Science.gov

Sample records for global wind energy

  1. Global sensitivity analysis in wind energy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkova, O.; Ouarda, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, it is not yet a common source of energy, although there is enough wind potential to supply world's energy demand. One of the most prominent obstacles on the way of employing wind energy is the uncertainty associated with wind energy assessment. Global sensitivity analysis (SA) studies how the variation of input parameters in an abstract model effects the variation of the variable of interest or the output variable. It also provides ways to calculate explicit measures of importance of input variables (first order and total effect sensitivity indices) in regard to influence on the variation of the output variable. Two methods of determining the above mentioned indices were applied and compared: the brute force method and the best practice estimation procedure In this study a methodology for conducting global SA of wind energy assessment at a planning stage is proposed. Three sampling strategies which are a part of SA procedure were compared: sampling based on Sobol' sequences (SBSS), Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and pseudo-random sampling (PRS). A case study of Masdar City, a showcase of sustainable living in the UAE, is used to exemplify application of the proposed methodology. Sources of uncertainty in wind energy assessment are very diverse. In the case study the following were identified as uncertain input parameters: the Weibull shape parameter, the Weibull scale parameter, availability of a wind turbine, lifetime of a turbine, air density, electrical losses, blade losses, ineffective time losses. Ineffective time losses are defined as losses during the time when the actual wind speed is lower than the cut-in speed or higher than the cut-out speed. The output variable in the case study is the lifetime energy production. Most influential factors for lifetime energy production are identified with the ranking of the total effect sensitivity indices. The results of the present

  2. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power. PMID:22715929

  3. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent…

  4. Global wind energy market report. Wind energy industry grows at steady pace, adds over 8,000 MW in 2003

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2004-03-01

    Cumulative global wind energy generating capacity topped 39,000 megawatts (MW) by the end of 2003. New equipment totally over 8,000 MW in capacity was installed worldwide during the year. The report, updated annually, provides information on the status of the wind energy market throughout the world and gives details on various regions. A listing of new and cumulative installed capacity by country and by region is included as an appendix.

  5. Global energy regulation in the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, T.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic concepts which are essential in the understanding of global energy regulation in the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system are introduced. The importance of line-tying concept is particularly emphasized in connection with the solar wind energy, energy release in the magnetosphere and energy dissipation in the ionosphere.

  6. Wind Energy Markets, 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the global market for wind energy, including a concise look at wind energy development in key markets including installations, government incentives, and market trends. Topics covered include: an overview of wind energy including the history of wind energy production and the current market for wind energy; key business drivers of the wind energy market; barriers to the growth of wind energy; key wind energy trends and recent developments; the economics of wind energy, including cost, revenue, and government subsidy components; regional and national analyses of major wind energy markets; and, profiles of key wind turbine manufacturers.

  7. Global Auroral Energy Deposition during Substorm Onset Compared with Local Time and Solar Wind IMF Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M.; Fillingim, M. O.; Germany, G. A.; Parks, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    The global images made by the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) aboard the IASTP/Polar Satellite are used to derive the global auroral energy deposited in the ionosphere resulting from electron precipitation. During a substorm onset, the energy deposited and its location in local time are compared to the solar wind IMF conditions. Previously, insitu measurements of low orbiting satellites have made precipitating particle measurements along the spacecraft track and global images of the auroral zone, without the ability to quantify energy parameters, have been available. However, usage of the high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution of consecutive UVI images enables quantitative measurement of the energy deposited in the ionosphere not previously available on a global scale. Data over an extended period beginning in January 1997 will be presented.

  8. Wind energy.

    PubMed

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented. PMID:17272245

  9. Solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function fitting: Results from a global MHD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Han, J. P.; Li, H.; Peng, Z.; Richardson, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    Quantitatively estimating the energy input from the solar wind into the magnetosphere on a global scale is still an observational challenge. We perform three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to derive the energy coupling function. Based on 240 numerical test runs, the energy coupling function is given by Ein=3.78×107nsw0.24Vsw1.47BT0.86[sin2.70(θ/2)+0.25]. We study the correlations between the energy coupling function and a wide variety of magnetospheric activity, such as the indices of Dst, Kp, ap, AE, AU, AL, the polar cap index, and the hemispheric auroral power. The results indicate that this energy coupling function gives better correlations than the ɛ function. This result is also applied to a storm event under northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions. About 13% of the solar wind kinetic energy is transferred into the magnetosphere and about 35% of the input energy is dissipated in the ionosphere, consistent with previous studies.

  10. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  11. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future. PMID:21479556

  12. The initial mass function and global rates of mass, momentum, and energy input to the interstellar medium via stellar winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, D.

    1985-01-01

    Published observational data are compiled and analyzed, using theoretical stellar-evolution models to determine the global rates of mass, momentum, and energy injected into the interstellar medium (ISM) by stellar winds. Expressions derived include psi = 0.00054 x (M to the -1.03) stars formed/sq kpc yr log M (where M is the initial mass function in solar mass units) and mass-loss = (2 x 10 to the -13th) x (L to the 1.25) solar mass/yr (with L in solar luminosity units). It is found that the wind/supernova injection of energy into the ISM and the mass loss from stars of 5 solar mass or more are approximately balanced by the dissipation of energy by cloud-cloud collisions and the formation of stars, respectively.

  13. Environmental impact of wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, J.; Teilmann, J.

    2013-09-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric emission of eight air pollutants. Finally, noise generation and its impact on humans are studied.

  14. Wind speed forecasting for wind energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    With more wind energy being integrated into our grid systems, forecasting wind energy has become a necessity for all market participants. Recognizing the market demands, a physical approach to site-specific hub-height wind speed forecasting system has been developed. This system is driven by the outputs from the Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model. A simple interpolation approach benchmarks the forecasting accuracy inherited from GEM. Local, site specific winds are affected on a local scale by a variety of factors including representation of the land surface and local boundary-layer process over heterogeneous terrain which have been a continuing challenge in NWP models like GEM with typical horizontal resolution of order 15-km. In order to resolve these small scale effects, a wind energy industry standard model, WAsP, is coupled with GEM to improve the forecast. Coupling the WAsP model with GEM improves the overall forecasts, but remains unsatisfactory for forecasting winds with abrupt surface condition changes. Subsequently in this study, a new coupler that uses a 2-D RANS model of boundary-layer flow over surface condition changes with improved physics has been developed to further improve the forecasts when winds coming from a water surface to land experience abrupt changes in surface conditions. It has been demonstrated that using vertically averaged wind speeds to represent geostrophic winds for input into the micro-scale models could reduce forecast errors. The hub-height wind speed forecasts could be further improved using a linear MOS approach. The forecasting system has been evaluated, using a wind energy standard evaluation matrix, against data from an 80-m mast located near the north shore of Lake Erie. Coupling with GEM-LAM and a power conversion model using a theoretical power curve have also been investigated. For hub-height wind speeds GEM appears to perform better with a 15-Ian grid than the high resolution GEM-2.5Ian version at the

  15. Wind energy bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This bibliography is designed to help the reader search for information on wind energy. The bibliography is intended to help several audiences, including engineers and scientists who may be unfamiliar with a particular aspect of wind energy, university researchers who are interested in this field, manufacturers who want to learn more about specific wind topics, and librarians who provide information to their clients. Topics covered range from the history of wind energy use to advanced wind turbine design. References for wind energy economics, the wind energy resource, and environmental and institutional issues related to wind energy are also included.

  16. Global variations of thermospheric winds and temperatures caused by substorm energy injection

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Fukunishi, H.; Maeda, S.

    1996-01-01

    The authors report simulations to study the dispersal of energy from magnetic storms into the thermosphere. They conducted two simulations, differing in the time over which energy injection is allowed, being 1 or 12 hours, indicative of substorm or main storm sources. Substorm sources generate atmospheric gravity waves from joule heating of ionospheric currents. These waves propagate even to opposite hemispheres, in what appear to be zonal wind systems, at the speed of sound. Energy transfer from these waves seems to be primarily by adiabatic compressional heating and expansive cooling. For the long source case, advections, vertical heat conduction, and radiative heat transfer are important energy transfer processes, along with the two previous mechanism.

  17. EDITORIAL: Wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jakob; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Morthorst, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    addressed within the issue is how much conventional power production can be replaced by the ceaseless wind, with the question of how Greece's target of 29% renewables by 2020 is to be met efficiently. Other topics include an innovative way to determine the power curve of a turbine experimentally more accurately, the use of fluid dynamics tools to investigate the implications of placing vortex generators on wind turbine blades (thereby possibly improving their efficiency) and a study of the perception of wind turbine noise. It turns out that a small but significant fraction of wind turbine neighbours feel that turbine generated noise impairs their ability to rest. The annoyance is correlated with a negative attitude towards the visual impact on the landscape, but what is cause and effect is too early to say. As mentioned there is a rush for wind turbines in many countries. However, this positive development for the global climate is currently limited by practical barriers. One bottleneck is the difficulties for the sub-suppliers of gears and other parts to meet the demand. Another is the difficulties to meet the demand for engineers specialized in wind. For that reason the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) recently launched the world's first Wind Energy Masters Program. Here and elsewhere in the world of wind education and research we should really speed up now, as our chances of contributing to emission free energy production and a healthier global climate have never been better. Focus on Wind Energy Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Wind turbines—low level noise sources interfering with restoration? Eja Pedersen and Kerstin Persson Waye On the effect of spatial dispersion of wind power plants on the wind energy capacity credit in Greece George Caralis, Yiannis Perivolaris, Konstantinos Rados and Arthouros Zervos Large-eddy simulation of spectral coherence in a wind turbine wake

  18. EDITORIAL: Wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jakob; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Morthorst, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    addressed within the issue is how much conventional power production can be replaced by the ceaseless wind, with the question of how Greece's target of 29% renewables by 2020 is to be met efficiently. Other topics include an innovative way to determine the power curve of a turbine experimentally more accurately, the use of fluid dynamics tools to investigate the implications of placing vortex generators on wind turbine blades (thereby possibly improving their efficiency) and a study of the perception of wind turbine noise. It turns out that a small but significant fraction of wind turbine neighbours feel that turbine generated noise impairs their ability to rest. The annoyance is correlated with a negative attitude towards the visual impact on the landscape, but what is cause and effect is too early to say. As mentioned there is a rush for wind turbines in many countries. However, this positive development for the global climate is currently limited by practical barriers. One bottleneck is the difficulties for the sub-suppliers of gears and other parts to meet the demand. Another is the difficulties to meet the demand for engineers specialized in wind. For that reason the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) recently launched the world's first Wind Energy Masters Program. Here and elsewhere in the world of wind education and research we should really speed up now, as our chances of contributing to emission free energy production and a healthier global climate have never been better. Focus on Wind Energy Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Wind turbines—low level noise sources interfering with restoration? Eja Pedersen and Kerstin Persson Waye On the effect of spatial dispersion of wind power plants on the wind energy capacity credit in Greece George Caralis, Yiannis Perivolaris, Konstantinos Rados and Arthouros Zervos Large-eddy simulation of spectral coherence in a wind turbine wake

  19. Careers in Wind Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  20. Wind energy information guide

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  1. Global Wind Measurement from Orbit Using Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiers, G. D.; Tamppari, L. K.; Mischna, M.

    2014-07-01

    Very few measurements have been made of martian winds yet they create global dust storms, reshape the surface and impact our ability to land precisely. Analyses and concepts for an orbiting Doppler lidar that measures winds globally is presented.

  2. A Worldwide Plan to Eliminate Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Instability With Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.; Delucchi, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. This talk discusses a plan to solve the problems by powering 100% of the world's energy for all purposes, including electricity, transportation, industrial processes, and heating/cooling, with wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) within the next 20-40 years. It reviews and ranks major proposed energy solutions to global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy insecurity while considering other impacts of the proposed solutions, such as on water supply, land use, resource availability, reliability, wildlife, and catastrophic risk. It then evaluates a scenario for powering the world on the energy options determined to be the best while also considering materials, transmission infrastructure, costs, and politics. The study concludes that powering the world with WWS electric power technologies and a conversion from combustion to electricity and electrolytically-produced hydrogen is the cleanest and safest method of solving these problems. Due to the efficiency of electricity, such a conversion reduces world power demand by 30%. Methods of ensuring reliability of WWS electric power are available and will be demonstrated. We also conclude that neither liquid biofuels for transportation (including ethanol or biodiesel from any source), solid biofuels for home heating and cooking, biomass for electricity, conventional or fracked natural gas for electricity or transportation, nuclear power, nor coal with carbon capture (clean coal) are nearly so clean or safe as WWS technologies so are not recommended, either as bridge technologies or in the long term. Our plan calls for all new energy to be supplied by WWS-electricity-hydrogen resources no later than 2030 and all existing non-WWS infrastructure to be eliminated no later than 2050. We find that the plan is technically and economically feasible but politically challenging.

  3. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenbacher, Don

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  4. An atmospheric energy analysis of the impact of satellite lidar winds and TIROS temperatures in global simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Linda M.; Johnson, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the effects on forecast accuracy of adding wind-profiler data is conducted. An observing system simulation test is employed that assumes a sufficient concentration of aerosols to provide global wind profiles (a best case scenario). The simulated data for the series of five day forecasts are produced from a twenty day integration utilizing the ECMWF model, which is also employed to produce the verification forecast for the five day period.

  5. Application of global weather and climate model output to the design and operation of wind-energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, Judith

    2015-05-21

    This project addressed the challenge of providing weather and climate information to support the operation, management and planning for wind-energy systems. The need for forecast information is extending to longer projection windows with increasing penetration of wind power into the grid and also with diminishing reserve margins to meet peak loads during significant weather events. Maintenance planning and natural gas trading is being influenced increasingly by anticipation of wind generation on timescales of weeks to months. Future scenarios on decadal time scales are needed to support assessment of wind farm siting, government planning, long-term wind purchase agreements and the regulatory environment. The challenge of making wind forecasts on these longer time scales is associated with a wide range of uncertainties in general circulation and regional climate models that make them unsuitable for direct use in the design and planning of wind-energy systems. To address this challenge, CFAN has developed a hybrid statistical/dynamical forecasting scheme for delivering probabilistic forecasts on time scales from one day to seven months using what is arguably the best forecasting system in the world (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, ECMWF). The project also provided a framework to assess future wind power through developing scenarios of interannual to decadal climate variability and change. The Phase II research has successfully developed an operational wind power forecasting system for the U.S., which is being extended to Europe and possibly Asia.

  6. Estimating maximum global wind power availability and associated climatic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian; Kleidon, Axel

    2010-05-01

    Estimating maximum global wind power availability and associated climatic consequences Wind speed reflects the continuous generation of kinetic energy and its dissipation, primarily in the atmospheric boundary layer. When wind turbines extract kinetic wind energy, less kinetic energy remains in the atmosphere in the mean state. While this effect does not play a significant role for a single turbine, it becomes a critical factor for the estimation of large-scale wind power availability. This extraction of kinetic energy by turbines also competes with the natural processes of kinetic energy dissipation, thus setting fundamental limits on extractability that are not considered in previous large-scale studies [1,2,3]. Our simple momentum balance model using ECMWF climate data illustrates a fundamental limit to global wind power extractability and thereby electricity potential (93TW). This is independent of engineering advances in turbine design and wind farm layout. These results are supported by similar results using a global climate model of intermediate complexity. Varying the surface drag coefficient with different simulations allows us to directly relate changes in atmospheric and boundary layer dissipation with resulting climate indices and wind power potential. These new estimates of the maximum power generation by wind turbines are well above the currently installed capacity. Hence, present day installations are unlikely to have a global impact. However, when compared to the current human energy demand of 17TW combined with plans by the US and EU to drastically increase onshore and offshore wind turbine installations [4,5,6], understanding the climatic response and ultimate limitations of wind power as a large-scale renewable energy source is critical. [1] Archer, C., and M.Z. Jacobson, (2005) Evaluation of global wind power, J. Geophys. Res. 110:D12110. [2] Lu, X., M.B. McElroy, and J. Kiviluoma, (2009) Global potential for wind-generated electricity, Proc

  7. Global potential for wind-generated electricity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B.; Kiviluoma, Juha

    2009-01-01

    The potential of wind power as a global source of electricity is assessed by using winds derived through assimilation of data from a variety of meteorological sources. The analysis indicates that a network of land-based 2.5-megawatt (MW) turbines restricted to nonforested, ice-free, nonurban areas operating at as little as 20% of their rated capacity could supply >40 times current worldwide consumption of electricity, >5 times total global use of energy in all forms. Resources in the contiguous United States, specifically in the central plain states, could accommodate as much as 16 times total current demand for electricity in the United States. Estimates are given also for quantities of electricity that could be obtained by using a network of 3.6-MW turbines deployed in ocean waters with depths <200 m within 50 nautical miles (92.6 km) of closest coastlines. PMID:19549865

  8. Wind energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Global Onshore Wind Speed Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.

    2013-09-09

    Wind power, a renewable energy source, can play an important role in electrical energy generation. Information regarding wind energy potential is important both for energy related modeling and for decision-making in the policy community. While wind speed datasets with high spatial and temporal resolution are often ultimately used for detailed planning, simpler assumptions are often used in analysis work. An accurate representation of the wind speed frequency distribution is needed in order to properly characterize wind energy potential. Using a power density method, this study estimated global variation in wind parameters as fitted to a Weibull density function using NCEP/CFSR reanalysis data. The estimated Weibull distribution performs well in fitting the time series wind speed data at the global level according to R2, root mean square error, and power density error. The spatial, decadal, and seasonal patterns of wind speed distribution were then evaluated. We also analyzed the potential error in wind power estimation when a commonly assumed Rayleigh distribution (Weibull k = 2) is used. We find that the assumption of the same Weibull parameter across large regions can result in substantial errors. While large-scale wind speed data is often presented in the form of average wind speeds, these results highlight the need to also provide information on the wind speed distribution.

  10. Wind energy applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2001-01-01

    The brochure is an introduction to various wind power applications for locations with underdeveloped transmission systems, from remote water pumping to village electrification. It includes an introductory section on wind energy, including wind power basics and system components and then provides examples of applications, including water pumping, stand-alone systems for home and business, systems for community centers, schools, and health clinics, and examples in the industrial area. There is also a page of contacts, plus two specific example applications for a wind-diesel system for a remote station in Antarctica and one on wind-diesel village electrification in Russia.

  11. SERI Wind Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  12. Wind Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  13. Wind Energy Teachers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-01-01

    This guide, created by the American Wind Association, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is a learning tool about wind energy targeted toward grades K-12. The guide provides teacher information, ideas for sparking children's and students' interest, suggestions for activities to undertake in and outside the classroom, and research tools for both teachers and students. Also included is an additional resources section.

  14. Coherent lidar technology for global wind profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Current lidar systems are proven sensors for atmospheric wind measurement. Ground-based and airborne continuous wave and pulsed CO2 systems were developed and applied to several wind measuring applications. Analytical and hardware feasibility studies indicte the feasibility of measuring the global wind field from a space splatform. A Global Backscater Experiment is planned by NASA to develop a global model of aerosol backscatter using a CO2 laser. Ground-based aerosol backscatter profiles will also be obtained using a ruby and a pulsed CO2 lidar.

  15. Wind/water energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulkovich, J.

    1979-01-01

    Device will convert wind, water, tidal or wave energy into electrical or mechanical energy. Is comprised of windmill-like paddles or blades synchronously geared to orient themselves to wind direction for optimum energy extraction.

  16. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  17. Energy and globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjandi, Hossein Saremi

    Before the Industrial Revolution, nations required no energy fuel. People relied on human, animal, and wind and waterpower for energy need. Energy (oil) has resettled populations, elected officials in the free world, or changed the governments of the energy rich countries by force. Energy fueled wars, played the major factor in the might of those who have it or more importantly the abilities to acquire it by force. This dissertation researches the primacy of oil as an energy source from the time of oil's discovery to the present times. Between 1945 and 1960, the use of oil and gas doubled as power was generated for industries as steel, cement, metalworking and more important of all filling station hoses into automobiles gas tanks, thus energy swept people and societies quite literally off their feet. One in every six jobs in the industrial world hired by the giant automotive industries. The big five American oil companies spurred on by special tax benefit, these companies grew to gigantic sizes by taking out the best part of the nation's oil. Then, for greater growth, they leaped overseas and built up an immensely profitable system, in alliance with Anglo-Dutch Shell and British Petroleum, known as seven sisters. On the other side of the world, the energy producing nations form an alliance mainly to protect themselves from downward price fluctuations of oil. The struggle for survival in the global energy market forced those countries to get together and form OPEC, which is referred as an "oil cartel".

  18. Wind-energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  19. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  20. Wind Energy Information Guide 2004

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2004-01-01

    The guide provides a list of contact information and Web site addresses for resources that provide a range of general and technical information about wind energy, including general information, wind and renewable energy, university programs and research institutes, international wind energy associations and others.

  1. 2008 Wind Energy Projects, Wind Powering America (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-01-01

    The Wind Powering America program produces a poster at the end of every calendar year that depicts new U.S. wind energy projects. The 2008 poster includes the following projects: Stetson Wind Farm in Maine; Dutch Hill Wind Farm in New York; Grand Ridge Wind Energy Center in Illinois; Hooper Bay, Alaska; Forestburg, South Dakota; Elbow Creek Wind Project in Texas; Glacier Wind Farm in Montana; Wray, Colorado; Smoky Hills Wind Farm in Kansas; Forbes Park Wind Project in Massachusetts; Spanish Fork, Utah; Goodland Wind Farm in Indiana; and the Tatanka Wind Energy Project on the border of North Dakota and South Dakota.

  2. Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, John; Johnson, Kathryn; Haynes, Todd; Seifert, Gary

    2009-01-31

    This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho.

  3. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Mark Z; Archer, Cristina L

    2012-09-25

    Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world's all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy. PMID:23019353

  4. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Archer, Cristina L.

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world’s all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy. PMID:23019353

  5. Global network of slow solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooker, N. U.; Antiochos, S. K.; Zhao, X.; Neugebauer, M.

    2012-04-01

    The streamer belt region surrounding the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is generally treated as the primary or sole source of the slow solar wind. Synoptic maps of solar wind speed predicted by the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model during selected periods of solar cycle 23, however, show many areas of slow wind displaced from the streamer belt. These areas commonly have the form of an arc that is connected to the streamer belt at both ends. The arcs mark the boundaries between fields emanating from different coronal holes of the same polarity and thus trace the paths of belts of pseudostreamers, i.e., unipolar streamers that form over double arcades and lack current sheets. The arc pattern is consistent with the predicted topological mapping of the narrow open corridor or singular separator line that must connect the holes and, thus, consistent with the separatrix-web model of the slow solar wind. Near solar maximum, pseudostreamer belts stray far from the HCS-associated streamer belt and, together with it, form a global-wide web of slow wind. Recognition of pseudostreamer belts as prominent sources of slow wind provides a new template for understanding solar wind stream structure, especially near solar maximum.

  6. Global Network of Slow Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooker, N. U.; Antiochos, S. K.; Zhao, X.; Neugebauer, M.

    2012-01-01

    The streamer belt region surrounding the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is generally treated as the primary or sole source of the slow solar wind. Synoptic maps of solar wind speed predicted by the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model during selected periods of solar cycle 23, however, show many areas of slow wind displaced from the streamer belt. These areas commonly have the form of an arc that is connected to the streamer belt at both ends. The arcs mark the boundaries between fields emanating from different coronal holes of the same polarity and thus trace the paths of belts of pseudostreamers, i.e., unipolar streamers that form over double arcades and lack current sheets. The arc pattern is consistent with the predicted topological mapping of the narrow open corridor or singular separator line that must connect the holes and, thus, consistent with the separatrix-web model of the slow solar wind. Near solar maximum, pseudostreamer belts stray far from the HCS-associated streamer belt and, together with it, form a global-wide web of slow wind. Recognition of pseudostreamer belts as prominent sources of slow wind provides a new template for understanding solar wind stream structure, especially near solar maximum.

  7. Wind energy: Program overview, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The DOE Wind Energy Program assists utilities and industry in developing advanced wind turbine technology to be economically competitive as an energy source in the marketplace and in developing new markets and applications for wind systems. This program overview describes the commercial development of wind power, wind turbine development, utility programs, industry programs, wind resources, applied research in wind energy, and the program structure.

  8. Wind turbulence characterization for wind energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, L. L.; Gower, G. L.; Morris, V. R.; Tomich, S. D.

    1991-09-01

    As part of its support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Wind Energy Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has initiated an effort to work jointly with the wind energy community to characterize wind turbulence in a variety of complex terrains at existing or potential sites of wind turbine installation. Five turbulence characterization systems were assembled and installed at four sites in the Tehachapi Pass in California, and one in the Green Mountains near Manchester, Vermont. Data processing and analyses techniques were developed to allow observational analyses of the turbulent structure; this analysis complements the more traditional statistical and spectral analyses. Preliminary results of the observational analyses, in the rotating framework or a wind turbine blade, show that the turbulence at a site can have two major components: (1) engulfing eddies larger than the rotor, and (2) fluctuating shear due to eddies smaller than the rotor disk. Comparison of the time series depicting these quantities at two sites showed that the turbulence intensity (the commonly used descriptor of turbulence) did not adequately characterize the turbulence at these sites.

  9. Wind Energy Program: Top 10 Program Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Brochure on the top accomplishments of the Wind Energy Program, including the development of large wind machines, small machines for the residential market, wind tunnel testing, computer codes for modeling wind systems, high definition wind maps, and successful collaborations.

  10. Introduction to wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, H.-J.

    2015-08-01

    This article presents the basic concepts of wind energy and deals with the physics and mechanics of operation. It describes the conversion of wind energy into rotation of turbine, and the critical parameters governing the efficiency of this conversion. After that it presents an overview of various parts and components of windmills. The connection to the electrical grid, the world status of wind energy use for electricity production, the cost situation and research and development needs are further aspects which will be considered.

  11. Wind Energy Ordinances (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Due to increasing energy demands in the United States and more installed wind projects, rural communities and local governments with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to create ordinances to regulate wind turbine installations. Ordinances are laws, often found within municipal codes that provide various degrees of control to local governments. These laws cover issues such as zoning, traffic, consumer protection, and building codes. Wind energy ordinances reflect local needs and wants regarding wind turbines within county or city lines and aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. Since 2008 when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory released a report on existing wind energy ordinances, many more ordinances have been established throughout the United States, and this trend is likely to continue in the near future as the wind energy industry grows. This fact sheet provides an overview of elements found in typical wind energy ordinances to educate state and local government officials, as well as policy makers.

  12. Wind Energy Ordinance Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    F. Oteri

    2010-09-01

    Due to increasing energy demands in the United States and more installed wind projects, rural communities and local governments with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to create ordinances to regulate wind turbine installations. Ordinances are laws, often found within municipal codes that provide various degrees of control to local governments. These laws cover issues such as zoning, traffic, consumer protection, and building codes. Wind energy ordinances reflect local needs and wants regarding wind turbines within county or city lines and aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. Since 2008 when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory released a report on existing wind energy ordinances, many more ordinances have been established throughout the United States, and this trend is likely to continue in the near future as the wind energy industry grows. This fact sheet provides an overview of elements found in typical wind energy ordinances to educate state and local government officials, as well as policy makers.

  13. Energy 101: Wind Turbines - 2014 Update

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-05

    See how wind turbines generate clean electricity from the power of wind. The video highlights the basic principles at work in wind turbines, and illustrates how the various components work to capture and convert wind energy to electricity. This updated version also includes information on the Energy Department's efforts to advance offshore wind power. Offshore wind energy footage courtesy of Vestas.

  14. Energy 101: Wind Turbines - 2014 Update

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-06

    See how wind turbines generate clean electricity from the power of wind. The video highlights the basic principles at work in wind turbines, and illustrates how the various components work to capture and convert wind energy to electricity. This updated version also includes information on the Energy Department's efforts to advance offshore wind power. Offshore wind energy footage courtesy of Vestas.

  15. Energy from the Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelka, David G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The large-scale generation of electrical power by wind turbine fields is discussed. It is shown that the maximum power that can be extracted by a wind turbine is 16/27 of the power available in the wind. (BB)

  16. An Experiment on Wind Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Fiordilino, Emilio; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Aglieco, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    We discuss an experiment on wind energy performed with home-made apparatus. The experiment reproduces a laboratory windmill, which can pump water from a lower level to a higher one. By measuring the gain of the gravitational potential energy of the pumped water, one can determine the power extracted from the wind. The activity was carried out with…

  17. The global energy system.

    PubMed

    Häfele, W; Sassin, W

    1979-05-01

    A global energy system is conceptualized and analyzed, the energy distributor sub-system of the worldwide supranational system. Its many interconnections are examined and traced back to their source to determine the major elements of this global energy system. Long-term trends are emphasized. The analysis begins with a discussion of the local systems that resulted from the deployment of technology in the mid-nineteenth century, continues with a description of the global system based on oil that has existed for the past two decades, and ends with a scenario implying that an energy transition will occur in the future in which use of coal, nuclear, and solar energy will predominate. A major problem for the future will be the management of this energy transition. The optimal use of global resources and the efficient management of this transition will require a stable and persistent global order. PMID:464990

  18. Global space fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latyshev, L. A.; Semashko, N. N.

    The possibility of meeting future global energy demands by producing energy in space is addressed. Comparisons are made between the parameters of space plants producing solar electric power, nuclear electric power, and thermonuclear electric power.

  19. 75 FR 47301 - Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...; EG10-36-000; EG10-37-000; EG10-38-000] Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC; Wessington Wind Energy Center, LLC; Juniper Canyon Wind Power LLC; Loraine Windpark Project, LLC; White Oak Energy LLC; Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC; Meadow Lake Wind...

  20. Wind energy: A renewable energy option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Wind turbine generator research programs administered by the Energy Research and Development Administration are examined. The design and operation of turbine demonstration models are described. Wind assessments were made to determine the feasibility of using wind generated power for various parts of the country.

  1. Study of energy transfer from the solar wind to Earth's magnetosphere using the 3D- MHD BATS-R-US global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauer, P. R.; Gonzalez, W. D.; de Souza Costa, C. L.; Souza, V. M.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction, transport and conversion of energy between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere have been studied for decades through in situ measurements and Magnetohydrodynamics simulation, (MHD). Nevertheless, due to the vast regions of space and nonlinearities of the physical processes there are many questions that still remain without conclusive answers. Currently, the MHD simulation is a powerful tool that helps other means of already existing research, even within its theoretical limitation; it provides information of the space regions where in situ measurements are rare or nonexistent. The aim of this work is the study of energy transfer from the solar wind through the calculation of the divergence of the Poynting vector for the inner regions of the Earth's magnetosphere, especially the magneto tail using 3D global MHD numerical code Space Weather Modelling Framework (SWMF) / (Block Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe Upwind Scheme) (BATS-R-US), developed by the University of Michigan. We conducted a simulation study for the event that occurred on September 21-27, 1999, for which the peak value of the interplanetary magnetic field was -22 nT, and gave rise to an intense magnetic storm with peak Dst of -160 nT. Furthermore, we compare the results of the power estimated by the model - through the integration of the Poynting vector in rectangular region of the tail, with a domain -130 energy dissipated by the different regions of the Earth's magnetosphere: ring current, and auroral regions. The initial estimate of the amount of energy that penetrates to the inner region of the magnetosphere for this event, was approximately 28TW.This value is close to that found using the expression derived by Akasofu (1981).Thus, this results show that the MHD simulation is a

  2. Quantifying uncertainties in wind energy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patlakas, Platon; Galanis, George; Kallos, George

    2015-04-01

    The constant rise of wind energy production and the subsequent penetration in global energy markets during the last decades resulted in new sites selection with various types of problems. Such problems arise due to the variability and the uncertainty of wind speed. The study of the wind speed distribution lower and upper tail may support the quantification of these uncertainties. Such approaches focused on extreme wind conditions or periods below the energy production threshold are necessary for a better management of operations. Towards this direction, different methodologies are presented for the credible evaluation of potential non-frequent/extreme values for these environmental conditions. The approaches used, take into consideration the structural design of the wind turbines according to their lifespan, the turbine failures, the time needed for repairing as well as the energy production distribution. In this work, a multi-parametric approach for studying extreme wind speed values will be discussed based on tools of Extreme Value Theory. In particular, the study is focused on extreme wind speed return periods and the persistence of no energy production based on a weather modeling system/hind cast/10-year dataset. More specifically, two methods (Annual Maxima and Peaks Over Threshold) were used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds and their recurrence intervals. Additionally, two different methodologies (intensity given duration and duration given intensity, both based on Annual Maxima method) were implied to calculate the extreme events duration, combined with their intensity as well as the event frequency. The obtained results prove that the proposed approaches converge, at least on the main findings, for each case. It is also remarkable that, despite the moderate wind speed climate of the area, several consequent days of no energy production are observed.

