Science.gov

Sample records for global public good

  1. A Global Public Goods Approach to the Health of Migrants

    PubMed Central

    Widdows, Heather; Marway, Herjeet

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a global public goods approach to the health of migrants. It suggests that this approach establishes that there are a number of health goods which must be provided to migrants not because these are theirs by right (although this may independently be the case), but because these goods are primary goods which fit the threefold criteria of global public goods. There are two key advantages to this approach: first, it is non-confrontational and non-oppositional, and second, it provides self-interested arguments to provide at least some health goods to migrants and thus appeals to those little moved by rights-based arguments. PMID:26180550

  2. Global public goods and health: taking the agenda forward.

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, I.; Faust, M.

    2001-01-01

    We examined recent special health initiatives to control HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and make four policy recommendations for improving the sustainability of such initiatives. First, international cooperation on health should be seen as an issue of global public goods that concerns both poor and rich countries. Second, national health and other sector budgets should be tapped to ensure that global health concerns are fully and reliably funded; industrialized countries should lead the way. Third, a global research council should be established to foster more efficient health-related knowledge management. Fourth, managers for specific disease issues should be appointed, to facilitate policy partnerships. Policy changes in these areas have already begun and can provide a basis for further reform. PMID:11584736

  3. Communicable disease control: a 'Global Public Good' perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard; Woodward, David; Acharya, Arnab; Beaglehole, Robert; Drager, Nick

    2004-09-01

    Despite the increasing 'globalization' of health, the responsibility for it remains primarily national, generating a potential mismatch between global health problems and current institutions and mechanisms to deal with them. The 'Global Public Good' (GPG) concept has been suggested as a framework to address this mismatch in different areas of public policy. This paper considers the application of the GPG concept as an organizing principle for communicable disease control (CDC), considering in particular its potential to improve the health and welfare of the developing world. The paper concludes that there are significant limitations to the GPG concept's effectiveness as an organizing principle for global health priorities, with respect to CDC. More specifically, there are few areas of CDC which qualify as GPG, and even among those that can be considered GPGs, it is not necessarily appropriate to provide everything which can be considered a GPG. It is therefore suggested that it may be more useful to focus instead on the failure of 'collective action', where the GPG concept may then: (1) provide a rationale to raise funds additional to aid from developed countries' domestic budgets; (2) promote investment by developed countries in the health systems of developing countries; (3) promote strategic partnerships between developed and developing countries to tackle major global communicable diseases; and (4) guide the political process of establishing, and mechanisms for providing and financing, global CDC programmes with GPG characteristics, and GPGs which have benefits for CDC. In short, the GPG concept is not without limitations and weaknesses as an organizing principle, but does provide, at least in some areas, guidance in improving collective action at the international level for the improvement of global CDC. PMID:15310662

  4. Public Education Matters: Reclaiming Public Education for the Common Good in a Global Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenowski, Val

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that public education needs to be reclaimed to fulfill its role as a "democratising force" to address social and economic inequality and to respect and recognise diversity and difference. By analysing historical developments in federal policy, funding and economic contexts a case is developed to demonstrate that the role of the…

  5. Is international agricultural research a global public good? The case of rice biofortification.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The status of international agricultural research as a global public good (GPG) has been widely accepted since the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. While the term was not used at the time of its creation, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) system that evolved at that time has been described as a 'prime example of the promise, performance and perils of an international approach to providing GPGs'. Contemporary literature on international agricultural research as a GPG tends to support this view and focuses on how to operationalize the concept. This paper adopts a different starting point and questions this conceptualization of the CGIAR and its outputs. It questions the appropriateness of such a 'neutral' concept to a system born of the imperatives of Cold War geopolitics, and shaped by a history of attempts to secure its relevance in a changing world. This paper draws on a multi-sited, ethnographic study of a research effort highlighted by the CGIAR as an exemplar of GPG-oriented research. Behind the ubiquitous language of GPGs, 'partnership' and 'consensus', however, new forms of exclusion and restriction are emerging within everyday practice, reproducing North-South inequalities and undermining the ability of these programmes to respond to the needs of projected beneficiaries. PMID:21485456

  6. Can Migration Health Assessments Become a Mechanism for Global Public Health Good?

    PubMed Central

    Wickramage, Kolitha; Mosca, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Migrant health assessments (HAs) consist of a medical examination to assess a migrant’s health status and to provide medical clearance for work or residency based on conditions defined by the destination country and/or employer. We argue that better linkages between health systems and migrant HA processors at the country level are needed to shift these from being limited as an instrument of determining non-admissibility for purposes of visa issuance, to a process that may enhance public health. The importance of providing appropriate care and follow-up of migrants who “fail” their HA and the need for global efforts to enable data-collection and research on HAs are also highlighted. PMID:25342234

  7. Public goods and procreation.

    PubMed

    Anomaly, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Procreation is the ultimate public goods problem. Each new child affects the welfare of many other people, and some (but not all) children produce uncompensated value that future people will enjoy. This essay addresses challenges that arise if we think of procreation and parenting as public goods. These include whether individual choices are likely to lead to a socially desirable outcome, and whether changes in laws, social norms, or access to genetic engineering and embryo selection might improve the aggregate outcome of our reproductive choices. PMID:25743046

  8. Depreciation of public goods in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dong-Mei; Zhuang, Yong; Li, Yu-Jian; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-10-01

    In real situations, the value of public goods will be reduced or even lost because of external factors or for intrinsic reasons. In this work, we investigate the evolution of cooperation by considering the effect of depreciation of public goods in spatial public goods games on a square lattice. It is assumed that each individual gains full advantage if the number of the cooperators nc within a group centered on that individual equals or exceeds the critical mass (CM). Otherwise, there is depreciation of the public goods, which is realized by rescaling the multiplication factor r to (nc/CM)r. It is shown that the emergence of cooperation is remarkably promoted for CM > 1 even at small values of r, and a global cooperative level is achieved at an intermediate value of CM = 4 at a small r. We further study the effect of depreciation of public goods on different topologies of a regular lattice, and find that the system always reaches global cooperation at a moderate value of CM = G - 1 regardless of whether or not there exist overlapping triangle structures on the regular lattice, where G is the group size of the associated regular lattice.

  9. Toward a treaty on safety and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals and medical devices: enhancing an endangered global public good

    PubMed Central

    Faunce, Thomas Alured

    2006-01-01

    • Expert evaluations of the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical and medical devices, prior to marketing approval or reimbursement listing, collectively represent a globally important public good. The scientific processes involved play a major role in protecting the public from product risks such as unintended or adverse events, sub-standard production and unnecessary burdens on individual and governmental healthcare budgets. • Most States now have an increasing policy interest in this area, though institutional arrangements, particularly in the area of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical devices, are not uniformly advanced and are fragile in the face of opposing multinational industry pressure to recoup investment and maintain profit margins. • This paper examines the possibility, in this context, of States commencing negotiations toward bilateral trade agreement provisions, and ultimately perhaps a multilateral Treaty, on safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Such obligations may robustly facilitate a conceptually interlinked, but endangered, global public good, without compromising the capacity of intellectual property laws to facilitate local product innovations. PMID:16569240

  10. Considering Curriculum Questions and the Public Good in the Postcolonial, Global, 21st-Century Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of five chapters in "Part III, Section F: Inquiring into Curriculum" of "The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Part III: Curriculum in Theory. Introductory Essay" (William H. Schubert. pp. 391-398); "Curriculum…

  11. Good Chemical Measurements, Good Public Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Larry R.

    2005-02-01

    At every turn now, one encounters sharply debated issues and important public policies that rest on chemical information. This is true in practically any arena where public interest intersects with the material world: health care practice and public health; energy; quality of air, water, and food; manufacturing standards and product liability; criminal justice; national and international security, including the defense against terrorism. The scale can be truly global, as in the case of the current debate over climate change, which extends into international efforts to regulate gaseous emissions. Sometimes the relevant chemical measurements and applicable theory are sound and their scope is appropriate to the policy; often they are inadequate and a policy or debate overreaches the analytical capability needed to support it. In the decades ahead, the issues with us today will become even more pressing and will drive a still greater reliance on analytical chemistry. This presentation will have four parts covering (a) illustrations of the impact of analytical chemistry on public debate and public policy, including instances where analytical capabilities actually gave rise to new issues and policies, (b) the manner in which chemical information is handled and understood in public debates, (c) areas of analytical chemistry that will be critical to sound public policy in the future, and (d) implications for the education of leaders and general citizens of modern societies.

  12. Private Money, Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    It's no secret that states and the federal government have found themselves in a financial pinch when it comes to higher education. After years of recession and sluggish recovery, states have slashed per-pupil public spending on higher education by 14.6 percent since 2008. At the federal level, though money for Pell Grants has more than doubled…

  13. Trade policy and public goods.

    PubMed

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed in 1994 as the first multilateral trade organization with enforcement authority over national governments. A country's domestic standards cannot be more restrictive than international standards for trade. WTO seeks to "harmonize" individual domestic policies into uniform global standards and encompasses trade-related aspects of health, public safety, and environmental protection. These issues are transnational and pose enormous challenges to traditional governance structures. Most governments are not equipped to manage problems that transcend their borders. Moreover, international governance in social issues--with the possible exception of public health--is still in its infancy. Many groups are concerned that local public interests will be subjugated to global corporate interests. The article looks at the social ramifications of world trade policy and concludes that world trade must be balanced with sustainable environments and human health. PMID:17208712

  14. Good Chemical Measurements, Good Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Larry R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of analytical science in the formulation of public policy is described. This includes the ability to resolve atomic composition in two and three dimensions on the micrometer scale altering the means for defining intellectual property, medical diagnostics built on analytical measurements repeatedly raising international alarm over…

  15. Going public: good scientific conduct.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem underexposed as ethical challenges. Consequently, individual scientists here tend to be left alone with problems and dilemmas, with no guidance for good conduct. Ideas are presented about how to make up for this omission. Using a practical, ethical approach, the paper attempts to identify ways scientists might deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand, sins of omission-withholding important information from the public-and, on the other hand, abuses of the authority of science in order to gain publicity. Statements from interviews with scientists are used to illustrate how scientists might view the relevance of the issues raised. PMID:21088921

  16. Education Is Not a Public Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisciotta, John

    The purpose of this essay is to show that education is not a public good, and that in contrast to a public good such as national defense, education can be provided through competitive suppliers in the private sector as well as through government enterprise. A public good differs from a private good in the nature of consumption. A public good…

  17. Good Health Is a Global Issue

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Special Section Good Health Is a Global Issue Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... reasons, many of the research efforts related to global health must now deal with these non-communicable ...

  18. Privatization and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    After two centuries of public higher education in the United States, the covenant between public colleges and universities and the public that created and funded them is under strain. In a time of scarce resources and changing policy in many corners of the country and around the globe, privatization has emerged as a possible replacement for the…

  19. Higher Education and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  20. Public Television as a Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David C.; Campbell, Joyce B.

    1978-01-01

    Evaluates the Station Program Cooperative (SPC) of the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) instituted in 1974 to reduce network executive's power in public television programming by using local station program managers as consumer representatives. (MH)

  1. Reframing Public Education as a Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froese-Germain, Bernie

    2013-01-01

    In his 1847 "Report on a System of Public Elementary Instruction for Upper Canada", Egerton Ryerson stated that public education was created in Canada to ensure that youth were prepared for their "appropriate duties and employments of life … as persons of business, and also as members of the civil community in which they live."…

  2. Private Goods and Public Bads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Edward F.

    1975-01-01

    The author of this article has developed a simple economic growth model which suggests that public concern for the environment increases as the quality of the environment, for any number of reasons, becomes worse. Using this model, the author believes that Earth Day, 1970, could have been predicted. (MA)

  3. Benefits of tolerance in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-10-01

    Leaving the joint enterprise when defection is unveiled is always a viable option to avoid being exploited. Although loner strategy helps the population not to be trapped into the tragedy of the commons state, it could offer only a modest income for nonparticipants. In this paper we demonstrate that showing some tolerance toward defectors could not only save cooperation in harsh environments but in fact results in a surprisingly high average payoff for group members in public goods games. Phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal the high complexity of evolving states where cyclic dominant strategies or two-strategy alliances can characterize the final state of evolution. We identify microscopic mechanisms which are responsible for the superiority of global solutions containing tolerant players. This phenomenon is robust and can be observed both in well-mixed and in structured populations highlighting the importance of tolerance in our everyday life.

  4. Benefits of tolerance in public goods games.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Attila; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-10-01

    Leaving the joint enterprise when defection is unveiled is always a viable option to avoid being exploited. Although loner strategy helps the population not to be trapped into the tragedy of the commons state, it could offer only a modest income for nonparticipants. In this paper we demonstrate that showing some tolerance toward defectors could not only save cooperation in harsh environments but in fact results in a surprisingly high average payoff for group members in public goods games. Phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal the high complexity of evolving states where cyclic dominant strategies or two-strategy alliances can characterize the final state of evolution. We identify microscopic mechanisms which are responsible for the superiority of global solutions containing tolerant players. This phenomenon is robust and can be observed both in well-mixed and in structured populations highlighting the importance of tolerance in our everyday life. PMID:26565295

  5. Static and evolutionary quantum public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zeyang; Qin, Gan; Hu, Lingzhi; Li, Songjian; Xu, Nanyang; Du, Jiangfeng

    2008-05-01

    We apply the continuous-variable quantization scheme to quantize public goods game and find that new pure strategy Nash equilibria emerge in the static case. Furthermore, in the evolutionary public goods game, entanglement can also contribute to the persistence of cooperation under various population structures without altruism, voluntary participation, and punishment.

  6. Spatial dilemmas of diffusible public goods.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin; Gore, Jeff; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of cooperation is a central question in evolutionary biology. Microorganisms often cooperate by producing a chemical resource (a public good) that benefits other cells. The sharing of public goods depends on their diffusion through space. Previous theory suggests that spatial structure can promote evolution of cooperation, but the diffusion of public goods introduces new phenomena that must be modeled explicitly. We develop an approach where colony geometry and public good diffusion are described by graphs. We find that the success of cooperation depends on a simple relation between the benefits and costs of the public good, the amount retained by a producer, and the average amount retained by each of the producer's neighbors. These quantities are derived as analytic functions of the graph topology and diffusion rate. In general, cooperation is favored for small diffusion rates, low colony dimensionality, and small rates of decay of the public good. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01169.001. PMID:24347543

  7. Global Public Leadership in a Technological Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Good (ethical and effective) global public leadership--by national politicians, intergovernmental and nongovernmental international organizational leaders, multinational corporate leaders, and technoscientists--will make a significant positive difference in our global system's capacity to solve contemporary and futuristic global problems. High…

  8. Food Science for the Public Good

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Cassandra

    If you are interested in food science, looking for a meaningful career path, and are motivated by the desire to make a difference, you may find that a career working for the public good can be very rewarding. Often, such opportunities address issues of social responsibility, sustainability, public health, and/or economic development. Food scientists who choose this path typically have an interest in social and public health issues, and are usually driven by the achievement of some sort of social, health, or societal gain. As food science in itself is a very broad discipline, applying this knowledge for the public good can also take a variety of paths. Whether you're interested in manufacturing, food safety, nutrition, food policy, product development, quality control, marketing and sales, or any other discipline that makes up the diverse field of food science, various opportunities exist to make a difference to society.

  9. Public Good Diffusion Limits Microbial Mutualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Rajita; Korolev, Kirill S.

    2015-04-01

    Standard game theory cannot describe microbial interactions mediated by diffusible molecules. Nevertheless, we show that one can still model microbial dynamics using game theory with parameters renormalized by diffusion. Contrary to expectations, greater sharing of metabolites reduces the strength of cooperation and leads to species extinction via a nonequilibrium phase transition. We report analytic results for the critical diffusivity and the length scale of species intermixing. Species producing slower public good is favored by selection when fitness saturates with nutrient concentration.

  10. Effect of the depreciation of public goods in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dong-Mei; Zhuang, Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-02-01

    In this work, the depreciation effect of public goods is considered in the public goods games, which is realized by rescaling the multiplication factor r of each group as r‧=r( (β≥0). It is assumed that each individual enjoys the full profit r of the public goods if all the players of this group are cooperators. Otherwise, the value of public goods is reduced to r‧. It is found that compared with the original version (β=0), the emergence of cooperation is remarkably promoted for β>0, and there exist intermediate values of β inducing the best cooperation. Particularly, there exists a range of β inducing the highest cooperative level, and this range of β broadens as r increases. It is further presented that the variation of cooperator density with noise has close relations with the values of β and r, and cooperation at an intermediate value of β=1.0 is most tolerant to noise.

  11. Instrumenting Beliefs in Threshold Public Goods.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Angela C M; Spraggon, John M; Denny, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal impact of beliefs on contributions in Threshold Public Goods (TPGs) is particularly important since the social optimum can be supported as a Nash Equilibrium and best-response contributions are a function of beliefs. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of beliefs on behavior are plagued with endogeneity concerns. We create a set of instruments by cleanly and exogenously manipulating beliefs without deception. Tests indicate that the instruments are valid and relevant. Perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find evidence that beliefs are endogenous in either the one-shot or repeated-decision settings. TPG allocations are determined by a base contribution and beliefs in a one shot-setting. In the repeated-decision environment, once we instrument for first-round allocations, we find that second-round allocations are driven equally by beliefs and history. Moreover, we find that failing to instrument prior decisions overstates their importance. PMID:26859492

  12. Instrumenting Beliefs in Threshold Public Goods

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal impact of beliefs on contributions in Threshold Public Goods (TPGs) is particularly important since the social optimum can be supported as a Nash Equilibrium and best-response contributions are a function of beliefs. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of beliefs on behavior are plagued with endogeneity concerns. We create a set of instruments by cleanly and exogenously manipulating beliefs without deception. Tests indicate that the instruments are valid and relevant. Perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find evidence that beliefs are endogenous in either the one-shot or repeated-decision settings. TPG allocations are determined by a base contribution and beliefs in a one shot-setting. In the repeated-decision environment, once we instrument for first-round allocations, we find that second-round allocations are driven equally by beliefs and history. Moreover, we find that failing to instrument prior decisions overstates their importance. PMID:26859492

  13. Learning process in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, André; Huang, Weini; Campos, Paulo R. A.; Ferreira, Fernando Fagundes

    2015-07-01

    We propose an individual-based model to describe the effects of memory and learning in the evolution of cooperation in a public goods game (PGG) in a well-mixed population. Individuals are endowed with a set of strategies, and in every round of the game they use one strategy out of this set based on their memory and learning process. The payoff of a player using a given strategy depends on the public goods enhancement factor r and the collective action of all players. We investigate the distribution of used strategies as well as the distribution of information patterns. The outcome depends on the learning process, which can be dynamic or static. In the dynamic learning process, the players can switch their strategies along the whole game, and use the strategy providing the highest payoff at current time step. In the static learning process, there is a training period where the players randomly explore different strategies out of their strategy sets. In the rest of the game, players only use the strategy providing the highest payoff during the training period. In the dynamic learning process, we observe a transition from a non-cooperative regime to a regime where the level of cooperation reaches about 50 %. As in the standard PGG, in the static learning process there is a transition from the non-cooperative regime to a regime where the level of cooperation can be higher than 50% at r = N. In both learning processes the transition becomes smoother as the memory size of individuals increases, which means that the lack of information is a key ingredient causing the defection.

  14. Good medical ethics, justice and provincial globalism.

    PubMed

    Prah Ruger, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The summer 2014 Ebola virus outbreak in Western Africa illustrates global health's striking inequalities. Globalisation has also increased pandemics, and disparate health system conditions mean that where one falls ill or is injured in the world can mean the difference between quality care, substandard care or no care at all, between full recovery, permanent ill effects and death. Yet attention to the normative underpinnings of global health justice and distribution remains, despite some important exceptions, inadequate in medical ethics, bioethics and political philosophy. We need a theoretical foundation on which to build a more just world. Provincial globalism (PG), grounded in capability theory, offers a foundation; it provides the components of a global health justice framework that can guide implementation. Under PG, all persons possess certain health entitlements. Global health justice requires progressively securing this health capabilities threshold for every person. PMID:25516948

  15. "Is Public Sociology Such a Good Idea?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Jonathan H.

    2005-01-01

    Michael Burawoy's call for a public sociology disciplined by professional and policy sociology, on the one side, and driven by critical sociology, on the other, exposes the ideological biases of sociology to publics. In so doing, public sociology will thwart non-ideological efforts for sociology to exert influence on broader publics and on…

  16. Globalizing Students Acting for the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencze, Larry; Carter, Lyn

    2011-01-01

    It is apparent that many of us live in a hyper-economized world, in which personal identities and routine practices are significantly oriented towards production and consumption of for-profit goods and services. Extreme consumerism resulting from this orientation often is associated with many personal, social, and environmental problems.…

  17. Is globalization good for your health?

    PubMed Central

    Dollar, D.

    2001-01-01

    Four points are made about globalization and health. First, economic integration is a powerful force for raising the incomes of poor countries. In the past 20 years several large developing countries have opened up to trade and investment, and they are growing well--faster than the rich countries. Second, there is no tendency for income inequality to increase in countries that open up. The higher growth that accompanies globalization in developing countries generally benefits poor people. Since there is a large literature linking income of the poor to health status, we can be reasonably confident that globalization has indirect positive effects on nutrition, infant mortality and other health issues related to income. Third, economic integration can obviously have adverse health effects as well: the transmission of AIDS through migration and travel is a dramatic recent example. However, both relatively closed and relatively open developing countries have severe AIDS problems. The practical solution lies in health policies, not in policies on economic integration. Likewise, free trade in tobacco will lead to increased smoking unless health-motivated disincentives are put in place. Global integration requires supporting institutions and policies. Fourth, the international architecture can be improved so that it is more beneficial to poor countries. For example, with regard to intellectual property rights, it may be practical for pharmaceutical innovators to choose to have intellectual property rights in either rich country markets or poor country ones, but not both. In this way incentives could be strong for research on diseases in both rich and poor countries. PMID:11584730

  18. What's Good? Describing Your Public Library's Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas A.; Van House, Nancy A.

    This workbook explains how to define what various constituents connected with a public library want it to do and what doing these things well means in qualitative terms. The book aims to define effectiveness for the public library and to provide guidelines for assessing the library's effectiveness and communicating this to stakeholders. The eight…

  19. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  20. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  1. Pedagogical Uses of the Public Goods Concept in Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesling, Herbert J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes some of the relatively unknown aspects of the concept of public goods and shows how they might be brought into undergraduate textbooks in microeconomic principles, public finance, and welfare economics. Illustrates how these aspects of public goods can be brought into undergraduate instruction. (DB)

  2. Good News about Urban Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For more than a century, urban public schools have provided economic opportunities through education to some of the nation's largest, most diverse, and neediest populations. By embracing these challenges, our nation's urban schools have provided the know-how and backbone upon which our cities have grown and thrived. In this report, the Council of…

  3. Universities, the Public Good and Professional Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Linda; Stokes, Rebecca; Walker, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    In times of economic uncertainty, questions of the purpose and value of higher education come to the fore. Such questions have particular relevance when directed towards the preparation of professionally qualified graduates who might be expected to contribute to the public good. However, definitions of the public good are contested and the role of…

  4. Local Residential Sorting and Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouhle, Keith; Corrigan, Jay; Croson, Rachel; Farnham, Martin; Garip, Selhan; Habodaszova, Luba; Johnson, Laurie Tipton; Johnson, Martin; Reiley, David

    2005-01-01

    This classroom exercise illustrates the Tiebout (1956) hypothesis that residential sorting across multiple jurisdictions leads to a more efficient allocation of local public goods. The exercise places students with heterogeneous preferences over a public good into a single classroom community. A simple voting mechanism determines the level of…

  5. Good enough tools for global warming policy making.

    PubMed

    Socolow, R H; Lam, S H

    2007-04-15

    We present a simple analysis of the global warming problem caused by the emissions of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas) into the atmosphere resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. We provide quantitative tools which enable policymakers and interested citizens to explore the following issues central to the global warming problem. (i) At what rate are we permitted to continue to emit CO2 after the global average atmospheric concentration has 'stabilized' at some chosen target level? The answer here provides the magnitude of the effort, measured by the necessary total reduction of today's global (annual) emissions rate to achieve stabilization. We shall see that stabilized emissions rates for all interesting stabilized concentration levels are much lower than the current emissions rate, but these small finite values are very important. (ii) Across how many years can we spread the total effort to reduce the annual CO2 emissions rate from its current high value to the above-mentioned low and stabilized target value? The answer here provides the time-scale of the total mitigation effort for any chosen atmospheric concentration target level. We confirm the common understanding that targets below a doubling of the pre-industrial concentration create great pressure to produce action immediately, while targets above double the pre-industrial level can tolerate longer periods of inaction. (iii) How much harder is the future mitigation effort, if we do not do our share of the job now? Is it a good idea to overshoot a stabilization target? The quantitative answers here provide the penalty of procrastination. For example, the mitigation task to avoid doubling the pre-industrial level is a problem that can be addressed gradually, over a period extending more than a century, if started immediately, but procrastination can turn the effort into a much more urgent task that extends over only a few decades. We also find that overshooting target levels is a bad idea. The quality of

  6. Avoiding or restricting defectors in public goods games?

    PubMed

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Lenaerts, Tom

    2015-02-01

    When creating a public good, strategies or mechanisms are required to handle defectors. We first show mathematically and numerically that prior agreements with posterior compensations provide a strategic solution that leads to substantial levels of cooperation in the context of public goods games, results that are corroborated by available experimental data. Notwithstanding this success, one cannot, as with other approaches, fully exclude the presence of defectors, raising the question of how they can be dealt with to avoid the demise of the common good. We show that both avoiding creation of the common good, whenever full agreement is not reached, and limiting the benefit that disagreeing defectors can acquire, using costly restriction mechanisms, are relevant choices. Nonetheless, restriction mechanisms are found the more favourable, especially in larger group interactions. Given decreasing restriction costs, introducing restraining measures to cope with public goods free-riding issues is the ultimate advantageous solution for all participants, rather than avoiding its creation. PMID:25540240

  7. Avoiding or restricting defectors in public goods games?

    PubMed Central

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Lenaerts, Tom

    2015-01-01

    When creating a public good, strategies or mechanisms are required to handle defectors. We first show mathematically and numerically that prior agreements with posterior compensations provide a strategic solution that leads to substantial levels of cooperation in the context of public goods games, results that are corroborated by available experimental data. Notwithstanding this success, one cannot, as with other approaches, fully exclude the presence of defectors, raising the question of how they can be dealt with to avoid the demise of the common good. We show that both avoiding creation of the common good, whenever full agreement is not reached, and limiting the benefit that disagreeing defectors can acquire, using costly restriction mechanisms, are relevant choices. Nonetheless, restriction mechanisms are found the more favourable, especially in larger group interactions. Given decreasing restriction costs, introducing restraining measures to cope with public goods free-riding issues is the ultimate advantageous solution for all participants, rather than avoiding its creation. PMID:25540240

  8. Parent Trigger Policies, Representation, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Saultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of representation and democratic education, this article examines the impetus of parent trigger policies in the United States and their potential effects on public good goals for public education. The article also uses theories of representation and responsible democratic governance to assess the parent trigger policies, or what are…

  9. Potential follow-up increases private contributions to public goods.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Todd; Ternovski, John; Yoeli, Erez

    2016-05-10

    People contribute more to public goods when their contributions are made more observable to others. We report an intervention that subtly increases the observability of public goods contributions when people are solicited privately and impersonally (e.g., mail, email, social media). This intervention is tested in a large-scale field experiment (n = 770,946) in which people are encouraged to vote through get-out-the-vote letters. We vary whether the letters include the message, "We may call you after the election to ask about your voting experience." Increasing the perceived observability of whether people vote by including that message increased the impact of the get-out-the-vote letters by more than the entire effect of a typical get-out-the-vote letter. This technique for increasing perceived observability can be replicated whenever public goods solicitations are made in private. PMID:27114553

  10. Solutions to the public goods dilemma in bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Knut; Nadell, Carey D.; Stone, Howard A.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria frequently live in densely populated surface-bound communities, termed biofilms. Biofilm-dwelling cells rely on secretion of extracellular substances to construct their communities and to capture nutrients from the environment. Some secreted factors behave as cooperative public goods: they can be exploited by non-producing cells. The means by which public-good-producing bacteria avert exploitation in biofilm environments are largely unknown. Using experiments with Vibrio cholerae, which secretes extracellular enzymes to digest its primary food source, the solid polymer chitin, we show that the public goods dilemma may be solved by two very different mechanisms: cells can produce thick biofilms that confine the goods to producers, or fluid flow can remove soluble products of chitin digestion, denying access to non-producers. Both processes are unified by limiting the distance over which enzyme-secreting cells provide benefits to neighbors, resulting in preferential benefit to nearby clonemates and allowing kin selection to favor public good production. Our results demonstrate new mechanisms by which the physical conditions of natural habitats can interact with bacterial physiology to promote the evolution of cooperation.

  11. Civic Engagement. The University as a Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    As a public good, universities have a rare and critical role to play. While Universities educate leaders for the future, they also address important societal issues of the day. The discoveries can and do change the world. The groundwork is laid for the future as work is done to preserve the culture of the past. The university?s role is "rare"…

  12. Government Service as a Public and Personal Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimer, Barbara K.

    2016-01-01

    The concerted, strategic efforts of government leaders can create rapid accelerations in knowledge and the application of that knowledge for the public good. Government service can represent part or all of one's career. Working at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) early in my career helped me develop a macro-level understanding of how the…

  13. How insurance affects altruistic provision in threshold public goods games

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianlei; Zhang, Chunyan; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence and maintenance of cooperative behaviors in public goods systems have attracted great research attention across multiple disciplines. A threshold public goods game requires a minimum amount of contributions to be collected from a group of individuals for provision to occur. Here we extend the common binary-strategy combination of cooperation and defection by adding a third strategy, called insured cooperation, which corresponds to buying an insurance covering the potential loss resulted from the unsuccessful public goods game. Particularly, only the contributing agents can opt to be insured, which is an effort decreasing the amount of the potential loss occurring. Theoretical computations suggest that when agents face the potential aggregate risk in threshold public goods games, more contributions occur with increasing compensation from insurance. Moreover, permitting the adoption of insurance significantly enhances individual contributions and facilitates provision, especially when the required threshold is high. This work also relates the strategy competition outcomes to different allocation rules once the resulted contributions exceed the threshold point in populations nested within a dilemma. PMID:25765206

  14. A public goods approach to major evolutionary innovations.

    PubMed

    Erwin, D H

    2015-07-01

    The history of life is marked by a small number of major transitions, whether viewed from a genetic, ecological, or geological perspective. Specialists from various disciplines have focused on the packaging of information to generate new evolutionary individuals, on the expansion of ecological opportunity, or the abiotic drivers of environmental change to which organisms respond as the major drivers of these episodes. But the critical issue for understanding these major evolutionary transitions (METs) lies in the interactions between environmental, ecologic, and genetic change. Here, I propose that public goods may serve as one currency of such interactions: biological products that are non-excludable and non-rivalrous. Such biological public goods may be involved in either the generation of new evolutionary variation, as with genetic sequences that are easily transferred between different microbial lineages, or in the construction of new ecological niches, as with the progressive oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere. Attention to public goods emphasizes the processes by which organisms actively construct their own evolutionary opportunities. Such public goods may have facilitated some METs. PMID:25867676

  15. The role of noise in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto; Battiston, Federico

    2016-07-01

    In this work we aim to analyze the role of noise in the spatial public goods game, one of the most famous games in evolutionary game theory. The dynamics of this game is affected by a number of parameters and processes, namely the topology of interactions among the agents, the synergy factor, and the strategy revision phase. The latter is a process that allows agents to change their strategy. Notably, rational agents tend to imitate richer neighbors, in order to increase the probability to maximize their payoff. By implementing a stochastic revision process, it is possible to control the level of noise in the system, so that even irrational updates may occur. In particular, in this work we study the effect of noise on the macroscopic behavior of a finite structured population playing the public goods game. We consider both the case of a homogeneous population, where the noise in the system is controlled by tuning a parameter representing the level of stochasticity in the strategy revision phase, and a heterogeneous population composed of a variable proportion of rational and irrational agents. In both cases numerical investigations show that the public goods game has a very rich behavior which strongly depends on the amount of noise in the system and on the value of the synergy factor. To conclude, our study sheds a new light on the relations between the microscopic dynamics of the public goods game and its macroscopic behavior, strengthening the link between the field of evolutionary game theory and statistical physics.

  16. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  17. Physical solutions to the public goods dilemma in bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Knut; Nadell, Carey; Stone, Howard; Wingreen, Ned; Bassler, Bonnie

    2013-11-01

    Bacteria frequently live in densely populated surface-bound communities, termed biofilms. Biofilm-dwelling cells rely on secretion of extracellular substances to construct their communities and to capture nutrients from the environment. Some secreted factors behave as cooperative public goods: they can be exploited by non-producing cells. The means by which public good producing bacteria avert exploitation in biofilm environments are largely unknown. Using experiments with Vibrio cholerae, which secretes extracellular enzymes to digest its primary food source, the solid polymer chitin, we show that the public goods dilemma may be solved by two dramatically different, physical mechanisms: cells can produce thick biofilms that confine the goods to producers, or fluid flow can remove soluble products of chitin digestion, denying access to non-producers. Both processes limit the distance over which enzyme-secreting cells provide a benefit to neighbors, resulting in preferential benefit to nearby clonemates. Our results demonstrate how bacterial physiology and environmental conditions can interact with social phenotypes to influence the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation within biofilms.

  18. Promotion of the good life by public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Uosukainen, L M

    2001-01-01

    The question of what is the good life has been discussed by philosophers since antiquity. The good of an individual and of a community is complicated. Communities influence an individual's experiences and world views, which are always individual. Public health nurses promoting the good life need multidisciplinary knowledge, as well as other skills such as personal competence and qualifications. The focus of the theoretical framework of promotion of the good life is based on models of health promotion and sustainable development. Working with different clients requires nursing theories, other theories, and multidisciplinary models in practice. Continual quality improvement is needed in order to increase customer satisfaction. This article discusses a doctoral thesis that consists of three empirical studies. The theoretical framework for promotion of the good life as the work of public health nurses is outlined, and the outcomes of the first study, the qualifications concerning health, and the environment are described. In the other parts of the study, curriculum building using future methodology and evaluation with concept maps is reported. PMID:11737805

  19. Sociality as a natural mechanism of public goods provision.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Elliot T; Lukinova, Evgeniya; Menshikov, Ivan; Myagkov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    In the recent literature, several hypotheses have been offered to explain patterns of human behavior in social environments. In particular, these patterns include 'prosocial' ones, such as fairness, cooperation, and collective good provision. Psychologists suggest that these prosocial behaviors are driven not by miscalculations, but by salience of social identity, in-group favoritism, emotion, or evolutionary adaptations. This paper imports psychology scholarship into an economic model and results in a sustainable solution to collective action problems without any external enforcement mechanisms. This natural mechanism of public goods provision is created, analyzed, and observed in a controlled laboratory environment using experimental techniques. PMID:25790099

  20. Sociality as a Natural Mechanism of Public Goods Provision

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, Elliot T.; Lukinova, Evgeniya; Menshikov, Ivan; Myagkov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    In the recent literature, several hypotheses have been offered to explain patterns of human behavior in social environments. In particular, these patterns include ‘prosocial’ ones, such as fairness, cooperation, and collective good provision. Psychologists suggest that these prosocial behaviors are driven not by miscalculations, but by salience of social identity, in-group favoritism, emotion, or evolutionary adaptations. This paper imports psychology scholarship into an economic model and results in a sustainable solution to collective action problems without any external enforcement mechanisms. This natural mechanism of public goods provision is created, analyzed, and observed in a controlled laboratory environment using experimental techniques. PMID:25790099

  1. Nudge for (the Public) Good: How Defaults Can Affect Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Fosgaard, Toke R.; Piovesan, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we test the effect of non-binding defaults on the level of contribution to a public good. We manipulate the default numbers appearing on the decision screen to nudge subjects toward a free-rider strategy or a perfect conditional cooperator strategy. Our results show that the vast majority of our subjects did not adopt the default numbers, but their stated strategy was affected by the default. Moreover, we find that our manipulation spilled over to a subsequent repeated public goods game where default was not manipulated. Here we found that subjects who previously saw the free rider default were significantly less cooperative than those who saw the perfect conditional cooperator default. PMID:26717569

  2. Intergroup information exchange drives cooperation in the public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia-Lázaro, C.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.; Floría, L. M.; Moreno, Y.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we explore the onset of cooperative traits in the public goods game. This well-known game involves N-agent interactions and thus reproduces a large number of social scenarios in which cooperation appears to be essential. Many studies have recently addressed how the structure of the interaction patterns influences the emergence of cooperation. Here we study how information about the payoffs collected by each individual in the different groups it participates in influences the decisions made by its group partners. Our results point out that cross-information plays a fundamental and positive role in the evolution of cooperation for different versions of the public goods game and different interaction structures.

  3. Nudge for (the Public) Good: How Defaults Can Affect Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Fosgaard, Toke R; Piovesan, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we test the effect of non-binding defaults on the level of contribution to a public good. We manipulate the default numbers appearing on the decision screen to nudge subjects toward a free-rider strategy or a perfect conditional cooperator strategy. Our results show that the vast majority of our subjects did not adopt the default numbers, but their stated strategy was affected by the default. Moreover, we find that our manipulation spilled over to a subsequent repeated public goods game where default was not manipulated. Here we found that subjects who previously saw the free rider default were significantly less cooperative than those who saw the perfect conditional cooperator default. PMID:26717569

  4. Diversity of contribution promotes cooperation in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jia; Li, Zhi; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2010-08-01

    In most previous studies of public goods game, individuals conventionally donate their contributions equally to the games they participate in. We develop an extended public goods game model, in which individuals distribute their contributions based on the groups’ qualities. Namely, the individuals are allowed to increase their investment to the superior groups at the expense of the nasty ones. The quality of a group is positively correlated with its cooperation level. In numerical simulations, synchronized stochastic strategy updating rule based on pairwise comparison for a fixed noise level is adopted. The results show that the high-quality group preference mechanism can greatly improve cooperation, compared with conventional models. Besides, the system with stronger preference toward high-quality groups performs better. Investigation of wealth distribution at equilibrium reveals that cooperators’ wealth appreciates with the increase of preference degree when cooperators take up the same fraction of the population.

  5. Intergroup information exchange drives cooperation in the public goods game.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Lázaro, C; Gómez-Gardeñes, J; Floría, L M; Moreno, Y

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we explore the onset of cooperative traits in the public goods game. This well-known game involves N-agent interactions and thus reproduces a large number of social scenarios in which cooperation appears to be essential. Many studies have recently addressed how the structure of the interaction patterns influences the emergence of cooperation. Here we study how information about the payoffs collected by each individual in the different groups it participates in influences the decisions made by its group partners. Our results point out that cross-information plays a fundamental and positive role in the evolution of cooperation for different versions of the public goods game and different interaction structures. PMID:25375550

  6. Evolution of optimal Hill coefficients in nonlinear public goods games.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2016-10-01

    In evolutionary game theory, the effect of public goods like diffusible molecules has been modelled using linear, concave, sigmoid and step functions. The observation that biological systems are often sigmoid input-output functions, as described by the Hill equation, suggests that a sigmoid function is more realistic. The Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme kinetics, however, predicts a concave function, and while mechanistic explanations of sigmoid kinetics exist, we lack an adaptive explanation: what is the evolutionary advantage of a sigmoid benefit function? We analyse public goods games in which the shape of the benefit function can evolve, in order to determine the optimal and evolutionarily stable Hill coefficients. We find that, while the dynamics depends on whether output is controlled at the level of the individual or the population, intermediate or high Hill coefficients often evolve, leading to sigmoid input-output functions that for some parameters are so steep to resemble a step function (an on-off switch). Our results suggest that, even when the shape of the benefit function is unknown, biological public goods should be modelled using a sigmoid or step function rather than a linear or concave function. PMID:27343626

  7. Directional learning and the provisioning of public goods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nax, Heinrich H.; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    We consider an environment where players are involved in a public goods game and must decide repeatedly whether to make an individual contribution or not. However, players lack strategically relevant information about the game and about the other players in the population. The resulting behavior of players is completely uncoupled from such information, and the individual strategy adjustment dynamics are driven only by reinforcement feedbacks from each player's own past. We show that the resulting ``directional learning'' is sufficient to explain cooperative deviations away from the Nash equilibrium. We introduce the concept of k-strong equilibria, which nest both the Nash equilibrium and the Aumann-strong equilibrium as two special cases, and we show that, together with the parameters of the learning model, the maximal k-strength of equilibrium determines the stationary distribution. The provisioning of public goods can be secured even under adverse conditions, as long as players are sufficiently responsive to the changes in their own payoffs and adjust their actions accordingly. Substantial levels of public cooperation can thus be explained without arguments involving selflessness or social preferences, solely on the basis of uncoordinated directional (mis)learning.

  8. Directional learning and the provisioning of public goods.

    PubMed

    Nax, Heinrich H; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    We consider an environment where players are involved in a public goods game and must decide repeatedly whether to make an individual contribution or not. However, players lack strategically relevant information about the game and about the other players in the population. The resulting behavior of players is completely uncoupled from such information, and the individual strategy adjustment dynamics are driven only by reinforcement feedbacks from each player's own past. We show that the resulting "directional learning" is sufficient to explain cooperative deviations away from the Nash equilibrium. We introduce the concept of k-strong equilibria, which nest both the Nash equilibrium and the Aumann-strong equilibrium as two special cases, and we show that, together with the parameters of the learning model, the maximal k-strength of equilibrium determines the stationary distribution. The provisioning of public goods can be secured even under adverse conditions, as long as players are sufficiently responsive to the changes in their own payoffs and adjust their actions accordingly. Substantial levels of public cooperation can thus be explained without arguments involving selflessness or social preferences, solely on the basis of uncoordinated directional (mis)learning. PMID:25619192

  9. Group preferential selection promotes cooperation in spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-Bin; Wang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in public goods games on the square lattice, focusing on the co-player learning mechanism based on the preferential selection that are brought about by wealthy information of groups where participants collect and search for potential imitators from those groups. We find that co-player learning mechanism based on the choice of weighted group can lead to the promotion of public cooperation by means of the information of wealthy groups that is obtained by participants, and after that the partial choice of public goods groups is enhanced with the tunable preferential parameter. Our results highlight that the learning interactions is not solely confined to the restricted connection among players, but co-players of wealthy groups have the opportunity to be as a role model in the promotion of cooperative evolution. Moreover, we also find the size of learning affects the choice of distant players, cooperators (defectors) having more paths to exploit the phalanx of opponents to survive when the value of preferential parameter is small. Besides, the extinction thresholds of cooperators and defectors for different values of noise are also investigated.

  10. Maintenance of cooperation induced by punishment in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Xu, Zhao-Jin; Huang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Zhong

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we study the public goods games with punishment by adopting the well-known approximate best response dynamics. It shows that the evolution of cooperation is affected by two aspects when other parameters are fixed. One is the punishment mechanism which can avoid the dilemma of lacking investment, and the other is the degree of rationality. Theoretical analysis and numerical results indicate that the existence of punishment mechanism and distribution of rationality are the keys to the enhancement of cooperation level. We also testify that they can heavily influence the payoffs of system as well. The findings in this paper may provide a deeper understanding of some social dilemmas.

  11. Cooperation, Trust, and Antagonism: How Public Goods Are Promoted.

    PubMed

    Parks, Craig D; Joireman, Jeff; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-12-01

    One of the most continually vexing problems in society is the variability with which citizens support endeavors that are designed to help a great number of people. In this article, we examine the twin roles of cooperative and antagonistic behavior in this variability. We find that each plays an important role, though their contributions are, understandably, at odds. It is this opposition that produces seeming unpredictability in citizen response to collective need. In fact, we suggest that careful consideration of the research allows one to often predict when efforts to provide a collectively beneficial good will succeed and when they will fail. To understand the dynamics of participation in response to collective need, it is necessary to distinguish between the primary types of need situations. A public good is an entity that relies in whole or in part on contributions to be provided. Examples of public goods are charities and public broadcasting. Public goods require that citizens experience a short-term loss (of their contribution) in order to realize a long-term gain (of the good). However, because everyone can use the good once it is provided, there is also an incentive to not contribute, let others give, and then take advantage of their efforts. This state of affairs introduces a conflict between doing what is best for oneself and what is best for the group. In a public goods situation, cooperation and antagonism impact how one resolves this conflict. The other major type of need situation is a common-pool resource problem. Here, a good is fully provided at the outset, and citizens may sample from it. The resource is usually, but not necessarily, partially replenished. Examples of replenished resources are drinking water and trees; examples of resources that are functionally not replenished are oil and minerals. Common-pool resources allow citizens to experience a short-term gain (by getting what they want in the early life of the resource) but also present

  12. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    PubMed

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-01

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species. PMID:26503678

  13. Government Service as a Public and Personal Good.

    PubMed

    Rimer, Barbara K

    2016-06-01

    The concerted, strategic efforts of government leaders can create rapid accelerations in knowledge and the application of that knowledge for the public good. Government service can represent part or all of one's career. Working at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) early in my career helped me develop a macro-level understanding of how the NIH operates, what forces propel change, how priorities are set, and how programs are developed. While leading a large division at the National Cancer Institute later in my career, after many years in a research institution and academia, we created new models for collaboration, including transdisciplinary centers, the first NIH unit focused on dissemination (now implementation science), and tools that enabled citizens, scientists, and others to access and use effective interventions, new data sets, and ways to aggregate data to show local cancer profiles. In this article, I provide my own career as an example of the opportunities afforded by federal service-for both individuals in government service and the public good. PMID:27147538

  14. Competition of tolerant strategies in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-08-01

    Tolerance implies enduring trying circumstances with a fair and objective attitude. To determine whether evolutionary advantages might be stemming from diverse levels of tolerance in a population, we study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to cooperators, defectors, and loners, tolerant players are also present. Depending on the number of defectors within a group, a tolerant player can either cooperate in or abstain from a particular instance of the game. We show that the diversity of tolerance can give rise to synergistic effects, wherein players with a different threshold in terms of the tolerated number of defectors in a group compete most effectively against defection and default abstinence. Such synergistic associations can stabilise states of full cooperation where otherwise defection would dominate. We observe complex pattern formation that gives rise to an intricate phase diagram, where invisible yet stable strategy alliances require outmost care lest they are overlooked. Our results highlight the delicate importance of diversity and tolerance for the provisioning of public goods, and they reveal fascinating subtleties of the spatiotemporal dynamics that is due to the competition of subsystem solutions in structured populations.

