review selected key methodologic issues in conducting and reporting randomized controlled trials in health informatics, provide examples from a recent study, and present practical recommendations. Design For illustration, we use the COMPETE III study, a large randomized controlled clinical trial investigating the impact of a shared decision-support system on the quality of vascular disease management in Ontario, Canada. Results We describe a set of methodologic, logistic, and statistical issues that should be considered when planning and implementing trials of complex e-health interventions, and provide practical recommendations for health informatics trialists. Conclusions Our recommendations emphasize validity and pragmatic considerations and would be useful for health informaticians conducting or evaluating e-health studies. PMID:18579839

  10. The Global Health Chronicles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How do global diseases get eradicated? It's a fascinating query and one that is explored in-depth on this website sponsored by the Center for Disease Control and Emory University. The site focuses on three diseases (smallpox, Guinea worm, and malaria) to create a portrait of the various resources and individuals that were instrumental in addressing these epidemics. Each section contains oral histories, photographs, documents, and other media. The Malaria Control section is fascinating as it contains a detailed profile of the ways in which the U.S. Public Health Service dealt with this problem in the southeastern states. From here, visitors can click on Media to watch an animated film titled, "Criminal at Large,â?ť and several interesting training films. It's easy to see how these resources might be used in history of science courses or by public health professionals interested in such matters.

  11. Social care informatics as an essential part of holistic health care: A call for action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Rigby; Penny Hill; Sabine Koch; Debbie Keeling

    2011-01-01

    PurposeThe authors identified the need for a cross-disciplinary research view of issues to ensure an integrated citizen-centric support to achieve optimal health of individual citizens and, in particular, the role of informatics to inform and coordinate support towards integrated and holistic care.

  12. Online Social Networks for Personal Informatics to Promote Positive Health Behavior

    E-print Network

    British Columbia, University of

    Online Social Networks for Personal Informatics to Promote Positive Health Behavior Noreen Kamal.ho@ubc.ca ABSTRACT Social network services are becoming increasingly popular, and people are using these networks to obtain and share information. The application of social network and social media to the collection

  13. UC Irvine Health Affairs Information Services, Clinical Informatics QA Portal User Guide SOP No.: CI-002

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    requirements Workstation requirements for Quest Analytics portal · Internet explorer 7.0 or higher Quest Analytics /Dashboards #12;UC Irvine Health Affairs Information Services, Clinical Informatics QA Portal User dashboards CI to assign appropriate user security according to access level 5 View dashboard by clicking

  14. Towards Understanding Apparent South Australian GP Resistance to Adopting Health Informatics Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Knight; Margaret Patrickson; Bruce Gurd

    This paper reports on a qualitative study of the attitudes of 23 South Australian practitioners in General Practice (GP) towards adopting an unspecified data amalgamating Health Informatics (HI) system. Findings suggest key areas of concern are associated with the potential for diminution of control over change and adoption was primarily influenced by a perceived need to protect the role and

  15. MSN PROGRAM NURSING INFORMATICS CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Pei

    as Scholar II: Evidence-based Practice 3 N582 Population Health in a Global Society 3 N583 Professional in Healthcare: Design, Management and Connectivity 3 N716 Introduction to Health Informatics 3 N717 Health Seminar (2 semesters @ 1 credit each) 2 N720 Health Information Technology Leadership 1 N721 System Design

  16. Annual Women's Health Forum Global Women's Health

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    5th Annual Women's Health Forum Global Women's Health Hosted by The Stanford WSDM* Center May 21;3 Welcome to the 5th Annual Women's Health Forum - hosted by the Stanford WSDM Center, also known acknowledges the wisdom of conducting research and expanding knowledge about women's health and sex differences

  17. Advances in health informatics education: educating students at the intersection of health care and information technology.

    PubMed

    Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Brian; Kuo, Mu-Hsing

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the authors' work in the area of health informatics (HI) education involving emerging health information technologies. A range of information technologies promise to modernize health care. Foremost among these are electronic health records (EHRs), which are expected to significantly improve and streamline health care practice. Major national and international efforts are currently underway to increase EHR adoption. However, there have been numerous issues affecting the widespread use of such information technology, ranging from a complex array of technical problems to social issues. This paper describes work in the integration of information technologies directly into the education and training of HI students at both the undergraduate and graduate level. This has included work in (a) the development of Web-based computer tools and platforms to allow students to have hands-on access to the latest technologies and (b) development of interdisciplinary educational models that can be used to guide integrating information technologies into HI education. The paper describes approaches that allow for remote hands-on access by HI students to a range of EHRs and related technology. To date, this work has been applied in HI education in a variety of ways. Several approaches for integration of this essential technology into HI education and training are discussed, along with future directions for the integration of EHR technology into improving and informing the education of future health and HI professionals. PMID:22910506

  18. E-health: A New Perspective on Global Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurjit Kaur; Chandigarh India; Neena Gupta

    e-health is a process of providing health care via electronic means, in particular over the Internet. The term e-health has been used to describe the variety of activities related to the electronic exchange of health-related data, voice or video. e-health is an emerging field in the intersection of medical informatics, public health and business, referring to health services and information

  19. Achieving Holistic Health for the Individual through Person-Centered Collaborative Care Supported by Informatics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This article seeks to describe the current state of informatics supported collaborative care and to point out areas of future research in this highly interdisciplinary field. Methods In this article, person-centered collaborative care is seen as a concept addressing both the provision of care over organizational borders between health and social care, and within care teams as well as the changed patient/client-care provider relationship characterized by increased patient/client involvement. Results From a health systems perspective, there are several attempts to describe the conceptual and theoretical basis for collaborative care indicating that agreement on core concepts and terminology is difficult. From an informatics perspective, focus is on standardization of clinical content models and terminology to achieve interoperability of information technology systems and to support standardized care pathways. Few examples look into how ad-hoc collaborative care processes can be supported using information technology and informatics standards. Nevertheless, promising examples do exist showing that integrational Information Communication Technology services can be supportive for collaborative care developments. However, the current landscape consists of many fragmented, often technology-driven eHealth solutions targeting specific diagnostic groups in geographically and/or organizationally restricted settings. Conclusions A systematic approach incorporating organizational, clinical, informatics and social science knowledge is needed to perform further research in areas such as virtual team partnerships, new paradigms of care delivery, data and knowledge management as well as its secure sharing. Also organizational and legal aspects need to be further researched in order to facilitate the coordinated provision of health and social care to citizens including self-management, utilizing informatics support in a societal context. PMID:23626912

  20. Public Health Surveillance Meets Translational Informatics: A Desiderata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parsa Mirhaji

    2009-01-01

    “Public health surveillance (PHS) is the ongoing and systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data regarding a health-related event for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health.” As information technology gains acceptance as a core element of public health practice, many approaches to the design of PHS systems have been proposed, much

  1. ASU-Mayo Clinic Imaging Informatics Laboratory (AMIIL) Data Mining and Health Informatics in

    E-print Network

    Li, Jing

    -scanner medical records · Real-time query and alarming Software system architecture Real-time query/reporting Real-time Pathologists Medical geneticists Radiologists Health Systems Engineers Focus Area I: Imaging centered data analytics for better diagnosis and treatment of cancer Focus Area II: Operational excellence, work flow

  2. Beyond information retrieval and electronic health record use: competencies in clinical informatics for medical education.

    PubMed

    Hersh, William R; Gorman, Paul N; Biagioli, Frances E; Mohan, Vishnu; Gold, Jeffrey A; Mejicano, George C

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in the 21st century will increasingly interact in diverse ways with information systems, requiring competence in many aspects of clinical informatics. In recent years, many medical school curricula have added content in information retrieval (search) and basic use of the electronic health record. However, this omits the growing number of other ways that physicians are interacting with information that includes activities such as clinical decision support, quality measurement and improvement, personal health records, telemedicine, and personalized medicine. We describe a process whereby six faculty members representing different perspectives came together to define competencies in clinical informatics for a curriculum transformation process occurring at Oregon Health & Science University. From the broad competencies, we also developed specific learning objectives and milestones, an implementation schedule, and mapping to general competency domains. We present our work to encourage debate and refinement as well as facilitate evaluation in this area. PMID:25057246

  3. A Clinical Informatics Network (CLINT) to support the practice of evidence-based health care.

    PubMed Central

    Langton, K. B.; Horsman, J.; Hayward, R. S.; Ross, S. A.

    1996-01-01

    CLINT, which stands for Clinical Informatics NeTwork, is one of the clinical informatics initiatives in development at McMaster University's Health Information Research Unit. CLINT is a microcomputer-based system of over 60 workstations providing 24 hour availability of a set of clinical information resources to clinicians throughout our teaching hospital. CLINT encompasses three domains: (1) a user adaptable clinician-computer interface, (2) unique evidence-based health care content, and (3) automated data collection and viewing tools. An objective of the CLINT project is to determine CLINT's impact on the practice of health care. Early analysis of our data has revealed that over the past year, there has been widespread use of CLINT by clinicians from all clinical domains. Our next task is to evaluate CLINT's usefulness. PMID:8947702

  4. Uncovering patterns of technology use in consumer health informatics

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Conrad, Jillian; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Tang, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage and accessibility has grown at a staggering rate, influencing technology use for healthcare purposes. The amount of health information technology (Health IT) available through the Internet is immeasurable and growing daily. Health IT is now seen as a fundamental aspect of patient care as it stimulates patient engagement and encourages personal health management. It is increasingly important to understand consumer health IT patterns including who is using specific technologies, how technologies are accessed, factors associated with use, and perceived benefits. To fully uncover consumer patterns it is imperative to recognize common barriers and which groups they disproportionately affect. Finally, exploring future demand and predictions will expose significant opportunities for health IT. The most frequently used health information technologies by consumers are gathering information online, mobile health (mHealth) technologies, and personal health records (PHRs). Gathering health information online is the favored pathway for healthcare consumers as it is used by more consumers and more frequently than any other technology. In regard to mHealth technologies, minority Americans, compared with White Americans utilize social media, mobile Internet, and mobile applications more frequently. Consumers believe PHRs are the most beneficial health IT. PHR usage is increasing rapidly due to PHR integration with provider health systems and health insurance plans. Key issues that have to be explicitly addressed in health IT are privacy and security concerns, health literacy, unawareness, and usability. Privacy and security concerns are rated the number one reason for the slow rate of health IT adoption. PMID:24904713

  5. Consortium for Oral Health-Related Informatics: Improving Dental Research, Education, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Paul C.; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; White, Joel M.; Walji, Muhammad F.; Stewart, Denice C.L.; Kimmes, Nicole; Meng, Thomas R.; Willis, George P.; DeVries, Ted; Chapman, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in informatics, particularly the implementation of electronic health records (EHR), in dentistry have facilitated the exchange of information. The majority of dental schools in North America use the same EHR system, providing an unprecedented opportunity to integrate these data into a repository that can be used for oral health education and research. In 2007, fourteen dental schools formed the Consortium for Oral Health-Related Informatics (COHRI). Since its inception, COHRI has established structural and operational processes, governance and bylaws, and a number of work groups organized in two divisions: one focused on research (data standardization, integration, and analysis), and one focused on education (performance evaluations, virtual standardized patients, and objective structured clinical examinations). To date, COHRI (which now includes twenty dental schools) has been successful in developing a data repository, pilot-testing data integration, and sharing EHR enhancements among the group. This consortium has collaborated on standardizing medical and dental histories, developing diagnostic terminology, and promoting the utilization of informatics in dental education. The consortium is in the process of assembling the largest oral health database ever created. This will be an invaluable resource for research and provide a foundation for evidence-based dentistry for years to come. PMID:20930236

  6. Aligning public health and health informatics research strengths with national level research priorities in saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Alshammri, Riyad; Jradi, Huda; Da'ar, Omar B; Saddik, Basema; Alamry, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore the process of aligning the College of Public Health and Health Informatics research strengths at KSAU-HS with Saudi National Science Technology and Innovation Plan (NSTIP). Nineteen participants responded to a survey and reported on their research strengths, research goals, and research barriers. All 19 participants had academic faculty appointments at the assistant professor level. Five of the 19 participants, also had administrative level positions. A thematic content analysis was performed on the data. The comments were grouped into themes in a manner that reflected the objective of the exercise. Results show that although there are a variety of research strengths within the college, funding, staffing, bureaucracy, data access, and linkages with other healthcare organizations were barriers hindering research progress. This process has led the college to focus on two NSTIP-KACST national priority areas of 1) Information technology; and 2) Medical and Health related research. Future research will assess the outcome of the plan on the research agenda of the college. PMID:25000063

  7. The health information system security threat lifecycle: An informatics theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juanita I. Fernando; Linda L. Dawson

    2009-01-01

    PurposeThis manuscript describes the health information system security threat lifecycle (HISSTL) theory. The theory is grounded in case study data analyzing clinicians’ health information system (HIS) privacy and security (P&S) experiences in the practice context.

  8. An online health informatics elective course for doctor of pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kevin T; Galt, Kimberly A

    2015-04-25

    Objective. To describe the development and assessment of an online elective health informatics course and determine its potential for universal integration into doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curricula. Design. A 2-credit hour online elective course was developed and offered to all PharmD students; voiced-over Powerpoint lectures were used to deliver content. Assessment. Assessment of student performance was measured using quantitative metrics via discussion questions, quizzes, written papers, and examinations. Qualitative findings were measured through discussion questions, a goal-setting classroom assessment technique, and an end-of-course reflection. Students report finding value in the course and recognizing how the knowledge gained could impact their future practice as pharmacists. Conclusion. An online course in health informatics can be an effective way to deliver content and provide a blueprint for continued integration of the content into curricula. PMID:25995516

  9. An Online Health Informatics Elective Course for Doctor of Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Galt, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development and assessment of an online elective health informatics course and determine its potential for universal integration into doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curricula. Design. A 2-credit hour online elective course was developed and offered to all PharmD students; voiced-over Powerpoint lectures were used to deliver content. Assessment. Assessment of student performance was measured using quantitative metrics via discussion questions, quizzes, written papers, and examinations. Qualitative findings were measured through discussion questions, a goal-setting classroom assessment technique, and an end-of-course reflection. Students report finding value in the course and recognizing how the knowledge gained could impact their future practice as pharmacists. Conclusion. An online course in health informatics can be an effective way to deliver content and provide a blueprint for continued integration of the content into curricula. PMID:25995516

  10. Minitrack: Consumer Health Informatics, Patient Safety and Quality of Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Lerouge; Gordana Culjak; Thomas A. Horan

    2007-01-01

    Health Information Consumers are increasingly seeking access to timely, accurate and accessible information, as made possible through Information Technology (IT). These technological developments have direct implications for access, awareness and use of health information by consumers, as well as patient decision making, safety, and quality of health care provision. Healthcare information systems are expected to reduce medical errors, improve quality

  11. Imaging informatics for consumer health: towards a radiology patient portal

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Corey W; McNamara, Mary; El-Saden, Suzie; Chen, Shawn; Taira, Ricky K; Bui, Alex A T

    2013-01-01

    Objective With the increased routine use of advanced imaging in clinical diagnosis and treatment, it has become imperative to provide patients with a means to view and understand their imaging studies. We illustrate the feasibility of a patient portal that automatically structures and integrates radiology reports with corresponding imaging studies according to several information orientations tailored for the layperson. Methods The imaging patient portal is composed of an image processing module for the creation of a timeline that illustrates the progression of disease, a natural language processing module to extract salient concepts from radiology reports (73% accuracy, F1 score of 0.67), and an interactive user interface navigable by an imaging findings list. The portal was developed as a Java-based web application and is demonstrated for patients with brain cancer. Results and discussion The system was exhibited at an international radiology conference to solicit feedback from a diverse group of healthcare professionals. There was wide support for educating patients about their imaging studies, and an appreciation for the informatics tools used to simplify images and reports for consumer interpretation. Primary concerns included the possibility of patients misunderstanding their results, as well as worries regarding accidental improper disclosure of medical information. Conclusions Radiologic imaging composes a significant amount of the evidence used to make diagnostic and treatment decisions, yet there are few tools for explaining this information to patients. The proposed radiology patient portal provides a framework for organizing radiologic results into several information orientations to support patient education. PMID:23739614

  12. Past and Future Perspectives on Certified in Public Health

    E-print Network

    , MPH, PhD, CPH Research Dir, Social Determinants of Health, CDC Gerald T. Keusch, MD Director, Global Informatics, Non-profit I teach in a graduate program in public health informatics and felt it worthwhile

  13. Use of qualitative methods across the software development lifecycle in health informatics.

    PubMed

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Househ, Mowafa; Kushniruk, Andre W; Kuziemsky, Craig

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the authors review and discuss four different qualitative approaches as they are used to evaluate health information systems: (1) grounded theory, (2) ethnography, (3) verbal protocol analysis/usability engineering and (4) action research. The authors describe the historical origins, current uses, strengths and weakness of the three qualitative methodologies that are frequently used in health informatics and they discuss an emerging approach: action research. More importantly, they identify how each of the approaches can be used across the SDLC to inform planning, analysis, design, implementation and support of health information systems. PMID:21335726

  14. WHO: Global Health Observatory: Mental Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    While more than 800,000 people die from suicide globally each year, the median amount of the health budget allocated to mental health in 2011 was 2.8%. In Afghanistan, six out of every 100,000 men committed suicide. In the United States, that number was 19. These and other data can be gleaned from the age-standardized suicide rates interactive graph on the World Health Organizationâ??s Global Health Observatory website dedicated to issues of Mental Health. Additionally, the page provides links to reports on Policy and financing of mental health, Human resources (in terms of the number of psychiatrists available per 100,000 people in a given country), and Mental health care delivery.

  15. Supporting information mapping in Health Informatics via integrated message transformation

    E-print Network

    Grundy, John

    in commercializing our basic research to produce a successful new product. Keywords: Systems integration, Electronic simplifies building such integration infrastructure. Our system allows health systems integrators to specify message exchange system is used to communicate between the data source and data target health information

  16. Bioengineering Undergraduate Curriculum Bioengineering Health Care Informatics (BHI)

    E-print Network

    1 IT 214 Database Fundamentals 3 *CHEM 251 General Chem. for Engr. 4 HAP 301 Healthcare Delivery 3 Health Data Challenges 3 STAT 344 Prob & Statistics for Engr. 3 HAP 360 Intro to Healthcare Info. Systems

  17. Turning electronic health record data into meaningful information using SQL and nursing informatics.

    PubMed

    Moerbe, Miriam; Kelemen, Arpad

    2014-08-01

    The combination of nursing informatics knowledge with SQL code writing in an electronic health record is a powerful partnership to obtain meaningful information and improve healthcare. The purpose of this project is to use SQL and nursing informatics to identify the underpinnings and scope of present-on-patient-admission pressure ulcer documentation incongruence within the inpatient medical-surgical unit of a rural hospital. Project results reveal a 76% incidence rate of incongruent nurse and physician documentation of pressure ulcers as present on admission. However, the scope of such incongruence affects only 3% for the inpatient population. The high incidence rate of nurse-documented present-on-admission pressure ulcers without a physician diagnoses indicates a potential for lost rural hospital reimbursement and risk to patient care. PMID:25010052

  18. Values in global health governance.

    PubMed

    Benatar, S R; Lister, G; Thacker, S C

    2010-01-01

    In the 60 years since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was promulgated, the promise of achieving respect for the human rights, health and well being of all is becoming an ever more distant prospect. We have not even remotely met the challenge of improving health for a large proportion of the world's population, and the prospects for improving global health seem to be receding in the current deteriorating economic and political climate. As global health remains one of the most pressing problems of our time, we must question the values that direct our actions and current approaches, which proclaim 'human rights to health' but which subsume these rights to a broader paradigm of unregulated global market economics and national politics, rather than working to make these oft-contradictory goals mutually compatible through justifiable and accountable global governance processes. We suggest that a new balance of values and new ways of thinking and acting are needed. These must transcend national and institutional boundaries and recognise that health in the most privileged nations is closely linked to health and disease in impoverished countries. Sustainable development of health and well-being is a necessity for all, and values for health should permeate every area of social and economic activity. PMID:20213564

  19. CHESS: 10 years of research and development in consumer health informatics for broad populations, including the underserved

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Gustafson; Robert P. Hawkins; Eric W. Boberg; Fiona Mctavish; Betta Owens; Meg Wise; Haile Berhe; Suzanne Pingree

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the research and development around a consumer health informatics system CHESS (The Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) developed and tested by the Center for Health Systems Research and Analysis at the University of Wisconsin. The review places particular emphasis on what has been found with regard to the acceptance and use of such systems by high risk

  20. Values in global health governance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Benatar; G. Lister; S. C. Thacker

    2010-01-01

    In the 60 years since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was promulgated, the promise of achieving respect for the human rights, health and well being of all is becoming an ever more distant prospect. We have not even remotely met the challenge of improving health for a large proportion of the world's population, and the prospects for improving global

  1. Application of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge framework in integrating an educational EMR into health informatics education.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Jesdeep; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    The discipline of health informatics is highly immersed in information technology, specifically health information systems. Students graduating from Bachelor degree programs in health informatics are expected to be familiar with a variety of systems upon entering the workforce. The adoption of systems like electronic medical records is on the rise across Canada, therefore it would be highly beneficial for students to have exposure to such systems in their coursework. While some individual instructors have done this to some extent on an ad hoc basis, formal strategies for EMR integration do not exist. A prominent framework for technology integration in learning that has been applied in many scientific disciplines is the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) framework. This paper describes how TPCK was used and applied as the guiding conceptual framework for exploring the integration of an educational EMR into undergraduate health informatics education. PMID:23388253

  2. The role of markup for enabling interoperability in health informatics.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Steve; Johnson, David

    2015-01-01

    Interoperability is the faculty of making information systems work together. In this paper we will distinguish a number of different forms that interoperability can take and show how they are realized on a variety of physiological and health care use cases. The last 15 years has seen the rise of very cheap digital storage both on and off site. With the advent of the Internet of Things people's expectations are for greater interconnectivity and seamless interoperability. The potential impact these technologies have on healthcare are dramatic: from improved diagnoses through immediate access to a patient's electronic health record, to in silico modeling of organs and early stage drug trials, to predictive medicine based on top-down modeling of disease progression and treatment. We will begin by looking at the underlying technology, classify the various kinds of interoperability that exist in the field, and discuss how they are realized. We conclude with a discussion on future possibilities that big data and further standardizations will enable. PMID:26042043

  3. The role of markup for enabling interoperability in health informatics

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, Steve; Johnson, David

    2015-01-01

    Interoperability is the faculty of making information systems work together. In this paper we will distinguish a number of different forms that interoperability can take and show how they are realized on a variety of physiological and health care use cases. The last 15 years has seen the rise of very cheap digital storage both on and off site. With the advent of the Internet of Things people's expectations are for greater interconnectivity and seamless interoperability. The potential impact these technologies have on healthcare are dramatic: from improved diagnoses through immediate access to a patient's electronic health record, to in silico modeling of organs and early stage drug trials, to predictive medicine based on top-down modeling of disease progression and treatment. We will begin by looking at the underlying technology, classify the various kinds of interoperability that exist in the field, and discuss how they are realized. We conclude with a discussion on future possibilities that big data and further standardizations will enable. PMID:26042043

  4. Current Challenge in Consumer Health Informatics: Bridging the Gap between Access to Information and Information Understanding.

    PubMed

    Alpay, Laurence; Verhoef, John; Xie, Bo; Te'eni, Dov; Zwetsloot-Schonk, J H M

    2009-01-01

    The number of health-related websites has proliferated over the past few years. Health information consumers confront a myriad of health related resources on the internet that have varying levels of quality and are not always easy to comprehend. There is thus a need to help health information consumers to bridge the gap between access to information and information understanding-i.e. to help consumers understand health related web-based resources so that they can act upon it. At the same time health information consumers are becoming not only more involved in their own health care but also more information technology minded. One way to address this issue is to provide consumers with tailored information that is contextualized and personalized e.g. directly relevant and easily comprehensible to the person's own health situation. This paper presents a current trend in Consumer Health Informatics which focuses on theory-based design and development of contextualized and personalized tools to allow the evolving consumer with varying backgrounds and interests to use online health information efficiently. The proposed approach uses a theoretical framework of communication in order to support the consumer's capacity to understand health-related web-based resources. PMID:20419038

  5. Nanomedicine for global health.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Nathaniel; Lee, Bryan; Kim, Austin; Yang, Richard; Pan, Ricky; Lee, Dong-Keun; Chow, Edward K; Ho, Dean

    2014-12-01

    Despite modern advances, a broad range of disorders such as cancer and infectious diseases continually afflict the global population. Novel therapeutics are continuously being explored to address these challenges. Therefore, scalable, effective, and safe therapies that are readily accessible to third-world countries are of major interest. In this article, we discuss the potential advantages that the nanomedicine field may harness toward successful implementation against some of the major diseases of our generation. PMID:24902713

  6. UNIVERSITY OF GLOBAL HEALTH

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    Resources 4 Announcements 5 The Ebola crisis has left health systems reel- ing, increasing threats story http:// www.scientificamerican.com/article/ebola- strikes-a-blow-against-pregnant-women-and- maternal-care/ Welcome to the 8th Issue of our Newsletter Ebola strikes a blow against pregnant women

  7. Scale and context: issues in ontologies to link health- and bio-informatics.

    PubMed Central

    Rector, Alan L.; Rogers, Jeremy; Roberts, Angus; Wroe, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Bridging levels of scale and context are key problems for integrating Bio- and Health Informatics. Formal, logic-based ontologies using expressive formalisms are naturally "fractal" and provide new methods to support these aims. The basic notion of composition can be used to bridge scales; axioms can be used to carry implicit information; specific context markers can be included in definitions; and a hierarchy of semantic links can be used to represent subtle differences in point of view. Experience with OpenGALEN, the UK Drug Ontology and new experiments with the Gene Ontology and Foundational Model of Anatomy suggest that these are powerful tools provide practical solutions. PMID:12463902

  8. Transforming consumer health informatics through a patient work framework: connecting patients to context.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Rupa S; Holden, Richard J; Novak, Laurie L; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2015-01-01

    Designing patient-centered consumer health informatics (CHI) applications requires understanding and creating alignment with patients' and their family members' health-related activities, referred to here as 'patient work'. A patient work approach to CHI draws on medical social science and human factors engineering models and simultaneously attends to patients, their family members, activities, and context. A patient work approach extends existing approaches to CHI design that are responsive to patients' biomedical realities and personal skills and behaviors. It focuses on the embeddedness of patients' health management in larger processes and contexts and prioritizes patients' perspectives on illness management. Future research is required to advance (1) theories of patient work, (2) methods for assessing patient work, and (3) techniques for translating knowledge of patient work into CHI application design. Advancing a patient work approach within CHI is integral to developing and deploying consumer-facing technologies that are integrated with patients' everyday lives. PMID:25125685

  9. How to create awareness and ensure broad dissemination of health informatics standards.

    PubMed

    Williams, P

    1998-02-01

    There is a range of organisations with responsibility for information standards development within Australia. These include Standards Australia, which is formally linked to the International Organisation for Standards (ISO), the National Health Information Management Group, which deals with the government sector and several statutory organisations such as the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and the National Centre for Classification in Health. The different constituencies involved with each of these organisations, the scope of healthcare informatics and the rate of organisational and technological change in the industry present a significant challenge in ensuring that the standard setting process is highly visible, responsive and capable of demonstrating its value through effective implementation. Creating awareness and ensuring broad dissemination of healthcare informatics standards is a key component in meeting this challenge. This can operate at a number of levels from strategic to operational. At the strategic level, it requires active engagement and commitment of the key decision-makers, both political and professional. This may require directly lobbying and promoting the benefits of standardisation to those decision-makers but can be achieved even more effectively by creating industry awareness and demand through carefully targeted presentations on the impact of standards to broader health industry forums. At the tactical level, the standards development medium itself can be used to engage and gain commitment from government, professionals, vendors and the health industry by operating as an inclusive, open and effective process. At the operational level, there is the opportunity for much more efficient use of technology to create awareness of both these processes and their outcomes. The establishment in Australia of a web enabled National Health Information Knowledge base built around ISO standards is one example of the type of development which will assist in the acceleration of awareness of standards and standardisation, which is needed to cope with the increasing demand. PMID:9600403

  10. Geospatial resources for supporting data standards, guidance and best practice in health informatics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The 1980s marked the occasion when Geographical Information System (GIS) technology was broadly introduced into the geo-spatial community through the establishment of a strong GIS industry. This technology quickly disseminated across many countries, and has now become established as an important research, planning and commercial tool for a wider community that includes organisations in the public and private health sectors. The broad acceptance of GIS technology and the nature of its functionality have meant that numerous datasets have been created over the past three decades. Most of these datasets have been created independently, and without any structured documentation systems in place. However, search and retrieval systems can only work if there is a mechanism for datasets existence to be discovered and this is where proper metadata creation and management can greatly help. This situation must be addressed through support mechanisms such as Web-based portal technologies, metadata editor tools, automation, metadata standards and guidelines and collaborative efforts with relevant individuals and organisations. Engagement with data developers or administrators should also include a strategy of identifying the benefits associated with metadata creation and publication. Findings The establishment of numerous Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs), and other Internet resources, is a testament to the recognition of the importance of supporting good data management and sharing practices across the geographic information community. These resources extend to health informatics in support of research, public services and teaching and learning. This paper identifies many of these resources available to the UK academic health informatics community. It also reveals the reluctance of many spatial data creators across the wider UK academic community to use these resources to create and publish metadata, or deposit their data in repositories for sharing. The Go-Geo! service is introduced as an SDI developed to provide UK academia with the necessary resources to address the concerns surrounding metadata creation and data sharing. The Go-Geo! portal, Geodoc metadata editor tool, ShareGeo spatial data repository, and a range of other support resources, are described in detail. Conclusions This paper describes a variety of resources available for the health research and public health sector to use for managing and sharing their data. The Go-Geo! service is one resource which offers an SDI for the eclectic range of disciplines using GIS in UK academia, including health informatics. The benefits of data management and sharing are immense, and in these times of cost restraints, these resources can be seen as solutions to find cost savings which can be reinvested in more research. PMID:21269487

  11. Cancer Control and Global Health:

    Cancer.gov

    In conjunction with a high-level United Nations meeting on non-communicable diseases in the developing world, NCI Director Harold Varmus, M.D., and Edward L. Trimble, M.D., NCI, have published a commentary in Science Translational Medicine on “Integrating Cancer Control into Global Health.”

  12. Global Health and Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    In 2012, there were 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million new cancer deaths. The World Health Organization (WHO) projected that by 2035, these figures could increase to 24 million new cases and 14.6 million cancer deaths worldwide. The majority of the global cancer burden is shifting from the more developed world to economically disadvantaged countries.

  13. Clinical Research Informatics Systems Project Final Report

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    Clinical Research Informatics Systems Project Final Report March 29, 2010 Rev. 8.30.2010 Report Submitted to: Dr. Joyce Mitchell Chair, Department of Medical Informatics Associate Vice President, Health Orientation Checklist (Draft)................................XII #12;Clinical Research Informatics Systems

  14. A review of user-centered design for diabetes-related consumer health informatics technologies.

    PubMed

    LeRouge, Cynthia; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

    2013-07-01

    User-centered design (UCD) is well recognized as an effective human factor engineering strategy for designing ease of use in the total customer experience with products and information technology that has been applied specifically to health care information technology systems. We conducted a literature review to analyze the current research regarding the use of UCD methods and principles to support the development or evaluation of diabetes-related consumer health informatics technology (CHIT) initiatives. Findings indicate that (1) UCD activities have been applied across the technology development life cycle stages, (2) there are benefits to incorporating UCD to better inform CHIT development in this area, and (3) the degree of adoption of the UCD process is quite uneven across diabetes CHIT studies. In addition, few to no studies report on methods used across all phases of the life cycle with process detail. To address that void, the Appendix provides an illustrative case study example of UCD techniques across development stages. PMID:23911188

  15. A Review of User-Centered Design for Diabetes-Related Consumer Health Informatics Technologies

    PubMed Central

    LeRouge, Cynthia; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

    2013-01-01

    User-centered design (UCD) is well recognized as an effective human factor engineering strategy for designing ease of use in the total customer experience with products and information technology that has been applied specifically to health care information technology systems. We conducted a literature review to analyze the current research regarding the use of UCD methods and principles to support the development or evaluation of diabetes-related consumer health informatics technology (CHIT) initiatives. Findings indicate that (1) UCD activities have been applied across the technology development life cycle stages, (2) there are benefits to incorporating UCD to better inform CHIT development in this area, and (3) the degree of adoption of the UCD process is quite uneven across diabetes CHIT studies. In addition, few to no studies report on methods used across all phases of the life cycle with process detail. To address that void, the Appendix provides an illustrative case study example of UCD techniques across development stages. PMID:23911188

  16. The future of health IT innovation and informatics: a report from AMIA's 2010 policy meeting

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Julie J; Cusack, Caitlin M

    2012-01-01

    While much attention has been paid to the short-term impact that widespread adoption of health information technology (health IT) will have on the healthcare system, there is a corresponding need to look at the long-term effects that extant policies may have on health IT system resilience, innovation, and related ethical, social/legal issues. The American Medical Informatics Association's 2010 Health Policy Conference was convened to further the national discourse on the issues surrounding these longer-term considerations. Conference participants self-selected into three broad categories: resilience in healthcare and health IT; ethical, legal, and social challenges; and innovation, adoption, and sustainability. The discussions about problem areas lead to findings focusing on the lack of encouragement for long-term IT innovation that may result from current health IT policies; the potential impact of uneven adoption of health IT based on the exclusions of the current financial incentives; the weaknesses of contingency and risk mitigation planning that threaten system resilience; and evolving standards developed in response to challenges relating to the security, integrity, and availability of electronic health information. This paper discusses these findings and also offers recommendations that address the interwoven topics of innovation, resilience, and adoption. The goal of this paper is to encourage public and private sector organizations that have a role in shaping health information policy to increase attention to developing a national strategy that assures that health IT innovation and resilience are not impeded by shorter-term efforts to implement current approaches emphasizing adoption and meaningful use of electronic health records. PMID:22037887

  17. A global perspective on decadal challenges and priorities in biodiversity informatics

    E-print Network

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Soberon, Jorge; Krishtalka, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity informatics is a field that is growing rapidly in data infrastructure, tools, and participation by researchers worldwide from diverse disciplines and with diverse, innovative approaches. A recent ‘decadal view’ of the field laid out a...