  3. Wind energy technology program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of the Federal Wind Energy Technology Program is to perform research that will enable the private sector to develop and utilize safe, reliable, and efficient wind energy systems. Generic research will provide the technology base and scientific understanding necessary to allow industry to develop wind energy systems competitive with conventional energy sources. The goal of the DOE wind program is to improve the basic understanding of aerodynamics and structural dynamics in order to more accurately predict wind turbine aerodynamic performance, natural resonance frequencies, and structural loads. Areas included in the research plan being developed for the next five years include: advanced fluid dynamics, aerodynamics research, structural dynamics research, and advanced components and systems research, including multimegawatt (MOD-5) development.

  4. The influence of large-scale wind power on global climate

    PubMed Central

    Keith, David W.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.; Denkenberger, David C.; Lenschow, Donald H.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Pacala, Stephen; Rasch, Philip J.

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale use of wind power can alter local and global climate by extracting kinetic energy and altering turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. We report climate-model simulations that address the possible climatic impacts of wind power at regional to global scales by using two general circulation models and several parameterizations of the interaction of wind turbines with the boundary layer. We find that very large amounts of wind power can produce nonnegligible climatic change at continental scales. Although large-scale effects are observed, wind power has a negligible effect on global-mean surface temperature, and it would deliver enormous global benefits by reducing emissions of CO2 and air pollutants. Our results may enable a comparison between the climate impacts due to wind power and the reduction in climatic impacts achieved by the substitution of wind for fossil fuels. PMID:15536131

  5. The influence of large-scale wind power on global climate.

    PubMed

    Keith, David W; Decarolis, Joseph F; Denkenberger, David C; Lenschow, Donald H; Malyshev, Sergey L; Pacala, Stephen; Rasch, Philip J

    2004-11-16

    Large-scale use of wind power can alter local and global climate by extracting kinetic energy and altering turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. We report climate-model simulations that address the possible climatic impacts of wind power at regional to global scales by using two general circulation models and several parameterizations of the interaction of wind turbines with the boundary layer. We find that very large amounts of wind power can produce nonnegligible climatic change at continental scales. Although large-scale effects are observed, wind power has a negligible effect on global-mean surface temperature, and it would deliver enormous global benefits by reducing emissions of CO(2) and air pollutants. Our results may enable a comparison between the climate impacts due to wind power and the reduction in climatic impacts achieved by the substitution of wind for fossil fuels. PMID:15536131

  6. SMES for wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul Antony, Anish

    Renewable energy sources are ubiquitous, wind energy in particular is one of the fastest growing forms of renewable energy, yet the stochastic nature of wind creates fluctuations that threaten the stability of the electrical grid. In addition to stability with increased wind energy, the need for additional load following capability is a major concern hindering increased wind energy penetration. Improvements in power electronics are required to increase wind energy penetration, but these improvements are hindered by a number of limitations. Changes in physical weather conditions, insufficient capacity of the transmission line and inaccurate wind forecasting greatly stymie their effect and ultimately lead to equipment damage. With this background, the overall goal of this research effort is to pitch a case for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) by (1) optimally designing the SMES to be coupled with wind turbines thus reducing wind integration challenges and (2) to help influence decision makers in either increasing superconducting wire length/fill factor or improving superconducting splice technology thereby increasing the storage capacity of the SMES. Chapter 1 outlines the scope of this thesis by answering the following questions (1) why focus on wind energy? (2) What are the problems associated with increasing wind energy on the electric grid? (3) What are the current solutions related to wind integration challenges and (4) why SMES? Chapter 2, presents a detailed report on the study performed on categorizing the challenges associated with integrating wind energy into the electric grid. The conditions under which wind energy affected the electric grid are identified both in terms of voltage stability and excess wind generation. Chapter 3, details a comprehensive literature review on the different superconducting wires. A technology assessment of the five selected superconductors: [Niobium Titanium (NbTi), Niobium Tin (Nb3Sn), Bismuth strontium calcium

  7. The analysis sensitivity to tropical winds from the Global Weather Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paegle, J.; Paegle, J. N.; Baker, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    The global scale divergent and rotational flow components of the Global Weather Experiment (GWE) are diagnosed from three different analyses of the data. The rotational flow shows closer agreement between the analyses than does the divergent flow. Although the major outflow and inflow centers are similarly placed in all analyses, the global kinetic energy of the divergent wind varies by about a factor of 2 between different analyses while the global kinetic energy of the rotational wind varies by only about 10 percent between the analyses. A series of real data assimilation experiments has been performed with the GLA general circulation model using different amounts of tropical wind data during the First Special Observing Period of the Global Weather Experiment. In exeriment 1, all available tropical wind data were used; in the second experiment, tropical wind data were suppressed; while, in the third and fourth experiments, only tropical wind data with westerly and easterly components, respectively, were assimilated. The rotational wind appears to be more sensitive to the presence or absence of tropical wind data than the divergent wind. It appears that the model, given only extratropical observations, generates excessively strong upper tropospheric westerlies. These biases are sufficiently pronounced to amplify the globally integrated rotational flow kinetic energy by about 10 percent and the global divergent flow kinetic energy by about a factor of 2. Including only easterly wind data in the tropics is more effective in controlling the model error than including only westerly wind data. This conclusion is especially noteworthy because approximately twice as many upper tropospheric westerly winds were available in these cases as easterly winds.

  8. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  9. Multiple wind turbine tethered airfoil wind energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Biscomb, L.I.

    1981-08-25

    A plurality of wind turbines are supported aloft on the same tethered airfoil which is provided with devices for orienting the wind turbines into the wind. Various ways and devices are described for converting the wind energy into electrical power and for connecting and providing the plural outputs to the same electrical power grid. The principles are applicable whether there are a small number of relatively large wind turbines, a large number of relatively small wind turbines or some of each.

  10. Improved Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in Global Climate Stabilization Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Sullivan, P.; Heimiller, D.; Lopez, A.; Eurek, K.; Badger, J.; Jorgensen, H. E.; Kelly, M.; Clarke, L.; Luckow, P.

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces a technique for digesting geospatial wind-speed data into areally defined -- country-level, in this case -- wind resource supply curves. We combined gridded wind-vector data for ocean areas with bathymetry maps, country exclusive economic zones, wind turbine power curves, and other datasets and relevant parameters to build supply curves that estimate a country's offshore wind resource defined by resource quality, depth, and distance-from-shore. We include a single set of supply curves -- for a particular assumption set -- and study some implications of including it in a global energy model. We also discuss the importance of downscaling gridded wind vector data to capturing the full resource potential, especially over land areas with complex terrain. This paper includes motivation and background for a statistical downscaling methodology to account for terrain effects with a low computational burden. Finally, we use this forum to sketch a framework for building synthetic electric networks to estimate transmission accessibility of renewable resource sites in remote areas.

  11. The Global Energy Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jax, Daniel W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan about greenhouse effect and global warming. Includes diagrams and graphs from which students are asked to make inferences. Provides background information about how energy enters and leaves the earth system, the energy budget, consequences of obstructing the energy balance, and the greenhouse effect. (three references) (MCO)

  12. Wind Energy Status and Future Wind Engineering Challenges: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R.; Schreck, S.; Robinson, M.; Veers, P.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the current status of wind energy technology, the potential for future wind energy development and the science and engineering challenges that must be overcome for the technology to meet its potential.

  13. Wind energy systems: program summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    The Federal Wind Energy Program (FWEP) was initiated to provide focus, direction and funds for the development of wind power. Each year a summary is prepared to provide the American public with an overview of government sponsored activities in the FWEP. This program summary describes each of the Department of Energy's (DOE) current wind energy projects initiated or renewed during FY 1979 (October 1, 1978 through September 30, 1979) and reflects their status as of April 30, 1980. The summary highlights on-going research, development and demonstration efforts and serves as a record of progress towards the program objectives. It also provides: the program's general management structure; review of last year's achievements; forecast of expected future trends; documentation of the projects conducted during FY 1979; and list of key wind energy publications.

  14. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  15. Integrated roof wind energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suma, A. B.; Ferraro, R. M.; Dano, B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

    2012-10-01

    Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  16. Turbulent character of wind energy.

    PubMed

    Milan, Patrick; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim

    2013-03-29

    Wind turbines generate electricity from turbulent wind. Large fluctuations, and, more importantly, frequent wind gusts cause a highly fluctuating electrical power feed into the grid. Such effects are the hallmark of high-frequency turbulence. Here we show evidence that it is the complex structure of turbulence that dominates the power output for one single wind turbine as well as for an entire wind farm. We illustrate the highly intermittent, peaked nature of wind power fed into the grid. Multifractal scaling is observed, as described initially by Kolmogorov's 1962 theory of turbulence. In parallel, we propose a stochastic model that converts wind speed signals into power output signals with appropriate multifractal statistics. As more and more wind turbines become integrated into our electric grids, a proper understanding of this intermittent power source must be worked out to ensure grid stability in future networks. Thus, our results stress the need for a profound understanding of the physics of turbulence and its impact on wind energy. PMID:23581387

  17. Wind Energy at NREL's National Wind Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    It is a pure, plentiful natural resource. Right now wind is in high demand and it holds the potential to transform the way we power our homes and businesses. NREL is at the forefront of wind energy research and development. NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is a world-class facility dedicated to accelerating and deploying wind technology.

  18. Wind Energy at NREL's National Wind Technology Center

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    It is a pure, plentiful natural resource. Right now wind is in high demand and it holds the potential to transform the way we power our homes and businesses. NREL is at the forefront of wind energy research and development. NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is a world-class facility dedicated to accelerating and deploying wind technology.

  19. Philippines Wind Energy Resource Atlas Development

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.

    2000-11-29

    This paper describes the creation of a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas for the Philippines. The atlas was created to facilitate the rapid identification of good wind resource areas and understanding of the salient wind characteristics. Detailed wind resource maps were generated for the entire country using an advanced wind mapping technique and innovative assessment methods recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  20. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Crabtree, George

    2010-01-08

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  1. The Global Energy Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, George

    2007-09-12

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  2. Wind Energy Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David

    The booklet, intended for students and other visitors to the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland), explains how windmills work and their economic and environmental advantages. The history of windmills in Europe and Asia is briefly described, as well as the history of windmills and wind generators (for electricity)…

  3. Wind Turbine Box - energy fluxes around a characteristic wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaf, Marc; Cortina, Gerard; Sharma, Varun

    2015-11-01

    This research project presents a new tool, so called ``Wind Turbine Box'', that allows for the direct comparison between the flow around a single wind turbine and the flow around a characteristic wind turbine immersed within a large wind farm. The Wind Turbine Box consists of a limited control volume defined around each wind turbine that is timely co-aligned with each corresponding turbine's yaw-angle. Hence it is possible to extract flow statistics around each wind turbine, regardless of whether the turbine is fully isolated or it is plunged within a large wind farm. The Wind Turbine Box tool has been used to compute the energy fluxes around a characteristic wind turbine of a large wind farm to better understand the wake replenishment processes throughout a complete diurnal cycle. The effective loading of the wind farm has been gradually increased, ranging from quasi-isolated wind turbines to a highly packed wind farm. For this purpose, several Large Eddy Simulations have been run, forced with a constant geostrophic wind and a time varying surface temperature extracted from a selected period of the CASES-99 field experiment. Results illustrate the differences in the flow dynamics as it evolves around a characteristic wind turbine within a large wind farm and its asymptotic transition to the fully developed wind turbine array boundary layer.

  4. Federal Wind Energy Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Office of Program Analysis (OPA) undertook an assessment of 55 research projects sponsored by the Federal Wind Energy Research Program. This report summarizes the results of that review. In accordance with statue and policy guidance, the program's research has targeted the sciences of wind turbine dynamics and the development of advanced components and systems. Wind turbine research has focused on atmospheric fluid dynamics, aerodynamics, and structural dynamics. Rating factors including project scientific and technical merit, appropriateness and level of innovation of the technical approach, quality of the project team, productivity, and probable impact on the program's mission. Each project was also given an overall evaluation supported with written comments. 1 fig.

  5. A Global Picture of AGN Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.; Fukumura, K.

    2011-01-01

    We present a unified structure for accretion powered sources across their entire luminosity range from accreting galactic black holes to the most luminous quasars, with emphasis on AGN and their phenomenology. Central to this end is the notion of MHD winds launched from the accretion disks that power these objects. This work similar in spirit to that of Elvis of more that a decade ago, provides, on one hand, only the broadest characteristics of these objects, but on the other, also scaling laws that allow one to make contact with objects of different luminosity. The conclusion of this work is that AGN phenomenology can be accounted for in terms of dot(m), the wind mass flux in units of the Eddington value, the observer's inclination angle theta and alpha_OX the logarithmic slope between UV and X-ray flares. However given the well known correlation between alpha(sub ox) and UV Luminosity, we conclude that the AGN structure depends on only two parameters. The small number of model parameters hence suggests that an understanding of the global AGN properties maybe within reach.

  6. Wind Energy Career Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gwen Andersen

    2012-03-29

    Saint Francis University has developed curriculum in engineering and in business that is meeting the needs of students and employers (Task 1) as well as integrating wind energy throughout the curriculum. Through a variety of approaches, the University engaged in public outreach and education that reached over 2,000 people annually (Task 2). We have demonstrated, through the success of these programs, that students are eager to prepare for emerging jobs in alternative energy, that employers are willing to assist in developing employees who understand the broader business and policy context of the industry, and that people want to learn about wind energy.

  7. SMES for wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul Antony, Anish

    Renewable energy sources are ubiquitous, wind energy in particular is one of the fastest growing forms of renewable energy, yet the stochastic nature of wind creates fluctuations that threaten the stability of the electrical grid. In addition to stability with increased wind energy, the need for additional load following capability is a major concern hindering increased wind energy penetration. Improvements in power electronics are required to increase wind energy penetration, but these improvements are hindered by a number of limitations. Changes in physical weather conditions, insufficient capacity of the transmission line and inaccurate wind forecasting greatly stymie their effect and ultimately lead to equipment damage. With this background, the overall goal of this research effort is to pitch a case for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) by (1) optimally designing the SMES to be coupled with wind turbines thus reducing wind integration challenges and (2) to help influence decision makers in either increasing superconducting wire length/fill factor or improving superconducting splice technology thereby increasing the storage capacity of the SMES. Chapter 1 outlines the scope of this thesis by answering the following questions (1) why focus on wind energy? (2) What are the problems associated with increasing wind energy on the electric grid? (3) What are the current solutions related to wind integration challenges and (4) why SMES? Chapter 2, presents a detailed report on the study performed on categorizing the challenges associated with integrating wind energy into the electric grid. The conditions under which wind energy affected the electric grid are identified both in terms of voltage stability and excess wind generation. Chapter 3, details a comprehensive literature review on the different superconducting wires. A technology assessment of the five selected superconductors: [Niobium Titanium (NbTi), Niobium Tin (Nb3Sn), Bismuth strontium calcium

  8. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; McCarthy, E.

    2001-03-06

    This report contains the results of a wind resource analysis and mapping study for the Philippine archipelago. The study's objective was to identify potential wind resource areas and quantify the value of those resources within those areas. The wind resource maps and other wind resource characteristic information will be used to identify prospective areas for wind-energy applications.

  9. NASA presentation. [wind energy conversion systems planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a wind energy system is outlined that supplies reliable energy at a cost competitive with other energy systems. A government directed industry program with strong university support is recommended that includes meteorological studies to estimate wind energy potentials and determines favorable regions and sites for wind power installations. Key phases of the overall program are wind energy conversion systems, meteorological wind studies, energy storage systems, and environmental impact studies. Performance testing with a prototype wind energy conversion and storage system is projected for Fiscal 1977.

  10. Global Energy Futures Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-01-01

    The Global Energy Futures Model (GEFM) is a demand-based, gross domestic product (GDP)-driven, dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of energy, nuclear-materials storage and disposition, environmental effluents from fossil and non fossil energy and global nuclear-materials management. Based entirely on public source data, it links oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and renewable energy dynamically to greenhouse-gas emissions and 13 other measures of environmental impact. It includes historical data frommore » 1990 to 2000, is benchmarked to the DOE/EIA/IEO 2002 [5] Reference Case for 2000 to 2020, and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. The GEFM is globally integrated, and breaks out five regions of the world: United States of America (USA), the Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations excluding the USA (other industrialized countries), and the rest of the world (ROW) (essentially the developing world). The GEFM allows the user to examine a very wide range of what ir scenarios through 2050 and to view the potential effects across widely dispersed, but interrelated areas. The authors believe that this high-level learning tool will help to stimulate public policy debate on energy, environment, economic and national security issues.« less

  11. Global Energy Futures Model

    SciTech Connect

    Malczynski, Leonard; Baker, Arnold; Beyeler, Walt; Conrad, Stephen; Harris, David; Harris, Paul; Rexroth, Paul; Bixler, and Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The Global Energy Futures Model (GEFM) is a demand-based, gross domestic product (GDP)-driven, dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of energy, nuclear-materials storage and disposition, environmental effluents from fossil and non fossil energy and global nuclear-materials management. Based entirely on public source data, it links oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and renewable energy dynamically to greenhouse-gas emissions and 13 other measures of environmental impact. It includes historical data from 1990 to 2000, is benchmarked to the DOE/EIA/IEO 2002 [5] Reference Case for 2000 to 2020, and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. The GEFM is globally integrated, and breaks out five regions of the world: United States of America (USA), the Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations excluding the USA (other industrialized countries), and the rest of the world (ROW) (essentially the developing world). The GEFM allows the user to examine a very wide range of what ir scenarios through 2050 and to view the potential effects across widely dispersed, but interrelated areas. The authors believe that this high-level learning tool will help to stimulate public policy debate on energy, environment, economic and national security issues.

  12. Rosebud Sioux Wind Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tony Rogers

    2008-04-30

    In 1998, through the vision of the late Alex “Little Soldier” Lunderman (1928-2000) and through the efforts of the Rosebud Sioux Tribal Utilities Commission, and with assistance from Intertribal Council on Utility Policy (COUP), and Distributed Generation, Inc (DISGEN). The Rosebud Sioux Tribe applied and was awarded in 1999 a DOE Cooperative Grant to build a commercial 750 Kw wind turbine, along with a 50/50 funding grant from the Department of Energy and a low interest loan from the Rural Utilities Service, United States Department of Agriculture, the Rosebud Sioux Tribe commissioned a single 750 kilowatt NEG Micon wind turbine in March of 2003 near the Rosebud Casino. The Rosebud Sioux Wind Energy Project (Little Soldier “Akicita Cikala”) Turbine stands as a testament to the vision of a man and the Sicangu Oyate.

  13. Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Airborne Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodrow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Google, through its Makani project, is developing a new type of wind energy conversion device called an energy kite. Using a tethered airfoil flying in vertical loops, energy kites access stronger, more consistent wind resources at altitudes between 100-500m AGL. By eliminating mass and cost of the tower, nacelle, and gearbox of a conventional wind turbine, and by increasing the capacity factor of energy generation, energy kites promise to significantly reduce the levelized cost of wind energy. The focus of this presentation will be on the approach Makani has taken to characterize the wind resource at 100-500m, where far less study has taken place compared to the atmosphere accessed by conventional wind turbines.

  14. Manzanita Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Trisha Frank

    2004-09-30

    The Manzanita Indian Reservation is located in southeastern San Diego County, California. The Tribe has long recognized that the Reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit. Manzanita has explored the wind resource potential on tribal land and developed a business plan by means of this wind energy feasibility project, which enables Manzanita to make informed decisions when considering the benefits and risks of encouraging large-scale wind power development on their lands. Technical consultant to the project has been SeaWest Consulting, LLC, an established wind power consulting company. The technical scope of the project covered the full range of feasibility assessment activities from site selection through completion of a business plan for implementation. The primary objectives of this feasibility study were to: (1) document the quality and suitability of the Manzanita Reservation as a site for installation and long-term operation of a commercially viable utility-scale wind power project; and, (2) develop a comprehensive and financeable business plan.

  15. Wind energy in China: Getting more from wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Joanna I.

    2016-06-01

    China has the largest installed capacity of wind farms, yet its wind energy electricity output is lower than that of other countries. A new analysis of the relative contributions of the factors influencing China's wind sector could help policy makers prioritize solutions.

  16. Federal Wind Energy Assistance through NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-01

    NREL assists with wind resource assessment and development activities initiated by federal agencies to facilitate distributed renewable energy projects at federal agency sites. This brief outlines the process for requesting NREL assistance with federal wind energy projects.

  17. Wind energy systems information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with potential users of information on wind energy conversion. These interviews, part of a larger study covering nine different solar technologies, attempted to identify: the type of information each distinctive group of information users needed, and the best way of getting information to that group. Groups studied include: wind energy conversion system researchers; wind energy conversion system manufacturer representatives; wind energy conversion system distributors; wind turbine engineers; utility representatives; educators; county agents and extension service agents; and wind turbine owners.

  18. Status of wind-energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Savino, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The utilization of wind energy is technically feasible as evidenced by the many past demonstrations of wind generators. The cost of energy from the wind has been high compared to fossil fuel systems; a sustained development effort is needed to obtain economical systems. The variability of the wind makes it an unreliable source on a short term basis. However, the effects of this variability can be reduced by storage systems or connecting wind generators to: (1) fossil fuel systems; (2) hydroelectric systems; or (3) dispersing them throughout a large grid network. Wind energy appears to have the potential to meet a significant amount of our energy needs.

  19. RESIDUAL ENERGY SPECTRUM OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. H. K.; Bale, S. D.; Salem, C. S.; Maruca, B. A.

    2013-06-20

    It has long been known that the energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is not in equipartition. In this paper, we present an analysis of 5 yr of Wind data at 1 AU to investigate the reason for this. The residual energy (difference between energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) was calculated using both the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normalization for the magnetic field and a kinetic version, which includes temperature anisotropies and drifts between particle species. It was found that with the kinetic normalization, the fluctuations are closer to equipartition, with a mean normalized residual energy of {sigma}{sub r} = -0.19 and mean Alfven ratio of r{sub A} = 0.71. The spectrum of residual energy, in the kinetic normalization, was found to be steeper than both the velocity and magnetic field spectra, consistent with some recent MHD turbulence predictions and numerical simulations, having a spectral index close to -1.9. The local properties of residual energy and cross helicity were also investigated, showing that globally balanced intervals with small residual energy contain local patches of larger imbalance and larger residual energy at all scales, as expected for nonlinear turbulent interactions.

  20. Evaluation of wind electric energy based on martian wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Y.; Kurita, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since Mars is characterized by strong surface wind, electric power generation by the wind activity has been proposed as a possible power source for martian base station as well as that for exploration module (George James et al., 1999, Vimal Kumar et al., 2010). George and Vimal estimated total power as 19kW and 500W, which they conclude is sufficient value as a power source of small exploration module. These values seem comparable to that used in MER( 900Wh per day ). But their estimate largely depends on the model of wind velocity and reevaluation is necessary based on plausible wind model as well as more realistic assumptions about power generation. This study evaluates plausible range of available power by using surface wind model estimated by Viking Lander measurements. Meteorological package of Viking Lander measured wind velocity and its direction at 1.6m hight at every 60 min. for 200 sols. We estimate wind statistics by using Weibull distribution function and elevation offset. We calculate the wind energy by wind turbines as the integrated value of power produced in a Martian day, and compare with solar panel and nuclear battery under various conditions (Mars ground roughness, blade length, shape of wind turbine and rotor height from the ground). As a result of the calculations, we obtain reasonable amount of wind electricity (1000 Wh per day ), which can be used if we select proper locations and suitable wind turbine.

  1. Status of wind-energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Savino, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The utilization of wind energy is technically feasible as evidenced by the many past demonstrations of wind generators. The cost of energy from the wind has been high compared to fossil fuel systems. A sustained development effort is needed to obtain economical systems. The variability of the wind makes it an unreliable source on a short-term basis. However, the effects of this variability can be reduced by storage systems or connecting wind generators to fossil fuel systems, hydroelectric systems, or dispersing them throughout a large grid network. The NSF and NASA-Lewis Research Center have sponsored programs for the utilization of wind energy.

  2. Wind Energy Education and Outreach Project

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, David G.

    2013-01-09

    The purpose of Illinois State University's wind project was to further the education and outreach of the university concerning wind energy. This project had three major components: to initiate and coordinate a Wind Working Group for the State of Illinois, to launch a Renewable Energy undergraduate program, and to develop the Center for Renewable Energy that will sustain the Illinois Wind Working Group and the undergraduate program.

  3. Wind vs. Biofuels: Addressing Climate, Health and Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Mark Jacobson

    2007-01-29

    The favored approach today for addressing global warming is to promote a variety of options: biofuels, wind, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, hydroelectric, and nuclear energy and to improve efficiency. However, by far, most emphasis has been on biofuels. It is shown here, though, that current-technology biofuels cannot address global warming and may slightly increase death and illness due to ozone-related air pollution. Future biofuels may theoretically slow global warming, but only temporarily and with the cost of increased air pollution mortality. In both cases, the land required renders biofuels an impractical solution. Recent measurements and statistical analyses of U.S. and world wind power carried out at Stanford University suggest that wind combined with other options can substantially address global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy needs simultaneously.

  4. Wind versus Biofuels for Addressing Climate, Health, and Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2007-01-29

    The favored approach today for addressing global warming is to promote a variety of options: biofuels, wind, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, hydroelectric, and nuclear energy and to improve efficiency. However, by far, most emphasis has been on biofuels. It is shown here, though, that current-technology biofuels cannot address global warming and may slightly increase death and illness due to ozone-related air pollution. Future biofuels may theoretically slow global warming, but only temporarily and with the cost of increased air pollution mortality. In both cases, the land required renders biofuels an impractical solution. Recent measurements and statistical analyses of U.S. and world wind power carried out at Stanford University suggest that wind combined with other options can substantially address global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy needs simultaneously.

  5. Wind Energy Workforce Development: A Roadmap to a Wind Energy Educational Infrastructure (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2011-05-01

    Wind Powering America national technical director Ian Baring-Gould made this presentation about workforce development in the wind energy industry to an audience at the American Wind Energy Association's annual WINDPOWER conference in Anaheim. The presentation outlines job projections from the 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report and steps to take at all levels of educational institutions to meet those projections.

  6. Wind energy in China: Estimating the potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiahai

    2016-07-01

    Persistent and significant curtailment has cast concern over the prospects of wind power in China. A comprehensive assessment of the production of energy from wind has identified grid-integrated wind generation potential at 11.9–14% of China's projected energy demand by 2030.

  7. A new approach to wind energy: Opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiri, John O.; Greer, Julia R.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Moin, Parviz; Peng, Jifeng

    2015-03-01

    Despite common characterizations of modern wind energy technology as mature, there remains a persistent disconnect between the vast global wind energy resource—which is 20 times greater than total global power consumption—and the limited penetration of existing wind energy technologies as a means for electricity generation worldwide. We describe an approach to wind energy harvesting that has the potential to resolve this disconnect by geographically distributing wind power generators in a manner that more closely mirrors the physical resource itself. To this end, technology development is focused on large arrays of small wind turbines that can harvest wind energy at low altitudes by using new concepts of biology-inspired engineering. This approach dramatically extends the reach of wind energy, as smaller wind turbines can be installed in many places that larger systems cannot, especially in built environments. Moreover, they have lower visual, acoustic, and radar signatures, and they may pose significantly less risk to birds and bats. These features can be leveraged to attain cultural acceptance and rapid adoption of this new technology, thereby enabling significantly faster achievement of state and national renewable energy targets than with existing technology alone. Favorable economics stem from an orders-of-magnitude reduction in the number of components in a new generation of simple, mass-manufacturable (even 3D-printable), vertical-axis wind turbines. However, this vision can only be achieved by overcoming significant scientific challenges that have limited progress over the past three decades. The following essay summarizes our approach as well as the opportunities and challenges associated with it, with the aim of motivating a concerted effort in basic and applied research in this area.

  8. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  9. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  10. Wind Energy: A Maturing Power Supply Possibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Erik Lundtang; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that wind energy for electrification will prove to be an appropriate technology with very positive socioeconomic benefits, especially in developing countries. Provides examples of projects conducted by a Danish wind research laboratory. (TW)

  11. ECMWF and SSMI Global Surface Wind Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Hollingsworth, Anthony; Wentz, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Monthly mean, 2.5 deg - x 2.5 deg-resolution, 10-m height wind speeds from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) instrument and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecast-analysis system are compared between 60 deg S and 60 deg N during 1988-1991. The SSMI data were uniformly processed while numerous changes were made to the ECMWF forecast-analysis system. The SSMI measurements, which were compared with moored-buoy wind observations, were considered to be a reference data set to evaluate the influence of the changes made to the ECMWF system upon the ECMWF surface wind speed over the ocean. A demonstrable yearly decrease of the difference between SSMI and ECMWF wind speeds occurred in the 10 deg S - 10 deg N region, including the 5 deg S - 5 deg N zone of the Pacific Ocean, where nearly all of the variations occurred in the 160 deg E - 160 deg W region. The apparent improvement of the ECMWF wind speed occurred at the same time as the yearly decrease of the equatorial Pacific SSMI wind speed, which was associated with the natural transition from La Nina to El Nino conditions. In the 10 deg S - 10 deg N tropical Atlantic, the ECMWF wind speed had a 4-year trend, which was not expected nor was it duplicated with the SSMI data. No yearly trend was found in the difference between SSMI and ECMWF surface wind speeds in middle latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres. The magnitude of the differences between SSMI and ECMWF was 0.4 m s^(-1) or 100 percent larger in the northern than in the southern hemisphere extratropics. In two areas (Arabian Sea and North Atlantic Ocean) where ECMWF and SSMI wind speeds were compared to ship measurements, the ship data had much better agreement with the ECMWF analyses compared to SSMI data. In the 10 deg S - 10 deg N area the difference between monthly standard deviations of the daily wind speeds dropped significantly from 1988 to 1989, but remained constant at about 30 percent for the remaining

  12. Final Report on California Regional Wind Energy Forecasting Project:Application of NARAC Wind Prediction System

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H S

    2005-07-26

    Wind power is the fastest growing renewable energy technology and electric power source (AWEA, 2004a). This renewable energy has demonstrated its readiness to become a more significant contributor to the electricity supply in the western U.S. and help ease the power shortage (AWEA, 2000). The practical exercise of this alternative energy supply also showed its function in stabilizing electricity prices and reducing the emissions of pollution and greenhouse gases from other natural gas-fired power plants. According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the world's winds could theoretically supply the equivalent of 5800 quadrillion BTUs of energy each year, which is 15 times current world energy demand (AWEA, 2004b). Archer and Jacobson (2005) also reported an estimation of the global wind energy potential with the magnitude near half of DOE's quote. Wind energy has been widely used in Europe; it currently supplies 20% and 6% of Denmark's and Germany's electric power, respectively, while less than 1% of U.S. electricity is generated from wind (AWEA, 2004a). The production of wind energy in California ({approx}1.2% of total power) is slightly higher than the national average (CEC & EPRI, 2003). With the recently enacted Renewable Portfolio Standards calling for 20% of renewables in California's power generation mix by 2010, the growth of wind energy would become an important resource on the electricity network. Based on recent wind energy research (Roulston et al., 2003), accurate weather forecasting has been recognized as an important factor to further improve the wind energy forecast for effective power management. To this end, UC-Davis (UCD) and LLNL proposed a joint effort through the use of UCD's wind tunnel facility and LLNL's real-time weather forecasting capability to develop an improved regional wind energy forecasting system. The current effort of UC-Davis is aimed at developing a database of wind turbine power curves as a function of wind speed and

  13. WindSat Global Soil Moisture Retrieval and Validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A physically based six-channel land algorithm is developed to simultaneously retrieve the global soil moisture, vegetation water content and land surface temperature. The algorithm is based on a maximum-likelihood estimation and uses WindSat passive microwave data at 10, 18.7 and 37 GHz. The global ...