  15. From Adam Smith to Ronald Reagan: Public Libraries as a Public Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Miriam

    1982-01-01

    Contrasts the arguments of economists who measure the value of library services to society by business standards with the criteria of "the public good" which predominated during the development of public libraries and argues that libraries must continue to serve the whole community. Twenty references are cited. (RAA)

  16. The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Mel W; Grab, Denise A; Livermore, Michael A; Vossler, Christian A; Glimcher, Paul W

    2015-01-01

    Environmental public goods--including national parks, clean air/water, and ecosystem services--provide substantial benefits on a global scale. These goods have unique characteristics in that they are typically "nonmarket" goods, with values from both use and passive use that accrue to a large number of individuals both in current and future generations. In this study, we test the hypothesis that neural signals in areas correlated with subjective valuations for essentially all other previously studied categories of goods (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) also correlate with environmental valuations. We use contingent valuation (CV) as our behavioral tool for measuring valuations of environmental public goods. CV is a standard stated preference approach that presents survey respondents with information on an issue and asks questions that help policymakers determine how much citizens are willing to pay for a public good or policy. We scanned human subjects while they viewed environmental proposals, along with three other classes of goods. The presentation of all four classes of goods yielded robust and similar patterns of temporally synchronized brain activation within attentional networks. The activations associated with the traditional classes of goods replicate previous correlations between neural activity in valuation areas and behavioral preferences. In contrast, CV-elicited values for environmental proposals did not correlate with brain activity at either the individual or population level. For a sub-population of participants, CV-elicited values were correlated with activity within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive control and shifting decision strategies. The results show that neural activity associated with the subjective valuation of environmental proposals differs profoundly from the neural activity associated with previously examined goods and preference measures. PMID:26221734

  17. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  18. Infectious disease surveillance in the United States and the United Kingdom: from public goods to the challenges of new technologies.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tony; Sorenson, Corinna

    2011-02-01

    Infectious diseases are a long-standing and continuing threat to health and welfare, with their containment dependent on national disease surveillance and response capacities. This article discusses infectious disease surveillance in the United States and the United Kingdom, examining historical national traditions for identifying and controlling infectious disease risks and how globalization and technical advances have influenced the evolution of their respective approaches. The two systems developed in different but parallel ways. In the United States, surveillance remained quite localized at the state level until the early twentieth century and still retains many of those features. The U.K. approach became centralized from the latter part of the nineteenth century and has principally remained so. In both cases, disease surveillance was traditionally conceived as a public good, where national or local authorities held sovereign rights and power to protect public health. With the increasing globalized nature of infectious disease, such notions shifted toward surveillance as a global public good, with countries responding in turn by creating new global health governance arrangements and regulations. However, the limitations of current surveillance systems and the strong hold of national interests place into question the provision of surveillance as a global public good. These issues are further highlighted with the introduction of new surveillance technologies, which offer opportunities for improved disease detection and identification but also create potential tensions between individual rights, corporate profit, equitable access to technology, and national and global public goods. PMID:21498799

  19. Aspiration-induced reconnection in spatial public-goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Run-Ran; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-04-01

    In this letter, we introduce an aspiration-induced reconnection mechanism into the spatial public-goods game. A player will reconnect to a randomly chosen player if its payoff acquired from the group centered on the neighbor does not exceed the aspiration level. We find that an intermediate aspiration level can promote cooperation best. This optimal phenomenon can be explained by a negative feedback effect, namely, intermediate aspiration level is able to result in a weak peak of reconnection, which will effectively change the downfall of cooperators and facilitate the fast spreading of cooperation. While insufficient reconnection and excessive reconnection induced by low and high aspiration levels are not conductive to such an effect. Moreover, we find that the intermediate aspiration level can lead to the heterogeneous distribution of degree, which will be beneficial to the evolution of cooperation.

  20. Heritability promotes cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-12-01

    Heritability is ubiquitous within most real biological or social systems. A heritable trait is most simply an offspring’s trait that resembles the parent’s corresponding trait, which can be fitness, strategy, or the way of strategy adoption for evolutionary games. Here we study the effects of heritability on the evolution of spatial public goods games. In our model, the fitness of players is determined by the payoffs from the current interactions and their history. Based on extensive simulations, we find that the density of cooperators is enhanced by increasing the heritability of players over a wide range of the multiplication factor. We attribute the enhancement of cooperation to the inherited fitness that stabilizes the fitness of players, and thus prevents the expansion of defectors effectively.

  1. Self-adjusting rule in spatial voluntary public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhaojin; Wang, Zhen; Song, Hongpeng; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2010-04-01

    The emergence and abundance of cooperation in animal and human societies is a challenging puzzle to evolutionary biology. Most research has focused on the imitation rules, but the update rules based uniquely on one's own payoff have received less attention so far. In this letter, we introduce a new yet simple update rule into a spatial voluntary public goods game where the agents located on a square lattice have longer memory and choose the successful strategies according to the game's earlier history. This introduction results in interesting dynamical properties and intriguing spatiotemporal patterns. In particular, this introduction can provide an explanation how microscopic agent-agent interactions may generate a spontaneous aggregate cooperation towards a more efficient outcome in the real-life situations. In addition, we found that the length of memory has a crucial effect on the average outcome of the population by this introduction.

  2. The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, Mel W.; Grab, Denise A.; Livermore, Michael A.; Vossler, Christian A.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental public goods—including national parks, clean air/water, and ecosystem services—provide substantial benefits on a global scale. These goods have unique characteristics in that they are typically “nonmarket” goods, with values from both use and passive use that accrue to a large number of individuals both in current and future generations. In this study, we test the hypothesis that neural signals in areas correlated with subjective valuations for essentially all other previously studied categories of goods (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) also correlate with environmental valuations. We use contingent valuation (CV) as our behavioral tool for measuring valuations of environmental public goods. CV is a standard stated preference approach that presents survey respondents with information on an issue and asks questions that help policymakers determine how much citizens are willing to pay for a public good or policy. We scanned human subjects while they viewed environmental proposals, along with three other classes of goods. The presentation of all four classes of goods yielded robust and similar patterns of temporally synchronized brain activation within attentional networks. The activations associated with the traditional classes of goods replicate previous correlations between neural activity in valuation areas and behavioral preferences. In contrast, CV-elicited values for environmental proposals did not correlate with brain activity at either the individual or population level. For a sub-population of participants, CV-elicited values were correlated with activity within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive control and shifting decision strategies. The results show that neural activity associated with the subjective valuation of environmental proposals differs profoundly from the neural activity associated with previously examined goods and preference measures. PMID:26221734

  3. Public goods in relation to competition, cooperation, and spite

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Simon A.

    2014-01-01

    Public goods and common-pool resources are fundamental features of biological and social systems, and pose core challenges in achieving sustainability; for such situations, the immediate interests of individuals and the societies in which they are embedded are in potential conflict, involving game-theoretic considerations whose resolution need not serve the collective good. Evolution has often confronted such dilemmas—e.g., in bacterial biofilms—in the challenges of cancer, in nitrogen fixation and chelation, in the production of antibiotics, and in collective action problems across animal groups; there is much to learn from the Darwinian resolution of these situations for how to address problems our societies face today. Addressing these problems involves understanding the emergence of cooperative agreements, from reciprocal altruism and insurance arrangements to the social norms and more formal institutions that maintain societies. At the core are the issues of how individuals and societies discount the future and the interests of others, and the degree that individual decisions are influenced by regard for others. Ultimately, as Garrett Hardin suggested, the solution to problems of the commons is in “mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon,” and hence in how groups of individuals form and how they arrive at decisions that ultimately benefit all. PMID:25024192

  4. Public goods in relation to competition, cooperation, and spite.

    PubMed

    Levin, Simon A

    2014-07-22

    Public goods and common-pool resources are fundamental features of biological and social systems, and pose core challenges in achieving sustainability; for such situations, the immediate interests of individuals and the societies in which they are embedded are in potential conflict, involving game-theoretic considerations whose resolution need not serve the collective good. Evolution has often confronted such dilemmas--e.g., in bacterial biofilms--in the challenges of cancer, in nitrogen fixation and chelation, in the production of antibiotics, and in collective action problems across animal groups; there is much to learn from the Darwinian resolution of these situations for how to address problems our societies face today. Addressing these problems involves understanding the emergence of cooperative agreements, from reciprocal altruism and insurance arrangements to the social norms and more formal institutions that maintain societies. At the core are the issues of how individuals and societies discount the future and the interests of others, and the degree that individual decisions are influenced by regard for others. Ultimately, as Garrett Hardin suggested, the solution to problems of the commons is in "mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon," and hence in how groups of individuals form and how they arrive at decisions that ultimately benefit all. PMID:25024192

  5. Social diversity promotes the emergence of cooperation in public goods games.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francisco C; Santos, Marta D; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2008-07-10

    Humans often cooperate in public goods games and situations ranging from family issues to global warming. However, evolutionary game theory predicts that the temptation to forgo the public good mostly wins over collective cooperative action, and this is often also seen in economic experiments. Here we show how social diversity provides an escape from this apparent paradox. Up to now, individuals have been treated as equivalent in all respects, in sharp contrast with real-life situations, where diversity is ubiquitous. We introduce social diversity by means of heterogeneous graphs and show that cooperation is promoted by the diversity associated with the number and size of the public goods game in which each individual participates and with the individual contribution to each such game. When social ties follow a scale-free distribution, cooperation is enhanced whenever all individuals are expected to contribute a fixed amount irrespective of the plethora of public goods games in which they engage. Our results may help to explain the emergence of cooperation in the absence of mechanisms based on individual reputation and punishment. Combining social diversity with reputation and punishment will provide instrumental clues on the self-organization of social communities and their economical implications. PMID:18615084

  6. Reward and cooperation in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, A.; Perc, M.

    2010-11-01

    The promise of punishment and reward in promoting public cooperation is debatable. While punishment is traditionally considered more successful than reward, the fact that the cost of punishment frequently fails to offset gains from enhanced cooperation has lead some to reconsider reward as the main catalyst behind collaborative efforts. Here we elaborate on the "stick vs. carrot" dilemma by studying the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, where besides the traditional cooperators and defectors, rewarding cooperators supplement the array of possible strategies. The latter are willing to reward cooperative actions at a personal cost, thus effectively downgrading pure cooperators to second-order free-riders due to their unwillingness to bear these additional costs. Consequently, we find that defection remains viable, especially if the rewarding is costly. Rewards, however, can promote cooperation, especially if the synergetic effects of cooperation are low. Surprisingly, moderate rewards may promote cooperation better than high rewards, which is due to the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between the three strategies.

  7. The Public Goods Hypothesis for the evolution of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    McInerney, James O; Pisani, Davide; Bapteste, Eric; O'Connell, Mary J

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly difficult to reconcile the observed extent of horizontal gene transfers with the central metaphor of a great tree uniting all evolving entities on the planet. In this manuscript we describe the Public Goods Hypothesis and show that it is appropriate in order to describe biological evolution on the planet. According to this hypothesis, nucleotide sequences (genes, promoters, exons, etc.) are simply seen as goods, passed from organism to organism through both vertical and horizontal transfer. Public goods sequences are defined by having the properties of being largely non-excludable (no organism can be effectively prevented from accessing these sequences) and non-rival (while such a sequence is being used by one organism it is also available for use by another organism). The universal nature of genetic systems ensures that such non-excludable sequences exist and non-excludability explains why we see a myriad of genes in different combinations in sequenced genomes. There are three features of the public goods hypothesis. Firstly, segments of DNA are seen as public goods, available for all organisms to integrate into their genomes. Secondly, we expect the evolution of mechanisms for DNA sharing and of defense mechanisms against DNA intrusion in genomes. Thirdly, we expect that we do not see a global tree-like pattern. Instead, we expect local tree-like patterns to emerge from the combination of a commonage of genes and vertical inheritance of genomes by cell division. Indeed, while genes are theoretically public goods, in reality, some genes are excludable, particularly, though not only, when they have variant genetic codes or behave as coalition or club goods, available for all organisms of a coalition to integrate into their genomes, and non-rival within the club. We view the Tree of Life hypothesis as a regionalized instance of the Public Goods hypothesis, just like classical mechanics and euclidean geometry are seen as regionalized

  8. The public goods hypothesis for the evolution of life on Earth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly difficult to reconcile the observed extent of horizontal gene transfers with the central metaphor of a great tree uniting all evolving entities on the planet. In this manuscript we describe the Public Goods Hypothesis and show that it is appropriate in order to describe biological evolution on the planet. According to this hypothesis, nucleotide sequences (genes, promoters, exons, etc.) are simply seen as goods, passed from organism to organism through both vertical and horizontal transfer. Public goods sequences are defined by having the properties of being largely non-excludable (no organism can be effectively prevented from accessing these sequences) and non-rival (while such a sequence is being used by one organism it is also available for use by another organism). The universal nature of genetic systems ensures that such non-excludable sequences exist and non-excludability explains why we see a myriad of genes in different combinations in sequenced genomes. There are three features of the public goods hypothesis. Firstly, segments of DNA are seen as public goods, available for all organisms to integrate into their genomes. Secondly, we expect the evolution of mechanisms for DNA sharing and of defense mechanisms against DNA intrusion in genomes. Thirdly, we expect that we do not see a global tree-like pattern. Instead, we expect local tree-like patterns to emerge from the combination of a commonage of genes and vertical inheritance of genomes by cell division. Indeed, while genes are theoretically public goods, in reality, some genes are excludable, particularly, though not only, when they have variant genetic codes or behave as coalition or club goods, available for all organisms of a coalition to integrate into their genomes, and non-rival within the club. We view the Tree of Life hypothesis as a regionalized instance of the Public Goods hypothesis, just like classical mechanics and euclidean geometry are seen as regionalized

  9. Educating Global Citizens: A Good "Idea" or an Organisational Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Kathleen; Barker, Michelle; Harris, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Higher education emphasises training and skills for employment, yet while the "idea" of educating global citizens appears in university discourse, there is limited evidence demonstrating how the "idea" of the global citizen translates into practice. Recent research emphasises a desire for graduates to be local and global…

  10. Heritability of decisions and outcomes of public goods games

    PubMed Central

    Hiraishi, Kai; Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Ando, Juko

    2015-01-01

    Prosociality is one of the most distinctive features of human beings but there are individual differences in cooperative behavior. Employing the twin method, we examined the heritability of cooperativeness and its outcomes on public goods games using a strategy method. In two experiments (Study 1 and Study 2), twin participants were asked to indicate (1) how much they would contribute to a group when they did not know how much the other group members were contributing, and (2) how much they would contribute if they knew the contributions of others. Overall, the heritability estimates were relatively small for each type of decision, but heritability was greater when participants knew that the others had made larger contributions. Using registered decisions in Study 2, we conducted seven Monte Carlo simulations to examine genetic and environmental influences on the expected game payoffs. For the simulated one-shot game, the heritability estimates were small, comparable to those of game decisions. For the simulated iterated games, we found that the genetic influences first decreased, then increased as the numbers of iterations grew. The implication for the evolution of individual differences in prosociality is discussed. PMID:25954213

  11. Heterogeneity of allocation promotes cooperation in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Chuang; Wu, Te; Jia, Jian-Yuan; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the effects of heterogeneous investment and distribution on the evolution of cooperation in the context of the public goods games. To do this, we develop a simple model in which each individual allocates differing funds to his direct neighbors based upon their difference in connectivity, because of the heterogeneity of real social ties. This difference is characterized by the weight of the link between paired individuals, with an adjustable parameter precisely controlling the heterogeneous level of ties. By numerical simulations, it is found that allocating both too much and too little funds to diverse neighbors can remarkably improve the cooperation level. However, there exists a worst mode of funds allocation leading to the most unfavorable cooperation induced by the moderate values of the parameter. In order to better reveal the potential causes behind these nontrivial phenomena we probe the microscopic characteristics including the average payoff and the cooperator density for individuals of different degrees. It demonstrates rather different dynamical behaviors between the modes of these two types of cooperation promoter. Besides, we also investigate the total link weights of individuals numerically and theoretically for negative values of the parameter, and conclude that the payoff magnitude of middle-degree nodes plays a crucial role in determining the cooperators’ fate.

  12. Conditional cooperation and confusion in public-goods experiments

    PubMed Central

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N.; El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Economic experiments are often used to study if humans altruistically value the welfare of others. A canonical result from public-good games is that humans vary in how they value the welfare of others, dividing into fair-minded conditional cooperators, who match the cooperation of others, and selfish noncooperators. However, an alternative explanation for the data are that individuals vary in their understanding of how to maximize income, with misunderstanding leading to the appearance of cooperation. We show that (i) individuals divide into the same behavioral types when playing with computers, whom they cannot be concerned with the welfare of; (ii) behavior across games with computers and humans is correlated and can be explained by variation in understanding of how to maximize income; (iii) misunderstanding correlates with higher levels of cooperation; and (iv) standard control questions do not guarantee understanding. These results cast doubt on certain experimental methods and demonstrate that a common assumption in behavioral economics experiments, that choices reveal motivations, will not necessarily hold. PMID:26787890

  13. Institutionalize Reciprocity to Overcome the Public Goods Provision Problem

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to human societies, and one of the important paths for its emergence and maintenance is reciprocity. In prisoner’s dilemma (PD) experiments, reciprocal strategies are often effective at attaining and maintaining high cooperation. In many public goods (PG) games or n-person PD experiments, however, reciprocal strategies are not successful at engendering cooperation. In the present paper, we attribute this difficulty to a coordination problem against free riding among reciprocators: Because it is difficult for the reciprocators to coordinate their behaviors against free riders, this may lead to inequality among players, which will demotivate them from cooperating in future rounds. We propose a new mechanism, institutionalized reciprocity (IR), which refers to embedding the reciprocal strategy as an institution (i.e., institutionalizing the reciprocal strategy). We experimentally demonstrate that IR can prevent groups of reciprocators from falling into coordination failure and achieve high cooperation in PG games. In conclusion, we argue that a natural extension of the present study will be to investigate the possibility of IR to serve as a collective punishment system. PMID:27248493

  14. Institutionalize Reciprocity to Overcome the Public Goods Provision Problem.

    PubMed

    Ozono, Hiroki; Kamijo, Yoshio; Shimizu, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to human societies, and one of the important paths for its emergence and maintenance is reciprocity. In prisoner's dilemma (PD) experiments, reciprocal strategies are often effective at attaining and maintaining high cooperation. In many public goods (PG) games or n-person PD experiments, however, reciprocal strategies are not successful at engendering cooperation. In the present paper, we attribute this difficulty to a coordination problem against free riding among reciprocators: Because it is difficult for the reciprocators to coordinate their behaviors against free riders, this may lead to inequality among players, which will demotivate them from cooperating in future rounds. We propose a new mechanism, institutionalized reciprocity (IR), which refers to embedding the reciprocal strategy as an institution (i.e., institutionalizing the reciprocal strategy). We experimentally demonstrate that IR can prevent groups of reciprocators from falling into coordination failure and achieve high cooperation in PG games. In conclusion, we argue that a natural extension of the present study will be to investigate the possibility of IR to serve as a collective punishment system. PMID:27248493

  15. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system. PMID:27444774

  16. Tolerance-based punishment in continuous public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jia; Li, Zhi; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2012-08-01

    Altruistic punishment for defectors is considered as a key motive for the explanation of cooperation. However, there is no clear border between the cooperative and defective behaviors in a continuous strategy game. We propose a model to study the effect of punishment on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods game, wherein individuals have the traits to punish the co-players based on social tolerance. We show that a reasonable punishment with a uniform tolerance can spur individuals to make more investments. Additionally, for a fixed punishment cost and a fixed fine, a moderate value of tolerance can result in the best promotion of cooperation. Furthermore, we investigate the coevolutionary dynamics of investment and tolerance. We find that the population splits into two branches: high-tolerance individuals who make high investments and low-tolerance individuals who make low investments. A dynamic equilibrium is achieved between these two types of individuals. Our work extends punishment to continuous cooperative behaviors and the results may enhance the understanding of altruistic punishment in the evolution of human cooperation.

  17. Social influence promotes cooperation in the public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Dou, Puxuan; Wang, Long

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies mainly consider the random selection pattern in which individuals randomly choose reference models from their neighbors for strategy updating. However, the random selection pattern is unable to capture all real world circumstances. We institute a spatial model to investigate the effects of influence-based reference selection pattern on the evolution of cooperation in the context of public goods games. Whenever experiencing strategy updating, all the individuals each choose one of its neighbors as a reference with the probability proportional to this neighbor’s influence. Levels of individuals’ influence are dynamical. When an individual is imitated, the level of its influence increases, thus constituting a positive feedback between the frequencies of individuals being imitated and the likelihood for them to be reference models. We find that the level of collective cooperation can be enhanced whenever the influence-based reference selection pattern is integrated into the strategy updating process. Results also show that the evolution of cooperation can be promoted when the increase in individuals’ frequency of being imitated upholds their influence in large magnitude. Our work may improve the understanding of how influence-based selection patterns promote cooperative behavior.

  18. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system. PMID:27444774

  19. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  20. Heuristics guide cooperative behaviors in public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongjie; Chen, Tong

    2015-12-01

    In public goods game (PGG), player's cooperative behavior is not pure economical rationality, but social preference and prosocial intuition play extremely important roles as well. Social preference and prosocial intuition can be guided by heuristics from one's neighbors in daily life. To better investigate the impacts of heuristics on the evolution of cooperation, four types of agents are introduced into our spatial PGG. Through numerical simulations, results show that the larger percentages of cooperators with independent thought, the easier emergence and maintenance of collective cooperative behaviors. Additionally, we find that differentia heuristic capability has great effect on the equilibrium of PGG. Cooperation can be obviously promoted, when heuristic capability of cooperators with independent thought is stronger than that of defectors with independent thought. Finally, we observe that cooperators with independent thought and defectors with independent thought are favorable for the formation of some high quality clusters, which can resist the invasion between each other. Our work may help us understand more clearly the mechanism of cooperation in real world.

  1. Conditional cooperation and confusion in public-goods experiments.

    PubMed

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A

    2016-02-01

    Economic experiments are often used to study if humans altruistically value the welfare of others. A canonical result from public-good games is that humans vary in how they value the welfare of others, dividing into fair-minded conditional cooperators, who match the cooperation of others, and selfish noncooperators. However, an alternative explanation for the data are that individuals vary in their understanding of how to maximize income, with misunderstanding leading to the appearance of cooperation. We show that (i) individuals divide into the same behavioral types when playing with computers, whom they cannot be concerned with the welfare of; (ii) behavior across games with computers and humans is correlated and can be explained by variation in understanding of how to maximize income; (iii) misunderstanding correlates with higher levels of cooperation; and (iv) standard control questions do not guarantee understanding. These results cast doubt on certain experimental methods and demonstrate that a common assumption in behavioral economics experiments, that choices reveal motivations, will not necessarily hold. PMID:26787890

  2. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  3. Public - private 'partnerships' in health - a global call to action.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania

    2004-07-28

    The need for public-private partnerships arose against the backdrop of inadequacies on the part of the public sector to provide public good on their own, in an efficient and effective manner, owing to lack of resources and management issues. These considerations led to the evolution of a range of interface arrangements that brought together organizations with the mandate to offer public good on one hand, and those that could facilitate this goal though the provision of resources, technical expertise or outreach, on the other. The former category includes of governments and intergovernmental agencies and the latter, the non-profit and for-profit private sector. Though such partnerships create a powerful mechanism for addressing difficult problems by leveraging on the strengths of different partners, they also package complex ethical and process-related challenges. The complex transnational nature of some of these partnership arrangements necessitates that they be guided by a set of global principles and norms. Participation of international agencies warrants that they be set within a comprehensive policy and operational framework within the organizational mandate and involvement of countries requires legislative authorization, within the framework of which, procedural and process related guidelines need to be developed. This paper outlines key ethical and procedural issues inherent to different types of public-private arrangements and issues a Global Call to Action. PMID:15282025

  4. Doing Arts-Based Educational Research for the Public Good: An Impossible Possibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Donal

    2014-01-01

    In this special issue, each author addresses how arts-based educational research (ABER) work connects with and/or directly addresses society's need/s and the public good as perceived by the researcher. As there are many construals of the "public good" and the relation to art-making and the arts to this "public good," each…

  5. How Can ABER Serve the Public Good? A Critical Brechtian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfeld-Jones, Donald

    2014-01-01

    In this special issue, each author addresses how ABER work connects with and/or directly addresses society's need/s and the public good as perceived by the researcher. As there are many construals of the "public good" and the relation to art-making and the arts to this "public good," each author will conceptualize her/his…

  6. Public Good and the Nexus of Social Justice, Feminism, and Rock "n" Roll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    This essay was developed from a talk delivered during the Public Good Conference at the University of Denver (October 2008). The theme of the conference was "Making Public Good Work." Conference speakers were asked to address questions about how we make public good work in both teaching and research. In particular, what inspires us to do this…

  7. 77 FR 50504 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference AGENCY.... ] SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given that the Good Neighbor... Good Neighbor Environmental Board's Fifteenth Report. The report will focus on water...

  8. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    PubMed

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization. PMID:21847845

  9. Inequality, communication, and the avoidance of disastrous climate change in a public goods game.

    PubMed

    Tavoni, Alessandro; Dannenberg, Astrid; Kallis, Giorgos; Löschel, Andreas

    2011-07-19

    International efforts to provide global public goods often face the challenges of coordinating national contributions and distributing costs equitably in the face of uncertainty, inequality, and free-riding incentives. In an experimental setting, we distribute endowments unequally among a group of people who can reach a fixed target sum through successive money contributions, knowing that if they fail, they will lose all their remaining money with 50% probability. In some treatments, we give players the option to communicate intended contributions. We find that inequality reduces the prospects of reaching the target but that communication increases success dramatically. Successful groups tend to eliminate inequality over the course of the game, with rich players signaling willingness to redistribute early on. Our results suggest that coordination-promoting institutions and early redistribution from richer to poorer nations are both decisive for the avoidance of global calamities, such as disruptive climate change. PMID:21730154

  10. The changing global context of public health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J; Beaglehole, R

    2000-08-01

    Future health prospects depend increasingly on globalisation processes and on the impact of global environmental change. Economic globalisation--entailng deregulated trade and investment--is a mixed blessing for health. Economic growth and the dissemination of technologies have widely enhanced life expectancy. However, aspects of globalisation are jeopardising health by eroding social and environmental conditions, exacerbating the rich-poor gap, and disseminating consumerism. Global environmental changes reflect the growth of populations and the intensity of economic activity. These changes include altered composition of the atmosphere, land degradation, depletion of terrestrial aquifers and ocean fisheries, and loss of biodiversity. This weakening of life-supporting systems poses health risks. Contemporary public health must therefore encompass the interrelated tasks of reducing social and health inequalities and achieving health-sustaining environments. PMID:10981904

  11. What Colleges Must Do to Keep the Public's Good Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Patrick; Immerwahr, John

    2008-01-01

    Colleges have lived a charmed life. According to the public-opinion studies that the authors have conducted over the past 15 years, many fields--athletics, accounting, politics--have lost the public's trust, but higher education continues to receive praise for its accomplishments, while criticisms usually fail to stick. The honeymoon may be slowly…

  12. Importance and globalization status of good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients

    PubMed Central

    Abdellah, Abubaker; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Wan Ismail, Wan Azman

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical excipients are no longer inert materials but it is effective and able to improve the characteristics of the products’ quality, stability, functionality, safety, solubility and acceptance of patients. It can interact with the active ingredients and alter the medicament characteristics. The globalization of medicines’ supply enhances the importance of globalized good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients. This review was intended to assess the globalization status of good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients. The review outcomes demonstrate that there is a lack of accurately defined methods to evaluate and measure excipients’ safety. Furthermore good manufacturing practice requirements for excipients are not effectively globalized. PMID:25685037

  13. Systems science: a good investment for the public's health.

    PubMed

    Mabry, Patricia L; Kaplan, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    This supplement of Health Education & Behavior showcases the current state of the field of systems science applications in health promotion and public health. Behind this work lies a steady stream of public dollars at the federal level. This perspective details nearly a decade of investment by the National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. These investments have included funding opportunity announcements, training programs, developing resources for researchers, cross-disciplinary fertilization, and publication. While much progress has been made, continuing investment is needed in the future to ensure the viability and sustainability of this young but increasingly important field. PMID:24084406

  14. Understanding News Values: Secret to Good Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Rita Haugh

    1981-01-01

    Explains the news values that journalists use. Shows English teachers and administrators how they can apply this knowledge of news media to improve public relations between the school and the community. (RL)

  15. 75 FR 3730 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference AGENCY...: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92- 463, notice is hereby given that the Good... is to discuss and approve the Good Neighbor Environmental Board's Thirteenth Report....

  16. 75 FR 5790 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference AGENCY...: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92- 463, notice is hereby given that the Good... continue discussion on the Good Neighbor Environmental Board's Thirteenth Report. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  17. Merit Goods, Education Public Policy--India at Cross Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Satya Narayan; Ghadai, Sanjaya Ku.

    2015-01-01

    Merit Goods have always received handsome attention and allocation from countries which have witnessed a congruence between high significant economic growth and Human Development Index (HDI). The Emerging Market Economies (EMEs) have become significant manufacturing hubs by universalizing education and improving their Incremental Capital Output…

  18. The Grail of Goodness: The Effective Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas; Van House, Nancy A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a national survey aimed at defining effectiveness for public libraries that asked 7 constituent groups (library managers, staff, trustees, users, friends of the library, local officials, and community leaders) to rate the importance of 61 effectiveness indicators. The complex and multidimensional nature of the results is discussed and…

  19. Changing Public Perception in Wisconsin: Manufacturing a "Good Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2006-01-01

    Careers in manufacturing are high-wage and high-tech. Yet, a future workforce shortage may be on the horizon. It appears a negative public perception--one that brings to mind low wages, assembly-line work and lay-offs--is thwarting young adults from pursuing manufacturing careers across the country. This article describes how the Wisconsin…

  20. 78 FR 60280 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Cancellation Notice of Public Advisory Committee teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Cancellation Notice of Public Advisory Committee teleconference AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Cancellation of the Good Neighbor...

  1. 77 FR 13599 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference....

  2. 76 FR 62062 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference....

  3. 78 FR 29132 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA-HQ-OA-2013-0124) Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. Public Advisory...

  4. Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Berer, M.

    2000-01-01

    Globally, abortion mortality accounts for at least 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. This article examines the changes in policy and health service provision required to make abortions safe. It is based on a wide-ranging review of published and unpublished sources. In order to be effective, public health measures must take into account the reasons why women have abortions, the kind of abortion services required and at what stages of pregnancy, the types of abortion service providers needed, and training, cost and counselling issues. The transition from unsafe to safe abortions demands the following: changes at national policy level; abortion training for service providers and the provision of services at the appropriate primary level health service delivery points; and ensuring that women access these services instead of those of untrained providers. Public awareness that abortion services are available is a crucial element of this transition, particularly among adolescent and single women, who tend to have less access to reproductive health services generally. PMID:10859852

  5. A Critical Exploration of Changing Definitions of Public Good in Relation to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between higher education (HE) and public good can be traced to Kant's argument that universities critically held society to account. Mill, Newman and Arnold suggested knowledge itself was a public good. In the twentieth century, economists argued education could drive national technological progress. More recently…

  6. Public health law in an age of terrorism: rethinking individual rights and common goods.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2002-01-01

    The balance between individual interests and common goods needs to be recalibrated in an age of terrorism. Public health agencies should have a robust infrastructure to conduct essential public health services at a level of performance that matches evolving threats to the health of the public. This includes a well-trained workforce, electronic information, surveillance, and laboratory capacity. This paper explains modern efforts at public health law reform: a Model Public Health Statute and the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA), which has been enacted wholly or in part by nineteen states and the District of Columbia. Next, the paper shows why existing public health laws provide a weak foundation for public health practice. Finally, the paper offers a systematic defense of MSEHPA, which has galvanized the public debate around the appropriate balance between public goods and individual rights. PMID:12442842

  7. Going Public: Networking Globally and Locally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Carolyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Rural sociologists figure prominently in the move towards public sociology. The paper takes up Michael Burawoy's call for public sociology and discusses what rural sociologists have to offer to publics and how we stand to gain as a discipline in working with publics. The paper argues that rural sociologists' ability to adopt a cosmopolitan view…

  8. Education as a Public Good: Reconnecting People to Their Schools. Working Paper 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago United, IL.

    The fact that only 22 percent of adults in Illinois have children attending public schools challenges the idea of education as a "public good," yet despite many discouraging statistics concerning the public and the schools, there appears to be a growing awareness of the significance of education and an underlying foundation of faith in its value.…

  9. Google Lunar XPRIZE: Sharing the global adventure of going 'Back to the Moon: For Good'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heward, A.; Gonzales, C.; Ashley, C.; Hwang, P.

    2013-09-01

    The Google Lunar XPRIZE is igniting a new era of lunar exploration by offering the largest international incentive prize of all time. A total of $30 million in prizes are available to the first privately funded teams to safely land a robot on the surface of the Moon. Currently 23 teams are competing for the Google Lunar X PRIZE, with team headquarters spread across the world, including Germany, Hungary, Spain, Croatia, Denmark, Romania, Russia, India, Israel, Malaysia, Japan, Chile and Brazil as well as the USA. Building awareness and involving the public with the competition presents an outreach challenge on a global scale. A strong presence on social media is one of the core requirements for teams participating in the competition. To engage and inspire young people, Google Lunar XPRIZE has for the past three years run a junior version of the competition, MoonBots, a LEGO®MINDSTORMS® Challenge. A kit based on the competition has now been developed for use in Science Centres. In Autumn 2013, a full-dome planetarium show will be launched entitled 'Back to the Moon -For Good.' This show will be available to planetaria around the world at a no-cost lease. This suite of outreach activities aim to build excitement over the next two years as the teams prepare for launch before the Google Lunar XPRIZE expiry date of December 2015.

  10. The globalization of public health, I: Threats and opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    1998-01-01

    The globalization of public health poses new threats to health but also holds important opportunities in the coming century. This commentary identifies the major threats and opportunities presented by the process of globalization and emphasizes the need for transnational public health approaches to take advantage of the positive aspects of global change and to minimize the negative ones. Transnational public health issues are areas of mutual concern for the foreign policies of all countries. These trends indicate a need for cross-national comparisons (e.g., in the areas of health financing and policy development) and for the development of a transnational research agenda in public health. PMID:9585736

  11. Nanosilver and global public health: international regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Watal, Aparna

    2010-06-01

    Silver in nanoparticle form is used extensively worldwide in hospital and general practice settings, in dressings as a treatment for external wounds, burns and ulcers. Nanosilver is also an increasingly important coating over embedded medical devices, inhibiting the development of biofilm. Nanosilver disinfectant sprays and polymer coatings are being widely promoted as protective against viral infections. In addition, nanosilver is widely used for its antibacterial properties in food processing and packaging, as well as in consumer products used for domestic cleaning and clothing. This article argues that medical devices, therapeutic products, and domestic food and goods containing nanosilver, although offering therapeutic benefits, must be subject to precautionary regulation owing to associated public health and environmental risks, particularly from large volumes of nanosilver in waste water. The article first examines the use of nanosilver in a variety of contemporary medical and domestic products, the utilization of which may assist in resolving global public health problems, such as restricted access to safe food, water and medical care. It then discusses the mechanisms of toxicity for nanosilver, whether it should be classified as a new chemical entity for regulatory purposes and whether its increased usage poses significant environmental and public health risks. The article next critically analyses representative international regulatory regimes (the USA, EU, UK and Australia) for medical and domestic use of nanosilver. The conclusion includes a set of recommendations for improving international regulation of nanosilver. PMID:20528456

  12. Participatory visual methodologies in global public health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Claudia M; Sommer, Marni

    2016-01-01

    This Introduction serves to map out a range of participatory visual approaches, as well as critical issues related to the use of participatory visual methodologies in global health. In so doing, it offers both an overview of these innovative practices in global health and a consideration of some of the key questions that researchers might ask themselves in design and implementation. PMID:27105078

  13. 77 FR 57083 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Law 92463. GNEB provides advice and recommendations to the President and Congress on environmental and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference...

  14. Devolution and grant-in-aid design for the provision of impure public goods.

    PubMed

    Levaggi, Laura; Levaggi, Rosella

    2016-01-01

    Traditional fiscal federalism theory postulates that devolution for the provision of local public goods increases welfare. However, most of the services offered at local level are local impure public goods whose characteristics may prevent devolution from being efficient. Our paper shows that devolution is the optimal choice only for local impure public goods. For an environment characterised by coordination and asymmetry of information problems, we propose the optimal grants-in-aid formula that Central Government should use to reduce welfare losses and we compare it with what suggested by the mainstream literature. Finally, we show under which conditions devolution should be preferred to a centralised solution. From a policy point of view, our paper may explain the heterogeneity in the choices made by countries in terms of devolution in the provision of merit and impure public goods. PMID:27047708

  15. Stimulating Contributions to Public Goods through Information Feedback: Some Experimental Results

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Marco A.; Lee, Allen; Sundaram, Hari

    2016-01-01

    In traditional public good experiments participants receive an endowment from the experimenter that can be invested in a public good or kept in a private account. In this paper we present an experimental environment where participants can invest time during five days to contribute to a public good. Participants can make contributions to a linear public good by logging into a web application and performing virtual actions. We compared four treatments, with different group sizes and information of (relative) performance of other groups. We find that information feedback about performance of other groups has a small positive effect if we control for various attributes of the groups. Moreover, we find a significant effect of the contributions of others in the group in the previous day on the number of points earned in the current day. Our results confirm that people participate more when participants in their group participate more, and are influenced by information about the relative performance of other groups. PMID:27459070

  16. 78 FR 17395 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... environmental infrastructure issues in the U.S.- Mexico border region. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: If you wish to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Good Neighbor Environmental Board; Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference...

  17. Education for public health in Europe and its global outreach

    PubMed Central

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Jovic-Vranes, Aleksandra; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Otok, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction At the present time, higher education institutions dealing with education for public health in Europe and beyond are faced with a complex and comprehensive task of responding to global health challenges. Review Literature reviews in public health and global health and exploration of internet presentations of regional and global organisations dealing with education for public health were the main methods employed in the work presented in this paper. Higher academic institutions are searching for appropriate strategies in competences-based education, which will increase the global attractiveness of their academic programmes and courses for continuous professional development. Academic professionals are taking advantage of blended learning and new web technologies. In Europe and beyond they are opening up debates about the scope of public health and global health. Nevertheless, global health is bringing revitalisation of public health education, which is recognised as one of the core components by many other academic institutions involved in global health work. More than ever, higher academic institutions for public health are recognising the importance of institutional partnerships with various organisations and efficient modes of cooperation in regional and global networks. Networking in a global setting is bringing new opportunities, but also opening debates about global harmonisation of competence-based education to achieve functional knowledge, increase mobility of public health professionals, better employability and affordable performance. Conclusions As public health opportunities and threats are increasingly global, higher education institutions in Europe and in other regions have to look beyond national boundaries and participate in networks for education, research and practice. PMID:24560263

  18. Defining and Developing a Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude; Alfonso, Helman

    2015-01-01

    Global public health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of public health. However, the exact meaning of global public health is still unclear, resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high- and low- and middle-income countries, and the process of globalization need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course. Global public health and public health are not separable and global public health often appears as an extension of public health in the era of globalization and interdependence. Though global public health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practiced as health problems and their solutions set within low- and middle-income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low- and middle-income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalization and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society, and politics; and management are important. PMID:26191520

  19. Global warming: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2007-05-01

    Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming. PMID:21848352

  20. Green marketing, renewables, and free riders: increasing customer demand for a public good

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.

    1997-09-01

    Retail electricity competition will allow customers to select their own power suppliers and some customers will make purchase decisions based, in part, on their concern for the environment. Green power marketing targets these customers under the assumption that they will pay a premium for ``green`` energy products such as renewable power generation. But renewable energy is not a traditional product because it supplies public goods; for example, a customer supporting renewable energy is unable to capture the environmental benefits that their investment provides to non-participating customers. As with all public goods, there is a risk that few customers will purchase ``green`` power and that many will instead ``free ride`` on others` participation. By free riding, an individual is able to enjoy the benefits of the public good while avoiding payment. This report reviews current green power marketing activities in the electric industry, introduces the extensive academic literature on public goods, free riders, and collective action problems, and explores in detail the implications of this literature for the green marketing of renewable energy. Specifically, the authors highlight the implications of the public goods literature for green power product design and marketing communications strategies. They emphasize four mechanisms that marketers can use to increase customer demand for renewable energy. Though the public goods literature can also contribute insights into the potential rationale for renewable energy policies, they leave most of these implications for future work (see Appendix A for a possible research agenda).

  1. "Globalized public health." A transdisciplinary comprehensive framework for analyzing contemporary globalization's influences on the field of public health.

    PubMed

    Lapaige, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The current phase of globalization represents a "double-edged sword" challenge facing public health practitioners and health policy makers. The first "edge" throws light on two constructs in the field of public health: global health (formerly international health) and globalized public health. The second "edge" is that of global governance, and raises the question, "how can we construct public health regulations that adequately respond to both global and local complexities related to the two constructs mentioned earlier (global health and globalized public health)?" The two constructs call for the development of norms that will assure sustained population-wide health improvement and these two constructs have their own conceptual tools and theoretical models that permit a better understanding of them. In this paper, we introduce the "globalized public health" construct and we present an interactive comprehensive framework for critically analyzing contemporary globalization's influences on the field of public health. "Globalized public health", simultaneously a theoretical model and a conceptual framework, concerns the transformation of the field of public health in the sociohistorical context of globalization. The model is the fruit of an original theoretical research study conducted from 2005 to 2008 ("contextualized research," Gibbons' Mode II of knowledge production), founded on a QUAL-quant sequential mixed-method design. This research also reflects our political and ideological position, fuelled with aspirations of social democracy and cosmopolitical values. It is profoundly anchored in the pragmatic approach to globalization, looking to "reconcile" the market and equity. The model offers several features to users: (1) it is transdisciplinary; (2) it is interactive (CD-ROM); (3) it is nonlinear (nonlinear interrelations between the contextual globalization and the field of public health); (4) it is synchronic/diachronic (a double-crossed perspective permits

  2. Electrophysiological Indices of Spatial Attention during Global/Local Processing in Good and Poor Phonological Decoders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Allison Jane; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests a relationship between spatial attention and phonological decoding in developmental dyslexia. The aim of this study was to examine differences between good and poor phonological decoders in the allocation of spatial attention to global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli. A further aim was to investigate the…

  3. Governance Frameworks for International Public Goods: The Case of Concerted Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Thomas; Formica, Piero

    2007-01-01

    In the "participation age", emerging cross-border, transnational communities driven by innovation and entrepreneurship initiatives--in short, international entrepreneurial communities--give impetus to the rise of international public goods. With varying intensity, a non-voting international mobile public--still a small but an increasing fraction…

  4. When the Majority Rules: Ballot Initiatives, Race-Conscious Education Policy, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Michele S.; Saenz, Lauren P.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter examines the following central question: How do direct democratic ballot initiatives affect the public good? A second, related question is this: When voters collectively make policy decisions, what responsibilities do researchers have to contribute to informing public deliberation about the relevant issues? In an attempt to answer…

  5. 77 FR 51533 - Good Neighbor Environmental Board Notification of Public Advisory Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ...Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92- 463, notice is hereby given that the Good Neighbor Environmental Board (GNEB) will hold a public teleconference on September 6, 2012 from 2 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. The meeting is open to the public. For further information regarding the teleconference and background materials, please contact Mark Joyce at the......

  6. Aspiration dynamics and the sustainability of resources in the public goods dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Wang, Long

    2016-04-01

    How to exploit public non-renewable resources is a public goods dilemma. Individuals can choose to limit the depletion in order to use the resource for a longer time or consume more goods to benefit themselves. When the resource is used up, there is no benefit for the future generations any more, thus the evolutionary process ends. Here we investigate what mechanisms can extend the use of resources in the framework of evolutionary game theory under two updating rules based on imitation and aspiration, respectively. Compared with imitation process, aspiration dynamics may prolong the sustainable time of a public resource.

  7. Public health impacts of global climate change.

    PubMed

    Hales, S; Weinstein, P; Woodward, A

    1997-01-01

    The potential health impacts of climate change are wide-ranging, from direct impacts at familiar local scales, through indirect effects occurring at the regional or ecosystem level, to long term effects on the sustainability of global systems. To assess these potential impacts, there is a need to broaden the scope of health impact assessment. Eco-epidemiology is emerging as a response to this need. Eco-epidemiology entails a shift in focus: from direct (toxicological) to indirect (ecological) mechanisms; and from effects occurring at 'human' temporal and geographical scales to those at regional and geophysical scales. We discuss the potential health impacts of climate change on each scale. At the global scale, interactions and feedbacks between systems are critical determinants of long term outcomes. From an eco-epidemiological perspective, the study of climate change becomes inseparable from the study of global change more generally. PMID:9406290

  8. Molecular and regulatory properties of a public good shape the evolution of cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Kümmerli, Rolf; Brown, Sam P.