  18. Integrating Genome-based Informatics to Modernize Global Disease Monitoring, Information Sharing, and Response

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Eric W.; Detter, Chris; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Gilmour, Matthew W.; Harmsen, Dag; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hewson, Roger; Heymann, David L.; Johansson, Karin; Ijaz, Kashef; Keim, Paul S.; Koopmans, Marion; Kroneman, Annelies; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Lund, Ole; Palm, Daniel; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Sobel, Jeremy; Schlundt, Jřrgen

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of genome technologies holds great promise for improving the quality and speed of clinical and public health laboratory investigations and for decreasing their cost. The latest generation of genome DNA sequencers can provide highly detailed and robust information on disease-causing microbes, and in the near future these technologies will be suitable for routine use in national, regional, and global public health laboratories. With additional improvements in instrumentation, these next- or third-generation sequencers are likely to replace conventional culture-based and molecular typing methods to provide point-of-care clinical diagnosis and other essential information for quicker and better treatment of patients. Provided there is free-sharing of information by all clinical and public health laboratories, these genomic tools could spawn a global system of linked databases of pathogen genomes that would ensure more efficient detection, prevention, and control of endemic, emerging, and other infectious disease outbreaks worldwide. PMID:23092707

  19. Contemporary Issues in Medicine--Medical Informatics and Population Health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Medicine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health perspective"…

  20. T. Kowalewski et. al. -Optimization of a Vector Quantization Codebook Studies in Health Technology and Informatics -Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Newport Beach, CA, January 2004

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jacob

    and Informatics - Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Newport Beach, CA, January 2004 Optimization of a Vector and virtual reality simulators have introduced an unprecedented precision of measurement for both tool of a Vector Quantization Codebook Studies in Health Technology and Informatics - Medicine Meets Virtual

  1. Macropsychology, policy, and global health.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2014-11-01

    In this article I argue for the development of a macro perspective within psychology, akin to that found in macroeconomics. Macropsychology is the application of psychology to factors that influence the settings and conditions of our lives. As policy concerns the strategic allocation of resources—who gets what and why?—it should be an area of particular interest for macropsychology. I review ways in which psychology may make a contribution to policy within the field of global health. Global health emphasizes human rights, equity, social inclusion, and empowerment; psychology has much to contribute to these areas, both at the level of policy and practice. I review the sorts of evidence and other factors that influence policymakers, along with the content, process, and context of policymaking, with a particular focus on the rights of people with disabilities in the low- and middle-income countries of Africa and Asia. These insights are drawn from collaborations with a broad range of practitioners, governments, United Nations agencies, civil society organizations, the private sector and researchers. Humanitarian work psychology is highlighted as an example of a new area of psychology that embraces some of the concerns of macropsychology. The advent of "big data" presents psychology with an opportunity to ask new types of questions, and these should include "understanding up," or how psychological factors can contribute to human well-being, nationally and globally. PMID:25486176

  2. Increasing women in leadership in global health.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2014-08-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path. PMID:24918761

  3. Why do we need and how can we realize a multi-disciplinary approach to health informatics?

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Oemig, Frank; Lopéz, Diego M

    2015-01-01

    Like no other area, health and social care are characterized by a multi-disciplinary nature. This development gets even stronger by the move towards a personalized, predictive, preventive and participative care paradigm as well as by organizational and technological changes leading to highly distributed care setting realized by multiple stakeholder communities from different policy domains. Those paradigm changes result in growing interoperability challenges when enabling communication and cooperation of all the different actors based on shared knowledge and skills. For meeting those challenges, a systems-oriented, architecture-centric, ontology-based and policy-driven approach in health informatics education, but also in modeling, implementing and maintaining health informatics interoperability is inevitable. The paper introduces the aforementioned concepts. PMID:25991110

  4. Rethinking the 'global' in global health: a dialectic approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current definitions of 'global health' lack specificity about the term 'global'. This debate presents and discusses existing definitions of 'global health' and a common problem inherent therein. It aims to provide a way forward towards an understanding of 'global health' while avoiding redundancy. The attention is concentrated on the dialectics of different concepts of 'global' in their application to malnutrition; HIV, tuberculosis & malaria; and maternal mortality. Further attention is payed to normative objectives attached to 'global health' definitions and to paradoxes involved in attempts to define the field. Discussion The manuscript identifies denotations of 'global' as 'worldwide', as 'transcending national boundaries' and as 'holistic'. A fourth concept of 'global' as 'supraterritorial' is presented and defined as 'links between the social determinants of health anywhere in the world'. The rhetorical power of the denotations impacts considerably on the object of 'global health', exemplified in the context of malnutrition; HIV, tuberculosis & malaria; and maternal mortality. The 'global' as 'worldwide', as 'transcending national boundaries' and as 'holistic' house contradictions which can be overcome by the fourth concept of 'global' as 'supraterritorial'. The 'global-local-relationship' inherent in the proposed concept coheres with influential anthropological and sociological views despite the use of different terminology. At the same time, it may be assembled with other views on 'global' or amend apparently conflicting ones. The author argues for detaching normative objectives from 'global health' definitions to avoid so called 'entanglement-problems'. Instead, it is argued that the proposed concept constitutes an un-euphemistical approach to describe the inherently politicised field of 'global health'. Summary While global-as-worldwide and global-as-transcending-national-boundaries are misleading and produce redundancy with public and international health, global-as-supraterritorial provides 'new' objects for research, education and practice while avoiding redundancy. Linked with 'health' as a human right, this concept preserves the rhetorical power of the term 'global health' for more innovative forms of study, research and practice. The dialectic approach reveals that the contradictions involved in the different notions of the term 'global' are only of apparent nature and not exclusive, but have to be seen as complementary to each other if expected to be useful in the final step. PMID:21029401

  5. Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2014-2015

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    HLTHST 332 Managing Clinical Classification Systems HLTHST 333 Reimbursement Methodologies HLTHST 350 Systems HLTHST 420 Strategic Planning and Project Management HLTHST 427 Health Information Management Clinical Practice HLTHST 431 Quality Issues in Health Care HLTHST 437 Health Information Management

  6. Bachelor of Science, Health Science Studies, Health Informatics and Information Management Emphasis, 2013-2014

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    HLTHST 332 Managing Clinical Classification Systems HLTHST 333 Reimbursement Methodologies HLTHST 350 Systems HLTHST 420 Strategic Planning and Project Management HLTHST 427 Health Information Management Clinical Practice HLTHST 431 Quality Issues in Health Care HLTHST 437 Health Information Management

  7. Health informatics for low-cost and high-quality health care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen C. Y. Poon; Wenbo Gu; Y. T. Zhang

    2010-01-01

    P-Health, a future health model that can be described as a 6-P's paradigm, aims to provide low cost and high quality health care via redesigning care practice and networking information systems at different levels. To realise p-Health, a multi-level health information system has to be developed for the processing, storage, transmission, acquisition and retrieval (P-STAR) of health information that spans

  8. Scenario-based User Testing to Guide Consumer Health Informatics Design

    PubMed Central

    Zayas-Cabán, Teresa; Marquard, Jenna L.; Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Duffey, Noah; Evernden, Dana L.

    2009-01-01

    For consumer health informatics (CHI) interventions to successfully aid laypeople, the interventions must fit and support their health work. This paper outlines a scenario-based human factors assessment of a disease management CHI intervention. Two student users undertook a patient use case and another user followed a nurse use case. Each user completed pre-specified tasks over a ten-day trial, recorded challenges encountered while utilizing the intervention, and logged daily time spent on each task. Results show the scenario-based user testing approach helps effectively and systematically assess potential physical, cognitive, and macroergonomic challenges for end-users, rate the severity of the challenges, and identify mediation strategies for each challenge. In particular, scenario-based user testing aids in identifying challenges that would be difficult, if not impossible, to detect in a laboratory-based usability study. With this information, CHI interventions can be re-designed and/or supplemented, making the intervention more closely fit end-users’ work. PMID:20351947

  9. Bridging Radiology and Public Health: The Emerging Field of Radiologic Public Health Informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Mollura; John A. Carrino; Diane L. Matuszak; Zaruhi R. Mnatsakanyan; John Eng; Protagoras Cutchis; Steven M. Babin; Carol Sniegoski; Joseph S. Lombardo

    2008-01-01

    Radiology and public health have an emerging opportunity to collaborate, in which radiology's vast supply of imaging data can be integrated into public health information systems for epidemiologic assessments and responses to population health problems. Fueling the linkage of radiology and public health include (i) the transition from analog film to digital formats, enabling flexible use of radiologic data; (ii)

  10. Commercial off-the-shelf consumer health informatics interventions: recommendations for their design, evaluation and redesign

    PubMed Central

    Zayas-Cabán, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal of this paper is to describe the successful application of a use case-based evaluation approach to guide the effective design, evaluation and redesign of inexpensive, commercial, off-the-shelf consumer health informatics (CHI) interventions. Design Researchers developed four CHI intervention use cases representing two distinct patient populations (patients with diabetes with high blood pressure, post-bariatric surgery patients), two commercial off-the-shelf CHI applications (Microsoft HealthVault, Google Health), and related devices (blood pressure monitor, pedometer, weight scale). Three patient proxies tested each intervention for 10?days. Measurements The patient proxies recorded their challenges while completing use case tasks, rating the severity of each challenge based on how much it hindered their use of the intervention. Two independent evaluators categorized the challenges by human factors domain (physical, cognitive, macroergonomic). Results The use case-based approach resulted in the identification of 122 challenges, with 12% physical, 50% cognitive and 38% macroergonomic. Thirty-nine challenges (32%) were at least moderately severe. Nine of 22 use case tasks (41%) accounted for 72% of the challenges. Limitations The study used two patient proxies and addressed two specific patient populations and low-cost, off-the-shelf CHI interventions, which may not perfectly generalize to a larger number of proxies, actual patient populations, or other CHI interventions. Conclusion CHI designers can employ the use case-based evaluation approach to assess the fit of a CHI intervention with patients' health work, in the context of their daily activities and environment, which would be difficult or impossible to evaluate by laboratory-based studies. PMID:21727206

  11. Computing Health Quality Measures Using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Shawn N

    2013-01-01

    Background The Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) is a Health Level 7 (HL7) standard for expressing computable Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs). Creating tools to process HQMF queries in clinical databases will become increasingly important as the United States moves forward with its Health Information Technology Strategic Plan to Stages 2 and 3 of the Meaningful Use incentive program (MU2 and MU3). Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) is one of the analytical databases used as part of the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC)’s Query Health platform to move toward this goal. Objective Our goal is to integrate i2b2 with the Query Health HQMF architecture, to prepare for other HQMF use-cases (such as MU2 and MU3), and to articulate the functional overlap between i2b2 and HQMF. Therefore, we analyze the structure of HQMF, and then we apply this understanding to HQMF computation on the i2b2 clinical analytical database platform. Specifically, we develop a translator between two query languages, HQMF and i2b2, so that the i2b2 platform can compute HQMF queries. Methods We use the HQMF structure of queries for aggregate reporting, which define clinical data elements and the temporal and logical relationships between them. We use the i2b2 XML format, which allows flexible querying of a complex clinical data repository in an easy-to-understand domain-specific language. Results The translator can represent nearly any i2b2-XML query as HQMF and execute in i2b2 nearly any HQMF query expressible in i2b2-XML. This translator is part of the freely available reference implementation of the QueryHealth initiative. We analyze limitations of the conversion and find it covers many, but not all, of the complex temporal and logical operators required by quality measures. Conclusions HQMF is an expressive language for defining quality measures, and it will be important to understand and implement for CQM computation, in both meaningful use and population health. However, its current form might allow complexity that is intractable for current database systems (both in terms of implementation and computation). Our translator, which supports the subset of HQMF currently expressible in i2b2-XML, may represent the beginnings of a practical compromise. It is being pilot-tested in two Query Health demonstration projects, and it can be further expanded to balance computational tractability with the advanced features needed by measure developers. PMID:23603227

  12. Big Heart Data: Advancing Health Informatics through Data Sharing in Cardiovascular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Cowan, Brett; Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Young, Alistair

    2014-11-14

    The burden of heart disease is rapidly worsening due to increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Data sharing and open database resources for heart health informatics are important for advancing our understanding of cardiovascular function, disease progression and therapeutics. Data sharing enables valuable information, often obtained at considerable expense and effort, to be re-used beyond the specific objectives of the original study. Many government funding agencies and journal publishers are requiring data re-use, and are providing mechanisms for data curation and archival. Tools and infrastructure are available to archive anonymous data from a wide range of studies, from descriptive epidemiological data to gigabytes of imaging data. Metaanalyses can be performed to combine raw data from disparate studies to obtain unique comparisons or to enhance statistical power. Open benchmark datasets are invaluable for validating data analysis algorithms and objectively comparing results. This review provides a rationale for increased data sharing and surveys recent progress in the cardiovascular domain. We also highlight the potential of recent large cardiovascular epidemiological studies enabling collaborative efforts to facilitate data sharing, algorithms benchmarking, disease modeling and statistical atlases. PMID:25415993

  13. Botswana Clinical Elective Global Health Programs

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    build capacity in: Clinical Care Education Research To offer opportunities in global health for PennBotswana Clinical Elective Global Health Programs #12;Botswana-UPenn Partnership Mission To help, Botswana did not have enough qualified providers to implement treatment. #12;1. Clinical care: General

  14. Potential effects on health of global warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Haines; M. Parry

    1993-01-01

    Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability

  15. Identifying global health competencies to prepare 21st century global health professionals: report from the global health competency subcommittee of the consortium of universities for global health.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lynda; Callender, Brian; Hall, Thomas L; Jogerst, Kristen; Torres, Herica; Velji, Anvar

    2014-12-01

    As universities increase their focus on global health-related professional education, the need for specific competencies and outcomes to guide curriculum development is urgent. To address this need, the chair of the Education Committee of the Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH) appointed a Subcommittee to determine if there is a need for broad global health core competencies applicable across disciplines, and if so, what those competencies should be. Based on that work, this paper (a) discusses the benefits of developing interprofessional and discipline-specific global health competencies; (b) highlights themes that emerged from a preliminary review of existing related literature; and (c) reviews the process used to identify two levels of interprofessional global health competencies. PMID:25564707

  16. Mapping a global agenda for adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Patton, George C; Viner, Russell M; Linh, Le Cu; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Fatusi, Adesegun O; Ferguson, B Jane; Patel, Vikram

    2010-11-01

    Major changes in health are underway in many low- and middle-income countries that are likely to bring greater focus on adolescents. This commentary, based on a 2009 London meeting, considers the need for strategic information for future global initiatives in adolescent health. Current coverage of adolescent health in global data collections is patchy. There is both the need and scope to extend existing collections into the adolescent years as well as achieve greater harmonization of measures between surveys. The development of a core set of global adolescent health indicators would aid this process. Other important tasks include adapting and testing interventions in low- and middle-income countries, growing research capacity in those settings, better communication of research from those countries, and building structures to implement future global initiatives. A global agenda needs more than good data, but sound information about adolescent health and its social and environmental determinants, will be important in both advocacy and practice. PMID:20970076

  17. Medicalization of global health 2: the medicalization of global mental health

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Once an orphan field, ‘global mental health’ now has wide acknowledgement and prominence on the global health agenda. Increased recognition draws needed attention to individual suffering and the population impacts, but medicalizing global mental health produces a narrow view of the problems and solutions. Early framing by advocates of the global mental health problem emphasised biological disease, linked psychiatry with neurology, and reinforced categories of mental health disorders. Universality of biomedical concepts across culture is assumed in the globalisation of mental health but is strongly disputed by transcultural psychiatrists and anthropologists. Global mental health movement priorities take an individualised view, emphasising treatment and scale-up and neglecting social and structural determinants of health. To meet international targets and address the problem's broad social and cultural dimensions, the global mental health movement and advocates must develop more comprehensive strategies and include more diverse perspectives. PMID:24848660

  18. A systematic view on medical informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hasman; R. Haux; A. Albert

    1996-01-01

    Medical informatics is defined as the scientific discipline concerned with the systematic processing of data, information and knowledge in medicine and health care. The domain of medical informatics (including health informatics), its aim, methods and tools, and its relevance to other disciplines in medicine and health sciences are outlined. It is recognized that one of the major tasks of medical

  19. Global Health Governance at a Crossroads

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Nora Y.; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    This review takes stock of the global health governance (GHG) literature. We address the transition from international health governance (IHG) to global health governance, identify major actors, and explain some challenges and successes in GHG. We analyze the framing of health as national security, human security, human rights, and global public good, and the implications of these various frames. We also establish and examine from the literature GHG’s major themes and issues, which include: 1) persistent GHG problems; 2) different approaches to tackling health challenges (vertical, horizontal, and diagonal); 3) health’s multisectoral connections; 4) neoliberalism and the global economy; 5) the framing of health (e.g. as a security issue, as a foreign policy issue, as a human rights issue, and as a global public good); 6) global health inequalities; 7) local and country ownership and capacity; 8) international law in GHG; and 9) research gaps in GHG. We find that decades-old challenges in GHG persist and GHG needs a new way forward. A framework called shared health governance offers promise. PMID:24729828

  20. Medicalization of global health 4: the universal health coverage campaign and the medicalization of global health

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has emerged as the leading and recommended overarching health goal on the post-2015 development agenda, and is promoted with fervour. UHC has the backing of major medical and health institutions, and is designed to provide patients with universal access to needed health services without financial hardship, but is also projected to have ‘a transformative effect on poverty, hunger, and disease’. Multiple reports and resolutions support UHC and few offer critical analyses; but among these are concerns with imprecise definitions and the ability to implement UHC at the country level. A medicalization lens enriches these early critiques and identifies concerns that the UHC campaign contributes to the medicalization of global health. UHC conflates health with health care, thus assigning undue importance to (biomedical) health services and downgrading the social and structural determinants of health. There is poor evidence that UHC or health care alone improves population health outcomes, and in fact health care may worsen inequities. UHC is reductionistic because it focuses on preventative and curative actions delivered at the individual level, and ignores the social and political determinants of health and right to health that have been supported by decades of international work and commitments. UHC risks commodifying health care, which threatens the underlying principles of UHC of equity in access and of health care as a collective good. PMID:24848662

  1. Pervasive Health Management: New Challenges for Health Informatics J.UCS Special Issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Augusto; H. G. McAllister; P. J. McCullagh; C. D. Nugent

    This special issue addresses the area of Pervasive Health Management, which is beginning to challenge the twentieth century model of delivery, in which healthcare was organised in specialist locations and administered to patients by healthcare professionals. Thus primary care provides the initial contact, large hospitals administer specialist intervention and disease management, and long term hospital or rest-home care is provided

  2. The politics of researching global health politics

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  3. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger S Magnusson

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes

  4. Towards a Framework Convention on Global Health: a transformative agenda for global health justice.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O; Friedman, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Global health inequities cause nearly 20 million deaths annually, mostly among the world's poor. Yet international law currently does little to reduce the massive inequalities that underlie these deaths. This Article offers the first systematic account of the goals and justifications, normative foundations, and potential construction of a proposed new global health treaty, a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), grounded in the human right to health. Already endorsed by the United Nations Secretary-General, the FCGH would reimagine global governance for health, offering a new, post-Millennium Development Goals vision. A global coalition of civil society and academics has formed the Joint Action and Learning Initiative on National and Global Responsibilities for Health (JALI) to advance the FCGH. PMID:23815040

  5. A competency matrix for global oral health.

    PubMed

    Benzian, Habib; Greenspan, John S; Barrow, Jane; Hutter, Jeffrey W; Loomer, Peter M; Stauf, Nicole; Perry, Dorothy A

    2015-04-01

    The Lancet Commission on Education of Health Professionals for the 21(st) Century calls for enhancing health education for the needs and challenges of the 21st century to improve health status globally. To complement the Lancet report, this article makes recommendations for including core global health competencies in the education of health care professionals and specific groups of the public who are relevant to oral health in a global context in order to tackle the burden of oral diseases. Experts from various professional backgrounds developed global oral health competencies for four target groups: Group 1 was defined as dental students, residents/trainee specialists (or equivalent), and dentists; Group 2 was community health workers, dental hygienists, and dental therapists (or the equivalent); Group 3 was health professionals such as physicians, physician assistants, nurses, nurse practitioners, and pharmacists; and Group 4 was non-health professionals in the public arena such as parents, teachers, decision makers, key opinion leaders, and health and consumer advocates. Key competencies for members of each of the four target groups are presented in a matrix. The suggested competency matrix shows that many other health professions and groups in society have potentially crucial roles in the prevention, control, and management of oral diseases globally. Workforce models including a wider range of professionals working together as a team will be needed to tackle the burden of oral diseases in an integrated way in the broader context of non-communicable diseases. Further discussion and research should be conducted to validate or improve the competencies proposed here with regard to their relevance, appropriateness, and completeness. PMID:25838005

  6. Global Climate Change and Human Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bilal Zuberi; Mario J. Molina

    Addressing global climate change and its impact on human health around the world is serious business - but one that medical students and health professionals around the world are not necessarily very aware of. The earth is warming. The 1990s were the hottest decade of the entire millennium and 1997, 1998, and 1999 were three of the hottest years ever.

  7. Global atmospheric change and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Piver, W.T.

    1991-12-01

    On November 6-7, 1989, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) held a Conference on Global Atmospheric Change and Human Health. Since this conference, presented papers have been transformed and revised as articles that address several potential impacts on human health of global warming. Coming when it did, this was a very important conference. At the present time, there is still much uncertainty about whether or not global warming is occurring and, if it is, what effect it will have no human health. All the participants in this conference recognized this uncertainty and addressed potential impacts on human health if surface temperatures continue to rise and greater amounts of shorter wavelength ultraviolet (UV) radiation continue to reach the earth's surface as a result of depletion of the ozone layer. Because global warming and ozone depletion will occur over many decades, adverse impacts on human health and the environment may not be reversible. In short, we are in the midst of a huge geophysical experiment with global climate, and we will not know what the outcome will be for many years.

  8. Health management as global challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Meyer; Tienush Rassaf; Patrick Schauerte; Thomas Schimpf; Malte Kelm; Eberhard Goepel

    2008-01-01

    Background  A hopeful journey into health was celebrated during the 19th World Conference of the International Union of Health Promotion\\u000a and Education (IUHPE) initiated together with the Canadian Consortium for Health Promotion Research (CCHPR) from 10 to 15\\u000a June 2007 in Vancouver, Canada.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  One of the main goals of this conference was to assess and determine the relevance of the Ottawa

  9. Potential effects on health of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, A. (Univ. College London Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Whittington Hospital); Parry, M. (Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Environmental Change Unit)

    1993-12-01

    Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important to monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.

  10. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global public health needs to plan for a public health communication system that can reach all the public health workers in the world. PMID:7826426

  11. [Globalization, international trade, and health equity].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are having an increasingly evident impact on the day-to-day duties of the health sector, and the phenomenon has aroused a great deal of interest among governments, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and the mass media. Up to this point the heated and polemical debate on the subject has seriously hindered objective discourse on the health implications of globalization and international trade. This piece examines the possible impact of the two processes on health in the Region of the Americas, in order to foster policies for equity that are adopted within the framework of public health in the Americas. The piece considers the relationships among globalization, trade, and health in general and then focuses on the special case of trade in health goods and services. The piece looks at the possible impact on health equity of the agreements for integration and free trade that are being negotiated in the Americas. The piece concludes with a summary of the activities that the Pan American Health Organization has been carrying out in this area. PMID:12162840

  12. Clinical research informatics: a conceptual perspective

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chunhua

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research informatics is the rapidly evolving sub-discipline within biomedical informatics that focuses on developing new informatics theories, tools, and solutions to accelerate the full translational continuum: basic research to clinical trials (T1), clinical trials to academic health center practice (T2), diffusion and implementation to community practice (T3), and ‘real world’ outcomes (T4). We present a conceptual model based on an informatics-enabled clinical research workflow, integration across heterogeneous data sources, and core informatics tools and platforms. We use this conceptual model to highlight 18 new articles in the JAMIA special issue on clinical research informatics. PMID:22523344

  13. Communications satellites in the national and global health care information infrastructure: their role, impact, and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuzek, J. E.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    Health care services delivered from a distance, known collectively as telemedicine, are being increasingly demonstrated on various transmission media. Telemedicine activities have included diagnosis by a doctor at a remote location, emergency and disaster medical assistance, medical education, and medical informatics. The ability of communications satellites to offer communication channels and bandwidth on demand, connectivity to mobile, remote and under served regions, and global access will afford them a critical role for telemedicine applications within the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). The importance that communications satellites will have in telemedicine applications within the NII/GII the differences in requirements for NII vs. GII, the major issues such as interoperability, confidentiality, quality, availability, and costs, and preliminary conclusions for future usability based on the review of several recent trails at national and global levels are presented.

  14. Is global warming harmful to health?

    PubMed

    Epstein, P R

    2000-08-01

    Projections from computer models predict that global warming will expand the incidence and distribution of many serious medical disorders. Global warming, aside from indirectly causing death by drowning or starvation, promotes by various means the emergence, resurgence, and spread of infectious diseases. This article addresses the health effects of global warming and disrupted climate patterns in detail. Among the greatest health concerns are diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and several kinds of encephalitis. Such disorders are projected to become increasingly prevalent because their insect carriers are very sensitive to meteorological conditions. In addition, floods and droughts resulting from global warming can each help trigger outbreaks by creating breeding grounds for insects whose desiccated eggs remain viable and hatch in still water. Other effects of global warming on health include the growth of opportunist populations and the increase of the incidence of waterborne diseases because of lack of clean water. In view of this, several steps are cited in order to facilitate the successful management of the dangers of global warming. PMID:10914399

  15. Informatics changes the world. What's Informatics?

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    #12;Informatics changes the world. What's Informatics? The field of informatics is widely expected foundations of information science and engineering, informatics represents a new, comprehensive and the social sciences. The Department of informatics established in the National Institute of Informatics (NII

  16. Assessing global adoption of one health approaches.

    PubMed

    Hueston, William; Appert, Jessica; Denny, Terry; King, Lonnie; Umber, Jamie; Valeri, Linda

    2013-09-01

    Transdisciplinary One Health (OH) approaches have been rediscovered as a promising tactic for addressing complex health risks at the human-animal-ecosystem interface. However, there is little evidence of widespread adoption of OH approaches as the new operating normal for addressing these complex health issues. We have used a transformational change model as an evaluation tool and part of an overall assessment of the global adoption of OH approaches. This assessment establishes a point of reference for measuring progress toward OH approaches being the new operating normal. Global adoption of OH approaches will require more strategic efforts to build the case (value proposition), recruiting a broader pool of One Health champions, solidifying partnerships and unifying OH efforts. PMID:23835604

  17. National health expenditures: a global analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, C. J.; Govindaraj, R.; Musgrove, P.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the background research to the World development report 1993: investing in health, an effort was made to estimate public, private and total expenditures on health for all countries of the world. Estimates could be found for public spending for most countries, but for private expenditure in many fewer countries. Regressions were used to predict the missing values of regional and global estimates. These econometric exercises were also used to relate expenditure to measures of health status. In 1990 the world spent an estimated US$ 1.7 trillion (1.7 x 10(12) on health, or $1.9 trillion (1.9 x 10(12)) in dollars adjusted for higher purchasing power in poorer countries. This amount was about 60% public and 40% private in origin. However, as incomes rise, public health expenditure tends to displace private spending and to account for the increasing share of incomes devoted to health. PMID:7923542

  18. Global health security and the International Health Regulations.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Jon Kim; Aguilera, Ximena; Oliva, Otavio; Aldighieri, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Global nuclear proliferation, bioterrorism, and emerging infections have challenged national capacities to achieve and maintain global security. Over the last century, emerging infectious disease threats resulted in the development of the preliminary versions of the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the World Health Organization (WHO). The current HR(2005) contain major differences compared to earlier versions, including: substantial shifts from containment at the border to containment at the source of the event; shifts from a rather small disease list (smallpox, plague, cholera, and yellow fever) required to be reported, to all public health threats; and shifts from preset measures to tailored responses with more flexibility to deal with the local situations on the ground. The new IHR(2005) call for accountability. They also call for strengthened national capacity for surveillance and control; prevention, alert, and response to international public health emergencies beyond the traditional short list of required reporting; global partnership and collaboration; and human rights, obligations, accountability, and procedures of monitoring. Under these evolved regulations, as well as other measures, such as the Revolving Fund for vaccine procurement of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), global health security could be maintained in the response to urban yellow fever in Paraguay in 2008 and the influenza (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010. PMID:21143824

  19. Family health nursing: a response to the global health challenges.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul; Duffy, Tim; Johnston, Brian; Banks, Pauline; Harkess-Murphy, Eileen; Martin, Colin R

    2013-02-01

    The European Family Health Nursing Project is a revitalized World Health Organization initiative led by the University of the West of Scotland. Partner countries include Armenia, Austria, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, and Spain. European Union Lifelong Learning funding was received in 2011 to facilitate a consistency of approach in the development of a definition of family health nursing, required core competencies and capabilities, and consequent education and training requirements. Global health challenges have informed the development of the project: increasingly aging populations, the increasing incidence in noncommunicable diseases that are currently the main cause of death, and the significant progress made in the way health systems have developed to meet the demands in relation to access and equality of health services. Governments and policy makers should develop a health workforce based on the principles of teamwork and interdisciplinarity while recognizing the core contribution of the "specialist generalist" role in the primary care setting. PMID:23288887

  20. About NCI Center for Global Health

    Cancer.gov

    Provides assistance and guidance to nations as they develop and implement cancer control plans, trains international investigators, and strengthens U.S. national, regional, multilateral, and bilateral collaboration in health research, cancer research, and cancer control to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and reduce cancer deaths worldwide.

  1. Knowledge, politics and power in global health

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Garrett Wallace

    2015-01-01

    This article agrees with recent arguments suggesting that normative and epistemic power is rife within global health policy and provides further examples of such. However, in doing so, it is argued that it is equally important to recognize that global health is, and always will be, deeply political and that some form of power is not only necessary for the system to advance, but also to try and control the ways in which power within that system operates. In this regard, a better focus on health politics can both expose illegitimate sources of power, but also provide better recommendations to facilitate deliberations that can, although imperfectly, help legitimate sources of influence and power. PMID:25674575

  2. IU SCHOOL OF INFORMATICS AT IUPUI STUDENT SCHOLARSHIP APPLICATION FORM

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    IU SCHOOL OF INFORMATICS AT IUPUI STUDENT SCHOLARSHIP APPLICATION FORM 2011-2012 Academic Year 30, 2011, to: IU School of Informatics Informatics Complex 535 W. Michigan St. IT 493 Indianapolis School of Informatics Freshman Scholarship Dean's Advisory Council Senior Scholarship Health Information

  3. Informatic system for a global tissue–fluid biorepository with a graph theory–oriented graphical user interface

    PubMed Central

    Butler, William E.; Atai, Nadia; Carter, Bob; Hochberg, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The Richard Floor Biorepository supports collaborative studies of extracellular vesicles (EVs) found in human fluids and tissue specimens. The current emphasis is on biomarkers for central nervous system neoplasms but its structure may serve as a template for collaborative EV translational studies in other fields. The informatic system provides specimen inventory tracking with bar codes assigned to specimens and containers and projects, is hosted on globalized cloud computing resources, and embeds a suite of shared documents, calendars, and video-conferencing features. Clinical data are recorded in relation to molecular EV attributes and may be tagged with terms drawn from a network of externally maintained ontologies thus offering expansion of the system as the field matures. We fashioned the graphical user interface (GUI) around a web-based data visualization package. This system is now in an early stage of deployment, mainly focused on specimen tracking and clinical, laboratory, and imaging data capture in support of studies to optimize detection and analysis of brain tumour–specific mutations. It currently includes 4,392 specimens drawn from 611 subjects, the majority with brain tumours. As EV science evolves, we plan biorepository changes which may reflect multi-institutional collaborations, proteomic interfaces, additional biofluids, changes in operating procedures and kits for specimen handling, novel procedures for detection of tumour-specific EVs, and for RNA extraction and changes in the taxonomy of EVs. We have used an ontology-driven data model and web-based architecture with a graph theory–driven GUI to accommodate and stimulate the semantic web of EV science. PMID:25317275

  4. Is globalization good for your health?

    PubMed Central

    Dollar, D.

    2001-01-01

    Four points are made about globalization and health. First, economic integration is a powerful force for raising the incomes of poor countries. In the past 20 years several large developing countries have opened up to trade and investment, and they are growing well--faster than the rich countries. Second, there is no tendency for income inequality to increase in countries that open up. The higher growth that accompanies globalization in developing countries generally benefits poor people. Since there is a large literature linking income of the poor to health status, we can be reasonably confident that globalization has indirect positive effects on nutrition, infant mortality and other health issues related to income. Third, economic integration can obviously have adverse health effects as well: the transmission of AIDS through migration and travel is a dramatic recent example. However, both relatively closed and relatively open developing countries have severe AIDS problems. The practical solution lies in health policies, not in policies on economic integration. Likewise, free trade in tobacco will lead to increased smoking unless health-motivated disincentives are put in place. Global integration requires supporting institutions and policies. Fourth, the international architecture can be improved so that it is more beneficial to poor countries. For example, with regard to intellectual property rights, it may be practical for pharmaceutical innovators to choose to have intellectual property rights in either rich country markets or poor country ones, but not both. In this way incentives could be strong for research on diseases in both rich and poor countries. PMID:11584730

  5. A snapshot of global health education at North American universities.

    PubMed

    Lencucha, Raphael; Mohindra, Katia

    2014-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in North America. It is widely agreed upon that global health is an important aspect of an education in the health sciences and increasingly in other disciplines such as law, economics and political science. There is currently a paucity of studies examining the content of global health courses at the post-secondary level. The purpose of our research is to identify the content areas being covered in global health curricula in North American universities, as a first step in mapping global health curricula across North America. We collected 67 course syllabi from 31 universities and analyzed the topics covered in the course. This snapshot of global health education will aid students searching for global health content, as well as educators and university administrators who are developing or expanding global health programs in Canada and the United States. PMID:24458005

  6. Powerful concepts in global health: Comment on "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health".

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we emphasize the importance of questioning the global validity of significant concepts underpinning global health policy. This implies questioning the concept of global health as such and accepting that there is no global definition of the global. Further, we draw attention to 'quality' and 'empowerment' as examples of world-forming concepts. These concepts are exemplary for the gentle and quiet forms of power that underpin our reasoning within global health. PMID:25674576

  7. Building Global Health Through a Center-Without-Walls: The Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Vermund, Sten H.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Khedkar, Sheetal; Jia, Yujiang; Etherington, Carol; Vergara, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    The Institute for Global Health at Vanderbilt enables the expansion and coordination of global health research, service, and training, reflecting the university's commitment to improve health services and outcomes in resource-limited settings. Global health encompasses both prevention via public health and treatment via medical care, all nested within a broader community-development context. This has fostered university-wide collaborations to address education, business/economics, engineering, nursing, and language training, among others. The institute is a natural facilitator for team building and has been especially helpful in organizing institutional responses to global health solicitations from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and other funding agencies. This center-without-walls philosophy nurtures noncompetitive partnerships among and within departments and schools. With extramural support from the NIH and from endowment and developmental investments from the school of medicine, the institute funds new pilot projects to nurture global educational and research exchanges related to health and development. Vanderbilt's newest programs are a CDC-supported HIV/AIDS service initiative in Africa and an overseas research training program for health science graduate students and clinical fellows. New opportunities are available for Vanderbilt students, staff, and faculty to work abroad in partnership with international health projects through a number of Tennessee institutions now networked with the institute. A center-without-walls may be a model for institutions contemplating strategic investments to better organize service and teaching opportunities abroad, and to achieve greater successes in leveraging extramural support for overseas and domestic work focused on tropical medicine and global health. PMID:18303361

  8. zentrum Informatik, Statistik und Epidemiologie ABTEIlUNG MEDIZINISCHE INFORMATIK centre Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAl INFORMATICS

    E-print Network

    Gollisch, Tim

    Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAl INFORMATICS Robert-Koch-Str. 40 D-37075-Resources for Health Development of Curricula for Biomedical Informatics #12;30 Zentrum Informatik, Statistik und Epidemiologie ABteilunG mediziniscHe informAtik Centre Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology dep

  9. Global health funding and economic development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

  10. Informatics: A Brief Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Shaoyi

    2003-01-01

    Provides a brief survey of informatics, defined as the application of information technology to various fields, with respect to its historical background, disciplinary identity, fundamental aspects, applications, and challenges. Highlights include biological, clinical, dental, environmental, geomatics, health, legal, management, medical, museum,…

  11. Cancer Research from Molecular Discovery and Diagnosis to Global Health:

    Cancer.gov

    A science writers' seminar to discuss the latest research in cancer genetics and global health efforts, including talks from leaders of NCI’s new centers of cancer genomics and global health will be held Dec. 13, 2011, at NCI.

  12. Global health education in general preventive medicine residencies.

    PubMed

    Bussell, Scottie A; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Foderingham, Nia M; Dunlap, Julie A; Aliyu, Muktar H

    2015-05-01

    Opportunities for global health training during residency are steadily increasing. For example, surveys show that more than half of residency programs now offer international electives. Residency programs are increasingly recognizing that global health training improves communication skills, fosters awareness of health disparities, and inspires careers in primary care and public health. Although research has focused on global health education in other specialties, there is a paucity of research on global health training in public health and general preventive medicine (GPM). We sought to describe the extent of global health training across GPM residencies, capture the perspectives of program directors regarding competencies residents need for careers in global health, and identify program directors' perceived barriers to providing global health training. The survey was sent electronically to 42 U.S. GPM residency program directors from September to October 2013. Twenty-three completed surveys were returned. Information from residencies that did not complete the study survey was collected through a predefined search protocol. Data analysis was performed from February through July 2014. Among program directors completing the survey, the most common types of reported global health education were courses (n=17), followed by international rotations (n=10). Ten program directors indicated that resident(s) were involved in global health training, research, or service initiatives. Commonly perceived barriers included funding (87%), scheduling (56.5%), and partnership and sustainability (34.8%). Through global health coursework, research, and practicum rotations, GPM residents could acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes contributing to careers in global health. PMID:25891059

  13. UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA 348 Undergraduate Catalog 2014-2015 Health Informatics and Information Management -

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    hrs) HIM 3006 Foundations of Health Information Management (HIM) 3 hrs HIM 4508C Quality Management 3 hrs HIM 4656C Health Information Management Systems 3 hrs HSC 3537 Medical Terminology 3 hrs HIM 4226C and Information Management - Minor College of Health and Public Affairs Department of Health Management

  14. Museum Informatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Paul F.; Rayward, W. Boyd; Twidale, Michael B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses museum informatics that studies how information science and technology affect the museum environment. Examines digital technology; information organization and access; digitization, personal computers, and the Internet; data sharing; standards; social impacts of new technologies; collaboration; consortia; multimedia exhibits; virtual…

  15. Setting priorities for global mental health research

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor; Saxena, Shekhar; Swartz, Leslie; Tsai, Alexander C; Patel, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To set investment priorities in global mental health research and to propose a more rational use of funds in this under-resourced and under-investigated area. Methods Members of the Lancet Mental Health Group systematically listed and scored research investment options on four broad classes of disorders: schizophrenia and other major psychotic disorders, major depressive disorder and other common mental disorders, alcohol abuse and other substance abuse disorders, and the broad class of child and adolescent mental disorders. Using the priority-setting approach of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative, the group listed various research questions and evaluated them using the criteria of answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, equity and potential impact on persisting burden of mental health disorders. Scores were then weighted according to the system of values expressed by a larger group of stakeholders. Findings The research questions that scored highest were related to health policy and systems research, where and how to deliver existing cost-effective interventions in a low-resource context, and epidemiological research on the broad categories of child and adolescent mental disorders or those pertaining to alcohol and drug abuse questions. The questions that scored lowest related to the development of new interventions and new drugs or pharmacological agents, vaccines or other technologies. Conclusion In the context of global mental health and with a time frame of the next 10 years, it would be best to fill critical knowledge gaps by investing in research into health policy and systems, epidemiology and improved delivery of cost-effective interventions. PMID:19565122

  16. Using a Health Informatics System to Assess Effect of a Federal Cigarette Tax Increase on Readiness to Quit Among Low-Income Smokers, Louisiana, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Moody-Thomas, Sarah; Horswell, Ronald; Yi, Yong; Celestin, Michael D.; Jones, Krysten D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health informatics systems are a proven tool for tobacco control interventions. To address the needs of low-income groups, the Tobacco Control Initiative was established in partnership with the Louisiana State University Health Care Services Division to provide cost-effective tobacco use cessation services through the health informatics system in the state public hospital system. Methods In this study we used a Web-based, result-reporting application to monitor and assess the effect of the 2009 federal cigarette tax increase. We assessed readiness to quit tobacco use before and after a cigarette tax increase among low-income tobacco users who were outpatients in a public hospital system. Results Overall, there was an increase in readiness to quit, from 22% during the first week of February to 33% during the first week of April, when the tax went into effect. Smokers who were female, 31 or older, African American, and assessed at a clinic visit in April were more likely to report readiness to quit than were men, those aged 30 or younger, those who were white, and those who were assessed at a clinic visit in February. Conclusion A health informatics system that efficiently tracks trends in readiness to quit can be used in combination with other strategies and thus optimize efforts to control tobacco use. Our data suggest that a cigarette tax increase affects smokers’ readiness to quit and provides an opportunity to intervene at the most beneficial time. PMID:24698530

  17. Supercourse: Epidemiology, the Internet, and Global Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by dedicated staff members at the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center at the University of Pittsburgh, Supercourse is "a repository of lectures on global health and prevention designed to improve the teaching of prevention." The group's network of experts includes over 56,000 scientists in 174 countries who have produced well over 5,000 lectures in 31 languages. It's quite impressive, and first-time visitors may wish to click on the Lecture of the Week on the homepage. Visitors can also search the lectures, where they will find a range of topics from "Urbanization and spatial inequalities in health in Brazil and India" to "A Simple Model for Improving Global Health Education." Researchers and others can use the Publications area to find out where some of the work offered here has been published over the years. Visitors shouldn't miss the Special Lectures area. Here they can look over some of the Supercourse Golden Lectures, which include talks in Chinese, Arabic, Croatian, and Albanian.