  14. GIS Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in California and Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, R. K.; Snow, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    5.0 m/s and 4.6 m/s, respectively. Wind power density ratings for Mojave are 240 w/m2 and 153 w/m2 at Palmdale. These results help confirm that wind energy continues to offer a clean, cost-effective, inexhaustible, and readily available means of helping to curb global warming while answering the increasing demand for electricity.

  15. The wind energy potential of western Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Katsoulis, B.D.; Metaxas, D.A. )

    1992-12-01

    In this study wind data were used to determine the monthly and annual variations of the wind at 13 meterological stations in western Greece. An analysis of the available wind data for the Ionian Sea islands and the western coasts of Greece is carried out to ascertain its potential for wind energy development. The effect of the limited number of daily observations available on the accuracy of the mean wind speed and annual wind energy estimates is ascertained. The wind speed and direction distributions are represented with Weibull functions. Besides, a mass-consistent numerical mesoscale model was used to give an overview of the wind prospecting and siting problem, and an example of its use for Corfu (Kerkira), an island in the Ionian Sea, is given. The comparison of the accuracy of the stimulation results versus measured wind at an available site is quite encouraging even though it cannot be conclusive since only one station is available.

  16. Cost effective seasonal storage of wind energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.; Keck, M.B.

    1995-09-01

    Seasonal variation of the wind electric potential on the Great Plains could be a significant obstacle to the large scale utilization of wind generated electricity. Wind power densities usually are greatest during the spring, and decrease by at least 30 percent relative to the annual average in many areas during the summer months, when demand is highest. This problem can be overcome by using an oversized wind farm and a compressed air energy storage system (a baseload wind energy system). A minimum volume storage reservoir is needed to transform intermittent wind energy to baseload power, while a larger reservoir can be used to store excess power produced during the spring for either peak power or baseload output during the summer. The yearly average cost of energy increases by about 3 percent for the largest storage reservoir, indicating the seasonal storage of wind energy is economically as well as technically feasible.

  17. Lessons learned from Ontario wind energy disputes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Stewart; Mabee, Warren; Baxter, Jamie; Christidis, Tanya; Driver, Liz; Hill, Stephen; McMurtry, J. J.; Tomkow, Melody

    2016-02-01

    Issues concerning the social acceptance of wind energy are major challenges for policy-makers, communities and wind developers. They also impact the legitimacy of societal decisions to pursue wind energy. Here we set out to identify and assess the factors that lead to wind energy disputes in Ontario, Canada, a region of the world that has experienced a rapid increase in the development of wind energy. Based on our expertise as a group comprising social scientists, a community representative and a wind industry advocate engaged in the Ontario wind energy situation, we explore and suggest recommendations based on four key factors: socially mediated health concerns, the distribution of financial benefits, lack of meaningful engagement and failure to treat landscape concerns seriously. Ontario's recent change from a feed-in-tariff-based renewable electricity procurement process to a competitive bid process, albeit with more attention to community engagement, will only partially address these concerns.

  18. A Climate-friendly Energy Future: Prospects for Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junling

    The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the potential for wind as an alternative energy source to replace fossil fuels and reduce global CO 2 emissions. From 1995 to 2007, fossil fuels as the major energy source accounted for an addition of 89.3 Gt of carbon to the atmosphere over this period, 29 % of which was transferred to the ocean, 15 % to the global biosphere, with the balance (57 %) retained in the atmosphere. Building a low-carbon and climate-friendly energy system is becoming increasingly urgent to combat the threat of global warming. Onshore wind resources in the contiguous US could readily accommodate present and anticipated future US demand for electricity. The problem with the output from a single wind farm located in any particular region is that it is variable on time scales ranging from minutes to days posing difficulties to incorporate relevant outputs into an integrated power system. The issue of interconnection of wind farms is studied with specific attention to the physical factors that determine the temporal variability of winds in the near surface region of the atmosphere. From a global perspective, generation of electricity from wind is determined ultimately by the balance between the production and dissipation of kinetic energy in the atmosphere. The origin of wind energy from 1979 to 2010 is investigated. The atmosphere acts as a thermal engine to produce wind energy, absorbing heat at higher temperatures (approximately 256 K), releasing heat at lower temperatures (approximately 253 K), as a consequence producing wind energy at a rate of 2.45 W/m2, with a thermodynamic efficiency of 1.03 %. The continuous blowing of wind is maintained by the thermodynamic instability of the atmospheric system. A framework is constructed to probe the relationship between the energy and entropy of the atmosphere, and to quantify two variables, the maximum work and the maximum increase in entropy which represent the thermodynamic instability. A large value

  19. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  20. A Web-Based Climatology of Global Ocean Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risien, C. M.; Chelton, D. B.; Hodges, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    A climatology of winds over the global ocean on a 0.5° x 0.5° grid is under development based on five-years of measurements from the SeaWinds scatterometer. The SeaWinds instrument was launched on 19 June 1999 onboard the QuikSCAT satellite. SeaWinds is an active microwave radar that, using electromagnetic backscatter from the wind roughened ocean surface, measures vector winds with an accuracy equivalent to well-calibrated buoy observations. This five-year climatology is a web-based interactive atlas from which users can retrieve wind statistics, both in tabular and graphic form, for any particular region of interest. The global coverage of the scatterometer data provides valuable information about the wind statistics in the many regions of the world ocean that are sparsely sampled by ships and buoys. One of the anticipated uses of this climatology will be presented via a case study of the NOAA/HAZMAT response to a 2001 oil spill that resulted from the grounding of the tanker "Jessica" at the entrance to Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, in Wreck Bay, on San Cristóbal island, Galápagos.

  1. Wind power: The new energy policy 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-10-01

    Increasing use of renewable energy sources is an important aspect of the new energy policy of the State government of Schleswig-Holstein. Technical and industrial innovation are involved. By expanding and developing these regionally available inexhaustible energy sources to generate electricity and heat, we are contributing to environmental protection and helping to reduce adverse affects on the climate. We are also taking our limited resources into account and expanding energy generation in a logical manner. Wind energy is the most attractive renewable energy source for Schleswig-Holstein because our State is well known for its strong winds and constant fresh breeze. For this reason the State government has made expansion of wind energy one of its primary areas of emphasis. The goals of our promotion measures includes ongoing technical and engineering development of wind energy facilities, increasing the level of use of the wind, and increasing the percentage of wind energy used for power generation. This brochure is intended to demonstrate the significance and possibilities of wind energy for our State, to outline the legal requirements for erecting wind energy facilities, and to explain the many promotion measures. It represents a favorable breeze for wind.

  2. Toward Robust and Efficient Climate Downscaling for Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanvyve, E.; Rife, D.; Pinto, J. O.; Monaghan, A. J.; Davis, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation describes a more accurate and economical (less time, money and effort) wind resource assessment technique for the renewable energy industry, that incorporates innovative statistical techniques and new global mesoscale reanalyzes. The technique judiciously selects a collection of "case days" that accurately represent the full range of wind conditions observed at a given site over a 10-year period, in order to estimate the long-term energy yield. We will demonstrate that this new technique provides a very accurate and statistically reliable estimate of the 10-year record of the wind resource by intelligently choosing a sample of ±120 case days. This means that the expense of downscaling to quantify the wind resource at a prospective wind farm can be cut by two thirds from the current industry practice of downscaling a randomly chosen 365-day sample to represent winds over a "typical" year. This new estimate of the long-term energy yield at a prospective wind farm also has far less statistical uncertainty than the current industry standard approach. This key finding has the potential to reduce significantly market barriers to both onshore and offshore wind farm development, since insurers and financiers charge prohibitive premiums on investments that are deemed to be high risk. Lower uncertainty directly translates to lower perceived risk, and therefore far more attractive financing terms could be offered to wind farm developers who employ this new technique.

  3. Wind Energy Developments: Incentives In Selected Countries

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses developments in wind energy for the countries with significant wind capacity. After a brief overview of world capacity, it examines development trends, beginning with the United States - the number one country in wind electric generation capacity until 1997.

  4. Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fleeter, Sanford

    2012-09-30

    This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.

  5. Large wind energy converter: Growian 3 MW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerber, F.; Thiele, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The main features of the Growian wind energy converter are presented. Energy yield, environmental impact, and construction of the energy converter are discussed. Reliability of the windpowered system is assessed.

  6. A computer model of global thermospheric winds and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killeen, T. L.; Roble, R. G.; Spencer, N. W.

    1987-01-01

    Output data from the NCAR Thermospheric GCM and a vector-spherical-harmonic (VSH) representation of the wind field are used in constructing a computer model of time-dependent global horizontal vector neutral wind and temperature fields at altitude 130-300 km. The formulation of the VSH model is explained in detail, and some typical results obtained with a preliminary version (applicable to December solstice at solar maximum) are presented graphically. Good agreement with DE-2 satellite measurements is demonstrated.

  7. Development of Doppler Global Velocimetry for Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    1994-01-01

    The development of Doppler global velocimetry is described. Emphasis is placed on the modifications necessary to advance this nonintrusive laser based measurement technique from a laboratory prototype to a viable wind tunnel flow diagnostics tool. Several example wind tunnel flow field investigations are described to illustrate the versatility of the technique. Flow conditions ranged from incompressible to Mach 2.8 with measurement distances extending from 1 to 15 m.

  8. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-05-01

    While Iceland has an abundant wind energy resource, its use for electrical power production has so far been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated primarily from hydro- and geothermal sources, and adding wind energy has so far not been considered practical or even necessary. However, wind energy is becoming a more viable option, as opportunities for new hydro- or geothermal power installations become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland, a wind atlas has been developed as part of the joint Nordic project 'Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing' (IceWind). Downscaling simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0 - 5.5. In any season, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 - 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 - 1500 W m-2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations of 500 - 1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds is higher by 100 - 700 W m-2 than that of offshore winds. The regions with the highest average wind speeds are impractical for wind farms, due to the distances from road

  9. Application and verification of ECMWF seasonal forecast for wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, Mark; Marić, Tomislav; Qvist, Martin; Gulstad, Line

    2015-04-01

    A good understanding of long-term annual energy production (AEP) is crucial when assessing the business case of investing in green energy like wind power. The art of wind-resource assessment has emerged into a scientific discipline on its own, which has advanced at high pace over the last decade. This has resulted in continuous improvement of the AEP accuracy and, therefore, increase in business case certainty. Harvesting the full potential output of a wind farm or a portfolio of wind farms depends heavily on optimizing operation and management strategy. The necessary information for short-term planning (up to 14 days) is provided by standard weather and power forecasting services, and the long-term plans are based on climatology. However, the wind-power industry is lacking quality information on intermediate scales of the expected variability in seasonal and intra-annual variations and their geographical distribution. The seasonal power forecast presented here is designed to bridge this gap. The seasonal power production forecast is based on the ECMWF seasonal weather forecast and the Vestas' high-resolution, mesoscale weather library. The seasonal weather forecast is enriched through a layer of statistical post-processing added to relate large-scale wind speed anomalies to mesoscale climatology. The resulting predicted energy production anomalies, thus, include mesoscale effects not captured by the global forecasting systems. The turbine power output is non-linearly related to the wind speed, which has important implications for the wind power forecast. In theory, the wind power is proportional to the cube of wind speed. However, due to the nature of turbine design, this exponent is close to 3 only at low wind speeds, becomes smaller as the wind speed increases, and above 11-13 m/s the power output remains constant, called the rated power. The non-linear relationship between wind speed and the power output generally increases sensitivity of the forecasted power

  10. A global quantification of compound precipitation and wind extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martius, Olivia; Pfahl, Stephan; Chevalier, Clément

    2016-07-01

    The concomitant occurrence of extreme precipitation and winds can have severe impacts. Here this concomitant occurrence is quantified globally using ERA-Interim reanalysis data. A logistic regression model is used to determine significant changes in the odds of precipitation extremes given a wind extreme that occurs on the same day, the day before, or the day after. High percentages of cooccurring wind and precipitation extremes are found in coastal regions and in areas with frequent tropical cyclones, with maxima of more than 50% of concomitant events. Strong regional-scale variations in this percentage are related to the interaction of weather systems with topography resulting in Föhn winds, gap winds, and orographic drying and the structure and tracks of extratropical and tropical cyclones. The percentage of concomitant events increases substantially if spatial shifts by one grid point are taken into account. Such spatially shifted but cooccurring events are important in insurance applications.

  11. Hardening Doppler Global Velocimetry Systems for Large Wind Tunnel Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.; Fletcher, Mark T.; South, Bruce W.

    2004-01-01

    The development of Doppler Global Velocimetry from a laboratory curiosity to a wind tunnel instrumentation system is discussed. This development includes system advancements from a single velocity component to simultaneous three components, and from a steady state to instantaneous measurement. Improvements to system control and stability are discussed along with solutions to real world problems encountered in the wind tunnel. This on-going development program follows the cyclic evolution of understanding the physics of the technology, development of solutions, laboratory and wind tunnel testing, and reevaluation of the physics based on the test results.

  12. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  13. Stabilization of Wind Energy Conversion System with Hydrogen Generator by Using EDLC Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishido, Seiji; Takahashi, Rion; Murata, Toshiaki; Tamura, Junji; Sugimasa, Masatoshi; Komura, Akiyoshi; Futami, Motoo; Ichinose, Masaya; Ide, Kazumasa

    The spread of wind power generation is progressed hugely in recent years from a viewpoint of environmental problems including global warming. Though wind power is considered as a very prospective energy source, wind power fluctuation due to the random fluctuation of wind speed has still created some problems. Therefore, research has been performed how to smooth the wind power fluctuation. This paper proposes Energy Capacitor System (ECS) for the smoothing of wind power which consists of Electric Double-Layer Capacitor (EDLC) and power electronics devices and works as an electric power storage system. Moreover, hydrogen has received much attention in recent years from a viewpoint of exhaustion problem of fossil fuel. Therefore it is also proposed that a hydrogen generator is installed at the wind farm to generate hydrogen. In this paper, the effectiveness of the proposed system is verified by the simulation analyses using PSCAD/EMTDC.

  14. Wind Energy Education and Training Programs (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    As the United States dramatically expands wind energy deployment, the industry is challenged with developing a skilled workforce to support it. The Wind Powering America website features a map of wind energy education and training program locations at community colleges, universities, and other institutions in the United States. The map includes links to contacts and program details. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to this online resource for wind energy education and training programs episodes.

  15. IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-05-01

    The twenty-third IEA Wind Energy Annual Report reviews the progress during 2000 of the activities in the Implementing Agreement for Co-operation in the Research and Development on Wind Turbine Systems under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). The agreement and its program, which is known as IEA R&D Wind, is a collaborative venture among 19 contracting parties from 17 IEA member countries and the European Commission.

  16. Wind energy in the north Netherlands region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanheemstra, W.; Devries, B.

    1983-03-01

    A computer model was used to estimate the technical/economical potential of wind energy in the northern Netherlands. Local wind supply, technical and economic characteristics of wind turbines, and local energy consumptions were assessed. The data of an average dairy farm are investigated to determine the parameters to be used. Results for several consumer groups are determined. A potential estimate for the province of Friesland is presented.

  17. Identification and Attribution of Global Wind Speed Trends at 100m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Zachary; Smith, Ronald; Storelvmo, Trude

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have found evidence that global climate change significantly alters the strength of large-scale wind patterns. Any enduring trends over large regions are potentially of value to understand due to their implications for the wind energy industry. In this study we identify and evaluate global wind speed trends at the wind turbine hub height (~100m) through the use of CMIP5 models, standard reanalyses (ERA-Interim, NCEP2) and a uniquely high-resolution analysis dataset (Vestas Mesoscale Library). By analyzing how wind speeds change across the globe throughout the period 1900-2100 (with emphasis on the satellite era, 1979-2014), we assess the significance of multi-decadal wind speed trends in the context of natural spatial and temporal variability. Our results show substantial differences in regional trends between different datasets though several regions including the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes and the Caribbean show consistently substantial changing wind speeds during the satellite era. Wind speed trends tend to diminish over large time scales and follow spatial patterns that link multi-decadal trends to the evolving behaviors of internal variability modes, especially those of ENSO and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM).

  18. A global wind resource atlas including high-resolution terrain effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, Andrea; Badger, Jake; Olsen, Bjarke; Davis, Neil; Larsen, Xiaoli; Badger, Merete

    2015-04-01

    Currently no accurate global wind resource dataset is available to fill the needs of policy makers and strategic energy planners. Evaluating wind resources directly from coarse resolution reanalysis datasets underestimate the true wind energy resource, as the small-scale spatial variability of winds is missing. This missing variability can account for a large part of the local wind resource. Crucially, it is the windiest sites that suffer the largest wind resource errors: in simple terrain the windiest sites may be underestimated by 25%, in complex terrain the underestimate can be as large as 100%. The small-scale spatial variability of winds can be modelled using novel statistical methods and by application of established microscale models within WAsP developed at DTU Wind Energy. We present the framework for a single global methodology, which is relative fast and economical to complete. The method employs reanalysis datasets, which are downscaled to high-resolution wind resource datasets via a so-called generalization step, and microscale modelling using WAsP. This method will create the first global wind atlas (GWA) that covers all land areas (except Antarctica) and 30 km coastal zone over water. Verification of the GWA estimates will be done at carefully selected test regions, against verified estimates from mesoscale modelling and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This verification exercise will also help in the estimation of the uncertainty of the new wind climate dataset. Uncertainty will be assessed as a function of spatial aggregation. It is expected that the uncertainty at verification sites will be larger than that of dedicated assessments, but the uncertainty will be reduced at levels of aggregation appropriate for energy planning, and importantly much improved relative to what is used today. In this presentation we discuss the methodology used, which includes the generalization of wind climatologies, and the differences in local and spatially

  19. Decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Buldmann, Benjamin; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate predictions on timescales from one year to one decade are gaining importance since this time frame falls within the planning horizon of politics, economy, and society. In this context, decadal predictions are of particular interest for the development of renewable energies such as wind energy. The present study examines the decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials in the framework of the MiKlip consortium ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen"; www.fona-miklip.de). This consortium aims to develop a model system based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that can provide skilful decadal predictions on regional and global scales. Three generations of the decadal prediction system, which differ primarily in their ocean initialisation, are analysed here. Ensembles of uninitialised historical and yearly initialised hindcast experiments are used to assess different skill scores for 10m wind speeds and wind energy output (Eout) over Central Europe, with special focus given to Germany. With this aim, a statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is used for the regionalisation of the global datasets. Its added value is evaluated by comparison of skill scores for MPI-ESM large-scale wind speeds and SDD simulated regional wind speeds. All three MPI-ESM ensemble generations show some forecast skill for annual mean wind speed and Eout over Central Europe on yearly and multi-yearly time scales. The forecast skill is mostly limited to the first years after initialisation. Differences between the three ensemble generations are generally small. The regionalisation preserves and sometimes increases the forecast skill of the global runs but results depend on lead time and ensemble generation. Moreover, regionalisation often improves the ensemble spread. Seasonal Eout skills are generally lower than for annual means. Skill scores are lowest during summer, and persist longest in autumn. A large-scale westerly

  20. Improving Regional Air Quality with Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-05-01

    This model documentation is designed to assist State and local governments in pursuing wind energy purchases as a control measure under regional air quality plans. It is intended to support efforts to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs), including wind energy purchases, to ensure compliance with the standard for ground-level ozone established under the Clean Air Act.

  1. Global view of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kursunoglu, B.N.; Millunzi, A.C.; Perlmutter, A.

    1982-01-01

    This book contains selected papers presented at the fourth interdisciplinary international forum on the Geopolitics of Energy. Topics included: energy demand; energy modeling; urgency of world energy problems; nuclear fission; progress in nuclear fusion; financing energy investments; conservation of energy in developed countries; public safety - risks and benefits; and atmospheric carbon dioxide. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base; all will appear in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis and five in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). (RJC)

  2. Multifluid Simulations of the Global Solar Wind Including Pickup Ions and Turbulence Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Usmanov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    I will describe a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar wind that takes into account turbulent heating of the wind by velocity and magnetic fluctuations as well as a variety of effects produced by interstellar pickup protons. The interstellar pickup protons are treated in the model as one fluid and the protons and electrons are treated together as a second fluid. The model equations include a Reynolds decomposition of the plasma velocity and magnetic field into mean and fluctuating quantities, as well as energy transfer from interstellar pickup protons to solar wind protons that results in the deceleration of the solar wind. The model is used to simulate the global steady-state structure of the solar wind in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU. The simulation assumes that the background magnetic field on the Sun is either a dipole (aligned or tilted with respect to the solar rotation axis) or one that is deduced from solar magnetograms.

  3. Magnetofluid Simulations of the Global Solar Wind Including Pickup Ions and Turbulence Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H.

    2011-01-01

    I will describe a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar wind that takes into account turbulent heating of the wind by velocity and magnetic fluctuations as well as a variety of effects produced by interstellar pickup protons. In this report, the interstellar pickup protons are treated as one fluid and the protons and electrons are treated together as a second fluid. The model equations include a Reynolds decomposition of the plasma velocity and magnetic field into mean and fluctuating quantities, as well as energy transfer from interstellar pickup protons to solar wind protons that results in the deceleration of the solar wind. The model is used to simulate the global steady-state structure of the solar wind in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU. Where possible, the model is compared with Voyager data. Initial results from generalization to a three-fluid model is described elsewhere in this session.

  4. The Ether Wind and the Global Positioning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    Explains how students can perform a refutation of the ether theory using information from the Global Positioning System (GPS). Discusses the functioning of the GPS, qualitatively describes how position determination would be affected by an ether wind, and illustrates the pertinent ideas with a simple quantitative model. (WRM)

  5. The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000-2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997-2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms. PMID:27355042

  6. The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000–2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997–2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms. PMID:27355042

  7. Magnetic energy flow in the solar wind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modisette, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the effect of rotation (tangential flow) of the solar wind on the conclusions of Whang (1971) suggesting an increase in the solar wind velocity due to the conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic energy. It is shown that the effect of the rotation of the sun on the magnetic energy flow results in most of the magnetic energy being transported by magnetic shear stress near the sun.

  8. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fullenkamp, Patrick

    2014-06-15

    The Global Wind Network (GLWN) assessed the key factors that determine wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to provide a better understanding of the factors that will help enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and reduce installed system costs.

  9. Avian study protocols and wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, K.

    1995-12-01

    This paper identifies the need to develop and use standardized avian study protocols to determine avian impacts at new and existing wind energy facilities. This will allow data collected from various sites to be correlated for better understanding wind energy related avian impacts. Factors contributing to an increased interest in wind energy facilities by electric utilities include: (1) Increased demand for electricity;(2) increased constraints on traditional electrical generating facilities (i.e. hydroelectric and nuclear power plants);(3) improved wind turbine technology. During the 1980`s generous tax credits spawned the development of wind energy facilities, known as wind farms, in California. Commercial scale wind farm proposals are being actively considered in states across the country - Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, Wisconsin, Texas, and Vermont to name a few. From the wind farms in California the unexpected issue of avian impacts, especially to birds-of-prey, or raptor, surfaced and continues to plague the wind industry. However, most of the avian studies did not followed a standardized protocol or methodology and, therefore, data is unavailable to analyze and compare impacts at different sites or with differing technologies and configurations. Effective mitigation can not be designed and applied until these differences are understood. The Bonneville Power Administration is using comparable avian study protocols to collect data for two environmental impact statements being prepared for two separate wind farm proposals. Similar protocol will be required for any other avian impact analysis performed by the agency on proposed or existing wind farms. The knowledge gained from these studies should contribute to a better understanding of avian interactions with wind energy facilities and the identification of effective mitigation measures.

  10. Possibilities and limitations of wind energy utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feustel, J.

    1981-10-01

    The existing wind resource, the most favorable locations, applications, and designs of windpowered generators are reviewed, along with descriptions of current and historic wind turbines and lines of research. Coastal regions, plains, hill summits, and mountains with funneling regions are noted to have the highest annual wind averages, with energy densities exceeding the annual solar insolation at average wind speeds of 5-7.9 m/sec. Applications for utility-grade power production, for irrigation, for mechanical heat production, and for pumped storage in water towers or reservoirs are mentioned, as well as electrical power production in remote areas and for hydrogen production by electrolysis. Power coefficients are discussed, with attention given to the German Growian 3 MW machine. It is shown that the least economically sound wind turbines, the machines with outputs below 100 kW, can vie with diesel plant economics in a good wind regime if the wind turbine operates for 15 yr.

  11. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task 3, the

  12. Solar energy system with wind vane

    DOEpatents

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  13. Hydrogen based global renewable energy network

    SciTech Connect

    Akai, Makoto

    1993-12-31

    In the last quarter of this century, global environmental problem has emerged as a major scientific, political and social issue. Specific Problems include: depletion of ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), acid rain, destruction of tropical forests and desertification, pollution of the sea and global wanning due to the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide and others. Among these problems, particular attention of the world has been focused on the global warming because it has direct linkage to energy consumption which our economic development depends on so far. On the other hand, the future program of The Sunshine Project for alternative energy technology R&D, The Moonlight Project for energy conservation technology R&D, and The Global Environmental Technology Program for environmental problem mitigating technology R&D which are Japan`s national projects being promoted by their Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been reexamined in view of recent changes in the situations surrounding new energy technology. In this regard, The New Sunshine Program will be established by integrating these three activities to accelerate R&D in the field of energy and environmental technologies. In the reexamination, additional stress has been laid on the contribution to solving global environmental problem through development of clean renewable energies which constitute a major part of the {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes}, a comprehensive, long-term and international cooperative program proposed by MITI. The present paper discusses the results of feasibility study on hydrogen energy system leading to the concept of WE-NET following a brief summary on R&D status on solar and wind energy in Japan.

  14. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F.; Lackner, Matthew A.

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  15. Accurate aircraft wind measurements using the global positioning system (GPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dobosy, R.J.; Crawford, T.L., McMillen, R.T., Dumas, E.J.

    1996-11-01

    High accuracy measurements of the spatial distribution of wind speed are required in the study of turbulent exchange between the atmosphere and the earth. The use of a differential global positioning system (GPS) to determine the sensor velocity vector component of wind speed is discussed in this paper. The results of noise and rocking testing are summarized, and fluxes obtained from the GPS-based methods are compared to those measured from systems on towers and airplanes. The GPS-based methods provided usable measurements that compared well with tower and aircraft data at a significantly lower cost. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. SeaWinds Global Coverage with Detail of Hurricane Floyd

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of ocean surface winds over the Atlantic Ocean, based on September 1999 data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite, shows wind direction (white streamlines) at a resolution of 25 kilometers (15.5 miles), superimposed on the color image indicating wind speed.

    Over the ocean, the strong (seen in violet) trade winds blow steadily from the cooler subtropical oceans to warm waters just north of the equator. The air rises over these warm waters and sinks in the subtropics at the horse latitudes. Low wind speeds are indicated in blue. In the mid-latitudes, the high vorticity caused by the rotation of the Earth generates the spirals of weather systems. The North Atlantic is dominated by a high-pressure system, whose anti-cyclonic (clockwise) flow creates strong winds blowing parallel to the coast of Spain and Morocco. This creates strong ocean upwelling and cold temperature. Hurricane Floyd, with its high winds (yellow), is clearly visible west of the Bahamas. Tropical depression Gert is seen as it was forming in the tropical mid-Atlantic (as an anti-clockwise spiral); it later developed into a full-blown hurricane.

    Because the atmosphere is largely transparent to microwaves, SeaWinds is able to cover 93 percent of the global oceans, under both clear and cloudy conditions, in a single day, with the capability of a synoptic view of the ocean. The high resolution of the data also gives detailed description of small and intense weather systems, like Hurricane Floyd. The image in the insert is based on data specially produced at 12.5 kilometers (7.7 miles). In the insert, white arrows of wind vector are imposed on the color image of wind speed. The insert represents a 3-degree area occupied by Hurricane Floyd. After these data were acquired, Hurricane Floyd turned north. Its strength and proximity to the Atlantic coast of the U.S. caused the largest evacuation of citizens in U.S. history. Its landfall on September 16, 1999

  17. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

  18. Modeling Innovations Advance Wind Energy Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    In 1981, Glenn Research Center scientist Dr. Larry Viterna developed a model that predicted certain elements of wind turbine performance with far greater accuracy than previous methods. The model was met with derision from others in the wind energy industry, but years later, Viterna discovered it had become the most widely used method of its kind, enabling significant wind energy technologies-like the fixed pitch turbines produced by manufacturers like Aerostar Inc. of Westport, Massachusetts-that are providing sustainable, climate friendly energy sources today.

  19. Wind energy curriculum development at GWU

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Stephen M

    2013-06-08

    A wind energy curriculum has been developed at the George Washington University, School of Engineering and Applied Science. Surveys of student interest and potential employers expectations were conducted. Wind industry desires a combination of mechanical engineering training with electrical engineering training. The curriculum topics and syllabus were tested in several graduate/undergraduate elective courses. The developed curriculum was then submitted for consideration.

  20. Wind Energy Guide for County Commissioners

    SciTech Connect

    Costanti, M.

    2006-10-01

    One of the key stakeholders associated with economic development are local government officials, who are often required to evaluate and vote on commercial wind energy project permits, as well as to determine and articulate what wind energy benefits accrue to their counties. Often these local officials lack experience with large-scale wind energy and need to make important decisions concerning what may be a complicated and controversial issue. These decisions can be confounded with diverse perspectives from various stakeholders. This project is designed to provide county commissioners, planners, and other local county government officials with a practical overview of information required to successfully implement commercial wind energy projects in their county. The guidebook provides readers with information on the following 13 topics: Brief Wind Energy Overview; Environmental Benefits; Wind Energy Myths and Facts; Economic Development Benefits; Wind Economics; The Development Process; Public Outreach; Siting Issues; Property Tax Incentives; Power System Impacts; Permitting, Zoning, and Siting Processes; Case Studies; and Further Information. For each of the above topics, the guidebook provides an introduction that identifies the topic, why local government should care, a topic snapshot, how the topic will arise, and a list of resources that define and assess the topic.

  1. Wind as a renewable energy resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawsey, R. A.; Ferraro, R. J.

    1988-12-01

    A description of the United States wind energy technology status, a discussion of recent milestones achieved in wind power, and a call for action in order for competitive wind systems to become practical in an international marketplace is presented in this report. An immediate opportunity to initiate a joint venture project with the government, equipment developers, equipment manufacturers, utilities, and the Electric Power Research Institute is described. The key technical areas of materials technology for reduced airfoil fatigue, airfoil design for optimum new-site performance, and power electronics for variable-speed wind turbines are highlighted.