    2010-01-01

    Public goods cooperation abounds in nature, occurring in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. Although previous research focused on the behavioral and ecological conditions favoring cooperation, the question of whether the molecular and regulatory properties of the public good itself can influence selection for cooperation has received little attention. Using a metapopulation model, we show that extended molecular durability of a public good—allowing multiple reuse across generations—greatly reduces selection for cheating if (and only if) the production of the public good is facultatively regulated. To test the apparent synergy between public goods durability and facultative regulation, we examined the production of iron-scavenging pyoverdin molecules by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a cooperative behavior that is facultatively regulated in response to iron availability. We show that pyoverdin is a very durable public good and that extended durability significantly enhances fitness. Consistent with our model, we found that nonsiderophore-producing mutants (cheats) had a relative fitness advantage over siderophore producers (cooperators) when pyoverdin durability was low but not when durability was high. This was because cooperators facultatively reduced their investment in pyoverdin production when enough pyoverdin had accumulated in the media—a cost-saving strategy that minimized the ability of cheats to invade. These findings show how molecular properties of cooperative acts can shape the costs and benefits of cooperation. PMID:20944065

  9. Good Publication Practice for Communicating Company-Sponsored Medical Research: GPP3.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Wendy P; Wager, Elizabeth; Baltzer, Lise; Bridges, Dan; Cairns, Angela; Carswell, Christopher I; Citrome, Leslie; Gurr, James A; Mooney, LaVerne A; Moore, B Jane; Peña, Teresa; Sanes-Miller, Carol H; Veitch, Keith; Woolley, Karen L; Yarker, Yvonne E

    2015-09-15

    This updated Good Publication Practice (GPP) guideline, known as GPP3, builds on earlier versions and provides recommendations for individuals and organizations that contribute to the publication of research results sponsored or supported by pharmaceutical, medical device, diagnostics, and biotechnology companies. The recommendations are designed to help individuals and organizations maintain ethical and transparent publication practices and comply with legal and regulatory requirements. These recommendations cover publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations (oral or poster) at scientific congresses. The International Society for Medical Publication Professionals invited more than 3000 professionals worldwide to apply for a position on the steering committee, or as a reviewer, for this guideline. The GPP2 authors reviewed all applications (n = 241) and assembled an 18-member steering committee that represented 7 countries and a diversity of publication professions and institutions. From the 174 selected reviewers, 94 sent comments on the second draft, which steering committee members incorporated after discussion and consensus. The resulting guideline includes new sections (Principles of Good Publication Practice for Company-Sponsored Medical Research, Data Sharing, Studies That Should Be Published, and Plagiarism), expands guidance on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' authorship criteria and common authorship issues, improves clarity on appropriate author payment and reimbursement, and expands information on the role of medical writers. By following good publication practices (including GPP3), individuals and organizations will show integrity; accountability; and responsibility for accurate, complete, and transparent reporting in their publications and presentations. PMID:26259067

  10. Cooperation and charity in spatial public goods game under different strategy update rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixiao; Jin, Xiaogang; Su, Xianchuang; Kong, Fansheng; Peng, Chengbin

    2010-03-01

    Human cooperation can be influenced by other human behaviors and recent years have witnessed the flourishing of studying the coevolution of cooperation and punishment, yet the common behavior of charity is seldom considered in game-theoretical models. In this article, we investigate the coevolution of altruistic cooperation and egalitarian charity in spatial public goods game, by considering charity as the behavior of reducing inter-individual payoff differences. Our model is that, in each generation of the evolution, individuals play games first and accumulate payoff benefits, and then each egalitarian makes a charity donation by payoff transfer in its neighborhood. To study the individual-level evolutionary dynamics, we adopt different strategy update rules and investigate their effects on charity and cooperation. These rules can be classified into two global rules: random selection rule in which individuals randomly update strategies, and threshold selection rule where only those with payoffs below a threshold update strategies. Simulation results show that random selection enhances the cooperation level, while threshold selection lowers the threshold of the multiplication factor to maintain cooperation. When charity is considered, it is incapable in promoting cooperation under random selection, whereas it promotes cooperation under threshold selection. Interestingly, the evolution of charity strongly depends on the dispersion of payoff acquisitions of the population, which agrees with previous results. Our work may shed light on understanding human egalitarianism.

  11. On the evaluation of cultural and environmental public goods, and its implications for social innovation.

    PubMed

    Graffeo, Michele; Bonini, Nicolao

    2013-01-01

    Public goods (e.g., parks) and welfare services (e.g., garbage disposal and transportation policies) are extremely important for the citizens' well-being but in the complex modern societies their influence and effectiveness are affected by the citizens' support. For this reason, it is crucial to understand which are the factors that influence the citizens' perception of the benefits, costs, and risks associated to public goods and welfare services. In this chapter, we describe some psychological variables that are relevant for the evaluation process of the public goods, but that are not considered by the standard economic models. At the same time, we show that some variables of central importance for the economic models do not significantly affect the citizens' evaluations. Finally, we discuss the concept of Nudge, a policy-making approach that suggests the use of psychological mechanisms to increase the citizens' support to public provision of welfare services. PMID:23317832

  12. Why the MDGs need good governance in pharmaceutical systems to promote global health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Corruption in the health sector can hurt health outcomes. Improving good governance can in turn help prevent health-related corruption. We understand good governance as having the following characteristics: it is consensus-oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive, effective and efficient, follows the rule of law, is participatory and should in theory be less vulnerable to corruption. By focusing on the pharmaceutical system, we explore some of the key lessons learned from existing initiatives in good governance. As the development community begins to identify post-2015 Millennium Development Goals targets, it is essential to evaluate programs in good governance in order to build on these results and establish sustainable strategies. This discussion on the pharmaceutical system illuminates why. Discussion Considering pharmaceutical governance initiatives such as those launched by the World Bank, World Health Organization, and the Global Fund, we argue that country ownership of good governance initiatives is essential but also any initiative must include the participation of impartial stakeholders. Understanding the political context of any initiative is also vital so that potential obstacles are identified and the design of any initiative is flexible enough to make adjustments in programming as needed. Finally, the inherent challenge which all initiatives face is adequately measuring outcomes from any effort. However in fairness, determining the precise relationship between good governance and health outcomes is rarely straightforward. Summary Challenges identified in pharmaceutical governance initiatives manifest in different forms depending on the nature and structure of the initiative, but their regular occurrence and impact on population-based health demonstrates growing importance of addressing pharmaceutical governance as a key component of the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals. Specifically, these challenges need

  13. From the Classics to the Cuts: Valuing Teaching Public Administration as a Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shand, Rory; Howell, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    This article intends to raise a number of issues regarding teaching public administration in the higher education sector and the value it has for individuals and society. The article explores the issue of value with reference to the teaching and learning of Public Administration as a discipline in the wider societal context. The article argues…

  14. Public Goods and Public Interests: Scholarly Communication and Government Documents in Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Sarah; Sare, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Federal mandates requiring that publicly funded research be made openly accessible recast scholarly information as public information and provide an impetus to join the efforts of scholarly communication and government information programs in United States research libraries. Most major research libraries are long-standing participants in the…

  15. Bikes, helmets, and public health: decision-making when goods collide.

    PubMed

    Bateman-House, Alison

    2014-06-01

    How ought public officials address policy choices that entail trade-offs between desirable public health goods? Increasing cycling improves public health both by promoting physical activity and by decreasing vehicle use, thus reducing vehicular emissions. Proponents of bicycle helmets argue that, used properly, they protect individual cyclists; however, there is concern that mandating helmet use may result in a decrease in cycling. In 2012, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg opposed a bicycle helmet mandate, concerned that it would have a negative impact on the city's cycling rate, which he had sought to increase. The mayor did not explain his rationale, leaving constituents unsure why he opposed the proposal. This case study underscores the challenge of creating public policy in the context of competing public health goods. PMID:24825196

  16. Bikes, Helmets, and Public Health: Decision-Making When Goods Collide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    How ought public officials address policy choices that entail trade-offs between desirable public health goods? Increasing cycling improves public health both by promoting physical activity and by decreasing vehicle use, thus reducing vehicular emissions. Proponents of bicycle helmets argue that, used properly, they protect individual cyclists; however, there is concern that mandating helmet use may result in a decrease in cycling. In 2012, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg opposed a bicycle helmet mandate, concerned that it would have a negative impact on the city's cycling rate, which he had sought to increase. The mayor did not explain his rationale, leaving constituents unsure why he opposed the proposal. This case study underscores the challenge of creating public policy in the context of competing public health goods. PMID:24825196

  17. [Good governance of publicly-produced health services: ideas for moving forward].

    PubMed

    Freire, José Manuel; Repullo, Jose Ramon

    2011-06-01

    The good performance of publicly-produced health services is of vital importance, well beyond the health sector. Taking into account the great complexity of the health services in the public sector due both to their public and professional nature, we identify seven Gordian Knots as being responsible for the most frequent problems of publicly produced health services in Spain and Latin America. From the concept of good governance we take its character as a normative and ethical benchmark and its potential to renew and invigorate the government of the public sector. From comparative analysis of publicly-produced health services in the best performing countries, we extract eight characteristics which contribute significantly to good performance. A final reflection is on the relevance of the importance of offsetting the potential hostility to a reformist impulse of the status-quo with alliances that strengthen public trust and the social contract between health professionals and citizens based on the values of public health systems. PMID:21709971

  18. The coevolution of partner switching and strategy updating in non-excludable public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixiao; Shen, Bin

    2013-10-01

    Spatial public goods game is a popular metaphor to model the dilemma of collective cooperation on graphs, yet the non-excludable property of public goods has seldom been considered in previous models. Based upon a coevolutionary model where agents play public goods games and adjust their partnerships, the present model incorporates the non-excludable property of public goods: agents are able to adjust their participation in the games hosted by others, whereas they cannot exclude others from their own games. In the coevolution, a directed and dynamical network which represents partnerships among autonomous agents is evolved. We find that non-excludable property counteracts the positive effect of partner switching, i.e., the equilibrium level of cooperation is lower than that in the situation of excludable public goods game. Therefore, we study the effect of individual punishment that cooperative agents pay a personal cost to decrease benefits of those defective neighbors who participate in their hosted games. It is found that the cooperation level in the whole population is heightened in the presence of such a costly behavior.

  19. Arguing for a centralized coordination solution to the public-private partnership explosion in global health.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Dana Karen

    2010-06-01

    Public-private partnerships are widely seen as the future of global health; the only realistic option for achieving results in social challenges like infectious disease, because of the needed innovation, expertise and financing that a multiplicity of stakeholders can together provide. Yet, harnessing that potential requires finding a harmony among the drastically different incentive structures and internal cultures of profit-based companies, public institutions and humanitarian initiatives. While public-private partnerships have accomplished the important task of mobilizing new funding for global health, their growing dominance in governance raises questions about their effectiveness, but in particular, about the problem of accountability posed by their structure. This commentary aims to initiate a discussion around the coordination problem that exists with the employment of partnerships in global health and argues that the remedy is to apply a public goods theory approach to centralizing what is currently a fractured, inefficient, and potentially detrimental system. PMID:20587631

  20. Chicago neoliberalism versus Cowles planning: perspectives on patents and public goods in Cold War economic thought.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Robert; Klaes, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In post-Sputnik America, when many policymakers and social scientists feared the Soviet Union had a technological advantage over the United States, assessing the relative importance of patents for inventive activity and examining whether scientific research constituted a public good were paramount concerns. The neoliberals of the University of Chicago and the planners of the Cowles Commission both spoke to these issues. This paper sheds light on their views on patents and public goods in the late 1950s and early 1960s by examining representatives of Cowles and Chicago, Kenneth Arrow and Ronald Coase, respectively. Furthermore, it evaluates whether their views on patents and public goods clashed with the interests of RAND, at which both Arrow and Coase worked at some point during this time period. The paper argues that the Chicago-neoliberal position of Coase undermined the interests of RAND, while the Cowles-planning conclusions of Arrow furthered those interests. PMID:21732377

  1. What Does It Mean to Have an N of 1? Art Making, Education, Research, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    In this special issue, each author addresses how ABER work connects with and/or directly addresses society's need/s and the public good as perceived by the researcher. As there are many construals of the "public good" and the relation to art-making and the arts to this "public good," each author will conceptualize her/his…

  2. E's Are Good: Standards of Quality in Public Administration as Reflected in Discourse on Canadian Public Policy Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dana Lee; Miller, Audrey Anna; Bratton, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Promoting understanding of quality in the context of good governance can be a challenging classroom exercise not only because of the potential for hijacking politicization of the discussion, but also because of the variety of ways in which public sector goals can be defined, even in the context of a single policy. Standards of quality in the…

  3. Trustees "versus" Directors, Whom Do They Serve? Boards, For-Profits and the Public Good in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Garrity, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education in the United States is provided by public, not-for-profit and for-profit institutions. Public and not-for-profit institutions are expected to serve the public good due to state control or chartering requirements; for-profit institutions are not. Therefore, the decision to serve the public good is vested in the board. The…

  4. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    REICHMAN, JEROME H.

    2009-01-01

    expense of public health. Although liability rules are better than the status quo, they would not resolve the problem of treating a public good as proprietary. Governments should thus oversee and fund clinical trials as the public good that they are. Clinical tests should be awarded to the most qualified scientists through a competitive process, financed in part with the decrease in drug costs to governmental health care programs and in part with drug developers’ contributions, selected to maximize social benefit, and made global via intergovernmental bodies to maximize social return. This would reduce the cost of redundant investigations to the global public health system, lower supply costs to drug consumers, and lower the breakeven point for investment in research to discover new drugs. PMID:20431702

  5. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Jerome H

    2009-01-01

    health. Although liability rules are better than the status quo, they would not resolve the problem of treating a public good as proprietary. Governments should thus oversee and fund clinical trials as the public good that they are. Clinical tests should be awarded to the most qualified scientists through a competitive process, financed in part with the decrease in drug costs to governmental health care programs and in part with drug developers' contributions, selected to maximize social benefit, and made global via intergovernmental bodies to maximize social return. This would reduce the cost of redundant investigations to the global public health system, lower supply costs to drug consumers, and lower the breakeven point for investment in research to discover new drugs. PMID:20431702

  6. Dairy products in global public health.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2014-05-01

    Intakes of dairy produce show enormous diversity between regions, cultures, and individuals around the world. At the geographic level, intake maps closely onto the distribution of lactase persistence (LP), a genetic trait that allows milk to be consumed beyond the weaning period without gastrointestinal side effects. The LP trait has been independently selected at least 4 times and is under rapid positive selection, which shows that dairy consumption has positive survival benefits. For people lacking the LP trait, the fermentation of milk into yogurt and related products (a process known for ≥8500 y) aids milk digestion through the breakdown of some lactose and the provision of β-galactosidase, which remains active in the gastrointestinal tract. In global ecologic comparisons, milk and dairy intakes are strongly associated with adult height, and many international advisory bodies recommend the consumption of 400-500 mL milk equivalents/d. There are very few countries where such high intakes are met, and in populations in whom intakes are much lower there is evidence of adaptations that help to maintain bone health with surprisingly low intakes. Despite concerns that the high-saturated-fat content of full-fat dairy products would promote heart disease, recent meta-analyses show that dairy consumption is neutral or beneficial for weight control, coronary disease, diabetes, hypertension, and most cancers. PMID:24646820

  7. Trends and directions of global public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Recently, global health and global health surveillance have received unprecedented recognition of their importance because of the newly emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, new cycles of pandemics, and the threats of bioterrorism. The aim of this review is to provide an update of the current state of knowledge on health surveillance in a globalized world. Three key areas will be highlighted in this review: 1) the role of the new International Health Regulations, 2) the emergence of new global health networks for surveillance and bioterrorism, and 3) the reshaping of guidelines for the collection, dissemination, and interventions in global surveillance. A discussion is also presented of the more important challenges of global health surveillance. Global surveillance has been reshaped by important changes in the new International Health Regulations and the rapid development of new global networks for disease surveillance and bioterrorism. These networks provide for the first time at the global scale real-time information about potential outbreaks and epidemics of newly emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The recent outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic provide evidence of the benefits of the new global monitoring and of the importance of the World Health Organization in its coordinating role in the multilateral response of the global public health community. PMID:20534776

  8. Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Higher Education for the Public Good. Number 1, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Magdalena, Ed.; Pasque, Penny A., Ed.; Bowman, Nick, Ed.; Chambers, Tony, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The National Forum on Higher Education for the Public Good, along with the American Association for Higher Education (AAHE), American College Personnel Association (ACPA), American Educational Research Association (AERA), Association for Institutional Research (AIR), and Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE), have committed…

  9. Academic Standards as Public Goods and Varieties of Free-Rider Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Denton

    2002-01-01

    Explores the manner in which academic standards confer benefit, exhibit public-good characteristics, and elicit free-riding and "underproduction" in various parts of the academic community. Examines the resulting challenge to the maintenance of academic quality and the difficulty of discouraging free-rider behavior. (Contains 32 references.)…

  10. Universities, Professional Capabilities and Contributions to the Public Good in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The generation of a public-good, capabilities-based approach to professional education in South African universities is outlined and proposed as a contribution to wider social transformation. The relevance and importance of understanding what Amartya Sen describes as "capability failure" in the lives of people living in poverty is explored and,…

  11. Examining Theories of Distributive Justice with an Asymmetric Public Goods Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an asymmetric version of the familiar public goods classroom experiment, in which some players are given more tokens to invest than others, and players collectively decide whether to divide the return to the group investment asymmetrically as well. The asymmetry between players raises normative issues about…

  12. 78 FR 16756 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel's (DGP's) Spring Working Group to be held April 15-19, 2013, in Montreal, Canada, the FAA's Office of Hazardous Materials Safety and the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration's (PHMSA) Office of Hazardous Materials Safety announce a public...

  13. Cooperation among cancer cells as public goods games on Voronoi networks.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Cancer cells produce growth factors that diffuse and sustain tumour proliferation, a form of cooperation that can be studied using mathematical models of public goods in the framework of evolutionary game theory. Cell populations, however, form heterogeneous networks that cannot be described by regular lattices or scale-free networks, the types of graphs generally used in the study of cooperation. To describe the dynamics of growth factor production in populations of cancer cells, I study public goods games on Voronoi networks, using a range of non-linear benefits that account for the known properties of growth factors, and different types of diffusion gradients. The results are surprisingly similar to those obtained on regular graphs and different from results on scale-free networks, revealing that network heterogeneity per se does not promote cooperation when public goods diffuse beyond one-step neighbours. The exact shape of the diffusion gradient is not crucial, however, whereas the type of non-linear benefit is an essential determinant of the dynamics. Public goods games on Voronoi networks can shed light on intra-tumour heterogeneity, the evolution of resistance to therapies that target growth factors, and new types of cell therapy. PMID:26930167

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of public goods games with diverse contributions in finite populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Bin; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2010-05-01

    The public goods game is a powerful metaphor for exploring the maintenance of social cooperative behavior in a group of interactional selfish players. Here we study the emergence of cooperation in the public goods games with diverse contributions in finite populations. The theory of stochastic process is innovatively adopted to investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the public goods games involving a diversity of contributions. In the limit of rare mutations, the general stationary distribution of this stochastic process can be analytically approximated by means of diffusion theory. Moreover, we demonstrate that increasing the diversity of contributions greatly reduces the probability of finding the population in a homogeneous state full of defectors. This increase also raises the expectation of the total contribution in the entire population and thus promotes social cooperation. Furthermore, by investigating the evolutionary dynamics of optional public goods games with diverse contributions, we find that nonparticipation can assist players who contribute more in resisting invasion and taking over individuals who contribute less. In addition, numerical simulations are performed to confirm our analytical results. Our results may provide insight into the effect of diverse contributions on cooperative behaviors in the real world.

  15. Transforming Educational Knowledge through Making Explicit the Embodied Knowledge of Educators for the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delong, Jacqueline; Whitehead, Jack

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on making explicit the embodied knowledge of educators using a living theory methodology and inciting the social imagination to create educational research for the public good. Using evidence from international contexts, the meanings of the energy-flowing values that educators use to explain their educational influences in their…

  16. Deterrence as a public good: a journey with the free rider

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, G.H. III

    1985-01-01

    Deterrence theory has supplied one of the principal tools for the analysis of international relations in the post-World War II era. It has primarily been used in discussions of dyadic relations between adversaries, making falsification of the concept impossible. This dissertation attempts to apply deterrence theory to the relationship among allied states, and by so doing, render some of the assumptions of deterrence theory falsifiable. More specifically, deterrence is used as an example of a public good, and the manner in which allied states supply that public good is explored. The work demonstrates that NATO members cooperate to supply the public good of deterrence, and the alliance constitutes a framework to ensure that cooperation. The effects of changing coalitions on the willingness of the allies to supply the public good are also investigated. It is shown that in large allied states, coalition changes do not lead to changes in defense expenditures, and the applicability of the rational actor model of foreign-policy behavior thus validated. However, for small allied states, the issue of defense spending is characterized by distributional politics, and domestic political considerations do affect the size of the defense budget. The result is a model which portrays deterrence as establishing a stable set of rules of behavior for the international actors of the Western security system.

  17. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks between private and public goods: evidence from toxic algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, William W; Hackett, Jeremiah D; Ferrière, Régis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of 'eco-evolutionary feedbacks' in natural systems is currently unclear. Here, we advance a general hypothesis for a particular class of eco-evolutionary feedbacks with potentially large, long-lasting impacts in complex ecosystems. These eco-evolutionary feedbacks involve traits that mediate important interactions with abiotic and biotic features of the environment and a self-driven reversal of selection as the ecological impact of the trait varies between private (small scale) and public (large scale). Toxic algal blooms may involve such eco-evolutionary feedbacks due to the emergence of public goods. We review evidence that toxin production by microalgae may yield 'privatised' benefits for individual cells or colonies under pre- and early-bloom conditions; however, the large-scale, ecosystem-level effects of toxicity associated with bloom states yield benefits that are necessarily 'public'. Theory predicts that the replacement of private with public goods may reverse selection for toxicity in the absence of higher level selection. Indeed, blooms often harbor significant genetic and functional diversity: bloom populations may undergo genetic differentiation over a scale of days, and even genetically similar lineages may vary widely in toxic potential. Intriguingly, these observations find parallels in terrestrial communities, suggesting that toxic blooms may serve as useful models for eco-evolutionary dynamics in nature. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks involving the emergence of a public good may shed new light on the potential for interactions between ecology and evolution to influence the structure and function of entire ecosystems. PMID:26612461

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of interlinked public goods traits: an experimental study of siderophore production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ross-Gillespie, A; Dumas, Z; Kümmerli, R

    2015-01-01

    Public goods cooperation is common in microbes, and there is much interest in understanding how such traits evolve. Research in recent years has identified several important factors that shape the evolutionary dynamics of such systems, yet few studies have investigated scenarios involving interactions between multiple public goods. Here, we offer general predictions about the evolutionary trajectories of two public goods traits having positive, negative or neutral regulatory influence on one another's expression, and we report on a test of some of our predictions in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa's production of two interlinked iron-scavenging siderophores. First, we confirmed that both pyoverdine and pyochelin siderophores do operate as public goods under appropriate environmental conditions. We then tracked their production in lines experimentally evolved under different iron-limitation regimes known to favour different siderophore expression profiles. Under strong iron limitation, where pyoverdine represses pyochelin, we saw a decline in pyoverdine and a concomitant increase in pyochelin - consistent with expansion of pyoverdine-defective cheats derepressed for pyochelin. Under moderate iron limitation, pyochelin declined - again consistent with an expected cheat invasion scenario - but there was no concomitant shift in pyoverdine because cross-suppression between the traits is unidirectional only. Alternating exposure to strong and moderate iron limitation caused qualitatively similar though lesser shifts compared to the constant-environment regimes. Our results confirm that the regulatory interconnections between public goods traits can significantly modulate the course of evolution, yet also suggest how we can start to predict the impacts such complexities will have on phenotypic divergence and community stability. PMID:25421271

  19. Experiments on the Provision of Public Goods. I. Resources, Interest, Group Size, and the Free-Rider Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marwell, Gerald; Ames, Ruth E.

    1979-01-01

    Describes study in which high school students were confronted with an investment opportunity and had to decide whether to invest in a private good which returned profits to the individual or a public good which returned profits to the group. Results indicate that "free riders" in the public good group do not contribute to the deterioration of the…

  20. Cooperative investment in public goods is kin directed in communal nests of social birds

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, René E; Kaden, Jennifer C; Argüelles-Ticó, Araceli; Dawson, Deborah A; Burke, Terry; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2014-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons predicts social collapse when public goods are jointly exploited by individuals attempting to maximize their fitness at the expense of other social group members. However, animal societies have evolved many times despite this vulnerability to exploitation by selfish individuals. Kin selection offers a solution to this social dilemma, but in large social groups mean relatedness is often low. Sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) live in large colonies that share the benefits of a massive communal nest, which requires individual investment for construction and maintenance. Here, we show that despite low mean kinship within colonies, relatives are spatially and socially clustered and that nest-building males have higher local relatedness to other colony members than do non-building males. Alternative hypotheses received little support, so we conclude that the benefits of the public good are shared with kin and that cooperative investment is, despite the large size and low relatedness of these communities, kin directed. PMID:25039999

  1. Evolutionary games defined at the network mesoscale: the Public Goods game.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Romance, Miguel; Criado, Regino; Vilone, Daniele; Sánchez, Angel

    2011-03-01

    The evolutionary dynamics of the Public Goods game addresses the emergence of cooperation within groups of individuals. However, the Public Goods game on large populations of interconnected individuals has been usually modeled without any knowledge about their group structure. In this paper, by focusing on collaboration networks, we show that it is possible to include the mesoscopic information about the structure of the real groups by means of a bipartite graph. We compare the results with the projected (coauthor) and the original bipartite graphs and show that cooperation is enhanced by the mesoscopic structure contained. We conclude by analyzing the influence of the size of the groups in the evolutionary success of cooperation. PMID:21456855

  2. Preschoolers are sensitive to free riding in a public goods game

    PubMed Central

    Vogelsang, Martina; Jensen, Keith; Kirschner, Sebastian; Tennie, Claudio; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Despite the benefits of cooperation, selfish individuals often produce outcomes where everyone is worse off. This “tragedy of the commons” has been demonstrated experimentally in adults with the public goods game. Contributions to a public good decline over time due to free-riders who keep their endowments. Little is known about how children behave when confronted with this social dilemma. Forty-eight preschoolers were tested using a novel non-verbal procedure and simplified choices more appropriate to their age than standard economic approaches. The rate of cooperation was initially very low and rose in the second round for the girls only. Children were affected by their previous outcome, as they free rode more after experiencing a lower outcome compared to the other group members. PMID:25076923

  3. Evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games with common resource dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro

    2007-08-21

    Investment in a common resource shared by all players is difficult to evolve despite higher returns because a non-investor (free-rider) always receives more than an investor (altruist). This situation is referred to as the Tragedy of the Commons and is often observed in various biological systems including environmental problems of human society. Punishment and reputation are effective mechanisms but require cooperator's ability to identify free-riders. Volunteering can work in anonymous public goods games but this requires voluntary participation, which is not always the case. Here, we show that the evolution of altruism is possible in anonymous and obligate public goods games if we consider the spatiotemporal dynamics of the common resource that incorporate spatial diffusion and internal dynamics of the commons. The investors' strategy to counter free-riders is to increase population density and to outnumber them with the common resource level kept as low as that of the free-riders. PMID:17512952

  4. Using neural measures of economic value to solve the public goods free-rider problem.

    PubMed

    Krajbich, Ian; Camerer, Colin; Ledyard, John; Rangel, Antonio

    2009-10-23

    Every social group needs to decide when to provide public goods and how to allocate the costs among its members. Ideally, this decision would maximize the group's net benefits while also ensuring that every individual's benefit is greater than the cost he or she has to pay. Unfortunately, the economic theory of mechanism design has shown that this ideal solution is not feasible when the group leadership does not know the values of the individual group members for the public good. We show that this impossibility result can be overcome in laboratory settings by combining technologies for obtaining neural measures of value (functional magnetic resonance imaging-based pattern classification) with carefully designed institutions that allocate costs based on both reported and neurally measured values. PMID:19745115

  5. Individual behavior and social wealth in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Xian; Yan, Shu; Tang, Shaoting; Pei, Sen; Li, Weihua; Zheng, Zhiming

    2014-05-01

    Group interactions on structured populations can be represented by the public goods game on networks. During the evolutionary games, selective investment mechanism fosters social cooperative behavior. First we focus on star-like graphs to provide some light on why selective investment mechanism can promote collective cooperation. Then we implement public goods game with this mechanism on scale free networks to investigate behavior properties of individuals within different social environments. We indicate that high-degree nodes are predominantly inert owning largely to their satisfaction with their status, while low-degree nodes are very active due to their strive towards higher prosperity. Besides, we introduce the Gini coefficient to describe social inequality and find that large multiply factor r favors social fairness. Our work is applicable for community supervision and social wealth regulation.

  6. Phase diagrams for the spatial public goods game with pool punishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György; Perc, Matjaž

    2011-03-01

    The efficiency of institutionalized punishment is studied by evaluating the stationary states in the spatial public goods game comprising unconditional defectors, cooperators, and cooperating pool punishers as the three competing strategies. Fines and costs of pool punishment are considered as the two main parameters determining the stationary distributions of strategies on the square lattice. Each player collects a payoff from five five-person public goods games, and the evolution of strategies is subsequently governed by imitation based on pairwise comparisons at a low level of noise. The impact of pool punishment on the evolution of cooperation in structured populations is significantly different from that reported previously for peer punishment. Representative phase diagrams reveal remarkably rich behavior, depending also on the value of the synergy factor that characterizes the efficiency of investments payed into the common pool. Besides traditional single- and two-strategy stationary states, a rock-paper-scissors type of cyclic dominance can emerge in strikingly different ways.

  7. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  8. Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. Public Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document presents the text of Public Law 106-229, the "Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act." The act states that, with respect to any transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce: a signature, contract, or other record relating to such transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or enforceability…

  9. Punishment in public goods games leads to meta-stable phase transitions and hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of cooperation has been a perennial problem in evolutionary biology because cooperation can be undermined by selfish cheaters who gain an advantage in the short run, while compromising the long-term viability of the population. Evolutionary game theory has shown that under certain conditions, cooperation nonetheless evolves stably, for example if players have the opportunity to punish cheaters that benefit from a public good yet refuse to pay into the common pool. However, punishment has remained enigmatic because it is costly and difficult to maintain. On the other hand, cooperation emerges naturally in the public goods game if the synergy of the public good (the factor multiplying the public good investment) is sufficiently high. In terms of this synergy parameter, the transition from defection to cooperation can be viewed as a phase transition with the synergy as the critical parameter. We show here that punishment reduces the critical value at which cooperation occurs, but also creates the possibility of meta-stable phase transitions, where populations can ‘tunnel’ into the cooperating phase below the critical value. At the same time, cooperating populations are unstable even above the critical value, because a group of defectors that are large enough can ‘nucleate’ such a transition. We study the mean-field theoretical predictions via agent-based simulations of finite populations using an evolutionary approach where the decisions to cooperate or to punish are encoded genetically in terms of evolvable probabilities. We recover the theoretical predictions and demonstrate that the population shows hysteresis, as expected in systems that exhibit super-heating and super-cooling. We conclude that punishment can stabilize populations of cooperators below the critical point, but it is a two-edged sword: it can also stabilize defectors above the critical point.

  10. 77 FR 33019 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ...This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 41st session of the United Nations Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UNSCOE TDG) to be held June 25 to July 4, 2012, in Geneva, Switzerland. During this meeting, PHMSA is also soliciting comments relative to potential new work items which may be considered for......

  11. Punishment in public goods games leads to meta-stable phase transitions and hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of cooperation has been a perennial problem in evolutionary biology because cooperation can be undermined by selfish cheaters who gain an advantage in the short run, while compromising the long-term viability of the population. Evolutionary game theory has shown that under certain conditions, cooperation nonetheless evolves stably, for example if players have the opportunity to punish cheaters that benefit from a public good yet refuse to pay into the common pool. However, punishment has remained enigmatic because it is costly and difficult to maintain. On the other hand, cooperation emerges naturally in the public goods game if the synergy of the public good (the factor multiplying the public good investment) is sufficiently high. In terms of this synergy parameter, the transition from defection to cooperation can be viewed as a phase transition with the synergy as the critical parameter. We show here that punishment reduces the critical value at which cooperation occurs, but also creates the possibility of meta-stable phase transitions, where populations can 'tunnel' into the cooperating phase below the critical value. At the same time, cooperating populations are unstable even above the critical value, because a group of defectors that are large enough can 'nucleate' such a transition. We study the mean-field theoretical predictions via agent-based simulations of finite populations using an evolutionary approach where the decisions to cooperate or to punish are encoded genetically in terms of evolvable probabilities. We recover the theoretical predictions and demonstrate that the population shows hysteresis, as expected in systems that exhibit super-heating and super-cooling. We conclude that punishment can stabilize populations of cooperators below the critical point, but it is a two-edged sword: it can also stabilize defectors above the critical point. PMID:26031571

  12. Good Publication Practice for Pharmaceutical Companies”: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract Eighteen months on from the publication of “Good Publication Practice for Pharmaceutical Companies,” one member of the working group that developed these guidelines reflects on what they have achieved and what has changed since they were first developed. Introduction Pharmaceutical company publication practices have recently attracted the attention of journal editors, the mass media, and even been the subject of legal proceedings. The issue of the nonpublication of trial results moved from being a largely academic concern to the subject of newspaper headlines when GlaxoSmithKline was sued by the New York Attorney General.[1] The settlement included a commitment to make summaries of trial results available on the company Web site. At around the same time, other companies, such as Eli Lilly, announced similar policies.[2] Companies may have also been examining their publication policies in the light of the case against Pfizer-Warner-Lambert, which resulted in the company being fined $240 million and ordered to pay $152 million in damages for promoting the off-label use of gabapentin (Neurontin).[3] Evidence brought against the company included having “A ‘publication strategy’ that subsidized the production and dissemination of anecdotal reports favorable to off-label use of Neurontin,” which were “of no scientific value.” Some news items also mentioned the use of ghostwriters. It is tempting to believe that a great deal of time, effort, and even money might have been saved if companies had paid more attention to their publication practices. A set of guidelines on Good Publication Practice (GPP) for pharmaceutical companies were published in mid-2003.[4] This article reviews the history of the guidelines in light of the recent developments. PMID:16369385

  13. Punishment Mechanism with Self-Adjusting Rules in Spatial Voluntary Public Goods Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhong-Wei; Xu, Zhao-Jin; Zhang, Lian-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    The phenomena of cooperation in animal and human society are ubiquitous, but the selfish outcome that no player contributes to the public good will lead to the “tragedy of the commons”. The recent research shows that high punishment can improve the cooperation of the population. In this paper, we introduce a punishment mechanism into spatial voluntary public goods games with every individual only knowing his own payoff in each round. Using the self-adjusting rules, we find that the different cost for punishment can lead to different effects on the voluntary public goods games. Especially, when the cost for punishment is decreased, a higher contribution region will appear in the case of low r value. It means even for the low r value, individuals can form the contributing groups in large quantities to produce a more efficient outcome than that in moderate r value. In addition, we also find the players' memory can have effects on the average outcome of the population.

  14. Fostering cooperation of selfish agents through public goods in relation to the loners.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianlei; Chen, Zengqiang; Liu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Altruistic behaviors in multiplayer groups have obtained great attention in the context of the public goods game, which poses a riddle from the evolutionary viewpoint. Here we focus on a particular type of public goods game model in which the benefits of cooperation are either discounted or synergistically enhanced at the appearance of multiple cooperators in a group. Moreover, we focus on the three-strategies profile by adding the role of loners, besides the often-used cooperation and defection. Using the replicator dynamic equations, we investigate a range of dynamical portraits that characterizes the properties of the steady state. Analysis results indicate that loners and cooperators both have chances to be the stable equilibrium points in the presence of perturbations, while defectors fail to do so in this three-strategy competition. Moreover, the coexistence state, in which all three strategies exist in equilibrium, can be led by suitable parameters and stabilized for perturbations. These results elucidate the interplay between the characteristics of the public goods game and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems. PMID:27078379

  15. Fostering cooperation of selfish agents through public goods in relation to the loners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Chen, Zengqiang; Liu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Altruistic behaviors in multiplayer groups have obtained great attention in the context of the public goods game, which poses a riddle from the evolutionary viewpoint. Here we focus on a particular type of public goods game model in which the benefits of cooperation are either discounted or synergistically enhanced at the appearance of multiple cooperators in a group. Moreover, we focus on the three-strategies profile by adding the role of loners, besides the often-used cooperation and defection. Using the replicator dynamic equations, we investigate a range of dynamical portraits that characterizes the properties of the steady state. Analysis results indicate that loners and cooperators both have chances to be the stable equilibrium points in the presence of perturbations, while defectors fail to do so in this three-strategy competition. Moreover, the coexistence state, in which all three strategies exist in equilibrium, can be led by suitable parameters and stabilized for perturbations. These results elucidate the interplay between the characteristics of the public goods game and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  16. The evolution of altruism in spatial threshold public goods games via an insurance mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Zhang, Chunyan

    2015-05-01

    The persistence of cooperation in public goods situations has become an important puzzle for researchers. This paper considers the threshold public goods games where the option of insurance is provided for players from the standpoint of diversification of risk, envisaging the possibility of multiple strategies in such scenarios. In this setting, the provision point is defined in terms of the minimum number of contributors in one threshold public goods game, below which the game fails. In the presence of risk and insurance, more contributions are motivated if (1) only cooperators can opt to be insured and thus their contribution loss in the aborted games can be (partly or full) covered by the insurance; (2) insured cooperators obtain larger compensation, at lower values of the threshold point (the required minimum number of contributors). Moreover, results suggest the dominance of insured defectors who get a better promotion by more profitable benefits from insurance. We provide results of extensive computer simulations in the realm of spatial games (random regular networks and scale-free networks here), and support this study with analytical results for well-mixed populations. Our study is expected to establish a causal link between the widespread altruistic behaviors and the existing insurance system.

  17. Competition between species can stabilize public-goods cooperation within a species

    PubMed Central

    Celiker, Hasan; Gore, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Competition between species is a major ecological force that can drive evolution. Here, we test the effect of this force on the evolution of cooperation within a species. We use sucrose metabolism of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model cooperative system that is subject to social parasitism by cheater strategies. We find that when cocultured with a bacterial competitor, Escherichia coli, the frequency of cooperator phenotypes in yeast populations increases dramatically as compared with isolated yeast populations. Bacterial competition stabilizes cooperation within yeast by limiting the yeast population density and also by depleting the public goods produced by cooperating yeast cells. Both of these changes induced by bacterial competition increase the cooperator frequency because cooperator yeast cells have a small preferential access to the public goods they produce; this preferential access becomes more important when the public good is scarce. Our results indicate that a thorough understanding of species interactions is crucial for explaining the maintenance and evolution of cooperation in nature. PMID:23149686

  18. Adaptive Evolution of Cooperation through Darwinian Dynamics in Public Goods Games

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kuiying; Chu, Tianguang

    2011-01-01

    The linear or threshold Public Goods game (PGG) is extensively accepted as a paradigmatic model to approach the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. Here we explore the significant effect of nonlinearity of the structures of public goods on the evolution of cooperation within the well-mixed population by adopting Darwinian dynamics, which simultaneously consider the evolution of populations and strategies on a continuous adaptive landscape, and extend the concept of evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) as a coalition of strategies that is both convergent-stable and resistant to invasion. Results show (i) that in the linear PGG contributing nothing is an ESS, which contradicts experimental data, (ii) that in the threshold PGG contributing the threshold value is a fragile ESS, which cannot resist the invasion of contributing nothing, and (iii) that there exists a robust ESS of contributing more than half in the sigmoid PGG if the return rate is relatively high. This work reveals the significant effect of the nonlinearity of the structures of public goods on the evolution of cooperation, and suggests that, compared with the linear or threshold PGG, the sigmoid PGG might be a more proper model for the evolution of cooperation within the well-mixed population. PMID:22046240

  19. Public goods and the evolution of altruism: the case of law.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Paul H

    2007-09-01

    Though Hamilton's rule is commonly interpreted as relating to two individuals, an alternative interpretation is that it can apply to an altruistic act with respect to a large group of related persons, such as an ethnic group. Then provision of a public good to such a group can be explained by Hamilton's rule. An important class of public goods is the provision of a "legal system" for the group. Provision of this good can have positive feedback effects: as there is more enforcement, it pays to define more complex and valuable rights, and in turn such rights lead to larger and more effective societies. As societies become larger, the ability to enforce rights increases because the number of enforcers increases. However, as in many other human activities, there may be two conflicting systems for provision of this good. There is the evolutionarily old system that would involve face to face transactions, often with kin. There is also a newer, rule-governed legal system for impersonal exchanges. These may be in conflict. The older rules may sometimes frustrate the more efficient newer system. Moreover, those persons who benefit from kin-based transaction networks may resist the creation of a formal legal system. I also note that altruism within the group may lead to xenophobia outside the group and thus to ethnic conflict. Finally, I discuss some evidence consistent with this analysis. PMID:18837583

  20. [Honesty and good faith: two cornerstones in the ethics of biomedical publications].

    PubMed

    Reyes, Humberto

    2007-04-01

    The editors of medical journals should take the steps necessary to assure its readers that the contents of their publications are based in true data, that they are original and fulfill the ethical rules of biomedical and clinical research, including its reporting. This editors role has become increasingly difficult since the pressure to publish scientific papers is progressively stimulated by the role that those papers play in curricula vitae when the authors apply for university positions, academic promotions, research grants and for their personal prestige. As a consequence, increasing instances of misconduct in scientific publications are detected. Some cases are noticed during the editorial process, mostly when peer reviewers identify redundant publications or plagiarism. Other cases are denounced after a manuscript was published. It is the editors duty to verify the misconduct, request an explanation from the authors and, if their answer is unsatisfactory, report the problem to the institutional authorities supporting the authors. The editors should denounce the situation in a forthcoming issue of the journal. Universities should enforce the teaching of ethical rules that govern the report of scientific information. Revista Médica de Chile follows recommendations given by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the World Association of Medical Editors and other groups, but honesty and good faith in all the actors involved in the process of biomedical publications (authors, reviewers, editors) remain the cornerstones of scientific good behavior. PMID:17554448

  1. Constructing "sound science" and "good epidemiology": tobacco, lawyers, and public relations firms.

    PubMed

    Ong, E K; Glantz, S A

    2001-11-01

    The tobacco industry has attacked "junk science" to discredit the evidence that secondhand smoke-among other environmental toxins-causes disease. Philip Morris used public relations firms and lawyers to develop a "sound science" program in the United States and Europe that involved recruiting other industries and issues to obscure the tobacco industry's role. The European "sound science" plans included a version of "good epidemiological practices" that would make it impossible to conclude that secondhand smoke-and thus other environmental toxins-caused diseases. Public health professionals need to be aware that the "sound science" movement is not an indigenous effort from within the profession to improve the quality of scientific discourse, but reflects sophisticated public relations campaigns controlled by industry executives and lawyers whose aim is to manipulate the standards of scientific proof to serve the corporate interests of their clients. PMID:11684593

  2. Constructing “Sound Science” and “Good Epidemiology”: Tobacco, Lawyers, and Public Relations Firms

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Elisa K.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2001-01-01

    The tobacco industry has attacked “junk science” to discredit the evidence that secondhand smoke—among other environmental toxins—causes disease. Philip Morris used public relations firms and lawyers to develop a “sound science” program in the United States and Europe that involved recruiting other industries and issues to obscure the tobacco industry's role. The European “sound science” plans included a version of “good epidemiological practices” that would make it impossible to conclude that secondhand smoke—and thus other environmental toxins—caused diseases. Public health professionals need to be aware that the “sound science” movement is not an indigenous effort from within the profession to improve the quality of scientific discourse, but reflects sophisticated public relations campaigns controlled by industry executives and lawyers whose aim is to manipulate the standards of scientific proof to serve the corporate interests of their clients. PMID:11684593

  3. Public investment does not crowd out private supply of environmental goods on private land.

    PubMed

    Duncan, David H; Kyle, Garreth; Morris, William K; Smith, F Patrick

    2014-04-01

    In landscapes where private land tenure is prevalent, public funds for ecological landscape restoration are sometimes spent subsidising the revegetation of cleared land, and the protection of remnant vegetation from livestock. However, the total area treated may be unclear because such projects are not always recorded, and landholders may undertake similar activities without subsidisation. In the absence of empirical data, in the state of Victoria, Australia, a reporting assumption has been employed that suggests that wholly privately funded sites match publicly subsidised sites on a hectare for hectare basis (a so-called "x2" assumption). Conversely, the "crowding out" theory of investment in public goods such as environmental benefits suggests that public investment may supplant private motivation. Using aerial photography we mapped the extent of revegetation, native vegetation fencing and restoration on 71 representative landholdings in rural south-eastern Australia. We interviewed each landholder and recorded the age and funding model of each site. Contrary to the local "x2" reporting assumption, about 75% of the total area of the 412 sites was from subsidised sites, and that proportion was far higher for the period after 1997. However, rather than displacing unsubsidised activity, our modelling showed that landholders who had recently been subsidised for a project were more likely to have subsequently completed unsubsidised work. This indicates that, at least in terms of medium-term economic impact, the large increase in public subsidies did not diminish privately funded activity, as might be expected according to the theory of crowding out. PMID:24576670

  4. Anticipated public health consequences of global climate change.

    PubMed Central

    Longstreth, J

    1991-01-01

    Human activities are placing enormous pressures on the biosphere. The introduction of new chemicals and the increasing ambient levels of existing chemicals have resulted in atmospheric degradation. This paper reviews some of the adverse effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. Because the atmospheric effects of ozone depletion are fairly well characterized, quantitative risk estimates have been developed. However, because the atmospheric effects of global warming are less understood, public health problems that could be intensified by climate change are assessed qualitatively. The interactive effects of these two phenomena are also discussed. PMID:1820256

  5. Stabilizing the Earth's climate is not a losing game: Supporting evidence from public goods experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinski, Manfred; Semmann, Dirk; Krambeck, Hans-Jürgen; Marotzke, Jochem

    2006-03-01

    Maintaining the Earth’s climate within habitable boundaries is probably the greatest “public goods game” played by humans. However, with >6 billion “players” taking part, the game seems to rule out individual altruistic behavior. Thus, climate protection is a problem of sustaining a public resource that everybody is free to overuse, a “tragedy of the commons” problem that emerges in many social dilemmas. We perform a previously undescribed type of public goods experiment with human subjects contributing to a public pool. In contrast to the standard protocol, here the common pool is not divided among the participants; instead, it is promised that the pool will be invested to encourage people to reduce their fossil fuel use. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that players can behave altruistically to maintain the Earth’s climate given the right set of circumstances. We find a nonzero basic level of altruistic behavior, which is enhanced if the players are provided with expert information describing the state of knowledge in climate research. Furthermore, personal investments in climate protection increase substantially if players can invest publicly, thus gaining social reputation. This increase occurs because subjects reward other subjects’ contributions to sustaining the climate, thus reinforcing their altruism. Therefore, altruism may convert to net personal benefit and to relaxing the dilemma if the gain in reputation is large enough. Our finding that people reward contributions to sustaining the climate of others is a surprising result. There are obvious ways these unexpected findings can be applied on a large scale.