  18. Global climate change and children's health.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M

    2007-11-01

    There is broad scientific consensus that Earth's climate is warming rapidly and at an accelerating rate. Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, are very likely (>90% probability) to be the main cause of this warming. Climate-sensitive changes in ecosystems are already being observed, and fundamental, potentially irreversible, ecological changes may occur in the coming decades. Conservative environmental estimates of the impact of climate changes that are already in process indicate that they will result in numerous health effects to children. The nature and extent of these changes will be greatly affected by actions taken or not taken now at the global level. Physicians have written on the projected effects of climate change on public health, but little has been written specifically on anticipated effects of climate change on children's health. Children represent a particularly vulnerable group that is likely to suffer disproportionately from both direct and indirect adverse health effects of climate change. Pediatric health care professionals should understand these threats, anticipate their effects on children's health, and participate as children's advocates for strong mitigation and adaptation strategies now. Any solutions that address climate change must be developed within the context of overall sustainability (the use of resources by the current generation to meet current needs while ensuring that future generations will be able to meet their needs). Pediatric health care professionals can be leaders in a move away from a traditional focus on disease prevention to a broad, integrated focus on sustainability as synonymous with health. This policy statement is supported by a technical report that examines in some depth the nature of the problem of climate change, likely effects on children's health as a result of climate change, and the critical importance of responding promptly and aggressively to reduce activities that are contributing to this change. PMID:17967923

  19. Building Global Health Research Competencies at the Undergraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Hecker, Kent G.; Jensen, Ashley E.

    2009-01-01

    Faculty from the University of Calgary's bachelor of health sciences (BHSc) Global Health Program argue for the development of "global health research competencies" to prepare students for international placements in low- and middle-income countries. These competencies include the ability to define and describe (a) how to use the concept of health

  20. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health). The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy. PMID:17519005

  1. Proceedings of the 7th INFORMS Workshop on Data Mining and Health Informatics (DM-HI 2012) H. Yang, D. Zeng, O. E. Kundakcioglu, eds.

    E-print Network

    Street, Nick

    vs. Variance Sequence of HbA1c Readings HbA1c (a) Illustration of delta and variance q q q q q q q qProceedings of the 7th INFORMS Workshop on Data Mining and Health Informatics (DM-HI 2012) H. Yang, D. Zeng, O. E. Kundakcioglu, eds. Discovering Meaningful Cut-points to Predict High HbA1c Variation

  2. The Global Health Network and globalization of higher education

    PubMed Central

    LaPorte, Ron

    1999-01-01

    The year 2001 and the next millennium will soon be upon us. The major gains in health in the 20th century were primarily the result of improvements in public health including sanitation and immunization. Global health improvements will occur in the 21st century through improvements in information (in particular health training). We will describe a new paradigm for transnational training, the supercourse. In the next century global lecture-shareware training will take place, with Deming based quality control systems on the Internet. Faculty will thus share their best, most passionate lectures on the internet. During the past 100 years there has been a 25-year increase in life expectancy. It has been estimated that 24 of the 25 years were the result of prevention. Most prevention activity is sharing of information. We are working with leaders from WHO, the World Bank, IBM, NASA, PAHO to create a discipline called telepreventive medicine. This is the application of low band with information systems (the Internet) to large numbers of well people to prevent disease. One of the most important aspect of this work is the establishment globalisation of prevention education; the Supercourse. Question: What is the best way to improve health training/research? Answer: Improve the lectures. Question: How do we improve health training/research lectures: Answer: Have academic faculty worldwide share their lectures: Question: Will faculty share lectures? Answer: Yes, The Supercourse has 1107 faculty from 101 countries who created a Library of Lectures with 110 lectures on the Internet with quality control, and cutting edge cognitive design. This is being shared worldwide. We are developing a "Library of Lectures" with passionate lectures in public health from across the world such as seen here from South Africa. We propose to expand this to all areas of research in health. Our program consists of: Shareware: A Global faculty is developing and sharing their best, most passionate lectures. This benefits all. The experienced faculty member can beef up their lectures that are not cutting edge. New instructors reduce preparation time and improve their lectures, as they can employ state of the art lectures from others. Faculty in developing countries have access to current public health information for the first time. The concept is that of a library of lectures for all to use is in many ways similar to that of "shareware" on the computer. Statistical Quality Assurance: We have established a Deming Model of statistical quality control to monitor lectures over time Supporting the teachers: The Library of Lectures consists of exciting lectures by public health experts in the field. The classroom teacher "takes" them out for free like a library book. There is no direct teaching of students from a distance, rather the concept of the system is to provide cutting edge material for all faculty to present. Hypertext comic book: The lectures are icon driven, and the students can go deep into the Internet for more information through hyperlinks. It is based upon PowerPoint for ease of usage Presentation Speed: We have discovered technologies to speed access to lectures world wide Text books: The British Medical Association has put 2 current text books on line for us Multilingual: For global use, this must be multilingual, the first lecture is in 8 languages Voice-Sound Video: We are using state of the art Internet voice-video systems. We soon will be using "clickable" voice video We have published over 68 papers in leading medical journals including the Lancet, British Medical Journal, Nature Medicine among others. We are working with PAHO to put mirrored servers into every medical school in the Americas this year, with 5 years we should reach globally all medical schools. WHO has developed a Supercourse. Initial pilot studies reveal that 2500 individuals will see each lecture each year, which is 50 times that of our classroom teaching. We have beta tested lectures in 2 centers in Japan and one in South Africa with very positive results. We are now dev

  3. Global Mental Health: concepts, conflicts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces, describes and analyses the emerging concept of Global Mental Health (GMH). The birth of GMH can be traced to London, 2007, with the publication of a series of high-profile papers in The Lancet. Since then, GMH has developed into a movement with proponents, adherents, opponents, an ideology and core activities. The stated aims of the Movement for GMH are 'to improve services for people living with mental health problems and psychosocial disabilities worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries where effective services are often scarce'. GMH could be considered an attempt to right a historic wrong. During the colonial and post-colonial eras, the mental health of subject populations was accorded a very low priority. This was fuelled by scientific racism, which alleged that mental illness was uncommon in places such as Africa. As developing nations have made the epidemiological transition, the burden of mental illness has proportionately increased, with research suggesting a massive 'treatment gap' between those in need and those actually receiving formal mental health care. As such, much GMH research and action has been devoted to: (i) the identification and scale-up of cost-effective evidence-supported interventions that could be made more widely available; (ii) task-shifting of such intervention delivery to mental-health trained non-specialist Lay Health Workers. GMH has come under sustained critique. Critics suggest that GMH is colonial medicine come full circle, involving the top-down imposition of Western psychiatric models and solutions by Western-educated elites. These critiques suggest that GMH ignores the various indigenous modalities of healing present in non-Western cultures, which may be psychologically adaptive and curative. Relatedly, critics argue that GMH could be an unwitting Trojan horse for the mass medicalisation of people in developing countries, paving the way for exploitation by Big Pharma, while ignoring social determinants of health. PMID:26027857

  4. The Departments of Population Health Sciences (PHS) and of Biostatistics & Medical Informatics (BMI) at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health seek applicants for a joint faculty

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    The Departments of Population Health Sciences (PHS) and of Biostatistics & Medical Informatics (BMI completing their PhD or currently working as post-docs are encouraged to apply. Appointments at the rank faculty member will teach one to two biostatistics courses per year in the biostatistics sequence shared

  5. Global health initiative investments and health systems strengthening: a content analysis of global fund investments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of dollars are invested annually under the umbrella of national health systems strengthening. Global health initiatives provide funding for low- and middle-income countries through disease-oriented programmes while maintaining that the interventions simultaneously strengthen systems. However, it is as yet unclear which, and to what extent, system-level interventions are being funded by these initiatives, nor is it clear how much funding they allocate to disease-specific activities – through conventional ‘vertical-programming’ approach. Such funding can be channelled to one or more of the health system building blocks while targeting disease(s) or explicitly to system-wide activities. Methods We operationalized the World Health Organization health system framework of the six building blocks to conduct a detailed assessment of Global Fund health system investments. Our application of this framework framework provides a comprehensive quantification of system-level interventions. We applied this systematically to a random subset of 52 of the 139 grants funded in Round 8 of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (totalling approximately US$1 billion). Results According to the analysis, 37% (US$ 362 million) of the Global Fund Round 8 funding was allocated to health systems strengthening. Of that, 38% (US$ 139 million) was for generic system-level interventions, rather than disease-specific system support. Around 82% of health systems strengthening funding (US$ 296 million) was allocated to service delivery, human resources, and medicines & technology, and within each of these to two to three interventions. Governance, financing, and information building blocks received relatively low funding. Conclusions This study shows that a substantial portion of Global Fund’s Round 8 funds was devoted to health systems strengthening. Dramatic skewing among the health system building blocks suggests opportunities for more balanced investments with regard to governance, financing, and information system related interventions. There is also a need for agreement, by researchers, recipients, and donors, on keystone interventions that have the greatest system-level impacts for the cost-effective use of funds. Effective health system strengthening depends on inter-agency collaboration and country commitment along with concerted partnership among all the stakeholders working in the health system. PMID:23889824

  6. Addressing cancer health disparities using a global “biopsychosocial” approach Addressing global cancer health disparities

    PubMed Central

    King, Denae; Miranda, Patricia; Gor, Beverly; Fuchs-Young, Robin; Chilton, Janice; Hajek, Richard; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Hernandez-Valero, Maria; Snipes, S. Amy; Jones, Lovell

    2013-01-01

    The Center for Research on Minority Health (CRMH) has translated the biopsychosocial framework to address global cancer health disparities through the integration of biological (e.g., endogenous steroids, genetic susceptibility and pesticide levels) and behavioral (e.g., dietary interventions) determinants, along with community-based research (e.g., comprehensive involvement of community advisory boards) and educational approaches (e.g., kindergarten through postgraduate training). Evidence of successful implementation of this framework includes: health disparities training for over two thousand individuals ranging from elementary to postgraduate level, and conducting transdisciplinary projects that incorporate traditional and non-traditional health professionals to examine associations between biological and non-biological determinants of health. Examples and recommendations for implementation of the biopsychosocial approach as it applies to cancer health disparities research are described. PMID:19924792

  7. www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Entrepreneurial Global Health

    E-print Network

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Entrepreneurial Global Health Green Cars Alzheimer. A billionaire who gives up much of his fortune to improve the state of global health. Some of the inventions trying to spread the word about the risks of global warming to society, one of the most reputedly staid

  8. Community Health Nursing through a Global Lens.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Norma; Dallwig, Amber; Abbott, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Community Health Nursing (N456) is a required senior clinical course in the undergraduate nursing curriculum at the University of Michigan in which students learn to assess and address the health of populations and communities. In 2012, we began our efforts to internationalize the curriculum using a globally engaged nursing education framework. Our goal is for all students to have an intercultural learning experience understanding that all students are unable to travel internationally. Therefore, this intercultural learning was implemented through a range of experiences including actual immersion, virtual activities (videoconferencing) and interventions with local vulnerable populations. Grants were obtained to provide immersion experiences in Quito, Ecuador and New Delhi, India. Several technologies were initiated with partner nursing schools in Leogane, Haiti and New Delhi, India. Weekly videoconferencing utilizing BlueJeans software and exchange of knowledge through the Knowledge Gateway facilitated intercultural exchange of knowledge and culture. Local clinical groups work with a variety of vulnerable populations. A private blog was developed for all sections to share community assessment data from local and international communities. Qualitative evaluation data was collected for local and international students to begin to assess cultural competence and student learning. Analysis of data documented increased awareness of culture and identified the many positive benefits of interaction with a global partner. PMID:25980716

  9. An “App Store” for Health Care — CBIIT: Welcome to the NCI Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Search Site only in current section Advanced Search… Sections Home About Mission Serving Researchers Staff Directory Contact CBIIT National Cancer Informatics Program About NCIP Mission Areas

  10. Creating an Online Global Health Course and Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Brent A.; Briggs, Deborah J.; Hai-Jew, Shalin; Caby, Zachary; Werick, Mary

    2011-01-01

    As a college course, global public health covers topics that affect individuals' welfare and thus should be accessible to the public, providing information to help people make informed decisions about their health. This article discusses the creation of DMP 844: Global Health, a graduate-level course in the College of Veterinary Medicine's…

  11. The globalization of public health, I: Threats and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    1998-05-01

    The globalization of public health poses new threats to health but also holds important opportunities in the coming century. This commentary identifies the major threats and opportunities presented by the process of globalization and emphasizes the need for transnational public health approaches to take advantage of the positive aspects of global change and to minimize the negative ones. Transnational public health issues are areas of mutual concern for the foreign policies of all countries. These trends indicate a need for cross-national comparisons (e.g., in the areas of health financing and policy development) and for the development of a transnational research agenda in public health. PMID:9585736

  12. Meeting tomorrow's health care needs through local and global involvement.

    PubMed

    Opollo, Jackline G; Bond, Mary Lou; Gray, Jennifer; Lail-Davis, Vivian J

    2012-02-01

    Strengthened efforts to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals by 2015 are urgently needed. A fundamental step toward achieving these goals is strengthening global partnerships for development. This article describes critical challenges and opportunities in global health and the social responsibility of the nursing profession in this area. Examples and suggestions for nursing action are provided for consideration by those interested in influencing global health. Engaging in global health activities such as study abroad programs, interprofessional exchanges, continuing education workshops, and seminars with a global health focus can have significant implications for nursing education, research, policy, and practice. Equipping nurses with the leadership skills, knowledge, and attitudes needed to advance global health is integral in the delivery of effective, culturally relevant health care. PMID:22074213

  13. Consumer health informatics: knowledge engineering and evaluation studies of medical HouseCall.

    PubMed Central

    Bouhaddou, O.; Lambert, J. G.; Miller, S.

    1998-01-01

    The changes in reimbursement structure in health care have given rise to a rapidly growing focus on the consumer and this recent increase has been fueled by the advent of the Web. Consumer health information (CHI) systems empower the consumer and aim to improve doctor-patient communication. We present HouseCall, a CHI system. First, this paper reviews how a consumer information system can be derived from an existing physician knowledge base (Iliad). Second, it presents evaluation studies that: 1) show how consumers are eager for non 'dumbed-down' content with easy access, 2) demonstrate the large spectrum of topics of interest and the 'natural' search strategies of health care consumers. PMID:9929292

  14. Work Informatics — An Operationalisation of Social Informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markku I. Nurminen

    A new approach to informatics and Social Informatics is introduced called Work Informatics. It is compared with Social Informatics,\\u000a and it turns out that there is a high resemblance between their scopes and objectives. Work Informatics is more operational\\u000a and therefore, we can use it more easily for practical purposes. Social, technical, and socio-technical aspects of both are\\u000a analysed. The

  15. Global health in the UK government and university sector.

    PubMed

    Coltart, Cordelia E M; Black, Mary E; Easterbrook, Philippa J

    2011-09-01

    In this article, the authors review recent global health activities in the United Kingdom by key organisations in several defined areas:- UK government (international aid and global health strategy); UK research funding agencies (overseas research units); non-governmental organisations; UK universities and hospitals and academic/clinical international partnerships;professional societies; UK undergraduate and postgraduate training opportunities in global health; and opportunities for international medical graduates. PMID:21896358

  16. Geospatial resources for supporting data standards, guidance and best practice in health informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Mathys; Maged N Kamel Boulos

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 1980s marked the occasion when Geographical Information System (GIS) technology was broadly introduced into the geo-spatial community through the establishment of a strong GIS industry. This technology quickly disseminated across many countries, and has now become established as an important research, planning and commercial tool for a wider community that includes organisations in the public and private health

  17. Knowledge acquisition, semantic text mining, and security risks in health and biomedical informatics

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jingshan

    Knowledge acquisition, semantic text mining, and security risks in health and biomedical contributed to ontological techniques in medical and biological research; Dang J contributed to semantic text mining on clinical and biomedical data section; Pardue JH contributed to security risks to medical data

  18. The Practice of Informatics: Design Features of Graphs in Health Risk Communication: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica S. Ancker; Yalini Senathirajah; Rita Kukafka; Justin B. Starren

    2006-01-01

    This review describes recent experimental and focus group research on graphics as a method of communication about quantitative health risks. Some of the studies discussed in this review assessed effect of graphs on quantitative reasoning, others assessed effects on behavior or behavioral intentions, and still others assessed viewers’ likes and dislikes. Graphical features that improve the accuracy of quantitative reasoning

  19. Information empowerment: predeparture resource training for students in global health.

    PubMed

    Rana, Gurpreet K

    2014-04-01

    The Taubman Health Sciences Library (THL) collaborates with health sciences schools to provide information skills instruction for students preparing for international experiences. THL enhances students' global health learning through predeparture instruction for students who are involved in global health research, clinical internships, and international collaborations. This includes teaching international literature searching skills, providing country-specific data sources, building awareness of relevant mobile resources, and encouraging investigation of international news. Information skills empower creation of stronger global partnerships. Use of information resources has enhanced international research and training experiences, built lifelong learning foundations, and contributed to the university's global engagement. THL continues to assess predeparture instruction. PMID:24860266

  20. World Health Organization: Global Malaria Programme

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Health Organization (WHO) created the Global Malaria Programme to craft malaria policy and strategy formulation, along with creating guidelines for malaria prevention and control across the world. On their homepage, visitors can learn about their work through their annual reports and their specific prevention efforts targeted towards pregnant woman and infants. A good way to get started on the site is by looking at the list of themes on the left-hand side of the homepage. One area that's worth perusing is the "Diagnosis and Treatment". Here visitors can learn about the most effective way to treat malaria and how the disease can be managed over time. Those persons travelling to malarial areas will want to click on the "Malaria and travelers" section. This area provides a section of tips for those entering such regions, along with information about areas currently dealing with malarial outbreaks.

  1. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health. PMID:21897489

  2. Global mental health: perspectives from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background Global mental health (GMH) advocates for access to and the equitable provision of mental health care. Although the treatment gap is a useful construct to measure access and equitability of care, it fails to communicate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the urgent need to address care disparities. Objective The aim of this article is to present a perspective on the practical application of the principles of GMH to understand the real-life impact of the treatment gap and the approaches taken to improve treatment coverage in Ethiopia. Design A case study method is used. Results Multiple international collaborations undertaken in Ethiopia and facilitated by GMH to improve care, capacity, and the evidence base for increased treatment coverage are described briefly. A series of steps taken at the local and national levels to address the treatment gap are highlighted. The stories of two patients are also presented to illustrate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the potential transformational impact of addressing the treatment gap on patients, families, and communities. Conclusions GMH has a key role to play in addressing the treatment gap, which improves the life of people with mental disorders, their families, and their communities. However, national-level policy support and coordination are essential for any realistic improvement in treatment coverage. The reflections offered through the case examples may have utility in similar low-income settings. PMID:25280740

  3. Climate Informatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monteleoni, Claire; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Alexander, Francis J.; Niculescu-Mizil, Alexandru; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Tippett, Michael; Banerjee, Arindam; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Ganguly, Auroop R.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Tedesco, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of present and potential future climate change will be one of the most important scientific and societal challenges in the 21st century. Given observed changes in temperature, sea ice, and sea level, improving our understanding of the climate system is an international priority. This system is characterized by complex phenomena that are imperfectly observed and even more imperfectly simulated. But with an ever-growing supply of climate data from satellites and environmental sensors, the magnitude of data and climate model output is beginning to overwhelm the relatively simple tools currently used to analyze them. A computational approach will therefore be indispensable for these analysis challenges. This chapter introduces the fledgling research discipline climate informatics: collaborations between climate scientists and machine learning researchers in order to bridge this gap between data and understanding. We hope that the study of climate informatics will accelerate discovery in answering pressing questions in climate science.

  4. Moving toward a United States strategic plan in primary care informatics: a White Paper of the Primary Care Informatics Working Group, American Medical Informatics Association.

    PubMed

    Little, David R; Zapp, John A; Mullins, Henry C; Zuckerman, Alan E; Teasdale, Sheila; Johnson, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    The Primary Care Informatics Working Group (PCIWG) of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) has identified the absence of a national strategy for primary care informatics. Under PCIWG leadership, major national and international societies have come together to create the National Alliance for Primary Care Informatics (NAPCI), to promote a connection between the informatics community and the organisations that support primary care. The PCIWG clinical practice subcommittee has recognised the necessity of a global needs assessment, and proposed work in point-of-care technology, clinical vocabularies, and ambulatory electronic medical record development. Educational needs include a consensus statement on informatics competencies, recommendations for curriculum and teaching methods, and methodologies to evaluate their effectiveness. The research subcommittee seeks to define a primary care informatics research agenda, and to support and disseminate informatics research throughout the primary care community. The AMIA board of directors has enthusiastically endorsed the conceptual basis for this White Paper. PMID:14567875

  5. The Role of Health Education Specialists in Supporting Global Health and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Brian F.; Davis, Thomas M.; Beric, Bojana; Devlin, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge and skills for global health program design, implementation and monitoring is an expectation for practicing public health professionals. Major health education professional organizations including American Association for Health Education (AAHE), Society of Public Health Education (SOPHE) and International Union for Health Promotion and…

  6. Tufts Public HealthWORKING ACROSS DISCIPLINES AND GLOBAL BOUNDARIES Doctor of Public Health Program

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    to promote public health and health policy but also to assume leadership positions within public healthTufts Public HealthWORKING ACROSS DISCIPLINES AND GLOBAL BOUNDARIES Doctor of Public Health Program Tufts University School of Medicine's Public Health and Professional Degree Programs is accepting

  7. Tufts Public HealthWORKING ACROSS DISCIPLINES AND GLOBAL BOUNDARIES Doctor of Public Health Program

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    to promote public health and health policy but also to assume leadership positions within public healthTufts Public HealthWORKING ACROSS DISCIPLINES AND GLOBAL BOUNDARIES Doctor of Public Health Program Tufts University School of Medicine's Public Health and Professional Degree Programs is now accepting

  8. Variation in information needs and quality: implications for public health surveillance and biomedical informatics.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Brian E; Lai, Patrick T S; Grannis, Shaun J

    2013-01-01

    Understanding variation among users' information needs and the quality of information in an electronic system is important for informaticians to ensure data are fit-for-use in answering important questions in clinical and public health. To measure variation in satisfaction with currently reported data, as well as perceived importance and need with respect to completeness and timeliness, we surveyed epidemiologists and other public health professionals across multiple jurisdictions. We observed consensus for some data elements, such as county of residence, which respondents perceived as important and felt should always be reported. However information needs differed for many data elements, especially when comparing notifiable diseases such as chlamydia to seasonal (influenza) and chronic (diabetes) diseases. Given the trend towards greater volume and variety of data as inputs to surveillance systems, variation of information needs impacts system design and practice. Systems must be flexible and highly configurable to accommodate variation, and informaticians must measure and improve systems and business processes to accommodate for variation of both users and information. PMID:24551368

  9. Defining and Developing a Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude; Alfonso, Helman

    2015-01-01

    Global public health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of public health. However, the exact meaning of global public health is still unclear, resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high- and low- and middle-income countries, and the process of globalization need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course. Global public health and public health are not separable and global public health often appears as an extension of public health in the era of globalization and interdependence. Though global public health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practiced as health problems and their solutions set within low- and middle-income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low- and middle-income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalization and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society, and politics; and management are important.

  10. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott JN McNabb

    2010-01-01

    At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources. Three

  11. The behavioural research agenda in global health: An advocate's legacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Inhorn; C. R. Janes

    2007-01-01

    Two of the disciplines that have come to infuse global health with some of its current vibrancy are epidemiology and anthropology, disciplines that focus, in one way or another, on the causal importance of human behaviour in socio-political, ecological, evolutionary, and cultural context. One of the little-known stories in the history of twentieth century global health involves the works of

  12. Aims and tasks of medical informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhold Haux

    1997-01-01

    Ten major long-term aims and tasks, so to speak ‘grand challenges’, for research in the field of medical informatics, including health informatics, are proposed and described. These are the further development of methods and tools of information processing for: (1) diagnostics (‘the visible body’); (2) therapy (‘medical intervention with as little strain on the patient as possible’); (3) therapy simulation;

  13. Schattauer 2012 392Applied Clinical Informatics

    E-print Network

    Cimino, James J.

    © Schattauer 2012 392Applied Clinical Informatics J.J. Cimino. The False Security of Blind Dates: Chrononymization's Lack of Impact on Data Privacy of Laboratory Data Research Article The False Security of Blind adjustments, clinical research, clinical informatics, health policy, anonym- izatoin, de-identification, dates

  14. Business, Economics & Informatics

    E-print Network

    Cocea, Mihaela

    Master School of Law School of Science School of Business, Economics & Informatics School of Social, Mathematics and Statistics Department of Management Department of Computer Science and Informatics Department

  15. Chemical Informatics and Cyberinfrastructure Collaboratory A project funded by the

    E-print Network

    Page 0 Chemical Informatics and Cyberinfrastructure Collaboratory A project funded by the National, 2005 ­ September 30, 2007 #12;Page 1 Chemical Informatics and Cyberinfrastructure Collaboratory A. Answers to health-related problems are buried in the data, and the computer techniques of informatics can

  16. An Informatics Infrastructure Is Essential for Evidence-based Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Bakken

    2001-01-01

    The contention of the author is that an informatics infrastructure is essential for evidenced-based practice. Five building blocks of an informatics infrastructure for evidence-based practice are proposed: 1) standardized terminologies and structures, 2) digital sources of evidence, 3) standards that facilitate health care data exchange among heterogeneous systems, 4) informatics processes that support the acquisition and application of evidence to

  17. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  18. Global Climate Change — the Latest Assessment: Does Global Warming Warrant a Health Warning?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RT Watson; AJ McMichael

    2001-01-01

    Global climate change is a qualitatively distinct, and very significant, addition to the spectrum of environmental health\\u000a hazards encountered by humankind. Historically, environmental health concerns have focused on toxicological or microbiological\\u000a risks to health from local exposures. However, the scale of environmental health hazards is today increasing; indeed, the\\u000a burgeoning human impact on the environment has begun to alter global

  19. Training the biomedical informatics workforce in Latin America: results of a needs assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Magaly M; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Carcamo, Cesar P; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andres G; Lopez, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the results of a needs assessment of research and training in Medical Informatics (MI) and Bioinformatics (BI) in Latin America. Methods and results This assessment was conducted by QUIPU: The Andean Global Health Informatics Research and Training Center. After sending email invitations to MI–BI related professionals from Latin America, 142 surveys were received from 11 Latin American countries. The following were the top four ranked MI-related courses that a training programme should include: introduction to biomedical informatics; data representation and databases; mobile health; and courses that address issues of security, confidentiality and privacy. Several new courses and topics for research were suggested by survey participants. The information collected is guiding the development of curricula and a research agenda for the MI and BI QUIPU multidisciplinary programme for the Andean Region and Latin America. PMID:22080537

  20. GLOBAL HEALTH CONNECT PROBLEM: Global health data have grown exponentially and, in the next five years, Big Data

    E-print Network

    Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    years, Big Data (e.g. genomics, proteomics) is expected to grow by 800%. While data and informationGLOBAL HEALTH CONNECT PROBLEM: Global health data have grown exponentially and, in the next five of consolidation and coordination in sharing information and data. There is no single web-based site where a user

  1. Cognitive and learning sciences in biomedical and health instructional design: A review with lessons for biomedical informatics education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vimla L. Patel; Nicole A. Yoskowitz; José F. Arocha; Edward H. Shortliffe

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical and methodological advances in the cognitive and learning sciences can greatly inform curriculum and instruction in biomedicine and also educational programs in biomedical informatics. It does so by addressing issues such as the processes related to comprehension of medical information, clinical problem-solving and decision-making, and the role of technology. This paper reviews these theories and methods from the cognitive

  2. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. PMID:25982869

  3. Towards defining interprofessional competencies for global health education: drawing on educational frameworks and the experience of the UW-Madison Global Health Institute.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lori DiPrete

    2014-12-01

    The experience and lessons to date from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Global Health Institute's global health programs, considered together with more recently published competency frameworks related to global health practice, can provide important insights into the development of a core set of interprofessional competencies for global health that can be used across disciplines and professions. PMID:25564708

  4. Public health at a crossroads: assessing teaching on economic globalization as a social determinant of health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelley K. White

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how public health faculty prepare students to respond to economic globalization, and more broadly considers the response of public health academics to structural challenges that fall within the realm of global economics, politics, and policy. At this moment, public health is at a crossroads of formalizing its education through graduate competencies and certifications. This research undertook in-depth

  5. Global Considerations Affecting the Health Agenda of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catley-Carlson, Margaret

    1992-01-01

    Five global health-related dilemmas requiring action are discussed, including (1) worldwide population aging; (2) rising worldwide poverty; (3) ethical dilemmas of new technologies; (4) need for adequate and affordable health care systems; and (5) need to allocate scarce resources to meet infinite health care demands. Five actions are recommended,…

  6. http://informatics.medicine.dal.ca http://dme.medicine.dal.ca

    E-print Network

    Adl, Sina

    http://informatics.medicine.dal.ca http://dme.medicine.dal.ca www.medicine.dal.ca www at the level of Assistant Professor. Medical Informatics in the Faculty of Medicine was established in 1996 in the Medical Informatics Program, program development in the Faculty of Medicine and in the Health Informatics

  7. Global systems of health care and trauma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dennis S; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-10-01

    Health care policy continues to occupy the center of national debate in the United States. Exploration of international health care and trauma systems allows for better comprehension of our own policies. Four basic models of health care exist across the globe: Bismarck, Beveridge, National Health Insurance, and Out-of-Pocket. Expectantly, disparities in trauma care necessarily follow inequities in overall health care and infrastructure. In this article, we aim to review several countries' health care models and their respective trauma systems. Critical analysis of international solutions to deficiencies in overall health and trauma care may serve as a guide for issues in the United States. PMID:25229684

  8. Global health diplomacy, 'smart power', and the new world order.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Both the theory and practice of foreign policy and diplomacy, including systems of hard and soft power, are undergoing paradigm shifts, with an increasing number of innovative actors and strategies contributing to international relations outcomes in the 'New World Order'. Concurrently, global health programmes continue to ascend the political spectrum in scale, scope and influence. This concatenation of circumstances has demanded a re-examination of the existing and potential effectiveness of global health programmes in the 'smart power' context, based on adherence to a range of design, implementation and assessment criteria, which may simultaneously optimise their humanitarian, foreign policy and diplomatic effectiveness. A synthesis of contemporary characteristics of 'global health diplomacy' and 'global health as foreign policy', grouped by common themes and generated in the context of related field experiences, are presented in the form of 'Top Ten' criteria lists for optimising both diplomatic and foreign policy effectiveness of global health programmes, and criteria are presented in concert with an examination of implications for programme design and delivery. Key criteria for global health programmes that are sensitised to both diplomatic and foreign policy goals include visibility, sustainability, geostrategic considerations, accountability, effectiveness and alignment with broader policy objectives. Though diplomacy is a component of foreign policy, criteria for 'diplomatically-sensitised' versus 'foreign policy-sensitised' global health programmes were not always consistent, and were occasionally in conflict, with each other. The desirability of making diplomatic and foreign policy criteria explicit, rather than implicit, in the context of global health programme design, delivery and evaluation are reflected in the identified implications for (1) international security, (2) programme evaluation, (3) funding and resource allocation decisions, (4) approval systems and (5) training. On this basis, global health programmes are shown to provide a valuable, yet underutilised, tool for diplomacy and foreign policy purposes, including their role in the pursuit of benign international influence. A corresponding alignment of resources between 'hard' and 'smart' power options is encouraged. PMID:24953683

  9. THE FACULTY OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND LAW Surrey Informatics Summer School -SISS

    E-print Network

    Doran, Simon J.

    THE FACULTY OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND LAW Surrey Informatics Summer School - SISS Building and specialists - Data analysts: In health care providers or commissioners - Social sciences and social care to introducing multilevel models Clinical INFORMATICS & HEALTH OUTCOMES RESEARCH GROUP ­ www

  10. Global health in foreign policy--and foreign policy in health? Evidence from the BRICS.

    PubMed

    Watt, Nicola F; Gomez, Eduardo J; McKee, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Amidst the growing literature on global health, much has been written recently about the Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (BRICS) countries and their involvement and potential impact in global health, particularly in relation to development assistance. Rather less has been said about countries' motivations for involvement in global health negotiations, and there is a notable absence of evidence when their motivations are speculated on. This article uses an existing framework linking engagement in global health to foreign policy to explore differing levels of engagement by BRICS countries in the global health arena, with a particular focus on access to medicines. It concludes that countries' differing and complex motivations reinforce the need for realistic, pragmatic approaches to global health debates and their analysis. It also underlines that these analyses should be informed by analysis from other areas of foreign policy. PMID:24072881

  11. Global mental health: an interview with Vikram Patel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this podcast, we talk to Professor Vikram Patel about the impact of global mental health in the field of medicine, and discuss the initiatives and platforms being developed to promote capacity building, research, policy and advocacy within the established Centre for Global Mental Health. The anticipated challenges, controversies, and future directions for this discipline of global health are highlighted as well. The podcast for this interview is available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/sites/2999/download/Patel.mp3. PMID:24625028

  12. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  13. Globalization and Health at the United States–Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the impact of globalization on the making of health policy. Globalization is understood as economic interdependence among nations. The North American Free Trade Agreement is used as a marker to assess the effects of economic interdependence on binational health cooperation along the United States–Mexico border. Methods. We observed participants and conducted in-depth interviews with policymakers, public health specialists, representatives of professional organizations, and unions. Results. Globalization has not promoted binational health policy cooperation. Barriers that keep US and Mexican policymakers apart prevail while health problems that do not recognize international borders go unresolved. Conclusions. If international health problems are to be solved, political, cultural, and social interdependence need to be built with the same impetus by which policymakers promote international trade. PMID:14652325

  14. Building capacity in a health sciences library to support global health projects*

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Mellanye; Swogger, Susan; McGraw, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how a large, academic health sciences library built capacity for supporting global health at its university and discusses related outcomes. Lean budgets require prioritization and organizational strategy. A committee, with leadership responsibilities assigned to one librarian, guided strategic planning and the pursuit of collaborative, global health outreach activities. A website features case studies and videos of user stories to promote how library partnerships successfully contributed to global health projects. Collaborative partnerships were formed through outreach activities and from follow-up to reference questions. The committee and a librarian's dedicated time established the library's commitment to help the university carry out its ambitious global agenda. PMID:24860264

  15. Good Health Is a Global Issue

    MedlinePLUS

    ... turn Javascript on. NIH-supported medical research and training advance health worldwide Dr. Roger Glass, Director of ... Center discusses worldwide health and NIH research and training. Although Roger I. Glass, M.D., Ph.D., ...