  2. Assessment of Wind Energy Production Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermannsson, Hermann Reynir

    An examination of two computer programs used for estimating wind energy, RETScreen and System Advisor Model (SAM), are examined and compared to measured data from a wind farm. Wind speed and electrical production estimated by these programs are examined and compared to the measured data. Both programs assume no losses and predict data for an ideal wind farm. Measured data on the other hand includes losses within the farm (e.g. array loss, airfoil loss and availability loss). According to results, RETScreen underestimates the electrical production by 35% and SAM overestimates it by 26%.

  3. Wind energy 1994: SED-Volume 15

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.D.; Hock, S.M. ); Berg, D.E. )

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this Symposium is to provide a forum for laboratory and university researchers, engineers, and operators to confront the fundamental issues and problems that face the wind industry. This year's Symposium begins with some overview discussions in the Aerodynamics sessions in which researchers and wind turbine operators regroup to summarize the important issues of airfoil roughness and international research directions. The focus then shifts to the more specialized topics of aerodynamic controls and unsteady aerodynamics. There is greater utility participation this year on important issues regarding resource assessment and wind turbine grid applications. The maturation of wind turbine design tools is greatly aided by advancements in computer technology which continue to enable wind turbine designers to better understand the dynamic behavior of wind turbine systems. This year's symposium demonstrates these new capabilities with two sessions devoted to this work. Understanding the genesis of fatigue producing turbulence and the prediction of extreme loading events has become the focal point of fatigue research, as the wind energy industry comes to terms with the severity of the operating environment that wind turbines must fast. Then the topics turn to more conventional problems of wind turbine materials and fatigue testing. The Symposium finishes with an array of current wind turbine field tests and design topics.

  4. The Etesian wind system and wind energy potential over the Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafka, Stella; Xoplaki, Elena; Garcia-Bustamante, Elena; Toreti, Andrea; Zanis, Prodromos; Luterbacher, Juerg

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean region lies in an area of great climatic interest since it is influenced by some of the most relevant mechanisms of the global climate system. In the frame of the three Europe 2020 priorities for a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion, the Mediterranean energy plan is of paramount importance at the European level, being an area with a significant potential for renewable energy from natural sources that could play an important role in responding to climate change effects over the region. We present preliminary results on a study of the Etesian winds in the past, present and future time. We investigate the variability and predictability of the wind field over the Aegean. Statistical downscaling based on several methodologies will be applied (e.g. canonical correlation analysis and multiple linear regression). Instrumental time series, Era-Interim and the 20CR reanalyses will be used. Large-scale climate drivers as well as the influence of local/regional factors and their interaction with the Etesian wind field will be addressed. Finally, the Etesian wind resources on the present and future climate will be assessed in order to identify the potential areas suitable for the establishment of wind farms and the production of wind power in the Aegean Sea.

  5. Wind Energy Program overview, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    Wind energy research has two goals: (1) to gain a fundamental understanding of the interactions between wind and wind turbines; and (2) to develop the basic design tools required to develop advanced technologies. A primary objective of applied research activities is to develop sophisticated computer codes and integrate them into the design, testing, and evaluation of advanced components and systems, Computer models have become a necessary and integral part of developing new high-tech wind energy systems. A computer-based design strategy allows designers to model different configurations and explore new designs before building expensive hardware. DOE works closely with utilities and the wind industry in setting its applied research agenda. As soon as research findings become available, the national laboratories transfer the information to industry through workshops, conferences, and publications.

  6. Economics of wind energy for utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccabe, T. F.; Goldenblatt, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    Utility acceptance of this technology will be contingent upon the establishment of both its technical and economic feasibility. This paper presents preliminary results from a study currently underway to establish the economic value of central station wind energy to certain utility systems. The results for the various utilities are compared specifically in terms of three parameters which have a major influence on the economic value: (1) wind resource, (2) mix of conventional generation sources, and (3) specific utility financial parameters including projected fuel costs. The wind energy is derived from modeling either MOD-2 or MOD-0A wind turbines in wind resources determined by a year of data obtained from the DOE supported meteorological towers with a two-minute sampling frequency. In this paper, preliminary results for six of the utilities studied are presented and compared.

  7. Global Energy and Aviation Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, Dave; Anast, Peter; Lowery, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are usually diffuse and require large facilities. Biofuels work better, are more economical to produce for ground transportation, but sharply increase competition for food croplands. Noble laureate Richard Smalley (deceased-2005) conceptual 20 TWe power generation covers hundreds x hundreds of miles. Combined with Fuller s superconducting power grid system would enable renewable planetary energy. A solar-wind project in Australia will have a 7km diameter collector interfacing with a 1 km tower to extract 200 MW from wind turbines mounted at the base. GE Energy s 3.5MW Wind Turbine is large and placing this in perspective, it is as if one were rotating a Boeing 747-200; the blade diameter is that large. Wind turbines are rapidly gaining popularity in Europe and photovoltaic (PV) is expected to also expand rapidly. It becomes clear that we need (and still have time) to develop new sources of energy. Hf 178 bombarded by X-rays produces Gamma-rays for heating. The reaction stops when the X-rays stop; the half life is about 30 years and seems manageable vs 30 000 years. Water splitting needs to be perused as do ultra fast ultra intense laser applications in terms of fusion and new materials developments including new ways to strip and re-bind hydrogen into fuels. New methods and tools for development are being found in quantum mechanical applications to macro-systems and need to be developed into a set of new tool boxes for development of these new energy sources.

  8. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    SciTech Connect

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  9. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski and

  10. Implementation of global energy sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Grob, G.R.

    1998-02-01

    The term energy sustainability emerged from the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992, when Agenda 21 was formulated and the Global Energy Charter proclaimed. Emission reductions, total energy costing, improved energy efficiency, and sustainable energy systems are the four fundamental principles of the charter. These principles can be implemented in the proposed financial, legal, technical, and education framework. Much has been done in many countries toward the implementation of the Global Energy Charter, but progress has not been fast enough to ease the disastrous effects of the too many ill-conceived energy systems on the environment, climate, and health. Global warming is accelerating, and pollution is worsening, especially in developing countries with their hunger for energy to meet the needs of economic development. Asian cities are now beating all pollution records, and greenhouse gases are visibly changing the climate with rising sea levels, retracting glaciers, and record weather disasters. This article presents why and how energy investments and research money have to be rechanneled into sustainable energy, rather than into the business-as-usual of depleting, unsustainable energy concepts exceeding one trillion dollars per year. This largest of all investment sectors needs much more attention.

  11. Simulation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer for Wind Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanovic, Nikola

    Energy production from wind is an increasingly important component of overall global power generation, and will likely continue to gain an even greater share of electricity production as world governments attempt to mitigate climate change and wind energy production costs decrease. Wind energy generation depends on wind speed, which is greatly influenced by local and synoptic environmental forcings. Synoptic forcing, such as a cold frontal passage, exists on a large spatial scale while local forcing manifests itself on a much smaller scale and could result from topographic effects or land-surface heat fluxes. Synoptic forcing, if strong enough, may suppress the effects of generally weaker local forcing. At the even smaller scale of a wind farm, upstream turbines generate wakes that decrease the wind speed and increase the atmospheric turbulence at the downwind turbines, thereby reducing power production and increasing fatigue loading that may damage turbine components, respectively. Simulation of atmospheric processes that span a considerable range of spatial and temporal scales is essential to improve wind energy forecasting, wind turbine siting, turbine maintenance scheduling, and wind turbine design. Mesoscale atmospheric models predict atmospheric conditions using observed data, for a wide range of meteorological applications across scales from thousands of kilometers to hundreds of meters. Mesoscale models include parameterizations for the major atmospheric physical processes that modulate wind speed and turbulence dynamics, such as cloud evolution and surface-atmosphere interactions. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used in this dissertation to investigate the effects of model parameters on wind energy forecasting. WRF is used for case study simulations at two West Coast North American wind farms, one with simple and one with complex terrain, during both synoptically and locally-driven weather events. The model's performance with different

  12. 2014 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, Christopher; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Settle, Edward

    2015-10-01

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2014. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  13. Wind Energy Workforce Development: Engineering, Science, & Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, George A.; Stewart, Susan W.; Bridgen, Marc

    2013-03-29

    Broadly, this project involved the development and delivery of a new curriculum in wind energy engineering at the Pennsylvania State University; this includes enhancement of the Renewable Energy program at the Pennsylvania College of Technology. The new curricula at Penn State includes addition of wind energy-focused material in more than five existing courses in aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, engineering science and mechanics and energy engineering, as well as three new online graduate courses. The online graduate courses represent a stand-alone Graduate Certificate in Wind Energy, and provide the core of a Wind Energy Option in an online intercollege professional Masters degree in Renewable Energy and Sustainability Systems. The Pennsylvania College of Technology erected a 10 kilowatt Xzeres wind turbine that is dedicated to educating the renewable energy workforce. The entire construction process was incorporated into the Renewable Energy A.A.S. degree program, the Building Science and Sustainable Design B.S. program, and other construction-related coursework throughout the School of Construction and Design Technologies. Follow-on outcomes include additional non-credit opportunities as well as secondary school career readiness events, community outreach activities, and public awareness postings.

  14. Bats and wind energy: a literature synthesis and annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    Turbines have been used to harness energy from wind for hundreds of years. However, with growing concerns about climate change, wind energy has only recently entered the mainstream of global electricity production. Since early on in the development of wind-energy production, concerns have arisen about the potential impacts of turbines to wildlife; these concerns have especially focused on the mortality of birds. Despite recent improvements to turbines that have resulted in reduced mortality of birds, there is clear evidence that bat mortality at wind turbines is of far greater conservation concern. Bats of certain species are dying by the thousands at turbines across North America, and the species consistently affected tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Turbine-related bat mortalities are now affecting nearly a quarter of all bat species occurring in the United States and Canada. Most documented bat mortality at wind-energy facilities has occurred in late summer and early fall and has involved tree bats, with hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) being the most prevalent among fatalities. This literature synthesis and annotated bibliography focuses on refereed journal publications and theses about bats and wind-energy development in North America (United States and Canada). Thirty-six publications and eight theses were found, and their key findings were summarized. These publications date from 1996 through 2011, with the bulk of publications appearing from 2007 to present, reflecting the relatively recent conservation concerns about bats and wind energy. The idea for this Open-File Report formed while organizing a joint U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/U.S. Geological Survey "Bats and Wind Energy Workshop," on January 25-26, 2012. The purposes of the workshop were to develop a list of research priorities to support decision making concerning bats with respect to siting and operations of wind-energy facilities across the United

  15. Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wrocław, Legionowo and Łeba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.

  16. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): Global dune distribution and wind pattern observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Fenton, Lori; Titus, Timothy N.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) is complete and now extends from 90°N to 90°S latitude. The recently released south pole (SP) portion (MC-30) of MGD3 adds ∼60,000 km2 of medium to large-size dark dune fields and ∼15,000 km2 of sand deposits and smaller dune fields to the previously released equatorial (EQ, ∼70,000 km2), and north pole (NP, ∼845,000 km2) portions of the database, bringing the global total to ∼975,000 km2. Nearly all NP dunes are part of large sand seas, while the majority of EQ and SP dune fields are individual dune fields located in craters. Despite the differences between Mars and Earth, their dune and dune field morphologies are strikingly similar. Bullseye dune fields, named for their concentric ring pattern, are the exception, possibly owing their distinctive appearance to winds that are unique to the crater environment. Ground-based wind directions are derived from slipface (SF) orientation and dune centroid azimuth (DCA), a measure of the relative location of a dune field inside a crater. SF and DCA often preserve evidence of different wind directions, suggesting the importance of local, topographically influenced winds. In general however, ground-based wind directions are broadly consistent with expected global patterns, such as polar easterlies. Intriguingly, between 40°S and 80°S latitude both SF and DCA preserve their strongest, though different, dominant wind direction, with transport toward the west and east for SF-derived winds and toward the north and west for DCA-derived winds.

  17. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): Global dune distribution and wind pattern observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, R. K.; Fenton, L. K.; Titus, T. N.

    2014-02-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) is complete and now extends from 90°N to 90°S latitude. The recently released south pole (SP) portion (MC-30) of MGD3 adds ˜60,000 km2 of medium to large-size dark dune fields and ˜15,000 km2 of sand deposits and smaller dune fields to the previously released equatorial (EQ, ˜70,000 km2), and north pole (NP, ˜845,000 km2) portions of the database, bringing the global total to ˜975,000 km2. Nearly all NP dunes are part of large sand seas, while the majority of EQ and SP dune fields are individual dune fields located in craters. Despite the differences between Mars and Earth, their dune and dune field morphologies are strikingly similar. Bullseye dune fields, named for their concentric ring pattern, are the exception, possibly owing their distinctive appearance to winds that are unique to the crater environment. Ground-based wind directions are derived from slipface (SF) orientation and dune centroid azimuth (DCA), a measure of the relative location of a dune field inside a crater. SF and DCA often preserve evidence of different wind directions, suggesting the importance of local, topographically influenced winds. In general however, ground-based wind directions are broadly consistent with expected global patterns, such as polar easterlies. Intriguingly, between 40°S and 80°S latitude both SF and DCA preserve their strongest, though different, dominant wind direction, with transport toward the west and east for SF-derived winds and toward the north and west for DCA-derived winds.

  18. A new wind energy conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1975-01-01

    It is presupposed that vertical axis wind energy machines will be superior to horizontal axis machines on a power output/cost basis and the design of a new wind energy machine is presented. The design employs conical cones with sharp lips and smooth surfaces to promote maximum drag and minimize skin friction. The cones are mounted on a vertical axis in such a way as to assist torque development. Storing wind energy as compressed air is thought to be optimal and reasons are: (1) the efficiency of compression is fairly high compared to the conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy in storage batteries; (2) the release of stored energy through an air motor has high efficiency; and (3) design, construction, and maintenance of an all-mechanical system is usually simpler than for a mechanical to electrical conversion system.

  19. Inspiring Educators to Teach Wind Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    The need to teach students about alternative energy will continue to gain importance given the increasing growth and demands of the renewable energy industry. This article describes an activity focused on wind energy that the author introduced at the Annual STEM Symposium sponsored by Texas's Region One Education Service Center that can be…

  20. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  1. Wind energy contract list, fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The federal Wind Energy Program performs applied research in the sciences of wind turbine dynamics and the development of advanced components and systems. These efforts have resulted in major advances in the development and commercialization of wind technology as an alternative energy source. In the past, a summary was prepared each year to provide an overview of the government-funded activities within the federal Wind Energy Program. Tasks conducted in-house by participating national laboratories or under contract by industrial, academic, and other research institutes were highlighted. This year's document is more concise than the summaries of previous years. The FY 1990 contract overview comprises a lists of all subcontracts begun, ongoing, or completed during FY 1990 (October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990). Under each managing laboratory, projects are listed alphabetically by project area.

  2. Wind for Schools: Fostering the Human Talent Supply Chain for a 20% Wind Energy Future (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2011-03-01

    As the United States dramatically expands wind energy deployment, the industry is challenged with developing a skilled workforce and addressing public resistance. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools project addresses these issues by: 1) Developing Wind Application Centers (WACs) at universities; WAC students assist in implementing school wind turbines and participate in wind courses. 2) Installing small wind turbines at community "host" schools. 3) Implementing teacher training with interactive curricula at each host school.

  3. Evaluation of Dynamical Downscaling Resolution Effect on Wind Energy Forecast Value for a Wind Farm in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosgaard, Martin; Hahmann, Andrea; Skov Nielsen, Torben; Giebel, Gregor; Ejnar Sørensen, Poul; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    For any energy system relying on wind power, accurate forecasts of wind fluctuations are essential for efficient integration into the power grid. Increased forecast precision allows end-users to plan day-ahead operation with reduced risk of penalties which in turn supports the feasibility of wind energy. This study aims to quantify value added to wind energy forecasts in the 12-48 hour leadtime by downscaling global numerical weather prediction (NWP) data using a limited-area NWP model. The accuracy of statistical wind power forecasting tools depends strongly on this NWP input. Typical performance metrics are mean absolute error or root mean square error for predicted- against observed wind power production, and these metrics are closely related to wind speed forecast bias and correlation with observations. Wind speed bias can be handled in the statistical wind power forecasting model, though it is entirely up to it's NWP input to describe the wind speed correlation correctly. The basis of comparison for forecasts is data from the Stor-Rotliden wind farm in central Sweden. The surrounding forest adds to the forecasting challenge, thus motivating the downscaling experiment as the potential for wind power forecast improvement is higher in complex terrain. The 40 Vestas V90 turbines were erected in 2009 and correspond to 78MWe installed electrical capacity. Forecasts from global and limited-area NWP models, together covering five different horizontal computational grid spacings of ~50km down to ~1km, are studied for a yearlong, continuous time period. The preliminary results shown quantify forecast strengths and weaknesses for each NWP model resolution.

  4. Projecting Wind Energy Potential Under Climate Change with Ensemble of Climate Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A.; Shashikanth, K.; Ghosh, S.; Mukherjee, P. P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed an increasing global concern over energy sustainability and security, triggered by a number of issues, such as (though not limited to): fossil fuel depletion, energy resource geopolitics, economic efficiency versus population growth debate, environmental concerns and climate change. Wind energy is a renewable and sustainable form of energy in which wind turbines convert the kinetic energy of wind into electrical energy. Global warming and differential surface heating may significantly impact the wind velocity and hence the wind energy potential. Sustainable design of wind mills requires understanding the impacts of climate change on wind energy potential, which we evaluate here with multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs). GCMs simulate the climate variables globally considering the greenhouse emission scenarios provided as Representation Concentration path ways (RCPs). Here we use new generation climate model outputs obtained from Coupled model Intercomparison Project 5(CMIP5). We first compute the wind energy potential with reanalysis data (NCEP/ NCAR), at a spatial resolution of 2.50, where the gridded data is fitted to Weibull distribution and with the Weibull parameters, the wind energy densities are computed at different grids. The same methodology is then used, to CMIP5 outputs (resultant of U-wind and V-wind) of MRI, CMCC, BCC, CanESM, and INMCM4 for historical runs. This is performed separately for four seasons globally, MAM, JJA, SON and DJF. We observe the muti-model average of wind energy density for historic period has significant bias with respect to that of reanalysis product. Here we develop a quantile based superensemble approach where GCM quantiles corresponding to selected CDF values are regressed to reanalysis data. It is observed that this regression approach takes care of both, bias in GCMs and combination of GCMs. With superensemble, we observe that the historical wind energy density resembles quite well with

  5. Designing Scatterometer Constellations for Sampling Global Ocean Vector Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Chelton, D. B.; Stoffelen, A.; Schlax, M.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid temporal variations in ocean vector winds make it impossible to obtain synoptic global snapshots of winds and wind stress from a single spaceborne sensor. Even when multiple sensors are present, the peculiarities of the resulting space-time sampling pattern require that significant smoothing in space and time be performed to limit spatially and temporally inhomogeneous error characteristics in the merged data. Based on the collected common experience in its member states, the World Meteorological Organization collects requirements for spatio-temporal sampling in meteorological applications such as global and regional Numerical Weather Prediction, nowcasting, and climate. An additional concern, when constructing data sets from sun-synchronous missions, is that undersampling of diurnal and sub-diurnal variability may result in aliasing of the climate data record. Indeed, examination of climatologies constructed from different satellite missions, such as NASA's QuikSCAT and EUMETSAT's ASCAT scatterometers, show systematic differences that cannot be explained as being due solely to unresolved incoherent diurnal and sub-diurnal variability. Some of these differences, especially in the tropics, are probably explained by systematic diurnal and sub-diurnal variations. Other differences may be due to the difficulty of cross-calibrating sun-synchronous satellites with different local times. Forthcoming satellite missions may offer the possibility of overcoming or mitigating the space-time sampling and calibration challenges using multiple coordinated platforms. In the next decade, there is an expectation that ocean vector winds will be measured simultaneously by multiple satellites from the European community, India, China, and the United States. The coordination and suitable merging of the data from these satellites to produce a climate data record will be a challenge to the ocean vector winds community. In this presentation, we use climatologies constructed from

  6. In Brief: Impacts of wind energy assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    By 2020, greater use of wind energy could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. energy sector by about 4.5%. However, greater effort is needed to address potentially negative impacts of this growing energy source, according to a new report from a committee of the U.S. National Research Council. Potential impacts of wind energy projects include deaths of birds and bats, reduced value of property located near a turbine, and habitat loss and fragmentation. However, because these are generally local projects, there is little information available to determine the cumulative effects of wind turbines over a whole region. The report makes several recommendations on how to improve regulation at the local, state, and federal levels. The report also sets out a guide for evaluating wind-energy projects, which includes questions about potential environmental, economic, cultural, and aesthetic impacts. The report, ``Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects,'' is available at http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11935

  7. Advanced Offshore Wind Energy - Atlantic Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kempton, Willett

    2015-11-04

    This project developed relationships among the lead institution, U of Delaware, wind industry participants from 11 companies, and two other universities in the region. The participating regional universities were University of Maryland and Old Dominion University. Research was carried out in six major areas: Analysis and documentation of extreme oceanic wind events & their impact on design parameters, calibration of corrosivity estimates measured on a coastal turbine, measurment and modeling of tower structures, measurement and modeling of the tribology of major drive components, and gearbox conditioning monitoring using acoustic sensors. The project also had several educational goals, including establishing a course in wind energy and training graduate students. Going beyond these goals, three new courses were developed, a graduate certificate program in wind power was developed and approved, and an exchange program in wind energy was established with Danish Technical University. Related to the installation of a Gamesa G90 turbine on campus and a Gamesa-UD research program established in part due to this award, several additional research projects have been carried out based on mutual industry-university interests, and funded by turbine revenues. This award and the Gamesa partnership have jointly led to seven graduate students receiving full safety and climb training, to become “research climbers” as part of their wind power training, and contributing to on-turbine research. As a result of the educational program, already six graduate students have taken jobs in the US wind industry.

  8. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, C.; Smith, A.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2015-02-01

    This report uses representative project types to estimate the levelized cost of wind energy (LCOE) in the United States for 2013. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, it relies on both market and modeled data to maintain a current understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed from this analysis are used to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  9. Wind energy can power a strong recovery.

    PubMed

    Bode, Denise

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. wind industry is a dynamic one that pumps billions of dollars into our economy each year. Wind has gone mainstream and today is the most affordable near-term carbon-free energy source. The U.S. industry experienced a nearly 70 percent increase in total jobs last year-well-paying, family-supporting jobs. But new wind farms now find it hard to secure financing. Thus, the economic stimulus package moving through Congress is critical. PMID:19608519

  10. Energy resources and global development

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Chow; Raymond J. Kopp; Paul R. Portney

    2003-11-15

    In order to address the economic and environmental consequences of our global energy system, we consider the availability and consumption of energy resources. Problems arise from our dependence on combustible fuels, the environmental risks associated with their extraction, and the environmental damage caused by their emissions. Yet no primary energy source, be it renewable or nonrenewable, is free of environmental or economic limitations. As developed and developing economies continue to grow, conversion to and adoption of environmentally benign energy technology will depend on political and economic realities. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Energy resources and global development.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jeffrey; Kopp, Raymond J; Portney, Paul R

    2003-11-28

    In order to address the economic and environmental consequences of our global energy system, we consider the availability and consumption of energy resources. Problems arise from our dependence on combustible fuels, the environmental risks associated with their extraction, and the environmental damage caused by their emissions. Yet no primary energy source, be it renewable or nonrenewable, is free of environmental or economic limitations. As developed and developing economies continue to grow, conversion to and adoption of environmentally benign energy technology will depend on political and economic realities. PMID:14645838

  12. New perspectives in offshore wind energy.

    PubMed

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-02-28

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  13. New perspectives in offshore wind energy

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  14. Wind Energy literature survey no.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hird, Martin

    2000-07-01

    In order to help keep readers up-to-date in the field, Wind Energy contains a list of recently published articles drawn from issues of the following periodicals: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, International Journal of Energy Research, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Transactions of the ASME: Journal of Dynamic Systems Measurement and Control. The list is arranged alphabetically by author. Compiled by Martin Hird, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD, UK. Please e-mail any suggestions to martin.hird@stud.umist.ac.uk

  15. Wind energy converter utilizing vortex augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, S. S.

    1985-05-14

    A wind energy conversion apparatus is disclosed herein for converting the linear momentum of wind energy into a pair of concentrated, counter-rotating and side-by-side regions of high angular momentum which includes a wing having variable angle of attack positionable forward of the entrance to an elongated duct having a bell mouth including an upper, inner reflex angular surface leading into a bifurcated duct section terminating in a diffuser augmenter at the aft facing area of the duct and which includes propellors operable to extract energy from the angular momentum in the established regions for driving electric generators or generator therefrom.

  16. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, A.L.R.; Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  17. Wind energy. Views on the environment: clean and green

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Thomas O.

    1999-12-01

    As the United States grapples with the issue of global climate change resulting from fossil fuel combustion, and as the U.S. Congress and individual state legislatures consider restructuring the electric utility industry, lawmakers should keep in mind the environmental preferability of renewable energy sources such as wind and the long, continuing record of public support for them. This is particularly important in view of restructuring, which will have the effect of shifting decisions about the type and quantity of new power plants to be built from utility executives to the general public. Preliminary information suggests that ''green,'' or environmentally-friendly, power sources could win a significant market share. In addition to creating new demand for clean energy sources, this development is likely to create a committed, educated political constituency for clean energy that has not existed in the past. In such an altered environment for the selection of new generation, public attitudes on the desirability of various power sources will become much more important than they have in the past. The purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize public opinion surveys on the environment in general, renewable energy in general, and wind energy in particular in that order, using data gathered from polling in the U.S., the United Kingdom, and Canada. At this writing, more than 16 years after the first wind plants began going up in California, there is a solid and growing body of information available on public acceptance of wind energy. This paper draws on more than 25 surveys conducted over the years on wind and renewables, as well as individual findings on attitudes on the environment from other polls. An abbreviated summary of the public attitudes reviewed in this document is as follows: Views on the Environment: Public concern about protecting the environment, and particularly those aspects of the environment that relate to human health, such as air pollution, is

  18. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  19. Breezy Power: From Wind to Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claymier, Bob

    2009-01-01

    This lesson combines the science concepts of renewable energy and producing electricity with the technology concepts of design, constraints, and technology's impact on the environment. Over five class periods, sixth-grade students "work" for a fictitious power company as they research wind as an alternative energy source and design and test a…

  20. From technology transfer to local manufacturing: China's emergence in the global wind power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Joanna Ingram

    This dissertation examines the development of China's large wind turbine industry, including the players, the status of the technology, and the strategies used to develop turbines for the Chinese market. The primary goals of this research project are to identify the models of international technology transfer that have been used among firms in China's wind power industry; examine to what extent these technology transfers have contributed to China's ability to locally manufacture large wind turbine technology; and evaluate China's ability to become a major player in the global wind industry. China is a particularly important place to study the opportunities for and dynamics of clean energy development due to its role in global energy consumption. China is the largest coal consuming and producing nation in the world, and consequently the second largest national emitter of carbon dioxide after only the United States. Energy consumption and carbon emissions are growing rapidly, and China is expected to surpass the US and become the largest energy consuming nation and carbon dioxide emitter in coming decades. The central finding of this dissertation is that even though each firm involved in the large wind turbine manufacturing industry in China has followed a very different pathway of technology procurement for the Chinese market, all of the firms are increasing the utilization of locally-manufactured components, and many are doing so without transferring turbine technology or the associated intellectual property. Only one fully Chinese-owned firm, Goldwind, has succeeded in developing a commercially available large wind turbine for the Chinese market. No Chinese firms or foreign firms are manufacturing turbines in China for export overseas, though many have stated plans to do so. There already exists a possible niche market for the smaller turbines that are currently being made in China, particularly in less developed countries that are looking for less expensive

  1. Wind energy developments in the 20th century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargo, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Wind turbine systems of the past are reviewed and wind energy is reexamined as a future source of power. Various phases and objectives of the Wind Energy Program are discussed. Conclusions indicate that wind generated energy must be considered economically competitive with other power production methods.

  2. Observing system simulation experiments for the laser atmospheric wind sounder using global spectral model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohaly, Gregg; Krishnamurti, T. N.

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental to improving the understanding of the total Earth system are increased and improved observations. In the coming decade several spaceborne instrumented platforms will be constructed and implemented. These platforms will, in large, be housing the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument suite. One of the proposed instruments is a wind profiling system which is currently referred to as the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS). This instrument will use a CO2 Doppler lidar wind profiler to give wind measurements with a vertical and horizontal resolution which has yet to be seen globally. The LAWS instrument is now a candidate for launch on a NASA EOS-B platform and is fundamental to increasing our understanding of Earth system science. The LAWS data sets will form an integral component of the temporally continuous data base needed for research of the coupled climate systems. This instrument's observations will aid in giving an improved description of the atmospheric circulation, including the transports of energy, momentum, moisture, trace gases, and aerosols. Also, the wind data will be assimilated and used as the initial state for many global forecast models at various operational centers. Results of system simulation experiments are discussed, and future experiments are described.

  3. Improving weather forecasts for wind energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Merlinde; MacGill, Iain

    2010-08-01

    Weather forecasts play an important role in the energy industry particularly because of the impact of temperature on electrical demand. Power system operation requires that this variable and somewhat unpredictable demand be precisely met at all times and locations from available generation. As wind generation makes up a growing component of electricity supply around the world, it has become increasingly important to be able to provide useful forecasting for this highly variable and uncertain energy resource. Of particular interest are forecasts of weather events that rapidly change wind energy production from one or more wind farms. In this paper we describe work underway to improve the wind forecasts currently available from standard Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) through a bias correction methodology. Our study has used the Australian Bureau of Meteorology MesoLAPS 5 km limited domain model over the Victoria/Tasmania region, providing forecasts for the Woolnorth wind farm, situated in Tasmania, Australia. The accuracy of these forecasts has been investigated, concentrating on the key wind speed ranges 5 - 15 ms-1 and around 25 ms-1. A bias correction methodology was applied to the NWP hourly forecasts to help account for systematic issues such as the NWP grid point not being at the exact location of the wind farm. An additional correction was applied for timing issues by using meteorological data from the wind farm. Results to date show a reduction in spread of forecast error for hour ahead forecasts by as much as half using this double correction methodology - a combination of both bias correction and timing correction.

  4. New England Wind Energy Education Project (NEWEEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, Robert C.; Craddock, Kathryn A.; von Allmen, Daniel R.

    2012-04-25

    Project objective is to develop and disseminate accurate, objective information on critical wind energy issues impacting market acceptance of hundreds of land-based projects and vast off-shore wind developments proposed in the 6-state New England region, thereby accelerating the pace of wind installation from today's 140 MW towards the region's 20% by 2030 goals of 12,500 MW. Methodology: This objective will be accomplished by accumulating, developing, assembling timely, accurate, objective and detailed information representing the 'state of the knowledge' on critical wind energy issues impacting market acceptance, and widely disseminating such information. The target audience includes state agencies and local governments; utilities and grid operators; wind developers; agricultural and environmental groups and other NGOs; research organizations; host communities and the general public, particularly those in communities with planned or operating wind projects. Information will be disseminated through: (a) a series of topic-specific web conference briefings; (b) a one-day NEWEEP conference, back-to-back with a Utility Wind Interest Group one-day regional conference organized for this project; (c) posting briefing and conference materials on the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) web site and featuring the content on NEWF electronic newsletters distributed to an opt-in list of currently over 5000 individuals; (d) through interaction with and participation in Wind Powering America (WPA) state Wind Working Group meetings and WPA's annual All-States Summit, and (e) through the networks of project collaborators. Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC (lead) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory will staff the project, directed by an independent Steering Committee composed of a collaborative regional and national network of organizations. Major Participants - the Steering Committee: In addition to the applicants, the initial collaborators committing to form a Steering

  5. Cooperative Extension Service & Wind Powering America Collaborate to Provide Wind Energy Information to Rural Stakeholders (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A.; Flower, L.; Hamlen, S.