  6. Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Haffeld, Just

    2013-11-01

    Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities. PMID:24315062

  7. Mapping chronic illness in the age of globalization: reclaiming the good for the chronically ill.

    PubMed

    del Pilar Camargo Plazas, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, infectious diseases were the main cause of death worldwide. New medical discoveries and the evolution of public health improved life expectancy and the ability to survive acute threats, thus changing the course of diseases from acute to chronic. Today, chronic illness is the most important health concern worldwide. Chronic illness increases existing poverty and pushes other people into it. As nurses, members of the healthcare system and members of this world, we cannot forget that our response toward globalization and chronic disease has to be centered in leadership through reorienting local and national healthcare systems. All actions must be grounded in the ethical treatment of the ill; we cannot close our eyes in hospitals or communities to what is happening now worldwide because our responsibility is to promote health, prevent disease, and care for human beings. PMID:19461220

  8. The role of teleconferences in global public health education.

    PubMed

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Zelinski, Christy

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a global health education program using a 'Teleconference' approach. It provides examples of how technology can be used to deliver health education at the international level. Two international teleconferences about public health issues were conducted in 2013 and 2014 involving universities and public health institutions in Colombia, Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Uganda, and the United States. More than 400 students, faculty, and community members attended these educational events. These teleconferences served as the medium to unite countries despite the geographical distances and to facilitate collaborations and networking across nations. Teleconferences are an example of effective technology-based health education and health promotion programs. PMID:25783439

  9. The Public Good and Academic Capitalism: Science and Engineering Doctoral Students and Faculty on the Boundary of Knowledge Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelényi, Katalin; Bresonis, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the research-related experiences of 48 doctoral students and 22 faculty in science and engineering fields at three research universities, with specific emphasis on the intersection of the public good and academic capitalism. Identifying an expansive, intersecting organizational space between the public good and academic…

  10. Does the "Celtic Tiger" Society Need to Debate the Role of Higher Education and the Public Good?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Calls for sustaining and increasing investment in higher education are often made on the basis that higher education is a "public good". The idea of higher education as a public good is frequently conceptualised in terms of its contribution to economic development. If more people participate in higher education then society as a whole will…

  11. Co-evolutionary dynamics between public good producers and cheats in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kümmerli, R; Santorelli, L A; Granato, E T; Dumas, Z; Dobay, A; Griffin, A S; West, S A

    2015-12-01

    The production of beneficial public goods is common in the microbial world, and so is cheating--the exploitation of public goods by nonproducing mutants. Here, we examine co-evolutionary dynamics between cooperators and cheats and ask whether cooperators can evolve strategies to reduce the burden of exploitation, and whether cheats in turn can improve their exploitation abilities. We evolved cooperators of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, producing the shareable iron-scavenging siderophore pyoverdine, together with cheats, defective in pyoverdine production but proficient in uptake. We found that cooperators managed to co-exist with cheats in 56% of all replicates over approximately 150 generations of experimental evolution. Growth and competition assays revealed that co-existence was fostered by a combination of general adaptions to the media and specific adaptions to the co-evolving opponent. Phenotypic screening and whole-genome resequencing of evolved clones confirmed this pattern, and suggest that cooperators became less exploitable by cheats because they significantly reduced their pyoverdine investment. Cheats, meanwhile, improved exploitation efficiency through mutations blocking the costly pyoverdine-signalling pathway. Moreover, cooperators and cheats evolved reduced motility, a pattern that likely represents adaptation to laboratory conditions, but at the same time also affects social interactions by reducing strain mixing and pyoverdine sharing. Overall, we observed parallel evolution, where co-existence of cooperators and cheats was enabled by a combination of adaptations to the abiotic and social environment and their interactions. PMID:26348785

  12. An Evolutionary Model of Cooperation, Fairness and Altruistic Punishment in Public Good Games

    PubMed Central

    Hetzer, Moritz; Sornette, Didier

    2013-01-01

    We identify and explain the mechanisms that account for the emergence of fairness preferences and altruistic punishment in voluntary contribution mechanisms by combining an evolutionary perspective together with an expected utility model. We aim at filling a gap between the literature on the theory of evolution applied to cooperation and punishment, and the empirical findings from experimental economics. The approach is motivated by previous findings on other-regarding behavior, the co-evolution of culture, genes and social norms, as well as bounded rationality. Our first result reveals the emergence of two distinct evolutionary regimes that force agents to converge either to a defection state or to a state of coordination, depending on the predominant set of self- or other-regarding preferences. Our second result indicates that subjects in laboratory experiments of public goods games with punishment coordinate and punish defectors as a result of an aversion against disadvantageous inequitable outcomes. Our third finding identifies disadvantageous inequity aversion as evolutionary dominant and stable in a heterogeneous population of agents endowed initially only with purely self-regarding preferences. We validate our model using previously obtained results from three independently conducted experiments of public goods games with punishment. PMID:24260101

  13. Smiling contributions: Social control in a public goods game with network decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Károly; Janky, Béla

    2007-05-01

    Previous models of collective action assume that the network structure of individual relations that transmit social control mechanisms promoting or inhibiting collective action is given. An extended game-theoretical model that incorporates social control mechanisms as side payments and allows for endogenous network change is presented here. The model represents collective action as a public goods game and predicts that network clustering undermines mass public good production and the possibility of deleting ties leads towards equilibrium structures in which contributors and defectors are segregated. It is argued and elaborated how laboratory experiments with virtual social networks can be used to test these model predictions. An innovative experimental method is proposed, in which subjects are seated behind computers that are connected according to simple network structures. Subjects are informed about the decisions of their contacts and could send happy or sad smiley symbols to them, which are two possible operationalizations of social control mechanisms. In addition, subjects could delete existing links in reaction to collective action outcomes or to avoid unpleasant forms of social control. Results of a larger series of experimental tests are to follow.

  14. Effect of Heterogeneous Investments on the Evolution of Cooperation in Spatial Public Goods Game

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Keke; Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the emergence of cooperation in spatial public goods game remains a grand challenge across disciplines. In most previous studies, it is assumed that the investments of all the cooperators are identical, and often equal to 1. However, it is worth mentioning that players are diverse and heterogeneous when choosing actions in the rapidly developing modern society and researchers have shown more interest to the heterogeneity of players recently. For modeling the heterogeneous players without loss of generality, it is assumed in this work that the investment of a cooperator is a random variable with uniform distribution, the mean value of which is equal to 1. The results of extensive numerical simulations convincingly indicate that heterogeneous investments can promote cooperation. Specifically, a large value of the variance of the random variable can decrease the two critical values for the result of behavioral evolution effectively. Moreover, the larger the variance is, the better the promotion effect will be. In addition, this article has discussed the impact of heterogeneous investments when the coevolution of both strategy and investment is taken into account. Comparing the promotion effect of coevolution of strategy and investment with that of strategy imitation only, we can conclude that the coevolution of strategy and investment decreases the asymptotic fraction of cooperators by weakening the heterogeneity of investments, which further demonstrates that heterogeneous investments can promote cooperation in spatial public goods game. PMID:25781345

  15. Men increase contributions to a public good when under sexual competition.

    PubMed

    Tognetti, Arnaud; Dubois, Dimitri; Faurie, Charlotte; Willinger, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Why humans cooperate in large groups and with non-kin remains a puzzle for researchers across the natural and social sciences. Investigating whether cooperation is sexually selected could contribute to an understanding of the evolution of human cooperation. Competition for access to mates could indeed select for cooperation. Using controlled laboratory experiments, we analyse whether and how the sex composition of a social environment, testosterone level, and relationship status affect contributions to a public good. The results show that variation in sex composition alters the amount of money that single men (but not men in a couple or women) contribute to a public good. Notably, in line with the competitive helping hypothesis, awareness of the presence of a woman leads to larger contributions by single men, most likely by triggering their competitiveness to be the most cooperative man in the group. However, we find no link between basal testosterone level and cooperativeness. We argue that men, notably single men, adopt cooperative behaviours as a signalling strategy in the context of mate choice and hence that cooperation is partly sexually selected. Our findings highlight the need to consider sexual selection as an additional mechanism for cooperation. PMID:27412070

  16. Group-Level Selection Increases Cooperation in the Public Goods Game.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Catherine C; Fatas, Enrique; Godoy, Sara; Wilson, Rick K

    2016-01-01

    When groups compete for resources, some groups will be more successful than others, forcing out less successful groups. Group-level selection is the most extreme form of group competition, where the weaker group ceases to exist, becoming extinct. We implement group-level selection in a controlled laboratory experiment in order to study its impact on human cooperation. The experiment uses variations on the standard linear public goods game. Group-level selection operates through competition for survival: the least successful, lowest-earning groups become extinct, in the sense that they no longer are able to play the game. Additional control treatments include group comparison without extinction, and extinction of the least successful individuals across groups. We find that group-level extinction produces very high contributions to the provision of the public good, while group comparison alone or individual extinction fail to cause higher contributions. Our results provide stark evidence that group-level selection enhances within-group cooperation. PMID:27574971

  17. Group-Level Selection Increases Cooperation in the Public Goods Game

    PubMed Central

    Eckel, Catherine C.; Fatas, Enrique; Godoy, Sara

    2016-01-01

    When groups compete for resources, some groups will be more successful than others, forcing out less successful groups. Group-level selection is the most extreme form of group competition, where the weaker group ceases to exist, becoming extinct. We implement group-level selection in a controlled laboratory experiment in order to study its impact on human cooperation. The experiment uses variations on the standard linear public goods game. Group-level selection operates through competition for survival: the least successful, lowest-earning groups become extinct, in the sense that they no longer are able to play the game. Additional control treatments include group comparison without extinction, and extinction of the least successful individuals across groups. We find that group-level extinction produces very high contributions to the provision of the public good, while group comparison alone or individual extinction fail to cause higher contributions. Our results provide stark evidence that group-level selection enhances within-group cooperation. PMID:27574971

  18. An evolutionary model of cooperation, fairness and altruistic punishment in public good games.

    PubMed

    Hetzer, Moritz; Sornette, Didier

    2013-01-01

    We identify and explain the mechanisms that account for the emergence of fairness preferences and altruistic punishment in voluntary contribution mechanisms by combining an evolutionary perspective together with an expected utility model. We aim at filling a gap between the literature on the theory of evolution applied to cooperation and punishment, and the empirical findings from experimental economics. The approach is motivated by previous findings on other-regarding behavior, the co-evolution of culture, genes and social norms, as well as bounded rationality. Our first result reveals the emergence of two distinct evolutionary regimes that force agents to converge either to a defection state or to a state of coordination, depending on the predominant set of self- or other-regarding preferences. Our second result indicates that subjects in laboratory experiments of public goods games with punishment coordinate and punish defectors as a result of an aversion against disadvantageous inequitable outcomes. Our third finding identifies disadvantageous inequity aversion as evolutionary dominant and stable in a heterogeneous population of agents endowed initially only with purely self-regarding preferences. We validate our model using previously obtained results from three independently conducted experiments of public goods games with punishment. PMID:24260101

  19. Men increase contributions to a public good when under sexual competition

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Arnaud; Dubois, Dimitri; Faurie, Charlotte; Willinger, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Why humans cooperate in large groups and with non-kin remains a puzzle for researchers across the natural and social sciences. Investigating whether cooperation is sexually selected could contribute to an understanding of the evolution of human cooperation. Competition for access to mates could indeed select for cooperation. Using controlled laboratory experiments, we analyse whether and how the sex composition of a social environment, testosterone level, and relationship status affect contributions to a public good. The results show that variation in sex composition alters the amount of money that single men (but not men in a couple or women) contribute to a public good. Notably, in line with the competitive helping hypothesis, awareness of the presence of a woman leads to larger contributions by single men, most likely by triggering their competitiveness to be the most cooperative man in the group. However, we find no link between basal testosterone level and cooperativeness. We argue that men, notably single men, adopt cooperative behaviours as a signalling strategy in the context of mate choice and hence that cooperation is partly sexually selected. Our findings highlight the need to consider sexual selection as an additional mechanism for cooperation. PMID:27412070

  20. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Cristina; Gonzalez, Lilliana

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide in all age groups, even in those residing in countries with low latitude, where it was generally assumed that UV radiation was adequate enough to prevent this deficiency, and in industrialized countries, where vitamin D fortification has been implemented now for years. However, most countries are still lacking data, particularly population representative data, with very limited information in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women. Since the number of recent publications is escalating, with a broadening of the geographic diversity, the objective of the present report was to conduct a more recent systematic review of global vitamin D status, with particular emphasis in at risk groups. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed/Medline in April-June 2013 to identify articles on vitamin D status worldwide published in the last 10 years in apparently healthy individuals. Only studies with vitamin D status prevalence were included. If available, the first source selected was population-based or representative samples studies. Clinical trials, case-control studies, case reports or series, reviews, validation studies, letters, editorials, or qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 103 articles were eligible and included in the present report. Maps were created for each age group, providing an updated overview of global vitamin D status. In areas with available data, the prevalence of low vitamin D status is a global problem in all age groups, in particular in girls and women from the Middle East. These maps also evidenced the regions with missing data for each specific population groups. There is striking lack of data in infants, children and adolescents worldwide, and in most countries of South America and Africa. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem in all age groups, particularly in those from the Middle East. PMID:24239505

  1. Decelerated invasion and waning-moon patterns in public goods games with delayed distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-05-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, focusing on the effects that are brought about by the delayed distribution of goods that accumulate in groups due to the continuous investments of cooperators. We find that intermediate delays enhance network reciprocity because of a decelerated invasion of defectors, who are unable to reap the same high short-term benefits as they do in the absence of delayed distribution. Long delays, however, introduce a risk because the large accumulated wealth might fall into the wrong hands. Indeed, as soon as the curvature of a cooperative cluster turns negative, the engulfed defectors can collect the heritage of many generations of cooperators and by doing so start a waning-moon pattern that nullifies the benefits of decelerated invasion. Accidental meeting points of growing cooperative clusters may also act as triggers for the waning-moon effect, thus linking the success of cooperators with their propensity to fail in a rather bizarre way. Our results highlight that “investing in the future” is a good idea only if that future is sufficiently near and not likely to be burdened by inflation.

  2. Decelerated invasion and waning-moon patterns in public goods games with delayed distribution.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-05-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, focusing on the effects that are brought about by the delayed distribution of goods that accumulate in groups due to the continuous investments of cooperators. We find that intermediate delays enhance network reciprocity because of a decelerated invasion of defectors, who are unable to reap the same high short-term benefits as they do in the absence of delayed distribution. Long delays, however, introduce a risk because the large accumulated wealth might fall into the wrong hands. Indeed, as soon as the curvature of a cooperative cluster turns negative, the engulfed defectors can collect the heritage of many generations of cooperators and by doing so start a waning-moon pattern that nullifies the benefits of decelerated invasion. Accidental meeting points of growing cooperative clusters may also act as triggers for the waning-moon effect, thus linking the success of cooperators with their propensity to fail in a rather bizarre way. Our results highlight that "investing in the future" is a good idea only if that future is sufficiently near and not likely to be burdened by inflation. PMID:23767662

  3. 77 FR 11157 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade (76 FR 44606). Public Hearing: In order to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... Start Time of Public Hearing AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  4. Role of investment heterogeneity in the cooperation on spatial public goods game.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wu-Jie; Xia, Cheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Public cooperation plays a significant role in the survival and maintenance of biological species, to elucidate its origin thus becomes an interesting question from various disciplines. Through long-term development, the public goods game has proven to be a useful tool, where cooperator making contribution can beat again the free-rides. Differentiating from the traditional homogeneous investment, individual trend of making contribution is more likely affected by the investment level of his neighborhood. Based on this fact, we here investigate the impact of heterogeneous investment on public cooperation, where the investment sum is mapped to the proportion of cooperators determined by parameter α. Interestingly, we find, irrespective of interaction networks, that the increment of α (increment of heterogeneous investment) is beneficial for promoting cooperation and even guarantees the complete cooperation dominance under weak replication factor. While this promotion effect can be attributed to the formation of more robust cooperator clusters and shortening END period. Moreover, we find that this simple mechanism can change the potential interaction network, which results in the change of phase diagrams. We hope that our work may shed light on the understanding of the cooperative behavior in other social dilemmas. PMID:24632779

  5. Competition and cooperation among different punishing strategies in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-07-01

    Inspired by the fact that people have diverse propensities to punish wrongdoers, we study a spatial public goods game with defectors and different types of punishing cooperators. During the game, cooperators punish defectors with class-specific probabilities and subsequently share the associated costs of sanctioning. We show that in the presence of different punishing cooperators the highest level of public cooperation is always attainable through a selection mechanism. Interestingly, the selection does not necessarily favor the evolution of punishers who would be able to prevail on their own against the defectors, nor does it always hinder the evolution of punishers who would be unable to prevail on their own. Instead, the evolutionary success of punishing strategies depends sensitively on their invasion velocities, which in turn reveals fascinating examples of both competition and cooperation among them. Furthermore, we show that under favorable conditions, when punishment is not strictly necessary for the maintenance of public cooperation, the less aggressive, mild form of sanctioning is the sole victor of the selection process. Our work reveals that natural strategy selection cannot only promote, but sometimes also hinders competition among prosocial strategies.

  6. Competition and cooperation among different punishing strategies in the spatial public goods game.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-07-01

    Inspired by the fact that people have diverse propensities to punish wrongdoers, we study a spatial public goods game with defectors and different types of punishing cooperators. During the game, cooperators punish defectors with class-specific probabilities and subsequently share the associated costs of sanctioning. We show that in the presence of different punishing cooperators the highest level of public cooperation is always attainable through a selection mechanism. Interestingly, the selection does not necessarily favor the evolution of punishers who would be able to prevail on their own against the defectors, nor does it always hinder the evolution of punishers who would be unable to prevail on their own. Instead, the evolutionary success of punishing strategies depends sensitively on their invasion velocities, which in turn reveals fascinating examples of both competition and cooperation among them. Furthermore, we show that under favorable conditions, when punishment is not strictly necessary for the maintenance of public cooperation, the less aggressive, mild form of sanctioning is the sole victor of the selection process. Our work reveals that natural strategy selection cannot only promote, but sometimes also hinders competition among prosocial strategies. PMID:26274237

  7. Public goods and private interests: The role of voluntary green power demand in achieving environmental improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiser, Ryan Hayes

    This dissertation explores the role of consumer purchasing behavior in providing public, environmental goods. It does so by empirically evaluating one market---voluntary demand for renewable energy. The dissertation addresses the following five research questions: (1) What does early experience with green power marketing tell us about the prospects for this market to deliver environmental benefits? (2) What product design and marketing approaches might be used to increase voluntary demand? (3) What motivates non-residential customers to voluntarily purchase green power? (4) What role might public policy play in the creation of the green power market? (5) What preferences do individuals hold on the most appropriate forms of support for renewable energy? By helping to answer these questions, this dissertation seeks to better understand the gap between widespread positive attitudes for the environment and an often-anemic response to green product offerings. It contributes to not only the public goods and environmental marketing literatures, but also to contingent valuation methodology and to an emerging literature on the motivations of firms to contribute to environmental causes. The analysis performed is diverse, and includes: a literature review, a mail survey of green power marketers, a mail survey of non-residential green power customers, and contingent valuation and opinion surveys of U.S. residents. Detailed statistical analysis is performed on the data collected from the residential and non-residential surveys. The analysis reveals that customer participation in green power programs to date has been weak. The possibility that the traditional economic concept of "free riding" may explain this low response is raised, and the dissertation identifies a number of marketing approaches that might be used to partially combat this problem. Analysis of survey data shows that non-residential green power purchases have been motivated principally by altruistic concerns

  8. The Imperative of Public Health Education: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    White, Franklin

    2013-01-01

    This review positions public health as an endeavour that requires a high order of professionalism in addressing the health of populations; this requires investment in an educational capacity that is designed to meet this need. In the global context, the field has evolved enormously over the past half century, supported by institutions such as the World Bank, the World Health Organization and the Institute of Medicine. Operational structures are formulated by strategic principles, with educational and career pathways guided by competency frameworks, all requiring modulation according to local, national and global realities. Talented and well-motivated individuals are attracted by its multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary environment, and the opportunity to achieve interventions that make real differences to people's lives. The field is globally competitive and open to many professional backgrounds based on merit. Its competencies correspond with assessments of population needs, and the ways in which strategies and services are formulated. Thus, its educational planning is needs-based and evidence-driven. This review explores four public health education levels: graduate, undergraduate, continuing professional education and promotion of health literacy for general populations. The emergence of accreditation schemes is examined, focusing on their relative merits and legitimate international variations. The role of relevant research policies is recognized, along with the need to foster professional and institutional networks in all regions of the world. It is critically important for the health of populations that nations assess their public health human resource needs and develop their ability to deliver this capacity, and not depend on other countries to supply it. PMID:23969636

  9. Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. T.

    2006-12-01

    The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of

  10. Reciprocity in spatial evolutionary public goods game on double-layered network.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2016-01-01

    Spatial evolutionary games have mainly been studied on a single, isolated network. However, in real world systems, many interaction topologies are not isolated but many different types of networks are inter-connected to each other. In this study, we investigate the spatial evolutionary public goods game (SEPGG) on double-layered random networks (DRN). Based on the mean-field type arguments and numerical simulations, we find that SEPGG on DRN shows very rich interesting phenomena, especially, depending on the size of each layer, intra-connectivity, and inter-connected couplings, the network reciprocity of SEPGG on DRN can be drastically enhanced through the inter-connected coupling. Furthermore, SEPGG on DRN can provide a more general framework which includes the evolutionary dynamics on multiplex networks and inter-connected networks at the same time. PMID:27503801

  11. Volunteering as Red Queen Mechanism for Cooperation in Public Goods Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauert, Christoph; De Monte, Silvia; Hofbauer, Josef; Sigmund, Karl

    2002-05-01

    The evolution of cooperation among nonrelated individuals is one of the fundamental problems in biology and social sciences. Reciprocal altruism fails to provide a solution if interactions are not repeated often enough or groups are too large. Punishment and reward can be very effective but require that defectors can be traced and identified. Here we present a simple but effective mechanism operating under full anonymity. Optional participation can foil exploiters and overcome the social dilemma. In voluntary public goods interactions, cooperators and defectors will coexist. We show that this result holds under very diverse assumptions on population structure and adaptation mechanisms, leading usually not to an equilibrium but to an unending cycle of adjustments (a Red Queen type of evolution). Thus, voluntary participation offers an escape hatch out of some social traps. Cooperation can subsist in sizable groups even if interactions are not repeated, defectors remain anonymous, players have no memory, and assortment is purely random.

  12. The evolutionary public goods game on scale-free networks with heterogeneous investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xian-Bin; Du, Wen-Bo; Rong, Zhi-Hai

    2010-03-01

    The public goods game (PGG) is generally considered as a suitable paradigm to explain ubiquitous cooperative behavior. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary PGG on scale-free networks and studied the effect of individual heterogeneity by setting the cooperator x an investment value correlated to its degree as Ix=Nṡ/∑j, where kx is the degree of x, j runs over all players and β is a tunable parameter. It is shown that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted by negative values of β whereas it is highly depressed by positive values of β. Moreover, the effect of environmental noise has also been investigated. Our result may sharpen the understanding of cooperation induced by the individual diversity.

  13. Evolutionary public goods games on scale-free networks with unequal payoff allocation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Yang, Hanxin; Du, Wenbo; Wang, Binghong; Cao, Xianbin

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we bring an unequal payoff allocation mechanism into evolutionary public goods game on scale-free networks and focus on the cooperative behavior of the system. The unequal mechanism can be tuned by one parameter α: if α>0, the hub nodes can use its degree advantage to collect more payoff; if α<0, numerous non-hub nodes will obtain more payoff in a single round game. Simulation results show that the cooperation level has a non-trivial dependence on α. For the small enhancement factor r, the cooperator frequency can be promoted by both negative and positive α. For large r, there exists an optimal α that can obtain the highest cooperation level. Our results may sharpen the understanding of the emergence of cooperation induced by the unequal payoff allocation mechanism.

  14. Reciprocity in spatial evolutionary public goods game on double-layered network

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2016-01-01

    Spatial evolutionary games have mainly been studied on a single, isolated network. However, in real world systems, many interaction topologies are not isolated but many different types of networks are inter-connected to each other. In this study, we investigate the spatial evolutionary public goods game (SEPGG) on double-layered random networks (DRN). Based on the mean-field type arguments and numerical simulations, we find that SEPGG on DRN shows very rich interesting phenomena, especially, depending on the size of each layer, intra-connectivity, and inter-connected couplings, the network reciprocity of SEPGG on DRN can be drastically enhanced through the inter-connected coupling. Furthermore, SEPGG on DRN can provide a more general framework which includes the evolutionary dynamics on multiplex networks and inter-connected networks at the same time. PMID:27503801

  15. Competition of individual and institutional punishments in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György; Czakó, Lilla

    2011-10-01

    We have studied the evolution of strategies in spatial public goods games where both individual (peer) and institutional (pool) punishments are present in addition to unconditional defector and cooperator strategies. The evolution of strategy distribution is governed by imitation based on the random sequential comparison of neighbors’ payoff for a fixed level of noise. Using numerical simulations, we evaluate the strategy frequencies and phase diagrams when varying the synergy factor, punishment cost, and fine. Our attention is focused on two extreme cases describing all the relevant behaviors in such a complex system. According to our numerical data peer punishers prevail and control the system behavior in a large segments of parameters while pool punishers can only survive in the limit of weak peer punishment when a rich variety of solutions is observed. Paradoxically, the two types of punishment may extinguish each other’s impact, resulting in the triumph of defectors. The technical difficulties and suggested methods are briefly discussed.

  16. Success-driven distribution of public goods promotes cooperation but preserves defection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2011-09-01

    Established already in Biblical times, the Matthew effect refers to the fact that in societies the rich tend to get richer and the potent even more powerful. Here we investigate a game theoretical model describing the evolution of cooperation on structured populations where the distribution of public goods is driven by the reproductive success of individuals. Phase diagrams reveal that cooperation is promoted irrespective of the uncertainty by strategy adoptions and the type of interaction graph, yet the complete dominance of cooperators is elusive due to the spontaneous emergence of superpersistent defectors that owe their survival to extremely rare microscopic patterns. This indicates that success-driven mechanisms are crucial for effectively harvesting benefits from collective actions but that they may also account for the observed persistence of maladaptive behavior.

  17. Velocity-enhanced cooperation of moving agents playing public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardillo, Alessio; Meloni, Sandro; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we study the evolutionary dynamics of the public goods game in a population of mobile agents embedded in a two-dimensional space. In this framework, the backbone of interactions between agents changes in time, allowing us to study the impact that mobility has on the emergence of cooperation in structured populations. Our results point out that a low degree of mobility enhances cooperation in the system. In addition, we study the impact of the size of the groups in which games are played on cooperation. Again we find a rise and fall of cooperation related to the percolation point of the instant interaction networks created by the set of mobile agents.

  18. Effects of inhomogeneous activity of players and noise on cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jian-Yue; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Ying-Hai

    2007-11-01

    We study the public goods game in the noisy case by considering the players with inhomogeneous activity of teaching on a square lattice. It is shown that the introduction of the inhomogeneous activity of teaching the players can remarkably promote cooperation. By investigating the effects of noise on cooperative behavior in detail, we find that the variation of cooperator density ρC with the noise parameter κ displays several different behaviors: ρC monotonically increases (decreases) with κ ; ρC first increases (decreases) with κ and then it decreases (increases) monotonically after reaching its maximum (minimum) value, which depends on the amount of the multiplication factor r , on whether the system is homogeneous or inhomogeneous, and on whether the adopted updating is synchronous or asynchronous. These results imply that the noise plays an important and nontrivial role in the evolution of cooperation.

  19. Group penalty on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianlei; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

    2010-12-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games, whereby a coevolutionary rule is introduced that aims to integrate group penalty into the framework of evolutionary games. Existing groups are deleted whenever the collective gains of the focal individuals are less than a deletion threshold value. Meanwhile, newcomers are added after each game iteration to maintain the fixed population size. The networking effect is also studied via four representative interaction networks which are associated with the population structure. We conclude that the cooperation level has a strong dependence on the deletion threshold, and the suitable value range of the deletion threshold which is associated with the maximal cooperation frequency has been found. Simulation results also show that optimum values of the deletion threshold can still warrant the most potent promotion of cooperation, irrespective of which of the four topologies is applied.

  20. Reciprocity in spatial evolutionary public goods game on double-layered network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinho; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2016-08-01

    Spatial evolutionary games have mainly been studied on a single, isolated network. However, in real world systems, many interaction topologies are not isolated but many different types of networks are inter-connected to each other. In this study, we investigate the spatial evolutionary public goods game (SEPGG) on double-layered random networks (DRN). Based on the mean-field type arguments and numerical simulations, we find that SEPGG on DRN shows very rich interesting phenomena, especially, depending on the size of each layer, intra-connectivity, and inter-connected couplings, the network reciprocity of SEPGG on DRN can be drastically enhanced through the inter-connected coupling. Furthermore, SEPGG on DRN can provide a more general framework which includes the evolutionary dynamics on multiplex networks and inter-connected networks at the same time.

  1. Beneficial laggards: multilevel selection, cooperative polymorphism and division of labour in threshold public good games

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The origin and stability of cooperation is a hot topic in social and behavioural sciences. A complicated conundrum exists as defectors have an advantage over cooperators, whenever cooperation is costly so consequently, not cooperating pays off. In addition, the discovery that humans and some animal populations, such as lions, are polymorphic, where cooperators and defectors stably live together -- while defectors are not being punished--, is even more puzzling. Here we offer a novel explanation based on a Threshold Public Good Game (PGG) that includes the interaction of individual and group level selection, where individuals can contribute to multiple collective actions, in our model group hunting and group defense. Results Our results show that there are polymorphic equilibria in Threshold PGGs; that multi-level selection does not select for the most cooperators per group but selects those close to the optimum number of cooperators (in terms of the Threshold PGG). In particular for medium cost values division of labour evolves within the group with regard to the two types of cooperative actions (hunting vs. defense). Moreover we show evidence that spatial population structure promotes cooperation in multiple PGGs. We also demonstrate that these results apply for a wide range of non-linear benefit function types. Conclusions We demonstrate that cooperation can be stable in Threshold PGG, even when the proportion of so called free riders is high in the population. A fundamentally new mechanism is proposed how laggards, individuals that have a high tendency to defect during one specific group action can actually contribute to the fitness of the group, by playing part in an optimal resource allocation in Threshold Public Good Games. In general, our results show that acknowledging a multilevel selection process will open up novel explanations for collective actions. PMID:21044340

  2. Is Greed Still Good? Was It Ever? Exploring the Emoscapes of the Global Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah

    2010-01-01

    We seek to contribute to political and policy analyses of globalisation by attending to global flows of emotions and by developing the concept global emoscapes. In so doing we build on Arjun Appadurai's theorisation of the disjunctive scapes of the global cultural economy. As a way of illustrating the benefits of our approach, we deploy it to…

  3. Good publication practices in clinical pharmacology: transparency, evidence-based medicine and the 7-D assessment*

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Barry G.; Luger, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Transparency and evidence-based medicine are cornerstones of good publication practices (GPP), and concern publishers, editors, research investigators, and reviewers alike. Methods for implementing these principles within the framework of GPP are described. The main aspects include obtaining a Manuscript Agreement Contract, a Statement on Transparency of Authorship and a Declaration of Conflicts of Interest from the authors. Assessing whether a manuscript meets the requirements of EBM is demonstrated using the “7-D assessment”. The main purpose of this tool is to established that the (1) right Design, (2) right Diagnosis, (3) right Drug molecule, (4) right Dosage, (5) right Data, (6) right Deductions, and (7) right Documentation have been implemented in order to meet the objectives of the investigation. If the findings from any one of these assessments is questionable, the compliance of the research with EBM principles will be weakened and the reviewers and editors will make recommendations to the publisher accordingly. The guidelines described will help to provide a fair and transparent process of scientific publication and foster the freedom of clinical pharmacological research. PMID:26329349

  4. Blood donation as a public good: an empirical investigation of the free rider problem.

    PubMed

    Abásolo, Ignacio; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-04-01

    A voluntary blood donation system can be seen as a public good. People can take advantage without contributing and have a free ride. We empirically analyse the extent of free riding and its determinants. Interviews of the general public in Spain (n = 1,211) were used to ask whether respondents were (or have been) regular blood donors and, if not, the reason. Free riders are defined as those who are medically capable to donate blood but do not. In addition, we distinguish four different types of free riding depending on the reason given for not donating. Binomial and multinomial logit models estimate the effect of individual characteristics on the propensity to free ride and the likelihood of the free rider types. Amongst those who are able to donate, there is a 67 % probability of being a free rider. The most likely free rider is female, single, with low/no education and abstained from voting in a recent national election. Gender, age, religious practice, political participation and regional income explain the type of free rider. PMID:23797489

  5. Good governance of animal health systems and public-private partnerships: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Black, P F

    2012-08-01

    The animal health system in Australia has evolved over more than 100 years and includes innovative public-private partnership arrangements. The establishment in 1996 of Animal Health Australia (AHA), a not-for-profit company, was a crucial development which formalised arrangements for shared decision-making and funding across both government and industry stakeholders. However, Federal and State governments retain legislative authority for animal health control. Accordingly, all programmes must recognise that the public sector remains an executive arm of government, accountable for its actions. Hence, much effort has been invested in ensuring that the governance arrangements within AHA are lawful and transparent. The Emergency Animal Disease Response Agreement (EADRA) is a very good example of governance arrangements that are sustainably financed, widely available, provided efficiently, without waste or duplication, and in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. The benefits of EADRA include certainty and greater transparency of funding; greater efficiency through increased probability of a rapid response to an occurrence of any of 65 diseases; and industry participation in the management and financing of such a response. PMID:23413743

  6. Group-size effects on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2011-10-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in public goods games on the square lattice, focusing on the effects that are brought about by different sizes of groups where individuals collect their payoffs and search for potential strategy donors. We find that increasing the group size does not necessarily lead to mean-field behavior, as is traditionally observed for games governed by pairwise interactions, but rather that public cooperation may be additionally promoted by means of enhanced spatial reciprocity that sets in for very large groups. Our results highlight that the promotion of cooperation due to spatial interactions is not rooted solely in having restricted connections among players, but also in individuals having the opportunity to collect payoffs separately from their direct opponents. Moreover, in large groups the presence of a small number of defectors is bearable, which makes the mixed-phase region expand with increasing group size. Having a chance of exploiting distant players, however, offers defectors a different way to break the phalanx of cooperators and even to resurrect from small numbers to eventually completely invade the population.

  7. TV programs that denounce unfair advantage impact women's sensitivity to defection in the public goods game.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongmin A; Jeong, Soyeong; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2013-01-01

    We explore the neural underpinnings of gender differences in cooperation and their modulation by intensive media watching. We compared cooperative decisions and electroencephalograph data between genders from who participated in repeated rounds of the public goods game (PGG) and investigated within groups changes that occurred after watching a TV program known as "investigative reporting" that denounces unfair advantages taken by free-riders against the public. Women tended to be more cooperative than men during early rounds of PGG, mostly because they react differently to the defection of others; women also had greater β and γ band activity in regions estimated to be associated with social cognition. These gender differences disappeared after participants watched the TV programs: women were more likely to choose free-riding in response to the defection of others that elicits significant increases in γ band activities that were estimated to be right insula. Greater activity in social cognition leads women to make decisions considering the motives of others, while men tend to make a decision by complying with the social norm. Watching the investigative TV reports produced a greater negative emotion to the defection and led women, in a similar manner as men, to opt for a "tit-for-tat" strategy. PMID:24047315

  8. Masculine Knowledge, the Public Good, and the Scientific Household of Réaumur.

    PubMed

    Terrall, Mary

    2015-01-01

    In the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris (founded 1666), expressions of a masculine culture of science echoed contemporary language used to articulate the aristocracy's value to crown and state--even though the academy was not an aristocratic institution as such. In the eighteenth century, the pursuit of science became a new form of manly service to the crown, often described in terms of useful knowledge and benefit to the public good [le bien public]. This article explores the connection of academic scientific knowledge to the domestic spaces where it was made and, in particular, to the household of R.-A. Ferchault de Réaumur, an exemplary academician. Although Réaumur had neither wife nor children, a complex net of affective ties, some of them familial, linked the members of the household, which accommodated women (the artist Hélène Dumoustier and her female relatives) as well as men (a series of assistants, many of whom eventually entered the academy). As head of this dynamic household, Réaumur produced not only scientific results but also future academicians. PMID:27066624

  9. Global Health Watch Canada? Mobilizing the Canadian public health community around a global health advocacy agenda.

    PubMed

    McCoy, David; Labonte, Ronald; Orbinski, James

    2006-01-01

    Growing poverty, collapsing health care systems, the AIDS pandemic and the widening of health and health care inequities within and between countries all point to the limited success of global public health interventions over the past few decades. Notwithstanding the efforts of multilateral agencies such as the World Health Organization and the many existing contributions from the Canadian community of health professionals, this commentary argues and appeals for further action particularly in relation to the social and political impediments to better health and justice. Specifically, it calls for the development of a robust instrument to assess the impact of Canada as a whole on the state of global health, and to monitor the performance of key Canadian institutions. It is suggested that such an instrument would result in a process that enhances global citizenship and public accountability, and buttresses the efforts of civil society to forge trans-national links in pursuit of a fairer and healthier world. Public health professionals, by virtue of their social standing as well as the nature and tools of their discipline, should be at the forefront of such civic efforts. PMID:16620004

  10. Global surveillance for chemical incidents of international public health concern.

    PubMed Central

    Olowokure, B.; Pooransingh, S.; Tempowski, J.; Palmer, S.; Meredith, T.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In December 2001, an expert consultation convened by WHO identified strengthening national and global chemical incident preparedness and response as a priority. WHO is working towards this objective by developing a surveillance and response system for chemical incidents. This report describes the frequency, nature and geographical location of acute chemical incidents of potential international concern from August 2002 to December 2003. METHODS: Acute chemical incidents were actively identified through several informal (e.g. Internet-based resources) and formal (e.g. various networks of organizations) sources and assessed against criteria for public health emergencies of international concern using the then proposed revised International Health Regulations (IHR). WHO regional and country offices were contacted to obtain additional information regarding identified incidents. FINDINGS: Altogether, 35 chemical incidents from 26 countries met one or more of the IHR criteria. The WHO European Region accounted for 43% (15/35) of reports. The WHO Regions for Africa, Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific each accounted for 14% (5/35); South-East Asia and the Americas accounted for 9% (3/35) and 6% (2/35), respectively. Twenty-three (66%) events were identified within 24 hours of their occurrence. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first global surveillance system for chemical incidents of potential international concern. Limitations such as geographical and language bias associated with the current system are being addressed. Nevertheless, the system has shown that it can provide early detection of important events, as well as information on the magnitude and geographical distribution of such incidents. It can therefore contribute to improving global public health preparedness. PMID:16462985

  11. Transforming a School Learning Exercise into a Public Engagement Event: "The Good, the Bad and the Algae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    School science laboratory classes and hands-on public engagement activities share many common aims and objectives in terms of science learning and literacy. This article describes the development and evaluation of a microbiology public engagement activity, "The Good, the Bad and the Algae", from a school laboratory activity. The school…

  12. The Role of Religion in 21st-Century Public Schools: Historic Perspectives on God and Goodness in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Steven P.; Sheffield, Eric C.

    2010-01-01

    No other educational issue hits a more sensitive nerve with the American public than the role of religion in the public schools. While the intentions and actions of the religious and non-religious parents and community members overlap a great deal as they conceive of the good people they want their children to become, there is no apparent…

  13. What Is the Greater Good? The Discourse on Public and Private Roles of Higher Education in the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Brad; Galilee-Belfer, Mika; Lee, Jenny J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the ways that the "public good" of higher education is being conceptualised as economic benefits and cost/benefit rationalities in the current economic downturn. Based on the case of Arizona in the United States, a discourse analysis of speeches was performed on the way public, state and institutional leaders…

  14. Pharmacogenomic technologies: a necessary "luxury" for better global public health?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenomic technologies aim to redirect drug development to increase safety and efficacy of individual care. There is much hope that their implementation in the drug development process will help respond to population health needs, particularly in developing countries. However, there is also fear that novel pharmacogenomic drugs will remain too costly, be designed for the needs of the wealthy nations, and so constitute an unnecessary "luxury" for most populations. In this paper, we analyse the promise that pharmacogenomic technologies hold for improving global public health and identify strategies and challenges associated with their implementation. Discussion This paper evaluates the capacity of pharmacogenomic technologies to meet six criteria described by the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics group: 1) impact of the technology, 2) technology appropriateness, 3) capacity to address local burdens, 4) feasibility to be implemented in reasonable time, 5) capacity to reduce the knowledge gap, and 6) capacity for indirect benefits. We argue that the implementation of pharmacogenomic technologies in the drug development process can positively impact population health. However, this positive impact depends on how and for which purposes the technologies are used. We discuss the potential of these technologies to stimulate drug discovery in the case of rare (orphan diseases) or neglected diseases, but also to reduce acute adverse drug reactions in infectious disease treatment and prevention, which promises to improve global public health. Conclusions The implementation of pharmacogenomic technologies may lead to the development of drugs that appear to be a "luxury" for populations in need of numerous interventions that are known to have a demonstrable impact on population health (e.g., secure access to potable water, reduction of social inequities, health education). However, our analysis shows that pharmacogenomic technologies do have the

  15. Cooperation and Contagion in Web-Based, Networked Public Goods Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Siddharth; Watts, Duncan J.

    2011-01-01

    A longstanding idea in the literature on human cooperation is that cooperation should be reinforced when conditional cooperators are more likely to interact. In the context of social networks, this idea implies that cooperation should fare better in highly clustered networks such as cliques than in networks with low clustering such as random networks. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of web-based experiments, in which 24 individuals played a local public goods game arranged on one of five network topologies that varied between disconnected cliques and a random regular graph. In contrast with previous theoretical work, we found that network topology had no significant effect on average contributions. This result implies either that individuals are not conditional cooperators, or else that cooperation does not benefit from positive reinforcement between connected neighbors. We then tested both of these possibilities in two subsequent series of experiments in which artificial seed players were introduced, making either full or zero contributions. First, we found that although players did generally behave like conditional cooperators, they were as likely to decrease their contributions in response to low contributing neighbors as they were to increase their contributions in response to high contributing neighbors. Second, we found that positive effects of cooperation were contagious only to direct neighbors in the network. In total we report on 113 human subjects experiments, highlighting the speed, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness of web-based experiments over those conducted in physical labs. PMID:21412431

  16. Private behaviors for the public good: Citizens' actions and U.S. energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolsen, Toby

    Why and when do individuals take political actions? Why do some, but not all, citizens make sacrifices for the sake of the public good? Outside of work on participation, political scientists have paid little attention to these questions. I seek to fill this gap by exploring the factors that drive political behaviors. I focus specifically on an important class of behaviors: actions regarding the consumption of energy. I begin by developing a theory that brings together the potentially interactive effects of individual and environmental factors that shape individuals' decisions to take action. I test predictions generated by my theory in three empirical chapters: a media content analysis, laboratory experiment, and survey experiment. The content analysis allows me to assess frames in a communication toward energy consumption, which I examine later in terms of effects. I use the theory and experiments to evaluate the impact of competing forces on attitudes toward energy conservation, willingness to pay for energy saving devices, and actual behavior (e.g., a purchasing decision and financial contribution). My results suggest a primacy of norms, which is fascinating because the impact of norms is under-studied relative to research evaluating the impact of political communications.

  17. Cooperation and contagion in web-based, networked public goods experiments.

    PubMed

    Suri, Siddharth; Watts, Duncan J

    2011-01-01

    A longstanding idea in the literature on human cooperation is that cooperation should be reinforced when conditional cooperators are more likely to interact. In the context of social networks, this idea implies that cooperation should fare better in highly clustered networks such as cliques than in networks with low clustering such as random networks. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of web-based experiments, in which 24 individuals played a local public goods game arranged on one of five network topologies that varied between disconnected cliques and a random regular graph. In contrast with previous theoretical work, we found that network topology had no significant effect on average contributions. This result implies either that individuals are not conditional cooperators, or else that cooperation does not benefit from positive reinforcement between connected neighbors. We then tested both of these possibilities in two subsequent series of experiments in which artificial seed players were introduced, making either full or zero contributions. First, we found that although players did generally behave like conditional cooperators, they were as likely to decrease their contributions in response to low contributing neighbors as they were to increase their contributions in response to high contributing neighbors. Second, we found that positive effects of cooperation were contagious only to direct neighbors in the network. In total we report on 113 human subjects experiments, highlighting the speed, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness of web-based experiments over those conducted in physical labs. PMID:21412431

  18. Conformity-driven agents support ordered phases in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto; Antonioni, Alberto; Caravelli, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the spatial Public Goods Game in the presence of fitness-driven and conformity-driven agents. This framework usually considers only the former type of agents, i.e., agents that tend to imitate the strategy of their fittest neighbors. However, whenever we study social systems, the evolution of a population might be affected also by social behaviors as conformism, stubbornness, altruism, and selfishness. Although the term evolution can assume different meanings depending on the considered domain, here it corresponds to the set of processes that lead a system towards an equilibrium or a steady state. We map fitness to the agents' payoff so that richer agents are those most imitated by fitness-driven agents, while conformity-driven agents tend to imitate the strategy assumed by the majority of their neighbors. Numerical simulations aim to identify the nature of the transition, on varying the amount of the relative density of conformity-driven agents in the population, and to study the nature of related equilibria. Remarkably, we find that conformism generally fosters ordered cooperative phases and may also lead to bistable behaviors.