  16. Vulnerable women and neo-liberal globalization: debt burdens undermine women's health in the global South.

    PubMed

    Jaggar, Alison M

    2002-01-01

    Contemporary processes of globalization have been accompanied by a serious deterioration in the health of many women across the world. Particularly disturbing is the drastic decline in the health status of many women in the global South, as well as some women in the global North. This paper argues that the health vulnerability of women in the global South is inseparable from their political and economic vulnerability. More specifically, it links the deteriorating health of many Southern women with the neo-liberal economic policies that characterize contemporary economic globalization and argues that this structure is sustained by the heavy burden of debt repayments imposed on many Southern countries. In conclusion, it argues that many Southern debt obligations are not morally binding because they are not democratically legitimate. PMID:12546163

  17. GLOBAL PRESCRIPTIONS Gendering Health and Human Rights

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    the agendas for women's health in international and national settings. The book reviews a decade of women of profit over people' - Barbara Klugman, Women's Health Project, South Africa Contents Preface and Acknowledgements 1. Transnationalizing Women's Health Movements 2. UN Conferences as Sites of Discursive Struggle

  18. Facilitative governance: transforming global health through complexity theory.

    PubMed

    Haffeld, Just

    2012-01-01

    Any initiative to coordinate actions, plans, or initiatives to improve the interaction between global health stakeholders finds itself feeding into a vastly complex global system. By utilising complexity theory as part of a new scientific paradigm, complex adaptive behaviour can emerge to create coherence. A suggested global health convention facilitating incremental regime development could be a way to create good governance processes. Minimum specifications could provide wide space for innovation and encourage shared action. Such specifications would be both a product of, and a facilitator for, future generative relationships. The potential empowerment of individuals as a result of this has the potential to transform global health by creating an arena for continual cooperation, interaction and mutual dependence among global stakeholders. PMID:22248181

  19. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    McNabb, Scott J N

    2010-01-01

    At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources.Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1) adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]); 2) maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3) consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers.To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners.We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it's needed, where it's needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities to the ownership and stewardship of public health information; and second, the right of individuals to access real-time public health information that might impact their lives.The vision can be accomplished through an interoperable, global public health grid. Adopting guiding principles, the global community should circumscribe the overlapping interest, shared vision, and mutual benefit between the security and public health communities and define the boundaries. A global forum needs to be established to guide the consensus governance required for public health information sharing in the 21st century. PMID:21143825

  20. Global health education in U.S. Medical schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Interest in global health (GH) among medical students worldwide is measurably increasing. There is a concomitant emphasis on emphasizing globally-relevant health professions education. Through a structured literature review, expert consensus recommendations, and contact with relevant professional organizations, we review the existing state of GH education in US medical schools for which data were available. Several recommendations from professional societies have been developed, along with a renewed emphasis on competencies in global health. The implementation of these recommendations was not observed as being uniform across medical schools, with variation noted in the presence of global health curricula. Recommendations for including GH in medical education are suggested, as well as ways to formalize GH curricula, while providing flexibility for innovation and adaptation PMID:23331630

  1. The problem with competencies in global health education.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Quentin

    2015-04-01

    The demand for global health educational opportunities among students and trainees in high-income countries (HICs) has led to a proliferation of available global health programs. In keeping with the drive towards competency-based medical education, many of these programs have been defining their own global health competencies. Developing such competencies presents several unique challenges, including (1) a failure to take sufficient account of local contexts coupled with a lack of inclusiveness in developing these competencies, (2) the disjunction between the learning approaches of "individualism" in HICs and the relative "collectivism" of most host countries, and (3) shortcomings associated with assessing competencies in resource-limited settings. To meet these challenges, the author recommends reenvisioning the approach to competencies in global health using fresh metaphors, innovative modes of assessment, and the creation of more appropriate competency domains. PMID:25692558

  2. The globalization of public health: the first 100 years of international health diplomacy.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, D. P.

    2001-01-01

    Global threats to public health in the 19th century sparked the development of international health diplomacy. Many international regimes on public health issues were created between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries. The present article analyses the global risks in this field and the international legal responses to them between 1851 and 1951, and explores the lessons from the first century of international health diplomacy of relevance to contemporary efforts to deal with the globalization of public health. PMID:11584732

  3. Knowledge and networks – key sources of power in global health

    PubMed Central

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Walt, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Shiffman rightly raises questions about who exercises power in global health, suggesting power is a complex concept, and the way it is exercised is often opaque. Power that is not based on financial strength but on knowledge or experience, is difficult to estimate, and yet it may provide the legitimacy to make moral claims on what is, or ought to be, on global health agendas. Twenty years ago power was exercised in a much less complex health environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) was able to exert its authority as world health leader. The landscape today is very different. Financial resources for global health are being competed for by diverse organisations, and power is diffused and somewhat hidden in such a climate, where each organization has to establish and make its own moral claims loudly and publicly. We observe two ways which allow actors to capture moral authority in global health. One, through power based on scientific knowledge and two, through procedures in the policy process, most commonly associated with the notion of broad consultation and participation. We discuss these drawing on one particular framework provided by Bourdieu, who analyses the source of actor power by focusing on different sorts of capital. Different approaches or theories to understanding power will go some way to answering the challenge Shiffman throws to health policy analysts. We need to explore much more fully where power lies in global health, and how it is exercised in order to understand underlying health agendas and claims to legitimacy made by global health actors today. PMID:25674577

  4. Model Formulation: Health@HomeThe Work of Health Information Management in the Household (HIMH): Implications for Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) Innovations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Moen; Patricia Flatley Brennan

    2005-01-01

    ObjectiveContemporary health care places enormous health information management demands on laypeople. Insights into their skills and habits complements current developments in consumer health innovations, including personal health records. Using a five-element human factors model of work, health information management in the household (HIMH) is characterized by the tasks completed by individuals within household organizations, using certain tools and technologies in

  5. Cognitive Informatics and Denotational Mathematical Means for Brain Informatics

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yingxu

    1 Cognitive Informatics and Denotational Mathematical Means for Brain Informatics Yingxu Wang Director, International Institute of Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing (IICICC) Director: yingxu@ucalgary.ca Abstract. Cognitive informatics studies the natural intelligence and the brain from

  6. Global health diplomacy training for military medical researchers.

    PubMed

    Katz, Rebecca; Blazes, David; Bae, Jennifer; Puntambekar, Nisha; Perdue, Christopher L; Fischer, Julie

    2014-04-01

    Given the unprecedented growth of global health initiatives in the past decade, informal diplomacy between technical partners plays an increasingly important role in shaping opportunities and outcomes. This article describes a course developed and executed specifically to equip U.S. military health professionals with core skills in practical diplomacy critical to help them successfully plan and implement public health surveillance, research, and capacity building programs with partner nation governments and organizations. We identified core competencies in practical diplomacy for laboratory and public health researchers, catalogued and evaluated existing training programs, and then developed a pilot course in global health diplomacy for military medical researchers. The pilot course was held in June 2012, and focused on analyzing contemporary issues related to global health diplomacy through the framework of actors, drivers, and policies that affect public health research and capacity-building, beginning at the level of global health governance and cooperation and moving progressively to regional (supranational), national, and institutional perspective. This course represents an approach geared toward meeting the needs specific to U.S. military public health personnel and researchers working in international settings. PMID:24690959

  7. Global cardiovascular health: urgent need for an intersectoral approach.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Valentin; Kelly, Bridget B; Vedanthan, Rajesh

    2011-09-13

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with more than 80% of CVD deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There have been several calls for action to address the global burden of CVD, but there remains insufficient investment in and implementation of CVD prevention and disease management efforts in LMICs. To catalyze the action needed to control global CVD, the Institute of Medicine recently produced a report, Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World: A Critical Challenge to Achieve Global Health. This paper presents a commentary of the Institute of Medicine's report, focusing specifically on the intersectoral nature of intervention approaches required to promote global cardiovascular health. We describe 3 primary domains of intervention to control global CVD: 1) policy approaches; 2) health communication programs; and 3) healthcare delivery interventions. We argue that the intersectoral nature of global CVD interventions should ideally occur at 2 levels: first, all 3 domains of intervention must be activated and engaged simultaneously, rather than only 1 domain at a time; and second, within each domain, a synergistic combination of interventions must be implemented. A diversity of public and private sector actors, representing multiple sectors such as health, agriculture, urban planning, transportation, finance, broadcasting, education, and the food and pharmaceutical industries, will be required to collaborate for policies, programs, and interventions to be optimally aligned. Improved control of global CVD is eminently possible but requires an intersectoral approach involving a diversity of actors and stakeholders. PMID:21903051

  8. Global public health and the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Aw, Tar-Ching

    2010-07-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE), as a rapidly developing country in the Middle East, is in a good position to contribute to global health. It can share its experience of dealing with public health problems characteristic of a desert environment, and it can learn from the experience of other nations in tackling challenges posed by globalization. The health issues particular to the region include heat stress, the effects of consanguineous marriages on families and society, and exposure to occupational and environmental hazards. As in many other developed countries, the UAE also has public health problems associated with smoking, road traffic accidents, and obesity. The experience of other countries in dealing with infectious diseases has helped the UAE implement preventive measures to cope with infections such as the recent H1N1 pandemic. International collaboration has advantages to the UAE in managing problems pertaining to global public health. PMID:20566529

  9. Global public goods and health: taking the agenda forward.

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, I.; Faust, M.

    2001-01-01

    We examined recent special health initiatives to control HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and make four policy recommendations for improving the sustainability of such initiatives. First, international cooperation on health should be seen as an issue of global public goods that concerns both poor and rich countries. Second, national health and other sector budgets should be tapped to ensure that global health concerns are fully and reliably funded; industrialized countries should lead the way. Third, a global research council should be established to foster more efficient health-related knowledge management. Fourth, managers for specific disease issues should be appointed, to facilitate policy partnerships. Policy changes in these areas have already begun and can provide a basis for further reform. PMID:11584736

  10. J.D. Brown et. al. In-Vivo and In-Situ Compressive Properties of Porcine Abdominal Soft Tissues Studies in Health Technology and Informatics -Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Newport Beach, CA, January 2003

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jacob

    Studies in Health Technology and Informatics - Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Newport Beach, CA, January of tissues are essential for developing realistic virtual reality surgical simulators utilizing haptic is currently known quantitatively regarding the force-deformation behavior of the relevant anatomy

  11. [Global public health: international health is tested to its limits by the human influenza A epidemic].

    PubMed

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    This article comes from the intense international pressure that follows a near-catastrophy, such as the human influenza A H1N1 epidemic, and the limited resources for confronting such events. The analysis covers prevailing 20th century trends in the international public health arena and the change-induced challenges brought on by globalization, the transition set in motion by what has been deemed the "new" international public health and an ever-increasing focus on global health, in the context of an international scenario of shifting risks and opportunities and a growing number of multinational players. Global public health is defined as a public right, based on a new appreciation of the public, a new paradigm centered on human rights, and altruistic philosophy, politics, and ethics that undergird the changes in international public health on at least three fronts: redefining its theoretical foundation, improving world health, and renewing the international public health system, all of which is the byproduct of a new form of governance. A new world health system, directed by new global public institutions, would aim to make public health a global public right and face a variety of staggering challenges, such as working on public policy management on a global scale, renewing and democratizing the current global governing structure, and conquering the limits and weaknesses witnessed by international health. PMID:19695150

  12. The World Health Organization and the transition from "international" to "global" public health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Theodore M; Cueto, Marcos; Fee, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The term "global health" is rapidly replacing the older terminology of "international health." We describe the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in both international and global health and in the transition from one to the other. We suggest that the term "global health" emerged as part of larger political and historical processes, in which WHO found its dominant role challenged and began to reposition itself within a shifting set of power alliances. Between 1948 and 1998, WHO moved from being the unquestioned leader of international health to being an organization in crisis, facing budget shortfalls and diminished status, especially given the growing influence of new and powerful players. We argue that WHO began to refashion itself as the coordinator, strategic planner, and leader of global health initiatives as a strategy of survival in response to this transformed international political context. PMID:16322464

  13. Globalization and social determinants of health: The role of the global marketplace (part 2 of 3)

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Globalization is a key context for the study of social determinants of health (SDH): broadly stated, SDH are the conditions in which people live and work, and that affect their opportunities to lead healthy lives. In the first article in this three part series, we described the origins of the series in work conducted for the Globalization Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health and in the Commission's specific concern with health equity. We identified and defended a definition of globalization that gives primacy to the drivers and effects of transnational economic integration, and addressed a number of important conceptual and methodological issues in studying globalization's effects on SDH and their distribution, emphasizing the need for transdisciplinary approaches that reflect the complexity of the topic. In this second article, we identify and describe several, often interacting clusters of pathways leading from globalization to changes in SDH that are relevant to health equity. These involve: trade liberalization; the global reorganization of production and labour markets; debt crises and economic restructuring; financial liberalization; urban settings; influences that operate by way of the physical environment; and health systems changed by the global marketplace. PMID:17578569

  14. Rethinking global health challenges: towards a 'global compact' for reducing the burden of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, R S

    2009-03-01

    Chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, are the leading cause of death and disability in both the developed and developing world (excluding sub-Saharan Africa). At present, the global framework for action on chronic disease is strongly 'World Health Organization (WHO)-centric', defined by two WHO initiatives: the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. This paper explores the difficulties of developing a collective response to global health challenges, and draws out some implications for chronic disease. It highlights how political partnerships and improved governance structures, economic processes, and international laws and standards function as three, concurrent pathways for encouraging policy implementation at country level and for building collective commitment to address the transnational determinants of chronic disease. The paper evaluates WHO's initiatives on chronic disease in terms of these pathways, and makes the case for a global compact on chronic disease as a possible structure for advancing WHO's free-standing goal of reducing mortality from chronic diseases by an additional 2% between 2005 and 2015. Beneath this overarching structure, the paper argues that global agencies, donor governments and other global health stakeholders could achieve greater impact by coordinating their efforts within a series of semi-autonomous 'policy channels' or 'workstreams'. These workstreams - including trade and agriculture, consumer health issues and workplace health promotion - could act as focal points for international cooperation, drawing in a wider range of health stakeholders within their areas of comparative advantage. PMID:19278695

  15. OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY Certificate in Global Health (Online Program)

    E-print Network

    requires three core courses (3 credit hours each), two electives (2 credit hours each) and a practicum or a research paper (2 credit hours) for a total fifteen (15) credits. A maximum of 6 credit hours from graduate Courses (HLSC 746) Epidemiology 3 credit hours (HLSC 776) Global Health 3 credit hours (HLSC 702) Health

  16. SoftwareandGlobalHealth: AssessingVaccineColdChainsfrom

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    1/6/2012 1 SoftwareandGlobalHealth: AssessingVaccineColdChainsfrom National · Introduction and sustainability of technology 1/5/2012ChangeSeminar 2 Three themes 1. Implications of inventory technologies for national health systems 1/5/2012ChangeSeminar 3 Cold Chain Equipment Manager (CCEM) software

  17. Introduction: promoting global health through biotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uyen Quach; Douglas K Martin; Abdallah S Daar; Peter A Singer; Halla Thorsteinsdóttir

    2004-01-01

    term 'health biotechnology' evokes images of research-intensive universities such as Stanford University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), as well as initial public offerings on NASDAQ. Ty pically, we don't think about biotechnology in connection with health solutions for poor people in developing countries. Still, as has been demonstrated in a technology foresight exercise, biotechnology can potentially be applied

  18. Guiding the design of evaluations of innovations in health informatics: a framework and a case study of the SMArt SHARP evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ramly, Edmond; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2012-01-01

    Development of health information systems innovations is necessary to create a better future for health and health care, but evaluating them is challenging. This paper examines the problem of evaluating health IT projects in which innovation is agile, adaptive, and emergent, and in which innovation diffusion and production are interlinked. We introduce a typology of mindsets for evaluation design that are typically used in health informatics: optimality, contingency, and usefulness, and make the case for a modularity mindset. We propose a model that shifts the unit of analysis from an evaluation as a whole, to specific modules of an evaluation, such as purpose, target, and methods. We then use retrospective participant observation to illustrate the approach using a case study: the ONC SHARP Harvard project developing the SMArt platform (smartplaforms.org). We find that the proposed modular approach to evaluation design provides a balanced alternative to standard archetypical designs on the one hand, and fully custom-made designs, on the other hand. PMID:23304417

  19. Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health.

    PubMed

    Martens, Pim; Akin, Su-Mia; Maud, Huynen; Mohsin, Raza

    2010-01-01

    It is clear that globalization is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalization are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more transboundary cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalization Index with health indicators to analyse if more globalized countries are doing better in terms of infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and adult mortality rate. The results indicate a positive association between a high level of globalization and low mortality rates. In view of the arguments that globalization provides winners and losers, and might be seen as a disequalizing process, we should perhaps be careful in interpreting the observed positive association as simple evidence that globalization is mostly good for our health. It is our hope that a further analysis of health impacts of globalization may help in adjusting and optimising the process of globalization on every level in the direction of a sustainable and healthy development for all. PMID:20849605

  20. Beyond trade: taking globalization to the health sector.

    PubMed

    Daulaire, Nils

    2003-01-01

    The pace of globalization has brought the world to the brink of a new era in international relations. While the world has outgrown traditional mechanisms for addressing global issues, it has not yet developed new forms of effective governance. This temporary void poses threats and enormous opportunities. The public health sector will play a crucial "formal" role--that is, carried out by existing bodies such as WHO and the UN. But WHO does not necessarily represent the full spectrum of views and its members necessarily work, to some degree, for separate national interests. The formal dimension must be supplemented. Globalization is not synonymous with lack of regulation. Many responsible businesses would welcome a transparent and universally applied regulatory regime to prevent a race to the lowest standards. The economic benefits of globalization may hit a glass ceiling if societies outside the global economy become progressively poorer and less healthy. The business community is recognizing that good health is essential for economic growth and social stability. Globalization may cause millions to migrate for economic opportunity. The private sector's forward-thinkers recognize the health threats of migration and are beginning to view global health promotion as a means to ensure optimal market access. PMID:17208720

  1. Creating a global observatory for health R&D.

    PubMed

    Terry, Robert F; Salm, José F; Nannei, Claudia; Dye, Christopher

    2014-09-12

    A global map of health R&D activity would improve the coordination of research and help to match limited resources with public health priorities, such as combating antimicrobial resistance. The challenges of R&D mapping are large because there are few standards for research classification and governance and limited capacity to report on R&D data, especially in low-income countries. Nevertheless, based on developments in semantic classification, and with better reporting of funded research though the Internet, it is now becoming feasible to create a global observatory for health R&D. PMID:25214621

  2. A Global Public Goods Approach to the Health of Migrants

    PubMed Central

    Widdows, Heather; Marway, Herjeet

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a global public goods approach to the health of migrants. It suggests that this approach establishes that there are a number of health goods which must be provided to migrants not because these are theirs by right (although this may independently be the case), but because these goods are primary goods which fit the threefold criteria of global public goods. There are two key advantages to this approach: first, it is non-confrontational and non-oppositional, and second, it provides self-interested arguments to provide at least some health goods to migrants and thus appeals to those little moved by rights-based arguments. PMID:26180550

  3. A global travelers' electronic health record template standard for personal health records.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chuan; Detmer, Don E; Shabbir, Syed-Abdul; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Jian, Wen-Shan; Mihalas, George I; Shortliffe, Edward H; Tang, Paul; Haux, Reinhold; Kimura, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Tourism as well as international business travel creates health risks for individuals and populations both in host societies and home countries. One strategy to reduce health-related risks to travelers is to provide travelers and relevant caregivers timely, ongoing access to their own health information. Many websites offer health advice for travelers. For example, the WHO and US Department of State offer up-to-date health information about countries relevant to travel. However, little has been done to assure travelers that their medical information is available at the right place and time when the need might arise. Applications of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) utilizing mobile phones for health management are promising tools both for the delivery of healthcare services and the promotion of personal health. This paper describes the project developed by international informaticians under the umbrella of the International Medical Informatics Association. A template capable of becoming an international standard is proposed. This application is available free to anyone who is interested. Furthermore, its source code is made open. PMID:21849333

  4. Great expectations for the World Health Organization: a Framework Convention on Global Health to achieve universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Ooms, G; Marten, R; Waris, A; Hammonds, R; Mulumba, M; Friedman, E A

    2014-02-01

    Establishing a reform agenda for the World Health Organization (WHO) requires understanding its role within the wider global health system and the purposes of that wider global health system. In this paper, the focus is on one particular purpose: achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The intention is to describe why achieving UHC requires something like a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) that have been proposed elsewhere,(1) why WHO is in a unique position to usher in an FCGH, and what specific reforms would help enable WHO to assume this role. PMID:24411617

  5. Using integrated bio-physiotherapy informatics in home health-care settings: A qualitative analysis of a point-of-care decision support system.

    PubMed

    Canally, Culum; Doherty, Sean; Doran, Diane M; Goubran, Rafik A

    2015-06-01

    The growing need to gain efficiencies within a home care setting has prompted home care practitioners to focus on health informatics to address the needs of an aging clientele. The remote and heterogeneous nature of the home care environment necessitates the use of non-intrusive client monitoring and a portable, point-of-care graphical user interface. Using a grounded theory approach, this article examines the simulated use of a graphical user interface by practitioners in a home care setting to explore the salient features of monitoring the activity of home care clients. The results demonstrate the need for simple, interactive displays that can provide large amounts of geographical and temporal data relating to patient activity. Additional emerging themes from interviews indicate that home care professionals would use a graphical user interface of this type for patient education and goal setting as well as to assist in the decision-making process of home care practitioners. PMID:24835146

  6. Center for Global Health Seminar Series

    Cancer.gov

    February 14, 2013 - Dr. Patrick Loehrer provides the background and current status of an ongoing experiment in health care delivery focused on enhancing the research, educational and clinical care infrastructure for western Kenya.

  7. Environmental Health and Safety Global Harmonization System

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    ­ skin corrosion/burns, eye damage, and corrosion to metals · Toxic Category 1-3 ­ acute toxicity (fatal flammable, non-flammable, oxidizing gases) #12;Environmental Health and Safety GHS Pictograms · Corrosive

  8. Global agenda, local health: including concepts of health security in preparedness programs at the jurisdictional level.

    PubMed

    Eby, Chas

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda's objectives contain components that could help health departments address emerging public health challenges that threaten the population. As part of the agenda, partner countries with advanced public health systems will support the development of infrastructure in stakeholder health departments. To facilitate this process and augment local programs, state and local health departments may want to include concepts of health security in their public health preparedness offices in order to simultaneously build capacity. Health security programs developed by public health departments should complete projects that are closely aligned with the objectives outlined in the global agenda and that facilitate the completion of current preparedness grant requirements. This article identifies objectives and proposes tactical local projects that run parallel to the 9 primary objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda. Executing concurrent projects at the international and local levels in preparedness offices will accelerate the completion of these objectives and help prevent disease epidemics, detect health threats, and respond to public health emergencies. Additionally, future funding tied or related to health security may become more accessible to state and local health departments that have achieved these objectives. PMID:25396695

  9. Engineering Polymer Informatics

    E-print Network

    Adams, Nico; Ryder, Jennifer; Jessop, David M; Corbett, Peter; Murray-Rust, Peter

    2007-12-17

    Engineering Polymer Informatics Nico Adams, Jen Ryder, Nicholas England, David Jessop, Peter Corbett, Peter Murray-Rust Our mission is to develop an informatics toolbox, which will take into account the special computational needs of polymers...

  10. Cancer - A Major Global Health Challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Hoffmann-La

    Cancer is a major healthcare challenge. Globally, the number of people diagnosed with cancer is estimated at around 12.4 million people per year, a figure that is set to rise to 26.4 million by 2030 1 . The number of deaths in Europe is projected to increase 11% by 2015, compared to the 2000 level 2 . It is estimated

  11. Information science for the future: an innovative nursing informatics curriculum.

    PubMed

    Travis, L; Flatley Brennan, P

    1998-04-01

    Health care is increasingly driven by information, and consequently, patient care will demand effective management of information. The report of the Priority Expert Panel E: Nursing Informatics and Enhancing Clinical Care Through Nursing Informatics challenges faculty to produce baccalaureate graduates who use information technologies to improve the patient care process and change health care. The challenge is to construct an evolving nursing informatics curriculum to provide nursing professionals with the foundation for affecting health care delivery. This article discusses the design, implementation, and evaluation of an innovative nursing informatics curriculum incorporated into a baccalaureate nursing program. The basic components of the curriculum framework are information, technology, and clinical care process. The presented integrated curriculum is effective in familiarizing students with informatics and encouraging them to think critically about using informatics in practice. The two groups of students who completed the four-course sequence will be discussed. PMID:9570415

  12. For debate. The impact of globalization on public health: implications for the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelley Lee

    2000-01-01

    Background There has been substantial discussion of globalization in the scholarly and popular press yet limited attention so far among public health professionals. This is so despite the many potential impacts of globalization on public health. Defining public health broadly, as focused on the collective health of populations requiring a range of intersectoral activities, globalization can be seen to have

  13. American Academy of Nursing Expert Panel on Global Nursing and Health: white paper on Global Nursing And Health.

    PubMed

    Rosenkoetter, Marlene M; Nardi, Deena A

    2007-10-01

    The American Academy of Nursing's (AAN) Expert Panel on Global Health's white paper examines critical issues in the international nursing arena, including the global shortage of nurses, legal and ethical issues in recruiting international students for nursing positions in developed countries, the nurse faculty shortage, faculty and student exchanges, effects of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services law, and laws governing new practice within the public domain. Realistic models directed toward viable solutions to these issues are critically needed. It offers 13 recommendations to address issues from a global perspective, including hosting a conference on global nursing, health research, and faculty exchanges; annual meetings; and an international conference of world nurse leaders, the AAN, and Global Panel representatives to discuss this white paper and plan follow-up actions. The final white paper approved by the AAN in 2005 and is published here to stimulate discussion regarding current and future initiatives. PMID:17977108

  14. Medical Providers as Global Warming and Climate Change Health Educators: A Health Literacy Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villagran, Melinda; Weathers, Melinda; Keefe, Brian; Sparks, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a threat to wildlife and the environment, but it also one of the most pervasive threats to human health. The goal of this study was to examine the relationships among dimensions of health literacy, patient education about global warming and climate change (GWCC), and health behaviors. Results reveal that patients who have higher…

  15. Health care and the global community.

    PubMed

    Sister Peggy Egan

    2006-01-01

    Catholic health systems and facilities, to fulfill their commitment to the healing ministry of Jesus Christ, are called to serve society's most poor and vulnerable people. This calling applies to people in need not only locally but also internationally. Individuals and organizations providing aid in foreign lands will face many challenges. Yet if they believe that they can use their expertise to benefit people in need, they can accomplish their goals. Some guiding principles are instructive for those undertaking international outreach efforts: Partners must commit themselves to a common mission; the effort must focus on empowering aid recipients; participants in the effort-donors and recipients alike-can experience transformation; and health and well-being must be central to the work. The Catholic Consortium for International Health Services (CCIHS) has experience in following these principles to bring about change. The consortium can help ministry organizations achieve their international outreach goals. PMID:16883726

  16. INFORMATICS AND COMPUTING Recruiter's

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    SCHOOL OF INFORMATICS AND COMPUTING 2013-2014 Recruiter's Guide www.soic.indiana.edu/career #12;We introductory Computer Science or Informatics courses to help students learn more about your industry Senior Assistant hkidd@indiana.edu Informatics and Computing Career Services Staff #12;School

  17. Consumer Informatics Supporting Patients as Co-Producers of Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie Kaplan; Patricia Flatley Brennan

    2001-01-01

    The track entitled “Consumer Informatics Supporting Patients as Co-Producers of Quality” at the AMIA Spring 2000 Congress was devoted to examining the new field of consumer health informatics. This area is developing rapidly, as worldwide changes are occurring in the organization and delivery of health care and in the traditional roles of patient and provider. This paper describes the key

  18. Democracy - the real 'ghost' in the machine of global health policy: Comment on "A ghost in the machine? politics in global health policy".

    PubMed

    Harmer, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Politics is not the ghost in the machine of global health policy. Conceptually, it makes little sense to argue otherwise, while history is replete with examples of individuals and movements engaging politically in global health policy. Were one looking for ghosts, a more likely candidate would be democracy, which is currently under attack by a new global health technocracy. Civil society movements offer an opportunity to breathe life into a vital, but dying, political component of global health policy. PMID:25197680

  19. Crossing the Chasm: Information Technology to Biomedical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Brenda G.; Balke, C. William; Umberger, Gloria H.; Talbert, Jeffery; Canales, Denise Niles; Steltenkamp, Carol L.; Conigliaro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Accelerating the translation of new scientific discoveries to improve human health and disease management is the overall goal of a series of initiatives integrated in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) “Roadmap for Medical Research.” The Clinical and Translational Research Award (CTSA) program is, arguably, the most visible component of the NIH Roadmap providing resources to institutions to transform their clinical and translational research enterprises along the goals of the Roadmap. The CTSA program emphasizes biomedical informatics as a critical component for the accomplishment of the NIH’s translational objectives. To be optimally effective, emerging biomedical informatics programs must link with the information technology (IT) platforms of the enterprise clinical operations within academic health centers. This report details one academic health center’s transdisciplinary initiative to create an integrated academic discipline of biomedical informatics through the development of its infrastructure for clinical and translational science infrastructure and response to the CTSA mechanism. This approach required a detailed informatics strategy to accomplish these goals. This transdisciplinary initiative was the impetus for creation of a specialized biomedical informatics core, the Center for Biomedical Informatics (CBI). Development of the CBI codified the need to incorporate medical informatics including quality and safety informatics and enterprise clinical information systems within the CBI. This paper describes the steps taken to develop the biomedical informatics infrastructure, its integration with clinical systems at one academic health center, successes achieved, and barriers encountered during these efforts. PMID:21383632

  20. Crossing the chasm: information technology to biomedical informatics.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Brenda G; Balke, C William; Umberger, Gloria H; Talbert, Jeffery; Canales, Denise Niles; Steltenkamp, Carol L; Conigliaro, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Accelerating the translation of new scientific discoveries to improve human health and disease management is the overall goal of a series of initiatives integrated in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) "Roadmap for Medical Research." The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program is, arguably, the most visible component of the NIH Roadmap providing resources to institutions to transform their clinical and translational research enterprises along the goals of the Roadmap. The CTSA program emphasizes biomedical informatics as a critical component for the accomplishment of the NIH's translational objectives. To be optimally effective, emerging biomedical informatics programs must link with the information technology platforms of the enterprise clinical operations within academic health centers.This report details one academic health center's transdisciplinary initiative to create an integrated academic discipline of biomedical informatics through the development of its infrastructure for clinical and translational science infrastructure and response to the CTSA mechanism. This approach required a detailed informatics strategy to accomplish these goals. This transdisciplinary initiative was the impetus for creation of a specialized biomedical informatics core, the Center for Biomedical Informatics (CBI). Development of the CBI codified the need to incorporate medical informatics including quality and safety informatics and enterprise clinical information systems within the CBI. This article describes the steps taken to develop the biomedical informatics infrastructure, its integration with clinical systems at one academic health center, successes achieved, and barriers encountered during these efforts. PMID:21383632

  1. Big Food, Food Systems, and Global Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Stuckler; Marion Nestle

    2012-01-01

    In an article that forms part of the PLoS Medicine series on Big Food, guest editors David Stuckler and Marion Nestle lay out why more examination of the food industry is necessary, and offer three competing views on how public health professionals might engage with Big Food.

  2. Women's Global Health InstituteNEED Noncommunicable

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    some of the diseases with higher prevalence in women, such as bone fractures, dementia and mood, therapeutic effectiveness and drug delivery designs. For a long time, Purdue scientists have been studying. Currently, the institute's four major research areas are bone health, neurodegenerative disorders, wellness

  3. Assessing Proposals for New Global Health Treaties: An Analytic Framework.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Rřttingen, John-Arne; Frenk, Julio

    2015-08-01

    We have presented an analytic framework and 4 criteria for assessing when global health treaties have reasonable prospects of yielding net positive effects. First, there must be a significant transnational dimension to the problem being addressed. Second, the goals should justify the coercive nature of treaties. Third, proposed global health treaties should have a reasonable chance of achieving benefits. Fourth, treaties should be the best commitment mechanism among the many competing alternatives. Applying this analytic framework to 9 recent calls for new global health treaties revealed that none fully meet the 4 criteria. Efforts aiming to better use or revise existing international instruments may be more productive than is advocating new treaties. PMID:26066926

  4. Road traffic injuries: a major global public health crisis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B R

    2008-12-01

    Evidence suggests that the present and projected global burden of road traffic injuries is borne disproportionately by countries that can least afford to meet the health service, economic and societal challenges. Although the evidence base on which these estimates are made remains somewhat precarious in view of the limited data systems in most low- and middle-income countries, these projections highlight the essential need to address road traffic injuries as a public health priority. Most well-evaluated effective interventions do not focus directly on efforts to protect vulnerable road users, such as motorcyclists and pedestrians. However, these groups comprise the majority of road traffic victims in low- and middle-income countries, and consequently the majority of road traffic victims globally. Responding appropriately to the disparities in available evidence and prevention efforts is necessary in order to address this global public health crisis comprehensively. PMID:18950819

  5. Informatics for Infectious Disease Research and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitali Sintchenko

    \\u000a The goal of infectious disease informatics is to optimize the clinical and public health management of infectious diseases\\u000a through improvements in the development and use of antimicrobials, the design of more effective vaccines, the identification\\u000a of biomarkers for life-threatening infections, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and biosurveillance and\\u000a clinical decision support. Infectious disease informatics can lead to more targeted

  6. Global public goods and the global health agenda: problems, priorities and potential

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard D; MacKellar, Landis

    2007-01-01

    The 'global public good' (GPG) concept has gained increasing attention, in health as well as development circles. However, it has suffered in finding currency as a general tool for global resource mobilisation, and is at risk of being attached to almost anything promoting development. This overstretches and devalues the validity and usefulness of the concept. This paper first defines GPGs and describes the policy challenge that they pose. Second, it identifies two key areas, health R&D and communicable disease control, in which the GPG concept is clearly relevant and considers the extent to which it has been applied. We point out that that, while there have been many new initiatives, it is not clear that additional resources from non-traditional sources have been forthcoming. Yet achieving this is, in effect, the entire purpose of applying the GPG concept in global health. Moreover, the proliferation of disease-specific programs associated with GPG reasoning has tended to promote vertical interventions at the expense of more general health sector strengthening. Third, we examine two major global health policy initiatives, the Global Fund against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) and the bundling of long-standing international health goals in the form of Millennium Development Goals (MDG), asking how the GPG perspective has contributed to defining objectives and strategies. We conclude that both initiatives are best interpreted in the context of traditional development assistance and, one-world rhetoric aside, have little to do with the challenge posed by GPGs for health. The paper concludes by considering how the GPG concept can be more effectively used to promote global health. PMID:17888173

  7. Global mental health: transformative capacity building in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Sapag, Jaime C.; Herrera, Andrés; Trainor, Ruth; Caldera, Trinidad; Khenti, Akwatu

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health is increasingly recognised as integral to good public health, but this area continues to lack sufficient planning, resources, and global strategy. It is a pressing concern in Latin America, where social determinants of health aggravate existing inequities in access to health services. Nicaragua faces serious mental health needs and challenges. One key strategy for addressing gaps in mental health services is building capacity at the primary healthcare and system levels. Objective Using the framework of best practice literature, this article analyses the four-year collaborative process between the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua in León (UNAN-León) and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Canada, which is aimed at improving mental healthcare in Nicaragua. Design Based on a critical analysis of evaluation reports, key documents, and discussion among partners, the central steps of the collaboration are analysed and main successes and challenges identified. Results A participatory needs assessment identified local strengths and weaknesses, expected outcomes regarding competencies, and possible methodologies and recommendations for the development of a comprehensive capacity-building programme. The partners delivered two international workshops on mental health and addiction with an emphasis on primary healthcare. More recently, an innovative Diploma and Master programme was launched to foster interprofessional leadership and effective action to address mental health and addiction needs. Collaborative activities have taken place in Nicaragua and Canada. Discussion To date, international collaboration between Nicaragua and CAMH has been successful in achieving the jointly defined goals. The process has led to mutual knowledge sharing, strong networking, and extensive educational opportunities. Evidence of effective and respectful global health capacity building is provided. Lessons learned and implications for global health action are identified and discussed. PMID:24088364

  8. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    PubMed

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. PMID:25063193

  9. Preprint -Please cite version in Journal of Biomedical Informatics -Preprint Pratt, et al. -Incorporating ... 1

    E-print Network

    McDonald, David W.

    Preprint - Please cite version in Journal of Biomedical Informatics - Preprint Pratt, et al. Biomedical & Health Informatics, University of Washington 2. School of Management and Information Systems Interface, Cooperative Behavior, Social Environment I. Medical Software Systems The design

  10. Global health competencies for nurses in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lynda; Harper, Doreen C; Tami-Maury, Irene; Zarate, Rosa; Salas, Susana; Farley, Jason; Warren, Nicole; Mendes, Isabel; Ventura, Carla

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings from an online survey of nursing faculty from the United States, Canada, Latin America, and Caribbean countries to identify their perceptions about global health competencies for undergraduate nursing students. A list of global health competencies for medical students developed by the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada Resource Group on Global Health and the Global Health Education Consortium was adapted for nurses and translated from English to Spanish and Portuguese. The competencies were divided into six subscales, and respondents rated each competency on a 4-point Likert scale, with high scores reflecting strong agreement that the competency was essential for undergraduate nursing students. E-mail invitations and links to the online survey were distributed using a nonprobability convenience sampling strategy. This article reports findings only from the respondents to the English and Spanish surveys. The final sample included 542 responses to the English survey and 51 responses to the Spanish survey. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients for the subscales ranged from .78 to .96. The mean values for all 6 subscales and for each of the 30 items were greater than 3.0 for the respondents to the Spanish survey, and the mean values for 27 of the items were greater than 3.0 for the respondents to the English survey. These findings suggest that respondents perceived the competencies as essential global health competencies for undergraduate nursing students in the Americas. Narrative comments written by respondents indicate additional competencies and specific concerns about adding additional content to an already full curricula. Results of this study can be used to guide faculty deliberations about global health competencies that should be incorporated in the nursing curricula. PMID:22818191

  11. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease outbreaks, particularly at the animal source. All these efforts contribute to the One Health agenda. PMID:25707192

  12. World Health Organization: Global Influenza Programme

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    While many public health risks take turns dominating the media spotlight, influenza continues to be a very real risk for billions of people around the globe. While the most well-known influenza pandemic remains the world-wide outbreak of the disease in 1918, the World Health Organization (WHO) continues to explore and track incidences of this disease in an effort to avoid another outbreak. On the WHO page dedicated to this disease, visitors can read a factsheet about the disease, and also peruse the organization's mission statement and priority activities as regards monitoring influenza. The site also contains links to rather timely documents that include a set of policy recommendations for strengthening the response to pandemic influenza and also on the subject of avian influenza. Not surprisingly, visitors can also learn about the latest outbreaks of the disease as reported by WHO officials and correspondents.