    2009-05-01

    Cooperative Extension's presence blankets much of the United States and has been a trusted information source to rural Americans. By working together, Cooperative Extension, Wind Powering America, and the wind industry can better educate the public and rural stakeholders about wind energy and maximize the benefits of wind energy to local communities. This poster provides an overview of Cooperative Extension, wind energy issues addressed by the organization, and related activities.

  6. Solar wind-magnetosphere energy input functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bargatze, L.F.; McPherron, R.L.; Baker, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    A new formula for the solar wind-magnetosphere energy input parameter, P/sub i/, is sought by applying the constraints imposed by dimensional analysis. Applying these constraints yields a general equation for P/sub i/ which is equal to rho V/sup 3/l/sub CF//sup 2/F(M/sub A/,theta) where, rho V/sup 3/ is the solar wind kinetic energy density and l/sub CF//sup 2/ is the scale size of the magnetosphere's effective energy ''collection'' region. The function F which depends on M/sub A/, the Alfven Mach number, and on theta, the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle is included in the general equation for P/sub i/ in order to model the magnetohydrodynamic processes which are responsible for solar wind-magnetosphere energy transfer. By assuming the form of the function F, it is possible to further constrain the formula for P/sub i/. This is accomplished by using solar wind data, geomagnetic activity indices, and simple statistical methods. It is found that P/sub i/ is proportional to (rho V/sup 2/)/sup 1/6/VBG(theta) where, rho V/sup 2/ is the solar wind dynamic pressure and VBG(theta) is a rectified version of the solar wind motional electric field. Furthermore, it is found that G(theta), the gating function which modulates the energy input to the magnetosphere, is well represented by a ''leaky'' rectifier function such as sin/sup 4/(theta/2). This function allows for enhanced energy input when the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented southward. This function also allows for some energy input when the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented northward. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Strengthening America's Energy Security with Offshore Wind (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the current state of the offshore wind industry in the United States and the offshore wind research and development activities conducted the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program.

  8. Wind Energy Stakeholder Outreach and Education

    SciTech Connect

    Bob Lawrence; Craig Cox; Jodi Hamrick; DOE Contact - Keith Bennett

    2006-07-27

    Since August of 2001, Bob Lawrence and Associates, Inc. (BL&A) has applied its outreach and support services to lead a highly effective work effort on behalf of Wind Powering America (WPA). In recent years, the company has generated informative brochures and posters, researched and created case studies, and provided technical support to key wind program managers. BL&A has also analyzed Lamar, Colorado’s 162MW wind project and developed a highly regarded 'wind supply chain' report and outreach presentation. BL&A’s efforts were then replicated to characterize similar supply chain presentations in New Mexico and Illinois. Note that during the period of this contract, the recipient met with members of the DOE Wind Program a number of times to obtain specific guidance on tasks that needed to be pursued on behalf of this grant. Thus, as the project developed over the course of 5 years, the recipient varied the tasks and emphasis on tasks to comply with the on-going and continuously developing requirements of the Wind Powering America Program. This report provides only a brief summary of activities to illustrate the recipient's work for advancing wind energy education and outreach from 2001 through the end of the contract period in 2006. It provides examples of how the recipient and DOE leveraged the available funding to provide educational and outreach work to a wide range of stakeholder communities.

  9. Domestic Wind Energy Workforce; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-07-30

    A robust workforce is essential to growing domestic wind manufacturing capabilities. NREL researchers conducted research to better understand today's domestic wind workforce, projected needs for the future, and how existing and new education and training programs can meet future needs. This presentation provides an overview of this research and the accompanying industry survey, as well as the Energy Department's Career Maps, Jobs & Economic Development Impacts models, and the Wind for Schools project.

  10. Wind energy in 1996: Looking forward, looking back

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, R.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. A brief review of progress in wind energy is given. The impact of world market forces and restructuring of the electric industry in the U.S. on the wind energy market are discussed. An outline of the American Wind Energy Association`s Renewables Portfolio Standard is presented. Legislative activities in wind energy are also reviewed.

  11. High Energy Emission from Pulsar Magnetospheres and Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    Recent gamma-ray observations of pulsars and their nebulae suggest an important role played by magnetic reconnection in determining the structure of the magnetosphere and the wind and in the acceleration of particles that lead to the high energy emission. Strong current sheets that are susceptible to magnetic dissipation are found near the light cylinder of the pulsar and persist throughout the wind. This proposal investigates the processes that occur in these current sheets, and determines their structure and particle acceleration properties. A suite of relativistic MHD and particle-in-cell kinetic simulations will be used to obtain the global 3D geometry of the magnetosphere, flow geometry in the current sheet, and calculate the dissipation of the current both near the pulsar and in the termination shock of the pulsar wind. The results will be applied to modeling the beaming in pulsar gamma-ray light curves, and to understanding particle acceleration in broadband and flaring nebular emission.

  12. Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

    2011-08-01

    Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

  13. Coupled dynamics analysis of wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A qualitative description of all key elements of a complete wind energy system computer analysis code is presented. The analysis system addresses the coupled dynamics characteristics of wind energy systems, including the interactions of the rotor, tower, nacelle, power train, control system, and electrical network. The coupled dynamics are analyzed in both the frequency and time domain to provide the basic motions and loads data required for design, performance verification and operations analysis activities. Elements of the coupled analysis code were used to design and analyze candidate rotor articulation concepts. Fundamental results and conclusions derived from these studies are presented.

  14. Global MHD simulations of cosmic ray driven galactic winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Yang, Hsiang-Yi Karen; Gould Zweibel, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Galactic outflows play an important role in galactic evolution. Despite their importance, a detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the driving of these winds is lacking. In an effort to gain more insight into the nature of these flows, we perform global three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of an isolated starbursting galaxy. We focus on the dynamical role of cosmic rays injected by supernovae, and specifically on the impact of the streaming and anisotropic diffusion of cosmic rays along the magnetic fields. We find that these microphysical effects can have a significant effect on the wind launching and mass loading factors depending on the details of the plasma physics. Cosmic rays stream away from the densest regions near the galactic disk along partially ordered magnetic fields and, in the process, accelerate more tenuous gas away from the galaxy. For cosmic ray acceleration efficiencies broadly consistent with the observational constraints, cosmic rays are likely to have a notable impact on the wind launching.

  15. Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

  16. Global measurements of wind fields using the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.

    1988-01-01

    The technology for measuring global wind fields in space by the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) to be flown on the Earth Observing System (EOS) is discussed. Studies initiated by NASA to determine the feasibility of using Doppler lidar from a platform in space to measure the wind globally have shown the general feasibility of the technique and have identified the technological problems that need to be resolved. Among the lidar systems being evaluated, CO2 coherent detection lidar is given special consideration. A comprehensive research program, the Global Backscatter Experiment, has been established to study global distribution of naturally occurring atmospheric aerosols that provide signal return at the wavelengths used by the techniques under consideration. Wind profiles from space will provide essential information for advancing the skill of numerical weather prediction, furthering the present knowledge of the large-scale atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics, and of global biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles.

  17. Energy Dissipation Processes in Solar Wind Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Xu, X. J.; Zhang, J.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.

  18. Wind Energy Deployment Process and Siting Tools (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2015-02-01

    Regardless of cost and performance, some wind projects cannot proceed to completion as a result of competing multiple uses or siting considerations. Wind energy siting issues must be better understood and quantified. DOE tasked NREL researchers with depicting the wind energy deployment process and researching development considerations. This presentation provides an overview of these findings and wind siting tools.

  19. Wind-energy program: FY 1982 second quarterly review

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.; Noun, R.J.; Flaim, T.; Deutsch, M.; Jacobs, E.; Hock, S.; Sklar, H.; Kelley, N.D.

    1982-05-01

    Progress on the following tasks is summarized: program management and planning; WECS applications in nongenerating utilities; technical feasibility of stand-alone SWECS; WECS/storage assessment and options; WECS performance/value analysis; wind energy industry analysis; wind systems coordination; wind workshops; noise and television interference studies; and advanced and innovative wind energy concepts. (MHR)

  20. Wind energy development in the United States: Can state-level policies promote efficient development of wind energy capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Blair S.

    In the absence of strong U.S. federal renewable energy policies, state governments have taken the lead in passing legislation to promote wind energy. Studies have shown that many of these policies, including Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), have aided in the development of wind energy capacity nationwide. This paper seeks to analyze whether these state-level policies have led to an efficient development of U.S. wind energy. For the purposes of this paper, wind energy development is considered efficient if competitive markets enable wind capacity to be built in the most cost effective manner, allowing states to trade wind energy between high wind potential states and low wind potential states. This concept is operationalized by analyzing how state policies that incentivize the in-state development of wind energy impact where wind capacity is developed. A multivariate regression model examining wind capacity in the 48 contiguous United States that had some wind capacity between 1999 and 2008 found these in-state policies are associated with increased wind capacity, controlling for states' wind potential. The results suggest that state-level policies are distorting where wind is developed. These findings support the enactment of a more comprehensive federal energy policy, such as a national RPS, a cap-and-trade program, or a targeted federal transmission policy. These federal policies could spur national markets that would result in the more efficient development of U.S. wind energy.

  1. Energy optimization for a wind DFIG with flywheel energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzaoui, Ihssen; Bouchafaa, Farid

    2016-07-01

    The type of distributed generation unit that is the subject of this paper relates to renewable energy sources, especially wind power. The wind generator used is based on a double fed induction Generator (DFIG). The stator of the DFIG is connected directly to the network and the rotor is connected to the network through the power converter with three levels. The objective of this work is to study the association a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) in wind generator. This system is used to improve the quality of electricity provided by wind generator. It is composed of a flywheel; an induction machine (IM) and a power electronic converter. A maximum power tracking technique « Maximum Power Point Tracking » (MPPT) and a strategy for controlling the pitch angle is presented. The model of the complete system is developed in Matlab/Simulink environment / to analyze the results from simulation the integration of wind chain to networks.

  2. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 9. The Southwest Region

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, R.L.; Norman, G.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in Nevada and California. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted is presented. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state are given. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed.

  3. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 4. The Northeast region

    SciTech Connect

    Pickering, K.E.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled in this chapter into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline are provided for in the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state. Assessments for individual states are presented. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters.

  4. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 10. Alaska region

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.L.; Wentink, T. Jr.; Becker, R. Jr.; Comiskey, A.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-12-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each subregion of Alaska. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a state scale is given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each subregion are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the Alaska wind energy resource. An outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each subregion is included. Assessments for individual subregions are presented as separate chapters. The subregion wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the Alaska wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the subregion chapters.

  5. Overview of Federal wind energy program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancona, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives and strategies of the Federal wind energy program are described. Changes in the program structure and some of the additions to the program are included. Upcoming organizational changes and some budget items are discussed, with particular emphasis on recent significant events regarding new approvals.

  6. International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy Under IEA Annex XXIII

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Lemming, J.

    2005-11-01

    This paper defines the purpose of IEA Annex XXIII, the International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy. This international collaboration through the International Energy Agency (IEA) is an efficient forum from which to advance the technical and environmental experiences collected from existing offshore wind energy projects, as well as the research necessary to advance future technology for deep-water wind energy technology.

  7. Global distribution of the solar wind and its evolution during cycles 22-24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.; Kojima, M.; Iju, T.; Nakano, H.; Satonaka, D.; Shimoyama, T.; Hakamada, K.

    2016-03-01

    Ground-based observations of the solar wind using interplanetary scintillation (IPS) have been regularly performed since 1980s at the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory of Nagoya University using the 327-MHz multi-station system. It has been revealed from the IPS observations that the global distribution of the solar wind is well ordered by the Sun's magnetic field. This fact suggests that the magnetic field plays an important role in the formation of the solar wind. The IPS observations evidently demonstrate that global distribution of the solar wind systematically changes with the solar activity. Recently, some peculiar aspects of the solar wind have been found from the IPS observations; e.g. increase of low-latitude fast winds, global reduction of the fast wind area and the density fluctuation level, North-South asymmetry of polar fast winds. These are considered as a manifestation of weaker dynamo activity in this cycle.

  8. Investigations of the tornado wind energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    Current test results are presented on the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES). The objective of the study was to determine the performance and potential of TWES systems using wind tunnel models. Experimental results on system performance with a simple bladed turbine in both the Grumman Research Tunnel and Langley V/STOL Tunnel are presented, followed by descriptions of a larger, 15-ft model and data from tests of a 30-in turbine, as well as results from a cost analysis. It is concluded that TWES has a good commercial potential.

  9. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM Maryland Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Draxl, C.

    2013-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's evaluation of the delineation proposed by the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) for the Maryland (MD) WEA and two alternative delineations. The objectives of the NREL evaluation were to assess MEA's proposed delineation of the MD WEA, perform independent analysis, and recommend how the MD WEA should be delineated.

  10. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  11. Federal Wind Energy Assistance through NREL (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    NREL assists with wind resource assessment and development activities initiated by federal agencies to facilitate distributed renewable energy projects at federal agency sites. This brief outlines the process for requesting NREL assistance with federal wind energy projects.

  12. Ecological and sociological considerations of wind energy: A multidisciplinary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicknell, Lucas John

    Wind energy is quickly becoming a critical technology for providing Americans with renewable energy, and rapid construction of wind facilities may have impacts on both wildlife and human communities. Understanding both the social and ecological issues related to wind energy development could provide a framework for effectively meeting human energy needs while conserving species biodiversity. In this research I looked at two aspects of wind energy development: public attitudes toward wind energy development and wind facility impacts on local bat populations. These papers present aspects of wind energy development that have been the subject of increasing study. This preliminary research is intended to demonstrate the responsibility we have to making well-informed decisions as we continue to expand wind energy development. Additionally, I hope to generate interest in interdisciplinary study as a means to broaden the scope of research by making use of the diverse tools available within different disciplines.

  13. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  14. Preliminary results of the large experimental wind turbine phase of the national wind energy program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Sholes, T.; Sholes, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary results of two projects in the development phase of reliable wind turbines designed to supply cost-competitive electrical energy were discussed. An experimental 100 kW wind turbine design and its status are first reviewed. The results of two parallel design studies for determining the configurations and power levels for wind turbines with minimum energy costs are also discussed. These studies predict wind energy costs of 1.5 to 7 cents per kW-h for wind turbines produced in quantities of 100 to 1000 per year and located at sites having average winds of 12 to 18 mph.

  15. Wind-To-Hydrogen Energy Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Rebenitsch; Randall Bush; Allen Boushee; Brad G. Stevens; Kirk D. Williams; Jeremy Woeste; Ronda Peters; Keith Bennett

    2009-04-24

    WIND-TO-HYDROGEN ENERGY PILOT PROJECT: BASIN ELECTRIC POWER COOPERATIVE In an effort to address the hurdles of wind-generated electricity (specifically wind's intermittency and transmission capacity limitations) and support development of electrolysis technology, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC) conducted a research project involving a wind-to-hydrogen system. Through this effort, BEPC, with the support of the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota, evaluated the feasibility of dynamically scheduling wind energy to power an electrolysis-based hydrogen production system. The goal of this project was to research the application of hydrogen production from wind energy, allowing for continued wind energy development in remote wind-rich areas and mitigating the necessity for electrical transmission expansion. Prior to expending significant funding on equipment and site development, a feasibility study was performed. The primary objective of the feasibility study was to provide BEPC and The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with sufficient information to make a determination whether or not to proceed with Phase II of the project, which was equipment procurement, installation, and operation. Four modes of operation were considered in the feasibility report to evaluate technical and economic merits. Mode 1 - scaled wind, Mode 2 - scaled wind with off-peak, Mode 3 - full wind, and Mode 4 - full wind with off-peak In summary, the feasibility report, completed on August 11, 2005, found that the proposed hydrogen production system would produce between 8000 and 20,000 kg of hydrogen annually depending on the mode of operation. This estimate was based on actual wind energy production from one of the North Dakota (ND) wind farms of which BEPC is the electrical off-taker. The cost of the hydrogen produced ranged from $20 to $10 per kg (depending on the mode of operation). The economic sensitivity analysis performed as part of the feasibility

  16. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  17. A Vision for Systems Engineering Applied to Wind Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, F.; Dykes, K.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation was given at the Third Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop on January 14, 2015. Topics covered include the importance of systems engineering, a vision for systems engineering as applied to wind energy, and application of systems engineering approaches to wind energy research and development.

  18. Wind energy for outdoor lighting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, G.J.

    1984-02-22

    This project was an attempt to develop a wind energy device which could be mounted on existing light poles and which would provide sufficient electricity to power a light on such poles. It was to be of design and materials simple enough to warrant ease and economy of manufacture. The original design was modified several times during fabrication in order to respond to the peculiarity of various types of materials involved. The system of belts and pulleys originally proposed proved too limited by friction to be practical. The final prototype was of sheet galvanized steel in three cuts of only three simple shapes. It was mounted on a recycled rear wheel axle of a 3/4 ton truck with axis vertical. A large pulley transferred energy to an automobile type alternator through a V-belt. The spinner turns easily in light winds, but even in moderate winds does not turn sufficiently fast to provide the necessary 400 rpm in the alternator. A larger pulley produces proportionately more drag, limiting rpm at the alternator. We now have an intriguing - some say beautiful - device which is enjoyed by passersby as kinetic art, but which unfortunately does not produce electricity. The concept may yet prove feasible, perhaps in a location of higher wind velocity, and perhaps with a larger diameter spinner. But as a simple, universal design of widespread application, it has not proved practical.

  19. ISTP Global Geospace Science. Energy transfer in geospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Solar-terrestrial physics concerns the study of the generation, flow, and dissipation of mass, momentum, and energy between the Sun and the Earth. Mass, momentum, and energy are carried by charged particles that compose the solar wind. When the solar wind reaches the Earth, some solar-wind particles enter the magnetosphere; this coupling between the solar wind and the Earth means that the solar wind can influence the Earth's upper atmosphere. As the first step in addressing the behavior of this solar-terrestrial system, the Global Geospace Science (GGS) Initiative will use the Wind and Polar satellites, provided by NASA, and the Geotail satellite provided by the Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), to perform simultaneous and closely coordinated measurements of the key geospace regions and will add data from equatorial missions. Magnetic field and particle changes that occur when particles are energized during auroral events will be monitored. The intention behind the GGS Initiative is to understand the physical mechanisms and various regions controlling the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in geospace. A summary of the GGS Initiative is presented.

  20. Wind for Schools: Developing Education Programs to Train the Next Generation of the Wind Energy Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.; Flowers, L.; Kelly, M.; Barnett, L.; Miles, J.

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Wind for Schools project elements, including a description of host and collegiate school curricula developed for wind energy and the status of the current projects. The paper also provides focused information on how schools, regions, or countries can become involved or implement similar projects to expand the social acceptance and understanding of wind energy.

  1. 77 FR 14010 - Rocky Ridge Wind Project, LLC, Blackwell Wind, LLC, CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ...-000, EG12-21-000, EG12-22-000, EG12-23-000] Rocky Ridge Wind Project, LLC, Blackwell Wind, LLC, CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC, Minco Wind Interconnection Services, LLC, Shiloh III Lessee, LLC, California Ridge Wind Energy LLC, Perrin Ranch Wind, LLC, Erie Wind, LLC: Notice of Effectiveness of...

  2. Wind for Schools: Developing Educational Programs to Train the Next Generation of Wind Energy Experts (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.; Flowers, L.; Kelly, M.; Miles, J.

    2009-05-01

    As the world moves toward a vision of expanded wind energy, the industry is faced with the challenges of obtaining a skilled workforce and addressing local wind development concerns. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Program works to address these issues. The program installs small wind turbines at community "host" schools while developing wind application centers at higher education institutions. Teacher training with interactive and interschool curricula is implemented at each host school, while students at the universities assist in implementing the host school systems while participating in other wind course work. This poster provides an overview of the program's objectives, goals, approach, and results.

  3. Applied wind energy research at the National Wind Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M C; Tu, P

    1996-06-01

    Applied research activities at the National Wind Technology Center are divided into several technical disciplines. Not surprisingly, these engineering and science disciplines highlight the technology similarities between aircraft and wind turbine design requirements. More often than not, wind turbines are assumed to be a subset of the much larger and more comprehensive list of well understood aerospace engineering accomplishments and it is difficult for the general public to understand the poor performance history of wind turbines in sustained operation. Often overlooked are the severe environmental conditions and operational demands placed on turbine designs which define unique requirements beyond typical aerospace applications. It is the role of the National Wind Technology Center to investigate and quantify the underlying physical phenomena which make the wind turbine design problem unique and to provide the technology advancements necessary to overcome current operational limitations. This paper provides a brief overview of research areas involved with the design of wind turbines.

  4. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  5. Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

    2004-03-01

    Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving. PMID:14727304

  6. Energy analysis of convectively induced wind perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.; Buechler, Dennis E.

    1989-01-01

    Budgets of divergent and rotational components of kinetic energy (KD and KR) are examined for four upper level wind speed maxima that develop during the fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE IV) and the first AVE-Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (AVE-SESAME I). A similar budget analysis is performed for a low-level jet stream during AVE-SESAME I. The energetics of the four upper level speed maxima is found to have several similarities. The dominant source of KD is cross-contour flow by the divergent wind, and KD provides a major source of KR via a conversion process. Conversion from available potential energy provides an additional source of KR in three of the cases. Horizontal maps reveal that the conversions involving KD are maximized in regions poleward of the convection. Low-level jet development during AVE-SESAME I appears to be assisted by convective activity to the west.

  7. Wind Energy Resource Assessment of the Caribbean and Central America

    SciTech Connect

    DL Elliott; CI Aspliden; GL Gower; CG Holladay, MN Schwartz

    1987-04-01

    A wind energy resource assessment of the Caribbean and Central America has identified many areas with good to outstanding wind resource potential for wind turbine applications. Annual average wind resource maps and summary tables have been developed for 35 island/country areas throughout the Caribbean and Central America region. The wind resource maps highlight the locations of major resource areas and provide estimates of the wind energy resource potential for typical well-exposed sites in these areas. The average energy in the wind flowing in the layer near the ground is expressed as a wind power class: the greater the average wind energy, the higher the wind power class. The summary tables that are included with each of the 35 island/country wind energy maps provide information on the frequency distribution of the wind speeds (expressed as estimates of the Weibull shape factor, k) and seasonal variations in the wind resource for the major wind resource areas identified on the maps. A new wind power class legend has been developed for relating the wind power classes to values of mean wind power density, mean wind speed, and Weibull k. Guidelines are presented on how to adjust these values to various heights above ground for different roughness and terrain characteristics. Information evaluated in preparing the assessment included existing meteorological data from airports and other weather stations, and from ships and buoys in offshore and coastal areas. In addition, new data from recent measurement sites established for wind energy siting studies were obtained for a few areas of the Caribbean. Other types of information evaluated in the assessment were climatological data and maps on winds aloft, surface pressure, air flow, and topography. The various data were screened and evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. Much of the surface data from airports and other land-based weather stations were determined to be from sheltered

  8. Plans for wind energy system simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreier, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    A digital computer code and a special purpose hybrid computer, were introduced. The digital computer program, the Root Perturbation Method or RPM, is an implementation of the classic floquet procedure which circumvents numerical problems associated with the extraction of Floquet roots. The hybrid computer, the Wind Energy System Time domain simulator (WEST), yields real time loads and deformation information essential to design and system stability investigations.

  9. WIND MEASUREMENTS WITH HIGH-ENERGY DOPPLER LIDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petros, Mulugeta; Jirong, Yu; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Slingh, Upendra N.

    2006-01-01

    Coherent lidars at 2-micron wavelengths from holmium or thulium solid-state lasers have been in use to measure wind for applications in meteorology, aircraft wake vortex tracking, and turbulence detection [1,2,3] These field-deployed lidars, however, have generally been of a pulse energy of a few millijoules, limiting their range capability or restricting operation to regions of high aerosol concentration such as the atmospheric boundary layer. Technology improvements in the form of high-energy pulsed lasers, low noise detectors, and high optical quality telescopes are being evaluated to make wind measurements to long ranges or low aerosol concentrations. This research is aimed at developing lidar technology for satellite-based observation of wind on a global scale. The VALIDAR project was initiated to demonstrate a high pulse energy coherent Doppler lidar. VALIDAR gets its name from the concept of validation lidar, in that it can serve as a calibration and validation source for future airborne and spaceborne lidar missions. VALIDAR is housed within a mobile trailer for field measurements.

  10. Simulation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer for Wind Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanovic, Nikola

    Energy production from wind is an increasingly important component of overall global power generation, and will likely continue to gain an even greater share of electricity production as world governments attempt to mitigate climate change and wind energy production costs decrease. Wind energy generation depends on wind speed, which is greatly influenced by local and synoptic environmental forcings. Synoptic forcing, such as a cold frontal passage, exists on a large spatial scale while local forcing manifests itself on a much smaller scale and could result from topographic effects or land-surface heat fluxes. Synoptic forcing, if strong enough, may suppress the effects of generally weaker local forcing. At the even smaller scale of a wind farm, upstream turbines generate wakes that decrease the wind speed and increase the atmospheric turbulence at the downwind turbines, thereby reducing power production and increasing fatigue loading that may damage turbine components, respectively. Simulation of atmospheric processes that span a considerable range of spatial and temporal scales is essential to improve wind energy forecasting, wind turbine siting, turbine maintenance scheduling, and wind turbine design. Mesoscale atmospheric models predict atmospheric conditions using observed data, for a wide range of meteorological applications across scales from thousands of kilometers to hundreds of meters. Mesoscale models include parameterizations for the major atmospheric physical processes that modulate wind speed and turbulence dynamics, such as cloud evolution and surface-atmosphere interactions. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used in this dissertation to investigate the effects of model parameters on wind energy forecasting. WRF is used for case study simulations at two West Coast North American wind farms, one with simple and one with complex terrain, during both synoptically and locally-driven weather events. The model's performance with different

  11. Upstream Measurements of Wind Profiles with Doppler Lidar for Improved Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Frehlich

    2012-10-30

    New upstream measurements of wind profiles over the altitude range of wind turbines will be produced using a scanning Doppler lidar. These long range high quality measurements will provide improved wind power forecasts for wind energy integration into the power grid. The main goal of the project is to develop the optimal Doppler lidar operating parameters and data processing algorithms for improved wind energy integration by enhancing the wind power forecasts in the 30 to 60 minute time frame, especially for the large wind power ramps. Currently, there is very little upstream data at large wind farms, especially accurate wind profiles over the full height of the turbine blades. The potential of scanning Doppler lidar will be determined by rigorous computer modeling and evaluation of actual Doppler lidar data from the WindTracer system produced by Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies, Inc. of Louisville, Colorado. Various data products will be investigated for input into numerical weather prediction models and statistically based nowcasting algorithms. Successful implementation of the proposed research will provide the required information for a full cost benefit analysis of the improved forecasts of wind power for energy integration as well as the added benefit of high quality wind and turbulence information for optimal control of the wind turbines at large wind farms.

  12. Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensors - A comparative performance evaluation for global measurement applications from earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison is made of four prominent Doppler lidar systems, ranging in wavelength from the near UV to the middle IR, which are presently being studied for their potential in an earth-orbiting global tropospheric wind field measurement application. The comparison is restricted to relative photon efficiencies, i.e., the required number of transmitted photons per pulse is calculated for each system for midtropospheric velocity estimate uncertainties ranging from + or - 1 to + or - 4 m/s. The results are converted to laser transmitter pulse energy and power requirements. The analysis indicates that a coherent CO2 Doppler lidar operating at 9.11-micron wavelength is the most efficient.

  13. Wind Integration Datasets from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Wind Integration Datasets provide time-series wind data for 2004, 2005, and 2006. They are intended to be used by energy professionals such as transmission planners, utility planners, project developers, and university researchers, helping them to perform comparisons of sites and estimate power production from hypothetical wind plants. NREL cautions that the information from modeled data may not match wind resource information shown on NREL;s state wind maps as they were created for different purposes and using different methodologies.

  14. Energy storage for wind-generator application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russel, F. M.

    1982-09-01

    A low-cost method was developed for storing energy and stiffening power supplied by wind generators. It involved inflatable, fabric-reinforced elastic liners buried underground and containing a fluid, probably water, at an intermediate pressure. The ground would be subject to elastic deformation and the method could be applicable to unstable ground such as deep sand, heterogeneous sedimentary or other unconsolidated deposits in remote locations or hostile environments. While the density of energy storage was considered low, compared with pumped-hydro systems, the technology could be attractive for developing countries.

  15. Magnetic meridional winds in the thermosphere obtained from Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomidze, Levan; Scherliess, Ludger; Schunk, Robert W.

    2015-09-01

    Thermospheric neutral winds play an important part in the dynamics of ionospheric plasma and represent one of the key inputs for ionospheric physics-based models. Yet wind measurements are scarce and generally lack global coverage and continuity. To help mitigate this shortcoming, a data assimilation model was used to estimate neutral winds in the low- and middle-latitude thermosphere. Seasonal global maps of NmF2 and hmF2 were generated from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate radio occultation measurements for geomagnetically quiet and low solar flux conditions. The maps were assimilated into the Utah State University Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements-Full Physics (GAIM-FP) model. GAIM-FP, which uses the physics-based ionosphere-plasmasphere model (IPM) and employs an ensemble Kalman filter technique, significantly improved the agreement between the modeled and measured NmF2 and hmF2 globally compared to the IPM. Global quiet time magnetic meridional winds were derived for December and June solstices and March equinox. The morphology of the derived winds was analyzed and validated by comparing with ground-based measurements and with wind values from the empirical horizontal wind model. GAIM-FP-estimated winds were shown to be in good agreement with the wind observations. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the derived winds to uncertain parameters, including the O+-O collision frequency, neutral composition, number of radio occultations, and data errors, was investigated. The uncertainties were found to have only small effects on the derived winds. The results of this work indicate that thermospheric wind estimation from GAIM-FP is a valuable tool for wind specification over regions where limited or no wind measurements exist.

  16. Emissions and energy efficiency assessment of baseload wind energy systems.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Paul; Kulcinski, Gerald L; Holloway, Tracey

    2005-03-15

    The combination of wind energy generation and energy storage can produce a source of electricity that is functionally equivalent to a baseload coal or nuclear power plant. A model was developed to assess the technical and environmental performance of baseload wind energy systems using compressed air energy storage. The analysis examined several systems that could be operated in the midwestern United States under a variety of operating conditions. The systems can produce substantially more energy than is required from fossil or other primary sources to construct and operate them. By operation at a capacity factor of 80%, each evaluated system achieves an effective primary energy efficiency of at least five times greater than the most efficient fossil combustion technology, with greenhouse gas emission rates less than 20% of the least emitting fossil technology currently available. Life-cycle emission rates of NOx and SO2 are also significantly lower than fossil-based systems. PMID:15819254

  17. The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1985-01-01

    Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

  18. Preliminary results of the large experimental wind turbine phase of the national wind energy program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Sholes, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A major phase of the wind energy program is the development of reliable wind turbines for supplying cost-competitive electrical energy. This paper discusses the preliminary results of two projects in this phase of the program. First an experimental 100 kW wind turbine design and its status are reviewed. Also discussed are the results of two parallel design studies for determining the configurations and power levels for wind turbines with minimum energy costs. These studies show wind energy costs of 7 to 1.5 c/kWH for wind turbines produced in quantities of 100 to 1000 a year and located at sites having average winds of 12 to 18 mph.