  19. The dynamics of human behavior in the public goods game with institutional incentives.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yali; Zhang, Boyu; Tao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The empirical research on the public goods game (PGG) indicates that both institutional rewards and institutional punishment can curb free-riding and that the punishment effect is stronger than the reward effect. Self-regarding models that are based on Nash equilibrium (NE) strategies or evolutionary game dynamics correctly predict which incentives are best at promoting cooperation, but individuals do not play these rational strategies overall. The goal of our study is to investigate the dynamics of human decision making in the repeated PGG with institutional incentives. We consider that an individual's contribution is affected by four factors, which are self-interest, the behavior of others, the reaction to rewards, and the reaction to punishment. We find that people on average do not react to rewards and punishment, and that self-interest and the behavior of others sufficiently explain the dynamics of human behavior. Further analysis suggests that institutional incentives promote cooperation by affecting the self-regarding preference and that the other-regarding preference seems to be independent of incentive schemes. Because individuals do not change their behavioral patterns even if they were not rewarded or punished, the mere potential to punish defectors and reward cooperators can lead to considerable increases in the level of cooperation. PMID:27339080

  20. Neural correlates of prosocial peer influence on public goods game donations during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorn, Jorien; Van Dijk, Eric; Güroğlu, Berna; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-06-01

    A unique feature of adolescent social re-orientation is heightened sensitivity to peer influence when taking risks. However, positive peer influence effects are not yet well understood. The present fMRI study tested a novel hypothesis, by examining neural correlates of prosocial peer influence on donation decisions in adolescence. Participants (age 12-16 years; N = 61) made decisions in anonymous groups about the allocation of tokens between themselves and the group in a public goods game. Two spectator groups of same-age peers-in fact youth actors-were allegedly online during some of the decisions. The task had a within-subjects design with three conditions: (1) EVALUATION: spectators evaluated decisions with likes for large donations to the group, (2) Spectator: spectators were present but no evaluative feedback was displayed and (3) Alone: no spectators nor feedback. Results showed that prosocial behavior increased in the presence of peers, and even more when participants received evaluative feedback from peers. Peer presence resulted in enhanced activity in several social brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction (TPJ), precuneus and superior temporal sulcus. TPJ activity correlated with donations, which suggests similar networks for prosocial behavior and sensitivity to peers. These findings highlight the importance of peers in fostering prosocial development throughout adolescence. PMID:26865424

  1. The evolution of anti-social rewarding and its countermeasures in public goods games.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation in joint enterprises can easily break down when self-interests are in conflict with collective benefits, causing a tragedy of the commons. In such social dilemmas, the possibility for contributors to invest in a common pool-rewards fund, which will be shared exclusively among contributors, can be powerful for averting the tragedy, as long as the second-order dilemma (i.e. withdrawing contribution to reward funds) can be overcome (e.g. with second-order sanctions). However, the present paper reveals the vulnerability of such pool-rewarding mechanisms to the presence of reward funds raised by defectors and shared among them (i.e. anti-social rewarding), as it causes a cooperation breakdown, even when second-order sanctions are possible. I demonstrate that escaping this social trap requires the additional condition that coalitions of defectors fare poorly compared with pro-socials, with either (i) better rewarding abilities for the latter or (ii) reward funds that are contingent upon the public good produced beforehand, allowing groups of contributors to invest more in reward funds than groups of defectors. These results suggest that the establishment of cooperation through a collective positive incentive mechanism is highly vulnerable to anti-social rewarding and requires additional countermeasures to act in combination with second-order sanctions. PMID:25429015

  2. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-01-01

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player’s individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player’s wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defection state can also be avoided for small participation probabilities. By adding the wealth-based criterion of participation, however, structured populations are capable to augment network reciprocity relevantly and allow cooperator strategy to dominate in a broader parameter interval. PMID:27597441

  3. Network topology control strategy based on spatial evolutionary public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Deng, Chuang; Suh, Il Hong

    2015-08-01

    It is often the case that rational individuals will adjust their connectivity in commercial or social activities for maximizing their payoffs. In this process, we can observe that individuals always gather around a leader or a competitive individual who can bring them more benefits. Inspired by this, we propose a strategy that impels nodes of network to connect with a specific node that we have specified with the perspective of spatial evolutionary public goods game. Thus a node is specified and given a larger enhancement factor which reflects his advantage over others. Then we employ a payoff-oriented preferential rewire strategy that individual will sever a neighbor who provides him with the lowest benefit and then link others randomly. The results illustrate that this strategy not only ensures the promotion of cooperation but also increases the degree of the specified node. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of two relevant parameters: enhancement factor and rewire frequency. We find that if the control strategy expects to work effectively, these two parameters have to ensure an evolution environment where cooperators can prevail defectors. We also conclude that a relatively low rewire frequency contributes to increasing the degree of the specified node. Meanwhile we attempt to present our interpretations for these phenomena.

  4. The dynamics of human behavior in the public goods game with institutional incentives

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yali; Zhang, Boyu; Tao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The empirical research on the public goods game (PGG) indicates that both institutional rewards and institutional punishment can curb free-riding and that the punishment effect is stronger than the reward effect. Self-regarding models that are based on Nash equilibrium (NE) strategies or evolutionary game dynamics correctly predict which incentives are best at promoting cooperation, but individuals do not play these rational strategies overall. The goal of our study is to investigate the dynamics of human decision making in the repeated PGG with institutional incentives. We consider that an individual’s contribution is affected by four factors, which are self-interest, the behavior of others, the reaction to rewards, and the reaction to punishment. We find that people on average do not react to rewards and punishment, and that self-interest and the behavior of others sufficiently explain the dynamics of human behavior. Further analysis suggests that institutional incentives promote cooperation by affecting the self-regarding preference and that the other-regarding preference seems to be independent of incentive schemes. Because individuals do not change their behavioral patterns even if they were not rewarded or punished, the mere potential to punish defectors and reward cooperators can lead to considerable increases in the level of cooperation. PMID:27339080

  5. Evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game with adaptive reputation assortment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mei-huan; Wang, Li; Sun, Shi-wen; Wang, Juan; Xia, Cheng-yi

    2016-01-01

    We present a new spatial public goods game model, which takes the individual reputation and behavior diversity into account at the same time, to investigate the evolution of cooperation. Initially, each player x will be endowed with an integer Rx between 1 and Rmax to characterize his reputation value, which will be adaptively varied according to the strategy action at each time step. Then, the agents play the game and the system proceeds in accordance with a Fermi-like rule, in which a multiplicative factor (wy) to denote the individual difference to perform the strategy transfer will be placed before the traditional Fermi probability. For influential participants, wy is set to be 1.0, but be a smaller value w (0 < w < 1) for non-influential ones. Large quantities of simulations demonstrate that the cooperation behavior will be obviously influenced by the reputation threshold (RC), and the greater the threshold, the higher the fraction of cooperators. The origin of promotion of cooperation will be attributed to the fact that the larger reputation threshold renders the higher heterogeneity in the fraction of two types of players and strategy spreading capability. Our work is conducive to a better understanding of the emergence of cooperation within many real-world systems.

  6. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions. PMID:25753335

  7. Coevolution of network structure and cooperation in the public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Xia, Chengyi; Wang, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Recently, the emergence of cooperation has become a central topic in the evolutionary game field, and coevolution of game dynamics and network topology structure can give us a fresh viewpoint of how the network evolves and cooperation arises. In this paper, we show in detail a picture of the co-evolutionary behaviors between the microscopic structure of the network and cooperation promotion in the public goods game (PGG). Based on a mechanism named after evolutionary preferential attachment (EPA), in which the growth of the network depends on the outcome of PGG dynamics, we explore the structural properties of networks and cooperative behaviors taking place on the networks created by EPA rules. Extensive simulation results indicate that the structure of the resulting networks displays a transition from homogeneous to heterogeneous properties as the selection strength ɛ increases, and the cooperative behaviors have a non-trivial state in which cooperators and defectors can simultaneously occupy the hub nodes in the network. Current results are of interest for us to further understand the cooperation persistence and structure evolution in many natural, social and economical systems.

  8. Evolution of All-or-None Strategies in Repeated Public Goods Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Many problems of cooperation involve repeated interactions among the same groups of individuals. When collective action is at stake, groups often engage in Public Goods Games (PGG), where individuals contribute (or not) to a common pool, subsequently sharing the resources. Such scenarios of repeated group interactions materialize situations in which direct reciprocation to groups may be at work. Here we study direct group reciprocity considering the complete set of reactive strategies, where individuals behave conditionally on what they observed in the previous round. We study both analytically and by computer simulations the evolutionary dynamics encompassing this extensive strategy space, witnessing the emergence of a surprisingly simple strategy that we call All-Or-None (AoN). AoN consists in cooperating only after a round of unanimous group behavior (cooperation or defection), and proves robust in the presence of errors, thus fostering cooperation in a wide range of group sizes. The principles encapsulated in this strategy share a level of complexity reminiscent of that found already in 2-person games under direct and indirect reciprocity, reducing, in fact, to the well-known Win-Stay-Lose-Shift strategy in the limit of the repeated 2-person Prisoner's Dilemma. PMID:25393661

  9. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-03-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions.

  10. The evolution of anti-social rewarding and its countermeasures in public goods games

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation in joint enterprises can easily break down when self-interests are in conflict with collective benefits, causing a tragedy of the commons. In such social dilemmas, the possibility for contributors to invest in a common pool-rewards fund, which will be shared exclusively among contributors, can be powerful for averting the tragedy, as long as the second-order dilemma (i.e. withdrawing contribution to reward funds) can be overcome (e.g. with second-order sanctions). However, the present paper reveals the vulnerability of such pool-rewarding mechanisms to the presence of reward funds raised by defectors and shared among them (i.e. anti-social rewarding), as it causes a cooperation breakdown, even when second-order sanctions are possible. I demonstrate that escaping this social trap requires the additional condition that coalitions of defectors fare poorly compared with pro-socials, with either (i) better rewarding abilities for the latter or (ii) reward funds that are contingent upon the public good produced beforehand, allowing groups of contributors to invest more in reward funds than groups of defectors. These results suggest that the establishment of cooperation through a collective positive incentive mechanism is highly vulnerable to anti-social rewarding and requires additional countermeasures to act in combination with second-order sanctions. PMID:25429015

  11. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-01-01

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player's individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player's wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defection state can also be avoided for small participation probabilities. By adding the wealth-based criterion of participation, however, structured populations are capable to augment network reciprocity relevantly and allow cooperator strategy to dominate in a broader parameter interval. PMID:27597441

  12. Global trade, public health, and health services: stakeholders' constructions of the key issues.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, Howard; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Landwehr, Angela; Mountain, Carolyn

    2005-09-01

    Focusing mainly on the United States and Latin America, we aimed to identify the constructions of social reality held by the major stakeholders participating in policy debates about global trade, public health, and health services. In a multi-method, qualitative design, we used three sources of data: research and archival literature, 1980-2004; interviews with key informants who represented major organizations participating in these debates, 2002-2004; and organizational reports, 1980-2004. We targeted several types of organizations: government agencies, international financial institutions (IFIs) and trade organizations, international health organizations, multinational corporations, and advocacy groups. Many governments in Latin America define health as a right and health services as a public good. Thus, the government bears responsibility for that right. In contrast, the US government's philosophy of free trade and promoting a market economy assumes that by expanding the private sector, improved economic conditions will improve overall health with a minimum government provision of health care. US government agencies also view promotion of global health as a means to serve US interests. IFIs have emphasized reforms that include reduction and privatization of public sector services. International health organizations have tended to adopt the policy perspectives of IFIs and trade organizations. Advocacy groups have emphasized the deleterious effects of international trade agreements on public health and health services. Organizational stakeholders hold widely divergent constructions of reality regarding trade, public health, and health services. Social constructions concerning trade and health reflect broad ideologies concerning the impacts of market processes. Such constructions manifest features of "creed," regarding the role of the market in advancing human purposes and meeting human needs. Differences in constructions of trade and health constrain policies to

  13. 78 FR 59413 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... the Air Navigation Commission or the panel: 5.1: Review of provisions for the transport of lithium batteries 5.2: Dangerous goods incident and accident data collection 5.3: Dangerous goods requirements...

  14. Global public-private partnerships: Part II--What are the health issues for global governance?

    PubMed Central

    Buse, K.; Walt, G.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part review of global public-private partnerships (GPPPs) for health development. Part I was published in the April issue of the Bulletin (Vol. 78, No. 4). The recent emergence of GPPPs is rapidly reconfiguring the international health landscape. While most multilateral and bilateral agencies are currently grappling with how to proceed, there is little information in the public domain concerning how individual partnerships work and to date very little consideration of the many implications of this trend. This paper differentiates between product-based, product development-based and issues/systems-based GPPPs and describes a number of examples of each type in the health sector. The benefits of these initiatives, not least the major resources which they harness for specific health problems, are identified. The final section of the paper explores the implications and dilemmas posed by GPPPs. It discusses whether or not shared goals can transcend conflicting values and mandates and how governance of partnership arrangements may transform and undermine certain attributes of multilateral organizations. The paper concludes that the current climate of goodwill between public and private sectors offers an opportunity that should not be missed: it can be used not only to foster new partnership but to ensure that partnership is truly in the interests of international public health. PMID:10859865

  15. Availability of public goods shapes the evolution of competing metabolic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Herwig; Fischlechner, Martin; Rabbers, Iraes; Barfa, Nakul; Branco dos Santos, Filipe; Molenaar, Douwe; Teusink, Bas

    2013-01-01

    Tradeoffs provide a rationale for the outcome of natural selection. A prominent example is the negative correlation between the growth rate and the biomass yield in unicellular organisms. This tradeoff leads to a dilemma, where the optimization of growth rate is advantageous for an individual, whereas the optimization of the biomass yield would be advantageous for a population. High-rate strategies are observed in a broad variety of organisms such as Escherichia coli, yeast, and cancer cells. Growth in suspension cultures favors fast-growing organisms, whereas spatial structure is of importance for the evolution of high-yield strategies. Despite this realization, experimental methods to directly select for increased yield are lacking. We here show that the serial propagation of a microbial population in a water-in-oil emulsion allows selection of strains with increased biomass yield. The propagation in emulsion creates a spatially structured environment where the growth-limiting substrate is privatized for populations founded by individual cells. Experimental evolution of several isogenic Lactococcus lactis strains demonstrated the existence of a tradeoff between growth rate and biomass yield as an apparent Pareto front. The underlying mutations altered glucose transport and led to major shifts between homofermentative and heterofermentative metabolism, accounting for the changes in metabolic efficiency. The results demonstrated the impact of privatizing a public good on the evolutionary outcome between competing metabolic strategies. The presented approach allows the investigation of fundamental questions in biology such as the evolution of cooperation, cell–cell interactions, and the relationships between environmental and metabolic constraints. PMID:23940318

  16. Heterogeneity for IGF-II production maintained by public goods dynamics in neuroendocrine pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Archetti, Marco; Ferraro, Daniela A.; Christofori, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The extensive intratumor heterogeneity revealed by sequencing cancer genomes is an essential determinant of tumor progression, diagnosis, and treatment. What maintains heterogeneity remains an open question because competition within a tumor leads to a strong selection for the fittest subclone. Cancer cells also cooperate by sharing molecules with paracrine effects, such as growth factors, and heterogeneity can be maintained if subclones depend on each other for survival. Without strict interdependence between subclones, however, nonproducer cells can free-ride on the growth factors produced by neighboring producer cells, a collective action problem known in game theory as the “tragedy of the commons,” which has been observed in microbial cell populations. Here, we report that similar dynamics occur in cancer cell populations. Neuroendocrine pancreatic cancer (insulinoma) cells that do not produce insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) grow slowly in pure cultures but have a proliferation advantage in mixed cultures, where they can use the IGF-II provided by producer cells. We show that, as predicted by evolutionary game theory, producer cells do not go extinct because IGF-II acts as a nonlinear public good, creating negative frequency-dependent selection that leads to a stable coexistence of the two cell types. Intratumor cell heterogeneity can therefore be maintained even without strict interdependence between cell subclones. Reducing the amount of growth factors available within a tumor may lead to a reduction in growth followed by a new equilibrium, which may explain relapse in therapies that target growth factors. PMID:25624490

  17. Emergence of social cooperation in threshold public goods games with collective risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Fu, Feng; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2009-07-01

    In real situations, people are often faced with the option of voluntary contribution to achieve a collective goal, for example, building a dam or a fence, in order to avoid an unfavorable loss. Those who do not donate, however, can free ride on others’ sacrifices. As a result, cooperation is difficult to maintain, leading to an enduring collective-risk social dilemma. To address this issue, here we propose a simple yet effective theoretical model of threshold public goods game with collective risk and focus on the effect of risk on the emergence of social cooperation. To do this, we consider the population dynamics represented by replicator equation for two simplifying scenarios, respectively: one with fair sharers, who contribute the minimum average amount versus defectors and the other with altruists contributing more than average versus defectors. For both cases, we find that the dilemma is relieved in high-risk situations where cooperation is likely to persist and dominate defection in the population. Large initial endowment to individuals also encourages the risk-averse action, which means that, as compared to poor players (with small initial endowment), wealthy individuals (with large initial endowment) are more likely to cooperate in order to protect their private accounts. In addition, we show that small donation amount and small threshold (collective target) can encourage and sustain cooperation. Furthermore, for other parameters fixed, the impacts of group size act differently on the two scenarios because of distinct mechanisms: in the former case where the cost of cooperation depends on the group size, large size of group readily results in defection, while easily maintains cooperation in the latter case where the cost of cooperation is fixed irrespective of the group size. Our theoretical results of the replicator dynamics are in excellent agreement with the individual based simulation results.

  18. An Evaluation of Publicly Available Global Bathymetry Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, K. M.; Smith, W. H. F.

    2006-03-01

    We evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of six publicly available global bathymetry grids: DBDB2 (Digital Bathymetric Data Base; an ongoing project of the Naval Research Laboratory), ETOPO2 (Earth Topography; National Geophysical Data Center, 2001, ETOPO2 Global 2’ Elevations [CD-ROM]. Boulder, Colorado, USA: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), GEBCO (General Bathymetric Charts of the Oceans; British Oceanographic Data Centre, 2003, Centenary Edition of the GEBCO Digital Atlas [CD-ROM] Published on behalf of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and the International Hydrographic Organization Liverpool, UK), GINA (Geographic Information Network of Alaska; Lindquist et al., 2004), Smith and Sandwell (1997), and S2004 (Smith, unpublished). The Smith and Sandwell grid, derived from satellite altimetry and ship data combined, provides high resolution mapping of the seafloor, even in remote regions. DBDB2, ETOPO2, GINA, and S2004 merge additional datasets with the Smith and Sandwell grid; but moving from a pixel to grid registration attenuates short wavelengths (<20 km) in the ETOPO2 and DBDB2 solutions. Short wavelengths in the GINA grid are also attenuated, but the cause is not known. ETOPO2 anomalies are offset to the northeast, due to a misregistration in both latitude and longitude. The GEBCO grid is interpolated from 500 m contours that were digitized from paper charts at 1:10 million scale, so it is artificially smooth; yet new efforts have captured additional information from shallow water contours on navigational charts. The S2004 grid merges the Smith and Sandwell grid with GEBCO over shallow depths and polar regions, and so is intended to capture the best of both products. Our evaluation makes the choice of which bathymetry grid to use a more informed one.

  19. 76 FR 68829 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration International Standards on the Transport of... Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UNSCOE TDG) to be held November 28 to... on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Model Regulations which will be implemented within...

  20. 77 FR 69927 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration International Standards on the Transport of... Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UNSCOE TDG) to be held December 3 to 11... 18th Revised Edition of the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods...

  1. 75 FR 19671 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration International Standards on the Transport of... Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UNSCOE TDG) to be held June 21-30, 2010... 17th Revised Edition of the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods...

  2. 76 FR 25774 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration International Standards on the Transport of... Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UNSCOE TDG) to be held June 20-24, 2011... Transport of Dangerous Goods Model Regulations which will be implemented within relevant domestic,...

  3. Conflict and the Common Good. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Twenty-Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Robert S., Ed.; Willner, Dorothy, Ed.

    The fundamental theme of these papers is what constitutes the common good and the issues and problems related to the understanding of that common good. Several anthropologists and a political scientist explore this theme in various geographic settings and from many theoretical and methodological perspectives. Among the countries and cultures…

  4. Mapping the global flow of aluminum: from liquid aluminum to end-use goods.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Jonathan M; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-01

    Demand for aluminum in final products has increased 30-fold since 1950 to 45 million tonnes per year, with forecasts predicting this exceptional growth to continue so that demand will reach 2-3 times today's levels by 2050. Aluminum production uses 3.5% of global electricity and causes 1% of global CO2 emissions, while meeting a 50% cut in emissions by 2050 against growing demand would require at least a 75% reduction in CO2 emissions per tonne of aluminum produced--a challenging prospect. In this paper we trace the global flows of aluminum from liquid metal to final products, revealing for the first time a complete map of the aluminum system and providing a basis for future study of the emissions abatement potential of material efficiency. The resulting Sankey diagram also draws attention to two key issues. First, around half of all liquid aluminum (~39 Mt) produced each year never reaches a final product, and a detailed discussion of these high yield losses shows significant opportunities for improvement. Second, aluminum recycling, which avoids the high energy costs and emissions of electrolysis, requires signification "dilution" (~ 8 Mt) and "cascade" (~ 6 Mt) flows of higher aluminum grades to make up for the shortfall in scrap supply and to obtain the desired alloy mix, increasing the energy required for recycling. PMID:23438734

  5. Wikipedia: a key tool for global public health promotion.

    PubMed

    Heilman, James M; Kemmann, Eckhard; Bonert, Michael; Chatterjee, Anwesh; Ragar, Brent; Beards, Graham M; Iberri, David J; Harvey, Matthew; Thomas, Brendan; Stomp, Wouter; Martone, Michael F; Lodge, Daniel J; Vondracek, Andrea; de Wolff, Jacob F; Liber, Casimir; Grover, Samir C; Vickers, Tim J; Meskó, Bertalan; Laurent, Michaël R

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has become an important health information resource for patients and the general public. Wikipedia, a collaboratively written Web-based encyclopedia, has become the dominant online reference work. It is usually among the top results of search engine queries, including when medical information is sought. Since April 2004, editors have formed a group called WikiProject Medicine to coordinate and discuss the English-language Wikipedia's medical content. This paper, written by members of the WikiProject Medicine, discusses the intricacies, strengths, and weaknesses of Wikipedia as a source of health information and compares it with other medical wikis. Medical professionals, their societies, patient groups, and institutions can help improve Wikipedia's health-related entries. Several examples of partnerships already show that there is enthusiasm to strengthen Wikipedia's biomedical content. Given its unique global reach, we believe its possibilities for use as a tool for worldwide health promotion are underestimated. We invite the medical community to join in editing Wikipedia, with the goal of providing people with free access to reliable, understandable, and up-to-date health information. PMID:21282098

  6. Wikipedia: A Key Tool for Global Public Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Heilman, James M; Kemmann, Eckhard; Bonert, Michael; Chatterjee, Anwesh; Ragar, Brent; Beards, Graham M; Iberri, David J; Harvey, Matthew; Thomas, Brendan; Stomp, Wouter; Martone, Michael F; Lodge, Daniel J; Vondracek, Andrea; de Wolff, Jacob F; Liber, Casimir; Grover, Samir C; Vickers, Tim J; Meskó, Bertalan

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has become an important health information resource for patients and the general public. Wikipedia, a collaboratively written Web-based encyclopedia, has become the dominant online reference work. It is usually among the top results of search engine queries, including when medical information is sought. Since April 2004, editors have formed a group called WikiProject Medicine to coordinate and discuss the English-language Wikipedia’s medical content. This paper, written by members of the WikiProject Medicine, discusses the intricacies, strengths, and weaknesses of Wikipedia as a source of health information and compares it with other medical wikis. Medical professionals, their societies, patient groups, and institutions can help improve Wikipedia’s health-related entries. Several examples of partnerships already show that there is enthusiasm to strengthen Wikipedia’s biomedical content. Given its unique global reach, we believe its possibilities for use as a tool for worldwide health promotion are underestimated. We invite the medical community to join in editing Wikipedia, with the goal of providing people with free access to reliable, understandable, and up-to-date health information. PMID:21282098

  7. Universal Health Coverage – The Critical Importance of Global Solidarity and Good Governance

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a commentary to Ole Norheim’ s editorial entitled "Ethical perspective: Five unacceptable trade-offs on the path to universal health coverage." It reinforces its message that an inclusive, participatory process is essential for ethical decision-making and underlines the crucial importance of good governance in setting fair priorities in healthcare. Solidarity on both national and international levels is needed to make progress towards the goal of universal health coverage (UHC).

  8. Age-Related Differences in Altruism across Adulthood: Making Personal Financial Gain versus Contributing to the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Alexandra M.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2014-01-01

    Four studies utilizing different methodological approaches investigated adult age-related differences in altruism (i.e., contributions to the public good) and the self-centered value of increasing personal wealth. In Study 1, data from the World Values Survey (World Values Survey Association, 2009) provided 1st evidence of a negative association…

  9. The Supreme Court Permits Religious Groups To Use Public School Facilities: Good News Club v. Milford Central School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews basis for U.S. Supreme Court's June 2001 decision in "Good News Club v. Milford Central School," where Court held that the Christian religious club for students had the Constitutional right under the Free Speech Clause to use public school facilities after school hours. Explains impact of decision on board of education policy. (Contains…

  10. Literacy Inequalities, Mediation and the Public Good: A Case Study of Physical Proximity and Social Distance in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Bryan; Esposito, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    Literacy is considered to be a public good--one that benefits not only literate people, but also others in society through mechanisms of sharing and mediation. But to what extent do the benefits of literacy extend to socially distant groups? This paper applies the sociological concept of social distance to examine how social stratification impacts…

  11. What if criminals optimize their choice? Optimal strategies to defend public goods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, Camilla; Nuño, Juan Carlos; Primicerio, Mario

    2013-02-01

    We investigate optimal strategies to defend valuable goods against the attacks of a thief. Given the value of the goods and the probability of success for the thief, we look for the strategy that assures the largest benefit to each player irrespective of the strategy of his opponent. Two complementary approaches are used: agent-based modeling and game theory. It is shown that the compromise between the value of the goods and the probability of success defines the mixed Nash equilibrium of the game, that is compared with the results of the agent-based simulations and discussed in terms of the system parameters.

  12. The Concept of Public Goods, the State, and Higher Education Finance: A View from the BRICs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Froumin, Isak; Loyalka, Prashant K.; Tilak, Jandhyala B.

    2014-01-01

    Because higher education serves both public and private interests, the way it is conceived and financed is contested politically, appearing in different forms in different societies. What is public and private in education is a political--social construct, subject to various political forces, primarily interpreted through the prism of the state.…

  13. The Public Good vs. Commercial Interest: Research Scientists in Search of an Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Rose H. C.; Westwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The environment for scientific research in public organisations is undergoing radical change, particularly with commercialisation pressures and blurring of the distinction between public and private research. The commercialisation pressures are reflected in government policy frameworks and institutional contexts for scientific work which are…

  14. Systems Science: A Good Investment for the Public's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Patricia L.; Kaplan, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement of "Health Education & Behavior" showcases the current state of the field of systems science applications in health promotion and public health. Behind this work lies a steady stream of public dollars at the federal level. This perspective details nearly a decade of investment by the National Institutes of…

  15. No Child Left Behind and the Need for Good Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobe, William J.; Buckner, Kermit G.

    2005-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation of 2001 has brought great public and professional pressure upon U.S. public schools. Perhaps trying to explain its requirements and possible consequences is the most daunting task for school leaders. This article provides an overview of its legal context followed by thoughts about effective public…

  16. Sharing the Good News: A Rural Approach to Publicizing Community College Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothlisberg, Allen P.

    The Northland Pioneer College (NPC) Library staff has developed a media blitz strategy to publicize its services in rural Arizona. This strategy regularly draws upon a database of newspapers, radio stations, and cable television outlets in the area. Each week a different public service announcement is developed and sent out to agencies on the…

  17. Market Competition, Public Good and Institutional Governance: Analyses of Portugal's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Alberto; Magalhaes, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of the market as a regulatory tool for the public sector and the promotion of competition among institutions are based upon the idea that they promote institutions' responsiveness to society and a more efficient use of public funds. However, autonomous institutions forced to compete under market-like conditions may follow strategies…

  18. Too good to be true: publication bias in two prominent studies from experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Francis, Gregory

    2012-04-01

    Empirical replication has long been considered the final arbiter of phenomena in science, but replication is undermined when there is evidence for publication bias. Evidence for publication bias in a set of experiments can be found when the observed number of rejections of the null hypothesis exceeds the expected number of rejections. Application of this test reveals evidence of publication bias in two prominent investigations from experimental psychology that have purported to reveal evidence of extrasensory perception and to indicate severe limitations of the scientific method. The presence of publication bias suggests that those investigations cannot be taken as proper scientific studies of such phenomena, because critical data are not available to the field. Publication bias could partly be avoided if experimental psychologists started using Bayesian data analysis techniques. PMID:22351589

  19. Who Shall Pay for the Public Good? Comparative Trends in the Funding Crisis of Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebeau, Yann; Stumpf, Rolf; Brown, Roger; Lucchesi, Martha Abrahao Saad; Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The aftermath of the international financial crisis of 2008/2009 and current economic downturn in the world economy has unsurprisingly put publicly-funded higher education (HE) systems under immense pressure in most parts of the world. Added to measures of the past 20 years, aiming at introducing cost effective management approaches imported from…

  20. 75 FR 63534 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ..., International Transportation Specialist, Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, Department of Transportation... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise...

  1. Changing care and prevention needs for global public health: in pursuit of a comprehensive perspective.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Carlos F; Mendoza, Walter

    2012-01-01

    An assessment of changing care and prevention needs in the framework of global public health should not be just a technical exercise of 'standard' demographic and epidemiological analysis; rather, it should also involve a reflection on the conditions of the production of such knowledge. In this article, we start by outlining some key dimensions of change in demographic and epidemiological patterns as well as their drivers; second, we address in more depth the question of whether current scientific practice is generating all the questions needed to improve global health in the coming years, and define potentially effective strategies for positive change. Significant demographic changes (i.e., reductions in earlier mortality and fertility; ageing and urbanisation) are leading to the emergence of chronic diseases in the Global South, as well, although patterns are very diverse, and early mortality and disability will still remain high for a few decades in certain areas. Such inequality in health patterns seems to parallel globalisation processes, and results from the effects of social and structural determinants. To better understand those relationships, we must improve our thinking about causality as well as our standard views of what constitutes 'good evidence'. PMID:22329765

  2. The Role of Tertiary Education in Fixing Failed States: Globalization and Public Goods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The plight of nations labeled as "failed" is well-documented, as are suggested strategies to fix them. One area that receives a great deal of focus in the extant literature is education. How can education contribute to the rebuilding of a failed State? Most often the responses to this question focus on the importance of reestablishing primary and…

  3. Good Principals in Public and Church-Related Schools: A Study in Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne, Edward A.; McPherson, R. Bruce

    Using a research approach founded on explicit normative assumptions about the social goals of education, and proceeding from the hypothesis that lifelong socialization largely determines an administrator's capability, this paper analyzes the experiences of one "good" principal. Following an initial discussion of educators' attitudes toward…

  4. Global Goods Movement and the Local Burden of Childhood Asthma in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Künzli, Nino; Avol, Ed; Hricko, Andrea M.; Lurmann, Fred; Nicholas, Elisa; Gilliland, Frank; Peters, John; McConnell, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. As part of a community-based participatory research effort, we estimated the preventable burden of childhood asthma associated with air pollution in the southern California communities of Long Beach and Riverside. Methods. We calculated attributable fractions for 2 air pollution reduction scenarios to include assessment of the newly recognized health effects associated with residential proximity to major roads and impact from ship emissions. Results. Approximately 1600 (9%) of all childhood asthma cases in Long Beach and 690 (6%) in Riverside were attributed to traffic proximity. Ship emissions accounted for 1400 (21%) bronchitis episodes and, in more modest proportions, health care visits for asthma. Considerably greater reductions in asthma morbidity could be obtained by reducing nitrogen dioxide and ozone concentrations to levels found in clean coastal communities. Conclusions. Both Long Beach and Riverside have heavy automobile traffic corridors as well as truck traffic and regional pollution originating in the Los Angeles–Long Beach port complex, the largest in the United States. Community-based quantitative risk analyses can improve our understanding of health problems and help promote public health in transportation planning. PMID:19890167

  5. Philanthropy, Voluntary Action, and the Public Good. Working Papers, Spring Research Forum (New York, New York, March 13-14, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Independent Sector, Washington, DC.

    A collection of 37 working papers for presentation at a research forum on philanthropy, voluntary action, and the public good is presented. Thirteen sections provide information on the following subjects: (1) philanthropy, voluntary action, and the public good ("Partners in Public Service: Government and the Nonprofit Sector in the American…

  6. Dissection of a Truth Regime: The Narrowing Effects on the Public Good of Neoliberal Discourse in the Virginia Performance-Based Funding Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letizia, Angelo J.

    2016-01-01

    A major role of all public higher education institutions is to foster the public good. In democratic societies, the public good emphasizes the more collective activities and benefits and how resources are accessible to all in a society. Institutions of higher education create new knowledge, promote cultural tolerance, increase civic activity, and…

  7. How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

  8. From Good To Great: The Next Phase in Improving Texas Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Business Council (Texas), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Two decades ago, the State of Texas began a set of groundbreaking reforms that made performance-based accountability the centerpiece of its public education system. Texans should be proud of this progress. But now, twenty years later, Texas must meet a new set of challenges to continue its success in educating all children at the highest…

  9. Information as Property and as a Public Good: Perspectives from the Economic Theory of Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the economic theory of property rights and explores four applications of the transaction cost theory of property rights and free distribution in the economics of information: (1) copying technology; (2) computer software and copy protection; (3) satellite television and encryption; and (4) public libraries. (56 references) (MES)

  10. Data Base Legislation in the Digital Age: Balancing the Public Good and the Owners' Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the impact of federal legislative proposals considered between 1997 and 2004 that offer protection to databases. It investigates the effect that the proposals had on the balance between the economic interests of owners and the right of the public to unfettered access to information. This identified legislation…

  11. Taxation and Education: Using Educational Research to Inform Coherent Policy for the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert; Pitts, David A.; Lindle, Jane Clark

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, following a 30-year trend among the US states to remove the property tax from the revenue for public schools, the South Carolina General Assembly enacted Act 388 which replaced the property tax with a one-cent sales tax. The law decreased the budget capacity of school districts thus impacting educational equity and adequacy. This paper…

  12. Unions and the Public Interest: Is Collective Bargaining for Teachers Good for Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.; Greene, Jay P.

    2012-01-01

    Three years after Barack Obama's election signaled a seeming resurgence for America's unions, the landscape looks very different. Republican governors in Wisconsin, Indiana, and Ohio have limited the reach of collective bargaining for public employees. The moves, especially in Wisconsin, set off a national furor that has all but obscured the…

  13. A Reflexive Interrogation: Talking Out Loud and Finding Spaces for Works of Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Leslie D.; Satterfield, James

    2013-01-01

    Over a year, we engaged in an ongoing dialogue about what it means to be a professor and how we might do a better job of making the public contributions of our work more explicit. Throughout our dialogue, we continually discussed how we, as faculty members, must always work within the institutional constraints that allow the professoriate to exist…

  14. Student Civic Engagement and For-Profit Higher Education: Public Policies and Private Goods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avakian, Seth David

    2014-01-01

    Democracy is the practice of self-rule; its citizens actively participate in governance. Who teaches participative democracy, what is taught, and how it is taught are significant determinants of how democracy functions. In the United States, the two core justifications for the public subsidy of higher education are that it prepares citizens for…

  15. 76 FR 46351 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... regulations with international standards when such harmonization is not unsafe, unnecessary, or contrary to... public meeting will be held at FAA Headquarters (FOB 10A), Bessie Coleman Conference Center, 2nd Floor... to register at the following Web site: http://tinyurl.com/DOTPublicMeeting . Conference...

  16. Defining a Good Death (Successful Dying): Literature Review and a Call for Research and Public Dialogue.

    PubMed

    Meier, Emily A; Gallegos, Jarred V; Thomas, Lori P Montross; Depp, Colin A; Irwin, Scott A; Jeste, Dilip V

    2016-04-01

    There is little agreement about what constitutes good death or successful dying. The authors conducted a literature search for published, English-language, peer-reviewed reports of qualitative and quantitative studies that provided a definition of a good death. Stakeholders in these articles included patients, prebereaved and bereaved family members, and healthcare providers (HCPs). Definitions found were categorized into core themes and subthemes, and the frequency of each theme was determined by stakeholder (patients, family, HCPs) perspectives. Thirty-six studies met eligibility criteria, with 50% of patient perspective articles including individuals over age 60 years. We identified 11 core themes of good death: preferences for a specific dying process, pain-free status, religiosity/spirituality, emotional well-being, life completion, treatment preferences, dignity, family, quality of life, relationship with HCP, and other. The top three themes across all stakeholder groups were preferences for dying process (94% of reports), pain-free status (81%), and emotional well-being (64%). However, some discrepancies among the respondent groups were noted in the core themes: Family perspectives included life completion (80%), quality of life (70%), dignity (70%), and presence of family (70%) more frequently than did patient perspectives regarding those items (35%-55% each). In contrast, religiosity/spirituality was reported somewhat more often in patient perspectives (65%) than in family perspectives (50%). Taking into account the limitations of the literature, further research is needed on the impact of divergent perspectives on end-of-life care. Dialogues among the stakeholders for each individual must occur to ensure a good death from the most critical viewpoint-the patient's. PMID:26976293

  17. Health information: reconciling personal privacy with the public good of human health.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    2001-01-01

    The success of the health care system depends on the accuracy, correctness and trustworthiness of the information, and the privacy rights of individuals to control the disclosure of personal information. A national policy on health informational privacy should be guided by ethical principles that respect individual autonomy while recognizing the important collective interests in the use of health information. At present there are no adequate laws or constitutional principles to help guide a rational privacy policy. The laws are scattered and fragmented across the states. Constitutional law is highly general, without important specific safeguards. Finally, a case study is provided showing the important trade-offs that exist between public health and privacy. For a model public health law, see www.critpath.org/msphpa/privacy. PMID:11794835

  18. Public goods and private interests: Understanding non-residential demand for green power

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Fowlie, Meredith; Holt, Edward A.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the results of the first large-scale mail survey of non-residential green power customers in the United States. The survey explored the motivations, attitudes, and experiences of 464 business, non-profit, and public-sector customers that have voluntarily opted to purchase - and frequently pay a premium for - renewable electricity. Results of this study should be of value to marketers interested in targeting these customer segments, to policy makers interested in fostering and understanding non-residential demand for green power, and to academics pondering the motivations for firms to engage in such voluntary environmental initiatives.

  19. The globalization of public health: the first 100 years of international health diplomacy.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, D. P.

    2001-01-01

    Global threats to public health in the 19th century sparked the development of international health diplomacy. Many international regimes on public health issues were created between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries. The present article analyses the global risks in this field and the international legal responses to them between 1851 and 1951, and explores the lessons from the first century of international health diplomacy of relevance to contemporary efforts to deal with the globalization of public health. PMID:11584732

  20. Aggregate health data in the United States: steps toward a public good.

    PubMed

    Rolnick, Joshua

    2013-06-01

    The rise of electronic medical records promotes the collection and aggregation of medical data. These data have tremendous potential utility for health policy and public health; yet there are gaps in the scholarly literature. No articles in the medical or legal literature have mapped the "information flows" from patient to database, and commentary has focused more on privacy than on data's social value and incentives for production. Utilizing short case studies of data flows, I show that ample data exist, much of them are available online through government websites or hospital trade associations. However, available information comes from billing records rather than medical records. Turning to legal and policy recommendations for better provision, I note that weak intellectual property law has ironically led to stronger control over health data through private contracts and technological barriers, as these methods of protection lack any exceptions for noncommercial use. I conclude with a series of policy proposals to make data more available. PMID:23715213

  1. Defining and Assessing Public Health Functions: A Global Analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Harris, Meggan; Jakubowski, Elke; Kluge, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Given the broad scope and intersectoral nature of public health structures and practices, there are inherent difficulties in defining which services fall under the public health remit and in assessing their capacity and performance. The aim of this study is to analyze how public health functions and practice have been defined and operationalized in different countries and regions around the world, with a specific focus on assessment tools that have been developed to evaluate the performance of essential public health functions, services, and operations. Our review has identified nearly 100 countries that have carried out assessments, using diverse analytical and methodological approaches. The assessment processes have evolved quite differently according to administrative arrangements and resource availability, but some key contextual factors emerge that seem to favor policy-oriented follow-up. These include local ownership of the assessment process, policymakers' commitment to reform, and expert technical advice for implementation. PMID:26789385

  2. Commercial influence and global nongovernmental public action in health and pharmaceutical policies.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Meri; Mackintosh, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Nongovernmental public action has been effective in influencing global agenda-setting in health and pharmaceutical policies, yet its record in influencing solutions to the problems identified has been notably more limited. While trade policies have been particularly resistant to change, more substantial changes are observable in global health policies and global health governance. However, some of the directions of change may not be conducive to the democratic accountability of global health governance, to the wise use of public resources, to health systems development, or to longer-term access to health care within developing countries. The authors argue that observed changes in global health policies can be understood as accommodating to corporate concerns and priorities. Furthermore, the changing global context and the commercialization of global public action itself pose sharp challenges to the exercise of influence by global nongovernmental public actors. Nongovernmental organizations not only face a major challenge in terms of the imbalance in power and resources between themselves and corporate interest groups when seeking to influence policymaking; they also face the problem of corporate influence on public action itself. PMID:21842577

  3. The Federal Role in Supporting Public Universities' Global Missions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lou Anna K.; Foster, Richard M.; Austin, John C.

    2010-01-01

    America's "super-league" of global universities will play an increasingly pivotal role in the 21st century economy. These universities' substantial metropolitan and regional economic contributions are magnified by the role they play in fueling innovation, boosting educational attainment, and engaging with the rest of the world on an increasingly…

  4. Lessons from the 'Humanitarian Golden Rice' project: regulation prevents development of public good genetically engineered crop products.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2010-11-30

    Compared to a non-Genetically Engineered (GE) variety, the deployment of Golden Rice has suffered from a delay of at least ten years. The cause of this delay is exclusively GE-regulation. Considering the potential impact of Golden Rice on the reduction in vitamin A-malnutrition, this delay is responsible for an unjustifiable loss of millions of lives, mostly children and women. GE-regulation is also responsible for the fact that no public institution can deliver a public good GE-product and that thus we have a de facto monopoly in favour of a few potent industries. Considering the forgone benefits from prevented public good GE-products, GE-regulation is responsible for hundreds of millions of lives, all of them, of course, in developing countries. As there is no scientific justification for present GE-regulation, and as it has, so far, not prevented any harm, our society has the urgent responsibility to reconsider present regulation, which is based on an extreme interpretation of the precautionary principle, and change it to science-based regulation on the basis of traits instead of technology. GE-technology has an unprecedented safety record and is far more precise and predictable than any other 'traditional' and unregulated breeding technology. Not to change GE-regulation to a scientific basis is considered by the author 'a crime against humanity'. PMID:20650337

  5. [A Contribution to the Current Debate on Public and Global Health in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hommes, F; von Philipsborn, P; Geffert, K; Karduck, L

    2016-02-01

    In June 2015 the German Academies of Science and Technology published a report on the structures, developments and challenges in the field of public and global health in Germany. Its call for a strengthening of public and global health in Germany was well received among researchers and practitioners in the field. At the same time criticism arose. Key controversies relate to the future institutional set-up of public and global health research in Germany, the consideration of the social determinants of health versus biomedical and technological approaches, the need for further research versus the need for political implementation of what is already known, and the consideration of the political context, such as intellectual property rights. This contribution provides an overview on the debate and lays down the perspective of the German Medical Students' Association (bvmd) and the Globalisation and Health Initiative (GandHI), putting forward demands regarding the role of public and global health in medical education in Germany. PMID:26906539

  6. Access to nutritious food, socioeconomic individualism and public health ethics in the USA: a common good approach.

    PubMed

    Azétsop, Jacquineau; Joy, Tisha R

    2013-01-01

    Good nutrition plays an important role in the optimal growth, development, health and well-being of individuals in all stages of life. Healthy eating can reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some types of cancer. However, the capitalist mindset that shapes the food environment has led to the commoditization of food. Food is not just a marketable commodity like any other commodity. Food is different from other commodities on the market in that it is explicitly and intrinsically linked to our human existence. While possessing another commodity allows for social benefits, food ensures survival. Millions of people in United States of America are either malnourished or food insecure. The purpose of this paper is to present a critique of the current food system using four meanings of the common good--as a framework, rhetorical device, ethical concept and practical tool for social justice. The first section of this paper provides a general overview of the notion of the common good. The second section outlines how each of the four meanings of the common good helps us understand public practices, social policies and market values that shape the distal causal factors of nutritious food inaccessibility. We then outline policy and empowerment initiatives for nutritious food access. PMID:24165577

  7. Access to nutritious food, socioeconomic individualism and public health ethics in the USA: a common good approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Good nutrition plays an important role in the optimal growth, development, health and well-being of individuals in all stages of life. Healthy eating can reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some types of cancer. However, the capitalist mindset that shapes the food environment has led to the commoditization of food. Food is not just a marketable commodity like any other commodity. Food is different from other commodities on the market in that it is explicitly and intrinsically linked to our human existence. While possessing another commodity allows for social benefits, food ensures survival. Millions of people in United States of America are either malnourished or food insecure. The purpose of this paper is to present a critique of the current food system using four meanings of the common good--as a framework, rhetorical device, ethical concept and practical tool for social justice. The first section of this paper provides a general overview of the notion of the common good. The second section outlines how each of the four meanings of the common good helps us understand public practices, social policies and market values that shape the distal causal factors of nutritious food inaccessibility. We then outline policy and empowerment initiatives for nutritious food access. PMID:24165577

  8. Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates: Outreach for the public and policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Yannick

    2010-05-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), via its official collaborating center in Norway, GRID-Arendal, is in the process of implementing a Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates. Global reservoirs of methane gas have long been the topic of scientific discussion both in the realm of environmental issues such as natural forces of climate change and as a potential energy resource for economic development. Of particular interest are the volumes of methane locked away in frozen molecules known as clathrates or hydrates. Our rapidly evolving scientific knowledge and technological development related to methane hydrates makes these formations increasingly prospective to economic development. In addition, global demand for energy continues, and will continue to outpace supply for the foreseeable future, resulting in pressure to expand development activities, with associated concerns about environmental and social impacts. Understanding the intricate links between methane hydrates and 1) natural and anthropogenic contributions to climate change, 2) their role in the carbon cycle (e.g. ocean chemistry) and 3) the environmental and socio-economic impacts of extraction, are key factors in making good decisions that promote sustainable development. As policy makers, environmental organizations and private sector interests seek to forward their respective agendas which tend to be weighted towards applied research, there is a clear and imminent need for a an authoritative source of accessible information on various topics related to methane gas hydrates. The 2008 United Nations Environment Programme Annual Report highlighted methane from the Arctic as an emerging challenge with respect to climate change and other environmental issues. Building upon this foundation, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, in conjunction with experts from national hydrates research groups from Canada, the US, Japan, Germany, Norway, India and Korea, aims to provide a multi-thematic overview of the key

  9. The Possibilities for University-Based Public-Good Professional Education: A Case-Study from South Africa Based on the "Capability Approach"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Monica; Walker, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The education of professionals oriented to poverty reduction and the public good is the focus of the article. Sen's "capability approach" is used to conceptualise university-based professional education as a process of developing public-good professional capabilities. The main output of a research project on professional education in South Africa…

  10. GIS applications to evaluate public health effects of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Regens, J.L.; Hodges, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    Modeling projections of future climatic conditions suggest changes in temperature and precipitation patterns that might induce direct adverse effects on human health by altering the extent and severity of infectious and vector-borne diseases. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, for example, could increase substantially in areas where temperature and relative humidity rise. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers new methodologies to evaluate the impact of global warming on changes in the incidence of infectious and vector-borne diseases. This research illustrates the potential analytical and communication uses of GIS for monitoring historical patterns of climate and human health variables and for projecting changes in these health variables with global warming.