  13. Capacity Building in Global Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Thornicroft, Graham; Cooper, Sara; Van Bortel, Tine; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Lund, Crick

    2012-01-01

    Research-generated information about mental disorders is crucial in order to establish the health needs in a given setting, to propose culturally apt and cost-effective individual and collective interventions, to investigate their implementation, and to explore the obstacles that prevent recommended strategies from being implemented. Yet the capacity to undertake such research in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited. This article describes two methods that have proved successful in strengthening, or that have the potential to strengthen, mental health research capacity in low-resource settings. We identify the central challenges to be faced, review current programs offering training and mentorship, and summarize the key lessons learned. A structured approach is proposed for the career development of research staff at every career stage, to be accompanied by performance monitoring and support. A case example from the Mental Health and Poverty Project in sub-Saharan Africa illustrates how this approach can be put into practice—in particular, by focusing upon training in core transferrable research skills. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:13–24.) PMID:22335179

  14. The unknown role of mental health in global development.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the author contrasts the substantial impact of mental health problems on global disability with the limited attention and resources these problems receive. The author discusses possible reasons for the disparity: Compared to physical disorders, mental health problems are considered less important, perhaps due to lower priority of disorders that primarily cause dysfunction rather than mortality, and skepticism that mental disorders are treatable in low-resource countries. He argues that achieving improved global health and development requires addressing problems causing disability, particularly mental health problems among populations in which the common mental disorders are frequent due to deprivation, war, and disasters. The author contends that services addressing the common mental disorders could be made widely and relatively cheaply accessible if provided by non-professional workers at the community level. PMID:25191140

  15. Capacity Building in Global Mental Health: Professional Training

    PubMed Central

    Fricchione, Gregory L; Borba, Christina P C; Alem, Atalay; Shibre, Teshome; Carney, Julia R; Henderson, David C

    2012-01-01

    We suggest that the optimal approach to building capacity in global mental health care will require partnerships between professional resources in high-income countries and promising health-related institutions in low- and middle-income countries. The result of these partnerships will be sustainable academic relationships that can educate a new generation of in-country primary care physicians and, eventually, specialized health professionals. Research capabilities will be an essential educational component to inform policy and practice, and to ensure careful outcome measurements of training and of intervention, prevention, and promotion strategies. The goal of these academic centers of excellence will be to develop quality, in-country clinical and research professionals, and to build a productive environment for these professionals to advance their careers locally. In sum, this article discusses human capacity building in global mental health, provides recommendations for training, and offers examples of recent initiatives. (Harv Rev Psychiatry 2012;20:47–57.) PMID:22335182

  16. An approach to policy analysis and development of medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Power, M

    1999-12-01

    There are three grand challenges for medical informatics policy: (1) What is it? (2) What should it be? (3) How can we influence its development? To address these challenges requires: (1) an historical analysis of medical informatics policies in a representative sample of countries. This should include an account of major events, the roles of technology, individuals, culture and social settings. Pioneers have been led by visions of what medical informatics should achieve. The role of these visions and the reactions to unmet expectations thus also need to be analysed; (2) a generally applicable medical informatics policy that places the needs of its stakeholders and clients first. Top priorities are to support quality health care delivery and quality management of health care facilities; (3) an explanation of how policies in medical informatics are created and implemented together with a strategy to guide medical informatics professionals in their lobbying efforts. PMID:10805010

  17. Feminization of migration: a global health challenge.

    PubMed

    de Leon Siantz, Mary Lou

    2013-09-01

    Demographers are slowly bringing the migration of women to the forefront as women become the majority of migrants worldwide. Migration can provide new opportunities for women on their own or jointly with their spouses to improve their lives, escape oppressive social relations, and support children and other family members who are left behind. It also can expose women to new vulnerabilities resulting from their precarious legal status, abusive working conditions, and health risks.(1) Migrant women are triply disadvantaged by race/ethnicity, their status as nonnationals, and gender inequalities.(2.) PMID:24416688

  18. Global health diplomacy: barriers to inserting health into Canadian foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Ruckert, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Health opportunities and risks have become increasingly global in both cause and consequence. Governments have been slow to recognise the global dimensions of health, although this is beginning to change. A new concept - global health diplomacy (GHD) - has evolved to describe how health is now being positioned within national foreign policies and entering into regional or multilateral negotiations. Traditionally, health negotiations have been seen as 'low politics' in international affairs: however, attention is now being given to understanding better how health can increase its prominence in foreign policy priorities and multilateral forums. We sought to identify how these efforts were manifested in Canada, with a focus on current barriers to inserting health in foreign policy. We conducted individual interviews with Canadian informants who were well placed through their diplomatic experience and knowledge to address this issue. Barriers identified by the respondents included a lack of content expertise (scientific and technical understanding of health and its practice), insufficient diplomatic expertise (the practice and art of diplomacy, including legal and technical expertise), the limited ways in which health has become framed as a foreign policy issue, funding limitations and cuts for global health, and lack of cross-sectoral policy coordination and coherence, given the important role that non-health foreign policy interests (notably in trade and investment liberalisation) can play in shaping global health outcomes. We conclude with some reflections on how regime change and domestic government ideology can also function as a barrier to GHD, and what this implies for retaining or expanding the placement of health in foreign policy. PMID:25005028

  19. Global Health: A Successful Context for Precollege Training and Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Gervassi, Ana L.; Collins, Laura J.; Britschgi, Theresa B.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a flourishing biomedical and global health industry [1] too few of Washington state's precollege students are aware of this growing sector and emerging ideas on bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. Against the backdrop of numerous reports regarding declining precollege student interest in science [2], a precollege program was envisioned at Seattle Biomedical Research Institute (as of 2010, Seattle BioMed) to increase youth engagement in biomedical research and global health, increase community interest in infectious diseases and mobilize a future biomedical workforce. Since 2005, 169 rising high school juniors have participated in the BioQuest Academy precollege immersion program at Seattle BioMed. Assembling in groups of 12, students conduct laboratory experiments (e.g., anopheline mosquito dissection, gene expression informed tuberculosis drug design and optimizing HIV immunization strategies) related to global health alongside practicing scientific mentors, all within the footprint the institute. Laudable short-term impacts of the program include positive influences on student interest in global health (as seen in the students' subsequent school projects and their participation in Seattle BioMed community events), biomedical careers and graduate school (e.g., 16.9% of teens departing 2008–2009 Academy report revised goals of attaining a doctorate rather than a baccalaureate diploma). Long-term, 97% of alumni (2005–2008) are attending postsecondary schools throughout North America; eight graduates have already published scientific articles in peer-reviewed journals and/or presented their scientific data at national and international meetings, and 26 have been retained by Seattle BioMed researchers as compensated technicians and interns. Providing precollege students with structured access to practicing scientists and authentic research environments within the context of advancing global health has been a robust means of both building a future pool of talented leaders and engaged citizenry and increasing the visibility of health disparities within the community. PMID:21072198

  20. The United States and global health: inseparable and synergistic? The Institute of Medicine's report on global health

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammed K.; Venkat Narayan, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of dynamic economic and political transitions worldwide, the Institute of Medicine recently released its report advocating investments in global health from the United States (US). The expert panel reinforces the ‘transnational and interdisciplinary’ nature of global health research and practice as an endeavor ‘to improve health and achieve greater equity for all people worldwide.’ This report was judiciously timed given the growing recognition of global health, and is also acknowledged for incorporating themes that are particularly pertinent to the twenty-first century. New paradigms are introduced, denouncing the dichotomous distinction between rich and poor countries with the rapidly transitioning countries emerging as global powers, and affirming the need for models of respectful partnership and wider translation of science into practice. Cultivating sustainable partnerships and investing in the understanding and combat of diseases worldwide will become increasingly important for the US to maintain its global competitiveness, and may offer lessons in innovation, efficiency, and organization of institutions and human resources. PMID:20027251

  1. Medical informatics vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Rada, R; Russell, J

    1993-01-01

    In order that medical informaticians can create Open Systems for health care, they need to have a common language. Efforts in the 1980s at the National Library of Medicine to create a Medical Informatics Vocabulary (MIVoc) have been useful for document indexing purposes, but need to be continued and extended. The Committee of European Normalization Technical Committee 251 has created a project team for MIVoc, and that team has used both automatic and manual methods and referenced many sources in producing a vocabulary that has support from numerous experts in Europe. MIVoc has both a glossary and a tree structure. The glossary has about 250 terms with detailed definitions that include various explanations and pointers. One critical pointer is the semantic link to other terms in MIVoc from a which a tree-structure is inferred. The success of MIVoc clearly depends on its being used, which in the long run depends also on the vocabulary being maintained. PMID:10163824

  2. Toward a National Framework for the Secondary Use of Health Data: An American Medical Informatics Association White Paper

    PubMed Central

    Safran, Charles; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Hammond, W. Edward; Labkoff, Steven; Markel-Fox, Suzanne; Tang, Paul C.; Detmer, Don E.

    2007-01-01

    Secondary use of health data applies personal health information (PHI) for uses outside of direct health care delivery. It includes such activities as analysis, research, quality and safety measurement, public health, payment, provider certification or accreditation, marketing, and other business applications, including strictly commercial activities. Secondary use of health data can enhance health care experiences for individuals, expand knowledge about disease and appropriate treatments, strengthen understanding about effectiveness and efficiency of health care systems, support public health and security goals, and aid businesses in meeting customers’ needs. Yet, complex ethical, political, technical, and social issues surround the secondary use of health data. While not new, these issues play increasingly critical and complex roles given current public and private sector activities not only expanding health data volume, but also improving access to data. Lack of coherent policies and standard “good practices” for secondary use of health data impedes efforts to strengthen the U.S. health care system. The nation requires a framework for the secondary use of health data with a robust infrastructure of policies, standards, and best practices. Such a framework can guide and facilitate widespread collection, storage, aggregation, linkage, and transmission of health data. The framework will provide appropriate protections for legitimate secondary use. PMID:17077452

  3. Global atmospheric change and research needs in environmental health sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.D. (Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)); Reed, D.J. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1991-12-01

    On November 6-7, 1989, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) held a conference on Global Atmospheric Change and Human Health. As a result, and in the months since this conference, many important areas of research have been identified with regard to the impacts of climatic changes on human health. To develop comprehensive research programs that address important human health issues related to global warming, it is necessary to begin by recognizing that some of the health effects will be direct such as those due to temperature changes, and others will be indirect consequences of environmental alterations resulting in crop loss, changing disease vectors, population migration, etc. It should also be recognized that the conditions leading to global warming have importance to human health and the environment other than through increasing concentrations of CO[sub 2] in the atmosphere, rising surface temperatures, and rising sea levels. Much of the increase in CO[sub 2] in the atmosphere is due to the increased combustion of fossil fuels for transportation and electric power production. Over the next 30 years, the demand for electrical power is expected to grow at a rate of 2 to 4% per year in the United States alone, and even faster growth is likely for developing countries. Much of this energy will be derived from the combustion of fossil fuels, including coal, which result in pollutant emissions to the air such as metals, radioactivity, SO[sub x], NO[sub x], and particles. Therefore, with increasing concentrations of CO[sub 2] there will not only be the effects of global warming on health, but also increasing concentrations of many serious air pollutants in urban areas, including the precursors of acid rain and acid deposition over large regional areas.

  4. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  5. Evolving values in ethics and global health research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. IJsselmuiden; N. E. Kass; K. N. Sewankambo; J. V. Lavery

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the ethics of international health research have shifted from addressing narrow issues such as cultural differences in informed consent practices towards a greater emphasis on development and social justice. We anticipate that the next ‘era’ in international research ethics will involve an intensification of this focus on the role of research in achieving global justice.

  6. New report highlights epidemic of tobacco and global health inequalities

    Cancer.gov

    A new set of 11 global health studies calls attention to the burden of tobacco-related inequalities in low- and middle-income countries and finds that socioeconomic inequalities are associated with increased tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure and tobacco-related cancer and diseases among disadvantaged populations in Asia, Latin America and Africa.

  7. The ethics and safety of medical student global health electives

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Evelyn M.; Varpio, Lara; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Gajaria, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore and characterize the ethical and safety challenges of global health experiences as they affect medical students in order to better prepare trainees to face them. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 Canadian medical trainees who had participated in global health experiences during medical school. Convenience and snowball sampling were utilized. Using Moustakas’s transcendental phenomenological approach, participant descriptions of ethical dilemmas and patient/trainee safety problems were analyzed. This generated an aggregate that illustrates the essential meanings of global health experience ethical and safety issues faced. Results We interviewed 23 participants who had completed 38 electives (71%, n=27, during pre-clinical years) spend-ing a mean 6.9 weeks abroad, and having visited 23 countries. Sixty percent (n=23) had pre-departure training while 36% (n=14) had post-experience debriefing. Three macro-level themes were identified: resource disparities and provision of care; navigating clinical ethical dilemmas; and threats to trainee safety. Conclusions Medical schools have a responsibility to ensure ethical and safe global health experiences. However, our findings suggest that medical students are often poorly prepared for the ethical and safety dilemmas they encounter during these electives. Medical students require intensive pre-departure training that will prepare them emotionally to deal with these dilemmas. Such training should include discussions of how to comply with clinical limitations. PMID:25341214

  8. Possible human health impacts of a global warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Nichols; L. S. Kalkstein; S. Cheng

    1995-01-01

    Some ways in which a global warming may affect human health are discussed. Research is presented which explores the hypothesis that heat stress-induced mortality may increase substantially in the event of a worldwide temperature increase. Two procedures are applied to four disparate nations: the US, Canada, China and Egypt. Results indicate that significant increases in heat-related mortality are likely to

  9. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Longstreth

    1993-01-01

    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of

  10. Software and Global Health: Understanding the Vaccine Cold

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    10/25/2011 1 Software and Global Health: Understanding the Vaccine Cold Chain Richard Anderson · The development and deployment of software for evaluating the vaccine cold chains developing countries ­ Software has been used in four African countries to analyze recently completed cold chain inventories · Bigger

  11. Software and Global Health: Understanding the Vaccine Cold

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    Software and Global Health: Understanding the Vaccine Cold Chain Richard Anderson Department and deployment of software for evaluating the vaccine cold chains developing countries ­ Software has been used in four African countries to analyze recently completed cold chain inventories · Bigger issues ­ Use

  12. Vaccines and future global health needs.

    PubMed

    Nossal, G J V

    2011-10-12

    Increased international support for both research into new vaccines and their deployment in developing countries has been evident over the past decade. In particular, the GAVI Alliance has had a major impact in increasing uptake of the six common infant vaccines as well as those against hepatitis B and yellow fever. It further aims to introduce pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines in the near future and several others, including those against human papillomavirus, meningococcal disease, rubella and typhoid not long after that. In addition, there is advanced research into vaccines against malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. By 2030, we may have about 20 vaccines that need to be used in the developing world. Finding the requisite funds to achieve this will pose a major problem. A second and urgent question is how to complete the job of global polio eradication. The new strategic plan calls for completion by 2013, but both pre-eradication and post-eradication challenges remain. Vaccines will eventually become available beyond the field of infectious diseases. Much interesting work is being done in both autoimmunity and cancer. Cutting across disease groupings, there are issues in methods of delivery and new adjuvant formulations. PMID:21893548

  13. Patterns and Emerging Trends in Global Ocean Health

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Benjamin S.; Longo, Catherine; Lowndes, Julia S. Stewart; Best, Benjamin D.; Frazier, Melanie; Katona, Steven K.; Kleisner, Kristin M.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Scarborough, Courtney; Selig, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    International and regional policies aimed at managing ocean ecosystem health need quantitative and comprehensive indices to synthesize information from a variety of sources, consistently measure progress, and communicate with key constituencies and the public. Here we present the second annual global assessment of the Ocean Health Index, reporting current scores and annual changes since 2012, recalculated using updated methods and data based on the best available science, for 221 coastal countries and territories. The Index measures performance of ten societal goals for healthy oceans on a quantitative scale of increasing health from 0 to 100, and combines these scores into a single Index score, for each country and globally. The global Index score improved one point (from 67 to 68), while many country-level Index and goal scores had larger changes. Per-country Index scores ranged from 41–95 and, on average, improved by 0.06 points (range -8 to +12). Globally, average scores increased for individual goals by as much as 6.5 points (coastal economies) and decreased by as much as 1.2 points (natural products). Annual updates of the Index, even when not all input data have been updated, provide valuable information to scientists, policy makers, and resource managers because patterns and trends can emerge from the data that have been updated. Changes of even a few points indicate potential successes (when scores increase) that merit recognition, or concerns (when scores decrease) that may require mitigative action, with changes of more than 10–20 points representing large shifts that deserve greater attention. Goal scores showed remarkably little covariance across regions, indicating low redundancy in the Index, such that each goal delivers information about a different facet of ocean health. Together these scores provide a snapshot of global ocean health and suggest where countries have made progress and where a need for further improvement exists. PMID:25774678

  14. Health domains for sale: the need for global health Internet governance.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim Ken; Liang, Bryan A; Kohler, Jillian C; Attaran, Amir

    2014-01-01

    A debate on Internet governance for health, or "eHealth governance", is emerging with the impending award of a new dot-health (.health) generic top-level domain name (gTLD) along with a host of other health-related domains. This development is critical as it will shape the future of the health Internet, allowing largely unrestricted use of .health second-level domain names by future registrants, raising concerns about the potential for privacy, use and marketing of health-related information, credibility of online health content, and potential for Internet fraud and abuse. Yet, prospective .health gTLD applicants do not provide adequate safeguards for use of .health or related domains and have few or no ties to the global health community. If approved, one of these for-profit corporate applicants would effectively control the future of the .health address on the Internet with arguably no active oversight from important international public health stakeholders. This would represent a lost opportunity for the public health, medical, and broader health community in establishing a trusted, transparent and reliable source for health on the Internet. Countries, medical associations, civil society, and consumer advocates have objected to these applications on grounds that they do not meet the public interest. We argue that there is an immediate need for action to postpone awarding of the .health gTLD and other health-related gTLDs to address these concerns and ensure the appropriate development of sound eHealth governance rules, principles, and use. This would support the crucial need of ensuring access to quality and evidence-based sources of health information online, as well as establishing a safe and reliable space on the Internet for health. We believe, if properly governed, .health and other domains could represent such a promise in the future. PMID:24598602

  15. Acute kidney injury: Global health alert

    PubMed Central

    Kam Tao Li, Philip; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Mehta, Ravindra L

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly prevalent in developing and developed countries and is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Most etiologies of AKI can be prevented by interventions at the individual, community, regional and in-hospital levels. Effective measures must include community-wide efforts to increase an awareness of the devastating effects of AKI and provide guidance on preventive strategies, as well as early recognition and management. Efforts should be focused on minimizing causes of AKI, increasing awareness of the importance of serial measurements of serum creatinine in high risk patients, and documenting urine volume in acutely ill people to achieve early diagnosis; there is as yet no definitive role for alternative biomarkers. Protocols need to be developed to systematically manage prerenal conditions and specific infections. More accurate data about the true incidence and clinical impact of AKI will help to raise the importance of the disease in the community, increase awareness of AKI by governments, the public, general and family physicians and other health care professionals to help prevent the disease. Prevention is the key to avoid the heavy burden of mortality and morbidity associated with AKI. PMID:24475433

  16. Acute Kidney Injury: Global Health Alert

    PubMed Central

    Tao Li, P. K.; Burdmann, E. A.; Mehta, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly prevalent in developing and developed countries and is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Most etiologies of AKI can be prevented by interventions at the individual, community, regional and in-hospital levels. Effective measures must include community-wide efforts to increase an awareness of the devastating effects of AKI and provide guidance on preventive strategies, as well as early recognition and management. Efforts should be focused on minimizing causes of AKI, increasing awareness of the importance of serial measurements of serum creatinine in high risk patients, and documenting urine volume in acutely ill people to achieve early diagnosis; there is as yet no definitive role for alternative biomarkers. Protocols need to be developed to systematically manage prerenal conditions and specific infections. More accurate data about the true incidence and clinical impact of AKI will help to raise the importance of the disease in the community, increase awareness of AKI by governments, the public, general and family physicians and other health care professionals to help prevent the disease. Prevention is the key to avoid the heavy burden of mortality and morbidity associated with AKI. PMID:25013646

  17. Global priority setting for Cochrane systematic reviews of health promotion and public health research

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, J; Waters, E; Yach, D; McQueen, D; De Francisco, A; Stewart, T; Reddy, P; Gulmezoglu, A; Galea, G; Portela, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Systematic reviews of health promotion and public health interventions are increasingly being conducted to assist public policy decision making. Many intra-country initiatives have been established to conduct systematic reviews in their relevant public health areas. The Cochrane Collaboration, an international organisation established to conduct and publish systematic reviews of healthcare interventions, is committed to high quality reviews that are regularly updated, published electronically, and meeting the needs of the consumers. Aims: To identify global priorities for Cochrane systematic reviews of public health topics. Methods: Systematic reviews of public health interventions were identified and mapped against global health risks. Global health organisations were engaged and nominated policy-urgent titles, evidence based selection criteria were applied to set priorities. Results: 26 priority systematic review titles were identified, addressing interventions such as community building activities, pre-natal and early infancy psychosocial outcomes, and improving the nutrition status of refugee and displaced populations. Discussion: The 26 priority titles provide an opportunity for potential reviewers and indeed, the Cochrane Collaboration as a whole, to address the previously unmet needs of global health policy and research agencies. PMID:15709077

  18. Teaching corner: child family health international : the ethics of asset-based global health education programs.

    PubMed

    Evert, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice. PMID:25648120

  19. [Intestinal parasitic diseases as a global health problem].

    PubMed

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

    2013-03-01

    In today's world, parasitic disease agents are not restricted by geography or economy, and have become a significant global threat. The increasing globalization of the fresh produce market and greater international trade and travels, have contributed to the spread of these organisms in the industrialized world. Parasitic protozoa cause waterborne and foodborne outbreaks of diarrhea. The unprecedented flow of people introduces cultural and behavior patterns around the world; the increasing tendency to eat raw or undercooked meat and seafood, favors the dissemination of several parasitic pathogens. Climate changes are predicted to cause a global increase in soil-transmitted helminthiases. The multidisciplinary study of these agents, and the interaction among scientists, global health organizations and governments are imperative to reduce the burden of these diseases and improve the life of a large segment of the world population. PMID:23781708

  20. mHealth and global mental health: still waiting for the mH2 wedding?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Two phenomena have become increasingly visible over the past decade: the significant global burden of disease arising from mental illness and the rapid acceleration of mobile phone usage in poorer countries. Mental ill-health accounts for a significant proportion of global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs), especially in poorer countries where a number of factors combine to exacerbate issues of undertreatment. Yet poorer countries have also witnessed significant investments in, and dramatic expansions of, mobile coverage and usage over the past decade. Debate The conjunction of high levels of mental illness and high levels of mobile phone usage in poorer countries highlights the potential for “mH2” interventions – i.e. mHealth (mobile technology-based) mental health interventions - to tackle global mental health challenges. However, global mental health movements and initiatives have yet to engage fully with this potential, partly because of scepticism towards technological solutions in general and partly because existing mH2 projects in mental health have often taken place in a fragmented, narrowly-focused, and small-scale manner. We argue for a deeper and more sustained engagement with mobile phone technology in the global mental health context, and outline the possible shape of an integrated mH2 platform for the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of mental health. Summary Existing and developing mH2 technologies represent an underutilised resource in global mental health. If development, evaluation, and implementation challenges are overcome, an integrated mH2 platform would make significant contributions to mental healthcare in multiple settings and contexts. PMID:24670011

  1. Viewpoint Paper: The Informatics Opportunities at the Intersection of Patient Safety and Clinical Informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Kilbridge; David C. Classen

    2008-01-01

    Health care providers have a basic responsibility to protect patients from accidental harm. At the institutional level, creating safe health care organizations necessitates a systematic approach. Effective use of informatics to enhance safety requires the establishment and use of standards for concept definitions and for data exchange, development of acceptable models for knowledge representation, incentives for adoption of electronic health

  2. Current initiatives in One Health: consolidating the One Health Global Network.

    PubMed

    Vandersmissen, A; Welburn, S C

    2014-08-01

    The Global Response to Avian Influenza has led to a longer-term One Health movement, which addresses risks, including zoonoses, at the human-animal- environment interface, and requires the development of innovative partnerships at the political, institutional and technical levels. One Health is a sustainable and rational option when the cumulative effects of health hazards on food and economic security are considered, but demands long-term financial investment. Projections of growth in the demand for livestock production and consumption in Asia and Africa also call for effective One Health responses. However, an effective response also requires validated evidence of the socio-economic value that the One Health approach can provide. Implementing the One Health approach depends on forging strong links between human and animal health services, the environment and public policy. The authors present a list of some of the national and transnational partnerships established since 2006. Political support, good governance and effective policies and networks are crucial building blocks for One Health sustainability. The Global Response to Avian Influenza was initially established under the joint leadership of the European Union, the United States and the United Nations System Influenza Coordination Office. Since then it has supported numerous initiatives, including the World Health Organization (WHO)/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Global Early Warning System (GLEWS). Indeed, the Global Response to Avian Influenza paved the way for an unprecedented WHO/FAO/OIE tripartite partnership, which promoted the integration of foodborne, neglected zoonotic and tropical diseases within the One Health movement and led to the tripartite High-Level Technical Meeting of 2011 in Mexico. The One Health Global Network, which began as a proposition at an Expert Consultation in Winnipeg, Canada, in 2009, is now a reality. While its Global Guidance Group takes shape, the choice of soft-governance--an approach which relies more on information and advisory guidelines than on hierarchy and legislation, and which aims to steer local organisations rather than to control them--remains challenging. Nonetheless, the emergence of One Health as a professional and academic discipline, together with the growing references to a One Health culture, also offers new opportunities. PMID:25707173

  3. Informatics School COMSC This module aims to provide students with an understanding of the fundamental

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Informatics School COMSC This module aims to provide students with an understanding of the fundamental concepts and techniques associated with informatics and its practical applications. We will focus of the School and will include a number of in-depth case studies involving: geoinformatics, health informatics

  4. Distributive justice and global health: a call for a global corporate tax.

    PubMed

    Blum, J D

    2007-06-01

    Significant efforts have been directed toward addressing the financial needs of the developing world for assistance with public health and related development problems. Both public and private organizations have made considerable economic contributions to assist with immediate and long term health challenges, and there is growing international support for programs of national debit relief. Still, there is a need for additional resources to combat international health problems, which go beyond largesse. This paper calls for the creation of a legally rooted, global tax as a mechanism for consistent long term funding. Specifically, the paper proposes engagement of the World Trade Organization as a vehicle to sponsor a global tax on multinational corporations who have benefited most from the international trading scheme. PMID:17639846

  5. From smallpox eradication to contemporary global health initiatives: enhancing human capacity towards a global public health goal.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, Daniel; Foster, Stanley O

    2011-12-30

    The eradication of smallpox owes its success first and foremost to the thousands of lay health workers and community members who, throughout the campaign and across continents, took on the roles of advocates, educators, vaccinators, care providers and contributors to epidemic surveillance and containment. Bangladesh provides a good example where smallpox eradication and the capacity enhancement needed to achieve this goal resulted in a two-way mutually beneficial process. Smallpox-dedicated staff provided community members with information guidance, support and tools. In turn, communities not only created the enabling environment for smallpox program staff to perform their work but acquired the capacity to perform essential eradication tasks. Contemporary global health programmes can learn much from these core lessons including: the pivotal importance of supporting community aspirations, capacity and resilience; the critical need to enhance commitment, capacity and accountability across the workforce; and the high value of attentive human resources management and support. We owe to subsequent global disease control, elimination and eradication ventures recognition of the need for social and behavioural science to inform public health strategies; the essential roles that civil society organizations and public-private partnerships can play in public health discourse and action; the overall necessity of investing in broad-based health system strengthening; and the utility of applying human rights principles, norms and standards to public health policy and practice. PMID:22185838

  6. The limits of global health diplomacy: Taiwan's observer status at the world health assembly.

    PubMed

    Herington, Jonathan; Lee, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, health authorities from Taiwan (under the name "Chinese Taipei")a formally attended the 62nd World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization as observers, marking the country's participation for the first time since 1972. The long process of negotiating this breakthrough has been cited as an example of successful global health diplomacy. This paper analyses this negotiation process, drawing on government documents, formal representations from both sides of the Taiwan Strait, and key informant interviews. The actors and their motivations, along with the forums, practices and outcomes of the negotiation process, are detailed. While it is argued that non-traditional diplomatic action was important in establishing the case for Taiwan's inclusion at the WHA, traditional concerns regarding Taiwanese sovereignty and diplomatic representation ultimately played a decisive role. The persistent influence of these traditional diplomatic questions illustrates the limits of global health diplomacy. PMID:25270977

  7. Global health ethics: an introduction to prominent theories and relevant topics

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Greg; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Laaser, Ulrich; Meershoek, Agnes; Popa, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Global health ethics is a relatively new term that is used to conceptualize the process of applying moral value to health issues that are typically characterized by a global level effect or require action coordinated at a global level. It is important to acknowledge that this account of global health ethics takes a predominantly geographic approach and may infer that the subject relates primarily to macro-level health phenomena. However, global health ethics could alternatively be thought of as another branch of health ethics. It may then relate to specific topics in themselves, which might also include micro-level health phenomena. In its broadest sense, global health ethics is a normative project that is best characterized by the challenge of developing common values and universal norms for responding to global health threats. Consequently, many subjects fall within its scope. Whilst several accounts of global health ethics have been conceptualized in the literature, a concise demarcation of the paradigm is still needed. Through means of a literature review, this paper presents a two-part introduction to global health ethics. First, the framework of ‘borrowed’ ethics that currently form the core of global health ethics is discussed in relation to two essential ethical considerations: 1) what is the moral significance of health and 2) what is the moral significance of boundaries? Second, a selection of exemplar ethical topics is presented to illustrate the range of topics within global health ethics. PMID:24560262

  8. The Global Health Strategy of the Department of Health and Human Services: building on the lessons of PEPFAR.

    PubMed

    Daulaire, Nils

    2012-07-01

    Building on its experience as a principal participant in the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Department of Health and Human Services has embarked on a new era of global initiatives that ultimately will protect the health of Americans. The Global Health Strategy announced by health and human services secretary Kathleen Sebelius in January 2012 recognizes that the health of Americans is intertwined with that of the rest of the world. The initiative features ten objectives that range from enhanced global health surveillance and preventing infectious diseases and health threats to health diplomacy. The Global Health Strategy is designed to make optimal use of the department's many specialty agencies and their considerable technical and programmatic expertise. The strategy moves beyond the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief to redefine Health and Human Services' role outside US borders in addressing the health challenges of the twenty-first century. PMID:22778347

  9. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to contribute to filling gaps in digitized biodiversity data; (b) assisting countries potentially in need (for example mega-diverse) to mobilize resources and collect data that could be used in decision-making; and (c) allowing identification of which biodiversity informatics-resourced countries could afford to assist countries lacking in biodiversity informatics capacity, and which data-rich countries should benefit most from such help. PMID:22373233

  10. Global learning experiences during a domestic community health clinical.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Brenda K; Warner, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Increasing globalization calls for undergraduate nursing programs to develop opportunities for students to participate in study-abroad activities. For some students, the cost of such activities can prohibit participation. The influx of refugees to the United States provides an alternative opportunity for students to think and act globally without the cost of travel.This article discusses how a community health assessment, completed through a partnership with a public health department, addressed barriers to emergency preparedness for Somali refugees. Students collected data using a focus group of 10 female Somali refugees. The focus group participants had limited understanding of English and fewer than half could read written Somali. Students gained insight into the language barriers among the refugees and the need for cultural sensitivity. They provided outreach, met Somali community leaders, and started the process of communication on emergency preparedness. PMID:21473478

  11. Global economic and health benefits of tobacco control: part 1.

    PubMed

    Wipfli, H; Samet, J M

    2009-09-01

    Although the risks of tobacco smoking have been known for decades, the pandemic of tobacco use continues. There are an estimated 1.3 billion smokers worldwide, along with millions more using various oral tobacco products. Recent global estimates place the mortality burden from tobacco use at over 6 million annually, with nearly two-thirds of these deaths occurring in developing countries. If current patterns persist, there will be an estimated 1 billion deaths from tobacco during the twenty-first century. Part 1 of this two-part paper provides an overview of the tobacco pandemic, the scope of the pandemic, and its economic and health consequences. Part 2 reviews the history of tobacco control to date and addresses the current global strategy, based on the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the MPOWER package of interventions. Part 2 ends with a consideration of scenarios for the future of the pandemic. PMID:19536067

  12. Global economic and health benefits of tobacco control: part 2.

    PubMed

    Wipfli, H; Samet, J M

    2009-09-01

    Although the risks of tobacco smoking have been known for decades, the pandemic of tobacco use continues. There are an estimated 1.3 billion smokers worldwide, along with millions more using various oral tobacco products. Recent global estimates place the mortality burden from tobacco use at over 6 million annually, with nearly two-thirds of these deaths occurring in developing countries. If current patterns persist, there will be an estimated 1 billion deaths from tobacco during the twenty-first century. Part 1 of this two-part paper provides an overview of the tobacco pandemic, the scope of the pandemic, and its economic and health consequences. Part 2 reviews the history of tobacco control to date and addresses the current global strategy, based on the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the MPOWER package of interventions. Part 2 ends with a consideration of scenarios for the future of the pandemic. PMID:19536066

  13. Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Taylor, Lauren A.; Cuellar, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a renewed focus in the field of global health on strengthening health systems, inadequate attention has been directed to a key ingredient of high-performing health systems: management. We aimed to develop the argument that management – defined here as the process of achieving predetermined objectives through human, financial, and technical resources – is a cross-cutting function necessary for success in all World Health Organization (WHO) building blocks of health systems strengthening. Management within health systems is particularly critical in low-income settings where the efficient use of scarce resources is paramount to attaining health goals. More generally, investments in management capacity may be viewed as a key leverage point in grand strategy, as strong management enables the achievement of large ends with limited means. We also sought to delineate a set of core competencies and identify key roles to be targeted for management capacity building efforts. Several effective examples of management interventions have been described in the research literature. Together, the existing evidence underscores the importance of country ownership of management capacity building efforts, which often challenge the status quo and thus need country leadership to sustain despite inevitable friction. The literature also recognizes that management capacity efforts, as a key ingredient of effective systems change, take time to embed, as new protocols and ways of working become habitual and integrated as standard operating procedures. Despite these challenges, the field of health management as part of global health system strengthening efforts holds promise as a fundamental leverage point for achieving health system performance goals with existing human, technical, and financial resources. The evidence base consistently supports the role of management in performance improvement but would benefit from additional research with improved methodological rigor and longer-time horizon investigations. Meanwhile, greater emphasis on management as a critical element of global health efforts may open new and sustainable avenues for advancing health systems performance.