  19. Exploring wind energy potential off the California coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qingfang; Doyle, James D.; Haack, Tracy; Dvorak, Michael J.; Archer, Cristina L.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2008-10-01

    Wind energy represents the nearest term cost-effective renewable energy source. While efforts have been made to assess wind energy potential over land around the world, offshore wind energy resources are largely unexplored, in part because these regions have relatively sparse wind observations. In this study, the wind energy potential offshore of the California coast is evaluated using a well-tested high-resolution numerical model dataset. We found that along the coastline, the low-level winds exhibit strong spatial variation and are characterized by alternating windspeed maxima and minima near coastal promontories associated with the interaction between the marine boundary layer and coastal topography. Further analysis highlights the enormous and reliable wind energy development potential in these persistent offshore windspeed maxima.

  20. Future for Offshore Wind Energy in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.

    2004-06-01

    Until recently, the offshore wind energy potential in the United States was ignored because vast onshore wind resources have the potential to fulfill the electrical energy needs for the entire country. However, the challenge of transmitting the electricity to the large load centers may limit wind grid penetration for land-based turbines. Offshore wind turbines can generate power much closer to higher value coastal load centers. Reduced transmission constraints, steadier and more energetic winds, and recent European success, have made offshore wind energy more attractive for the United States. However, U.S. waters are generally deeper than those on the European coast, and will require new technology. This paper presents an overview of U.S. coastal resources, explores promising deepwater wind technology, and predicts long-term cost-of-energy (COE) trends. COE estimates are based on generic 5-MW wind turbines in a hypothetical 500-MW wind power plant. Technology improvements and volume production are expected to lower costs to meet the U.S. Department of Energy target range of $0.06/kWh for deployment of deepwater offshore wind turbines by 2015, and $0.05/kWh by 2012 for shallow water. Offshore wind systems can diversify the U.S. electric energy supply and provide a new market for wind energy that is complementary to onshore development.

  1. Wind energy 1995. SED-Volume 16

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.D.; Hock, S.M.; Berg, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Fourteenth ASME Wind Energy Symposium is sponsored by the Solar Energy Division of ASME. It is one of the seventeen symposia that make up the Energy-Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition. This year`s conference is titled Energy and Environmental Expo 95 and is held at The Adam`s Mark Hotel, Houston, Texas, January 29--February 1, 1995. These proceedings contain the 30 papers to be presented and 17 abstracts for the oral presentations to be made at the Symposium. The papers contained in this volume were peer-reviewed, with two favorable reviews being required for publication. The oral presentations were selected on the basis of the submitted abstract and are considered to be reports on work currently in progress.

  2. Three-Dimensional Wind Profiling of Offshore Wind Energy Areas With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Cowen, Larry J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Grant, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    A technique has been developed for imaging the wind field over offshore areas being considered for wind farming. This is accomplished with an eye-safe 2-micrometer wavelength coherent Doppler lidar installed in an aircraft. By raster scanning the aircraft over the wind energy area (WEA), a three-dimensional map of the wind vector can be made. This technique was evaluated in 11 flights over the Virginia and Maryland offshore WEAs. Heights above the ocean surface planned for wind turbines are shown to be within the marine boundary layer, and the wind vector is seen to show variation across the geographical area of interest at turbine heights.

  3. Summary of atmospheric wind design criteria for wind energy conversion system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Turner, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Basic design values are presented of significant wind criteria, in graphical format, for use in the design and development of wind turbine generators for energy research. It is a condensed version of portions of the Engineering Handbook on the Atmospheric Environmental Guidelines for Use in Wind Turbine Generator Development.

  4. Wind energy: A review of technical and market issues

    SciTech Connect

    Garrad, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. The paper is divided into three sections: the market, the technology, and general conclusions. The market section compares European and US wind energy growth and contributing factors and barriers to growth. A technology overview discusses wind turbine concepts, mass reduction, blade structural flexibility, and growth in machine size. Political decisions, economic aspects, public acceptance, and technology limitations are assessed for their influence on the growth of wind energy. 11 figs.

  5. Electron energy flux in the solar wind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.; Sugiura, M.

    1971-01-01

    Description of studies of electrons between 10 eV and 9.9 keV in the solar wind. The transport of energy in the rest frame of the plasma is evaluated and shown to be parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field. The presence of electrons from solar events causes this energy-flux density to exceed the heat flow due to thermal electrons. In one such event, the observations are shown to be consistent with the solar-electron observations made at higher energies. When observations are made at a point connected to the earth's bow shock by an interplanetary-field line, a comparatively large energy flux along the field toward the sun is observed, but the heat flow remains outwardly directed during this time interval. In either situation the heat flow is found to be consistent with measurements made on Vela satellites by a different method. These values, less than .01 ergs/sq cm/sec, are sufficiently low to require modifications to the Spitzer-Harm conductivity formula for use in solar-wind theories.

  6. Global Magnetospheric Simulations: coupling with ionospheric and solar wind models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Olshevskyi, Vyacheslav; Amaya, Jorge; Deca, Jan; Markidis, Stefano; Vapirev, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    We present results on the global fully kinetic model of the magnetosphere of the Earth. The simulations are based on the iPic3D code [1] that treats kinetically all plasma species solving implicitly the equations of motion for electrons and ions, coupled with the Maxwell equations. We present results of our simulations and discuss the coupling at the inner boundary near the Earth with models of the ionosphere and at the outer boundary with models of the arriving solar wind. The results are part of the activities of the Swiff FP7 project: www.swiff.eu [1] Stefano Markidis, Giovanni Lapenta, Rizwan-uddin, Multi-scale simulations of plasma with iPIC3D, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Volume 80, Issue 7, March 2010, Pages 1509-1519, ISSN 0378-4754, 10.1016/j.matcom.2009.08.038 [2] Giovanni Lapenta, Particle simulations of space weather, Journal of Computational Physics, Volume 231, Issue 3, 1 February 2012, Pages 795-821, ISSN 0021-9991, 10.1016/j.jcp.2011.03.035.

  7. Solar Wind Collisional Age from a Global Magnetohydrodynamics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhiber, R.; Usmanov, AV; Matthaeus, WH; Goldstein, ML

    2016-04-01

    Simple estimates of the number of Coulomb collisions experienced by the interplanetary plasma to the point of observation, i.e., the “collisional age”, can be usefully employed in the study of non-thermal features of the solar wind. Usually these estimates are based on local plasma properties at the point of observation. Here we improve the method of estimation of the collisional age by employing solutions obtained from global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations. This enables evaluation of the complete analytical expression for the collisional age without using approximations. The improved estimation of the collisional timescale is compared with turbulence and expansion timescales to assess the relative importance of collisions. The collisional age computed using the approximate formula employed in previous work is compared with the improved simulation-based calculations to examine the validity of the simplified formula. We also develop an analytical expression for the evaluation of the collisional age and we find good agreement between the numerical and analytical results. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications for an improved estimation of collisionality along spacecraft trajectories, including Solar Probe Plus.

  8. Solar and wind energy utilization in broiler production

    SciTech Connect

    Brinsfield, R.B.; Yaramanoglu, M.; Wheaton, F.

    1984-01-01

    Available solar and wind energy and both the electrical and thermal energy demand of a typical broiler facility were mathematically modeled based on 10 years of weather data for Salisbury, Maryland. The available energy was then compared with the broiler facility demands as a means of sizing solar and wind energy collection equipment to meet the demands.

  9. IEA Wind Task 26: The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy, Work Package 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Wiser, R.; Hand, M.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, wind power has become a mainstream source of electricity generation around the world. However, the future of wind power will depend a great deal on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost of energy reductions. In this summary report, developed as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement Task 26, titled 'The Cost of Wind Energy,' we provide a review of historical costs, evaluate near-term market trends, review the methods used to estimate long-term cost trajectories, and summarize the range of costs projected for onshore wind energy across an array of forward-looking studies and scenarios. We also highlight the influence of high-level market variables on both past and future wind energy costs.

  10. Studying Wind Energy/Bird Interactions: A Guidance Document

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Morrison, M.; Sinclair, K.

    1999-12-01

    This guidance document is a product of the Avian Subcommittee of the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC). The NWCC was formed to better understand and promote responsible, credible, and comparable avian/wind energy interaction studies. Bird mortality is a concern and wind power is a potential clean and green source of electricity, making study of wind energy/bird interactions essential. This document provides an overview for regulators and stakeholders concerned with wind energy/bird interactions, as well as a more technical discussion of the basic concepts and tools for studying such interactions.

  11. Status report of wind energy programs in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Benavidez, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the wind resource assessment activities being undertaken by the National Power Corporation at the extreme northern part of Luzon island. Preliminary results from the 10-month wind data are presented. This will give prospective wind developers all idea oil tile vast resources of wind energy available in the northern part of the country. This paper will also discuss briefly the stand-alone 10 kW wind turbine system that was commissioned early this year and the guidelines being drafted for the entry of new and renewable energy sources in the country`s energy generation mix. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the development of the Ponnequin Wind Energy Project in Colorado. This EA and public comments received on it will be used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the project. This document provides a detailed description of the proposed project and an assessment of potential impacts associated with its construction and operations. Resources and conditions considered in the analysis include streams; wetlands; floodplains; water quality; soils; vegetation; air quality; socioeconomic conditions; energy resources; noise; transportation; cultural resources; visual and land use resources; public health and safety; wildlife; threatened, endangered, and candidate species; and cumulative impacts. The analysis found that the project would have minimal impacts on these resources and conditions, and would not create impacts that exceed the significance criteria defined in this document. 90 refs., 5 figs.

  13. 76 FR 78641 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of...'s (Commission) June 16, 2011 Order.\\1\\ \\1\\ Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC and Milford Wind...

  14. Wind energy potential analysis in Al-Fattaih-Darnah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija; Salem, Abdelkarim Ali; Himawanto, Dwi Aries

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the wind energy potential in Al-Fattaih-Darnah, Libya, had been studied. Wind energy is very attractive because it can provide a clean and renewable energy. Due mostly to the uncertainty caused by the chaotic characteristics of wind near the earth's surface, wind energy characteristic need to be investigated carefully in order to get consistent power generation. This investigation was based on one year wind data measured in 2003. As a result of the analysis, wind speed profile and wind energy potential have been developed. The wind energy potential of the location is looked very promising to generate electricity. The annual wind speed of the site is 8.21 m/s and the wind speed carrying maximum energy is 7.97 m/s. The annual power density of the site is classified into class 3. The Polaris P50-500 wind turbine can produce 768.39 M Wh/year and has capacity factor of 17.54%.

  15. High resolution wind measurements for offshore wind energy development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, Son Van (Inventor); Neumann, Gregory (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, article of manufacture, and computer readable storage medium provide the ability to measure wind. Data at a first resolution (i.e., low resolution data) is collected by a satellite scatterometer. Thin slices of the data are determined. A collocation of the data slices are determined at each grid cell center to obtain ensembles of collocated data slices. Each ensemble of collocated data slices is decomposed into a mean part and a fluctuating part. The data is reconstructed at a second resolution from the mean part and a residue of the fluctuating part. A wind measurement is determined from the data at the second resolution using a wind model function. A description of the wind measurement is output.

  16. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM New Jersey Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Draxl, C.

    2013-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's development and evaluation of the delineations for the New Jersey (NJ) WEA. The overarching objective of this study is to develop a logical process by which the New Jersey WEA can be subdivided into non-overlapping leasing areas for BOEM's use in developing an auction process in a renewable energy lease sale. NREL identified a selection of leasing areas and proposed delineation boundaries within the established NJ WEA. The primary output of the interagency agreement is this report, which documents the methodology, including key variables and assumptions, by which the leasing areas were identified and delineated.

  17. The NASA/MSFC global reference atmospheric model: MOD 3 (with spherical harmonic wind model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Fletcher, G. R.; Gramling, F. E.; Pace, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Improvements to the global reference atmospheric model are described. The basic model includes monthly mean values of pressure, density, temperature, and geostrophic winds, as well as quasi-biennial and small and large scale random perturbations. A spherical harmonic wind model for the 25 to 90 km height range is included. Below 25 km and above 90 km, the GRAM program uses the geostrophic wind equations and pressure data to compute the mean wind. In the altitudes where the geostrophic wind relations are used, an interpolation scheme is employed for estimating winds at low latitudes where the geostrophic wind relations being to mesh down. Several sample wind profiles are given, as computed by the spherical harmonic model. User and programmer manuals are presented.

  18. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  19. The Wind ENergy Data and Information (WENDI) Gateway: New Information and Analysis Tools for Wind Energy Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, D.; Palanisamy, G.; Santhana Vannan, S.; Wei, Y.; Smith, T.; Starke, M.; Wibking, M.; Pan, Y.; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Wilson, B. E.; Wind Energy Data; Information (WENDI) Gateway Team

    2010-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office, DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has launched the Wind ENergy Data & Information (WENDI) Gateway. The WENDI Gateway is intended to serve a broad range of wind-energy stakeholders by providing easy access to a large amount of wind energy-related data and information through its two main interfaces: the Wind Energy Metadata Clearinghouse and the Wind Energy Geographic Information System (WindGIS). The Metadata Clearinghouse is a powerful, customized search tool for discovering, accessing, and sharing wind energy-related data and information. Its database of metadata records points users to a diverse array of wind energy-related resources: from technical and scientific journal articles to mass media news stories; from annual government and industry reports to downloadable datasets, and much more. Through the WindGIS, users can simultaneously visualize a wide spectrum of United States wind energy-related spatial data, including wind energy power plant locations; wind resource maps; state-level installed wind capacity, generation, and renewable portfolio standards; electric transmission lines; transportation infrastructure; interconnection standards; land ownership, designation, and usage; and various ecological data layers. In addition, WindGIS allows users to download much of the data behind the layers. References: [1] Devarakonda R., et al. Mercury: reusable metadata management, data discovery and access system. Earth Science Informatics (2010), 3(1): 87-94. [2] Wilson, Bruce E., et al. "Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata." (2010).

  20. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    ScienceCinema

    Majumdar, Arun

    2010-01-08

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  1. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-08-14

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  2. The impact of scatterometer wind data on global weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, D.; Baker, W. E.; Kalnay, E.; Halem, M.; Woiceshyn, P. M.; Peteherych, S.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of SEASAT-A scatterometer (SASS) winds on coarse resolution atmospheric model forecasts was assessed. The scatterometer provides high resolution winds, but each wind can have up to four possible directions. One wind direction is correct; the remainder are ambiguous or "aliases'. In general, the effect of objectively dealiased-SASS data was found to be negligible in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, the impact was larger and primarily beneficial when vertical temperature profile radiometer (VTPR) data was excluded. However, the inclusion of VTPR data eliminates the positive impact, indicating some redundancy between the two data sets.

  3. New developments in the Danish Wind Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources in Denmark are among the best in Europe. In recent years there has been a rapid growth in number of wind turbines connected to the grid in Denmark. By the end of 1995 more than 3800 wind turbines were installed on-shore with a capacity of over 600 MW. The total production of electricity from these turbines in 1995 was more than 1200 GWh, corresponding to approximately 3.6 % of the Danish electricity consumption. For several years Denmark has pursued an energy policy with an increasing weight on environmental aspects and new and renewable energy sources like wind energy. Therefore wind energy already plays an important part as supplement to the traditional sources of fuel in the electricity production, and the share of wind energy and other renewables is expected to increase significantly in the years to come. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  4. Impact of wind farms with energy storage on transient stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Douglas Allen

    Today's energy infrastructure will need to rapidly expand in terms of reliability and flexibility due to aging infrastructure, changing energy market conditions, projected load increases, and system reliability requirements. Over the few decades, several states in the U.S. are now requiring an increase in wind penetration. These requirements will have impacts on grid reliability given the inherent intermittency of wind generation and much research has been completed on the impact of wind on grid reliability. Energy storage has been proposed as a tool to provide greater levels of reliability; however, little research has occurred in the area of wind with storage and its impact on stability given different possible scenarios. This thesis addresses the impact of wind farm penetration on transient stability when energy storage is added. The results show that battery energy storage located at the wind energy site can improve the stability response of the system.

  5. Composite rotor blades for large wind energy installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussmann, A.; Molly, J.; Muser, D.

    1980-04-01

    The design of large wind power systems in Germany is reviewed with attention given to elaboration of the total wind energy system, aerodynamic design of the rotor blade, and wind loading effects. Particular consideration is given to the development of composite glass fiber/plastic or carbon fiber/plastic rotor blades for such installations.

  6. Composite rotor blades for large wind energy installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussmann, A.; Molly, J.; Muser, D.

    1980-01-01

    The design of large wind power systems in Germany is reviewed with attention given to elaboration of the total wind energy system, aerodynamic design of the rotor blade, and wind loading effects. Particular consideration is given to the development of composite glass fiber/plastic or carbon fiber/plastic rotor blades for such installations.

  7. A Comprehensive Plan for Global Energy Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blees, T.

    2009-05-01

    There is no dearth of information regarding the grave crises faced by humanity in the 21st century. There is also growing consensus that the wholesale burning of fossil fuels must come to an end, either because of climate change or other still-salient reasons such as air pollution or major conflicts over dwindling reserves of cheaply recoverable oil and gas resources. At the same time, global demographics predict with disquieting certainty a world with up to 9 or 10 billion souls by mid-century. The vast expansion of energy consumption that this population represents, along with further increases in already-unacceptable levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, demands that we quickly develop almost limitless sources of clean, economical power. What is sorely lacking in the public debate are realistic solutions. Expanding wind and solar generating capacity is an important near-term goal, but neither of these technologies represents a viable solution for generating base load power at the vast scales that will be required. Energy efficiency measures are likewise well-directed, but the combination of rising population along with increasingly energy-intensive economic activity by the large fraction of Earth's current population residing in developing nations suggests that absolute energy demand will continue to rise even with radically improved energy efficiency. Fortunately we have the technologies available to provide virtually unlimited clean energy, and to utilize and recycle our resources so that everyone can improve their standard of living. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), developed at the Argonne National Laboratory in the 80's and 90's and currently championed by General Electric, is a technology that fills the bill on every count, and then some. IFRs are safe, environmentally clean, economical, and free of conflict over fuel supply. IFRs can safely consume as fuel the nuclear waste from the current installed base of light-water reactors

  8. Stochastic Analysis of Wind Energy for Wind Pump Irrigation in Coastal Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, M. M.; Kumar, A.; Bisht, D.; Rao, D. B.

    2014-09-01

    The rapid escalation in the prices of oil and gas as well as increasing demand for energy has attracted the attention of scientists and researchers to explore the possibility of generating and utilizing the alternative and renewable sources of wind energy in the long coastal belt of India with considerable wind energy resources. A detailed analysis of wind potential is a prerequisite to harvest the wind energy resources efficiently. Keeping this in view, the present study was undertaken to analyze the wind energy potential to assess feasibility of the wind-pump operated irrigation system in the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India, where high ground water table conditions are available. The stochastic analysis of wind speed data were tested to fit a probability distribution, which describes the wind energy potential in the region. The normal and Weibull probability distributions were tested; and on the basis of Chi square test, the Weibull distribution gave better results. Hence, it was concluded that the Weibull probability distribution may be used to stochastically describe the annual wind speed data of coastal Andhra Pradesh with better accuracy. The size as well as the complete irrigation system with mass curve analysis was determined to satisfy various daily irrigation demands at different risk levels.

  9. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy projects implemented in Alaska. The first, a sustainable technology energy partnerships (STEP) wind energy deployment project in Kotzebue will install 6 AOC 15/50 wind turbines and connect to the existing village diesel grid, consisting of approximately 1 MW average load. It seeks to develop solutions to the problems of arctic wind energy installations (transport, foundations, erection, operation, and maintenance), to establish a wind turbine test site, and to establish the Kotzebue Electric Association as a training and deployment center for wind/diesel technology in rural Alaska. The second project, a large village medium-penetration wind/diesel system, also in Kotzebue, will install a 1-2 MW windfarm, which will supplement the AOC turbines of the STEP project. The program will investigate the impact of medium penetration wind energy on power quality and system stability. The third project, the Alaska high-penetration wind/diesel village power pilot project in Wales will install a high penetration (80-100%) wind/diesel system in a remote Alaskan village. The system will include about 180 kW installed wind capacity, meeting an average village load of about 60 kW. This program will provide a model for high penetration wind retrofits to village diesel power systems and build the capability in Alaska to operate, maintain, and replicate wind/diesel technology. The program will also address problems of: effective use of excess wind energy; reliable diesel-off operation; and the role of energy storage.

  10. 3D kinetic simulations of the global interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, Jorge; Maneva, Yana; Deca, Jan; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    We performed three dimensional simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere, using the self-consistent fully kinetic code iPic3D. The main objective of our simulations is to link the global interaction phenomena to the local turbulence and reconnection processes in the magnetosphere. Other numerical approaches have been used before to study this problem, including MHD, hybrid and Vlasov codes. However, only particle-in-cell codes offer the possibility to study the kinetic effects of the diffusion regions of the Earth environment that drive the energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. Previous attempts to perform such kinds of simulations were limited to unphysical thermal velocities of the ion and electron species, small simulation boxes or cell sizes that do not capture the local kinetic effects at the magnetopause. Using the implicit moment Particle-in-Cell approach we performed simulations that can capture these small scale effects and, at the same time, allow to study large scale phenomena such as the bow shock and the development of the magnetotail. We expect that these results will be used to maximize the impact of future space missions, such as THOR, MMS and BepiColombo, by improving our understanding of the planetary environment, from the conditions observed in the solar wind to the turbulence and reconnection processes downstream of the bow shock.

  11. Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

  12. Global effects of changes in wind forcing of Southern Indian Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.B. ); Semtner, A.J. ); Chervin, R.M. )

    1990-01-09

    An identical twin numerical experiment has been performed using the global ocean circulation model of Semtner and Chervin. The wind forcing within a band of 120[degree] East [+-] 45[degrees] and 50[degrees] South [+-] 5[degrees] was varied smoothly in space and time to be approximately 4% greater for the twin run than the original. The twin experiment was run for 60 model days. Within nine days small changes of mass transport of the N. Guiana current were observed. Within 24 days changes appeared in mass transport of Pacific Equatorial Rossby waves, and after 60 days mass transport changes were seen in all ocean basins. Within three days small differences in 160 m (mid-thermocline) temperature appeared in the Atlantic basin. Within thirty days, similar changes were evident globally. Similar results were found for mid-thermocline horizontal velocity. These results imply a predictability limit to the accuracy of ocean circulation models due to rapid communication of wave energy between ocean basins. Changes to Pacific Equatorial Rossby wave transport imply possible effects on El Nino by Southern Indian Ocean winds via oceanic coupling.

  13. An integrated system for wind energy forecast using meteorological models and statistical post-processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, P.; Rodrigues, A.; Lopes, J.; Palma, J.; Tome, R.; Sousa, J.; Bessa, R.; Matos, J.

    2009-12-01

    With 3GW of installed wind turbines, corresponding to 23% of the total electric grid, and a 5-year plan that will grow that value above 5GW (near 40% of the grid), Portugal has been a recent success case for renewable energy development. Clearly such large share of wind energy in the national electric system implies a strong requirement for accurate wind forecasts, that can be used to forecast this highly variable energy source and allow for timely decision making in the energy markets, namely for on and off switching of alternative conventional sources. In the past 3 years, a system for 72h energy forecast in mainland Portugal was setup, using 6km resolution meteorological forecasts, forced by global GFS forecasts by NCEP. In the development phase, different boundary conditions (from NCEP and ECMWF) were tested, as well as different limited area models (namely MM5, Aladin, MesoNH and WRF) at resolutions from 12 to 2km, which were evaluated by comparison with wind observations at heights relevant for wind turbines (up to 80m) in different locations and for different synoptic conditions. The developed system, which works with a real time connection with wind farms, also includes a post-processing code that merges recent wind observations with the meteorological forecast, and converts the forecasted wind fields into forecasted energy, by incorporating empirical transfer functions of the wind farm. Wind conditions in Portugal are highly influenced by topography, as most wind farms are located in complex terrain, often in mountainous terrain, where stratification plays a significant role. Coastal effects are also highly relevant, especially during the Summer, where a strong diurnal cycle of the sea-breeze is superimposed on an equally strong boundary layer development, both with a significant impact on low level winds. These two ingredients tend to complicate wind forecasts, requiring fully developed meteorological models. In general, results from 2 full years of

  14. Wind Vision: Updating the DOE 20% Wind Energy by 2030 Report (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2014-04-01

    The 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report was developed as part of the Advanced Energy Initiative. Published in 2008, the report was largely based on information collected and analyzed in 2006. Much has changed since then, including shifts in technology, markets, and policy. The industry needs a new, clear, vision for wind power that is shared among stakeholders from the U.S. government, industry, academia, and NGO communities. At WINDPOWER 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy, in partnership with the American Wind Energy Association and the Wind Energy Foundation, launched a project to update the 20% report with new objectives. This conference poster outlines the elements of the new Wind Vision.

  15. A global view of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kursunoglu, B.N.; Millunzi, A.C.; Perlmutter, A.

    1982-01-01

    This book is based on a series of international scientific forums on energy which focused on the geopolitics of energy. Topics considered included French energy policy, planning, the Persian Gulf, US energy choices, the developing countries, the role of coal, electric power, oil price shocks, fusion reactors, inertial fusion, nuclear fission, nuclear energy, health hazards, and the environmental impacts of carbon dioxide.

  16. Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Quincy Qing

    2003-10-01

    This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine requires a power electronic converter to convert a variable voltage variable frequency source into a fixed voltage fixed frequency supply. Generic single-phase and three-phase converter topologies, converter control methods for wind power generation, as well as the developed direct drive generator, are introduced in the thesis for establishing variable-speed wind energy conversion systems. Variable speed wind power generation system modeling and simulation are essential methods both for understanding the system behavior and for developing advanced system control strategies. Wind generation system components, including wind turbine, 1-phase IGBT inverter, 3-phase IGBT inverter, synchronous generator, and rectifier, are modeled in this thesis using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results have been verified by a commercial simulation software package, PSIM, and confirmed by field test results. Since the dynamic time constants for these individual models are much different, a creative approach has also been developed in this thesis to combine these models for entire wind power generation system simulation. An advanced maximum wind energy extraction strategy relies not only on proper system hardware design, but also on sophisticated software control algorithms. Based on literature review and computer simulation on wind turbine control algorithms, an intelligent maximum wind energy extraction control algorithm is proposed in this thesis. This algorithm has a unique on-line adaptation and optimization capability, which is able to achieve maximum wind energy conversion efficiency through

  17. Improving Maryland's Offshore Wind Energy Resource Estimate Using Doppler Wind Lidar Technology to Assess Microtmeteorology Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Pé, Alexandra; Wesloh, Daniel; Antoszewski, Graham; Daham, Farrah; Goudarzi, Navid; Rabenhorst, Scott; Delgado, Ruben

    2016-06-01

    There is enormous potential to harness the kinetic energy of offshore wind and produce power. However significant uncertainties are introduced in the offshore wind resource assessment process, due in part to limited observational networks and a poor understanding of the marine atmosphere's complexity. Given the cubic relationship between a turbine's power output and wind speed, a relatively small error in the wind speed estimate translates to a significant error in expected power production. The University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) collected in-situ measurements offshore, within Maryland's Wind Energy Area (WEA) from July-August 2013. This research demonstrates the ability of Doppler wind lidar technology to reduce uncertainty in estimating an offshore wind resource, compared to traditional resource assessment techniques, by providing a more accurate representation of the wind profile and associated hub-height wind speed variability. The second objective of this research is to elucidate the impact of offshore micrometeorology controls (stability, wind shear, turbulence) on a turbine's ability to produce power. Compared to lidar measurements, power law extrapolation estimates and operational National Weather Service models underestimated hub-height wind speeds in the WEA. In addition, lidar observations suggest the frequent development of a low-level wind maximum (LLWM), with high turbinelayer wind shear and low turbulence intensity within a turbine's rotor layer (40m-160m). Results elucidate the advantages of using Doppler wind lidar technology to improve offshore wind resource estimates and its ability to monitor under-sampled offshore meteorological controls impact on a potential turbine's ability to produce power.

  18. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...-000; EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco Wind, LLC; Arizona Solar One LLC; Criterion Power Partners, LLC; Sundevil...

  19. Inferring global wind energetics from a simple Earth system model based on the principle of maximum entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkar, S.; Paillard, D.

    2015-03-01

    The question of total available wind power in the atmosphere is highly debated, as well as the effect large scale wind farms would have on the climate. Bottom-up approaches, such as those proposed by wind turbine engineers often lead to non-physical results (non-conservation of energy, mostly), while top-down approaches have proven to give physically consistent results. This paper proposes an original method for the calculation of mean annual wind energetics in the atmosphere, without resorting to heavy numerical integration of the entire dynamics. The proposed method is derived from a model based on the Maximum of Entropy Production (MEP) principle, which has proven to efficiently describe the annual mean temperature and energy fluxes, despite its simplicity. Because the atmosphere is represented with only one vertical layer and there is no vertical wind component, the model fails to represent the general circulation patterns such as cells or trade winds. However, interestingly, global energetic diagnostics are well captured by the mere combination of a simple MEP model and a flux inversion method.

  20. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  1. Method Forecasts Global Energy Substitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes a model developed to forecast energy demands and determine trends in demand for primary fuels. The energy model essentially considers primary energy sources as competing commodities in a market. (MLH)

  2. Wind Energy Finance (WEF): An Online Calculator for Economic Analysis of Wind Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-02-01

    This brochure provides an overview of Wind Energy Finance (WEF), a free online cost of energy calculator developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory that provides quick, detailed economic evaluation of potential utility-scale wind energy projects. The brochure lists the features of the tool, the inputs and outputs that a user can expect, visuals of the screens and a Cash Flow Results table, and contact information.

  3. SERI Advanced and Innovative Wind-Energy-Concepts Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.L.; Jacobs, E.W.

    1983-06-01

    In 1978 the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) was given the responsibility of managing the Advanced and Innovative Wind Energy Concepts (AIWEC) Task by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this program has been to determine the technical and economic potential of advanced wind energy concepts. Assessment and R and D efforts in the AIWEC program have included theoretical performance analyses, wind tunnel testing, and/or costing studies. Concepts demonstrating sufficient potential undergo prototype testing in a Proof-of-Concept research phase. Several concepts, such as the Dynamic Inducer, the Diffuser Augmented wind Turbine, the Electrofluid Dynamic Wind-Driven Generator, the Passive Cyclic Pitch concept, and higher performance airfoil configurations for vertical axis wind turbines, have recently made significant progress. The latter has currently reached the Proof-of-Concept phase. The present paper provides an overview of the technical progress and current status of these concepts.

  4. Global Auroral Energy Deposition Derived from Polar UVI Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Elsen, R.; Parks, G. K.; Spann, J. F., Jr.; Germany, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of the transfer of energy and momentum to the ionosphere from the solar wind is one of the main objectives of the ISTP program. Global measurement of auroral energy deposition derived from observations of the longer wavelength LBH band emissions made by the Ultraviolet Imager on the Polar spacecraft is one of the key elements in this satellite and ground-based instrument campaign. These "measurements" are inferred by combining information from consecutive images using different filters and have a time resolution on the average of three minutes and are made continuously over a 5 to 8 hour period during each 18 hour orbit of the Polar spacecraft. The energy deposition in the ionosphere from auroral electron precipitation augments are due to Joule heating associated with field aligned currents. Assuming conjugacy of energy deposition between the two hemispheres the total energy input to the ionosphere through electron precipitation can be determined at high time resolution. Previously, precipitating particle measurements along the tracks of low altitude satellites provided only local measurements and the global energy precipitation could be inferred through models but not directly measured. We use the UVI images for the entire month of January 1997 to estimate the global energy deposition at high time resolution. We also sort the energy deposition into sectors to find possible trends, for example, on the dayside and nightside, or the dawn and dusk sides.