  11. The Global Dimensions of Public Health Preparedness and Implications for US Action

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of public health is both real and relevant throughout the United States and to Americans traveling or residing abroad. US public policy responses are evolving, but a crisper and more comprehensive global perspective is needed. I suggest four timely US actions to address today’s competing realities of globalization and economic austerity: raise awareness among clinicians and local health departments; capture and share exemplary disaster management practices across countries; ensure that US global health investments are effective, efficient, and sustainable; and think globally while acting locally to enhance US health security. The reauthorization of the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act of 2006 provides an opportunity to more clearly address the global dimensions of domestic preparedness. PMID:22515870

  12. Jordan Reforms Public Education to Compete in a Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    The King of Jordan's vision for education is resulting in innovative projects for the country. King Abdullah II wants Jordan to develop its human resources through public education to equip the workforce with skills for the future. From King Abdullah II's vision, the Education Reform for a Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) project implemented by the…

  13. A Global Perspective on Public Relations Ethics: The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    Sophisticated public relations is being practiced in the Middle East. However, the models used in that region are not identical to American models, nor are they identical to those in other Western countries usually considered part of the "First World." In particular, Moslem culture heavily influences Middle East practice. Can the ethics of public…

  14. The Fate of Public Scholarship in the Global University: The Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Rob; Buckeridge, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the proposition that modern universities have been changed radically by globalization not least of which has been the erosion of "public scholarship". The paper argues that whatever the kind or scale of changes which have occurred in the past few decades, "globalization" does not provide an explanation of…

  15. Presenting Global Warming and Evolution as Public Health Issues to Encourage Acceptance of Scientific Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Shawn K.; McArthur, Laurence B.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence supporting anthropogenic global warming and evolution by natural selection is considerable, the public does not embrace these concepts. The current study explores the hypothesis that individuals will become more receptive to scientific viewpoints if evidence for evolution and implications of global warming are presented as issues…

  16. 76 FR 60934 - U.S. Global Change Research Program Strategic Plan Public Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION U.S. Global Change Research Program Strategic Plan Public Comment Period AGENCY: National Science.... Global Change Research Program Strategic Plan: ] Goal 1: Advance Science: Advance scientific knowledge...

  17. Mass Communication, Public Communication, and Interpersonal Communication: A Global Model for International Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    A participatory model of public relations proposed by Dean Kruckeberg and Kenneth Starck would seek not to serve a public but to build a sense of community. In this model the advocacy focus of the publicity model is dropped and there is a movement toward relationships rather than selling products and services. Leaving behind the journalistic…

  18. Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, S.; von Schirnding, Y. E.; Prapamontol, T.

    2000-01-01

    Lead is the most abundant of the heavy metals in the Earth's crust. It has been used since prehistoric times, and has become widely distributed and mobilized in the environment. Exposure to and uptake of this non-essential element have consequently increased. Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries, as well as in some developed countries. In most developed countries, however, introduction of lead into the human environment has decreased in recent years, largely due to public health campaigns and a decline in its commercial usage, particularly in petrol. Acute lead poisoning has become rare in such countries, but chronic exposure to low levels of the metal is still a public health issue, especially among some minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. In developing countries, awareness of the public health impact of exposure to lead is growing but relatively few of these countries have introduced policies and regulations for significantly combating the problem. This article reviews the nature and importance of environmental exposure to lead in developing and developed countries, outlining past actions, and indicating requirements for future policy responses and interventions. PMID:11019456

  19. The Effect of Ostracism and Optional Participation on the Evolution of Cooperation in the Voluntary Public Goods Game

    PubMed Central

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Yokoyama, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Not only animals, plants and microbes but also humans cooperate in groups. The evolution of cooperation in a group is an evolutionary puzzle, because defectors always obtain a higher benefit than cooperators. When people participate in a group, they evaluate group member’s reputations and then decide whether to participate in it. In some groups, membership is open to all who are willing to participate in the group. In other groups, a candidate is excluded from membership if group members regard the candidate’s reputation as bad. We developed an evolutionary game model and investigated how participation in groups and ostracism influence the evolution of cooperation in groups when group members play the voluntary public goods game, by means of computer simulation. When group membership is open to all candidates and those candidates can decide whether to participate in a group, cooperation cannot be sustainable. However, cooperation is sustainable when a candidate cannot be a member unless all group members admit them to membership. Therefore, it is not participation in a group but rather ostracism, which functions as costless punishment on defectors, that is essential to sustain cooperation in the voluntary public goods game. PMID:25255458

  20. The influence of global warming on natural disasters and their public health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2007-01-01

    With a documented increase in average global surface temperatures of 0.6 degrees C since 1975, Earth now appears to be warming due to a variety of climatic effects, most notably the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities. There remains, however, no universal agreement on how rapidly, regionally, or asymmetrically the planet will warm or on the true impact of global warming on natural disasters and public health outcomes. Most reports to date of the public health impact of global warming have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on the increase in heat-stroke deaths following heat waves and on outbreaks of airborne and arthropod-borne diseases following tropical rains and flooding that resulted from fluctuations in ocean temperatures. The effects of global warming on rainfall and drought, tropical cyclone and tsunami activity, and tectonic and volcanic activity will have far-reaching public health effects not only on environmentally associated disease outbreaks but also on global food supplies and population movements. As a result of these and other recognized associations between climate change and public health consequences, many of which have been confounded by deficiencies in public health infrastructure and scientific debates over whether climate changes are spawned by atmospheric cycles or anthropogenic influences, the active responses to progressive climate change must include combinations of economic, environmental, legal, regulatory, and, most importantly, public health measures. PMID:18268873

  1. The Public/Private Divide in Higher Education: A Global Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Our common understandings of the public/private distinction in higher education are drawn from neo-classical economics and/or statist political philosophy. However, the development of competition and markets at the national level, and the new potentials for private and public goods created by globalisation in higher education, have exposed…

  2. Making mapping matter: a case study for short project international partnerships by global public health students

    PubMed Central

    Wyber, Rosemary; Potter, James R.; Weaver, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of global public health students seek international experience as part of their academic curriculum. These placements are often short, given the constraints of cost and time available within the academic calendar. In contrast to international electives for clinical students there are few published guidelines on practical, ethical or feasible projects. This paper describes a ten-day sanitation mapping project in Mumbai, India and explores the broader implications for global public health student electives. Methods Three graduate public health students conducted a geographic review of sanitation facilities in Cheeta Camp informal settlement, Mumbai. Forty-six toilet blocks with 701 individual seats were identified. The project was reviewed ethically, educationally and logistically as a possible model for other short-term international projects. Conclusions Clearer guidelines are needed to support non-clinical placements by global public health students. Projects that are feasible, relevant and meaningful should be foster maximise benefit for learners and host communities. PMID:24964783

  3. Awareness and enforcement of guidelines for publishing industry-sponsored medical research among publication professionals: the Global Publication Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Elizabeth; Woolley, Karen; Adshead, Viv; Cairns, Angela; Fullam, Josh; Gonzalez, John; Grant, Tom; Tortell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To gather information about current practices and implementation of publication guidelines among publication professionals working in or for the pharmaceutical industry. Design/setting Web-based survey publicised via email and social media to members of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) and other organisations from November 2012 to February 2013. Participants 469 individuals involved in publishing industry-sponsored research in peer-reviewed journals, mainly working in pharmaceutical or device companies (‘industry’, n=144), communication agencies (‘agency’, n=238), contract research organisations (CRO, n=15) or as freelancers (n=34). Most respondents (78%) had worked on medical publications for ≥5 years and 62% had a PhD/MD. Results Over 90% of industry, agency and CRO respondents routinely refer to Good Publication Practice (GPP2) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ Uniform Requirements. Most respondents (78% industry, 79% agency) received mandatory training on ethical publication practices. Over 90% of respondents’ companies had publication guidelines or policies and required medical writing support to be acknowledged in publications (96% industry, 99% agency). Many industry respondents used publication management tools to monitor compliance with company guidelines and about half (46%) stated that their company had formal publication audits. Fewer agencies audited adherence to guidelines but 20% of agency respondents reported audits of employees and 6% audits of freelancers. Of concern, 37% of agency respondents reported requests from authors or sponsors that they believed were unethical, although 93% of these requests were withdrawn after respondents explained the need for compliance with guidelines. Most respondents’ departments (63% industry, 58% agency, 60% CRO) had been involved in publishing studies with negative or inconclusive results. Conclusions Within this sample

  4. Labelled drug-related public expenditure in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) in Europe: a luxury good?

    PubMed

    Prieto, Luis

    2010-01-01

    , Health and POS expenditures can be considered luxury goods; as a nation becomes wealthier it openly spends proportionately more on drug-related health and public order and safety interventions. PMID:20478069

  5. Why do bacteria regulate public goods by quorum sensing?—How the shapes of cost and benefit functions determine the form of optimal regulation

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Silja; Krishna, Sandeep; Kerr, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Many bacteria secrete compounds which act as public goods. Such compounds are often under quorum sensing (QS) regulation, yet it is not understood exactly when bacteria may gain from having a public good under QS regulation. Here, we show that the optimal public good production rate per cell as a function of population size (the optimal production curve, OPC) depends crucially on the cost and benefit functions of the public good and that the OPC will fall into one of two categories: Either it is continuous or it jumps from zero discontinuously at a critical population size. If, e.g., the public good has accelerating returns and linear cost, then the OPC is discontinuous and the best strategy thus to ramp up production sharply at a precise population size. By using the example of public goods with accelerating and diminishing returns (and linear cost) we are able to determine how the two different categories of OPSs can best be matched by production regulated through a QS signal feeding back on its own production. We find that the optimal QS parameters are different for the two categories and specifically that public goods which provide accelerating returns, call for stronger positive signal feedback. PMID:26284049

  6. Global public-private partnerships against neglected diseases: building governance structures for effective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Buckup, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on the problem of pharmaceutical R&D for drugs and vaccines against neglected diseases in developing countries, this article argues that the effectiveness of global health partnerships potentially lies in their capacity to address the problem of dual market failures: on a first level they may tackle the poverty induced lack of effective demand for health products which impedes the creation of market-financed innovative products. On a second level, they may help overcoming hold-up problems and underinvestment induced by the complexity of neglected diseases R&D. Yet, organizing transactions within a partnership is not a panacea against these problems: a crucial determinant of success is proper ownership structures. They need to respond to (i) the degree to which the respective parties value the partnership outcome, (ii) the relative importance of the investment of the parties, and (iii) the nature of the partnership outcome. The argument developed in the analysis is built on an integrated framework combining insights from incomplete contracting theory and public goods economics. It is supported by a preliminary statistical analysis of 17 GHPs. PMID:18634631

  7. Public Health Surveillance: At the Core of the Global Health Security Agenda.

    PubMed

    Wolicki, Sara Beth; Nuzzo, Jennifer B; Blazes, David L; Pitts, Dana L; Iskander, John K; Tappero, Jordan W

    2016-01-01

    Global health security involves developing the infrastructure and capacity to protect the health of people and societies worldwide. The acceleration of global travel and trade poses greater opportunities for infectious diseases to emerge and spread. The International Health Regulations (IHR) were adopted in 2005 with the intent of proactively developing public health systems that could react to the spread of infectious disease and provide better containment. Various challenges delayed adherence to the IHR. The Global Health Security Agenda came about as an international collaborative effort, working multilaterally among governments and across sectors, seeking to implement the IHR and develop the capacities to prevent, detect, and respond to public health emergencies of international concern. When examining the recent West African Ebola epidemic as a case study for global health security, both strengths and weaknesses in the public health response are evident. The central role of public health surveillance is a lesson reiterated by Ebola. Through further implementation of the Global Health Security Agenda, identified gaps in surveillance can be filled and global health security strengthened. PMID:27314658

  8. Public health problems and global warming faced by developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Climatic change potentially causes direct and indirect impacts on human health, resulting in a net increase in morbidity and associated mortality. Impacts would be greater in communities with higher exposure and with fewer technical and social resources. Age, skin pigmentation, hygiene level, socio-economic and health status, are determinants of the net effects. Climatic change will have indirect health effects by changing natural ecosystems, affecting such aspects as food production, patterns of vector-borne diseases, a number of non-infectious diseases, and unknown infections. The health effects, occurring largely as a result of increases in biologically effective UVR, are expected to consist of: increase in malignant and nonmalignant skin cancer; several eye diseases (primarily cataract); and possible alterations in the immune response. Some of the largest public health issues will be respiratory diseases brought about by increased air pollution, exacerbation of allergic disorders, and deaths and injuries from extreme weather events. Additionally, vaccination programs may be ineffective and nutritional requirements may be different in heavily sun-exposed populations.

  9. A Synthetic Quorum Sensing System Reveals a Potential Private Benefit for Public Good Production in a Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; Kwan, Anna; Xu, Amy; Süel, Gürol M.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predominantly reside in microbial communities known as biofilms, where cells are encapsulated and protected by the extracellular matrix (ECM). While all biofilm cells benefit from the ECM, only a subgroup of cells carries the burden of producing this public good. This dilemma provokes the question of how these cells balance the cost of ECM production. Here we show that ECM producing cells have a higher gene expression response to quorum sensing (QS) signals, which can lead to a private benefit. Specifically, we constructed a synthetic quorum-sensing system with designated “Sender” and “Receiver” cells in Bacillus subtilis. This synthetic QS system allowed us to uncouple and independently investigate ECM production and QS in both biofilms and single cells. Results revealed that ECM production directly enhances the response to QS signals, which may offset the cost of ECM production. PMID:26196509

  10. Being global in public health practice and research: complementary competencies are needed.

    PubMed

    Cole, Donald C; Davison, Colleen; Hanson, Lori; Jackson, Suzanne F; Page, Ashley; Lencuch, Raphael; Kakuma, Ritz

    2011-01-01

    Different sets of competencies in public health, global health and research have recently emerged, including the Core Competencies for Public Health in Canada (CCPHC). Within this context, we believe it is important to articulate competencies for globalhealth practitioners-educators and researchers that are in addition to those outlined in the CCPHC. In global health, we require knowledge and skills regarding: north-south power dynamics, linkages between local and global health problems, and the roles of international organizations. We must be able to work responsibly in low-resource settings, foster self-determination in a world rife with power differentials, and engage in dialogue with stakeholders globally. Skills in cross-cultural communication and the ability to critically self-reflect on one's own social location within the global context are essential. Those in global health must be committed to improving health equity through global systems changes and be willing to be mentored and to mentor others across borders. We call for dialogue on these competencies and for development of ways to assess both their demonstration in academic settings and their performance in global health practice and research. PMID:22032108

  11. Assimilation of TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter Data into a Global Ocean Circulation Model: Are the Results Any Good?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumori, I.; Fu, L. L.; Chao, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of assimilating satellite altimetry data into a global ocean general ocean general circulation model is studied. Three years of TOPEX/POSEIDON data is analyzed using a global, three-dimensional, nonlinear primitive equation model.

  12. Graduate Global Public Health Education: Activities and Outcomes in Relation to Student Prior Experience

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Suzanne F.; Cole, Donald C.

    2013-01-01

    The Dalla Lana School of Public Health uses an “add-on” or concentration model of global health education. Records of masters’ graduate cohorts across five disciplinary fields from 2006 to 2009 were classified as to prior experience at application and completion of global health concentration requirements. Alumni from the first two cohorts (2006-08 and 2007-09) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Prior experience was not linked consistently with the number of elective courses, location of practica or completion of requirements. Successful completion of the global health requirements depended more on the student’s base disciplinary program. Interviewed alumni with medium prior experience reported greater satisfaction with the concentration. Alumni with lower prior experience wanted more courses and support with practica. The pros and cons of a concentration model of global public health graduate education are discussed. PMID:23618475

  13. Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Digital forms of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical marketing (eDTCA) have globalized in an era of free and open information exchange. Yet, the unregulated expansion of eDTCA has resulted in unaddressed global public health threats. Specifically, illicit online pharmacies are engaged in the sale of purportedly safe, legitimate product that may in fact be counterfeit or substandard. These cybercriminal actors exploit available eDTCA mediums over the Internet to market their suspect products globally. Despite these risks, a detailed assessment of the public health, patient safety, and cybersecurity threats and governance mechanisms to address them has not been conducted. Discussion Illicit online pharmacies represent a significant global public health and patient safety risk. Existing governance mechanisms are insufficient and include lack of adequate adoption in national regulation, ineffective voluntary governance mechanisms, and uneven global law enforcement efforts that have allowed proliferation of these cybercriminals on the web. In order to effectively address this multistakeholder threat, inclusive global governance strategies that engage the information technology, law enforcement and public health sectors should be established. Summary Effective global “eHealth Governance” focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence. PMID:24131576

  14. Public responses to global warming in Newcastle, Australia: Environmental values and environmental decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Bulkeley, H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper seeks to address tile social and cultural dimensions of the global warming issue through an analysis of `public` responses in Newcastle, Australia, based on recent research undertaken for a PhD thesis. Given the history of Australian involvement in the F.C.C.C process this case-study will provides an interesting context in which to analyse discourses of environmental values. It is argued that these discourses shape and are shaped by public responses to global environmental issues in ways which have important implications for the definition of issues as `problems` with acceptable solutions, for the implementation of such solutions and for their political consequences.

  15. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  16. Mapping the key issues shaping the landscape of global public health.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alastair; Yu, Gary; Hermosilla, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    A survey of global health experts attending an invited meeting provided a means to map key issues perceived to be shaping emerging global public health agendas. Eighty-five participants proposed three major issues likely to have the most significant impact on the field of global health in the coming years. Six raters grouped the resultant items, with multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis producing a composite two-dimensional map depicting the overall patterning of items. Thematic clusters were incorporated within four major domains: changing health and prevention needs (15% of items), globalisation and global health governance (33% of items), transforming health systems (30% of items) and innovations in science and technology (7% of items). The remaining 15% of items addressed forms of environmental change. The distribution of items across domains was not significantly influenced by the current professional role of participants, their current location in the 'global north' or 'global south' or their region of focus (although the latter approached threshold significance). The constraints on interpretation imposed by the biases influencing participation in the survey are noted. However, the exercise suggests the potential for coherently defining shared agendas for diverse stakeholders to address emerging priorities. The closer integration of environmental concerns with other global public issues is clearly warranted. PMID:22765282

  17. Cultural competency training for public health students: integrating self, social, and global awareness into a master of public health curriculum.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Linda F; Delva, Marlyn; Franks, Cheryl L; Jimenez-Bautista, Ana; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Glover, Jim; Begg, Melissa D

    2015-03-01

    Cultural competency training in public health, medicine, social work, nursing, dental medicine, and other health professions has been a topic of increasing interest and significance. Despite the now burgeoning literature that describes specific knowledge, attitudes, and skills that promote cultural "competence," fully defining this complex, multidimensional term and implementing activities to enhance it remain a challenge. We describe our experiences in introducing a mandatory, full-day workshop to incoming Master of Public Health students, called "Self, Social, and Global Awareness: Personal Capacity Building for Professional Education and Practice." The purpose of the program is to provide a meaningful, structured environment to explore issues of culture, power, privilege, and social justice, emphasizing the centrality of these issues in effective public health education and practice. PMID:25706008

  18. “Polio Eradication” Game May Increase Public Interest in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Barnabas, Ruanne V.; Rue, Tessa; Weisman, Jordan; Harris, Nathan A.; Orenstein, Walter A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Interactive games that highlight global health challenges and solutions are a potential tool for increasing interest in global health. To test this hypothesis, we developed an interactive “Polio Eradication” (PE) game and evaluated whether playing or watching was associated with increased public interest in global health. Materials and Methods: The PE game is a life-size, human board game that simulates PE efforts. Four players—a researcher, a transportation expert, a local community coordinator, and a healthcare worker—collaborate as an interdisciplinary team to help limit ongoing and future polio outbreaks in Pakistan, represented on the game board. Participants who played or observed the game and those who did not participate in the game, but visited noninteractive global health exhibits, completed a survey on participation outcomes. We used relative risk regression to examine associations between cofactors and change in global health interest. Results: Three variables predicted increased global health interest among the game participants: Having little or no previous global health knowledge prior to playing the game (risk ratio [RR]=1.28; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.13–1.45), not currently being involved in global health (RR=1.41; 95 percent CI, 1.07–1.85), and visiting Seattle (RR=1.25; 95 percent CI, 1.04–1.51). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a hands-on, interactive game may increase the public's interest in global health, particularly among those with minimal previous knowledge of or involvement in global health activities. PMID:26182064

  19. Good-to-Great Superintendents: An Examination of Jim Collins' Good-to-Great Level Five Leadership Attributes as Demonstrated by the Leadership Behaviors of Superintendents of High-Performing California Public Single-School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Collins' good-to-great Level Five leadership attributes, as demonstrated by the leadership behaviors of superintendents of high-performing California public single-school districts. Methodology: The researcher used a case study design to conduct this study. Personal interviews were conducted in…

  20. Mass Media and Global Warming: A Public Arenas Model of the Greenhouse Effect's Scientific Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuzil, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Uses the Public Arenas model to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Utilizes a constructivist approach to discuss several possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena. (PA)

  1. Local Responses to Globalizing Trends: Student-Produced Materials at a Colombian Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daza, Stephanie Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Globalizing trends--underscored by neoliberalism, privatization and imperial legacies--are changing the nature and purpose of education across the world. "With these rules of the capitalist game," a Colombian student argues, "the public university in Latin America has been played." Manifestations of these trends, however, vary in different…

  2. The Writing on the Wall: Responses of Australian Public Universities to Competition in Global Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradmore, Donald J.; Smyrnios, Kosmas X.

    2009-01-01

    Australian public universities are struggling to maintain parity with international counterparts in an environment that is becoming increasingly competitive globally. While most universities are now heeding calls from sector leaders to become more competitive, any strategies that they implement to effect change in this regard might be too late to…

  3. Interviewing Key Informants: Strategic Planning for a Global Public Health Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kun, Karen E.; Kassim, Anisa; Howze, Elizabeth; MacDonald, Goldie

    2013-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Sustainable Management Development Program (SMDP) partners with low- and middle-resource countries to develop management capacity so that effective global public health programs can be implemented and better health outcomes can be achieved. The program's impact however, was variable. Hence, there…

  4. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #27: PUBLICATION OF GREAT LAKES REGIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Global Change Research Program is pleased to announce the publication of the Great Lakes Regional Assessment, conducted as part of the First U.S. National Assessment. The peer-reviewed assessment report is entitled, Preparing for a Changing Climate: The Potential Consequen...

  5. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #21: PUBLICATION OF SPECIAL ISSUE OF "CLIMATE RESEARCH"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 21st edition of Global Change Research News announces the publication of a Special Issue of the journal Climate Research entitled, 'Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment of Climate Change Impacts'. This issue contains 11 papers that are products of the EPA-sponsored Mid-Atlant...

  6. Self-enforcing strategies to deter free-riding in the climate change mitigation game and other repeated public good games

    PubMed Central

    Heitzig, Jobst; Lessmann, Kai; Zou, Yong

    2011-01-01

    As the Copenhagen Accord indicates, most of the international community agrees that global mean temperature should not be allowed to rise more than two degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels to avoid unacceptable damages from climate change. The scientific evidence distilled in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and recent reports by the US National Academies shows that this can only be achieved by vast reductions of greenhouse gas emissions. Still, international cooperation on greenhouse gas emissions reductions suffers from incentives to free-ride and to renegotiate agreements in case of noncompliance, and the same is true for other so-called “public good games.” Using game theory, we show how one might overcome these problems with a simple dynamic strategy of linear compensation when the parameters of the problem fulfill some general conditions and players can be considered to be sufficiently rational. The proposed strategy redistributes liabilities according to past compliance levels in a proportionate and timely way. It can be used to implement any given allocation of target contributions, and we prove that it has several strong stability properties. PMID:21903930

  7. Concern and Helplessness: Citizens' Assessments of Individual and Collective Action on the Provision of Environmental Public Goods in a Coastal City at Risk of Inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyan, Sabrina; Collins, Alan; Duffy, David

    2016-09-01

    Survey data from a representative sample of 1005 households in the UK coastal city of Portsmouth are examined to discern commonalities and contrasts in their assessment of actions to address the related environmental threats of climate change and flooding. The city of Portsmouth is at risk of inundation from rising sea levels and the city has recent experience of flooding. A simple local and global public good framework is used to organize the understanding of reported attitudes and their determinants. The findings show that it is not always the same individuals who express concern about both climate change and flooding. Investigation into perceptions of helplessness in tackling climate change indicates that individuals more often perceived themselves to be helpless in tackling climate but perceived local collective action to be more effective. Individuals considered local collective action to be more effective in tackling climate change. Perceptions of individual helplessness are in turn related to reported concern. Several socioeconomic characteristics of individuals are shown to be useful in explaining the determinants of concern and perceptions of helplessness among respondents. As other cities face climate change-related challenges, the empirical findings, based upon attitudes from an alert urban population, are informative to policy design.

  8. Concern and Helplessness: Citizens' Assessments of Individual and Collective Action on the Provision of Environmental Public Goods in a Coastal City at Risk of Inundation.

    PubMed

    Bunyan, Sabrina; Collins, Alan; Duffy, David

    2016-09-01

    Survey data from a representative sample of 1005 households in the UK coastal city of Portsmouth are examined to discern commonalities and contrasts in their assessment of actions to address the related environmental threats of climate change and flooding. The city of Portsmouth is at risk of inundation from rising sea levels and the city has recent experience of flooding. A simple local and global public good framework is used to organize the understanding of reported attitudes and their determinants. The findings show that it is not always the same individuals who express concern about both climate change and flooding. Investigation into perceptions of helplessness in tackling climate change indicates that individuals more often perceived themselves to be helpless in tackling climate but perceived local collective action to be more effective. Individuals considered local collective action to be more effective in tackling climate change. Perceptions of individual helplessness are in turn related to reported concern. Several socioeconomic characteristics of individuals are shown to be useful in explaining the determinants of concern and perceptions of helplessness among respondents. As other cities face climate change-related challenges, the empirical findings, based upon attitudes from an alert urban population, are informative to policy design. PMID:27357807

  9. Different gain/loss sensitivity and social adaptation ability in gifted adolescents during a public goods game.

    PubMed

    Chung, Dongil; Yun, Kyongsik; Kim, Jin Ho; Jang, Bosun; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2011-01-01

    Gifted adolescents are considered to have high IQs with advanced mathematical and logical performances, but are often thought to suffer from social isolation or emotional mal-adaptation to the social group. The underlying mechanisms that cause stereotypic portrayals of gifted adolescents are not well known. We aimed to investigate behavioral performance of gifted adolescents during social decision-making tasks to assess their affective and social/non-social cognitive abilities. We examined cooperation behaviors of 22 gifted and 26 average adolescents during an iterative binary public goods (PG) game, a multi-player social interaction game, and analyzed strategic decision processes that include cooperation and free-riding. We found that the gifted adolescents were more cooperative than average adolescents. Particularly, comparing the strategies for the PG game between the two groups, gifted adolescents were less sensitive to loss, yet were more sensitive to gain. Additionally, the behavioral characteristics of average adolescents, such as low trust of the group and herding behavior, were not found in gifted adolescents. These results imply that gifted adolescents have a high cognitive ability but a low ability to process affective information or to adapt in social groups compared with average adolescents. We conclude that gain/loss sensitivity and the ability to adapt in social groups develop to different degrees in average and gifted adolescents. PMID:21359224

  10. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    PubMed

    Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results. PMID:23555826

  11. Promotion of cooperation due to diversity of players in the spatial public goods game with increasing neighborhood size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng-jie; Sun, Shi-wen; Wang, Li; Ding, Shuai; Wang, Juan; Xia, Cheng-yi

    2014-07-01

    It is well-known that individual diversity is a typical feature within the collective population. To model this kind of characteristics, we propose an evolutionary model of public goods game with two types of players (named as A and B), where players are located on the sites of a square lattice satisfying the periodic boundary conditions. The evolution of the strategy distribution is governed by iterated strategy adoption from a randomly selected neighbor with a probability, which not only depends on the payoff difference between players, but also on the type of the neighbor. For B-type agents, we pose a pre-factor (0

  12. The vulnerability of being ill informed: the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement and Global Public Health.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Henry; Shiau, Stephanie

    2014-09-01

    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) is a regional trade agreement currently being negotiated by 11 Pacific Rim countries, excluding China. While the negotiations are being conducted under a veil of secrecy, substantive leaks over the past 4 years have revealed a broad view of the proposed contents. As it stands the TPPA poses serious risks to global public health, particularly chronic, non-communicable diseases. At greatest risk are national tobacco regulations, regulations governing the emergence of generic drugs and controls over food imports by transnational corporations. Aside from a small group of public health professionals from Australia, the academic public health community has missed these threats to the global community, although many other health-related entities, international lawyers and health-conscious politicians have voiced serious concerns. As of mid-2014 there has been no comment in the leading public health journals. This large lacuna in interest or recognition reflects the larger problem that the public health education community has all but ignored global non-communicable diseases. Without such a focus, the risks are unseen and the threats not perceived. This cautionary tale of the TPPA reflects the vulnerability of being ill informed of contemporary realities. PMID:25174038

  13. Investments in Global Health: Private and Public Innovation Systems of Essential Pharmaceuticals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantanen, Tiina-Riitta

    2006-01-01

    In recent years the scope and application of intellectual property rights has been expanded remarkably in the area of medical research and development. This has strengthened the role of the private sector in developing and producing new medicinal drugs. However, medical research is usually close to a pure public good and thus not efficiently…

  14. How the public engages with global warming: A social representations approach.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicholas; Joffe, Helene

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilises social representations theory to explore common sense conceptualisations of global warming risk using an in-depth, qualitative methodology. Fifty-six members of a British, London-based 2008 public were initially asked to draw or write four spontaneous "first thoughts or feelings" about global warming. These were then explored via an open-ended, exploratory interview. The analysis revealed that first thoughts, either drawn or written, often mirrored the images used by the British press to depict global warming visually. Thus in terms of media framings, it was their visual rather than their textual content that was spontaneously available for their audiences. Furthermore, an in-depth exploration of interview data revealed that global warming was structured around three themata: self/other, natural/unnatural and certainty/uncertainty, reflecting the complex and often contradictory nature of common sense thinking in relation to risk issues. PMID:23832882

  15. Globalized public health.” A transdisciplinary comprehensive framework for analyzing contemporary globalization’s influences on the field of public health

    PubMed Central

    Lapaige, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The current phase of globalization represents a “double-edged sword” challenge facing public health practitioners and health policy makers. The first “edge” throws light on two constructs in the field of public health: global health (formerly international health) and globalized public health. The second “edge” is that of global governance, and raises the question, “how can we construct public health regulations that adequately respond to both global and local complexities related to the two constructs mentioned earlier (global health and globalized public health)?” The two constructs call for the development of norms that will assure sustained population-wide health improvement and these two constructs have their own conceptual tools and theoretical models that permit a better understanding of them. In this paper, we introduce the “globalized public health” construct and we present an interactive comprehensive framework for critically analyzing contemporary globalization’s influences on the field of public health. “Globalized public health”, simultaneously a theoretical model and a conceptual framework, concerns the transformation of the field of public health in the sociohistorical context of globalization. The model is the fruit of an original theoretical research study conducted from 2005 to 2008 (“contextualized research,” Gibbons’ Mode II of knowledge production), founded on a QUAL-quant sequential mixed-method design. This research also reflects our political and ideological position, fuelled with aspirations of social democracy and cosmopolitical values. It is profoundly anchored in the pragmatic approach to globalization, looking to “reconcile” the market and equity. The model offers several features to users: (1) it is transdisciplinary; (2) it is interactive (CD-ROM); (3) it is nonlinear (nonlinear interrelations between the contextual globalization and the field of public health); (4) it is synchronic/diachronic (a

  16. Public policy and risk financing strategies for global catastrophe risk management - the role of global risk initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSharry, Patrick; Mitchell, Andrew; Anderson, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    Decision-makers in both public and private organisations depend on accurate data and scientific understanding to adequately address climate change and the impact of extreme events. The financial impacts of catastrophes on populations and infrastructure can be offset through effective risk transfer mechanisms, structured to reflect the specific perils and levels of exposure to be covered. Optimal strategies depend on the likely socio-econonomic impact, the institutional framework, the overall objectives of the covers placed and the level of both the frequency and severity of loss potential expected. The diversity of approaches across different countries has been documented by the Spanish "Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros". We discuss why international public/private partnerships are necessary for addressing the risk of natural catastrophes. International initiatives such as the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) and the World Forum of Catastrophe Programmes (WFCP) can provide effective guidelines for constructing natural catastrophe schemes. The World Bank has been instrumental in the creation of many of the existing schemes such as the Turkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool, the Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility and the Mongolian Index-Based Livestock Insurance Program. We review existing schemes and report on best practice in relation to providing protection against natural catastrophe perils. The suitability of catastrophe modelling approaches to support schemes across the world are discussed and we identify opportunities to improve risk assessment for such schemes through transparent frameworks for quantifying, pricing, sharing and financing catastrophe risk on a local and global basis.

  17. Global Adoption of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Challenges for the Public Sector.

    PubMed

    Huesing, Joseph E; Andres, David; Braverman, Michael P; Burns, Andrea; Felsot, Allan S; Harrigan, George G; Hellmich, Richard L; Reynolds, Alan; Shelton, Anthony M; Jansen van Rijssen, Wilna; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-20

    Advances in biotechnology continue to drive the development of a wide range of insect-protected, herbicide-tolerant, stress-tolerant, and nutritionally enhanced genetically modified (GM) crops, yet societal and public policy considerations may slow their commercialization. Such restrictions may disproportionately affect developing countries, as well as smaller entrepreneurial and public sector initiatives. The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, CA, USA; August 2014) included a symposium on "Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology" to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included (i) poor public understanding of GM technology and the need for enhanced communication strategies, (ii) nonharmonized and prescriptive regulatory requirements, and (iii) limited experience with regulations and product development within some public sector programs. The need for holistic resistance management programs to enable the most effective use of insect-protected crops was also a point of emphasis. This paper provides details on the symposium discussion and provides background information that can be used in support of further adoption of beneficial GM crops. Overall, it emphasizes that global adoption of modern agricultural biotechnology has not only provided benefits to growers and consumers but has great potential to provide solutions to an increasing global population and diminishing agricultural land. This potential will be realized by continued scientific innovation, harmonized regulatory systems, and broader communication of the benefits of the high-yielding, disease-resistant, and nutritionally enhanced crops attainable through modern biotechnology. PMID:26751159

  18. Germs, governance, and global public health in the wake of SARS

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, David P.

    2004-01-01

    A revolution in the governance of global infectious disease threats is under way, accelerated by events triggered by the outbreak of SARS in 2003. This review article analyzes pre-SARS trends in the governance of infectious diseases, examines the impact of the SARS outbreak on these trends, and posits that germ governance is now a criterion of “good governance” in world affairs. PMID:15067309

  19. The Grand Convergence: Closing the Divide between Public Health Funding and Global Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Global Health 2035 report notes that the “grand convergence”—closure of the infectious, maternal, and child mortality gap between rich and poor countries—is dependent on research and development (R&D) of new drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and other health tools. However, this convergence (and the R&D underpinning it) will first require an even more fundamental convergence of the different worlds of public health and innovation, where a largely historical gap between global health experts and innovation experts is hindering achievement of the grand convergence in health. PMID:26933890

  20. 76 FR 44606 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE...; Institution of Investigation and Scheduling of Public Hearing AGENCY: United States International Trade...)), the U.S. International Trade Commission (Commission) instituted investigation No....

  1. 77 FR 38394 - Public Input on the Report to Congress on the U.S. and Global Reinsurance Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Public Input on the Report to Congress on the U.S. and Global Reinsurance Market AGENCY: Departmental... report not later than September 30, 2012, describing the breadth and scope of the global reinsurance... a study describing the breadth and scope of the global reinsurance market and the critical role...

  2. Testing the Flat World Thesis: Using a Public Dataset to Engage Students in the Global Inequality Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabandi, Bhavani; Sweet, Stephen; Swords, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    We present a learning module to engage students in the global inequality debate using Google Public Data World Development Indicators. Goals of this article are to articulate the importance and urgency of teaching global issues to American students; situate the central debate in the globalization literature, paying particular attention to global…

  3. Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: Research and Implementation Needs for Improvements in Global Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Elliott T.; Carter, Ellison M.; Matt Earnest, C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the burning of solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting accounts for a significant portion of the global burden of death and disease, and disproportionately affects women and children in developing regions. Clean cookstove campaigns recently received more attention and investment, but their successes might hinge on greater integration of the public health community with a variety of other disciplines. To help guide public health research in alleviating this important global environmental health burden, we synthesized previous research on IAP in developing countries, summarized successes and challenges of previous cookstove implementation programs, and provided key research and implementation needs from structured discussions at a recent symposium. PMID:23409891

  4. Indoor air pollution in developing countries: research and implementation needs for improvements in global public health.

    PubMed

    Gall, Elliott T; Carter, Ellison M; Earnest, C Matt; Stephens, Brent

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the burning of solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting accounts for a significant portion of the global burden of death and disease, and disproportionately affects women and children in developing regions. Clean cookstove campaigns recently received more attention and investment, but their successes might hinge on greater integration of the public health community with a variety of other disciplines. To help guide public health research in alleviating this important global environmental health burden, we synthesized previous research on IAP in developing countries, summarized successes and challenges of previous cookstove implementation programs, and provided key research and implementation needs from structured discussions at a recent symposium. PMID:23409891

  5. Accounts from the field: a public relations perspective on global AIDS/HIV.

    PubMed

    Bardhan, Nilanjana R

    2002-01-01

    This study is a theoretical as well as empirical exploration of the power and cultural differentials that mark and construct various intersecting discourses, specifically media discourse, on global AIDS/HIV. It applies the language and concepts of public relations to understand how the press coverage of the pandemic is associated with the variables that impact the newsmaking process as well as the public and policy implications of macro news frames generated over time. Theoretical work in the areas of agenda setting and news framing also instruct the conceptual framework of this analysis. Narrative analysis is used as a methodology to qualitatively analyze three pools of accounts-from people either living with AIDS/HIV, involved in AIDS/HIV work, or discursively engaged in the media construction of the pandemic; from transnational wire service journalists who cover the issue at global and regional levels; and policy shapers and communicators who are active at the global level. These three communities of respondents represent important stakeholders in the AIDS/HIV issue. The findings are analyzed from a public relations standpoint. Perhaps the most important finding of this study is that the public relations approaches used to address AIDS/HIV related issues need to be grounded in context-specific research and communicative practices that bring out the lived realities of AIDS/HIV at grassroots levels. The findings also posit that those situated at critical junctions between various stakeholders need to cultivate a finely balanced understanding of the etic and emic intersections and subjectivities of global/local AIDS/HIV. PMID:12166875

  6. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in Large Cities: A Global Baseline.

    PubMed

    Araos, Malcolm; Austin, Stephanie E; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will have significant impacts on human health, and urban populations are expected to be highly sensitive. The health risks from climate change in cities are compounded by rapid urbanization, high population density, and climate-sensitive built environments. Local governments are positioned to protect populations from climate health risks, but it is unclear whether municipalities are producing climate-adaptive policies. In this article, we develop and apply systematic methods to assess the state of public health adaptation in 401 urban areas globally with more than 1 million people, creating the first global baseline for urban public health adaptation. We find that only 10% of the sampled urban areas report any public health adaptation initiatives. The initiatives identified most frequently address risks posed by extreme weather events and involve direct changes in management or behavior rather than capacity building, research, or long-term investments in infrastructure. Based on our characterization of the current urban health adaptation landscape, we identify several gaps: limited evidence of reporting of institutional adaptation at the municipal level in urban areas in the Global South; lack of information-based adaptation initiatives; limited focus on initiatives addressing infectious disease risks; and absence of monitoring, reporting, and evaluation. PMID:26705309

  7. Individual differences in behavioural inhibition explain free riding in public good games when punishment is expected but not implemented

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature on social dilemmas and punishment focuses on the behaviour of the punisher. However, to fully explain the effect of punishment on cooperation, it is important to understand the psychological mechanisms influencing the behaviour of those who expect to be punished. This paper examines whether the expectation of punishment, rather than the implementation of punishment is sufficient to prevent individuals from free riding. Individual differences in the punishment sensitivity have been linked to both threat responses (flight, fight, fear system, or the FFFS) and to the response to the uncertainty of punishment (BIS-anxiety).The paper, therefore, examines if individual differences in BIS-anxiety and FFFS can explain some of the variability in free riding in the face of implemented and non-implemented punishment. Methods Participants took part in a series of one-shot Public Goods Games (PGGs) facing two punishment conditions (implemented and non-implemented) and two standard non-punishment PGGs. The punishment was implemented as a centralized authority punishment (i.e., if one participant contributed less than their group members, they were automatically fined). Individual contribution levels and presence/absence of zero contributions indexed free riding. Individual differences in behavioural inhibition were assessed. Results Individuals contributed more under the threat of punishment (both implemented and non-implemented). However, individuals contributed less when the punishment was not implemented compared to when it was. Those scoring high in BIS-anxiety contributed more when the punishment expectations were not implemented. This effect was not observed for FFFS. Conclusion Supporting previous research, punishment had a powerful effect in increasing contribution levels in the PGGs. However, when expected punishment was not implemented, individual differences in punishment sensitivity, specifically in BIS-anxiety, were related to fewer

  8. Global public-private partnerships: Part I--A new development in health?

    PubMed Central

    Buse, K.; Walt, G.

    2000-01-01

    The proliferation of public-private partnerships is rapidly reconfiguring the international health landscape. This article (part I of two on the subject) traces the changing nature of partnership, and discusses the definitional and conceptual ambiguities surrounding the term. After defining global public-private partnerships (GPPPs) for health development, we analyse the factors which have led to the convergence of public and private actors and discuss the consequences of the trend toward partnership between UN agencies (including the World Bank) and commercial entities in the health sector. Generic factors such as globalization and disillusionment with the UN, and factors specific to the health sector, such as market failure in product development for orphan diseases, are examined. Reviewed are the interests, policies, practices and concerns of the UN, the private-for-profit sector, bilateral organizations, and governments of low-income countries with respect to public-private partnership. While GPPPs bring much needed resources to problems of international health, we highlight concerns regarding this new organizational format. Part II, which will be published in the May issue of the Bulletin, presents a conceptual framework for analysing health GPPPs and explores the issues raised. PMID:10885184

  9. 77 FR 70440 - Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment... or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis To Aid Public Comment describes both the... following Analysis To Aid Public Comment describes the terms of the consent agreement, and the...

  10. Human rights and the Beijing Olympics: imagined global community and the transnational public sphere.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Susan

    2012-06-01

    The Olympic Games are increasingly used by non-governmental organizations to demand transnational forms of accountability from public authorities. This article assesses the effectiveness of transnational public opinion surrounding the Beijing 2008 Olympics, when the pressure of Western public opinion was exerted upon the government of the world's most populous non-Western nation to improve its human rights record. Utilizing the concepts of 'imagined global community' and 'transnational public sphere', it finds that the Olympic Games had helped to call into existence a transnational public that ran up against the obstacle posed by the incomplete formation of supra-national forms of governance. The International Olympic Committee, a non-governmental organization, was a weak substitute. Because of the strong desire of Chinese people to take part in transnational deliberations, the article concludes with optimism about the potential of transnational public spheres that include Chinese people to develop toward more effective forms of transnational governance. But the IOC must strengthen the voice of its non-Western members, and Western interlocutors, including the media, must accept their share of the responsibility for creating the conditions for egalitarian dialogue. PMID:22670649

  11. Due Process Rights in Public Education: The Constitutional Dimensions of an Employee's 14th Amendment Liberty Interest in Good Name and Reputation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.; Strope, John L., Jr.

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the due-process rights of public employees. These particular rights are grounded in the constitutionally protected liberty interest in one's good name and reputation. Both employers and employees should be aware of what parameters case law provides with regard to the dimensions of this due-process right and…

  12. "Good mothering" or "good citizenship"?