  14. Global health security agenda and the international health regulations: moving forward.

    PubMed

    Katz, Rebecca; Sorrell, Erin M; Kornblet, Sarah A; Fischer, Julie E

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) in February 2014 capped over a decade of global efforts to develop new approaches to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases-part of the growing recognition that disease events, whether natural, accidental, or intentional, threaten not just public health, but national, regional, and global security interests. In 2005, the United States, along with other Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO), adopted the revised International Health Regulations [IHR (2005)]. The IHR (2005) conferred new responsibilities on WHO and the global health community to coordinate resources for capacity building and emergency response, and on the now-196 States Parties to develop the core capacities required to detect, assess, report, and respond to potential public health emergencies of international concern. Both GHSA and the IHR aim to elevate political attention and encourage participation, coordination, and collaboration by multiple stakeholders, while leveraging previously existing commitments and multilateral efforts. GHSA and the IHR (2005) are platforms for action; how efforts under each will complement each other remains unclear. Mechanisms that measure progress under these 2 overlapping frameworks will aid in focusing resources and in sustaining political momentum for IHR implementation after 2016. PMID:25254911

  15. Ecosystem approaches to health for a global sustainability agenda.

    PubMed

    Charron, Dominique Frances

    2012-09-01

    International research agendas are placing greater emphasis on the need for more sustainable development to achieve gains in global health. Research using ecosystem approaches to health, and the wider field of ecohealth, contribute to this goal, by addressing health in the context of inter-linked social and ecological systems. We review recent contributions to conceptual development of ecosystem approaches to health, with insights from their application in international development research. Various similar frameworks have emerged to apply the approach. Most predicate integration across disciplines and sectors, stakeholder participation, and an articulation of sustainability and equity to achieve relevant actions for change. Drawing on several frameworks and on case studies, a model process for application of ecosystem approaches is proposed, consisting of an iterative cycles of participatory study design, knowledge generation, intervention, and systematization of knowledge. The benefits of the research approach include innovations that improve health, evidence-based policies that reduce health risks; empowerment of marginalized groups through knowledge gained, and more effective engagement of decision makers. With improved tools to describe environmental and economic dimensions, and explicit strategies for scaling-up the use and application of research results, the field of ecohealth will help integrate both improved health and sustainability into the development agenda. PMID:22961374

  16. Solidarity: A (New) Ethic for Global Health Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn H. E. Harmon

    2006-01-01

    This article explores solidarity as an ethical concept underpinning rules in the global health context. First, it considers\\u000a the theoretical conceptualisation of the value and some specific duties it supports (ie: its expression in the broadest sense\\u000a and its derivative action-guiding duties). Second, it considers the manifestation of solidarity in two international regulatory\\u000a instruments. It concludes that, although solidarity is

  17. Toxicological and epidemiological aspects of global warming on human health

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Wakamatsu, K.; Kawahara, I.; Asanuma, S. [National Inst. Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Since human activities are responsible for anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions, climate models project an increase in the global surface temperature of 0.9 C to 4.0 C by 2100. For human health, it is projected that global warming may have a critical effect on the increased periods of severe heat stress in summer throughout the world. Global warming may have a critical issue on the increased periods of severe heat stress that have a potential impact on peroxidative damage in humans and animals. Lipid peroxidative damage is markedly related to GSH peroxidase activities, therefore the study was carried out to analyze the relationship between biochemical adaptability and the lipid peroxidative damage especially intracellular structure, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum depending on the exposure time of heat stress.

  18. Position: Associate Director, Center for Global Women's Health Technologies, Duke University

    E-print Network

    Ramanujam, Nimmi

    Position: Associate Director, Center for Global Women's Health Technologies, Duke University Start date: Fall 2014 Location: Duke University, Durham, NC The Center for Global Women's Health Technologies of Global Women's Health Technologies, which is a joint center between the Pratt School of Engineering

  19. Global Mental Health T,Th 8-9:50am

    E-print Network

    1 Global Mental Health ANTH 310 Fall 2014 T,Th 8-9:50am 260 Condon Hall Professor: Dr. Sara Lewis in the study of global mental health. To investigate this interdisciplinary landscape, this course draws of globalization, and how social, economic and political inequality shape the experience of mental health across

  20. CONFRONTING INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE, A GLOBAL HEALTH CARE PRIOTITY

    PubMed Central

    Chibber, Karuna S.; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence—physical, psychological, or sexual abuse of women perpetrated by intimate partners—is one of the most common forms of violence against women, and is associated with adverse women’s reproductive and maternal health outcomes. We review the opportunities for addressing intimate partner violence by the health system, examine promising approaches, and outline future challenges for developing effective health systems responses to violence. Evidence shows that women seldom approach support services in response to violence, but do seek health care at some point in their lives. In fact, women’s utilization of reproductive health services in particular has been increasing globally. These services have a broad reach and represent an important opportunity to engage in violence prevention. Although health systems-based responses to intimate partner violence have emerged, rigorous evaluations to guide program planning and policy efforts to reduce violence are limited. US programs have expanded from improving individual provider prevention practices to instituting system-wide changes to ensure sustainability of these practices. Developing country program responses, though limited, have been system-wide and multi-sectoral right from the start. Our review highlights three challenges for developing and expanding health systems responses to violence. First, interventions should focus on creating a supportive environment within the health system and strengthening linkages across health care and allied sectors. Second, rigorous evaluations of health-sector based interventions are needed for a sound evidence-base to guide programmatic and policy decisions. Finally, research is needed to identify the entry points for engaging men on violence prevention, and to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:21598270

  1. Pharmacogenomic technologies: a necessary "luxury" for better global public health?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenomic technologies aim to redirect drug development to increase safety and efficacy of individual care. There is much hope that their implementation in the drug development process will help respond to population health needs, particularly in developing countries. However, there is also fear that novel pharmacogenomic drugs will remain too costly, be designed for the needs of the wealthy nations, and so constitute an unnecessary "luxury" for most populations. In this paper, we analyse the promise that pharmacogenomic technologies hold for improving global public health and identify strategies and challenges associated with their implementation. Discussion This paper evaluates the capacity of pharmacogenomic technologies to meet six criteria described by the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics group: 1) impact of the technology, 2) technology appropriateness, 3) capacity to address local burdens, 4) feasibility to be implemented in reasonable time, 5) capacity to reduce the knowledge gap, and 6) capacity for indirect benefits. We argue that the implementation of pharmacogenomic technologies in the drug development process can positively impact population health. However, this positive impact depends on how and for which purposes the technologies are used. We discuss the potential of these technologies to stimulate drug discovery in the case of rare (orphan diseases) or neglected diseases, but also to reduce acute adverse drug reactions in infectious disease treatment and prevention, which promises to improve global public health. Conclusions The implementation of pharmacogenomic technologies may lead to the development of drugs that appear to be a "luxury" for populations in need of numerous interventions that are known to have a demonstrable impact on population health (e.g., secure access to potable water, reduction of social inequities, health education). However, our analysis shows that pharmacogenomic technologies do have the potential to redirect drug development and distribution so as to improve the health of vulnerable populations. Strategies should thus be developed to better direct their implementation towards meeting the needs and responding to the realities of populations of the developing world (i.e., social, cultural and political acceptability, and local health burdens), making pharmacogenomic technologies a necessary "luxury" for global public health. PMID:21864366

  2. Globalization, poverty and women's health: mapping the connections.

    PubMed

    Sicchia, Suzanne R; Maclean, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Poverty and other forms of inequity undermine individual and population health and retard development. Although absolute poverty has reportedly declined in recent years, research suggests that relative poverty or the gap between the rich and poor within and between countries has been exacerbated over this same period. There is growing concern about the feminization of poverty, and the impact globalization is having on this important social problem. Gender inequality persists in all regions, and women and girls continue to be over-represented among the world's poor. This suggests that women are not consistently benefitting from the economic, political and social gains globalization can offer. Instead, it appears that poor women and girls, particularly those living in developing countries, are disproportionately burdened by the costs of these swift changes to the detriment of their personal health and well-being. Immediate action is needed to correct these disparities and ensure that globalization supports both national and international commitments to poverty reduction, and the, promotion of women's health and human rights. PMID:16512333

  3. [Sickness - disease - illness - health: Problems of global definitions and consequences].

    PubMed

    Schroeder-Kurth, Traute Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Globalization on the one side is highly wellcome as simplifying trade, communication or tourism. On the other side globalization seems to uniform cultural values, which causes anxieties and outrage in many countries. Since decades "western" medical knowledge is being transferred into the Third World. This paper begins with the problem of a worldwide understanding of terms like sickness, disease, illness and health. Results gained from investigations in the field of Medical Anthropology emphasize the importance to integrate any cultural values and symbols of the target population. Examples given to demonstrate difficulties and requirements for any transfer of western medicine into those countries. A close view into the health systems, concepts of health and disease, coping and treatment in England, France, Germany and the USA shows considerable divergences. "Western" medicine is not based on an uniform conception, but is modulated by traditional values of the nations. Any attempt to globalize "western" medicine must respect and integrate the inherited thinking pattern and medical system of a population in order to benefit the people. PMID:15641206

  4. Zeroing in on AIDS and global health Post-2015

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    December 1st marks World AIDS Day with the theme ‘Getting to zero’. Three years ago, UNAIDS articulated what was then considered to be an ambitious vision, the aspiration for zero new HIV infections and zero-AIDS related deaths underpinned by zero discrimination. As we imagine the Post-2015 development agenda, we can and should reconceptualise this vision as a set of concrete goals. This Viewpoint argues that today’s rapidly changing world, including its shifting geo-political and economic landscape, requires policy responses that are context-sensitive. We highlight the Shared Responsibility-Global Solidarity agenda, as pioneered by the African Union in its recent Roadmap on AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, to illustrate ways in which global health can be re-thought to tackle twenty-first century challenges. In light of the emerging debate on what a Post-2015 development agenda and accountability framework should look like, we argue that the AIDS response offers lessons as a pathfinder which can pave the way for global health responses in which the most marginalised are at the centre of the debate, human rights are protected under the rule of law, strong accountability is in place for results for people, and community and participatory processes are the norm. These hard-learned and -won principles of the AIDS response are critical if we are to realize a world in which there is zero inequality and health justice for all. PMID:23199137

  5. On Cognitive Informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingxu Wang

    2003-01-01

    Supplementary to matter and energy, information is the third essence for modeling the natural world. An emerging discipline known as cognitive informatics (CI) is developed recently that forms a profound interdisciplinary study of cognitive and information sciences, and tackles the common root problems sharing by informatics, computing, software engineering, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, neuropsychology, philosophy, linguistics, and life science. CI

  6. Think globally, act locally, and collaborate internationally: global health sciences at the University of California, San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Sarah B; Agabian, Nina; Novotny, Thomas E; Rutherford, George W; Stewart, Christopher C; Debas, Haile T

    2008-02-01

    The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) established Global Health Sciences (GHS) as a campus-wide initiative in 2003. The mission of GHS is to facilitate UCSF's engagement in global health across its four schools by (1) creating a supportive environment that promotes UCSF's leadership role in global health, (2) providing education and training in global health, (3) convening and coordinating global health research activities, (4) establishing global health outreach programs locally in San Francisco and California, (5) partnering with academic centers, especially less-well-resourced institutions in low- and middle-income countries, and (6) developing and collaborating in international initiatives that address neglected global health issues.GHS education programs include a master of science (MS) program expected to start in September 2008, an introduction to global health for UCSF residents, and a year of training at UCSF for MS and PhD students from low- and middle-income countries that is "sandwiched" between years in their own education program and results in a UCSF Sandwich Certificate. GHS's work with partner institutions in California has a preliminary focus on migration and health, and its work with academic centers in low- and middle-income countries focuses primarily on academic partnerships to train human resources for health. Recognizing that the existing academic structure at UCSF may be inadequate to address the complexity of global health threats in the 21st century, GHS is working with the nine other campuses of the University of California to develop a university-wide transdisciplinary initiative in global health. PMID:18303363

  7. Toward a roadmap in global biobanking for health.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer R; Burton, Paul; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Lindpaintner, Klaus; Bledsoe, Marianna; Brookes, Anthony J; Budin-Ljřsne, Isabelle; Chisholm, Rex; Cox, David; Deschęnes, Mylčne; Fortier, Isabel; Hainaut, Pierre; Hewitt, Robert; Kaye, Jane; Litton, Jan-Eric; Metspalu, Andres; Ollier, Bill; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Pasterk, Markus; Perola, Markus; Riegman, Peter H J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Yuille, Martin; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2012-11-01

    Biobanks can have a pivotal role in elucidating disease etiology, translation, and advancing public health. However, meeting these challenges hinges on a critical shift in the way science is conducted and requires biobank harmonization. There is growing recognition that a common strategy is imperative to develop biobanking globally and effectively. To help guide this strategy, we articulate key principles, goals, and priorities underpinning a roadmap for global biobanking to accelerate health science, patient care, and public health. The need to manage and share very large amounts of data has driven innovations on many fronts. Although technological solutions are allowing biobanks to reach new levels of integration, increasingly powerful data-collection tools, analytical techniques, and the results they generate raise new ethical and legal issues and challenges, necessitating a reconsideration of previous policies, practices, and ethical norms. These manifold advances and the investments that support them are also fueling opportunities for biobanks to ultimately become integral parts of health-care systems in many countries. International harmonization to increase interoperability and sustainability are two strategic priorities for biobanking. Tackling these issues requires an environment favorably inclined toward scientific funding and equipped to address socio-ethical challenges. Cooperation and collaboration must extend beyond systems to enable the exchange of data and samples to strategic alliances between many organizations, including governmental bodies, funding agencies, public and private science enterprises, and other stakeholders, including patients. A common vision is required and we articulate the essential basis of such a vision herein. PMID:22713808

  8. Ideas in ACTION, Solving Global Health Problems Solutions for Global Health

    E-print Network

    can participate? Any public or private institution, group or project that have made significant-South-South triangular partnership solution, a South-South-Multilateral Organization solution, a Public-Private: · An opportu- nity to exhibit the initiative at the Global South-South Develop- ment Expo in the World Bank

  9. Arms trade and its impact on global health.

    PubMed

    Mahmudi-Azer, Salahaddin

    2006-01-01

    The most obvious adverse impact of the arms trade on health is loss of life and maiming from the use of weapons in conflicts. Wealthy countries suffer damage to their health and human services when considerable resources are diverted to military expenditure. However, the relative impact of military expenditures and conflict on third world countries is much greater, and often devastating, by depriving a significant portion of the population of essential food, medicine, shelter, education, and economic opportunities. Further, the physical and psychological damage inflicted specifically on children is debilitating - through loss of (or separation from) families, loss of education, destruction of homes, exposure to murder and other violence, sexual abuse, abduction, torture, slavery, and forcible conscription as soldiers. This article outlines the socio-economic impact of the global arms trade in general and the damage done to human health and the environment, specifically. PMID:16532304

  10. Global disparities in health and human rights: a critical commentary.

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, S R

    1998-01-01

    Widening disparities in health and human rights at a global level represent the dark side of progress associated with escalation of economic and military exploitation and exponential population growth in the 20th century. Even the most basic universal human rights cannot be achieved for all under these circumstances. The goal of improved population health will be similarly elusive while medical care is commodified and exploited for commercial gain in the marketplace. Recognition of the powerful forces that polarize our world and commitment to reversing them are essential for the achievement of human rights for all, for the improvement of public health, and for the peaceful progress required to protect the "rational self-interest" of the most privileged people on earth against the escalation of war, disease, and other destructive forces arising from widespread poverty and ecological degradation. PMID:9491027

  11. The World Health Organization and global health estimates: improving collaboration and capacity.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Ties; Mathers, Colin D

    2015-01-01

    Global, regional, and country statistics on population and health indicators are important for assessing development and health progress and for guiding resource allocation; however, data are often lacking, especially in low- and middle-income countries. To fill the gaps, statistical modelling is frequently used to produce comparable health statistics across countries that can be combined to produce regional and global statistics. The World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with other United Nations agencies and academic experts, regularly updates estimates for key indicators and involves its Member States in the process. Academic institutions also publish estimates independent from the WHO using different methods. The use of sophisticated statistical estimation methods to fill missing values for countries can reduce the pressures on governments and development agencies to improve information systems. Efforts to improve estimates must be accompanied by concerted attempts to address data gaps, common standards for documentation, sharing of data and methods, and regular interaction and collaboration among all groups involved. PMID:25858025

  12. Palliative care and pain treatment in the global health agenda.

    PubMed

    De Lima, Liliana

    2015-04-01

    The Global Atlas of Palliative Care at the End of Life, published by the Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance (WPCA) jointly with the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that every year >20 million patients need palliative care (PC) at the end of life. Six percent of these are children. According to the Atlas, in 2011, approximately 3 million patients received PC and only 1 in 10 people in need is currently receiving it. Although most PC is provided in high-income countries (HIC), almost 80% of the global need is in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Only 20 countries have PC well integrated into their health-care systems. In regards to opioids, >5 billion people (83% of the world's population) live in countries with low to nonexistent access, 250 million (4%) have moderate access, and only 460 million (7%) have adequate access. In order for PC and pain treatment strategies to be effective, they must be incorporated by governments into all levels of their health care systems. In 1990, the WHO pioneered a public health strategy to integrate PC into existing health care systems which includes four components: (1) appropriate policies, (2) adequate availability of medications, (3) education of health care workers and the public, and (4) implementation of PC services at all levels throughout the society. This topical review describes the current status of the field, and presents several initiatives by United Nations (UN) organizations and the civil society to improve access to PC and to pain treatment for patients in need. PMID:25789428

  13. Health inequalities and infectious disease epidemics: a challenge for global health security.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Kumar, Supriya

    2014-01-01

    In today's global society, infectious disease outbreaks can spread quickly across the world, fueled by the rapidity with which we travel across borders and continents. Historical accounts of influenza pandemics and contemporary reports on infectious diseases clearly demonstrate that poverty, inequality, and social determinants of health create conditions for the transmission of infectious diseases, and existing health disparities or inequalities can further contribute to unequal burdens of morbidity and mortality. Yet, to date, studies of influenza pandemic plans across multiple countries find little to no recognition of health inequalities or attempts to engage disadvantaged populations to explicitly address the differential impact of a pandemic on them. To meet the goals and objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda, we argue that international partners, from WHO to individual countries, must grapple with the social determinants of health and existing health inequalities and extend their vision to include these factors so that disease that may start among socially disadvantaged subpopulations does not go unnoticed and spread across borders. These efforts will require rethinking surveillance systems to include sociodemographic data; training local teams of researchers and community health workers who are able to not only analyze data to recognize risk factors for disease, but also use simulation methods to assess the impact of alternative policies on reducing disease; integrating social science disciplines to understand local context; and proactively anticipating shortfalls in availability of adequate healthcare resources, including vaccines. Without explicit attention to existing health inequalities and underlying social determinants of health, the Global Health Security Agenda is unlikely to succeed in its goals and objectives. PMID:25254915

  14. Military Research Needs in Biomedical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Reifman, Jaques; Gilbert, Gary R.; Fagan, Lawrence; Satava, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The 2001 U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) Biomedical Informatics Roadmap Meeting was devoted to developing a strategic plan in four focus areas: Hospital and Clinical Informatics, E-Health, Combat Health Informatics, and Bioinformatics and Biomedical Computation. The driving force of this Roadmap Meeting was the recent accelerated pace of change in biomedical informatics in which emerging technologies have the potential to affect significantly the Army research portfolio and investment strategy in these focus areas. The meeting was structured so that the first two days were devoted to presentations from experts in the field, including representatives from the three services, other government agencies, academia, and the private sector, and the morning of the last day was devoted to capturing specific biomedical informatics research needs in the four focus areas. This white paper summarizes the key findings and recommendations and should be a powerful tool for the crafting of future requests for proposals to help align USAMRMC new strategic research investments with new developments and emerging technologies. PMID:12223503

  15. INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Charis

    REPORTS IN INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590 A complete characterisation of the linear clique of Informatics UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN Bergen, Norway #12;This report has URL http://www.ii.uib.no/publikasjoner/texrap/pdf/2009-381.pdf Reports in Informatics from Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Norway

  16. INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Charis

    REPORTS IN INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590 A new representation of proper interval graphs Department of Informatics UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN Bergen, Norway #12;This report has URL http://www.ii.uib.no/publikasjoner/texrap/pdf/2007-354.pdf Reports in Informatics from Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Norway

  17. Indiana University Department of Informatics

    E-print Network

    Dalkilic, Mehmet

    Indiana University Department of Informatics Graduate Student Orientation Week August 25-29, 2008 contracts, papers, etc. (for AIs, RAs) 8:45 ­ 12:00 Introductions · Welcome from Informatics Department Chair Geoffrey Fox · Introduction of Informatics staff · Informatics Packets and Picnic Sign-Up Linda

  18. INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Charis

    REPORTS IN INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590 Characterizing and computing minimal cograph completions AS Department of Informatics UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN Bergen, Norway #12;This report has URL http://www.ii.uib.no/publikasjoner/texrap/pdf/2008-352.pdf Reports in Informatics from Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Norway

  19. INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Charis

    REPORTS IN INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590 Cutwidth of split graphs, threshold graphs, and proper 2008 Department of Informatics UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN Bergen, Norway #12;This report has URL http://www.ii.uib.no/publikasjoner/texrap/pdf/2008-372.pdf Reports in Informatics from Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Norway

  20. INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Charis

    REPORTS IN INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590 Strongly chordal and chordal bipartite graphs are sandwich Department of Informatics UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN Bergen, Norway #12;This report has URL http://www.ii.uib.no/publikasjoner/texrap/pdf/2009-383.pdf Reports in Informatics from Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Norway

  1. INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    REPORTS IN INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590 Interval Completion is Fixed Parameter Tractable Pinar of Informatics UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN Bergen, Norway #12;This report has URL http://www.ii.uib.no/publikasjoner/texrap/ps/2006-336.ps Reports in Informatics from Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Norway

  2. INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Charis

    REPORTS IN INFORMATICS ISSN 0333-3590 Graphs of small bounded linear clique-width P. Heggernes, D. Meister, Ch. Papadopoulos REPORT NO 362 October 2007 Department of Informatics UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN Bergen in Informatics from Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Norway, is available at http

  3. An assessment of interactions between global health initiatives and country health systems.

    PubMed

    Samb, Badara; Evans, Tim; Dybul, Mark; Atun, Rifat; Moatti, Jean-Paul; Nishtar, Sania; Wright, Anna; Celletti, Francesca; Hsu, Justine; Kim, Jim Yong; Brugha, Ruairi; Russell, Asia; Etienne, Carissa

    2009-06-20

    Since 2000, the emergence of several large disease-specific global health initiatives (GHIs) has changed the way in which international donors provide assistance for public health. Some critics have claimed that these initiatives burden health systems that are already fragile in countries with few resources, whereas others have asserted that weak health systems prevent progress in meeting disease-specific targets. So far, most of the evidence for this debate has been provided by speculation and anecdotes. We use a review and analysis of existing data, and 15 new studies that were submitted to WHO for the purpose of writing this Report to describe the complex nature of the interplay between country health systems and GHIs. We suggest that this Report provides the most detailed compilation of published and emerging evidence so far, and provides a basis for identification of the ways in which GHIs and health systems can interact to mutually reinforce their effects. On the basis of the findings, we make some general recommendations and identify a series of action points for international partners, governments, and other stakeholders that will help ensure that investments in GHIs and country health systems can fulfil their potential to produce comprehensive and lasting results in disease-specific work, and advance the general public health agenda. The target date for achievement of the health-related Millennium Development Goals is drawing close, and the economic downturn threatens to undermine the improvements in health outcomes that have been achieved in the past few years. If adjustments to the interactions between GHIs and country health systems will improve efficiency, equity, value for money, and outcomes in global public health, then these opportunities should not be missed. PMID:19541040

  4. Wikipedia: A Key Tool for Global Public Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Heilman, James M; Kemmann, Eckhard; Bonert, Michael; Chatterjee, Anwesh; Ragar, Brent; Beards, Graham M; Iberri, David J; Harvey, Matthew; Thomas, Brendan; Stomp, Wouter; Martone, Michael F; Lodge, Daniel J; Vondracek, Andrea; de Wolff, Jacob F; Liber, Casimir; Grover, Samir C; Vickers, Tim J; Meskó, Bertalan

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has become an important health information resource for patients and the general public. Wikipedia, a collaboratively written Web-based encyclopedia, has become the dominant online reference work. It is usually among the top results of search engine queries, including when medical information is sought. Since April 2004, editors have formed a group called WikiProject Medicine to coordinate and discuss the English-language Wikipedia’s medical content. This paper, written by members of the WikiProject Medicine, discusses the intricacies, strengths, and weaknesses of Wikipedia as a source of health information and compares it with other medical wikis. Medical professionals, their societies, patient groups, and institutions can help improve Wikipedia’s health-related entries. Several examples of partnerships already show that there is enthusiasm to strengthen Wikipedia’s biomedical content. Given its unique global reach, we believe its possibilities for use as a tool for worldwide health promotion are underestimated. We invite the medical community to join in editing Wikipedia, with the goal of providing people with free access to reliable, understandable, and up-to-date health information. PMID:21282098

  5. Global biological threats to health: an imperative for collaboration.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Marla E

    2005-01-01

    Biological threats to health are challenging governments worldwide. National strategies for preventing and managing existing and emerging threats require significant collaboration across borders, sectors, services, agencies and professions. Perhaps most important are the partnerships of key national health leaders who can develop and foster these relationships. Government Chief Nursing Officers (CNOs) and Chief Medical Officers (CMOs), providing leadership in more than 100 countries worldwide, play crucial roles in addressing biological threats to health. However, much of this leadership is exercised without the benefit of strong collaborative relationships between these two key national leaders. Unfortunately, without functional partnerships between nurses and physicians at all levels, national and global capacity to address biological and other threats will be greatly compromised. For these reasons, the first ever global forum for CNOs and CMOs teams was hosted by the Lillian Carter Center for International Nursing in Atlanta, in June 2004. Representatives from 70 countries focused on biological threats in relation to three key purposes: (1) gaining shared scientific and practical knowledge; (2) developing and strengthening collaboration and partnerships among CNOs and CMOs; and, (3) creating a joint plan for advancing national preparedness. This article describes the content, process and outcomes of this historic meeting. PMID:15989164

  6. Informatics Resource Library Open to all members of Informatics and research centres associated with Informatics

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Informatics Resource Library Open to all members of Informatics and research centres associated with Informatics (COGS, CCNR, Sackler), the Resource Library has extensive holdings of textbooks, research for Informatics. Most of these are in the Cognitive Science Research Paper series, of which there are at present

  7. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2şC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5şC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5şC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1şC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2şC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5şC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1şC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2şC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2şC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2şC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline from 2015 (CAN International 2014), and if policy makers are limited to the IPCC AR5 we recommend RCP2.6, with emissions declining by 2020.

  8. Air pollution and population health: a global challenge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2008-03-01

    "Air pollution and population health" is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are still at relatively high levels, though the levels have been gradually decreasing or have remained stable during rapid economic development. In recent years, several hundred epidemiological studies have emerged showing adverse health effects associated with short-term and long-term exposure to air pollutants. Time-series studies conducted in Asian cities also showed similar health effects on mortality associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) to those explored in Europe and North America. The World Health Organization (WHO) published the "WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs), Global Update" in 2006. These updated AQGs provide much stricter guidelines for PM, NO(2), SO(2) and O(3). Considering that current air pollution levels are much higher than the WHO-recommended AQGs, interim targets for these four air pollutants are also recommended for member states, especially for developing countries in setting their country-specific air quality standards. In conclusion, ambient air pollution is a health hazard. It is more important in Asian developing countries within the context of pollution level and population density. Improving air quality has substantial, measurable and important public health benefits. PMID:19568887

  9. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Longstreth, J.

    1993-06-01

    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.

  10. Medical Informatics and the Science of Cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vimla L Patel; David R Kaufman

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in medical informatics research have afforded possibilities for great advances in health care delivery. These exciting opportunities also present formidable challenges to the implementation and integration of technologies in the workplace. As in most domains, there is a gulf between technologic artifacts and end users. Since medical practice is a human endeavor, there is a need for bridging

  11. One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming. PMID:21985335

  12. Virtues and values in medicine revisited: individual and global health.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Solomon; Upshur, Ross

    2014-10-01

    In response to the call from an international panel for 'much needed rethinking' about the goals and purposes of the education of healthcare professionals, we suggest that there must be an explicit account of the virtues and values that will inform healthcare practice in the 21st century. We propose that a renewed emphasis is needed on reviving the well-honed clinical skills and humanistic attributes in medicine as crucial for optimum affordable (and sustainable) care of individual patients. Analogous virtues should be linked to the quest for improving the health of whole populations, nationally and globally. PMID:25301909

  13. Information systems on human resources for health: a global review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals relies on countries having adequate numbers of human resources for health (HRH) and their appropriate distribution, global understanding of the systems used to generate information for monitoring HRH stock and flows, known as human resources information systems (HRIS), is minimal. While HRIS are increasingly recognized as integral to health system performance assessment, baseline information regarding their scope and capability around the world has been limited. We conducted a review of the available literature on HRIS implementation processes in order to draw this baseline. Methods Our systematic search initially retrieved 11 923 articles in four languages published in peer-reviewed and grey literature. Following the selection of those articles which detailed HRIS implementation processes, reviews of their contents were conducted using two-person teams, each assigned to a national system. A data abstraction tool was developed and used to facilitate objective assessment. Results Ninety-five articles with relevant HRIS information were reviewed, mostly from the grey literature, which comprised 84?% of all documents. The articles represented 63 national HRIS and two regionally integrated systems. Whereas a high percentage of countries reported the capability to generate workforce supply and deployment data, few systems were documented as being used for HRH planning and decision-making. Of the systems examined, only 23?% explicitly stated they collect data on workforce attrition. The majority of countries experiencing crisis levels of HRH shortages (56?%) did not report data on health worker qualifications or professional credentialing as part of their HRIS. Conclusion Although HRIS are critical for evidence-based human resource policy and practice, there is a dearth of information about these systems, including their current capabilities. The absence of standardized HRIS profiles (including documented processes for data collection, management, and use) limits understanding of the availability and quality of information that can be used to support effective and efficient HRH strategies and investments at the national, regional, and global levels. PMID:22546089

  14. The World Health Organization and global smallpox eradication

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, S

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article examines the multifaceted structures and complex operations of the World Health Organization and its regional offices; it also reassesses the form and the workings of the global smallpox eradication programme with which these bodies were closely linked in the 1960s and 1970s. Methods: Using the case study of South Asia, it seeks to highlight the importance of writing nuanced histories of international health campaigns through an assessment of differences between official rhetoric and practice. Results and conclusion: The article argues that the detailed examination of the implementation of policy in a variety of localities, within and across national borders, allows us to recognise the importance of the agency of field managers and workers. This analytical approach also helps us acknowledge that communities were able to influence the shape and the timing of completion of public health campaigns in myriad ways. This, in turn, can provide useful pointers for the design and management of health programmes in the contemporary world. PMID:18791049

  15. Toward a Critical Anthropology on the Impact of Global Warming on Health and Human Societies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans A. Baer

    2008-01-01

    This op-ed essay urges medical anthropologists to join a growing number of public health scholars to examine the impact of global warming on health. Adopting a critical medical anthropology perspective, I argue that global warming is yet another manifestation of the contradictions of the capitalist world system. Ultimately, an serious effort to mitigate the impact of global warming not only

  16. Comparative Analysis: Potential Barriers to Career Participation by North American Physicians in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Daniel S.; Heckman, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Physician interest in global health, particularly among family physicians, is reflected by an increasing proliferation of field training and service experiences. However, translating initial training involvement into a defined and sustainable global health career remains difficult and beset by numerous barriers. Existing global health literature has largely examined training experiences and related ethical considerations while neglecting the role of career development in global health. To explore this, this paper extrapolates potential barriers to global health career involvement from existing literature and compares these to salary and skills requirements for archetypal physician positions in global health, presenting a framework of possible barriers to sustained physician participation in global health work. Notable barriers identified include financial limitations, scheduling conflicts, security/family concerns, skills limitations, limited awareness of opportunities, and specialty choice, with family practice often closely aligned with global health experience. Proposed solutions include financial support, protected time, family relocation support, and additional training. This framework delineates barriers to career involvement in global health by physicians. Further research regarding these barriers as well as potential solutions may help direct policy and initiatives to better utilize physicians, particularly family physicians, as a valuable global health human resource. PMID:25405030

  17. The experience of informatics nurses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ting-Ting; Mills, Mary Etta

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress in information technology, health care institutions are constantly confronted with the need to adapt to the resulting new processes of information management and use. Facilitating an effective technology implementation requires dedication from informatics nurses (INs) to bridge the gap between clinical care and technology. The purpose of this study was to explore the working experiences of INs, and alternatives to assist the growth and development of the specialty. This qualitative study recruited 8 participants, and data were collected in 2009 by use of interview guides related to work roles, responsibilities, competencies, and challenges. The emerged themes included (a) diversified roles and functions, (b) vague job description, (c) no decision-making authority, (d) indispensable management support, and (e) searching resources for work fulfillment. Findings indicate that for organizations where nursing informatics development is ongoing, the IN role should be clearly defined as a specialist with identified support resources and decision-making authority. Nursing informatics interest groups should further develop training and certification programs to validate the professional image of the role. Concepts of nursing informatics should be included seamlessly throughout the educational curricula and informatics competency-based courses designed to strengthen student's technology use and data management capabilities. PMID:25839956

  18. A review of medical imaging informatics.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Usha; Bui, Alex; Taira, Ricky; Dionisio, John; Morioka, Craig; Johnson, David; Kangarloo, Hooshang

    2002-12-01

    This review of medical imaging informatics is a survey of current developments in an exciting field. The focus is on informatics issues rather than traditional data processing and information systems, such as picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) and image processing and analysis systems. In this review, we address imaging informatics issues within the requirements of an informatics system defined by the American Medical Informatics Association. With these requirements as a framework, we review, in four sections: (1) Methods to present imaging and associated data without causing an overload, including image study summarization, content-based medical image retrieval, and natural language processing of text data. (2) Data modeling techniques to represent clinical data with focus on an image data model, including general-purpose time-based multimedia data models, health-care-specific data models, knowledge models, and problem-centric data models. (3) Methods to integrate medical data information from heterogeneous clinical data sources. Advances in centralized databases and mediated architectures are reviewed along with a discussion on our efforts at data integration based on peer-to-peer networking and shared file systems. (4) Visualization schemas to present imaging and clinical data: the large volume of medical data presents a daunting challenge for an efficient visualization paradigm. In this section we review current multimedia visualization methods including temporal modeling, problem-specific data organization, including our problem-centric, context and user-specific visualization interface. PMID:12594089

  19. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  20. Global public-private partnerships: Part II--What are the health issues for global governance?

    PubMed Central

    Buse, K.; Walt, G.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part review of global public-private partnerships (GPPPs) for health development. Part I was published in the April issue of the Bulletin (Vol. 78, No. 4). The recent emergence of GPPPs is rapidly reconfiguring the international health landscape. While most multilateral and bilateral agencies are currently grappling with how to proceed, there is little information in the public domain concerning how individual partnerships work and to date very little consideration of the many implications of this trend. This paper differentiates between product-based, product development-based and issues/systems-based GPPPs and describes a number of examples of each type in the health sector. The benefits of these initiatives, not least the major resources which they harness for specific health problems, are identified. The final section of the paper explores the implications and dilemmas posed by GPPPs. It discusses whether or not shared goals can transcend conflicting values and mandates and how governance of partnership arrangements may transform and undermine certain attributes of multilateral organizations. The paper concludes that the current climate of goodwill between public and private sectors offers an opportunity that should not be missed: it can be used not only to foster new partnership but to ensure that partnership is truly in the interests of international public health. PMID:10859865

  1. The Undergraduate Field-Research Experience in Global Health: Study Abroad, Service Learning, Professional Training or "None of the Above"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kearsley A.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in short-term international placements in global health training for U.S.-based medical students is growing; the trend is mirrored for global health undergraduate students. Best practices in field-based global health training can increase success for medical students, but we lack a critical framework for the undergraduate global health

  2. Possible human health impacts of a global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, M.C.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Cheng, S. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Geography

    1995-03-01

    Some ways in which a global warming may affect human health are discussed. Research is presented which explores the hypothesis that heat stress-induced mortality may increase substantially in the event of a worldwide temperature increase. Two procedures are applied to four disparate nations: the US, Canada, China and Egypt. Results indicate that significant increases in heat-related mortality are likely to occur, particularly in developing nations. Factors which might help to mitigate these increases, such as acclimatization and air conditioning, are also examined. Another human health impact of a global warming is the likely spread of certain vector-borne diseases into areas of the world where they do not currently exist. Two of these, onchocerciasis and malaria, have been chosen for a detailed international study. The initial steps in this effort are discussed. Policy options are proposed which may prepare international organizations and public officials for difficulties which may arise. Implementation of these procedures, which include continuation of internationally sponsored research, could help to ameliorate many of the problems outlined in this paper.