  5. Wind for Schools: Developing Educational Programs to Train a New Workforce and the Next Generation of Wind Energy Experts (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.; Baring-Gould, I.

    2010-04-01

    As the United States dramatically expands wind energy deployment, the industry is challenged with developing a skilled workforce and addressing public resistance. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools project addresses these issues by: Developing Wind Application Centers (WACs) at universities; installing small wind turbines at community "host" schools; and implementing teacher training with interactive curricula at each host school.

  6. Practical method for estimating wind characteristics at potential wind-energy-conversion sites

    SciTech Connect

    Endlich, R. M.; Ludwig, F. L.; Bhumralkar, C. M.; Estoque, M. A.

    1980-08-01

    Terrain features and variations in the depth of the atmospheric boundary layer produce local variations in wind, and these variations are not depicted well by standard weather reports. A method is developed to compute local winds for use in estimating the wind energy available at any potential site for a wind turbine. The method uses the terrain heights for an area surrounding the site and a series of wind and pressure reports from the nearest four or five national Weather Service stations. An initial estimate of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer is made, then these winds are adjusted to satisfy the continuity equation. In this manner the flow is made to reflect the influences of the terrain and the shape of the boundary-layer top. This report describes in detail the methodology and results, and provides descriptions of the computer programs, instructions for using them, and complete program listings.

  7. DOE Global Energy Storage Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The DOE International Energy Storage Database has more than 400 documented energy storage projects from 34 countries around the world. The database provides free, up-to-date information on grid-connected energy storage projects and relevant state and federal policies. More than 50 energy storage technologies are represented worldwide, including multiple battery technologies, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, gravel energy storage, hydrogen energy storage, pumped hydroelectric, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and thermal energy storage. The policy section of the database shows 18 federal and state policies addressing grid-connected energy storage, from rules and regulations to tariffs and other financial incentives. It is funded through DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories, and has been operating since January 2012.

  8. Review of Wind Energy Forecasting Methods for Modeling Ramping Events

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N; Williams, J L; Rhodes, M; Chow, T K; Maxwell, R

    2011-03-28

    Tall onshore wind turbines, with hub heights between 80 m and 100 m, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere since they generally encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complexity of boundary layer flows. This complexity of the lowest layers of the atmosphere, where wind turbines reside, has made conventional modeling efforts less than ideal. To meet the nation's goal of increasing wind power into the U.S. electrical grid, the accuracy of wind power forecasts must be improved. In this report, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder, University of California at Berkeley, and Colorado School of Mines, evaluates innovative approaches to forecasting sudden changes in wind speed or 'ramping events' at an onshore, multimegawatt wind farm. The forecast simulations are compared to observations of wind speed and direction from tall meteorological towers and a remote-sensing Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR) instrument. Ramping events, i.e., sudden increases or decreases in wind speed and hence, power generated by a turbine, are especially problematic for wind farm operators. Sudden changes in wind speed or direction can lead to large power generation differences across a wind farm and are very difficult to predict with current forecasting tools. Here, we quantify the ability of three models, mesoscale WRF, WRF-LES, and PF.WRF, which vary in sophistication and required user expertise, to predict three ramping events at a North American wind farm.

  9. Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities: A Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Siting Work Group

    2002-08-01

    This handbook has been written for individuals and groups involved in evaluating wind projects: decision-makers and agency staff at all levels of government, wind developers, interested parties and the public. Its purpose is to help stakeholders make permitting wind facility decisions in a manner which assures necessary environmental protection and responds to public needs.

  10. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  11. The Global Energy Balance of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Liming; Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Smith, Mark A.; Gorius, Nicolas J. P.; Jiang, Xun; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Flasar, F. Michael; Baines, Kevin H.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; West, Robert A.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Ewald, Shawn P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the global emitted power of Titan. Longterm (2004-2010) observations conducted by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) onboard Cassini reveal that the total emitted power by Titan is (2.84 plus or minus 0.01) x 10(exp 8) watts. Together with previous measurements of the global absorbed solar power of Titan, the CIRS measurements indicate that the global energy budget of Titan is in equilibrium within measurement error. The uncertainty in the absorbed solar energy places an upper limit on the energy imbalance of 5.3%.

  12. Wind energy developments in the 20th century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargo, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Wind turbine systems for generating electrical power have been tested in many countries. Representative examples of turbines which have produced from 100 to 1250 kW are described. The advantages of wind energy consist of its being a nondepleting, nonpolluting, and free fuel source. Its disadvantages relate to the variability of wind and the high installation cost per kilowatt of capacity of wind turbines when compared to other methods of electric-power generation. High fuel costs and potential resource scarcity have led to a five-year joint NASA-NSF program to study wind energy. The program will study wind energy conversion and storage systems with respect to cost effectiveness, and will attempt to estimate national wind-energy potential and develop techniques for generator site selection. The studies concern a small-systems (50-250 kW) project, a megawatt-systems (500-3000 kW) project, supporting research and technology, and energy storage. Preliminary economic analyses indicate that wind-energy conversion can be competitive in high-average-wind areas.

  13. ECMWF and SSM/I global surface wind speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Hollingsworth, Anthony; Wentz, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Monthly mean 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg resolution 10-m height wind speeds from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instrument and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecast-analysis system are compared between 60 deg S and 60 deg N during 1988-91. The SSM/I data were uniformly processed while numerous changes were made to the ECMWF forecast-analysis system. The SSM/I measurements, which were compared with moored-buoy wind observations, were used as a reference dataset to evaluate the influence of the changes made to the ECMWF system upon the ECMWF surface wind speed over the ocean. A demonstrable yearly decrease of the difference between SSM/I and ECMWF wind speeds occurred in the 10 deg S-10 deg N region, including the 5 deg S-5 deg N zone of the Pacific Ocean, where nearly all of the variations occurred in the 160 deg E-160 deg W region. The apparent improvement of the ECMWF wind speed occurred at the same time as the yearly decrease of the equatorial Pacific SSM/I wind speed, which was associated with the natural transition from La Nina to El Nino conditions. In the 10 deg S-10 deg N tropical Atlantic, the ECMWF wind speed had a 4-yr trend, which was not expected nor was it duplicated with the SSM/I data. No yearly trend was found in the difference between SSM/I and ECMWF surface wind speeds in middle latitudes of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The magnitude of the differences between SSM/I and ECMWF was 0.4 m/s or 100% larger in the Northern than in the Southern Hemisphere extratropics. In two areas (Arabian Sea and North Atlantic Ocean) where ECMWF and SSM/I wind speeds were compared to ship measurements, the ship data had much better agreement with the ECMWF analyses compared to SSM/I data. In the 10 deg S-10 deg N area the difference between monthly standard deviations of the daily wind speeds dropped significantly from 1988 to 1989 but remained constant at about 30% for the remaining years.

  14. Comparisons of Solar Wind Coupling Parameters with Auroral Energy Deposition Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsen, R.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Fillingim, M. O.; Parks, G. K.; Germany G. A.; Spann, J. F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of the global rate of energy deposition in the ionosphere via auroral particle precipitation is one of the primary goals of the Polar UVI program and is an important component of the ISTP program. The instantaneous rate of energy deposition for the entire month of January 1997 has been calculated by applying models to the UVI images and is presented by Fillingim et al. In this session. A number of parameters that predict the rate of coupling of solar wind energy into the magnetosphere have been proposed in the last few decades. Some of these parameters, such as the epsilon parameter of Perrault and Akasofu, depend on the instantaneous values in the solar wind. Other parameters depend on the integrated values of solar wind parameters, especially IMF Bz, e.g. applied flux which predicts the net transfer of magnetic flux to the tail. While these parameters have often been used successfully with substorm studies, their validity in terms of global energy input has not yet been ascertained, largely because data such as that supplied by the ISTP program was lacking. We have calculated these and other energy coupling parameters for January 1997 using solar wind data provided by WIND and other solar wind monitors. The rates of energy input predicted by these parameters are compared to those measured through UVI data and correlations are sought. Whether these parameters are better at providing an instantaneous rate of energy input or an average input over some time period is addressed. We also study if either type of parameter may provide better correlations if a time delay is introduced; if so, this time delay may provide a characteristic time for energy transport in the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system.

  15. Requirements and Technology Advances for Global Wind Measurement with a Coherent Lidar: A Shrinking Gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Yu, Jirong; Koch, Grady J.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Singh, Upendra N.; Emmitt, G. David

    2007-01-01

    Early concepts to globally measure vertical profiles of vector horizontal wind from space planned on an orbit height of 525 km, a single pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system to cover the full troposphere, and a continuously rotating telescope/scanner that mandated a vertical line of sight wind profile from each laser shot. Under these conditions system studies found that laser pulse energies of approximately 20 J at 10 Hz pulse repetition rate with a rotating telescope diameter of approximately 1.5 m was required. Further requirements to use solid state laser technology and an eyesafe wavelength led to the relatively new 2-micron solid state laser. With demonstrated pulse energies near 20 mJ at 5 Hz, and no demonstration of a rotating telescope maintaining diffraction limited performance in space, the technology gap between requirements and demonstration was formidable. Fortunately the involved scientists and engineers set out to reduce the gap, and through a combination of clever ideas and technology advances over the last 15 years, they have succeeded. This paper will detail the gap reducing factors and will present the current status.

  16. Growing a Wind Workforce: The National Wind Energy Skills Assessment Report (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2014-05-01

    This poster summarizes results from the first published investigation into the detailed makeup of the wind energy workforce as well as a glance at the educational infrastructure and training needs of the wind industry. Insights from this research into the domestic wind workforce allow the private sector, educational institutions, and federal and state governments to make better informed workforce-related decisions based on the current data and future projections.

  17. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from...

  18. Wind Energy Conversion Systems. A Unit of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Martin

    The number of secondary schools, colleges, and universities offering courses in wind energy machine construction, repair, and installation, continues to increase. It is the purpose of this unit to include the study of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) as an integral part of related vocational and technical curriculum materials. The unit's…

  19. The Solar Wind - Magnetosphere Energy Coupling Function and Open Magnetic Flux Estimation: Two Science Aspects of the SMILE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Dai, L.; Sun, T.; Han, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) is a novel self-standing mission to observe solar wind - magnetosphere coupling via simultaneous in situ solar wind /magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field measurements, X-ray images of the magnetosphere, and UV images of global auroral distribution defining system - level consequences. The SMILE mission is jointly supported by ESA and CSA, and the launch date is expected to be in 2021. SMILE will address several key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with the magnetospheres on a global level. Quantitatively estimating the energy input from the solar wind into the magnetosphere on a global scale is still an observational challenge. Using global MHD simulations, we derive a new solar wind - magnetosphere energy coupling function. The X-ray images of the magnetosphere from the SMILE mission will help estimate the energy transfer from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. A second aspect SMILE can address is the open magnetic flux, which is closely related to magnetic reconnections in the dayside magnetopause and magnetotail. In a similar way, we find that the open magnetic flux can be estimated through a combined parameter f, which is a function of the solar wind velocity, number density, the southern interplanetary magnetic field strength, and the ionospheric Pederson conductance. The UV auroral images from SMILE will be used to determine the open magnetic flux, which may serve as a key space weather forecast element in the future.

  20. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  1. Solar wind and high energy particle effects in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lastovicka, Jan

    1989-01-01

    The solar wind variability and high energy particle effects in the neutral middle atmosphere are not much known. These factors are important in the high latitude upper mesosphere, lower thermosphere energy budget. They influence temperature, composition (minor constituents of nitric oxide, ozone), circulation (wind system) and airflow. The vertical and latitudinal structures of such effects, mechanisms of downward penetration of energy and questions of energy abundance are largely to be solved. The most important recent finding seems to be the discovery of the role of highly relativistic electrons in the middle atmosphere at L = 3 - 8 (Baker et al., 1987). The solar wind and high energy particle flux variability appear to form a part of the chain of possible Sun-weather (climate) relationships. The importance of such studies in the nineties is emphasized by their role in big international programs STEP and IGBP - Global Change.

  2. Modulation of the Global Wind Resource by the El-Nino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunturu, U. B.; Yip, C. M. A.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    El-Nino is the most important climate scale oscillation in the tropical atmosphere and earlier studies have shown that it impacts weather in different parts of the world. Since the long-term stability of wind resource is a primary requirement for the reliability of wind power generation, any modulation of the wind resource by the El-Nino constitutes valuable information for efficient harvesting of wind. In this study, we construct the global wind resource as described in Gunturu & Schlosser (2012) and use the method of composites to understand the impact of the El-Nino on the global wind resource. The results show that the impact of the El-Nino is to decrease the wind resource in the central United States, southern Australia and north central Africa. Further, interestingly, the wind resource increases in the Nordic sea and the continental areas around it. The Deccan plateau region of India also has reduced WPD due to the El-Nino as shown by the composites. On the other hand, the central US and southern Australia have increased WPD due to La-Nina and the resource decreases in India. The statistically significant results will be further discussed for their implications to the long term stability of the wind resource in the different regions of the world. We also substantiate the results with other suitable metrics.

  3. A Global Perspective: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Whitlock, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project, initiated under the NASA Science Mission Directorate Applied Science Energy Management Program, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale that are invaluable to the renewable energy industries, especially to the solar and wind energy sectors. The POWER project derives its data primarily from NASA's World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Version 2.9) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (Version 4). The latest development of the NASA POWER Project and its plans for the future are presented in this paper.

  4. Compact, High Energy 2-micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development for NASA's Future 3-D Winds Measurement from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Demoz, Belay B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 2-micron laser transmitter development at NASA Langley Research Center for coherent-detection lidar profiling of winds. The novel high-energy, 2-micron, Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser technology developed at NASA Langley was employed to study laser technology currently envisioned by NASA for future global coherent Doppler lidar winds measurement. The 250 mJ, 10 Hz laser was designed as an integral part of a compact lidar transceiver developed for future aircraft flight. Ground-based wind profiles made with this transceiver will be presented. NASA Langley is currently funded to build complete Doppler lidar systems using this transceiver for the DC-8 aircraft in autonomous operation. Recently, LaRC 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar system was selected to contribute to the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Earth Science Division (ESD) hurricane field experiment in 2010 titled Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The Doppler lidar system will measure vertical profiles of horizontal vector winds from the DC-8 aircraft using NASA Langley s existing 2-micron, pulsed, coherent detection, Doppler wind lidar system that is ready for DC-8 integration. The measurements will typically extend from the DC-8 to the earth s surface. They will be highly accurate in both wind magnitude and direction. Displays of the data will be provided in real time on the DC-8. The pulsed Doppler wind lidar of NASA Langley Research Center is much more powerful than past Doppler lidars. The operating range, accuracy, range resolution, and time resolution will be unprecedented. We expect the data to play a key role, combined with the other sensors, in improving understanding and predictive algorithms for hurricane strength and track. 1

  5. Wind Spires as an Alternative Energy Source

    SciTech Connect

    Majid Rashidi, Ph.D., P.E.

    2012-10-30

    This report discloses the design and development of an innovative wind tower system having an axisymmetric wind deflecting structure with a plurality of symmetrically mounted rooftop size wind turbines near the axisymmetric structure. The purpose of the wind deflecting structure is to increase the ambient wind speed that in turn results in an overall increase in the power capacity of the wind turbines. Two working prototypes were constructed and installed in the summer of 2009 and 2012 respectively. The system installed in the Summer of 2009 has a cylindrical wind deflecting structure, while the tower installed in 2012 has a spiral-shape wind deflecting structure. Each tower has 4 turbines, each rated at 1.65 KW Name-Plate-Rating. Before fabricating the full-size prototypes, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses and scaled-down table-top models were used to predict the performance of the full-scale models. The performance results obtained from the full-size prototypes validated the results obtained from the computational models and those of the scaled-down models. The second prototype (spiral configuration) showed at a wind speed of 11 miles per hour (4.9 m/s) the power output of the system could reach 1,288 watt, when a typical turbine installation, with no wind deflecting structure, could produce only 200 watt by the same turbines at the same wind speed. At a wind speed of 18 miles per hour (8 m/sec), the spiral prototype produces 6,143 watt, while the power generated by the same turbines would be 1,412 watt in the absence of a wind deflecting structure under the same wind speed. Four US patents were allowed, and are in print, as the results of this project (US 7,540,706, US 7,679,209, US 7,845,904, and US 8,002,516).

  6. Final Report - Wind and Hydro Energy Feasibility Study - June 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Zoellick; Richard Engel; Rubin Garcia; Colin Sheppard

    2011-06-17

    This feasibility examined two of the Yurok Tribe's most promising renewable energy resources, wind and hydro, to provide the Tribe detailed, site specific information that will result in a comprehensive business plan sufficient to implement a favorable renewable energy project.

  7. Statistical downscaling of IPCC sea surface wind and wind energy predictions for U.S. east coastal ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhigang; Xue, Zuo; He, Ruoying; Bao, Xianwen; Song, Jun

    2016-08-01

    A multivariate statistical downscaling method is developed to produce regional, high-resolution, coastal surface wind fields based on the IPCC global model predictions for the U.S. east coastal ocean, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), and the Caribbean Sea. The statistical relationship is built upon linear regressions between the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) spaces of a cross- calibrated, multi-platform, multi-instrument ocean surface wind velocity dataset (predictand) and the global NCEP wind reanalysis (predictor) over a 10 year period from 2000 to 2009. The statistical relationship is validated before applications and its effectiveness is confirmed by the good agreement between downscaled wind fields based on the NCEP reanalysis and in-situ surface wind measured at 16 National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys in the U.S. east coastal ocean and the GOM during 1992-1999. The predictand-predictor relationship is applied to IPCC GFDL model output (2.0°×2.5°) of downscaled coastal wind at 0.25°×0.25° resolution. The temporal and spatial variability of future predicted wind speeds and wind energy potential over the study region are further quantified. It is shown that wind speed and power would significantly be reduced in the high CO2 climate scenario offshore of the mid-Atlantic and northeast U.S., with the speed falling to one quarter of its original value.

  8. Global and Limited-Area Ensemble Prediction Systems deployed for Wind Power Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroliagis, T. I.; Jacques, M.; Montani, A.; Bremen, L. V.; Heinemann, D.

    2010-09-01

    The integration of wind generation into power systems is affected by uncertainties in the forecasting of expected power output. Misestimating of meteorological conditions or large forecasting errors (phase errors, near cut-off speeds etc.) has proved to be very costly for infrastructures (i.e. unexpected loads on turbines) and reduces the value of wind energy for end-users. The state-of-the-art in wind power forecasting has focused so far on the 'usual' operating conditions rather than on extreme events. Thus, the current wind forecasting technology presents several strong bottlenecks. End-users urge for dedicated approaches to reduce large prediction errors or predict extremes from a local scale (gusts, shears) up to a European scale as extremes and forecast errors may propagate. The aim of the new European FP7 Project, namely SAFEWIND, is to substantially improve wind power predictability in challenging or extreme situations and at different temporal and spatial scales. One of the areas that SAFEWIND concentrates on is the use of Global and Local Area Model (LAM) Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) forecasts for improved wind predictions on local to regional scales. More specifically, the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) EPS has been deployed as the backbone Global EPS platform for the SAFEWIND. The operational ECMWF EPS uses perturbations based on initial and evolved singular vectors. Model uncertainties are presented currently by the stochastic physics scheme that perturbs the parametrised physics tendencies by multiplicative noise. The current horizontal resolution of the ECMWF EPS is roughly 32 km while its corresponding 'deterministic' IFS (Integrated Forecast System) forecast and analysis fields have a resolution of about 16 km. On the other hand, LEPS (Limited-Area Ensemble Prediction System) components have been provided by the COSMO-LEPS. This system is based on the non-hydrostatic COSMO-model developed within the COnsortium for

  9. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad

    2012-10-30

    Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision

  10. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy related projects which are underway in Indonesia. The first is a USAID/Winrock Wind for Island and Nongovernmental Development (WIND) project. The objectives of this project are to train local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the siting, installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. Then to install up to 20 wind systems to provide electric power for productive end uses while creating micro-enterprises which will generate enough revenue to sustain the wind energy systems. The second project is a joint Community Power Corporation/PLN (Indonesian National Electric Utility) case study of hybrid power systems in village settings. The objective is to evaluate the economic viability of various hybrid power options for several different situations involving wind/photovoltaics/batteries/diesel. The third project is a World Bank/PLN preliminary market assessment for wind/diesel hybrid systems. The objective is to estimate the size of the total potential market for wind/diesel hybrid power systems in Indonesia. The study will examine both wind retrofits to existing diesel mini-grids and new wind-diesel plants in currently unelectrified villages.

  11. Performance of an angular flange aeroelastic wind energy converter

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadi, G.

    1983-05-01

    ALL conventional wind turbines operate on the principles of turbomachinaries, with wind being made to flow over a set of rotating vanes. Recently, a new concept for wind energy conversion based on aeroelastic instability was introduced. It is well known that couplings between the vibration of an elastic structure and fluid stream may lead to aeroelastic instability. Energy then is transferred from the airstream into the elastic structure, which results in a destructive monotonic increase of the vibration amplitude of the structure. The failure of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge is one of the well-known examples of such a disaster. The use of an aeroelastic instability (or flutter) mechanism for constructing a wind energy converter was suggested. The theory for a torsional wind energy converter and the results of some model tests were also presented. Recently, some studies on similar types of wind energy converters using oscillating airfoils were reported. In the present study an angular flange H-section model of a torsional aeroelastic wind energy converter is constructed, and its performances under various conditions are investigated. The effects of the variations of the flange angle and the flange width on the performance of the model are studied. The weight of the pendulum is also varied, and its effects on the power coefficient of the model are investigated. It is observed that the efficiency of energy conversion decreases with an increase in wind speed. A method for possible improvement of the theoretical prediction is suggested and discussed.

  12. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Parker, Z.; Fields, M.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Draxl, C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's development of three delineated leasing area options for the Massachusetts (MA) WEA and the technical evaluation of these leasing areas. The overarching objective of this study is to develop a logical process by which the MA WEA can be subdivided into non-overlapping leasing areas for BOEM's use in developing an auction process in a renewable energy lease sale. NREL worked with BOEM to identify an appropriate number of leasing areas and proposed three delineation alternatives within the MA WEA based on the boundaries announced in May 2012. A primary output of the interagency agreement is this report, which documents the methodology, including key variables and assumptions, by which the leasing areas were identified and delineated.

  13. Wind Energy Workforce Development: A Roadmap to a Sustainable Wind Industry (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.; Kelly, M.

    2010-05-01

    As the United States moves toward a vision of greatly expanded wind energy use as outlined in the U.S. Department of Energy's 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, the need for skilled workers at all levels in the industry is repeatedly identified as a critical issue. This presentation is an overview of the educational infrastructure and expected industry needs to support the continued development of a vibrant U.S. wind industry through a discussion of the activities identified that must be put in place to train workers. The paper will also provide a framework to address issues raised from each of the education and industry sectors, identifying a roadmap for developing an educational infrastructure to support wind technology. The presentation will also provide an understanding of the available resources, materials, and programs available across the industry. This presentation provides an overview of the educational infrastructure and expected industry needs to support the continued development of a vibrant U.S. wind industry as part of a collaborative effort to develop a wind workforce roadmap. This presentation will provide 1) A review of needed programs to train workers for the wind industry; 2) An overview of the importance education will play if the nation is to expand wind energy (both in development and deployment terms) and a review of ongoing activities with a focus on federal efforts; 3) A review of the materials and resources available across the industry and a framework to address issues raised from each of the education and industry sectors.

  14. Galactic cluster winds in presence of a dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Merafina, M.

    2013-10-01

    We obtain a solution for the hydrodynamic outflow of the polytropic gas from the gravitating centre, in the presence of the uniform dark energy (DE). The antigravity of DE is enlightening the outflow and makes the outflow possible at smaller initial temperature, at the same density. The main property of the wind in the presence of DE is its unlimited acceleration after passing the critical point. In application of this solution to the winds from galaxy clusters, we suggest that collision of the strongly accelerated wind with another galaxy cluster, or with another galactic cluster wind, could lead to the formation of a highest energy cosmic rays.

  15. The Impact of Anthropogenic Global Warming on the Wind Power Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Barrie, D.

    2009-12-01

    The growing need for low-carbon emitting electricity sources has resulted in rapid growth in the wind power industry. The size and steadiness of the offshore wind resource has attracted growing investment in the planning of offshore wind turbine installations. Decisions about the location and character of wind farms should be made with an eye not only to present but also future wind resource, which may change as increasing carbon dioxide forces reductions in the poleward temperature gradient, and thus potentially in the mean tropospheric westerly winds. Analysis of the IPCC AR4 SRESa1b model projections shows a consistent pattern of enhanced wind power resource over the U.S. south central plains, and reduced wind power over the Atlantic. Over the crucial near-shore region, the multi-model ensemble mean shows reduced winds, but there is significant model disagreement here. In this presentation we diagnose the relative roles of mass rearrangement and momentum flux changes in driving surface wind changes in response to global warming. In addition, results from high-resolution downscaled projections of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) are analyzed. Preliminary results show agreement with the large scale model projections at large scale. However, regional details show important deviations from the large scale patterns, including enhanced wind resource in the Gulf of Maine, and off the Delmarva Penninsula. Multimodel ensemble estimate of change in wind power resource (percentage change in monthly mean of cube of surface wind) from the decade 1990-2000 to the decade 2090-2100, across seven of the IPCC AR4 SRESA1B models runs (BCCR, CNRM, CSIRO, GFDL, MIROC (medium resolution), ECHAM2, and MRI). Models chosen are those which provided daily surface wind data on the WCRP CMIP3 data archive. Colors in indicate the mean percentage increase, while thatching indicates that this mean change exceeds the standard deviation among the model

  16. Space and energy: Global viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, D. E.

    1981-11-01

    The potential contributions from space technology to solving the future world energy problem are addressed. The basic problem is created by the depletion of the fossile fuels in the next century. The replacement of oil, gas and coal is only feasible by nuclear power and solar energy. In the first case space technology can contribute to making the terrestrial storage of radioactive waste much less dangerous and more acceptable by expediting the highly radioactive components (only 3%) into space. In the case of solar energy space technology can contribute large solar power stations in space, providing energy via microwaves to special rectenna sites.

  17. Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States (Highlights); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This is a four-part Wind Vision project, consisting of Wind Vision Highlights, Executive Summary, a Full Report, and Appendix. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program, in close cooperation with the wind industry, led a comprehensive analysis to evaluate future pathways for the wind industry. The Wind Vision report updates and expands upon the DOE's 2008 report, 20% Wind Energy by 2030, and defines the societal, environmental, and economic benefits of wind power in a scenario with wind energy supplying 10% of national end-use electricity demand by 2020, 20% by 2030, and 35% by 2050.

  18. Department of Energy Awards $43 Million to Spur Offshore Wind Energy, Wind Program Newsletter, September 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    EERE Wind Program Quarterly Newsletter - September 2011. In September, the U.S. Department of Energy announced that it will award $43 million over the next five years to 41 projects across 20 states to speed technical innovations, lower costs, and shorten the timeline for deploying offshore wind energy systems. The projects will advance wind turbine design tools and hardware, improve information about U.S. offshore wind resources, and accelerate the deployment of offshore wind by reducing market barriers such as supply chain development, transmission and infrastructure. The projects announced in September focus on approaches to advancing offshore technology and removing market barriers to responsible offshore wind energy deployment. Funding is subject to Congressional appropriations.

  19. High Voltage Power Transmission for Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young il

    The high wind speeds and wide available area at sea have recently increased the interests on offshore wind farms in the U.S.A. As offshore wind farms become larger and are placed further from the shore, the power transmission to the onshore grid becomes a key feature. Power transmission of the offshore wind farm, in which good wind conditions and a larger installation area than an onshore site are available, requires the use of submarine cable systems. Therefore, an underground power cable system requires unique design and installation challenges not found in the overhead power cable environment. This paper presents analysis about the benefit and drawbacks of three different transmission solutions: HVAC, LCC/VSC HVDC in the grid connecting offshore wind farms and also analyzed the electrical characteristics of underground cables. In particular, loss of HV (High Voltage) subsea power of the transmission cables was evaluated by the Brakelmann's theory, taking into account the distributions of current and temperature.

  20. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of Offshore Wind Cost of Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Damiami, R.; Hand, M.; Meadows, R.; Musial, W.; Moriarty, P.; Veers, P.

    2012-10-01

    No matter the source, offshore wind energy plant cost estimates are significantly higher than for land-based projects. For instance, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) review on the 2010 cost of wind energy found baseline cost estimates for onshore wind energy systems to be 71 dollars per megawatt-hour ($/MWh), versus 225 $/MWh for offshore systems. There are many ways that innovation can be used to reduce the high costs of offshore wind energy. However, the use of such innovation impacts the cost of energy because of the highly coupled nature of the system. For example, the deployment of multimegawatt turbines can reduce the number of turbines, thereby reducing the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with vessel acquisition and use. On the other hand, larger turbines may require more specialized vessels and infrastructure to perform the same operations, which could result in higher costs. To better understand the full impact of a design decision on offshore wind energy system performance and cost, a system analysis approach is needed. In 2011-2012, NREL began development of a wind energy systems engineering software tool to support offshore wind energy system analysis. The tool combines engineering and cost models to represent an entire offshore wind energy plant and to perform system cost sensitivity analysis and optimization. Initial results were collected by applying the tool to conduct a sensitivity analysis on a baseline offshore wind energy system using 5-MW and 6-MW NREL reference turbines. Results included information on rotor diameter, hub height, power rating, and maximum allowable tip speeds.

  2. Tethered airfoil wind energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Biscomb, L.I.

    1982-01-05

    A generally toric lighter-than-air gas bag-type airfoil is tethered to the ground at a plurality of angularly widely distributed points about the periphery of the gas bag. A wind turbine is mounted at the entrance to the axially central vent. The tether lines are entrained about individually operable power winches, preferably controlled by a microprocessor which takes in wind direction and tether line tension data and operates the winches and inflation gas inlet and outlet valves to orient the wind turbine into the wind for maximum power output.

  3. Wind and radiant solar energy for drying fruits and vegetables

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, C.J. Jr.; Coleman, R.L.; Berry, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The combination of wind with radiant solar energy for drying fruits and vegetables can help promote conservation of food and nonrenewable energy resources. Low-cost, small-scale solar dryers have been developed with the potential for developing larger dryers. These dryers depend on natural air convection to remove moisture. Designing the dryers to incorporate natural wind currents, providing forced air circulation, could increase drying rates. Preliminary studies to provide information for such designs included: (1) comparing drying tests with and without forced air circulation, (2) monitoring wind speeds on-site, and (3) testing wind collecting devices. Average wind speeds during solar periods were higher than air velocities from unassisted air convection in these small food dryers. Drying rates were increased by 6 to 11% when the natural convection dryer was provided with a small electric fan. Either of two wind collecting devices also could increase drying rates.

  4. Radial evolution of the energy density of solar wind fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zank, G. P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Smith, C. W.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of transport theories appropriate to a radially expanding solar wind, we describe new results for the radial evolution of the energy density in solar wind fluctuations at MHD scales. These models include the effects of 'mixing' and driving as well as the possibility of non-isotropic MHD turbulence. Implications of these results for solar wind heating, cosmic ray diffusion and interstellar pick-up ions will also be addressed.