    PubMed

    Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism. PMID:23180199

  13. Eyes wide open: an essay on developing an engaged awareness in global medicine and public health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a growing understanding of the role social determinants such as poverty, gender discrimination, racial prejudice, and economic inequality play on health and illness. While these determinants and effects may be challenging to identify in parts of high-income countries, they are patently obvious in many other areas of the world. How we react to these determinants and effects depends on what historical, cultural, ideological, and psychological characteristics we bring to our encounters with inequity, as well as how our feelings and thoughts inform our values and actions. Discussion To address these issues, we share a series of questions we have asked ourselves¿United States¿ citizens with experience living and working in Central America¿in relation to our encounters with inequity. We offer a conceptual framework for contemplating responses in hopes of promoting among educators and practitioners in medicine and public health an engaged awareness of how our every day work either perpetuates or breaks down barriers of social difference. We review key moments in our own experiences as global health practitioners to provide context for these questions. Summary Introspective reflection can help professionals in global medicine and public health recognize the dynamic roles that they play in the world. Such reflection can bring us closer to appreciating the forces that have worked both for and in opposition to global health, human rights, and well-being. It can help us recognize how place, time, environment, and context form the social determination of health. It is from this holistic perspective of social relations that we can work to effect fair, equitable, and protective environments as they relate to global medicine and public health. PMID:25346040

  14. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    Background The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Methods Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. Results The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. Conclusion The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when threatened by the globalization of

  15. Responding to the public health consequences of the Ukraine crisis: an opportunity for global health diplomacy

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Tim K; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peace and stability in Eastern Europe is now at a crossroads with the rapidly deteriorating foreign policy crisis continuing to unfold in the Ukraine. However, largely overlooked in the context of other foreign policy and diplomatic priorities are the serious public health consequences for the region following the annexation of Crimea and the subsequent decision to ban opioid substitution therapy in the disputed territory. Discussion On 1 May 2014, the Republic of Crimea officially announced it would end access to opioid substitution therapy, an essential harm reduction tool recognized by international organizations and virtually all other European countries. The policy development marks a critical reversal in the region’s fight against its growing HIV epidemic and also threatens years of public health gains aimed at providing evidence-based and integrated treatment approaches to combat drug dependence and HIV. Beyond these risks, the Ukrainian conflict could also negatively impact control of other infectious diseases that are converging with HIV and injection drug use, such as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and hepatitis C virus. The continuing conflict is also likely to have a significant negative impact on Ukraine’s fragile public health system leading to even worse population health outcomes than currently experienced by the country. Conclusions In response to this crisis, the application of global health diplomacy principles represents a possible route of advocacy to ensure that HIV prevention, humane treatment of substance using populations, and improving public health outcomes in the region are pursued among concerned international stakeholders. In order to be effective, global health diplomacy efforts must be coordinated and advocated in all forms of diplomatic engagement, including at the core, multistakeholder and informal levels and through existing channels such as the different human rights bodies of the United Nations as well as

  16. Reduction in Public Funding for Postsecondary Education in Colorado from 1970 to 2010: A Study Documenting Change and the Resulting Shift from Public to Private Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines and chronicles the change in public funding for postsecondary education in Colorado from 1970 to 2010. Colorado was ranked sixth among states in per capita funding for public higher education in 1970 and declined to 48th in 2010. The study analyzed state appropriations over this time period in five broad categories of spending:…

  17. Imperial or postcolonial governance? Dissecting the genealogy of a global public health strategy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim; Bell, Morag

    2008-11-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century it became increasingly apparent that the inter-relationship between globalisation and health is extremely complex. This complexity is highlighted in debates surrounding the re-emergence of infectious diseases, where it is recognised that the processes of globalisation have combined to create the conditions where once localised, microbial hazards have come to pose a threat to many western nations. By contrast, in an emerging literature relating to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases, and reflected in the WHO 'Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health', it is the so-called 'western lifestyle' that has been cast as the main threat to a population's health. This paper explores critically global responses to this development. Building on our interest in questions of governance and the ethical management of the healthy body, we examine whether the global strategy, in seeking to contain the influence of a 'western lifestyle', also promotes contemporary 'western-inspired' approaches to public health practices. The paper indicates that a partial reading of the WHO strategy suggests that certain countries, especially those outside the West, are being captured or 'enframed' by the integrative ambitions of a western 'imperial' vision of global health. However, when interpreted critically through a postcolonial lens, we argue that 'integration' is more complex, and that the subtle and dynamic relations of power that exist between countries of the West/non-West, are exposed. PMID:18771835

  18. Umbilical cord blood banking: from personal donation to international public registries to global bioeconomy

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The procedures for collecting voluntarily and freely donated umbilical cord blood (UCB) units and processing them for use in transplants are extremely costly, and the capital flows thus generated form part of an increasingly pervasive global bioeconomy. To place the issue in perspective, this article first examines the different types of UCB biobank, the organization of international registries of public UCB biobanks, the optimal size of national inventories, and the possibility of obtaining commercial products from donated units. The fees generally applied for the acquisition of UCB units for transplantation are then discussed, and some considerations are proposed regarding the social and ethical implications raised by the international network for the importation and exportation of UCB, with a particular emphasis on the globalized bioeconomy of UCB and its commerciality or lack thereof. PMID:24971040

  19. A systematic review of global publication trends regarding long-term outcomes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, Paul; Arnold, L Eugene; Shaw, Monica; Caci, Hervé; Kahle, Jennifer; Woods, Alisa G; Young, Susan

    2011-01-01

    There is increased global recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a serious medical condition with long-term consequences. Although originally conceived of as a childhood disorder, ADHD is being increasingly recognized in adults. Individual geographic regions may have specific interests and objectives for the study of ADHD. A systematic review of long-term outcomes (LTOs) in ADHD was conducted to evaluate research on ADHD LTOs on a global scale. Studies that were at least 2 years in duration were examined. A total of 351 studies were identified in the final analysis. We identified nine outcomes of interest and classified studies by specific geographical regions, age groups studied and study design by region and over time. Published studies of LTOs in ADHD have increased in all geographical regions over the past three decades, with a peak number of 42 publications in 2008. This rise in publications on ADHD LTOs may reflect a rise in global interest and recognition of consequences and impairment associated with ADHD. Although many world regions have published on ADHD LTOs, the majority of studies have emerged from the US and Canada, followed by Europe. While investigators in the US and Canada were predominantly interested in drug addiction as a LTO, European researchers were more interested in antisocial behavior, and Eastern Asian investigators focused on both of these LTOs as well as self-esteem. Geographical differences in the focus of ADHD LTO studies may reflect regional variations in cultural values. Proportionally fewer prospective longitudinal studies and proportionally more retrospective and cross-sectional studies have been published in more recent decades. Finally, more studies focusing on ADHD in adolescents and adults have been conducted in recent years, and particularly adolescents in Eastern Asia. These changes in basic study design may reflect an increase in the recognition that ADHD is a lifetime chronic disorder. This

  20. A Systematic Review of Global Publication Trends Regarding Long-Term Outcomes of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkins, Paul; Arnold, L. Eugene; Shaw, Monica; Caci, Hervé; Kahle, Jennifer; Woods, Alisa G; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    There is increased global recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a serious medical condition with long-term consequences. Although originally conceived of as a childhood disorder, ADHD is being increasingly recognized in adults. Individual geographic regions may have specific interests and objectives for the study of ADHD. A systematic review of long-term outcomes (LTOs) in ADHD was conducted to evaluate research on ADHD LTOs on a global scale. Studies that were at least 2 years in duration were examined. A total of 351 studies were identified in the final analysis. We identified nine outcomes of interest and classified studies by specific geographical regions, age groups studied and study design by region and over time. Published studies of LTOs in ADHD have increased in all geographical regions over the past three decades, with a peak number of 42 publications in 2008. This rise in publications on ADHD LTOs may reflect a rise in global interest and recognition of consequences and impairment associated with ADHD. Although many world regions have published on ADHD LTOs, the majority of studies have emerged from the US and Canada, followed by Europe. While investigators in the US and Canada were predominantly interested in drug addiction as a LTO, European researchers were more interested in antisocial behavior, and Eastern Asian investigators focused on both of these LTOs as well as self-esteem. Geographical differences in the focus of ADHD LTO studies may reflect regional variations in cultural values. Proportionally fewer prospective longitudinal studies and proportionally more retrospective and cross-sectional studies have been published in more recent decades. Finally, more studies focusing on ADHD in adolescents and adults have been conducted in recent years, and particularly adolescents in Eastern Asia. These changes in basic study design may reflect an increase in the recognition that ADHD is a lifetime chronic disorder. This

  1. The factors affecting Nigeria's success toward implementation of global public health priorities.

    PubMed

    Echebiri, Vitalis C

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the challenges facing the Nigerian government toward the implementation of global public health priories. The Nigerian government recognizes the need to implement these priorities by putting in place the necessary policy framework, but political instability, poor infrastructural development and inadequate funding have remained barriers toward the achievement of success in implementing these priorities. The rest of the paper elucidates the fact that despite leadership and influence from the World Health Organization and other United Nations agencies, and some responses from the Nigerian government, tackling these public health problems requires much more fundamental reform to primary health services and a reduction in poverty. Although the government has shown enough political will to tackle these problems, it is expected that a better result will be achieved through injecting more funds into the Nigerian health sector, and deploying astute health administrators to manage the sector rather than pure health professionals without managerial acumen. PMID:25073860

  2. Defining the role of University of Kentucky HealthCare in its medical market--how strategic planning creates the intersection of good public policy and good business practices.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Michael; Lofgren, Richard; Bricker, Timothy; Claypool, Joseph O; Zembrodt, Jim; Perman, Jay; Higdon, Courtney M

    2009-02-01

    In response both to national pressures to reduce costs and improve health care access and outcomes and to local pressures to become a top-20 public research university, the University of Kentucky moved toward an integrated clinical enterprise, UK HealthCare, to create a common vision, shared goals, and an effective decision-making process. The leadership formed the vision and then embarked on a comprehensive and coordinated planning process that addressed financial, clinical, academic, and operational issues. The authors describe in depth the strategic planning process and specifically the definition of UK HealthCare's role in its medical marketplace. They began a rigorous process to assess and develop goals for the clinical programs and followed the progress of these programs through meetings driven by data and attended by the organization's senior leadership. They describe their approach to working with rural and community hospitals throughout central, eastern, and southern Kentucky to support the health care infrastructure of the state. They review the early successes of their strategic approach and describe the lessons they learned. The clinical successes have led to academic gains. The experience of UK HealthCare suggests that good business practices and good public policy are synergistic. PMID:19174658

  3. 76 FR 61115 - Notice of Publication of 2011 Update to The Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor at (202.../programs/ocft/tvpra.htm . ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) carries... for Information (72 FR 73374, Dec. 27, 2007); Notice of Public Hearing To Collect Information...

  4. 77 FR 59417 - Notice of Publication of 2012 Update to the Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Director, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau... labor in violation of international standards.'' ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) carries out this mandate. The primary purposes of the List are to raise public...

  5. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: An Analysis of the Chicago Public Schools' Capital Improvement Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Matt; Schwartz, Chris

    This report examines the Chicago Public School System's need for capital improvement, and it highlights action plans for the future. The report reveals that many planned school improvements projects are unfunded and that there is about $229 million worth of projects that no longer appear in the city's capital improvements plan. Overcrowding…

  6. The globalization of emergency medicine and its importance for public health.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Philip; Petrino, Roberta; Halpern, Pinchas; Tintinalli, Judith

    2006-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) is a global discipline that provides secondary disease prevention and is also a tool for primary prevention. It is a horizontally integrated system of emergency care consisting of access to EM care; provision of EM care in the community and during transportation of patients; and provision of care at the receiving facility or hospital emergency department. EM can offer many tools to improve public health. These tools include primary disease prevention; interventions for addressing substance abuse and interpersonal violence; education about safety practices; epidemiological surveillance; enrolment of patients in clinical research trials focusing on acute interventions; education and clinical training of health-care providers; and participation in local and regional responses to natural and man-made disasters. Public health advocates and health policy-makers can benefit from the opportunities of EM and can help overcome its challenges. Advocating the establishment and recognition of the specialty of EM worldwide can result in benefits for health-care education, help in incorporating the full scope of EM care into the system of public health, and expand the capabilities of EM for primary and secondary prevention for the benefit of the health of the public. PMID:17128364

  7. Global proteomic characterization of uterine histotroph recovered from beef heifers yielding good quality and degenerate day 7 embryos.

    PubMed

    Beltman, M E; Mullen, M P; Elia, G; Hilliard, M; Diskin, M G; Evans, A C; Crowe, M A

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the proteomic composition of uterine flushes collected from beef heifers on day 7 after insemination. Estrus was synchronized in crossbred beef heifers by using a protocol with a controlled intravaginal drug releasing device. Heifers detected in standing estrus (within 24-48 h after removal of controlled intravaginal drug releasing device) were inseminated (estrus = day 0) with frozen-thawed semen from a single ejaculate of a bull with proven fertility. Heifers from which an embryo was recovered (after slaughter on day 7) were classified as either having a viable embryo (morula/blastocyst stage) or a degenerate embryo (arrested at the 2- to 16-cell stage). The overall recovery rate (viable and degenerate combined) was 64%. Global liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry proteomic analysis of the histotroph collected identified 40 high-confidence proteins present on day 7; 26 proteins in the viable group, 10 in the degenerate group, and 4 shared between both groups. Five proteins (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit γ [PAFAH1B3], tubulin α-1D chain, tubulin β-4A chain, cytochrome C, and dihydropyrimidinase-related protein-2) were unique or more abundant in the histotroph collected from animals with a viable embryo, and 1 protein (S100-A4) was more abundant in the histotroph collected from animals with a degenerate embryo. Of interest, PAFAH1B3, detected only in histotroph from the group yielding viable embryos, belongs to the group of platelet-activating factors that are known to be important for the development of the pre-implantation embryo in other species. To our knowledge this is the first report of PAFAH1B3 in relation to bovine early embryonic development. PMID:24210454

  8. From Inventory to Insight: Making Sense of the Global Landscape of Higher Education Research, Training, and Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbley, Laura E.; Stanfield, David A.; de Gayardon, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Through a yearlong study, the Boston College Center for International Higher Education developed a (third edition) global inventory of higher education research centers/institutes, academic programs, and journals/publications. As higher education expands globally, these resources are essential for training effective leaders and producing research…

  9. Public health, global surveillance, and the "emerging disease" worldview: a postcolonial appraisal of PEPFAR.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Shaunak; Dutta, Mohan J

    2012-01-01

    Drawing upon a postcolonial lens, this project looks at how meanings of HIV/AIDS are discursively constructed within the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which was launched in 2003 under the presidency of George W. Bush and has been heralded as the largest global public health intervention program in history. Building on existing literature that theorizes the interrelationships of public health and national security, global surveillance, and transnational hegemony, the postcolonial theoretical standpoint interrogates how such meanings are constructed within PEPFAR. A postcolonial deconstruction of the 2009 PEPFAR report to the Congress revealed three meanings of HIV/AIDS that were discursively constructed in such policy documents: (a) the "Third World" as a site of intervention, (b) U.S. altruism as "lifting" the burden of the soul, and (c) AIDS, economics, and security. The themes put forth the linkages among the symbolic representations in neocolonial configurations and the politics of material disparities across the globe, thus issuing a call for the creation of participatory and dialogic spaces for engaging subaltern voices that are typically treated as targets of policy and intervention discourses. PMID:22014270

  10. The global reproductive health market: U.S. media framings and public discourses about transnational surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Markens, Susan

    2012-06-01

    During the first decade of the 21st century a new "dramatic story" about the growing global surrogacy industry brought renewed attention to surrogacy as a social problem and a health policy issue. This paper asks: What cultural assumptions about gender, family and the global reproductive health market are revealed in current U.S. media coverage of and public discourses about surrogacy? From a qualitative analysis of prominent news accounts of surrogacy that were published in 2008, New York Times articles and blogs published on the topic between 2006 and 2010, and over 1000 online reader comments to these articles, I identify key frames used to discursively construct and debate the international surrogacy market. This study reveals the distinct contrast between the occasions when reproductive labor is rhetorically distanced from commodification processes and when it is linked to those processes. The findings contribute to intersectional analyses of assisted reproductive practices and women's health/bodies/gametes. In particular, this study's analysis of recent media framings of and public discourses about surrogacy across the globe serves as another illustration that national/classed/racialized bodies continue to be reproductively stratified via differently gendered discourses about women, motherhood and family. PMID:22014871

  11. Promoting good health in the age of reform: the medical publications of Henry H. Porter of Philadelphia, 1829-32.

    PubMed

    Horrocks, T A

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1830s, the Philadelphia publisher Henry H. Porter rapidly published five journals, six books, and an almanac, works having a particular emphasis on health and personal hygiene. Porter's health publications linked the traditional message about the importance of personal hygiene to health to the messages conveyed by the flourishing American reform movements at the time, and his Journal of Health was among the first American medically oriented periodicals published for the layperson. Yet Porter did not survive in the intensely competitive and financially unstable book trade. This study examines Porter's health publications, attempting to explain why he chose to publish what he did, the message(s) his works contained, the audience(s) he tried to reach, and the failure of his business. PMID:11609080

  12. Towards a global alcohol policy: alcohol, public health and the role of WHO.

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, D. H.; Monteiro, M.; Room, R.; Saxena, S.

    2000-01-01

    In 1983 the World Health Assembly declared alcohol-related problems to be among the world's major health concerns. Since then, alcohol consumption has risen in developing countries, where it takes a heavy toll. Alcohol-related problems are at epidemic levels in the successor states of the Soviet Union and are responsible for 3.5% of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost globally. Substantial evidence exists of the relationship between the levels and patterns of alcohol consumption on the one hand and the incidence of alcohol-related problems on the other. Over the past 20 years, research has demonstrated the effectiveness of public policies involving, for example, taxation and restrictions on alcohol availability, in reducing alcohol-related problems. In the wake of rapid economic globalization, many of these policies at national and subnational levels have been eroded, often with the support of international financial and development organizations. Development agencies and international trade agreements have treated alcohol as a normal commodity, overlooking the adverse consequences of its consumption on productivity and health. WHO is in a strong position to take the lead in developing a global alcohol policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related problems, providing scientific and statistical support, capacity-building, disseminating effective strategies and collaborating with other international organizations. Such leadership can play a significant part in diminishing the health and social problems associated with alcohol use. PMID:10885168

  13. 78 FR 10181 - Global Quality Systems-An Integrated Approach To Improving Medical Product Safety; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Medical Product Safety; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... ``Global Quality Systems--An Integrated Approach to Improving Medical Product Safety.'' This 2-day public... Safety of our Drugs and Devices--the Complex Reality. Nanotechnology. Drug and Medical Device...

  14. Public road infrastructure inventory in degraded global navigation satellite system signal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, N.; Morrison, A.; Haakonsen, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Recent advancement of land-based mobile mapping enables rapid and cost-effective collection of highquality road related spatial information. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) can provide spatial information with subdecimeter accuracy in nominal operation environments. However, performance in challenging environments such as tunnels is not well characterized. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) manages the country's public road network and its infrastructure, a large segment of which is represented by road tunnels (there are about 1 000 road tunnels in Norway with a combined length of 800 km). In order to adopt mobile mapping technology for streamlining road network and infrastructure management and maintenance tasks, it is important to ensure that the technology is mature enough to meet existing requirements for object positioning accuracy in all types of environments, and provide homogeneous accuracy over the mapping perimeter. This paper presents results of a testing campaign performed within a project funded by the NPRA as a part of SMarter road traffic with Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) (SMITS) program. The testing campaign objective was performance evaluation of high end commercial MMSs for inventory of public areas, focusing on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal degraded environments.

  15. Celebrating the work of Gavin Mooney: inclusiveness and involvement in global and public health issues.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Diane

    2014-05-01

    This paper considers Gavin Mooney's contributions to the research literature on inclusiveness in global and public health issues. Much of his contribution in this area stems from engaging with Indigenous people, which cemented his conviction that it is important to recognise the heterogeneity of groups in society, especially in relation to cultural differences. He believed that in order to develop appropriate equitable and efficient health and related policies, the preferences of citizens should be elicited. While this could feed into very specific policy decisions, such as how to allocate available resources within a particular community, more generally, community preferences should determine the core values that underpin a health system. He proposed that these values be documented in a 'constitution' and serve as the basis on which policy-makers and health managers make decisions. Preference elicitation has value in itself, as procedural justice allows for self-determination and contributes to empowerment. Further, engagement by citizens in deliberative processes can overcome polarisation. Health systems themselves, if developed as social institutions, can influence the nature of society and contribute to greater unity. Mooney raised similar concerns about policies arising from mono-cultural global perspectives and argued that, whether at the national or global level, values for health systems should be based on community preferences. He particularly highlighted the unequal distribution of benefits of neoliberal globalisation as the cause of growing health and wealth inequalities globally. There is resonance between Mooney's views on these issues and some of the contributions to the post-2015 development agenda debates. While it is unlikely that we have reached a point where the stranglehold of neo-liberal governments on key global institutions will be broken, the current debates nevertheless present an important window of opportunity to struggle for shifts in

  16. Attributes of patient-centered primary care associated with the public perception of good healthcare quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Guanais, Frederico C; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Canning, David; Macinko, James; Reich, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated primary care attributes of patient-centered care associated with the public perception of good quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Latin American survey on public perceptions and experiences with healthcare systems. The primary care attributes examined were access, coordination, provider-patient communication, provision of health-related information and emotional support. A double-weighted multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was performed. The study included between 1500 and 1503 adults in each country. The results identified four significant gaps in the provision of primary care: not all respondents had a regular place of care or a regular primary care doctor (Brazil 35.7%, Colombia 28.4%, Mexico 22% and El Salvador 45.4%). The communication with the primary care clinic was difficult (Brazil 44.2%, Colombia 41.3%, Mexico 45.1% and El Salvador 56.7%). There was a lack of coordination of care (Brazil 78.4%, Colombia 52.3%, Mexico 48% and El Salvador 55.9%). Also, there was a lack of information about healthy diet (Brazil 21.7%, Colombia 32.9%, Mexico 16.9% and El Salvador 20.8%). The public's perception of good quality was variable (Brazil 67%, Colombia 71.1%, Mexico 79.6% and El Salvador 79.5%). The primary care attributes associated with the perception of good quality were a primary care provider 'who knows relevant information about a patient's medical history', 'solves most of the health problems', 'spends enough time with the patient', 'coordinates healthcare' and a 'primary care clinic that is easy to communicate with'. In conclusion, the public has a positive perception of the quality of primary care, although it has unfulfilled expectations; further efforts are necessary to improve the provision of patient-centered primary care services in these four Latin American countries. PMID:26874326

  17. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher

  18. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukta; Chatterjee, Anindya

    2012-01-01

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the "Strike- Hard" campaign in China or the "war on drugs" in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam's response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves.The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting "universal access" goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners.The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher political

  19. The implications of unconventional drilling for natural gas: a global public health concern.

    PubMed

    Finkel, M L; Hays, J

    2013-10-01

    Unconventional drilling for natural gas by means of high volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is an important global public health issue. Given that no sound epidemiologic study has been done to assess the extent of exposure-related adverse health effects among populations living in areas where natural gas extraction is going on, it is imperative that research be conducted to quantify the potential risks to the environment and to human health not just in the short-term, but over a longer time period since many diseases (i.e., cancers) appear years after exposure. It should not be concluded that an absence of data implies that no harm is being done. PMID:24119661

  20. Invisible colleges, private patronage and commercial profits versus public goods, government funding and 'crowding-out': Terence Kealey on the motivations and incentives driving science.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-02-01

    What kind of a thing is science and how does it work? [Kealey T. Sex, science and profits: In a recent book (Sex, science and profits: how people evolved to make money. London: William Heinemann; 2008) (p. 455)] Terence Kealey argues persuasively that the motivations driving science are widely misunderstood. Science is often assumed to be useful to the public but an economic loser for the scientist and his or her paymasters - in other words, science is supposed to be a 'public good'. The public good argument is used to support large-scale government funding of science, on the basis that if government does not fund science it will not be funded adequately. But Kealey argues that most science is profitable to commercial organizations, and other types of worthwhile science will be supported by private patronage. Yet excessive government funding tends to 'crowd-out' potential private sources of funding - both by replacing and by deterring private investment. And scientists are not primarily motivated by money, but instead by striving for status within the 'invisible college' of active researchers in their field. Kealey's take-home message is that overall and in the long-term, science neither requires nor benefits from government funding. Scientific research would be better-served by private funding from commercial organizations that are seeking profit, combined with patronage from charities and foundations that regard science as intrinsically valuable. PMID:18977606

  1. Migrants and emerging public health issues in a globalized world: threats, risks and challenges, an evidence-based framework

    PubMed Central

    Gushulak, BD; Weekers, J; MacPherson, DW

    2010-01-01

    International population mobility is an underlying factor in the emergence of public health threats and risks that must be managed globally. These risks are often related, but not limited, to transmissible pathogens. Mobile populations can link zones of disease emergence to lowprevalence or nonendemic areas through rapid or high-volume international movements, or both. Against this background of human movement, other global processes such as economics, trade, transportation, environment and climate change, as well as civil security influence the health impacts of disease emergence. Concurrently, global information systems, together with regulatory frameworks for disease surveillance and reporting, affect organizational and public awareness of events of potential public health significance. International regulations directed at disease mitigation and control have not kept pace with the growing challenges associated with the volume, speed, diversity, and disparity of modern patterns of human movement. The thesis that human population mobility is itself a major determinant of global public health is supported in this article by review of the published literature from the perspective of determinants of health (such as genetics/biology, behavior, environment, and socioeconomics), population-based disease prevalence differences, existing national and international health policies and regulations, as well as inter-regional shifts in population demographics and health outcomes. This paper highlights some of the emerging threats and risks to public health, identifies gaps in existing frameworks to manage health issues associated with migration, and suggests changes in approach to population mobility, globalization, and public health. The proposed integrated approach includes a broad spectrum of stakeholders ranging from individual health-care providers to policy makers and international organizations that are primarily involved in global health management, or are influenced

  2. The unanticipated interpersonal and societal consequences of choice: victim blaming and reduced support for the public good.

    PubMed

    Savani, Krishna; Stephens, Nicole M; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2011-06-01

    Choice makes North Americans feel more in control, free, and independent, and thus has many positive consequences for individuals' motivation and well-being. We report five studies that uncovered novel consequences of choice for public policy and interpersonal judgments. Studies 1 through 3 found that activating the concept of choice decreases support for policies promoting intergroup equality (e.g., affirmative action) and societal benefits (e.g., reducing environmental pollution), but increases support for policies promoting individual rights (e.g., legalizing drugs). Studies 4 and 5 found that activating the concept of choice increases victim blaming and decreases empathy for disadvantaged people. Study 5 found that choice does not decrease Indians' empathy for disadvantaged individuals, indicating that the social and interpersonal consequences of choice are likely culture-specific. This research suggests that the well-known positive effects of choice for individuals can be accompanied by an array of previously unexamined and potentially negative outcomes for other people and for society. PMID:21537057

  3. Impact of generalized benefit functions on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games with continuous strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž; Wang, Long

    2012-06-01

    Cooperation and defection may be considered to be two extreme responses to a social dilemma. Yet the reality is much less clear-cut. Between the two extremes lies an interval of ambivalent choices, which may be captured theoretically by means of continuous strategies defining the extent of the contributions of each individual player to the common pool. If strategies are chosen from the unit interval, where 0 corresponds to pure defection and 1 corresponds to the maximal contribution, the question is what is the characteristic level of individual investments to the common pool that emerges if the evolution is guided by different benefit functions. Here we consider the steepness and the threshold as two parameters defining an array of generalized benefit functions, and we show that in a structured population there exist intermediate values of both at which the collective contributions are maximal. However, as the cost-to-benefit ratio of cooperation increases, the characteristic threshold decreases while the corresponding steepness increases. Our observations remain valid if more complex sigmoid functions are used, thus reenforcing the importance of carefully adjusted benefits for high levels of public cooperation.

  4. Global Distribution, Public Health and Clinical Impact of the Protozoan Pathogen Cryptosporidium

    PubMed Central

    Putignani, Lorenza; Menichella, Donato

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. are coccidians, oocysts-forming apicomplexan protozoa, which complete their life cycle both in humans and animals, through zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission, causing cryptosporidiosis. The global burden of this disease is still underascertained, due to a conundrum transmission modality, only partially unveiled, and on a plethora of detection systems still inadequate or only partially applied for worldwide surveillance. In children, cryptosporidiosis encumber is even less recorded and often misidentified due to physiological reasons such as early-age unpaired immunological response. Furthermore, malnutrition in underdeveloped countries or clinical underestimation of protozoan etiology in developed countries contribute to the underestimation of the worldwide burden. Principal key indicators of the parasite distribution were associated to environmental (e.g., geographic and temporal clusters, etc.) and host determinants of the infection (e.g., age, immunological status, travels, community behaviours). The distribution was geographically mapped to provide an updated picture of the global parasite ecosystems. The present paper aims to provide, by a critical analysis of existing literature, a link between observational epidemiological records and new insights on public health, and diagnostic and clinical impact of cryptosporidiosis. PMID:20706669

  5. The global burden of liver disease: a challenge for methods and for public health.

    PubMed

    Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    New Global Burden of Disease estimates for liver cirrhosis, published in BMC Medicine, suggest that cirrhosis caused over a million deaths in 2010, with a further million due to liver cancer and acute hepatitis. Cause-specific mortality data were very sparse for some regions, particularly in Africa, with no relevant mortality data for 58/187 countries. Liver disease involves infectious, malignant and chronic aetiologies with overlapping symptoms. Where available mortality data come from verbal autopsies, separating different types of liver disease is challenging. Cirrhosis is a disease of rich and poor alike; key public health risk factors such as alcohol consumption play an important role. Risk-reduction strategies such as controlling the price of alcohol are being widely discussed. Since these estimates used alcohol consumption as a covariate, they cannot be used to explore relationships between alcohol consumption and cirrhosis mortality. There is hope: coming generations of adults will have been vaccinated against hepatitis B, and this is envisaged to reduce the burden of fatal liver disease. But more complete civil registration globally is needed to fully understand the burden of liver disease.Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/145/abstract. PMID:25286285

  6. Are the affluent prepared to pay for the planet? Explaining willingness to pay for public and quasi-private environmental goods in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Liebe, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    A large number of ‘environmental justice’ studies show that wealthier people are less affected by environmental burdens and also consume more resources than poorer people. Given this double inequity, we ask, to what extent are affluent people prepared to pay to protect the environment? The analyses are couched within the compensation/affluence hypothesis, which states that wealthier persons are able to spend more for environmental protection than their poorer counterparts. Further, we take into account various competing economic, psychological and sociological determinants of individuals’ willingness to pay (WTP) for both public environmental goods (e.g., general environmental protection) and quasi-private environmental goods (e.g., CO2-neutral cars). Such a comprehensive approach contrasts with most other studies in this field that focus on a limited number of determinants and goods. Multivariate analyses are based on a general population survey in Switzerland (N = 3,369). Although income has a positive and significant effect on WTP supporting the compensation hypothesis, determinants such as generalized interpersonal trust that is assumed to be positively associated with civic engagement and environmental concern prove to be equally important. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time that time preferences can considerably influence survey-based WTP for environmental goods; since investments in the environment typically pay off in the distant future, persons with a high subjective discount rate are less likely to commit. PMID:20835384

  7. Are the affluent prepared to pay for the planet? Explaining willingness to pay for public and quasi-private environmental goods in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Reto; Liebe, Ulf

    2010-09-01

    A large number of 'environmental justice' studies show that wealthier people are less affected by environmental burdens and also consume more resources than poorer people. Given this double inequity, we ask, to what extent are affluent people prepared to pay to protect the environment? The analyses are couched within the compensation/affluence hypothesis, which states that wealthier persons are able to spend more for environmental protection than their poorer counterparts. Further, we take into account various competing economic, psychological and sociological determinants of individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) for both public environmental goods (e.g., general environmental protection) and quasi-private environmental goods (e.g., CO(2)-neutral cars). Such a comprehensive approach contrasts with most other studies in this field that focus on a limited number of determinants and goods. Multivariate analyses are based on a general population survey in Switzerland (N = 3,369). Although income has a positive and significant effect on WTP supporting the compensation hypothesis, determinants such as generalized interpersonal trust that is assumed to be positively associated with civic engagement and environmental concern prove to be equally important. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time that time preferences can considerably influence survey-based WTP for environmental goods; since investments in the environment typically pay off in the distant future, persons with a high subjective discount rate are less likely to commit. PMID:20835384

  8. The Worldviews Network: Digital Planetariums for Engaging Public Audiences in Global Change Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, R. J.; Koontz, K.; Yu, K.; Gardiner, N.; Connolly, R.; Mcconville, D.

    2013-12-01

    Utilizing the capabilities of digital planetariums, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, the California Academy of Sciences, NOVA/WGBH, The Elumenati, and affiliates of the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration formed the Worldviews Network. The network's mission is to place Earth in its cosmic context to encourage participants to explore connections between social & ecological issues in their backyards. Worldviews launched with informal science institution partners: the American Museum of Natural History, the Perot Museum of Nature & Science, the Journey Museum, the Bell Museum of Natural History, the University of Michigan Natural History Museum, and the National Environmental Modeling & Analysis Center. Worldviews uses immersive visualization technology to engage public audiences on issues of global environmental change at a bioregional level. An immersive planetarium show and dialogue deepens public engagement and awareness of complex human-natural system interactions. People have altered the global climate system. Our communities are increasingly vulnerable to extreme weather events. Land use decisions that people make every day put both human lives and biodiversity at risk through direct and indirect effects. The Worldviews programs demonstrate the complex linkages between Earth's physical and biological systems and their relationship to human health, agriculture, infrastructure, water resources, and energy. We have focused on critical thresholds, such as freshwater use, biodiversity loss, land use change, and anthropogenic changes to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. We have been guided by environmental literacy principles to help our audiences understand that humans drive current trends in coupled human-natural systems--and that humans could choose to play an important role in reversing these trends. Museum and planetarium staff members join the Worldviews Network team and external advisers to produce programs that span cosmic, global, and

  9. Challenges for Australia's Bio/Nanopharma Policies: trade deals, public goods and reference pricing in sustainable industrial renewal

    PubMed Central

    Faunce, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Industrial renewal in the bio/nanopharma sector is important for the long term strength of the Australian economy and for the health of its citizens. A variety of factors, however, may have caused inadequate attention to focus on systematically promoting domestic generic and small biotechnology manufacturers in Australian health policy. Despite recent clarifications of 'springboarding' capacity in intellectual property legislation, federal government requirements for specific generic price reductions on market entry and the potential erosion of reference pricing through new F1 and F2 categories for the purposes of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) assessments, do not appear to be coherently designed to sustainably position this industry sector in 'biologics,' nanotherapeutics and pharmacogenetics. There also appears to have been little attention paid in this context to policies fostering industry sustainability and public affordability (as encouraged by the National Medicines Policy). One notable example includes that failure to consider facilitating mutual exchanges on regulatory assessment of health technology safety and cost-effectiveness (including reference pricing) in the context of ongoing free trade negotiations between Australia and China (the latter soon to possess the world's largest generic pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity). The importance of a thriving Australian domestic generic pharmaceutical and bio/nano tech industry in terms of biosecurity, similarly appears to have been given insufficient policy attention. Reasons for such policy oversights may relate to increasing interrelationships between generic and 'brand-name' manufacturers and the scale of investment required for the Australian generics and bio/nano technology sector to be a significant driver of local production. It might also result from singularly effective lobbying pressure exerted by Medicines Australia, the 'brand-name' pharmaceutical industry association, utilising

  10. Challenges for Australia's Bio/Nanopharma Policies: trade deals, public goods and reference pricing in sustainable industrial renewal.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Industrial renewal in the bio/nanopharma sector is important for the long term strength of the Australian economy and for the health of its citizens. A variety of factors, however, may have caused inadequate attention to focus on systematically promoting domestic generic and small biotechnology manufacturers in Australian health policy. Despite recent clarifications of 'springboarding' capacity in intellectual property legislation, federal government requirements for specific generic price reductions on market entry and the potential erosion of reference pricing through new F1 and F2 categories for the purposes of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) assessments, do not appear to be coherently designed to sustainably position this industry sector in 'biologics,' nanotherapeutics and pharmacogenetics. There also appears to have been little attention paid in this context to policies fostering industry sustainability and public affordability (as encouraged by the National Medicines Policy). One notable example includes that failure to consider facilitating mutual exchanges on regulatory assessment of health technology safety and cost-effectiveness (including reference pricing) in the context of ongoing free trade negotiations between Australia and China (the latter soon to possess the world's largest generic pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity). The importance of a thriving Australian domestic generic pharmaceutical and bio/nano tech industry in terms of biosecurity, similarly appears to have been given insufficient policy attention.Reasons for such policy oversights may relate to increasing interrelationships between generic and 'brand-name' manufacturers and the scale of investment required for the Australian generics and bio/nano technology sector to be a significant driver of local production. It might also result from singularly effective lobbying pressure exerted by Medicines Australia, the 'brand-name' pharmaceutical industry association, utilising

  11. Ontology-Based Meta-Analysis of Global Collections of High-Throughput Public Data

    PubMed Central

    Kupershmidt, Ilya; Su, Qiaojuan Jane; Grewal, Anoop; Sundaresh, Suman; Halperin, Inbal; Flynn, James; Shekar, Mamatha; Wang, Helen; Park, Jenny; Cui, Wenwu; Wall, Gregory D.; Wisotzkey, Robert; Alag, Satnam; Akhtari, Saeid; Ronaghi, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Background The investigation of the interconnections between the molecular and genetic events that govern biological systems is essential if we are to understand the development of disease and design effective novel treatments. Microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have the potential to provide this information. However, taking full advantage of these approaches requires that biological connections be made across large quantities of highly heterogeneous genomic datasets. Leveraging the increasingly huge quantities of genomic data in the public domain is fast becoming one of the key challenges in the research community today. Methodology/Results We have developed a novel data mining framework that enables researchers to use this growing collection of public high-throughput data to investigate any set of genes or proteins. The connectivity between molecular states across thousands of heterogeneous datasets from microarrays and other genomic platforms is determined through a combination of rank-based enrichment statistics, meta-analyses, and biomedical ontologies. We address data quality concerns through dataset replication and meta-analysis and ensure that the majority of the findings are derived using multiple lines of evidence. As an example of our strategy and the utility of this framework, we apply our data mining approach to explore the biology of brown fat within the context of the thousands of publicly available gene expression datasets. Conclusions Our work presents a practical strategy for organizing, mining, and correlating global collections of large-scale genomic data to explore normal and disease biology. Using a hypothesis-free approach, we demonstrate how a data-driven analysis across very large collections of genomic data can reveal novel discoveries and evidence to support existing hypothesis. PMID:20927376

  12. The potential Public Health Impact of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: Global Opinion Survey of Topic Specialists.

    PubMed

    Waddell, L A; Rajić, A; Stärk, K D C; McEwen, S A

    2016-05-01

    Global research knowledge has accumulated over the past few decades, and there is reasonable evidence for a positive association between Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease in humans, although its role as a human pathogen has not been entirely accepted. For this reason, management of public health risk due to M. paratuberculosis remains an important policy issue in agri-food public health arenas in many countries. Responsible authorities must decide whether existing mitigation strategies are sufficient to prevent or reduce human exposure to M. paratuberculosis. A Web-based questionnaire was administered to topic specialists to elicit empirical knowledge and opinion on the overall public health impact of M. paratuberculosis, the importance of various routes of human exposure to the pathogen, existing mitigation strategies and the need for future strategies. The questionnaire had four sections and consisted of 20 closed and five open questions. Topic specialists believed that M. paratuberculosis is likely a risk to human health (44.8%) and, given the paucity of available evidence, most frequently ranked it as a moderate public health issue (40.1%). A significant correlation was detected between topic specialists' commitment to M. paratuberculosis in terms of the number of years or proportion of work dedicated to this topic, and the likelihood of an extreme answer (high or low) to the above questions. Topic specialists identified contact with ruminants and dairy products as the most likely routes of exposure for humans. There was consensus on exposure routes for ruminants and what commodities to target in mitigation efforts. Described mandatory programmes mainly focused on culling diseased animals and voluntary on-farm prevention programmes. Despite ongoing difficulties in the identification of subclinical infections in animals, the topic specialists largely agreed that further enhancement of on-farm programmes in affected commodities by

  13. Assessment of Costs for a Global Climate Fund Against Public Sector Disaster Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg; Williges, Keith

    2013-04-01

    National governments are key actors in managing climate variability and change, yet, many countries, faced with exhausted tax bases, high levels of indebtedness and limited donor assistance, have been unable to raise sufficient and timely capital to replace or repair damaged assets and restore livelihoods following major disasters exacerbating the impacts of disaster shocks on poverty and development. For weather extremes, which form a subset of the adaptation challenge and are supposed to increase in intensity and frequency with a changing climate, we conduct an assessment of the costs of managing and financing today's public sector risks on a global scale for more than 180 countries. A countries financial vulnerability is defined as a function of its financial resilience and its exposure to disaster risk. While disaster risk is estimated in terms of asset loss distributions based on catastrophe modeling approaches, financial resilience is operationalized as the public sector's ability to pay for relief to the affected population and support the reconstruction of affected assets and infrastructure for a given event. We consider governments financially vulnerable to disasters if they cannot access sufficient funding after a disaster to cover their liabilities. We operationalize this concept by the term resource gap, which we define the net loss associated with a disaster event after exhausting all possible ex-post and ex ante financing sources. Extending this approach for all possible disaster events, the risk that a resource gap will occur over a given time-span can be calculated for each country individually and dependent on the risk level different risk instruments may have to be applied. Furthermore, our estimates may inform decisions pertaining to a "climate insurance fund" absorbing "high level" country risks exceeding the ability of any given country to pay in the case of an extreme event. Our estimates relate to today's climate, yet we suggest that

  14. Lung disease in a global context. A call for public health action.

    PubMed

    Schluger, Neil W; Koppaka, Ram

    2014-03-01

    As described in a recently released report of the Forum of International Respiratory Societies, four of the leading causes of death in the world are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory tract infections, lung cancer, and tuberculosis. A fifth, asthma, causes enormous global morbidity. Not enough progress has been made in introducing new therapies and reducing disease burden for these illnesses in the last few decades, despite generous investments and some notable progress in biomedical research. Four external and modifiable drivers are responsible for a substantial percentage of the disease burden represented by the major lung diseases: tobacco, outdoor air pollution, household air pollution, and occupational exposures to lung toxins. Especially in low- and middle-income countries, but in highly developed economies as well, pressures for economic development and lax regulation are contributing to the continued proliferation of these drivers. Public health approaches to the most common lung diseases could have enormous effects on reducing morbidity and mortality. There must be increased advocacy from and mobilization of civil society to bring attention to the drivers of lung diseases in the world. The World Health Organization should negotiate accords similar to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to address air pollution and occupational exposures. Large increases in funding by government agencies and nongovernmental organizations around the world are needed to identify technologies that will reduce health risks while allowing populations to enjoy the benefits of economic development. This paradigm, focused more on public health than on individual medical treatment, has the best chance of substantial reduction in the burden of lung disease around the world in the next several years. PMID:24673697

  15. An exploration of conceptual and temporal fallacies in international health law and promotion of global public health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Dhrubajyoti

    2007-01-01

    In February 2007, Indonesia withheld sharing H5N1 viral samples in order to compel the World Health Organization and Member States to guarantee future access to vaccines for States disproportionately burdened by infectious diseases. This article explores conceptual and temporal fallacies in the International Health Regulations (2005) and the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, as relates to global public health preparedness. Recommendations include adopting laws to facilitate non-pharmaceutical interventions; securing the rights of affected populations; and fostering inter-State collaborations to promote intra-State public health capacity building. PMID:18076510

  16. The Ingredients of a Public-Private Partnership in Education: The Global Development Alliance Model School Expansion Project in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galisson, Kirsten; Brady, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    In May 2001, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell announced the establishment of the Global Development Alliance (GDA) as a key part of a new business model for the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The GDA initiative aims to launch best practices in public-private partnerships around the world. The model is designed to…

  17. Public goods and metabolic strategies.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Herwig; Bruggeman, Frank J; Molenaar, Douwe; Branco Dos Santos, Filipe; Teusink, Bas

    2016-06-01

    Microbial growth can be characterized by a limited set of macroscopic parameters such as growth rate, biomass yield and substrate affinity. Different culturing protocols for laboratory evolution have been developed to select mutant strains that have one specific macroscopic growth parameter improved. Some of those mutant strains display tradeoffs between growth parameters and changed metabolic strategies, for example, a shift from respiration to fermentation. Here we discuss recent studies suggesting that metabolic strategies and growth parameter tradeoffs originate from a common set of physicochemical and cellular constraints, associated with the allocation of intracellular resources over biosynthetic processes, mostly protein synthesis. This knowledge will give insight in ecological and biological concepts and can be used for metabolic and evolutionary engineering strategies. PMID:27054480

  18. Developmental origins of health and disease--global public health implications.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M A; Gluckman, P D

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represents a major challenge to public health and clinical medicine globally. NCDs are increasing rapidly in high-income countries, but even more rapidly in some low-middle-income countries with insufficient resources to meet the challenge. Whilst not identified in the Millennium Development Goals, there is much attention paid to NCDs in the discussions at many levels on the Sustainable Development Goals, as they underpin economic, social and environmental development in the post-2015 era. In this article, we discuss how a life-course approach to health, commencing of necessity in early development, can provide new opportunities for addressing this challenge. The approach can leverage human health capital throughout life and across generations. New insights into mechanisms, especially those processes by which the developmental environment affects epigenetic processes in the developing offspring, offer the prospect of identifying biomarkers of future risks. New interventions to promote health literacy, lifestyle and physical fitness in adolescents, young adults and their children hold great promise. In this respect, health-care professionals concerned with preconceptional, pregnancy and newborn care will have a vital role to play. PMID:25225058

  19. Global social identity and global cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Brewer, Marilynn B; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick K; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    This research examined the question of whether the psychology of social identity can motivate cooperation in the context of a global collective. Our data came from a multinational study of choice behavior in a multilevel public-goods dilemma conducted among samples drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. Results demonstrate that an inclusive social identification with the world community is a meaningful psychological construct that plays a role in motivating cooperation that transcends parochial interests. Self-reported identification with the world as a whole predicts behavioral contributions to a global public good beyond what is predicted from expectations about what other people are likely to contribute. Furthermore, global social identification is conceptually distinct from general attitudes about global issues, and has unique effects on cooperative behavior. PMID:21586763

  20. [The Caribbean origins of the National Public Health System in the USA: a global approach to the history of medicine and public health in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    This article defines global history in relation to the history of medicine and public health. It argues that a global approach to history opens up a space for examining the reverberations transmitted from the geographic periphery towards western regions, which have traditionally dominated modern historiography. It analyzes two medical interventions in the Caribbean in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, showing how these events had profound consequences in the USA. The successes achieved in the Caribbean in terms of yellow fever and ancylostoma control, as well as providing a model for health campaigns in the southern USA, inspired the centralization of public health in North America under the centralizing control of the federal government. PMID:25742109

  1. A quiet revolution in global public health: The World Health Organization's Prequalification of Medicines Programme.

    PubMed

    't Hoen, Ellen F M; Hogerzeil, Hans V; Quick, Jonathan D; Sillo, Hiiti B

    2014-05-01

    Problems with the quality of medicines abound in countries where regulatory and legal oversight are weak, where medicines are unaffordable to most, and where the official supply often fails to reach patients. Quality is important to ensure effective treatment, to maintain patient and health-care worker confidence in treatment, and to prevent the development of resistance. In 2001, the WHO established the Prequalification of Medicines Programme in response to the need to select good-quality medicines for UN procurement. Member States of the WHO had requested its assistance in assessing the quality of low-cost generic medicines that were becoming increasingly available especially in treatments for HIV/AIDS. From a public health perspective, WHO PQP's greatest achievement is improved quality of life-saving medicines used today by millions of people in developing countries. Prequalification has made it possible to believe that everyone in the world will have access to safe, effective, and affordable medicines. Yet despite its track record and recognized importance to health, funding for the programme remains uncertain. PMID:24430804

  2. Stream pollution as a negative collective externality and its abatement as a public good: a theoretical analysis and a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bolless, J.