  3. The complex relationships involved in global health: a qualitative description

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Growing numbers of medical trainees now participate in global health experiences (GHEs) during their training. To enhance these experiences we sought to explore expectations inherent in the relationships between GHE stakeholder groups. Methods 20 open-ended, semi-structured interviews probed participant perceptions and assumptions embedded in GHEs. A fundamental qualitative descriptive approach was applied, with conventional content analysis and constant comparison methods, to identify and refine emerging themes. Thematic structure was finalized when saturation was achieved. Participants all had experience as global health participants (10 trainees, 10 professionals) from an urban, academic, Canadian medical centre. Results We identified three stakeholder groups: participants (trainees and professionals), host communities, and sponsoring institutions. During interviews, four major themes emerged: (i) cultural challenges, (ii) expectations and perceptions, (iii) relationships and communication, and (iv) discordant objectives. Within each theme, participants recurrently described tensions existing between the three stakeholder groups. Conclusions GHE participants frequently face substantial tensions with host communities and sponsoring agencies. Trainees are particularly vulnerable as they lack experience to navigate these tensions. In the design of GHEs, the needs of each group must be considered to ensure that benefits outweigh potential harms. We propose a conceptual model for developing educational objectives that acknowledge all three GHE stakeholder groups. PMID:24090069

  4. A global public health strategy for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Simon; Fein, Deborah; Rosanoff, Michael; Dawson, Geraldine; Hossain, Saima; Brennan, Lynn; Como, Ariel; Shih, Andy

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness about autism spectrum disorders (ASD) around the world, including in low and middle income countries. Unlike countries in Western Europe and North America where infrastructure and capacity are available to help meet some of the needs of individuals with ASD, little expertise or capacity exists in most of the developing world. In 2008 Autism Speaks launched the Global Autism Public Health (GAPH) Initiative to facilitate the development of systematic and sustainable solutions for enhancing global autism awareness, research, training and service delivery. In the last 3 years Autism Speaks has established collaboration with stakeholders from over 20 countries who are working alongside dedicated local and international stakeholders to effect change. In this article, the GAPH framework is described, along with a few brief case examples that illustrate how the framework for implementation of the model can occur. GAPH is still in its infancy but has the potential to have significant impact through inclusive collaboration with local and international stakeholders to develop effective and sustainable public health solutions for disseminating best practices and delivering tangible benefits to individuals with ASD and their families. PMID:22605577

  5. Health in the hot zone - How could global warming affect humans?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monastersky

    1996-01-01

    A soon-to-be-released report from the World Health Organization examines the health effects of global warming, calling climate change one of the largest public health challenges for the upcoming century. The issue extends beyond tropical illness: deaths caused directly by heat, dwindling agricultural yields etc. could all affect human health. This article looks at the following health related effects and gives

  6. HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE (Spring Semester, 2009) Dr. Jonathan Patz, course director

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    1 HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE (Spring Semester, 2009) Dr. Jonathan Patz) ============================================================= Course Outline Section I. Assessment Frameworks & Intro to Environmental/Occupational Health Faculty (UW (& proj. mapping tool) Jonathan Patz 2. 1/26/09 Intro. to Environmental Health: Local to Global Scales

  7. Defining features of the practice of global health research: an examination of 14 global health research teams

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Craig; Daibes, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This paper strives to develop a pragmatic view of the scope of practice and core characteristics of global health research (GHR) by examining the activities of 14 Canadian-funded global health teams that were in the process of implementing research programs. Methods Information was collected by a reflective exploration of team proposals and progress reports, a content analysis of the outputs from an all-team meeting and review of the literature. Results Teams adopted equity-centered, problem-focused, systems-based approaches intended to find upstream determinants that could make people more resilient to social and ecological factors impacting their health. Long-term visions and time frames were needed to develop and solidify fully functional interdisciplinary, multinational, multicultural partnerships. The implementation of research into practice was a motivating factor for all teams, but to do this, they recognized the need for evidence-based advice on how to best do this. Traditional measures of biomedical research excellence were necessary but not sufficient to encompass views of excellence of team-based interdisciplinary research, which includes features like originality, coherence and cumulative contributions to fields of study, acceptance by peers and success in translating research into gains in health status. An innovative and nuanced approached to GHR ethics was needed to deal with some unique ethical issues because the needs for GHR were not adequately addressed by institutional biomedical research ethics boards. Core competencies for GHR researchers were a blend of those needed for health promotion, population health, international development, sustainable development, and systems science. Discussion Developing acceptable and meaningful ways to evaluate the short-term contributions for GHR and forecast its long-term impacts is a strategic priority needed to defend decisions being made in GHR development. Planning and investing to support the underlying GHR elements and competencies that allow for adaptive, innovative, and supportive research partnerships to achieve ‘health for all’ are more likely to have long-term impacts than building research strategies around specific diseases of interest. PMID:20628491

  8. Direct health effects of global warming in Japan and China

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, M.; Yamamoto, S. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki (Japan); Tamura, K. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Combustion of fossil fuels and industrial and agricultural activities are resulting in greater emissions of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, therefore contributing to global warming. Using general circulation models, it is estimated that surface temperatures in temperate regions will rise 1 to 3 degrees C during the next 100 years. Because global warming may increase the frequency and length of high temperatures during hot summer months, various health risks caused by heat stress have been studied. According to our epidemiological survey, the incidence of heat-related illness was significantly correlated to hot environments in Tokyo, Japan and in Nanjing and Wuhan, China. The epidemiological results also showed that the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality in the elderly increased very rapidly in summer. The regression analysis on these data showed that the number of heat stroke patients increased exponentially when the mean daily temperature and maximum daily temperature exceeded 27C and 32C in Tokyo and 31C and 36C in Wuhan and Nanjing, respectively. Since the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality has been shown to increase as a result of exposure to long periods of hot summer temperatures, it is important to determine to what extent the incidence of heat stress-related morbidity and mortality will be affected as a result of global warming.

  9. Informatics Resources Supporting the Research Enterprise

    E-print Network

    Bordenstein, Seth

    3/27/2013 1 Informatics Resources Supporting the Research Enterprise Paul A. Harris, PhD Director, Office of Research Informatics Associate Professor, Biomedical Informatics & Biomedical Engineering Office of Research Informatics Enterprise Management, Tracking, and Evaluation PI interface (Process

  10. A hypergraphic model of medical informatics: curriculum development guide.

    PubMed Central

    Chi, X.; Pavilcek, K.

    1999-01-01

    Medical informatics, as a descriptive, scientific study, must be mathematically or theoretically described. Is it important to define a model for medical informatics? The answer is worth pursuing. The medical informatics profession stands to benefit three-fold: first, by clarifying the vagueness of the definition of medical informatics, secondly, by identifying the scope and content for educational programs, and, thirdly, by defining career opportunities for its graduates. Existing medical informatics curricula are not comparable. Consequently, the knowledge and skills of graduates from these programs are difficult to assess. The challenge is to promote academics that develops graduates for prospective employers to fulfill the criteria of the health care industry and, simultaneously, compete with computer science programs that produce information technology graduates. In order to meet this challenge, medical informatics programs must have unique curricula that distinguishes its graduates. The solution is to educate students in a comparable manner across the domain of medical informatics. This paper discusses a theoretical model for medical informatics. Images Figure PMID:10566316

  11. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  12. Clinical research and global health: Mentoring the next generation of health care students

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sural K.; Nodell, Bobbi; Montano, Silvia M.; Behrens, Chris; Zunt, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    Interest in global health and opportunities to conduct clinical research at international sites have increased markedly for health profession trainees. With this increase in demand comes an increase in the need for mentors at international and home institutions to provide guidance with designing, implementing, and analysing clinical research projects that benefit both the trainees and the research site. In this article, we provide an overview of our insights gained through mentoring in the international setting and suggest a series of key points to help ensure an enjoyable and productive international clinical research experience for both trainees and mentors. PMID:20635270

  13. Nanosilver and global public health: international regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Watal, Aparna

    2010-06-01

    Silver in nanoparticle form is used extensively worldwide in hospital and general practice settings, in dressings as a treatment for external wounds, burns and ulcers. Nanosilver is also an increasingly important coating over embedded medical devices, inhibiting the development of biofilm. Nanosilver disinfectant sprays and polymer coatings are being widely promoted as protective against viral infections. In addition, nanosilver is widely used for its antibacterial properties in food processing and packaging, as well as in consumer products used for domestic cleaning and clothing. This article argues that medical devices, therapeutic products, and domestic food and goods containing nanosilver, although offering therapeutic benefits, must be subject to precautionary regulation owing to associated public health and environmental risks, particularly from large volumes of nanosilver in waste water. The article first examines the use of nanosilver in a variety of contemporary medical and domestic products, the utilization of which may assist in resolving global public health problems, such as restricted access to safe food, water and medical care. It then discusses the mechanisms of toxicity for nanosilver, whether it should be classified as a new chemical entity for regulatory purposes and whether its increased usage poses significant environmental and public health risks. The article next critically analyses representative international regulatory regimes (the USA, EU, UK and Australia) for medical and domestic use of nanosilver. The conclusion includes a set of recommendations for improving international regulation of nanosilver. PMID:20528456

  14. Addressing global health governance challenges through a new mechanism: the proposal for a Committee C of the World Health Assembly.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Hein, Wolfgang; Silberschmidt, Gaudenz

    2010-01-01

    The field of global health has reached a critical juncture, where both its visibility and the complexity of its challenges are unprecedented. The World Health Organization, as the only global health actor possessing both democratic and formal legal legitimacy, is best positioned to capitalize on this new, precarious situation in public health and respond with the governance innovation that is needed to bring the increasingly chaotic network of activities and entities affecting health outcomes under the fold of a centralized, standard-setting agency. One such proposed innovation to guide normative and strategic coordination in global health is the creation of a Committee C of the World Health Assembly that would promote consensus building and multi-stakeholder decision-making within the unique convening power of the World Health Organization. PMID:20880240

  15. Creating a center for global health at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

    PubMed

    Haq, Cynthia; Baumann, Linda; Olsen, Christopher W; Brown, Lori DiPrete; Kraus, Connie; Bousquet, Gilles; Conway, James; Easterday, B C

    2008-02-01

    Globalization, migration, and widespread health disparities call for interdisciplinary approaches to improve health care at home and abroad. Health professions students are pursuing study abroad in increasing numbers, and universities are responding with programs to address these needs. The University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison schools of medicine and public health, nursing, pharmacy, veterinary medicine, and the division of international studies have created an interdisciplinary center for global health (CGH). The CGH provides health professions and graduate students with courses, field experiences, and a new Certificate in Global Health. Educational programs have catalyzed a network of enthusiastic UW global health scholars. Partnerships with colleagues in less economically developed countries provide the foundation for education, research, and service programs. Participants have collaborated to improve the education of health professionals and nutrition in Uganda; explore the interplay between culture, community development, and health in Ecuador; improve animal health and address domestic violence in Mexico; and examine successful public health efforts in Thailand. These programs supply students with opportunities to understand the complex determinants of health and structure of health systems, develop adaptability and cross-cultural communication skills, experience learning and working in interdisciplinary teams, and promote equity and reduce health disparities at home and abroad. Based on the principles of equity, sustainability, and reciprocity, the CGH provides a strong foundation to address global health challenges through networking and collaboration among students, staff, and faculty within the UW and beyond. PMID:18303359

  16. Health economists, tobacco control and international development: On the economisation of global health beyond neoliberal structural adjustment policies

    PubMed Central

    Reubi, David

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the increasing influence of economic rationalities in global health over the past 30 years by examining the genealogy of one economic strategy – taxation – that has become central to international anti-smoking initiatives in the global South. It argues that this genealogy sits uncomfortably with the usual story about economics and global health, which reduces the economisation of international health to neoliberal structural adjustment policies aimed at stabilisation, liberalisation and privatisation and laments their detrimental effect on health. While not disputing these policies' importance and damaging impact, the genealogy of tobacco taxes outlined in this article shows that the economisation of global health is not only about neoliberal structural adjustment policies but also about sin taxes, market failures and health economics. By stressing how changes in health like the global South's epidemiological transition can impact on economics and how beneficial taxation can be for health, it also shows that the relation between economics and health is not always unidirectional and detrimental to the latter. In doing so, the article contributes to the critique of the often mechanical use of neo-liberalism to explicate change and calls for other stories about the economisation of global health to be told. PMID:23750175

  17. Influence and opportunity: reflections on the U.S. role in global public health.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona

    2002-01-01

    Today's global health crisis illustrates many of the transnational governance challenges the United States faces today. In the arena of global health, the United States can create a new role for itself by moving beyond a national-interest paradigm and strengthening its "soft power" position in health. Health in recent administrations has moved beyond being "just" a humanitarian issue to being one with major economic and security interests. Despite U.S. unilateralism, new approaches to global health governance are being developed by other actors, who have influenced the U.S. agenda and made important contributions. Yet a larger leader is still needed, especially in identifying and following a sound legal and regulatory global health governance system; bringing political legitimacy; and setting priorities. Responsible political action is needed to develop a new mindset and lay the groundwork for better global health in the future. PMID:12442848

  18. Re-invigorating Japan's commitment to global health: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Llano, Rayden; Kanamori, Sayako; Kunii, Osamu; Mori, Rintaro; Takei, Teiji; Sasaki, Hatoko; Nakamura, Yasuhide; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Hai, Yu; Chen, Lincoln; Takemi, Keizo; Shibuya, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, Japan has successfully developed and maintained an increasingly equitable system of universal health coverage in addition to achieving the world's highest life expectancy and one of the lowest infant mortality rates. Against this backdrop, Japan is potentially in a position to become a leading advocate for and supporter of global health. Nevertheless, Japan's engagement with global health has not been outstanding relative to its substantial potential, in part because of government fragmentation, a weak civil society, and lack of transparency and assessment. Japan's development assistance for health, from both governmental and non-governmental sectors, has remained low and Japanese global health leadership has been weak. New challenges arising from changes in governance and global and domestic health needs, including the recent Great East Japan Earthquake, now provide Japan with an opportunity to review past approaches to health policy and develop a new strategy for addressing global and national health. The fragmented functioning of the government with regards to global health policy needs to be reconfigured and should be accompanied by further financial commitment to global health priorities, innovative non-governmental sector initiatives, increased research capacity, and investments in good leadership development as witnessed at the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit. Should this strategy development and commitment be achieved, Japan has the potential to make substantial contributions to the health of the world as many countries move toward universal coverage and as Japan itself faces the challenge of maintaining its own health system. PMID:21885096

  19. A case study of global health at the university: implications for research and action

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Andrew D.; Cole, Donald C.; ter Kuile, Aleida; Forman, Lisa; Rouleau, Katherine; Philpott, Jane; Pakes, Barry; Jackson, Suzanne; Muntaner, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Background Global health is increasingly a major focus of institutions in high-income countries. However, little work has been done to date to study the inner workings of global health at the university level. Academics may have competing objectives, with few mechanisms to coordinate efforts and pool resources. Objective To conduct a case study of global health at Canada's largest health sciences university and to examine how its internal organization influences research and action. Design We drew on existing inventories, annual reports, and websites to create an institutional map, identifying centers and departments using the terms ‘global health’ or ‘international health’ to describe their activities. We compiled a list of academics who self-identified as working in global or international health. We purposively sampled persons in leadership positions as key informants. One investigator carried out confidential, semi-structured interviews with 20 key informants. Interview notes were returned to participants for verification and then analyzed thematically by pairs of coders. Synthesis was conducted jointly. Results More than 100 academics were identified as working in global health, situated in numerous institutions, centers, and departments. Global health academics interviewed shared a common sense of what global health means and the values that underpin such work. Most academics interviewed expressed frustration at the existing fragmentation and the lack of strategic direction, financial support, and recognition from the university. This hampered collaborative work and projects to tackle global health problems. Conclusions The University of Toronto is not exceptional in facing such challenges, and our findings align with existing literature that describes factors that inhibit collaboration in global health work at universities. Global health academics based at universities may work in institutional siloes and this limits both internal and external collaboration. A number of solutions to address these challenges are proposed. PMID:25172428

  20. Modeling health impact of global health programs implemented by Population Services International

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Global health implementing organizations benefit most from health impact estimation models that isolate the individual effects of distributed products and services - a feature not typically found in intervention impact models, but which allow comparisons across interventions and intervention settings. Population Services International (PSI), a social marketing organization, has developed a set of impact models covering seven health program areas, which translate product/service distribution data into impact estimates. Each model's primary output is the number of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted by an intervention within a specific country and population context. This paper aims to describe the structure and inputs for two types of DALYs averted models, considering the benefits and limitations of this methodology. Methods PSI employs two modeling approaches for estimating health impact: a macro approach for most interventions and a micro approach for HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and behavior change communication (BCC) interventions. Within each intervention country context, the macro approach determines the coverage that one product/service unit provides a population in person-years, whereas the micro approach estimates an individual's risk of infection with and without the product/service unit. The models use these estimations to generate per unit DALYs averted coefficients for each intervention. When multiplied by program output data, these coefficients predict the total number of DALYs averted by an intervention in a country. Results Model outputs are presented by country for two examples: Water Chlorination DALYs Averted Model, a macro model, and the HIV Condom DALYs Averted Model for heterosexual transmission, a micro model. Health impact estimates measured in DALYs averted for PSI interventions on a global level are also presented. Conclusions The DALYs averted models offer implementing organizations practical measurement solutions for understanding an intervention's contribution to improving health. These models calculate health impact estimates that reflect the scale and diversity of program operations and intervention settings, and that enable comparisons across health areas and countries. Challenges remain in accounting for intervention synergies, attributing impact to a single organization, and sourcing and updating model inputs. Nevertheless, these models demonstrate how DALYs averted can be viably used by the global health community as a metric for predicting intervention impact using standard program output data. PMID:23902668

  1. Research ethics in global mental health: advancing culturally responsive mental health research.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica

    2014-12-01

    Global mental health research is needed to inform effective and efficient services and policy interventions within and between countries. Ethical reflection should accompany all GMHR and human resource capacity endeavors to ensure high standards of respect for participants and communities and to raise public debate leading to changes in policies and regulations. The views and circumstances of ethno-cultural and disadvantaged communities in the Majority and Minority world need to be considered to enhance scientific merit, public awareness, and social justice. The same applies to people with vulnerabilities yet who are simultaneously capable, such as children and youth. The ethical principles of respect for persons or autonomy, beneficence/non-maleficence, justice, and relationality require careful contextualization for research involving human beings. Building on the work of Fisher and colleagues (2002), this article highlights some strategies to stimulate the ethical conduct of global mental health research and to guide decision-making for culturally responsible research, such as developing culturally sensitive informed consent and disclosure policies and procedures; paying special attention to socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental risks and benefits; and ensuring meaningful community and individual participation. Research and capacity-building partnerships, political will, and access to resources are needed to stimulate global mental health research and consolidate ethical practice. PMID:24668025

  2. Teaching global public health in the undergraduate liberal arts: a survey of 50 colleges.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Ainsworth, Robert M; Partap, Uttara

    2012-07-01

    Undergraduate public health and global health studies are usually found at universities with graduate programs in the disciplines. Following the experience of teaching a short course in global health within the liberal arts, we reviewed global and public health offerings at 50 liberal arts colleges for the 2009-2010 academic year. Forty-two percent had a track, concentration, or program, and 30% had global or public health student organizations. All colleges listed at least one course in the fields, with the highest number in the social sciences. However, many colleges had not coordinated them into a theme. Values of a liberal arts education are found in the study of global and public health: social responsibility, critical thinking, ethical reasoning, and knowledge of the wider world. We propose identifying these programs within the undergraduate liberal arts as global public health. Capturing interest in global public health will enhance the curriculum and student experience.In this day and age, when the world is so fluid with regard to news and information, the knowledge that unnecessary deaths are occurring and that health care lags so far behind in some regions cannot be ignored. From the standpoint of basic human rights, suffering and inequity cannot be tolerated. Williams College student during a global health short course. PMID:22764284

  3. The BC health information standards council 1 Presented at the International Medical Informatics Association Working Group 16 Conference on Standardisation in Medical Informatics, `Towards International Consensus and Cooperation', Bermuda, September 11–13, 1997. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H Coward

    1998-01-01

    The establishment of a British Columbia (BC) Health Information Standards Council is one of the strategies that is helping to develop and implement BCs vision for health information management. This vision is of effectively and efficiently managed information that enables informed decision making to achieve the results desired in our health system. The Council focuses on the identification of standards

  4. Optimizing global health experiences in emergency medicine residency programs: a consensus statement from the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors 2011 Academic Assembly global health specialty track

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An increasing number of emergency medicine (EM) residency training programs have residents interested in participating in clinical rotations in other countries. However, the policies that each individual training program applies to this process are different. To our knowledge, little has been done in the standardization of these experiences to help EM residency programs with the evaluation, administration and implementation of a successful global health clinical elective experience. The objective of this project was to assess the current status of EM global health electives at residency training programs and to establish recommendations from educators in EM on the best methodology to implement successful global health electives. Methods During the 2011 Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) Academic Assembly, participants met to address this issue in a mediated discussion session and working group. Session participants examined data previously obtained via the CORD online listserve, discussed best practices in global health applications, evaluations and partnerships, and explored possible solutions to some of the challenges. In addition a survey was sent to CORD members prior to the 2011 Academic Assembly to evaluate the resources and processes for EM residents’ global experiences. Results Recommendations included creating a global health working group within the organization, optimizing a clearinghouse of elective opportunities for residents and standardizing elective application materials, site evaluations and resident assessment/feedback methods. The survey showed that 71.4% of respondents have global health partnerships and electives. However, only 36.7% of programs require pre-departure training, and only 20% have formal competency requirements for these global health electives. Conclusions A large number of EM training programs have global health experiences available, but these electives and the trainees may benefit from additional institutional support and formalized structure. PMID:23148459

  5. Herbal medicine research and global health: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon C; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2008-08-01

    Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal medicine research: social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio. Significant challenges exist in determining shared concepts of social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio across international research collaborations. However, we argue that collaborative partnership, including democratic deliberation, offers the context and process by which many of the ethical challenges in international herbal medicine research can, and should be, resolved. By "cross-training" investigators, and investing in safety-monitoring infrastructure, the issues identified by this comprehensive framework can promote ethically sound international herbal medicine research that contributes to global health. PMID:18797616

  6. Leveraging non-binding instruments for global health governance: reflections from the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism for WHO reform.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A L; Alfven, T; Hougendobler, D; Tanaka, S; Buse, K

    2014-02-01

    As countries contend with an increasingly complex global environment with direct implications for population health, the international community is seeking novel mechanisms to incentivize coordinated national and international action towards shared health goals. Binding legal instruments have garnered increasing attention since the World Health Organization adopted its first convention in 2003. This paper seeks to expand the discourse on future global health lawmaking by exploring the potential value of non-binding instruments in global health governance, drawing on the case of the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. In other realms of international concern ranging from the environment to human rights to arms control, non-binding instruments are increasingly used as effective instruments of international cooperation. The experience of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism, established pursuant to the Declaration, evidences that, at times, non-binding legal instruments can offer benefits over slower, more rigid binding legal approaches to governance. The global AIDS response has demonstrated that the use of a non-binding instrument can be remarkably effective in galvanizing increasingly deep commitments, action, reporting compliance and ultimately accountability for results. Based on this case, the authors argued that non-binding instruments deserve serious consideration by the international community for the future of global health governance, including in the context of WHO reform. PMID:24393497

  7. WHO's role in the global health system: what can be learned from global R&D debates?

    PubMed

    Moon, Suerie

    2014-02-01

    Recent global debates on the research and development (R&D) of health technologies, such as drugs, diagnostics and vaccines, can be seen as a microcosm of discussions on the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the global health system more broadly. The global R&D system has come under heightened scrutiny with the publication of a 2012 report by the WHO Consultative Expert Working Group on Research and Development (CEWG), which made a number of recommendations to more equitably meet global health needs. The CEWG report followed a decade-long process of debate at the WHO on the weaknesses of the global R&D system, which include problems of affordability, limited research where market returns are small or uncertain (such as the 'neglected diseases' that predominantly affect the world's poorest), inefficient overlap of research efforts, and overuse of medicines such as antibiotics. The CEWG report called on WHO Member States to develop a global framework to improve monitoring, coordination and financing of R&D efforts through the establishment of a Global Health R&D Observatory and the negotiation of a binding treaty on R&D. While the treaty option has been put on the back-burner for several years, Member States nevertheless agreed at the 2013 World Health Assembly (WHA) on concrete steps towards a global framework. Progress at the 2013 WHA reaffirmed the central role of WHO as a convener, and the WHA's decision to create the Observatory within the WHO Secretariat underscored the organization's role as a source of strategic knowledge in the global health system. However, despite WHO's constitutional mandate as the 'directing and coordinating authority on international health work', in reality it faces major challenges in coordinating autonomous R&D actors such as states, firms and foundations in the global system. Strengthening its ability to do so requires, at a minimum, reforming its financing arrangements to provide it with a greater degree of independence from its largest donors. In addition, WHO may seem to be the natural arena for negotiating a binding R&D treaty, but negotiating new global agreements in other arenas such as the WTO, WIPO, or plurilateral fora offer the possibility of more enforceable and stronger public health norms. Nevertheless, no single arena in the existing system of global governance is perfectly suitable for the negotiation of progressive, inclusive, binding, enforceable, global health rules. While tradeoffs are inherent in the choice of any particular arena, leadership from either the multilateral institutions or influential governments can make a key difference in how beneficial any R&D treaty may be for health. In the coming years, global R&D debates will remain a critical issue to watch. The evolution of the global R&D system will be a harbinger not only of WHO's place in a rapidly-changing global health system, but also of our collective capacity to strengthen institutions of global governance for health. PMID:24393496

  8. In the shadowlands of global health: observations from health workers in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Prince, Ruth J; Otieno, Phelgona

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, donor funding for health interventions in Kenya and other African countries has risen sharply. Focused on high-profile diseases such as HIV/AIDS, these funds create islands of intervention in a sea of under-resourced public health services. This paper draws on ethnographic research conducted in HIV clinics and in a public hospital to examine how health workers experience and reflect upon the juxtaposition of 'global' medicine with 'local' medicine. We show that health workers face an uneven playing field. High-prestige jobs are available in HIV research and treatment, funded by donors, while other diseases and health issues receive less attention. Outside HIV clinics, patient's access to medicines and laboratory tests is expensive, and diagnostic equipment is unreliable. Clinicians must tailor their decisions about treatment to the available medical technologies, medicines and resources. How do health workers reflect on working in these environments and how do their experiences influence professional ambitions and commitments? PMID:25203252

  9. Under the (legal) radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations) is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help) fulfil the right to health beyond borders. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Results Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. Conclusions In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers lessons to build on. PMID:23153090

  10. A Global Health Elective Course in a PharmD Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arjun; Kovera, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design, development, and the first 4 implementations of a Global Health elective course intended to prepare pharmacy students pursue global health careers and to evaluate student perceptions of the instructional techniques used and of skills developed during the course. Design. Following the blended curriculum model used at Touro College of Pharmacy, the Global Health course combined team-based learning (TBL) sessions in class, out-of-class team projects, and online self-directed learning with classroom teaching and discussion sessions. Assessment. Student performance was assessed with TBL sessions, team projects, and class presentations, online quizzes, and final examinations. A precourse and postcourse survey showed improvement in global health knowledge and attitudes, and in the perception of pharmacists’ role and career opportunities in global health. Significant improvement in skills applicable to global health work was reported and students rated highly the instructional techniques, value, and relevance of the course. Conclusion. The Global Health elective course is on track to achieve its intended goal of equipping pharmacy students with the requisite knowledge and applicable skills to pursue global health careers and opportunities. After taking this course, students have gone on to pursue global field experiences. PMID:25657374

  11. The importance of human resources management in health care: a global context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefane M. Kabene; Carole Orchard; John M. Howard; Mark A. Soriano; Raymond Leduc

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper addresses the health care system from a global perspective and the importance of human resources management (HRM) in improving overall patient health outcomes and delivery of health care services. METHODS: We explored the published literature and collected data through secondary sources. RESULTS: Various key success factors emerge that clearly affect health care practices and human resources management.

  12. Page 1 of 10 Informatics

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Page 1 of 10 Informatics University of Edinburgh, Nov 26, 2008 Steve McLaughlin Signals & Spectrum Informatics University of Edinburgh, Nov 26, 2008 Steve McLaughlin Steve McLaughlin · Signals and Spectrum ­ Cross-layer optimisation issues #12;Page 3 of 10 Informatics University of Edinburgh, Nov 26, 2008 Steve

  13. Informatics Everywhere Information and Computation

    E-print Network

    Verhoeff, Tom

    Informatics Everywhere Information and Computation in Society, Science, and Technology Presented. Verhoeff @ TUE.NL 1/6 Informatics Everywhere #12;The Broader Context Society : humans acting as a group : putting `the world' to our use, twisting it c 2013, T. Verhoeff @ TUE.NL 2/6 Informatics Everywhere #12;A

  14. Multi-Sensory Informatics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katai, Zoltan; Toth, Laszlo; Adorjani, Alpar Karoly

    2014-01-01

    A recent report by the joint Informatics Europe & ACM Europe Working Group on Informatics Education emphasizes that: (1) computational thinking is an important ability that all people should possess; (2) informatics-based concepts, abilities and skills are teachable, and must be included in the primary and particularly in the secondary school…

  15. IEEE JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL AND HEALTH INFORMATICS, VOL. 18, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2014 1581 System Light-Loading Technology for mHealth

    E-print Network

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    --Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major issue to pub- lic health. It contributes 41% to the Chinese death rate each year Science and Engineering, Uni- versity at Buffalo, the State University of New York, NY 12246 USA (e Department, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China (e-mail: lxm@ pku.edu.cn). Color versions of one or more

  16. Global Health: The Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health: Vision and Mission, Programs, and Accomplishments

    PubMed Central

    Breman, Joel G.; Bridbord, Kenneth; Kupfer, Linda E.; Glass, Roger I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The Fogarty International Center (FIC) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health has supported long-term (>6 months) basic, clinical and applied research training and research for over 3,600 future leaders in science and public health from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); tens of thousands more persons have received short-term training. FIC started these programs in 1988 with the flagship HIV/AIDS International Training and Research Program (AITRP) in response to the global pandemic. More than 23 extramural training and research programs plus an intramural program are now operating – all in collaboration with other Institutes and Centers at NIH, U.S. government agencies, foundations, and partner institutions in LMICs and the U.S. While infectious diseases still reign mightily in Sub-Saharan African and South East Asian countries, non-communicable diseases are emerging globally, including in LMICs. Newer FIC training programs are addressing chronic, non-communicable diseases and strengthening the quality of medical schools and health care provider training, in addition to expanding expertise in infectious diseases. The model for successful training is based on long-term commitments, institutional strengthening, “twinning” of research centers, focus on local problems, and active mentoring. Trainees from Africa, Asia, and Latin America have made notable scientific contributions to global health, attained leadership positions, and received special recognition nationally and internationally. As the FIC programs are institutional-strengthening partnerships and candidates are carefully selected and mentored, close to 90% of FIC trainees return to their countries of origin. After returning home the FIC-trained leaders have continued to mentor and train thousands of individuals in their home countries. PMID:21896356

  17. Project management in health informatics.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * the concept of project management and its role in modern management * the generic project lifecycle process * processes used in developing a plan for the management of resources - time, cost, physical resources and people * the concept of managing risk in projects * communication processes and practices that are important to the management of projects. PMID:20407175

  18. Health, fairness and New Zealand's contribution to global post-2020 climate change action.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Hayley; Macmillan, Alex; Jones, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    Health and wellbeing have been largely ignored in discussions around climate change targets and action to date. The current public consultation around New Zealand's post-2020 climate target is an opportunity for health professionals to highlight the health implications of climate change. Without urgent global efforts to bring down global GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, the world is heading towards high levels of global warming, which will have devastating impacts on human health and wellbeing. New Zealand's action to bring down GHG emissions (as part of the global effort) has potential to improve health and reduce costs on the health sector, if health and fairness are put at the centre of policies to address climate change. New Zealand should commit to at least 40 % reductions in GHG emissions by 2030, and zero carbon emissions before 2050, with healthy and fair policies across sectors to enable reaching these targets. PMID:26117506

  19. Neonatal Informatics: Transforming Neonatal Care Through Translational Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Jonathan P.; Benitz, William E.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Butte, Atul J.; Longhurst, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The future of neonatal informatics will be driven by the availability of increasingly vast amounts of clinical and genetic data. The field of translational bioinformatics is concerned with linking and learning from these data and applying new findings to clinical care to transform the data into proactive, predictive, preventive, and participatory health. As a result of advances in translational informatics, the care of neonates will become more data driven, evidence based, and personalized. PMID:22924023

  20. Health and the environment: a global challenge. WHO Commission on Health and Environment.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    A healthy environment is not only a need, it is also a right; the right to live and work in an environment conducive to physical and mental health is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Everyone shares the responsibility for ensuring that this right is duly acknowledged. The responsibility for action lies with individuals and with business. Governments have the responsibility of setting up the strategic and institutional framework within which action is taken. There are three main global objectives: achieving a sustainable basis for health for all--by slowing down population growth as soon as possible, and promoting life-styles and patterns of consumption among affluent groups and countries that are consistent with ecological sustainability; providing an environment that promotes health--by reducing the risk of physical, chemical and biological hazards and ensuring that everyone has the means to acquire the resources on which health depends; making all individuals and organizations aware of their responsibilities for health and its environmental basis. PMID:1394773

  1. Global health competencies and approaches in medical education: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physicians today are increasingly faced with healthcare challenges that require an understanding of global health trends and practices, yet little is known about what constitutes appropriate global health training. Methods A literature review was undertaken to identify competencies and educational approaches for teaching global health in medical schools. Results Using a pre-defined search strategy, 32 articles were identified; 11 articles describing 15 global health competencies for undergraduate medical training were found. The most frequently mentioned competencies included an understanding of: the global burden of disease, travel medicine, healthcare disparities between countries, immigrant health, primary care within diverse cultural settings and skills to better interface with different populations, cultures and healthcare systems. However, no consensus on global health competencies for medical students was apparent. Didactics and experiential learning were the most common educational methods used, mentioned in 12 and 13 articles respectively. Of the 11 articles discussing competencies, 8 linked competencies directly to educational approaches. Conclusions This review highlights the imperative to document global health educational competencies and approaches used in medical schools and the need to facilitate greater consensus amongst medical educators on appropriate global health training for future physicians. PMID:21176226

  2. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: a global ''good'' for public health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allyn L. Taylor; Douglas W. Bettcher

    2000-01-01

    Although the application of legal instruments to international health issues — relative to other areas of international concern — is still at a rudimentary stage of development, the transnational health impacts of globalization provide a rationale for the codification and implementation of global norms to deal with shared problems. The experience of promulgating international agreements in other areas closely related

  3. Global health in the European Union – a review from an agenda-setting perspective

    PubMed Central

    Aluttis, Christoph; Krafft, Thomas; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    This review attempts to analyse the global health agenda-setting process in the European Union (EU). We give an overview of the European perspective on global health, making reference to the developments that led to the EU acknowledging its role as a global health actor. The article thereby focusses in particular on the European interpretation of its role in global health from 2010, which was formalised through, respectively, a European Commission Communication and European Council Conclusions. Departing from there, and based on Kingdon's multiple streams theory on agenda setting, we identify some barriers that seem to hinder the further establishment and promotion of a solid global health agenda in the EU. The main barriers for creating a strong European global health agenda are the fragmentation of the policy community and the lack of a common definition for global health in Europe. Forwarding the agenda in Europe for global health requires more clarification of the common goals and perspectives of the policy community and the use of arising windows of opportunity. PMID:24560264

  4. "Punching above its weight": why New Zealand must maintain leadership in global health.

    PubMed

    McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris

    2011-11-01

    As a small island nation, with a population of only 4.4 million, and geographically isolated from the centres of global power, New Zealand could be seen as of marginal relevance to the global health agenda. This paper argues that New Zealand has been and should remain a player in global health, even if current fiscal constraints may suggest otherwise. Involvement fits with our responsibilities and commitments in the Pacific region and our wider interests, including ethical international trade, security, global alliances and the fundamental protection of health. PMID:22072168

  5. The Global Dimensions of Public Health Preparedness and Implications for US Action

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of public health is both real and relevant throughout the United States and to Americans traveling or residing abroad. US public policy responses are evolving, but a crisper and more comprehensive global perspective is needed. I suggest four timely US actions to address today’s competing realities of globalization and economic austerity: raise awareness among clinicians and local health departments; capture and share exemplary disaster management practices across countries; ensure that US global health investments are effective, efficient, and sustainable; and think globally while acting locally to enhance US health security. The reauthorization of the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act of 2006 provides an opportunity to more clearly address the global dimensions of domestic preparedness. PMID:22515870

  6. Will the struggle for health equity and social justice be best served by a Framework Convention on Global Health?

    PubMed

    Haynes, Leigh; Legge, David; London, Leslie; McCoy, David; Sanders, David; Schuftan, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The idea of a Framework Convention for Global Health (FCGH), using the treaty-making powers of the World Health Organization (WHO), has been promoted as an opportunity to advance global health equity and the right to health. The idea has promise, but needs more thought regarding risks, obstacles, and strategies. The reform of global health governance must be based on a robust analysis of the political economy out of which the drivers of inequality and the denial of the right to health arise. Some of the published commentary has focused on using the proposed FCGH to institutionalize a paradigm change regarding international aid for health care, i.e., reconceptualizing such aid as obligatory, based on human solidarity rather than strategic considerations, based on global stability and national security. We warn against limiting the project to questions of inter-governmental financial transfers because of the risk of neglecting the underlying structural determinants of health injustice. Such neglect would help to legitimize an unjust and unsustainable global economic regime. We raise further questions about the strategic logic informing any campaign for a FCGH. The governments of the United States and Europe have put considerable effort into weakening WHO through tight donor controls, and it would require heavy pressure to persuade them to sign on to a FCGH. Generating such pressure would require strong popular mobilization around the local and diverse priorities of different communities across the globe, and recognition of a common need for effective regulation at the global level. We argue for a broad-based campaign from which the need for more effective global health regulation (and a FCGH) would emerge as a common theme arising from myriad more specific claims. This type of campaign would respond to local needs, and would also be understood within a global, political, and economic perspective. PMID:25006080

  7. Gaps in studies of global health education: an empirical literature review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhaolan; Wang, JianLi

    2015-01-01

    Background Global health has stimulated a lot of students and has attracted the interest of many faculties, thereby initiating the establishment of many academic programs on global health research and education. global health education reflects the increasing attention toward social accountability in medical education. Objective This study aims to identify gaps in the studies on global health education. Design A critical literature review of empirical studies was conducted using Boolean search techniques. Results A total of 238 articles, including 16 reviews, were identified. There had been a boom in the numbers of studies on global health education since 2010. Four gaps were summarized. First, 94.6% of all studies on global health education were conducted in North American and European countries, of which 65.6% were carried out in the United States, followed by Canada (14.3%) and the United Kingdom (9.2%). Only seven studies (2.9%) were conducted in Asian countries, five (2.1%) in Oceania, and two (0.8%) in South American/Caribbean countries. A total of 154 studies (64.4%) were qualitative studies and 64 studies (26.8%) were quantitative studies. Second, elective courses and training or programs were the most frequently used approach for global health education. Third, there was a gap in the standardization of global health education. Finally, it was mainly targeted at medical students, residents, and doctors. It had not granted the demands for global health education of all students majoring in medicine-related studies. Conclusions Global health education would be a potentially influential tool for achieving health equity, reducing health disparities, and also for future professional careers. It is the time to build and expand education in global health, especially among developing countries. Global health education should be integrated into primary medical education. Interdisciplinary approaches and interprofessional collaboration were recommended. Collaboration and support from developed countries in global health education should be advocated to narrow the gap and to create further mutual benefits. PMID:25906768

  8. Education projects: an opportunity for student fieldwork in global health academic programs.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Molly V

    2012-01-01

    Universities, especially in higher-income countries, increasingly offer programs in global health. These programs provide different types of fieldwork projects, at home and abroad, including: epidemiological research, community health, and clinical electives. I illustrate how and why education projects offer distinct learning opportunities for global health program fieldwork. As University of California students, we partnered in Tanzania with students from Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Science (MUHAS) to assist MUHAS faculty with a curricular project. We attended classes, clinical rounds, and community outreach sessions together, where we observed teaching, materials used, and the learning environment; and interviewed and gathered data from current students, alumni, and health professionals during a nationwide survey. We learned together about education of health professionals and health systems in our respective institutions. On the basis of this experience, I suggest some factors that contribute to the productivity of educational projects as global health fieldwork. PMID:23254845

  9. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AS A MEANS OF HEALTH PROMOTION: REDUCING HUMAN VULNERABILITIES TO GLOBAL CHANGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    May Chazan

    Underlying such imminent public health concerns as improper nutrition, contaminated water, (re)emerging infections, abounding chronic diseases, rising drug use, growing inequalities and perpetual in -access to care are three on-going global processes: urbanization, environmental change and globalization. While worldwide efforts are underway to identify disease patterns associated with each isolated process, cumulatively, these global trends pose a far deeper challenge

  10. Using Perceived Health to Test the Construct-Related Validity of Global Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckie, Theresa M.; Hayduk, Leslie A.