    1982-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between the nature of public goods and the organization for their supply, in the particular context of stream pollution. The theoretical analysis of stream pollution as a negative externality and its abatement is further developed in a case study of one river basin, the Fox River, in Kane County in northern Illinois. Stream pollution was found to be a unique externality in that it is cumulative, mobile, and unidirectional, i.e., it always flows in one direction and, thus, downstream communities suffer from the pollution of any of the communities located upstream. The asymmetry of the externality prevents bargaining, while the cumulative effect rules out a noncoordinated action by a single community. Thus, government intervention is needed to supply the good in order to abate the externality. However, since water has more than a single usage, the question of the degree to which the water should be cleaned may create an inadequate abatement for communities with higher water quality needs than the standard, on the one hand, as well as new negative externalities of overinvestment for other communities which require a lesser degree of purity than the one imposed.

  3. Why Public Health Agencies Cannot Depend on Good Laboratory Practices as a Criterion for Selecting Data: The Case of Bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Myers, John Peterson; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Akingbemi, Benson T.; Arizono, Koji; Belcher, Scott; Colborn, Theo; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Crain, D. Andrew; Farabollini, Francesca; Guillette, Louis J.; Hassold, Terry; Ho, Shuk-mei; Hunt, Patricia A.; Iguchi, Taisen; Jobling, Susan; Kanno, Jun; Laufer, Hans; Marcus, Michele; McLachlan, John A.; Nadal, Angel; Oehlmann, Jörg; Olea, Nicolás; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano; Rubin, Beverly S.; Schoenfelder, Gilbert; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M.; Talsness, Chris E.; Taylor, Julia A.; Vandenberg, Laura N.; Vandenbergh, John G.; Vogel, Sarah; Watson, Cheryl S.; Welshons, Wade V.; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background In their safety evaluations of bisphenol A (BPA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a counterpart in Europe, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), have given special prominence to two industry-funded studies that adhered to standards defined by Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). These same agencies have given much less weight in risk assessments to a large number of independently replicated non-GLP studies conducted with government funding by the leading experts in various fields of science from around the world. Objectives We reviewed differences between industry-funded GLP studies of BPA conducted by commercial laboratories for regulatory purposes and non-GLP studies conducted in academic and government laboratories to identify hazards and molecular mechanisms mediating adverse effects. We examined the methods and results in the GLP studies that were pivotal in the draft decision of the U.S. FDA declaring BPA safe in relation to findings from studies that were competitive for U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, peer-reviewed for publication in leading journals, subject to independent replication, but rejected by the U.S. FDA for regulatory purposes. Discussion Although the U.S. FDA and EFSA have deemed two industry-funded GLP studies of BPA to be superior to hundreds of studies funded by the U.S. NIH and NIH counterparts in other countries, the GLP studies on which the agencies based their decisions have serious conceptual and methodologic flaws. In addition, the U.S. FDA and EFSA have mistakenly assumed that GLP yields valid and reliable scientific findings (i.e., “good science”). Their rationale for favoring GLP studies over hundreds of publically funded studies ignores the central factor in determining the reliability and validity of scientific findings, namely, independent replication, and use of the most appropriate and sensitive state-of-the-art assays, neither of which is an expectation of industry-funded GLP

  4. Global Environmental Problems: Implications for U.S. Policy. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development. Choices for the 21st Century. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    This document is part of series that seeks to help people think constructively about foreign policy issues, to improve citizen involvement, and to encourage debate on public issues. "Global Environmental Problems"; "The Human Factor in the Changing Environment"; "Public Policy and the Environment"; and "The U.S. Role in Global Environmental…

  5. 12 CFR 609.910 - Compliance with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229) (E-SIGN). 609.910 Section 609.910 Banks and Banking... with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229) (E-SIGN). (a) General. E-SIGN makes it easier to conduct E-commerce. With some exceptions, E-SIGN permits the use...

  6. 12 CFR 609.910 - Compliance with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229) (E-SIGN). 609.910 Section 609.910 Banks and Banking... with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229) (E-SIGN). (a) General. E-SIGN makes it easier to conduct E-commerce. With some exceptions, E-SIGN permits the use...

  7. The Educated Citizen and Global Public-Health Issues: One Model for Integration into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M

    2016-01-01

    The Educated Citizen Initiative proposes that an understanding of public-health issues is a core component of an educated citizenry and is essential to develop one's societal responsibility. This initiative supports the Institute of Medicine's recommendation that "all undergraduates should have access to education in public health." Furthermore, the Liberal Education and America's Promise (LEAP) framework developed by the Association of American Colleges and Universities supports the "integration of public-health education into general and liberal education with an aim to produce an educated citizenry." The LEAP framework is implemented by teaching about the role of social determinants in a population's health status; the significance of personal and social responsibility; and providing skills for inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and evaluation. This article describes one university's experience in generating an educated citizenry cognizant of comprehensive public-health conflicts, thus contributing to both a local and global perspective on learning. PMID:26973829

  8. Public release of the ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900-2009)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storchak, Dmitry A.; Di Giacomo, Domenico; Bondára, István; Engdahl, E. Robert; Harris, James; Lee, William H.K.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Bormann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The International Seismological Centre–Global Earthquake Model (ISC–GEM) Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900–2009) is the result of a special effort to substantially extend and improve currently existing global catalogs to serve the requirements of specific user groups who assess and model seismic hazard and risk. The data from the ISC–GEM Catalogue would be used worldwide yet will prove absolutely essential in those regions where a high seismicity level strongly correlates with a high population density.

  9. The Perceptions of Globalization at a Public Research University Computer Science Graduate Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Selin Yildiz

    Based on a qualitative methodological approach, this study focuses on the understanding of a phenomenon called globalization in a research university computer science department. The study looks into the participants' perspectives about the department, its dynamics, culture and academic environment as related to globalization. The economic, political, academic and social/cultural aspects of the department are taken into consideration in investigating the influences of globalization. Three questions guide this inquiry: 1) How is the notion of globalization interpreted in this department? 2) How does the perception of globalization influence the department in terms of finances, academics, policies and social life And 3) How are these perceptions influence the selection of students? Globalization and neo-institutional view of legitimacy is used as theoretical lenses to conceptualize responses to these questions. The data include interviews, field notes, official and non-official documents. Interpretations of these data are compared to findings from prior research on the impact of globalization in order to clarify and validate findings. Findings show that there is disagreement in how the notion of globalization is interpreted between the doctoral students and the faculty in the department. This disagreement revealed the attitudes and interpretations of globalization in the light of the policies and procedures related to the department. How the faculty experience globalization is not consistent with the literature in this project. The literature states that globalization is a big part of higher education and it is a phenomenon that causes the changes in the goals and missions of higher education institutions (Knight, 2003, De Witt, 2005). The data revealed that globalization is not the cause for change but more of a consequence of actions that take place in achieving the goals and missions of the department.

  10. 78 FR 51744 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Scheduling of an Additional Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... COMMISSION Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Scheduling of an Additional Public Hearing..., Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2 at the NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field... role of digital trade in the U.S. and global economies at the request of the U.S. Senate Committee...

  11. 75 FR 14658 - Invitation for Public Comment on Mitigation Options for Global Positioning System Satellite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may... Global Positioning System Satellite Vehicle Number 49 AGENCY: Research and Innovative Technology... Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite IIR-20M (satellite vehicle number 49--SVN 49) from unhealthy...

  12. Identifying Like-Minded Audiences for Global Warming Public Engagement Campaigns: An Audience Segmentation Analysis and Tool Development

    PubMed Central

    Maibach, Edward W.; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Mertz, C. K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Achieving national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will require public support for climate and energy policies and changes in population behaviors. Audience segmentation – a process of identifying coherent groups within a population – can be used to improve the effectiveness of public engagement campaigns. Methodology/Principal Findings In Fall 2008, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 2,164) to identify audience segments for global warming public engagement campaigns. By subjecting multiple measures of global warming beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and issue engagement to latent class analysis, we identified six distinct segments ranging in size from 7 to 33% of the population. These six segments formed a continuum, from a segment of people who were highly worried, involved and supportive of policy responses (18%), to a segment of people who were completely unconcerned and strongly opposed to policy responses (7%). Three of the segments (totaling 70%) were to varying degrees concerned about global warming and supportive of policy responses, two (totaling 18%) were unsupportive, and one was largely disengaged (12%), having paid little attention to the issue. Certain behaviors and policy preferences varied greatly across these audiences, while others did not. Using discriminant analysis, we subsequently developed 36-item and 15-item instruments that can be used to categorize respondents with 91% and 84% accuracy, respectively. Conclusions/Significance In late 2008, Americans supported a broad range of policies and personal actions to reduce global warming, although there was wide variation among the six identified audiences. To enhance the impact of campaigns, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and businesses seeking to engage the public can selectively target one or more of these audiences rather than address an undifferentiated general population. Our screening instruments are

  13. Building Inter-hemispheric Climate and Global Change Education Programs for Students, Teachers, and the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R.; Lagrave, M.; Bergman, J.; Carbone, L.; Foster, S.; Gardiner, L.; Genyuk, J.; Henderson, S.; Russell, R.; Ward, D.

    2007-05-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder Colorado is a leading research institution in the area of global and climate change research worldwide. As a component of NCAR's mission in research, education, and service, NCAR supports numerous programs designed to bring this science to different audiences in order to promote better understanding of climate and global change research as well as its relevance in learning contexts. Our climate and global change education and outreach effort targets several audiences, including online and in-person professional development for middle and high school educators, exhibits, tours, websites, and development of educational resources on climate and global change topics. The design of our program intentionally leverages resources in support of multiple audiences (including Spanish-speakers) in different settings. Beginning in 2006, building on relationships developed through the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign, we began to expand our collaborations with scientists and educators in Latin America, including Mexico and Chile.

  14. Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Information about NCI publications including PDQ cancer information for patients and health professionals, patient-education publications, fact sheets, dictionaries, NCI blogs and newsletters and major reports.

  15. "Integrated knowledge translation" for globally oriented public health practitioners and scientists: Framing together a sustainable transfrontier knowledge translation vision.

    PubMed

    Lapaige, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    The development of a dynamic leadership coalition between practitioners and researchers/scientists - which is known in Canada as integrated knowledge translation (KT) - can play a major role in bridging the know-do gap in the health care and public health sectors. In public health, and especially in globally oriented public health, integrated KT is a dynamic, interactive (collaborative), and nonlinear phenomenon that goes beyond a reductionist vision of knowledge translation, to attain inter-, multi-, and even transdisciplinary status. Intimately embedded in its socioenvironmental context and closely connected with the complex interventions of multiple actors, the nonlinear process of integrated KT is based on a double principle: (1) the principle of transcendence of frontiers (sectorial, disciplinary, geographic, cultural, and cognitive), and (2) the principle of integration of knowledge beyond these frontiers. However, even though many authors agree on the overriding importance of integrated KT, there is as yet little understanding of the causal framework of integrated KT. Here, one can ask two general questions. Firstly, what "determines" integrated KT? Secondly, even if one wanted to apply a "transfrontier knowledge translation" vision, how should one go about doing so? For example, what would be the nature and qualities of a representative research program that applied a "transfrontier collaboration" approach? This paper focuses on the determinants of integrated KT within the burgeoning field of knowledge translation research (KT research). The paper is based on the results of a concurrent mixed method design which dealt with the complexity of building and sustaining effective coalitions and partnerships in the health care and public health sectors. The aims of this paper are: (1) to present an "integrated KT" conceptual framework which is global-context-sensitive, and (2) to promote the incorporation of a new "transfrontier knowledge translation" approach

  16. Public health agenda setting in a global context: the International Labor Organization's decent work agenda.

    PubMed

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Cohen, Joanna E; Cole, Donald C; Forman, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    We drew on two agenda-setting theories usually applied at the state or national level to assess their utility at the global level: Kingdon's multiple streams theory and Baumgartner and Jones's punctuated equilibrium theory. We illustrate our analysis with findings from a qualitative study of the International Labor Organization's Decent Work Agenda. We found that both theories help explain the agenda-setting mechanisms that operate in the global context, including how windows of opportunity open and what role institutions play as policy entrepreneurs. Future application of these theories could help characterize power struggles between global actors, whose voices are heard or silenced, and their impact on global policy agenda setting. PMID:25713966

  17. Into the deep end: incorporating a global health governance and diplomacy experience in graduate public health training.

    PubMed

    Wipfli, Heather; Kotlewski, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Global health governance benefits from participants well-versed in the realities of international policy-making. Consequently, educational programmes must establish more opportunities for students to engage in global health policy development. This paper examines a unique global health governance and diplomacy practicum programme at the University of Southern California, designed for Master of Public Health candidates. Through the programme, students act as official non-governmental delegates to the World Health Assembly in Geneva, Switzerland through organisational partnerships. Students and collaborating organisations were asked to complete an online post-participation survey examining the perceived quality of the experience. Through the survey, students indicated reinforcement of classroom learning, continued or heightened interest in global health policy and enthusiasm in recommending the programme to other students. Organisations perceived students to be adequately prepared and indicated their continued desire to work with students in the programme. The data collected suggest that the programme was successful in providing students with a worthwhile experience that developed skills in global health diplomacy and promoted interest and critical thinking concerning international policy-making processes. A discussion of strengths and challenges serves as a blueprint for the creation of future practicum programmes. PMID:24955487

  18. Assessing the public health effects of global warming: New and ongoing international efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Patz, J.

    1995-03-01

    The major health outcomes resulting from global warming are expected to occur through alterations in temperature, weather patterns, and sea-level rise. Potential impacts may include increases in heat-related morbidity and mortality, spread of vector-borne diseases, threatened food and fresh water supply, and infrastructural pressures due to extreme weather events and forced human migration. Extensive international coordination will be required both to assess and possibly mitigate these worldwide health ramifications. International organizations have begun to assembly research and monitoring initiatives. CLIMEDAT is a new database sponsored by the World Health Organization to specifically help network international scientists addressing the health-related aspects of global climate change. Under the World Meteorological Organization`s World Climate Program, monitoring systems such as the Global Climate, Global Ocean, and Global Terrestrial Observing Systems are aiding in the global and regional assessment of climate and ecosystem change. The International council of Scientific Unions is encouraging multidisciplinary involvement at several levels; projects include the World Climate Research Program, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, the Human Dimensions Program, and Diversitas (which addresses the role of biodiversity change). The mitigating options of reducing greenhouse gas emissions combined with maximizing carbon dioxide sinks will further require full North/South cooperation.

  19. Investing in Public Education: The Importance of Schooling in the New Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    In the emerging economy, access and control of information and technology will greatly determine individual and national economic accomplishments. Two primary purposes of public schools--transmitting cultural values and providing socially beneficial knowledge--explain the substantial contribution of public education to employment, earnings, and…

  20. Global and Local Evaluations of Public Speaking Performance in Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Cody, Meghan W.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in the relative use of global and local information (seeing the forest versus the trees) may explain why people with social anxiety often do not benefit from corrective feedback, even though they pay close attention to details in social situations. In the current study, participants high (n = 43) or low (n = 47) in social anxiety symptoms gave a series of brief speeches, and then self-rated their speaking performance on items reflecting global and local performance indicators (self assessment) and also received standardized performance feedback from an experimenter. Participants then completed a questionnaire asking how they thought the experimenter would rate their performance based on the feedback provided (experimenter assessment). Participants completed the self and experimenter assessments again after three days, in addition to a measure of post-event processing (repetitive negative thinking) about their speech performance. Results showed that, as hypothesized, the high social anxiety group rated their performance more negatively than the low social anxiety group did. Moreover, the high social anxiety group’s ratings of global aspects of their performance became relatively more negative over time, compared to their ratings of local aspects and the low social anxiety group’s ratings. As expected, post-event processing mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and worsening global performance evaluations. These findings point to a pattern of progressively more negative global evaluations over time for persons high in social anxiety. PMID:22035989

  1. Global and local evaluations of public speaking performance in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Cody, Meghan W; Teachman, Bethany A

    2011-12-01

    Differences in the relative use of global and local information (seeing the forest vs. the trees) may explain why people with social anxiety often do not benefit from corrective feedback, even though they pay close attention to details in social situations. In the current study, participants high (n=43) or low (n=47) in social anxiety symptoms gave a series of brief speeches, and then self-rated their speaking performance on items reflecting global and local performance indicators (self-assessment) and also received standardized performance feedback from an experimenter. Participants then completed a questionnaire asking how they thought the experimenter would rate their performance based on the feedback provided (experimenter assessment). Participants completed the self- and experimenter assessments again after 3 days, in addition to a measure of postevent processing (repetitive negative thinking) about their speech performance. Results showed that, as hypothesized, the High SA group rated their performance more negatively than the Low SA group. Moreover, the High SA group's ratings of global aspects of their performance became relatively more negative over time, compared to their ratings of local aspects and the Low SA group's ratings. As expected, postevent processing mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and worsening global performance evaluations. These findings point to a pattern of progressively more negative global evaluations over time for persons high in social anxiety. PMID:22035989

  2. Global publication trends and research hotspots of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a bibliometric analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong-Shuo; Qin, Hua-Lei; Wang, Tong; Li, Hai-Tao; Li, Hai; Xia, Shi-Hai; Xiang, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    With the globally increasing prevalence, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) becomes the predominant cause of chronic liver disease. A global look at the publication trends and the research hotspots of NAFLD are urgently needed to assess the situation of NAFLD research. The global scientific research in the Science Citation Index-Expanded covered articles relevant to NAFLD was retrieved and its bibliometric parameters and research hotspots of NAFLD were systematically evaluated. To sum up, 6356 articles were published in 994 different journals covering 93 SCI subject categories during 1986-2013, in which English was the most predominant language used. Starting from the late 1980s, the publication on NAFLD grew slowly and entered into a highly developing period in the 21st century, especially in the last decade. Besides hepatic steatosis, metabolic syndrome and its combination of symptoms such as obesity, insulin resistance are listed as the top frequent keywords. Bibliometric results suggest that the obviously rapid growth of the articles in recent years appears to be associated with the accelerating incidence of NAFLD and its cofactors such as metabolic syndrome. In addition, epidemiology focusing on comparing different regions and population is attracting ever-growing attention. Meantime, pathology plays an important role in NAFLD research. PMID:26697286

  3. Good oral health, adequate nutrient consumption and family support are associated with a reduced risk of being underweight amongst older Malaysian residents of publicly funded shelter homes.

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, Renuka; Ahmad, Zaiton

    2006-01-01

    A low body mass index in older people has been associated with increased mortality. The main objective of this study was to identify factors associated with low body mass indices [ BMIs] (< 18.5 kg/m2) in older residents of shelter care facilities in Peninsular Malaysia. 1081 elderly people (59% M) over the age of 60 years were surveyed using questionnaires determining baseline demographics, nutritional and cognitive status, physical function and psychological well being. Body mass index was also determined. Subjects were recruited from publicly funded shelter homes in Peninsular Malaysia. 14.3% of residents had BMIs < 18.5 kg/m2. Multivariate analyses (adjusted for age and sex) revealed that having no family (RR 1.98[95%CI 1.40-2.82], p<0.001) and negative responses to statement 3 [I eat few fruits or vegetables or milk products] (RR 0.62 [95% CI 0.42-0.90]; P= 0.013) and statement 5 [I have tooth or mouth problems that make it hard for me to eat] (RR 0.69 [95%CI 0.50-0.96]; P= 0.023) of the ' Determine Your Nutritional Health Checklist' were independently associated with low BMIs (<18.5 kg/m2). Older people with no family support were at risk of becoming underweight. Older people who consumed fruits, vegetables or milk or had good oral health were less likely to be underweight. Nutrient intake, oral health and social support were important in ensuring healthy body weight in older Malaysians. PMID:16837433

  4. Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a variety of publications available from government and nongovernment sources. The government publications are from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and are designed for educators, students, and the public. (Author/SA)

  5. Getting used to academic public speaking: global self-esteem predicts habituation in blood pressure response to repeated thesis presentations.

    PubMed

    Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone

    2012-06-01

    Global self-esteem was tested to predict quicker cardiovascular adaptation during stressful oral thesis presentation and faster habituation from the first to the second and third thesis presentations. Nineteen graduate students initially rated their global self-esteem and afterwards orally presented their theses proposals in 20-min presentations to their thesis supervisor and peers. A second and third presentation of the revised thesis concepts took place at 4-weeks intervals. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate were assessed repeatedly during the presentations. Post-talk self ratings of stressfulness indicated presentations to be a strong public speaking stressor. One hundred and thirty-eight measurements of systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) showed a significant adaptation (decrease) during presentations. There was an overall mean level decrease from the first to the second, and the second to the third presentations in HR, but not in SBP and DBP. However, habituation in SBP and DBP across three presentations was significantly faster (p < .05) in those participants who initially reported higher levels of global self-esteem. Higher global self-esteem did not foster adaptation within the presentations. Self-esteem is discussed as an important individual resource that allows successful coping with recurring evaluative threats. PMID:22392261

  6. The GRIN-Global Information Management System – Public Interface Demonstration and Input Opportunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The GRIN-Global (GG) Information Management System, under development for the past three years, provides the world's crop genebanks and plant genetic resource (PGR) users with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use PGR information management system. Developed jointly by the USDA Agricultural Research Ser...

  7. The GRIN-Global Information Management System – A Preview and Opportunity for Public User Input

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The GRIN-Global Information Management System, under development for the past two years, will provide the world's crop genebanks and plant genetic resource (PGR) users with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use PGR information management system. Developed jointly by the USDA Agricultural Research Servi...

  8. Results of Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in Public Schools in Bogota, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Constanza; Pineros, Marion; Jones, Nathan R.; Warren, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper is to use data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Bogota, Colombia, in 2001 and 2007 to examine changes in tobacco use among youth 13-15 years of age. The current tobacco control effort in Bogota will be accessed relative to Colombia ratifying the World Health Organization Framework…

  9. Global-Scale Resource Survey and Performance Monitoring of Public OGC Web Map Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Zhipeng; Cao, Jun; Liu, Xiaojing; Cheng, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Huayi

    2016-06-01

    One of the most widely-implemented service standards provided by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to the user community is the Web Map Service (WMS). WMS is widely employed globally, but there is limited knowledge of the global distribution, adoption status or the service quality of these online WMS resources. To fill this void, we investigated global WMSs resources and performed distributed performance monitoring of these services. This paper explicates a distributed monitoring framework that was used to monitor 46,296 WMSs continuously for over one year and a crawling method to discover these WMSs. We analyzed server locations, provider types, themes, the spatiotemporal coverage of map layers and the service versions for 41,703 valid WMSs. Furthermore, we appraised the stability and performance of basic operations for 1210 selected WMSs (i.e., GetCapabilities and GetMap). We discuss the major reasons for request errors and performance issues, as well as the relationship between service response times and the spatiotemporal distribution of client monitoring sites. This paper will help service providers, end users and developers of standards to grasp the status of global WMS resources, as well as to understand the adoption status of OGC standards. The conclusions drawn in this paper can benefit geospatial resource discovery, service performance evaluation and guide service performance improvements.

  10. Good Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenheimer, Henry P.

    This book contains seventeen thumb-nail sketches of schools in Europe, the United States, Asia, Britain, and Australia, as they appeared in the eye of the author as a professional educator and a journalist while travelling around the world. The author considers the schools described to be good schools, and not necessarily the 17 best schools in…

  11. Exploring Patterns of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition with Students and the Public Through the Global Decomposition Project (GDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. H.; Natali, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Decomposition Project (GDP) is a program designed to introduce and educate students and the general public about soil organic matter and decomposition through a standardized protocol for collecting, reporting, and sharing data. This easy-to-use hands-on activity focuses on questions such as "How do environmental conditions control decomposition of organic matter in soil?" and "Why do some areas accumulate organic matter and others do not?" Soil organic matter is important to local ecosystems because it affects soil structure, regulates soil moisture and temperature, and provides energy and nutrients to soil organisms. It is also important globally because it stores a large amount of carbon, and when microbes "eat", or decompose organic matter they release greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, which affects the earth's climate. The protocol describes a commonly used method to measure decomposition using a paper made of cellulose, a component of plant cell walls. Participants can receive pre-made cellulose decomposition bags, or make decomposition bags using instructions in the protocol and easily obtained materials (e.g., window screen and lignin-free paper). Individual results will be shared with all participants and the broader public through an online database. We will present decomposition bag results from a research site in Alaskan tundra, as well as from a middle-school-student led experiment in California. The GDP demonstrates how scientific methods can be extended to educate broader audiences, while at the same time, data collected by students and the public can provide new insight into global patterns of soil decomposition. The GDP provides a pathway for scientists and educators to interact and reach meaningful education and research goals.

  12. A Case-Based, Problem-Based Learning Approach to Prepare Master of Public Health Candidates for the Complexities of Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Winskell, Kate; McFarland, Deborah A.; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Global health is a dynamic, emerging, and interdisciplinary field. To address current and emerging global health challenges, we need a public health workforce with adaptable and collaborative problem-solving skills. In the 2013–2014 academic year, the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health–Emory University launched an innovative required core course for its first-year Master of Public Health students in the global health track. The course uses a case-based, problem-based learning approach to develop global health competencies. Small teams of students propose solutions to these problems by identifying learning issues and critically analyzing and synthesizing new information. We describe the course structure and logistics used to apply this approach in the context of a large class and share lessons learned. PMID:25706029

  13. A case-based, problem-based learning approach to prepare master of public health candidates for the complexities of global health.

    PubMed

    Leon, Juan S; Winskell, Kate; McFarland, Deborah A; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Global health is a dynamic, emerging, and interdisciplinary field. To address current and emerging global health challenges, we need a public health workforce with adaptable and collaborative problem-solving skills. In the 2013-2014 academic year, the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health-Emory University launched an innovative required core course for its first-year Master of Public Health students in the global health track. The course uses a case-based, problem-based learning approach to develop global health competencies. Small teams of students propose solutions to these problems by identifying learning issues and critically analyzing and synthesizing new information. We describe the course structure and logistics used to apply this approach in the context of a large class and share lessons learned. PMID:25706029

  14. From past to better public health programme planning for possible future global threats: case studies applied to infection control.

    PubMed

    Manigat, Roberte; Wallet, France; André, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The impact of weather change and global pollution on the development and/or the transformation of microorganisms is no longer to be demonstrated. In this respect, heavy trends can be taken into account. This general context needs the development of anticipation procedures and the knowledge of the perception of prevention by the public for short, medium and long term actions. After a short discussion on the concept of emerging issues, the authors present some past examples of public health programs. These examples (malaria, dengue, chikungunya and cholera) are used to propose optimized ways of decision/action that may help to avoid possible crisis in a rapidly changing world. Then, the different lessons learnt are, under certain limits, associated with a forecasting analysis. PMID:20847454

  15. Effectively Communicating Information about Dynamically Changing Arctic Sea Ice to the Public through the Global Fiducials Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.; Friesen, B.; Wilson, E.; Noble, S.

    2015-12-01

    On July 15, 2009, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) released a report, Scientific Value of Arctic Sea Ice Imagery Derived Products, advocating public release of Arctic images derived from classified data. In the NAS press release that announced the release, report lead Stephanie Pfirman states "To prepare for a possibly ice-free Arctic and its subsequent effects on the environment, economy, and national security, it is critical to have accurate projections of changes over the next several decades." In the same release NAS President Ralph Cicerone states "We hope that these images are the first of many that could help scientists learn how the changing climate could impact the environment and our society." The same day, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced that the requested images had been released and were available to the public on a US Geological Survey Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Library website (http://gfl.usgs.gov). The website was developed by the USGS to provide public access to the images and to support environmental analysis of global climate-related science. In the statement describing the release titled, Information Derived from Classified Materials Will Aid Understanding of Changing Climate, Secretary Salazar states "We need the best data from all places if we are to meet the challenges that rising carbon emissions are creating. This information will be invaluable to scientists, researchers, and the public as we tackle climate change." Initially about 700 Arctic sea ice images were released. Six years later, the number exceeds 1,500. The GFP continues to facilitate the acquisition of new Arctic sea ice imagery from US National Imagery Systems. This example demonstrates how information about dynamically changing Arctic sea ice continues to be effectively communicated to the public by the GFP. In addition to Arctic sea ice imagery, the GFP has publicly released imagery time series of more than 125 other environmentally important

  16. The Educated Citizen and Global Public-Health Issues: One Model for Integration into the Undergraduate Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Rosemary M.

    2016-01-01

    The Educated Citizen Initiative proposes that an understanding of public-health issues is a core component of an educated citizenry and is essential to develop one’s societal responsibility. This initiative supports the Institute of Medicine’s recommendation that “all undergraduates should have access to education in public health.” Furthermore, the Liberal Education and America’s Promise (LEAP) framework developed by the Association of American Colleges and Universities supports the “integration of public-health education into general and liberal education with an aim to produce an educated citizenry.” The LEAP framework is implemented by teaching about the role of social determinants in a population’s health status; the significance of personal and social responsibility; and providing skills for inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and evaluation. This article describes one university’s experience in generating an educated citizenry cognizant of comprehensive public-health conflicts, thus contributing to both a local and global perspective on learning. PMID:26973829

  17. The global snakebite crisis--a public health issue misunderstood, not neglected.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ian D; Norris, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    The global problem of venomous snakebite continues to attract attention despite it being described as a "neglected" issue. The current focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) remains anti-snake venom quality, although "availability and sustainability" of supply are consistently described as the key issues. Sustainability of antivenom supply has been elusive, with cost and pricing in developing countries being cited as the major reasons. The current WHO approach fails to explore the cost issue, but rather focuses on quality improvements, which may well adversely affect the costs of a product already perceived to be 'unaffordable.' The reference to cost and price indicates a marketing-based perspective may well give more relevant solutions to the snakebite crisis. This paper introduces a marketing model to examine global snakebite and to identify if the current approach is relevant and effective. The "4 Ps" model examines if the correct products are available, whether sufficient information exists concerning estimated market size, whether the assumptions frequently made about the costs of the product are correct and fully understood, if the product is promoted properly, and whether the method by which the product reaches the end user is optimum. The resulting analysis demonstrates that the current approach is characterized by a misunderstanding of the nature of the global snakebite problem. Further, a lack of implementation of key solutions, such as training doctors in developing countries with relevant protocols, has inevitably led to a lack of improvement in the snakebite arena over the last 30 years. PMID:19364169

  18. National Innovation and the Academic Research Enterprise: Public Policy in Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, David D., Ed.; van Vught, Frans A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume analyzes the impact of public policy on the knowledge economies and higher education systems of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, as well as the overall European Union. Given that…

  19. Global Antimicrobial Resistance: Where Is the Connection between Animal and Human Public Health?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early 1990's, there has been increasing awareness and concern regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria of public and animal health significance. Reports targeting zoonotic bacteria, and in particular Salmonella species, suggest that resistance is trending upwar...

  20. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #19: RELEASE OF U.S. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT REPORT FOR PUBLIC COMMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft "Overview" report from the U.S. National Assessment was released today for a 60-day public comment period. The report, entitled "Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change" was written by the National Assess...

  1. The future of public hospitals in a globalized world: corporate governance, corporatization or privatization?

    PubMed

    Mordelet, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to research in health systems and hospitals governance by examining the reasons and expected outcomes of the generalization of corporate governance rules in both public and private non-profit hospitals, all over the world, in order to achieve its clinical, quality and financial objectives. PMID:18549030

  2. Expanding Global Language Education in Public Primary Schools: The National English Programme in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the recent national programme of English language instruction in the Mexican public primary schools, called the "Programa Nacional de Inglés en Educación Básica" (PNIEB). The programme, initiated in 2009 by the Ministry of Education as part of the national curriculum, represents the largest expansion of English…

  3. The Role of Faculty in Global Society: Carving out the Public Purpose of Our Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Leslie D.; Rincones, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative analysis investigates the role of tenure-track faculty at Towne University (pseudonym), a regional institution with a long-standing public service mission. Towne has played an important role in the production and continued development of teachers for local schools through extensive K-20 collaboration. Recently, however, Towne…

  4. Transnational Academic Capitalism in the Arab Gulf: Balancing Global and Local, and Public and Private, Capitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlow, Sally; Hayes, Aneta L.

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging theoretical construct of what has been called "transnational academic capitalism", characterised by the blurring of traditional boundaries between public, private, local, regional and international, and between market-driven and critically transformative higher education visions. Here we examine…

  5. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #6: PUBLICATION OF FIRST REPORT FROM MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (MARA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research news edition announces the publication of the first report from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA). The report is entitled, *Climate Change Impacts in the Mid-Atlantic Region -- A Workshop Report.* MARA is being conducted as part of the USGCRP First Nation...

  6. The Public Interest in the Globally Sustainable Information Society: The Traditional Knowledge Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zografos, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Society increasingly perceives information as an owned commodity. As a consequence, laws born from this conception are removing uses of information from the public domain and placing them in an enclosed domain where they are subject to an owner's exclusive control. It has been argued that this enclosure movement poses a threat to the diversity of…

  7. Publication Ethics and the Emerging Scientific Workforce: Understanding ‘Plagiarism’ in a Global Context

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific publication has long been dominated by the English language and is rapidly moving towards near complete hegemony of English, while the majority of the world’s publishing scientists are not native English speakers. This imbalance has important implications for training in and enforcement of publication ethics, particularly with respect to plagiarism. A lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as patchwriting can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by non-native speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. A rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among both native English speaking and non-native English speaking writers, editors, educators, and administrators. Recommendations for educating and training are provided. PMID:22104051

  8. Surgery and global public health: the UNC-Malawi surgical initiative as a model for sustainable collaboration.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Javeria S; Samuel, Jonathan; Lee, Clara; Cairns, Bruce; Shores, Carol; Charles, Anthony G

    2011-01-01

    Addressing global health disparities in the developing world gained prominence during the first decade of the twenty-first century. The HIV/AIDS epidemic triggered much interest in and funding for health improvement and mortality reduction in low- and middle-income nations, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Alliances between U.S. academic medical centers and African nations were created through the departments of internal medicine and infectious disease. However, the importance of addressing surgical disease as part of global public health is becoming recognized as part of international health development efforts. We propose a novel model to reduce the global burden of surgical diseases in resource poor settings by incorporating a sustained institutional surgical presence with our residency training experience by placing a senior surgical resident to provide continuity of care and facilitate training of local personnel. We present the experiences of the University of North Carolina (UNC) Department of Surgery as part of the UNC Project in Malawi as an example of this innovative approach. PMID:21052998

  9. Good Agreements Make Good Friends

    PubMed Central

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Santos, Francisco C.; Lenaerts, Tom

    2013-01-01

    When starting a new collaborative endeavor, it pays to establish upfront how strongly your partner commits to the common goal and what compensation can be expected in case the collaboration is violated. Diverse examples in biological and social contexts have demonstrated the pervasiveness of making prior agreements on posterior compensations, suggesting that this behavior could have been shaped by natural selection. Here, we analyze the evolutionary relevance of such a commitment strategy and relate it to the costly punishment strategy, where no prior agreements are made. We show that when the cost of arranging a commitment deal lies within certain limits, substantial levels of cooperation can be achieved. Moreover, these levels are higher than that achieved by simple costly punishment, especially when one insists on sharing the arrangement cost. Not only do we show that good agreements make good friends, agreements based on shared costs result in even better outcomes. PMID:24045873

  10. Gaps in the Existing Public Health Informatics Training Programs: A Challenge to the Development of a Skilled Global Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Ashish; Perin, Douglas Marcel Puricelli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore public health informatics (PHI) training programs that currently exist to meet the growing demand for a trained global workforce. We used several search engines, scientific databases, and the websites of informatics organizations; sources included PubMed, Google, the American Medical Informatics Organization, and the International Medical Informatics Organization. The search was conducted from May to July 2011 and from January to February 2012 using key words such as informatics, public health informatics, or biomedical informatics along with academic programs, training, certificate, graduate programs, or postgraduate programs. Course titles and catalog descriptions were gathered from the program or institution websites. Variables included PHI program categories, location and mode of delivery, program credits, and costs. Each course was then categorized based on its title and description as available on the Internet. Finally, we matched course titles and descriptions with the competencies for PHIs determined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Descriptive analysis was performed to report means and frequency distributions for continuous and categorical variables. Stratified analysis was performed to explore average credits and cost per credit among both the public and private institutions. Fifteen PHI programs were identified across 13 different institutions, the majority of which were US-based. The average number of credits and the associated costs required to obtain PHI training were much higher in private as compared to public institutions. The study results suggest that a need for online contextual and cost-effective PHI training programs exists to address the growing needs of professionals worldwide who are using technology to improve public health in their respective countries. PMID:23209452

  11. Doing Good Is a Hustle, Too: Effects of Motives To Impression Manage, Communication Style, and Licensing on the Reputation of the Public Relations Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallot, Lynne M.

    A study tested effects of motives, communication style, and licensing (whether the practitioner is licensed or not) on public relations practitioners' reputations. Impression management theory suggests that perceived motives and self-interests may explain the poor reputation sometimes attributed to public relations practitioners. Subjects, 585…

  12. Defending against disasters: global public health emergencies and opportunities for collaboration and action.

    PubMed

    Iain, Blair

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization project on the Global Burden of Disease quantifies the main causes of premature death and disability. Changing patterns of physical activity, diet, and alcohol and tobacco consumption are producing a growing burden of noncommunicable disease in low-and middle-income countries. This article focuses on a different group of health risks: major health emergencies that do not respect national borders and have an impact on health and the determinants of health such as housing, access to food and water, and other life essentials. Health emergencies, including accidents and natural events, are described, and data on disasters in the Middle East are presented. Disaster response is contrasted with disaster prevention, and disaster risk reduction is discussed in the context of vulnerability, climate change, and sustainable development. Finally, the international policy context of disaster risk reduction is discussed along with opportunities for multidisciplinary and multiinstitutional collaboration and research. PMID:20566558

  13. Evolution of global cooperation driven by risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Wang, Long

    2012-05-01

    Globalization facilitates our communication with each other, while it magnifies problems such as overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced climate change. Thus people all over the world are involved in a global social dilemma which calls for worldwide cooperation to reduce the risks of these extreme events and disasters. A collective target (threshold) is required to prevent such events. Everyone may lose their wealth once their total individual contributions fail to reach the threshold. To this end, we establish a model of threshold public goods games in a group-structured population and investigate its evolutionary process. We study multilevel public goods games with defectors, local cooperators, and global cooperators and are primarily concerned with how the global cooperative behavior evolves. We find that, compared with the standard public goods games, the strategy of global cooperation accounts for a bigger proportion in the stationary distribution of threshold public goods games. On the other hand, the fixation time of the global cooperation strategy is greatly shortened with increase of the probability of disaster striking. Therefore, global risks induced by the threshold can effectively promote global cooperation in environmental investment and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. The epidemiology and public health importance of toxocariasis: a zoonosis of global importance.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Calum N L

    2013-11-01

    Toxocariasis, caused by infection with larvae of Toxocara canis, and to a lesser extent by Toxocara cati and other ascaridoid species, manifests in humans in a range of clinical syndromes. These include visceral and ocular larva migrans, neurotoxocariasis and covert or common toxocariasis. Toxocara canis is one of the most widespread public health and economically important zoonotic parasitic infections humans share with dogs, cats and wild canids, particularly foxes. This neglected disease has been shown through seroprevalence studies to be especially prevalent among children from socio-economically disadvantaged populations both in the tropics and sub-tropics and in industrialised nations. Human infection occurs by the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs or larvae from a range of wild and domestic paratenic hosts. Most infections remain asymptomatic. Clinically overt infections may go undiagnosed, as diagnostic tests are expensive and can require serological, molecular and/or imaging tests, which may not be affordable or available. Treatment in humans varies according to symptoms and location of the larvae. Anthelmintics, including albendazole, thiabendazole and mebendazole may be given together with anti-inflammatory corticosteroids. The development of molecular tools should lead to new and improved strategies for the treatment, diagnosis and control of toxocariasis and the role of other ascaridoid species in the epidemiology of Toxocara spp. Molecular technologies may also help to reveal the public health importance of T. canis, providing new evidence to support the implementation of national control initiatives which have yet to be developed for Toxocara spp. A number of countries have implemented reproductive control programs in owned and stray dogs to reduce the number of young dogs in the population. These programs would positively impact upon T. canis transmission since the parasite is most fecund and prevalent in puppies. Other control measures for T

  15. Getting the Public Excited about Science through News Stories about Global Sporting Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufoe, A.

    2014-12-01

    News is all about opportunity, and no topic can pull an audience together across ages and countries better than international sports competitions. Sports news excites people, generating conversations at work and at home throughout the duration of the competition. The popularity of these sporting events engages the general public through print and video channels, but it also offers the opportunity for news beyond the competition results - specifically, how science and scientific principles and properties tie in to the sport. Take the Olympics and the World Cup, for example. News sites were more motivated to write and run stories about the aerodynamics of a soccer ball or science behind Olympic bobsleds because these topics are timely: timeliness is one of the most important reasons news stories get written and published. And analysis of even a small sample of news stories and the language used will show why the news organization posted the story. Since the science content is being translated for the general public, the topics can provide a more general explanation of the science behind sporting events, equipment and the act of doing the sport. But beyond international sporting events, even the opening day of baseball, first night of ice hockey, the start of football and the beginning of basketball season provide opportunities for news organizations to provide science news to the public. Scientists need to get ready to collaborate with journalists to tap into the next big sporting event - Super Bowl XLIX. Although it has not been determined which teams are playing yet, scientists can start preparing content-rich stories on the physics of a football, the climate of Phoenix, Arizona, and the green mission of the University of Phoenix Stadium (the location of Super Bowl 2015). This is an opportunity for scientists and media outlets to add science content knowledge to the hype of the event. After the Super Bowl comes the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio, which has already

  16. [The official agenda of global sustainability: a critical analysis from the perspective of Public Health].

    PubMed

    Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Tambellini, Anamaria Testa; Asmus, Carmen Ildes Rodrigues Fróes; Meyer, Armando; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    The scope of this article is to conduct a critical analysis from the perspective of Public Health of the first item of the Rio +20 Summit agenda: "A green economy in the context of sustainable development and the eradication of poverty." Methodologically, the analysis was performed through two converging approaches: (a) argumentative - by means of a dialectical analysis of facts and reports produced during the process; and (b) pragmatic - an analysis of the socio-environmental profile of the current twenty major economies in the world, using indicators found in international agency databases. The results suggest that the greatest environmental pressure on natural resources is not poverty, as understood by the dominant agenda, but the historically determined models of production. PMID:22699632

  17. [VI Symposium: Some global health problems with local impact: Great challenges for Public Health].

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the symposium was to emphasize the great public health challenges that we are facing today; such is the case of dementia, which is one of the main causes of disability and dependence among older adults. Another important issue is antibiotic resistance; even though it has played a key role in the health of humanity, its indiscriminate use has resulted in increased bacterial resistance. Therefore, health regulations in the rational use of prescribed drugs in our country are part of the actions taken in order to not only control the use of such drugs, but also regulate different areas related to health in order to avoid health risks. Finally, a current challenge is emerging and reemerging diseases that have caused various epidemics such as influenza, Ebola virus disease, binomial tuberculosis and HIV, and Chikungunya that is currently affecting the Region of the Americas. PMID:26526482

  18. Increasing access to nonprescription medicines: a global public health challenge and opportunity.

    PubMed

    Hemwall, E L

    2010-03-01

    As escalating health-care costs continue to be a focus of public discourse, the populace has become increasingly attentive to its own health and lifestyle choices. Nonprescription (over-the-counter, OTC) medicines represent an important option in this evolving environment and, through novel "Rx-to-OTC" switch efforts, could expand beyond their traditional role in symptomatic relief of common conditions such as minor pain, coughs, colds, heartburn, and allergy. This is certainly not a new concept. In fact, the self-care movement has roots reaching into the past century. Pharmaceutical companies and their consumer-product subsidiaries or partners have long considered and, when feasible, invested in difficult OTC switch development programs. PMID:20160746

  19. Current use of medical eponyms – a need for global uniformity in scientific publications

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although eponyms are widely used in medicine, they arbitrarily alternate between the possessive and nonpossessive forms. As very little is known regarding extent and distribution of this variation, the present study was planned to assess current use of eponymous term taking "Down syndrome" and "Down's syndrome" as an example. Methods This study was carried out in two phases – first phase in 1998 and second phase in 2008. In the first phase, we manually searched the terms "Down syndrome" and "Down's syndrome" in the indexes of 70 medical books, and 46 medical journals. In second phase, we performed PubMed search with both the terms, followed by text-word search for the same. Results In the first phase, there was an overall tilt towards possessive form – 62(53.4%) "Down's syndrome" versus 54(46.6%) "Down syndrome." However, the American publications preferred the nonpossesive form when compared with their European counterpart (40/50 versus 14/66; P < 0.001). In the second phase, PubMed search showed, compared to "Down syndrome," term "Down's syndrome" yielded approximately 5% more articles. The text-word search of both forms between January 1970 and June 2008 showed a gradual shift from "Down's syndrome" to "Down syndrome," and over the last 20 years, the frequency of the former was approximately halved (33.7% versus 16.5%; P < 0.001). The abstracts having possessive form were mostly published from the European countries, while most American publications used nonpossesive form consistently. Conclusion Inconsistency in the use of medical eponyms remains a major problem in literature search. Because of linguistic simplicity and technical advantages, the nonpossessive form should be used uniformly worldwide. PMID:19272131

  20. Chronic refractory myofascial pain and denervation supersensitivity as global public health disease.

    PubMed

    Chu, J; Bruyninckx, F; Neuhauser, D V

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain with a 30.3% global prevalence significantly impacts universal health. Low back pain has a 9.4% prevalence worldwide causing the most widespread disability. Neck pain ranks 4th highest regarding years lived with disability with a 4.9% prevalence worldwide. The principal cause of pain in 85% of patients visiting a tertiary pain clinic has a myofascial origin. The root cause is multifocal neuromuscular ischaemia at myofascial trigger points from muscle tightening and shortening following spondylotic radiculopathy induced partial denervation. Chronic refractory myofascial pain (CRMP) is a neuromusculoskeletal disease needing management innovations. Using electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (eToims), we provide objective evidence of denervation supersensitivity in multiple myotomes as cause, aggravation and maintenance of CRMP. This study underscores our previous findings that eToims is safe and efficacious for long-term use in CRMP. eToims aids potential prevention (pre-rehabilitation), simultaneous diagnosis, treatment (rehabilitation) and prognosis in real time for acute and CRMP management. PMID:26768433