    2004-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is considered as a global, yet unidimensional, subjective assessment of one's satisfaction with life. We examine the construct validity of the available indicators of global QOL by constructing a causal model in which QOL is viewed as causally responding to several dimensions of perceived health. Global QOL is measured with…

  11. On Cognitive Informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingxu Wang

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cognitive informatics (CI) is a new discipline that studies the natural intelligence and internal information processing mechanisms of the brain, as well as the processes involved in perception and cognition. CI provides a coherent set of fundamental theories, and contemporary mathematics, which form the foundation for most information and knowledge based science and engineering disciplines such as computer science,

  12. Social Informatics Data Grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bennett Bertenthal; Robert Grossman; David Hanley; Mark Hereld; Sarah Kenny; Gina-Anne Levow; Michael E. Papka; Stephen W. Porges; Kavithaa Rajavenkateshwaran; Rick Stevens; Thomas D. Uram; Wenjun Wu

    The Social Informatics Data Grid is a new infrastructure designed to transform how social and behavioral scientists collect and annotate data, collaborate and share data, and analyze and mine large data repositories. An important goal of the project is to be compatible with existing databases and tools that support the sharing, storage and retrieval of archival data sets. It is

  13. Italian Olympiads in Informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio CASADEI; Bruno FADINI; Marta Genovič De VITA

    2007-01-01

    We describe our 6-years long experience in training and selection of the Italian team for the IOI. Based on this experience, we outline our proposals and how we intend to proceed to improve the effectiveness of these processes. 1. The Beginning During the year 2000, the Italian Ministry of Education and the Italian Association for Informatics (AICA) came to an

  14. \\NeuroImage" Informatics

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Finn Ĺrup

    in the documents. The individual words in the title were found excluding stop words (common words such as: \\the Nielsen and Lars Kai Hansen Informatics and Mathematical Modelling, Technical University of Denmark for one scienti#12;c article (a document) including the citations (to other scienti#12;c documents

  15. Biodiversity and global health—hubris, humility and the unknown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    In November 2011, botanists on a remote island off Papua New Guinea discovered a new species of orchid—uniquely and mysteriously night-flowering [1]. New to science, and with so much more to understand, this flower is threatened by deforestation [2]. Also in November 2011, a survey of 583 conservation scientists reported a unanimous (99.5%) view that 'it is likely a serious loss of biological diversity is underway at a global extent' and that, for scientists, 'protection of biological diversity for its cultural and spiritual values and because of its usefulness to humans were low priorities, which suggests that many scientists do not fully support the utilitarian concept of ecosystem services' [3]. In terms of management, some scientists now advocate controversial conservation strategies such as triage (prioritization of species that provide unique or necessary functions to ecosystems) [4, 5]. Meanwhile, there are many scientists who contend that there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the importance of biodiversity for human health and well-being, arguing that only an anthropocentric view of biodiversity within a paradigm 'ecosystem service' will enable decision-makers to prioritize the theme [6-9]. A 2011 UN report argues that this need for understanding is especially urgent in fragile and vulnerable ecosystems where communities depend directly on the resources of their environment [10]. Here we have a paradox: international conservation scientists think that we cannot protect biodiversity on the basis of its cultural and spiritual value, nor its usefulness to humans. Other scientists argue that using a utilitarian ecosystem services framework is the only way to get humans to protect biodiversity. Meanwhile, communities directly dependent on biodiverse ecosystems are often those who best understand and protect biodiversity, for exactly these reasons of use and spiritual connection, but they do not hold only a utilitarian view of their environment and its diversity. These communities often define their own 'health' as integrally linked to the 'health' of the ecosystem, and they see themselves as an integral part of the ecosystem [11]. It is generally accepted that the destruction of biodiverse ecosystems internationally is not by communities directly dependent on these ecosystems, but from processes such as deforestation, mining, resource extraction and biopiracy, generated by external human demand [12-16]. Rich countries and their populations are currently particularly responsible for the resource extraction that impacts negatively on biodiversity and on the well-being of local communities [17]. However, increasingly, urban populations in every country demand resources and products from biodiverse regions, and with rising urban populations this threat is likely to increase. To illustrate, we can take one example. Amazonia is one of Earth's most important biodiverse tropical moist forest ecosystems. As the Amazonian forest reaches the Andes it becomes a contiguous and equally vital ecosystem: the Yungas or Cloud Forest [18]. These two sister forests are amongst the most biodiverse ecosystems of the world, spanning several Latin American countries (including Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador), and over 7 million square kilometres [18, 19]. For millennia, across modern geopolitical boundaries, Amazonia/Yungas has been protected by over 1000 different indigenous peoples [20]. In turn, Amazonia/Yungas has provided health and spiritual well-being for indigenous peoples via food, medicines, home and culture [21]. Using a utilitarian view of the ecosystem, these forests also provide the world with some of its most important ecosystem services in terms of forest and food resources, current and potential new medicines, rainfall regulation and a global carbon sink [19, 22]. In terms of protection of these ecosystems, there is evidence that recognized 'indigenous territories' within Amazonia/Yungas are better protected, in terms of biodiversity and environmental damage, than other

  16. WHAT IS INFORMATICS? Informatics is the study of the structure, behaviour, and interactions

    E-print Network

    Koehn, Philipp

    WHAT IS INFORMATICS? Informatics is the study of the structure, behaviour, and interactions of natural and engineered computational systems. Informatics studies the representation, processing. The science of information and the engineering of information systems develop hand-in-hand. Informatics

  17. Sunlight and Vitamin D: A global perspective for health.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  18. Mycotoxins and human disease: a largely ignored global health issue

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Christopher P.; Gong, Yun Yun

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins and fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins contaminating a large fraction of the world's food, including maize, cereals, groundnuts and tree nuts. The toxins frequently co-occur in maize. Where these commodities are dietary staples, for example, in parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America, the contamination translates to high-level chronic exposure. This is particularly true in subsistence farming communities where regulations to control exposure are either non-existent or practically unenforceable. Aflatoxins are hepatocarcinogenic in humans, particularly in conjunction with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and cause aflatoxicosis in episodic poisoning outbreaks. In animals, these toxins also impair growth and are immunosuppressive; the latter effects are of increasing interest in human populations. FB have been reported to induce liver and kidney tumours in rodents and are classified as Group 2B ‘possibly carcinogenic to humans’, with ecological studies implying a possible link to increased oesophageal cancer. Recent studies also suggest that the FB may cause neural tube defects in some maize-consuming populations. There is a plausible mechanism for this effect via a disruption of ceramide synthase and sphingolipid biosynthesis. Notwithstanding the need for a better evidence-base on mycotoxins and human health, supported by better biomarkers of exposure and effect in epidemiological studies, the existing data are sufficient to prioritize exposure reduction in vulnerable populations. For both toxins, there are a number of practical primary and secondary prevention strategies which could be beneficial if the political will and financial investment can be applied to what remains a largely and rather shamefully ignored global health issue. PMID:19875698

  19. Beyond shamanism: the relevance of African traditional medicine in global health policy.

    PubMed

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2007-06-01

    This article explores the tension between African traditional medicine and orthodox medicine, and argues for a cosmopolitan and inclusive health policy that integrates ethnomedical therapies into the core framework of global health architecture. The paper argues that age-old traditional therapies in Africa are relegated to the peripheries of orthodox health policy. The paper briefly discusses the accelerating pace of globalization of intellectual property rights (patents) as a factor that would continue to perpetrate bio-piracy and threaten traditional herbal therapies with extinction. The search for an inclusive global health policy opens a new vista in the interaction of traditional and orthodox medicine. The paper concludes that a sustained relegation of African traditional medicine to the margins of orthodox health policy is a phenomenon that would likely project the globalization of public health as predatory, discriminatory and unfair. PMID:17639845

  20. A Basic Strategy to Manage Global Health with Reference to Livestock Production in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hall, David C.; Le, Quynh Ba

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging infectious diseases (nEIDs) have increased rapidly presenting alarming challenges to global health. We argue that for effective management of global health a basic strategy should include at least three essential tactical forms: actions of a directly focused nature, institutional coordination, and disciplinary integration in approaches to health management. Each level of action is illustrated with examples from the livestock sector in Asia. No clear example of all three tactical forms in place can be found from developing countries where food security is a significant threat although Vietnam is developing a comprehensive strategy. Finally, an ecosystem health approach to global health management is advocated; such an approach moves away from the traditional single disciplinary approach. Stronger guidance is needed to direct ecohealth research and application in the management of global health. PMID:22135772

  1. Exploring insights towards definition and laws of health in Ayurveda: Global health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Basisht, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    The current healthcare system is focused on disease management. Our current approach to treatment begins only after the diagnosis, and then attempts to treat the symptoms and prevent the progression. Despite increased global healthcare spending, there has been an increasing incidence, and severity of diseases pointing to impaired health of the populace. This progressive deterioration in general health has created an unsustainable increase in healthcare costs that has hampered the economy. Much of the rising costs in healthcare are secondary to treating the progression of preventable diseases and focus on creating new treatments. There has been an ongoing discussion of incorporating a “defense” or prevention as part of our health system. However, there are few established guidelines beyond tactical use of vaccination in known infectious diseases and screening for chronic diseases and cancers. Ayurveda has the core competency and strategy for prevention of disease. Sushruta has propounded the laws of health, which are unknown to the current healthcare system. This article describes these laws and strategic combination of Ayurveda (defense) and modern medicine (offense) to create a complete healthcare system. This system is called Symbiohealth and is potentially more effective, less expensive, less toxic and creates a healthier society. PMID:26195894

  2. ONLINE CONTENT A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008-18: Contextual influences and key components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Bakken; Patricia W. Stone; Elaine L. Larson

    The context for nursing informatics research has changed significantly since the National Institute of Nursing Research-funded Nursing Informatics Re- search Agenda was published in 1993 and the Delphi study of nursing informatics research priorities re- ported a decade ago. The authors focus on 3 specific aspects of context—genomic health care, shifting research paradigms, and social (Web 2.0) technolo- gies—that must

  3. A global perspective on energy: health effects and injustices.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Paul; Smith, Kirk R; Joffe, Michael; Haines, Andrew

    2007-09-15

    The exploitation of fossil fuels is integral to modern living and has been a key element of the rapid technological, social, and cultural changes of the past 250 years. Although such changes have brought undeniable benefits, this exploitation has contributed to a burden of illness through pollution of local and regional environments, and is the dominant cause of climate change. This pattern of development is therefore unsustainable at a global level. At the same time, about 2.4 billion of the world's population, disadvantaged by lack of access to clean energy, are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollutants from the inefficient burning of biomass fuels. Even in high-income countries, many people live in fuel poverty, and throughout the world, increasingly sedentary lifestyles (to which fossil-fuel-dependent transport systems contribute) are leading to chronic disease and injuries. Energy security is also an issue of growing concern to many governments in both the developed and developing world, and a potential source of international tension and conflict. In this Series, we examine the opportunities to improve health, reduce climate effects, and promote development through realistic adjustments in the way energy and food are produced and consumed. PMID:17876909

  4. Networking among young global health researchers through an intensive training approach: a mixed methods exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Networks are increasingly regarded as essential in health research aimed at influencing practice and policies. Less research has focused on the role networking can play in researchers’ careers and its broader impacts on capacity strengthening in health research. We used the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) annual Summer Institute for New Global Health Researchers (SIs) as an opportunity to explore networking among new global health researchers. Methods A mixed-methods exploratory study was conducted among SI alumni and facilitators who had participated in at least one SI between 2004 and 2010. Alumni and facilitators completed an online short questionnaire, and a subset participated in an in-depth interview. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was triangulated with quantitative results and CCGHR reports on SIs. Synthesis occurred through the development of a process model relevant to networking through the SIs. Results Through networking at the SIs, participants experienced decreased isolation and strengthened working relationships. Participants accessed new knowledge, opportunities, and resources through networking during the SI. Post-SI, participants reported ongoing contact and collaboration, although most participants desired more opportunities for interaction. They made suggestions for structural supports to networking among new global health researchers. Conclusions Networking at the SI contributed positively to opportunities for individuals, and contributed to the formation of a network of global health researchers. Intentional inclusion of networking in health research capacity strengthening initiatives, with supportive resources and infrastructure could create dynamic, sustainable networks accessible to global health researchers around the world. PMID:24460819

  5. The influence of health knowledge in shaping political priorities: Examining HIV\\/AIDS knowledge and public opinion about global health and domestic policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Okamoto; Sandra de Castro Buffington; Heather M. Cloum; Brett M. Mendenhall; Michael Toboni; Thomas W. Valente

    2011-01-01

    Public opinion polls have historically indicated that the US public favours domestic over global priorities. It is not known what influence health knowledge has in shaping public opinion about domestic and global health policy. This study examines how knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS is related to the rated importance of domestic and global health issues. Participants were recruited to participate in an

  6. Social Informatics Last updated: April 2014

    E-print Network

    Menczer, Filippo

    Social Informatics Last updated: April 2014 Rob Kling Center for Social Informatics Departmental URL: rkcsi.indiana.edu/ Curriculum Ph.D. Minor in Social Informatics Social Informatics (SI) refers) that takes into account their interaction with institutional and cultural contexts. Social Informatics

  7. Reporting of context and implementation in studies of global health interventions: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an increasing push for ‘evidence-based’ decision making in global health policy circles. However, at present there are no agreed upon standards or guidelines for how to evaluate evidence in global health. Recent evaluations of existing evidence frameworks that could serve such a purpose have identified details of program context and project implementation as missing components needed to inform policy. We performed a pilot study to assess the current state of reporting of context and implementation in studies of global health interventions. Methods We identified three existing criteria sets for implementation reporting and selected from them 10 criteria potentially relevant to the needs of policy makers in global health contexts. We applied these 10 criteria to 15 articles included in the evidence base for three global health interventions chosen to represent a diverse set of advocated global health programs or interventions: household water chlorination, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and lay community health workers to reduce child mortality. We used a good-fair-poor/none scale for the ratings. Results The proportion of criteria for which reporting was poor/none ranged from 11% to 54% with an average of 30%. Eight articles had ‘good’ or ‘fair’ documentation for greater than 75% of criteria, while five articles had ‘poor or none’ documentation for 50% of criteria or more. Examples of good reporting were identified. Conclusions Reporting of context and implementation information in studies of global health interventions is mostly fair or poor, and highly variable. The idiosyncratic variability in reporting indicates that global health investigators need more guidance about what aspects of context and implementation to measure and how to report them. This lack of context and implementation information is a major gap in the evidence needed by global health policy makers to reach decisions. PMID:24886201

  8. Geography with Geo-Informatics Is Geography with Geo-Informatics right for me?

    E-print Network

    Harman, Neal.A.

    Geography with Geo-Informatics Is Geography with Geo-Informatics right for me? Geo-Informatics will develop from a degree in Geography with Geo-Informatics are wide-ranging and include excellent time with Geo-Informatics degrees the same? Geo-Informatics includes a variety of different subject themes

  9. Ten years of international collaboration in biomedical informatics and beyond: the AMAUTA program in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sherrilynne; Garcia, Patricia J; Holmes, King K; Kimball, Ann Marie

    2010-01-01

    Well-trained people are urgently needed to tackle global health challenges through information and communication technologies. In this report, AMAUTA, a joint international collaborative training program between the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and the University of Washington, which has been training Peruvian health professionals in biomedical and health informatics since 1999, is described. Four short-term courses have been organized in Lima, offering training to more than 200 graduate-level students. Long-term training to masters or doctorate level has been undertaken by eight students at the University of Washington. A combination of short-term and long-term strategies was found to be effective for enhancing institutional research and training enterprise. The AMAUTA program promoted the development and institution of informatics research and training capacity in Peru, and has resulted in a group of trained people playing important roles at universities, non-government offices, and the Ministry of Health in Peru. At present, the hub is being extended into Latin American countries, promoting South-to-South collaborations. PMID:20595317

  10. Critical Reflection Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas W. Bettcher; Derek Yach; G. Emmanuel Guindon

    2000-01-01

    Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how

  11. Drug abuse and public health. A global perspective.

    PubMed

    Senay, E C

    1991-01-01

    During the past 20 years there has been a substantial increase in the data available on the prevalence and consequences of the use of drugs which are liable to abuse. The body of data is sufficiently scientific, comprehensive and global in scope to enable an overall profile of the use patterns of these drugs to be drawn in this review. The studies evaluated include those which surveyed populations of hundreds, thousands, or even more, covering a range of common drugs of abuse and using specified research methods. The data are summarised for North America, Europe, Asia and the West Pacific, Africa and South America. A complex picture has emerged, confounded by an array of factors, which this review does not address in detail, such as youth alienation, the changing role of women and the increasing sophistication of criminal networks. From a global perspective, the evidence reviewed from the various regions indicates that the use of drugs with liability for abuse is widespread and associated with public health and social problems of great magnitude. The major set of problems appears to be related to primary pattern drugs such as alcohol, nicotine, cannabis and the opioids. Cocaine may also be a worldwide threat in view of the problems it has created in some regions. Drug abuse usually starts in adolescence, and both sexes now appear to be involved where in the recent past it was predominantly men who were affected. The concurrent use of multiple substances is now becoming the modal pattern, and drug-related problems correlate with one another and with somatic, psychiatric and social pathology. Opioid use now tends to be via intravenous administration, and the doses of cannabis and cocaine base which are used are increasing. Substances with therapeutic effects on DSM-III-R diagnosable disorders, such as antidepressants and benzodiazepines, require careful consideration by policymakers because the risk:benefit ratio is different to that of primary-pattern intoxicants, especially taking into consideration the broad and proven therapeutic use of these substances and the need for their availability for patients and physicians. In conclusion, the data presented in this review indicate that the scientific description of trends and consequences of drug abuse is an indispensable first step in rational policy making. The review also identifies areas for further study and research. PMID:2021427

  12. To the point: obstetrics and gynecology global health experiences for medical students.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Brittany S; Chuang, Alice W; Abbott, Jodi F; Buery-Joyner, Samantha D; Cullimore, Amie J; Dalrymple, John L; Forstein, David A; Hueppchen, Nancy A; Kaczmarczyk, Joseph M; Page-Ramsey, Sarah; Pradhan, Archana; Wolf, Abigail; Dugoff, Lorraine

    2014-07-01

    This article, from the To the Point series prepared by the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics Undergraduate Medical Education Committee, provides educators with an overview of considerations for obstetrics and gynecology global health experiences for the medical student. Options for integration of obstetrics and gynecology global health into undergraduate medical curricula are discussed. Specific considerations for global health clinical experiences for medical students, including choosing a clinical location, oversight and mentorship, goals and objectives, predeparture preparation, and evaluation, are reviewed. PMID:24334202

  13. Governance within the World Health Assembly: a 13-year analysis of WHO Member States' contribution to global health governance.

    PubMed

    van der Rijt, Tess; Pang Pangestu, Tikki

    2015-03-01

    There is a widespread perception that developed countries in the Western world dictate the shaping and governance of global health. While there are many bodies that engage in global health governance, the World Health Organisation (WHO) is the only entity whereby 194 countries are invited to congregate together and engage in global health governance on an equal playing field. This paper examines the diversity of governance within the World Health Assembly (WHA), the supreme decision-making body of the WHO. It explores the degree and balance of policy influence between high, middle and low-income countries and the relevance of the WHO as a platform to exercise global governance. It finds that governance within the WHA is indeed diverse: relative to the number of Member States within the regions, all regions are well represented. While developed countries still dominate WHA governance, Western world countries do not overshadow decision-making, but rather there is evidence of strong engagement from the emerging economies. It is apparent that the WHO is still a relevant platform whereby all Member States can and do participate in the shaping of global health governance. PMID:25596958

  14. Global health security: the wider lessons from the west African Ebola virus disease epidemic.

    PubMed

    Heymann, David L; Chen, Lincoln; Takemi, Keizo; Fidler, David P; Tappero, Jordan W; Thomas, Mathew J; Kenyon, Thomas A; Frieden, Thomas R; Yach, Derek; Nishtar, Sania; Kalache, Alex; Olliaro, Piero L; Horby, Peter; Torreele, Els; Gostin, Lawrence O; Ndomondo-Sigonda, Margareth; Carpenter, Daniel; Rushton, Simon; Lillywhite, Louis; Devkota, Bhimsen; Koser, Khalid; Yates, Rob; Dhillon, Ranu S; Rannan-Eliya, Ravi P

    2015-05-01

    The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented in both its scale and impact. Out of this human calamity has come renewed attention to global health security--its definition, meaning, and the practical implications for programmes and policy. For example, how does a government begin to strengthen its core public health capacities, as demanded by the International Health Regulations? What counts as a global health security concern? In the context of the governance of global health, including WHO reform, it will be important to distil lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak. The Lancet invited a group of respected global health practitioners to reflect on these lessons, to explore the idea of global health security, and to offer suggestions for next steps. Their contributions describe some of the major threats to individual and collective human health, as well as the values and recommendations that should be considered to counteract such threats in the future. Many different perspectives are proposed. Their common goal is a more sustainable and resilient society for human health and wellbeing. PMID:25987157

  15. Meeting Highlights: Genome Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Ashurst, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    We bring you the highlights of the second Joint Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and Wellcome Trust ‘Genome Informatics’ Conference, organized by Ewan Birney, Suzanna Lewis and Lincoln Stein. There were sessions on in silico data discovery, comparative genomics, annotation pipelines, functional genomics and integrative biology. The conference included a keynote address by Sydney Brenner, who was awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (jointly with John Sulston and H. Robert Horvitz) a month later. PMID:18629014

  16. Chief nurse executives need contemporary informatics competencies.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Roy L

    2013-01-01

    Using the Informatics Organizing Research Model (Effken, 2003) to add context to the information gleaned from ethnographic interviews of seven chief nurse executives (CNEs) currently leading integrated delivery systems, the author concluded nurse executives can no longer depend exclusively on American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE) competencies as they outsource their responsibility for information technology knowledge to nurse informaticians, chief information officers, and physicians. Although AONE sets out a specific list of recommended information technology competencies for system CNEs, innovative nursing practice demands a more strategic, broader level of knowledge. This broader competency centers on the reality of CNEs being charged with creating and implementing a patient-centered vision that drives health care organizations' investment in technology. A new study identifies and validates the gaps between selected CNEs' self-identified informatics competencies and those set out by AONE (Simpson, 2012). PMID:24592532

  17. Globalization, states, and the health of indigenous peoples.

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, S J

    2000-01-01

    The consequences of globalization are mixed, and for the indigenous peoples of poor countries globalization has potentially important benefits. These are the result not of participation in the global economy but of participation in global networks of other indigenous peoples, environmental activists, and nongovernmental organizations. Since World War II, nonstate actors such as these have gained standing in international forums. It is indigenous peoples' growing visibility and ability to mobilize international support against the policies of their own national governments that has contributed in some important instances to their improved chances of survival. PMID:11029984

  18. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #5: HEALTH SECTOR ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Sector Assessment is one of the three levels of the assessment process that is intended to answer four questions: (1) What is the current status of the nation's health, and what are current stresses on our health? (2) How might climate change affect the country's healt...

  19. AT THE CROSSROADS BETWEEN GLOBAL HEALTH AND LOCAL CULTURES: A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duncan Pedersen

    Despite important advances made in reducing disease and death and developing cost-effective interventions, many problems remain unsolved in the global health and disease equation at the beginning of the XXI century. As a result of the epidemiological transition, \\

  20. Global burden of disease: huge inequities in the health status in developing and developed countries.

    PubMed

    Sentes, Kyla; Kipp, Walter

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines the Global Burden of Disease study which was conducted for the 1993 World Bank Development Report. The study revealed huge differences in premature death and disability in the world regions examined; sub-Saharan Africa and India had the highest burden of disease. This paper also examines how the large differences in burden of disease between developed and developing countries can be explained by economic factors, highlighting research findings that suggest egalitarian societies are likely to have better health status than countries with capitalistic, market-based economies. This study then examines the efforts of the Global Forum for Health Research to create an integrated approach to global health policy formulation, using global burden of disease data, and concludes with the assertion that adopting such an approach nationally would also assist developed countries like Canada in better dealing with future health challenges. PMID:14618830

  1. Global Health Philanthropy and Institutional Relationships: How Should Conflicts of Interest Be Addressed?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Stuckler; Sanjay Basu; Martin McKee

    2011-01-01

    David Stuckler and colleagues examine five large private global health foundations and report on the scope of relationships between these tax-exempt foundations and for-profit corporations including major food and pharmaceutical companies.

  2. Shared learning in an interconnected world: innovations to advance global health equity

    E-print Network

    Binagwaho, Agnes

    The notion of "reverse innovation";--that some insights from low-income countries might offer transferable lessons for wealthier contexts--is increasingly common in the global health and business strategy literature. Yet ...

  3. 22 Int'l Journal of Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence, 2(3), 22-30, July-September 2008 Copyright 2008, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Michael

    -September 2008 Copyright © 2008, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited) through emp

  4. Theoretical Informatics and Applications Theoret. Informatics Appl. 37 (2003) 315336

    E-print Network

    Uustalu, Tarmo

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical Informatics and Applications Theoret. Informatics Appl. 37 (2003) 315­336 DOI: 10 as the extension operation (the free monad induced by the functor H). Moss [17] and Aczel, Ad´amek, Milius trees. This work was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology un- der grant No

  5. National Environmental Health Association position on global climate change adopted July 2, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Radtke, T.; Gist, G.L.; Wittkopf, T.E.

    1997-11-01

    The National Environmental Health Association (NEHA) supports the precept that anthropogenic sources, specifically greenhouse gases, are responsible for a significant portion of the measured change in global climate. Further, NEHA supports the concept of an association between global warming and an increased risk to public health. Reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere will benefit human health. This position paper reviews current information on the status of global climate change with particular emphasis on the implications for environmental and public health. It is intended to be used as a basis from which environmental and public health practitioners and colleagues in related fields can initiate discussions with policy makers at all levels -- local, state, national, and worldwide.

  6. A framework to link international clinical research to the promotion of justice in global health.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2014-10-01

    How international research might contribute to justice in global health has not been substantively addressed by bioethics. Theories of justice from political philosophy establish obligations for parties from high-income countries owed to parties from low and middle-income countries. We have developed a new framework that is based on Jennifer Ruger's health capability paradigm to strengthen the link between international clinical research and justice in global health. The 'research for health justice' framework provides direction on three aspects of international clinical research: the research target, research capacity strengthening, and post-trial benefits. It identifies the obligations of justice owed by national governments, research funders, research sponsors, and investigators to trial participants and host communities. These obligations vary from those currently articulated in international research ethics guidelines. Ethical requirements of a different kind are needed if international clinical research is to advance global health equity. PMID:23278523

  7. Teaching corner: "first do no harm": teaching global health ethics to medical trainees through experiential learning.

    PubMed

    Logar, Tea; Le, Phuoc; Harrison, James D; Glass, Marcia

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies show that returning global health trainees often report having felt inadequately prepared to deal with ethical dilemmas they encountered during outreach clinical work. While global health training guidelines emphasize the importance of developing ethical and cultural competencies before embarking on fieldwork, their practical implementation is often lacking and consists mainly of recommendations regarding professional behavior and discussions of case studies. Evidence suggests that one of the most effective ways to teach certain skills in global health, including ethical and cultural competencies, is through service learning. This approach combines community service with experiential learning. Unfortunately, this approach to global health ethics training is often unattainable due to a lack of supervision and resources available at host locations. This often means that trainees enter global health initiatives unprepared to deal with ethical dilemmas, which has the potential for adverse consequences for patients and host institutions, thus contributing to growing concerns about exploitation and "medical tourism." From an educational perspective, exposure alone to such ethical dilemmas does not contribute to learning, due to lack of proper guidance. We propose that the tension between the benefits of service learning on the one hand and the respect for patients' rights and well-being on the other could be resolved by the application of a simulation-based approach to global health ethics education. PMID:25648122

  8. Beyond Global Warming: Interacting Ecocrises and the Critical Anthropology of Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merrill Singer

    2009-01-01

    Human health is at growing risk due to the multiple climatic effects of global warming. More importantly, it is becoming evident that individual ecocrises are not independent phenomenon but are entwined with and contribute to the intensification of other environmental predicaments. In light of a range of imagined futures that share a narrative about global warming that posits the existence

  9. Undergraduate CS Programs with Informatics

    E-print Network

    Kay, David G.

    Extending Undergraduate CS Programs with Informatics: Emphasizingsoftwareandsystemdesignincontext David G. Kay, André van der Hoek, Debra J. Richardson Department of Informatics Donald Bren School Project HCI 104 105 SE 121 102, 122, 123 125, 127 Social Impact 131 132, 134 135 PL/Systems 141, 142, 143

  10. A literary analysis of global female identity, health, and equity.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Teresa L; Cohen, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Females' experiences of identity, health, and equity share similar features around the world. This literary analysis describes the narratives of 4 female protagonists from popular fiction novels to identify similarities between their personal and contextualized experiences. The impact these private realities and public structures have on female health will be used to demonstrate the universal ecological threats to women's health. In conclusion, we offer suggestions on how to incorporate the shared female movement from domination and separation toward liberation and connection into modern health care practices that emphasize shared decision making, open communication, and social activism. PMID:25102214

  11. A Representative Management Model of Network Security in Enterprise Informatization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuqian Shi; Hongbiao Xu; Haining Wang

    2008-01-01

    The rapid development of computer network sets off a global wave of enterprise informatization. Enterprisespsila cross-regional telecommuting and internal information sharing platform are more and more dependent on the networks. However, the Internetpsilas open communication protocol and the limitations of the original design lead to increasingly serious problem of Internet security, and it caused safety problems about the normal operation

  12. Global Health Fellowships: A National, Cross-Disciplinary Survey of US Training Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brett; Izadnegahdar, Rasa; Hall, Lauren; Lee, Patrick T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Medical trainee interest and participation in global health programs have been growing at unprecedented rates, and the response has been increasing opportunities for medical students and residents. However, at the fellowship level, the number and types of global health training opportunities across specialties have not previously been characterized. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between November and December 2010 among all identified global health fellowship programs in the United States. Programs were identified through review of academic and institutional websites, peer-reviewed literature, web-based search engines, and epidemiologic snowball sampling. Identified global health fellowship programs were invited through e-mail invitation and follow-up telephone calls to participate in the web-based survey questionnaire. Results The survey identified 80 global health fellowship programs: 31 in emergency medicine, 14 in family medicine, 11 in internal medicine, 10 in pediatrics, 8 interdisciplinary programs, 3 in surgery, and 3 in women's health. Of these, 46 of the programs (57.5%) responded to the survey. Fellowship programs were most commonly between 19 and 24 months in duration and were nearly equally divided among 2 models: (1) fellowship integrated into residency, and (2) fellowship following completion of residency. Respondents also provided information on selection criteria for fellows, fellowship training activities, and graduates' career choices. Nearly half of fellowship programs surveyed were recently established and had not graduated fellows at the time of the study. Conclusion Institutions across the nation have established a significant, diverse collection of global health fellowship opportunities. A public online database (www.globalhealthfellowships.org), developed from the results of this study, will serve as an ongoing resource on global health fellowships and best practices. PMID:23730439

  13. Leadership strategies for improved nursing synergy between informatics and telehealth.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Claudia C

    2014-01-01

    The goal of best practice, best possible health care worldwide is shared by nurses and all involved with eHealth today. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the similarities and differences between informatics and telehealth from a nursing perspective, and to advocate for leadership strategies that would bring the strengths of each group to a more synergistic, collaborative professional model for the benefit of both groups. After comparing telehealth and informatics nursing and looking for commonalities, suggestions are made for bridging the gap between the two groups. Potential strategies include identifying leaders, using conflict avoidance techniques, and pursuing coaching and mentoring opportunities across the gap to enhance the professional standing and contributions of both groups. An added consideration would be to have joint conferences wherein the strengths, challenges and knowledge repositories of informatics and telehealth could be mutually appreciated. PMID:24943548

  14. Informatics applied to cytology

    PubMed Central

    Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory. PMID:19495402

  15. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poul Erik Petersen; Denis Bourgeois; Hiroshi Ogawa; Saskia Estupinan-Day; Charlotte Ndiaye

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases

  16. Interviewing Key Informants: Strategic Planning for a Global Public Health Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kun, Karen E.; Kassim, Anisa; Howze, Elizabeth; MacDonald, Goldie

    2013-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Sustainable Management Development Program (SMDP) partners with low- and middle-resource countries to develop management capacity so that effective global public health programs can be implemented and better health outcomes can be achieved. The program's impact however, was variable. Hence, there…

  17. Breast cancer management in low resource countries (LRCs): Consensus statement from the Breast Health Global Initiative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nagi S. El Saghir; Clement A. Adebamowo; Benjamin O. Anderson; Robert W. Carlson; Peter A. Bird; Marilys Corbex; Rajendra A. Badwe; Mohammad A. Bushnaq; Alexandru Eniu; Julie R. Gralow; Jay K. Harness; Riccardo Masetti; Fernando Perry; Massoud Samiei; David B. Thomas; Beatrice Wiafe-Addai; Eduardo Cazap

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) brought together international breast cancer experts to discuss breast cancer in low resource countries (LRCs) and identify common concerns reviewed in this consensus statement. There continues to be a lack of public and health care professionals' awareness of the importance of early detection of breast cancer. Mastectomy continues to be the most common treatment

  18. PHS 644/Section 040 Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Global Health and Disease in Southeast Asia

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    D, Professor Emeritus, School of Veterinary Medicine, tmyuill@wisc.edu Grading and Assignments: The description1 PHS 644/Section 040 Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Global Health and Disease in Southeast Asia to health and disease in Southeast Asia with a focus on Thailand. The course provides an overview of Thai

  19. Italy's contribution to global health: the need for a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Missoni, Eduardo; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Pacileo, Guglielmo; Gautier, Lara

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews Italian Development Assistance for Health and overall contribution to Global Health from 2001 to 2012. It analyses strategies and roles of central and decentralized authorities as well as those of private non-profit and corporate actors. The research illustrates a very low and unstable official contribution that lags far behind internationally agreed upon objectives, a highly fragmented institutional scenario, and controversial political choices favouring "vertical" global initiatives undermining national health systems, and in contrast with Italian deep-rooted principles, traditional approaches and official guidelines. Italy's contribution to global health goes beyond official development aid, however. The raising movement toward Universal Health Coverage may offer an extraordinary opportunity for a leading role to a country whose National Health System is founded on the principles of universal and equitable access to care. At the same time, the distinctive experience of Italian decentralized cooperation, with the involvement of a multiplicity actors in a coordinated effort for cooperation in health with homologous partners in developing countries, may offer--if adequately harnessed--new opportunities for an Italian "system" of development cooperation. Nevertheless, the indispensable prerequisite of a substantial increase in public funding is challenged by the current economic crisis and domestic political situation. For a renewed Italian role in development and global health, a paradigm shift is needed, requiring both conceptual revision and deep institutional and managerial reforms to ensure an appropriate strategic direction and an efficient and effective use of resources. PMID:24708890

  20. Global warming and public health: An appeal for coordinated and early action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Hussain; R. L. Hayes

    1993-01-01

    Since global warming and ozone deletion would occur over a long period of time, their adverse effects on public health may not be reversible. Therefore, more research is needed now to understand the complex and interacting issues of climate change and human health. Policy makers need to recognize the seriousness of the problem and, thus, the importance of increasing the