  5. Description of the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES)

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Nelson, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this Technical Report is to provide background information about the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES). This study, which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program, was conducted from 16 November 2010 through 21 March 2012 at a field site in northeastern Oregon. The primary goal of the study was to provide profiles of wind speed and wind direction over the depth of the boundary layer in an operating wind farm located in an area of complex terrain. Measurements from propeller and vane anemometers mounted on a 62 m tall tower, Doppler Sodar, and Radar Wind Profiler were combined into a single data product to provide the best estimate of the winds above the site during the first part of CBWES. An additional goal of the study was to provide measurements of Turbulence Kinetic Energy (TKE) near the surface. To address this specific goal, sonic anemometers were mounted at two heights on the 62 m tower on 23 April 2011. Prior to the deployment of the sonic anemometers on the tall tower, a single sonic anemometer was deployed on a short tower 3.1 m tall that was located just to the south of the radar wind profiler. Data from the radar wind profiler, as well as the wind profile data product are available from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Data Archive (http://www.arm.gov/data/campaigns). Data from the sonic anemometers are available from the authors.

  6. Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the Rhode Island/Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to BOEM on the identification and delineation of offshore leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM in 2012. This report focuses on NREL's evaluation of BOEM's Rhode Island/Massachusetts (RIMA) WEA leasing areas. The objective of the NREL evaluation was to assess the proposed delineation of the two leasing areas and determine if the division is reasonable and technically sound. Additionally, the evaluation aimed to identify any deficiencies in the delineation. As part of the review, NREL performed the following tasks: 1. Performed a limited review of relevant literature and RIMA call nominations. 2. Executed a quantitative analysis and comparison of the two proposed leasing areas 3. Conducted interviews with University of Rhode Island (URI) staff involved with the URI Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) 4. Prepared this draft report summarizing the key findings.

  7. Sault Tribe Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts

    2005-07-31

    The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.

  8. Small Wind Energy Systems for the Homeowner

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    If you live in a rural or remote location, this publication will help you decide whether a wind system is practical for you. It explains the benefits, helps you assess your wind resource and possible sites, discusses legal and environmental obstacles, and analyzes economic considerations such as pricing.

  9. Characteristics and Trade-Offs of Doppler Lidar Global Wind Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G David

    2004-01-01

    Accurate, global profiling of wind velocity is highly desired by NASA, NOAA, the DOD/DOC/NASA Integrated Program Office (IPO)/NPOESS, DOD, and others for many applications such as validation and improvement of climate models, and improved weather prediction. The most promising technology to deliver this measurement from space is Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL). The NASA/NOAA Global Tropospheric Wind Sounder (GTWS) program is currently in the process of generating the science requirements for a space-based sensor. In order to optimize the process of defining science requirements, it is important for the scientific and user community to understand the nature of the wind measurements that DWL can make. These measurements are very different from those made by passive imaging sensors or by active radar sensors. The purpose of this paper is to convey the sampling characteristics and data product trade-offs of an orbiting DWL.

  10. The global structure of hot star winds: Constraints from spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversberg, Thomas

    2000-11-01

    Chapter 1. We present time-series of ultra-high S/N, high resolution spectra of the He II λ 4686 Å emission line in the O4I(n)f supergiant ζ Puppis, the brightest early-type O-star in the sky. These reveal stochastic, variable substructures in the line, which tend to move away from the line-center with time. Similar scaled-up features are well established in the strong winds of Wolf-Rayet stars (the presumed descendants of O stars), where they are explained by outward moving inhomogeneities (e.g., blobs, clumps, shocks) in the winds. If all hot-star winds are clumped like that of ζ Pup, as is plausible, then mass-low rates based on recombination-line intensities will have to be revised downwards. Using a standard `β' velocity law we deduce a value of β = 1.0-1.2 to account for the kinematics of these structures in the wind of ζ Pup. In addition to the small-scale stochastic variations we also find a slow systematic variation of the mean central absorption reversal. Chapter 2. We introduce a new polarimeter unit which, mounted at the Cassegrain focus of any telescope and fiber-connected to a fixed CCD spectrograph, is able to measure all Stokes parameters I, Q, U and V across spectral lines of bright stellar targets and other point sources in a quasi-simultaneous manner. Applying standard reduction techniques for linearly and circularly polarized light we are able to obtain photon-noise limited line polarization. We briefly outline the technical design of the polarimeter unit and the linear algebraic Mueller calculus for obtaining polarization parameters of any point source. In addition, practical limitations of the optical elements are outlined. We present first results obtained with our spectropolarimeter for four bright, hot-star targets: We confirm previous results for Hα in the bright Be star γ Cas and find linear depolarization features across the emission line complex C III/C IV (λ 5696/λ 5808 Å) of the WR+O binary γ2 Vel. We also find circular

  11. Global aspects of stream evolution in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    A spatially variable coronal expansion, when coupled with solar rotation, leads to the formation of high speed solar wind streams which evolve considerably with increasing heliocentric distance. Initially the streams steepen for simple kinematic reasons, but this steepening is resisted by pressure forces, leading eventually to the formation of forward-reverse shock pairs in the distant heliosphere. The basic physical processes responsible for stream steepening an evolution are explored and model calculations are compared with actual spacecraft observations of the process. The solar wind stream evolution problem is relatively well understood both observationally and theoretically. Tools developed in achieving this understanding should be applicable to other astrophysical systems where a spatially or temporally variable outflow is associated with a rotating object. 27 references, 13 figures.

  12. Performance of Tornado Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, T.

    1982-09-01

    The flow characteristics and power production capabilities of the Tornado Wind Energy Conversion System (TWECS) are examined. Experimental results indicate that the confined vortex in the tower of TWECS rotates approximately as a solid body and only supplements total power production, most of which comes from the tower acting as a bluff body. Wrapped tower experiments were performed by fitting a plastic shroud 360 deg around the tower from the top of the bottom inlet to the tower exit level which transformed the TWECS into a hollow, raised cylinder. Coefficient of power is compared for louvered towers vs. wrapped tower. The fact that the wrapped tower performs as well as the louvered tower suggests that it is the pressure difference between the bottom inlet region and the region above the tower (where the pressure of the ambient flow will be somewhat reduced owing to its acceleration over the bluff body of the tower) which determines the vertical force on the fluid within the tower.

  13. Development of large wind energy power generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The background and development of an experimental 100 kW wind-energy generation system are described, and the results of current field tests are presented. The experimental wind turbine is a two-bladed down-wind horizontal axis propeller type with a 29.4 m diameter rotor and a tower 28 m in height. The plant was completed in March, 1983, and has been undergoing trouble-free tests since then. The present program calls for field tests during two years from fiscal 1983 to 1984. The development of technologies relating to the linkage and operation of wind-energy power generation system networks is planned along with the acquisition of basic data for the development of a large-scale wind energy power generation system.

  14. Wind energy as a significant source of electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, R G

    1995-01-01

    Wind energy is a commercially available renewable energy source, with state-of-the-art wind plants producing electricity at about $0.05 per kWh. However, even at that production cost, wind-generated electricity is not yet fully cost-competitive with coal- or natural-gas-produced electricity for the bulk electricity market. The wind is a proven energy source; it is not resource-limited in the US, and there are no insolvable technical constraints. This paper describes current and historical technology, characterizes existing trends, and describes the research and development required to reduce the cost of wind-generated electricity to full competitiveness with fossil-fuel-generated electricity for the bulk electricity market. Potential markets are described.

  15. Evolution of the global wind wave climate in CMIP5 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynin, M.; Murawsky, J.; Yang, S.

    2012-09-01

    Ocean wind waves follow shifts in atmospheric circulation and wind regimes caused by climate change and variability. We use a wave model (WAM) forced by winds from an Earth system model (EC-Earth) to study the evolution of global wave climate in terms of trends in wind speed and wave height, their rates and anomalies over the 250 years. Historical period and future scenarios (RCP8.5 and RCP4.5) are calculated within the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Both scenarios indicate a future increase of wind speed and wave height in the Arctic and Southern Ocean and a decrease in the Pacific Ocean. Some regions, e.g., the North Atlantic show a change of sign from currently positive to negative trends in this century. Swell dominated regions, connected to the Southern Ocean show opposite trends for winds and waves. Calculated trends are evaluated taking into account natural variability estimated from a simulation with pre-industrial climate. We conclude that projected wave heights are still within natural variability, whereas wind speed exceeds it in the Arctic and Southern Ocean. Probability estimates show that extreme winds and waves become more dominant in the Southern Hemisphere, Arctic and Indian Ocean. Low and medium winds and waves are highly probable in the North and Equatorial Atlantic and Pacific.

  16. Offshore Wind Turbines - Estimated Noise from Offshore Wind Turbine, Monhegan Island, Maine: Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, Pamela M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-23

    Deep C Wind, a consortium headed by the University of Maine will test the first U.S. offshore wind platforms in 2012. In advance of final siting and permitting of the test turbines off Monhegan Island, residents of the island off Maine require reassurance that the noise levels from the test turbines will not disturb them. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, at the request of the University of Maine, and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program, modeled the acoustic output of the planned test turbines.

  17. Energy principle with global invariants

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Dewar, R.L.; Monticello, D.A.

    1980-05-01

    A variational principle is proposed for constructing equilibria with low free energy in toroidal plasmas in which relaxation is dominated by a tearing mode of single helicity. States with current density vanishing on the boundary are constructed. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data from reversed field pinches and tokamaks.

  18. Wind Plant Cost of Energy: Past and Future (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2013-03-01

    This presentation examines trends in wind plant cost of energy over the last several decades and discusses methods and examples of projections for future cost trends. First, the presentation explores cost trends for wind energy from the 1980s, where there had been an overall downward trend in wind plant energy costs. Underlying factors that influenced these trends, including turbine technology innovation for lower wind speed sites, are explored. Next, the presentation looks at projections for the future development of wind energy costs and discusses a variety of methods for establishing these projections including the use of learning curves, qualitative assessment using expert elicitation, and engineering-based analysis. A comparison of the methods is provided to explore their relative merits. Finally, a brief introduction is provided for the U.S. Department of Energy program-wide shift towards an integrative use of qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the potential impacts of wind plant technology innovations on reducing the wind plant cost of energy.

  19. SIMWEST - A simulation model for wind energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edsinger, R. W.; Warren, A. W.; Gordon, L. H.; Chang, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive and efficient computer program for the modeling of wind energy systems with storage. The level of detail of SIMWEST (SImulation Model for Wind Energy STorage) is consistent with evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems with energy storage options. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and control components. The first program is a precompiler which allows the library components to be put together in building block form. The second program performs the technoeconomic system analysis with the required input/output, and the integration of system dynamics. An example of the application of the SIMWEST program to a current 100 kW wind energy storage system is given.

  20. Assessing climate change impacts on the near-term stability of the wind energy resource over the United States.

    PubMed

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J

    2011-05-17

    The energy sector comprises approximately two-thirds of global total greenhouse gas emissions. For this and other reasons, renewable energy resources including wind power are being increasingly harnessed to provide electricity generation potential with negligible emissions of carbon dioxide. The wind energy resource is naturally a function of the climate system because the "fuel" is the incident wind speed and thus is determined by the atmospheric circulation. Some recent articles have reported historical declines in measured near-surface wind speeds, leading some to question the continued viability of the wind energy industry. Here we briefly articulate the challenges inherent in accurately quantifying and attributing historical tendencies and making robust projections of likely future wind resources. We then analyze simulations from the current generation of regional climate models and show, at least for the next 50 years, the wind resource in the regions of greatest wind energy penetration will not move beyond the historical envelope of variability. Thus this work suggests that the wind energy industry can, and will, continue to make a contribution to electricity provision in these regions for at least the next several decades. PMID:21536905

  1. Assessing climate change impacts on the near-term stability of the wind energy resource over the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, S. C.; Barthelmie, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    The energy sector comprises approximately two-thirds of global total greenhouse gas emissions. For this and other reasons, renewable energy resources including wind power are being increasingly harnessed to provide electricity generation potential with negligible emissions of carbon dioxide. The wind energy resource is naturally a function of the climate system because the “fuel” is the incident wind speed and thus is determined by the atmospheric circulation. Some recent articles have reported historical declines in measured near-surface wind speeds, leading some to question the continued viability of the wind energy industry. Here we briefly articulate the challenges inherent in accurately quantifying and attributing historical tendencies and making robust projections of likely future wind resources. We then analyze simulations from the current generation of regional climate models and show, at least for the next 50 years, the wind resource in the regions of greatest wind energy penetration will not move beyond the historical envelope of variability. Thus this work suggests that the wind energy industry can, and will, continue to make a contribution to electricity provision in these regions for at least the next several decades. PMID:21536905

  2. Supply Chain and Blade Manufacturing Considerations in the Global Wind Industry (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    James, T.; Goodrich, A.

    2013-12-01

    This briefing provides an overview of supply chain developments in the global wind industry and a detailed assessment of blade manufacturing considerations for U.S. end-markets. The report discusses the international trade flows of wind power equipment, blade manufacturing and logistical costs, and qualitative issues that often influence factory location decisions. To help guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, this report offers a comprehensive perspective of both quantitative and qualitative factors that affect selected supply chain developments in the growing wind power industry.

  3. Powering embedded electronics for wind turbine monitoring using multi-source energy harvesting techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, S. R.; Taylor, S. G.; Raby, E. Y.; Farinholt, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    With a global interest in the development of clean, renewable energy, wind energy has seen steady growth over the past several years. Advances in wind turbine technology bring larger, more complex turbines and wind farms. An important issue in the development of these complex systems is the ability to monitor the state of each turbine in an effort to improve the efficiency and power generation. Wireless sensor nodes can be used to interrogate the current state and health of wind turbine structures; however, a drawback of most current wireless sensor technology is their reliance on batteries for power. Energy harvesting solutions present the ability to create autonomous power sources for small, low-power electronics through the scavenging of ambient energy; however, most conventional energy harvesting systems employ a single mode of energy conversion, and thus are highly susceptible to variations in the ambient energy. In this work, a multi-source energy harvesting system is developed to power embedded electronics for wind turbine applications in which energy can be scavenged simultaneously from several ambient energy sources. Field testing is performed on a full-size, residential scale wind turbine where both vibration and solar energy harvesting systems are utilized to power wireless sensing systems. Two wireless sensors are investigated, including the wireless impedance device (WID) sensor node, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and an ultra-low power RF system-on-chip board that is the basis for an embedded wireless accelerometer node currently under development at LANL. Results indicate the ability of the multi-source harvester to successfully power both sensors.

  4. Wind cannot be Directed but Sails can be Adjusted for Malaysian Renewable Energy Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, C.; Nasir, Meseret; Veeramani, S.

    2015-04-01

    Wind energy has been the promising energy technology since 1980s in terms of percentage of yearly growth of installed capacity. However the progress of wind energy has not been evenly distributed around the world. Particularly, in South East Asian countries like Malaysia and Singapore, though the Governments are keen on promoting wind energy technology, it is not well practiced due to the low wind speeds. Owing to the recent advancements in wind turbine designs, even Malaysia is well suited for wind energy by proper choice of wind turbines. As evidence, this paper presents successful wind turbines with simulated study outcomes to encourage wind power developments in Malaysia.

  5. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Technical Report - Assessing Climate Change Effects on Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Cameron; Capps, Scott

    2014-11-05

    Specialized Vertum Partners software tools were prototyped, tested and commercialized to allow wind energy stakeholders to assess the uncertainties of climate change on wind power production and distribution. This project resulted in three commercially proven products and a marketing tool. The first was a Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) based resource evaluation system. The second was a web-based service providing global 10m wind data from multiple sources to wind industry subscription customers. The third product addressed the needs of our utility clients looking at climate change effects on electricity distribution. For this we collaborated on the Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index (SAWTi), which was released publicly last quarter. Finally to promote these products and educate potential users we released “Gust or Bust”, a graphic-novel styled marketing publication.

  6. 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply; Executive Summary (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This document is a 21-page summary of the 200+ page analysis that explores one clearly defined scenario for providing 20% of our nation's electricity demand with wind energy by 2030 and contrasts it to a scenario of no new U.S. wind power capacity.

  7. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fullenkamp, Patrick H; Holody, Diane S

    2014-06-15

    The goal of the project was to develop a greater understanding of the key factors determining wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and to reduce installed systems cost. Multiple stakeholders including DOE, turbine OEMs, and large component manufactures will all benefit by better understanding the factors determining domestic competitiveness in the emerging offshore and next generation land-based wind industries. Major objectives of this project were to: 1. Carry out global cost and process comparisons for 5MW jacket foundations, blades, towers, and permanent magnet generators; 2. Assess U.S. manufacturers’ competitiveness and potential for cost reduction; 3. Facilitate informed decision-making on investments in U.S. manufacturing; 4. Develop an industry scorecard representing the readiness of the U.S. manufacturers’ to produce components for the next generations of wind turbines, nominally 3MW land-based and 5MW offshore; 5. Disseminate results through the GLWN Wind Supply Chain GIS Map, a free website that is the most comprehensive public database of U.S. wind energy suppliers; 6. Identify areas and develop recommendations to DOE on potential R&D areas to target for increasing domestic manufacturing competitiveness, per DOE’s Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI). Lists of Deliverables 1. Cost Breakdown Competitive Analyses of four product categories: tower, jacket foundation, blade, and permanent magnet (PM) generator. The cost breakdown for each component includes a complete Bill of Materials with net weights; general process steps for labor; and burden adjusted by each manufacturer for their process categories of SGA (sales general and administrative), engineering, logistics cost to a common U.S. port, and profit. 2. Value Stream Map Competitiveness Analysis: A tool that illustrates both information and material flow from the point of getting a

  8. Recovery Act Incentives for Wind Energy Equipment Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    This document lists some of the federal incentives available to manufacturers of wind energy equipment. These incentives were authorized by or expanded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

  9. Is the Danish wind energy model replicable for other countries?

    SciTech Connect

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Lindboe, Hans H.; Odgaard, Ole

    2008-03-15

    Though aspects of the Danish wind energy model are unique, policymakers might do well to imitate such aspects as a strong political commitment, consistent policy mechanisms, and an incremental, ''hands-on'' approach to R and D. (author)

  10. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, Erik

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market of allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  11. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market by allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  12. Turbulence and Global Properties of the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    The solar wind shows striking characteristics that suggest that it is a turbulent magnetofluid, but the picture is not altogether simple. From the earliest observations, a strong correlation between magnetic fluctuations and plasma velocity fluctuations was noted. The high corrections suggest that the fluctuations are Alfven waves. In addition, the power spectrum of the magnetic fluctuation showed evidence of an inertial range that resembled that seen in fully-developed fluid turbulence. Alfven waves, however, are exact solutions of the equations of incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. Thus, there was a puzzle: how can a magnetofluid consisting of Alfven waves be turbulent? The answer lay in the role of velocity shears in the solar wind that could drive turbulent evolution. Puzzles remain: for example, the power spectrum of the velocity fluctuations is less steep than the slope of the magnetic fluctuations. The plasma in the magnetic tail of Earth's magnetosphere also shows aspects of turbulence, as does the plasma in the dayside magnetosphere near the poles the dayside cusps. Recently, new analyses of high time resolution magnetic field data from Cluster have offered a glimpse of how turbulence is dissipated, thus heating the ambient plasma.

  13. Turbulence and Global Properties of the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2007-01-01

    The solar wind shows striking characteristics that suggest that it is a turbulent magnetofluid, but the picture is not altogether simple. From the earliest observations, a strong correlation between magnetic fluctuations and plasma velocity fluctuations as noted. The high corrections suggest that the fluctuations are Alven waves. In addition, the power spectrum of the magnetic fluctuation showed evidence of an inertial range that resembled that seen in fully-developed fluid turbulence. Alfven waves, however, are exact solutions of the equations of an incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. Thus, there was a puzzle: how can a magnetofluid consisting of Alfven waves be turbulent? The answer lay in the role of velocity shears in the solar wind that could drive turbulent evolution. Puzzles remain: for example, the power spectrum of the velocity fluctuations is less steep than the slope of the magnetic fluctuations. The plasma in the magnetic tail of Earth's magnetosphere also shows aspects of turbulence, as does the plasma in the dayside magnetosphere near the poles--the so-called dayside cusps.

  14. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    PubMed Central

    Konkel, R. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. Method This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers:changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages,impacts associated

  15. Global energy shifts: Future possibilities in historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Bruce Michael

    2000-11-01

    This study adopts a macro-comparative, world-systems perspective in order to shed light on the dynamics that led to a global shift away from primary reliance on coal and towards over-reliance on petroleum. It is argued that the interaction of three global dynamics, those of geopolitical rivalry, commercial competition, and social unrest, undermined the nineteenth-century international coal system and paved the way for the consolidation of an international petroleum system in the twentieth century. Specifically, the historical analysis presented in this dissertation shows that: (1) intervention by state agents was absolutely crucial in the early development and later expansion of the international petroleum system; (2) private coal companies attempted to prevent the consolidation of an oil-based energy system, but these older companies were out-competed by newer, multinational petroleum corporations; and (3) waves of labor unrest in established coal industries played a key role in prompting a relatively rapid shift away from coal and towards petroleum. Indeed, a key conclusion of this study is that pressures exerted by such social movements as labor unions, nationalist movements, and environmental coalitions have played as important a role in influencing energy trajectories as the more commonly-recognized actions of governmental and corporate actors. By examining contemporary patterns of state and private investments in a cluster of new energy technologies, as well as the growing influence of environmental regulations it is argued that global dynamics are beginning to favor a shift towards new, more environmentally sustainable energy technologies. The fuel cell is highlighted as one new energy technology that is poised to enter into widespread diffusion in the coming decades, though potentials for expansions in wind, solar, small-scale hydro-electric, and modern biomass systems are also examined. Although significant hurdles must be overcome, this study concludes by

  16. The benefit of wind atlases in wind energy and their verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethke, Julia; Kampmeyer, Jens; Mengelkamp, Heinz-Theo

    2014-05-01

    1 INTRODUCTION Wind atlases such as reanalysis data and downscaled data sets are widely used in the wind energy sector, e.g. for long-term correlation of short-term measurements or initial site search. Due to the financial impact of statements derived from wind atlases, their verification is of high importance. Here, different wind atlases are verified in-depth with numerous certified high-quality mast measurements covering a broad range of heights up to 200 m. In contrast to the commonly used weather stations, high masts allow for an evaluation of vertical profiles and atmospheric stability. The following questions will be addressed: What are wind atlases? How well are they performing? Which benefit do wind atlases have in wind energy? 2 APPROACH The performance of commonly used reanalysis data, e.g. MERRA, ERA-Interim, and two data sets downscaled from MERRA reanalysis data is investigated. The first downscaled data set is derived by the mesoscale model MM5 and has a spatial and temporal resolution of 20 km and 10 min, respectively. The second downscaled data set is derived by the WRF model and has a spatial and temporal resolution of 3 km and 10 min, respectively. Certified high-quality measurements of 45 met masts with 160 anemometers covering a range of complexity types, measurement heights between 30 m and 200 m and a time period of 2 years are compared to the wind atlases. Hourly values are analysed. 3 RESULTS The correlation with hourly measurements of wind speed is very good for all data sets. Correlation increases with decreasing terrain complexity. Wind directions are also met very well by all data sets. The frequency distributions of wind speed and therefore, the Weibull parameters are reproduced very well by the downscaled data sets for a broad range of velocities, however underestimating higher velocities. MERRA generally strongly overestimates wind speed. Diurnal and annual cycles as well as vertical profiles are reproduced more accurately by the

  17. The Energy Spectra of Suprathermal Tails in Solar Wind Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popecki, M. A.; Galvin, A.; Bochsler, P.; Klecker, B.; Kucharek, H.; Kistler, L.; Blush, L.; Moebius, E.

    2009-05-01

    High speed suprathermal tails with a fixed energy spectrum have been observed in solar wind H+ and He2+, as well as in He+ pickup ions (e.g. Gloeckler et al., 2007). The presence of the tails have implications for particle injection into the interplanetary shock acceleration process. The suprathermal tails of solar wind Fe have been investigated with the STEREO/PLASTIC mass spectrometer. The energy spectra will be presented for periods of slow and fast solar wind, and for the entire STEREO mission.

  18. Data and Modeling Needs for Offshore Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.; Bailey, B.; AMS Offshore Energy APT

    2011-12-01

    The offshore wind energy community is identifying needs and strategies for expansion of meteorological and oceanographic (met-ocean) data required to support studies of the U.S. wind resource and conditions relevant to wind farm development and operation in offshore locations. The American Meteorological Society (AMS) in collaboration with many other organizations has identified Offshore Wind Energy as an Annual Partnership Topic and established a Committee that is bringing stakeholders to focus on data and modeling needs. The areas being addressed include types of data that impact offshore wind energy such as wind, wave, and current, and including non-restricted public access to other relevant meteorological parameters. This presentation will update the community on progress of the AMS APT and solicit input to their report. The core sections of the report will include an overview of offshore wind energy opportunities & challenges in the US, the role of met-ocean data in addressing project planning, design & operations, sources of existing measured and modeled data, and data gaps and strategies to address them.

  19. Global modeling of CME propagation in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzo, V. J.

    Begging the question of build-up, initiation, and launch, our ability to model the propagation of CMEs out into the interplanetary medium depends upon (1) how well we can characterize the timing, location, geometry, and dynamical content of the ejecta in the lower corona; (2) how well we know the background flow into which the CME propagates; and (3) how well we can describe the subsequent interaction between CME and the structured, background, quasi-steady wind. Simulations of CMEs are needed to help interpret observations of complicated transient structures and are essential to space weather applications. We assess where we stand in terms of observational and simulation capabilities for CME propagation models and offer suggestions for further development.

  20. Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Draxl, Caroline; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2015-07-14

    A webinar about the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit was presented by Bri-Mathias Hodge and Caroline Draxl on July 14, 2015. It was hosted by the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy. The toolkit is a grid integration data set that contains meteorological and power data at a 5-minute resolution across the continental United States for 7 years and hourly power forecasts.

  1. The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP). A Public-Private Partnership Addressing Wind Energy Forecast Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczak, James M.; Finley, Cathy; Freedman, Jeff; Cline, Joel; Bianco, L.; Olson, J.; Djalaova, I.; Sheridan, L.; Ahlstrom, M.; Manobianco, J.; Zack, J.; Carley, J.; Benjamin, S.; Coulter, R. L.; Berg, Larry K.; Mirocha, Jeff D.; Clawson, K.; Natenberg, E.; Marquis, M.

    2015-10-30

    The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP) is a public-private research program, the goals of which are to improve the accuracy of short-term (0-6 hr) wind power forecasts for the wind energy industry and then to quantify the economic savings that accrue from more efficient integration of wind energy into the electrical grid. WFIP was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with partners that include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), private forecasting companies (WindLogics and AWS Truepower), DOE national laboratories, grid operators, and universities. WFIP employed two avenues for improving wind power forecasts: first, through the collection of special observations to be assimilated into forecast models to improve model initial conditions; and second, by upgrading NWP forecast models and ensembles. The new observations were collected during concurrent year-long field campaigns in two high wind energy resource areas of the U.S. (the upper Great Plains, and Texas), and included 12 wind profiling radars, 12 sodars, 184 instrumented tall towers and over 400 nacelle anemometers (provided by private industry), lidar, and several surface flux stations. Results demonstrate that a substantial improvement of up to 14% relative reduction in power root mean square error (RMSE) was achieved from the combination of improved NOAA numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and assimilation of the new observations. Data denial experiments run over select periods of time demonstrate that up to a 6% relative improvement came from the new observations. The use of ensemble forecasts produced even larger forecast improvements. Based on the success of WFIP, DOE is planning follow-on field programs.

  2. Compressed air energy storage system reservoir size for a wind energy baseload power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload resource using an oversized wind farm in conjunction with a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system. The size of the storage reservoir for the CAES system (solution mined salt cavern or porous media) as a function of the wind speed autocorrelation time (C) has been examined using a Monte Carlo simulation for a wind class 4 (wind power density 450 W m{sup -2} at 50 m hub height) wind regime with a Weibull k factor of 2.5. For values of C typically found for winds over the US Great Plains, the storage reservoir must have a 60 to 80 hour capacity. Since underground reservoirs account for only a small fraction of total system cost, this larger storage reservoir has a negligible effect on the cost of energy from the wind energy baseload system. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A new Global Observational Dataset for Detecting Changes in Surface Winds and Storm Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricciardulli, L.; Wentz, F. J.

    2006-12-01

    Remote Sensing Systems just released a new version of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data products. SSM/I is an intercalibrated and unified dataset of continuous satellite observations of surface wind speed, cloud liquid water, water vapor, and rain rate over the global oceans since 1987. In the new Version 6, all six SSM/Is (F08, F10, F11, F13, F14, and F15) have been carefully intercalibrated and a spurious decadal scale trend in wind speed has been corrected. This will now allow investigators to confidently use the SSM/I products for detailed analysis of atmospheric variability at interannual and decadal time scales. Unlike ship data, this satellite dataset provides, for the first time, 19 years of reliable spatially and temporally continuous observations of surface winds (and other cloud-related variables) over the global oceans at 25 km resolution. Here we show global trend maps of surface wind speeds, and analyze in detail patterns in the Atlantic and Pacific extratropical regions. Investigation of changes in storm location is attempted with the aide of rain and cloud liquid water data. A comparison of similar studies we performed using winds from NCEP-NCAR and ERA40 reanalyses, and COADS observations is also addressed.

  4. Influence of tropical wind on global temperature from months to decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenko, Oleg A.; Fyfe, John C.; Swart, Neil C.; Lee, Warren G.; England, Matthew H.

    2016-01-01

    Using an Earth System Model and observations we analyze the sequence of events connecting episodes of trade wind strengthening (or weakening) to global mean surface temperature (GMST) cooling (or warming), with tropical ocean wave dynamics partially setting the time scale. In this sequence tropical west Pacific wind stress signals lead equatorial east Pacific thermocline depth signals which lead tropical east Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) signals which lead GMST signals. Using the anthropogenic, natural and tropical wind signals extracted from our simulations in a multivariate linear regression with observed GMST makes clear the balance that exists between anthropogenic warming and tropical wind-induced cooling during the recent warming slowdown, and between volcanic cooling and tropical wind-induced warming during the El Chichón and Pinatubo eruptions. Finally, we find an anticorrelation between global-mean temperatures in the near-surface (upper ˜ 100 m) and subsurface (˜ 100-300 m) ocean layers, linked to wind-driven interannual to decadal variations in the strength of the subtropical cell overturning in the upper Pacific Ocean.

  5. Investigation of Neutral Wind Effects on the Global Joule Heating Rate Using MHD and TI Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafatoglu, E.; Kaymaz, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Precise calculation of global Joule heating rate is a long standing question in thermosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. The absence of the complete and direct, in-situ measurements of the parameters involved in the calculation of Joule heating such as the conductivity of the medium, small-scale variations of electric fields, and neutral winds at the ionospheric heights poses a great uncertainty in its determination. In this work, we study the effects of the neutral wind on the global Joule heating rate. Most of the time, owing to above mentioned difficulties the effects of the neutral wind have been neglected in the calculations. We investigate their effects using BATSRUS MHD model, TIEGCM and GITM. Using horizontal current density, Cowling conductivity, and Pedersen conductivities from the MHD model, we calculate the joule heating rate with and without the neutral wind contribution. We apply the procedure for March 2008 magnetospheric substorm events and quantify the differences to show the neutral wind contribution. We compare the results with those obtained using neutral wind velocities from TIEGCM and GITM models. This way while we compare and demonstrate the discrepancies between the models, we also provide an assessment for the integration of thermospheric and magnetospheric models.

  6. The USDA agricultural wind energy research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. N.

    Applications of wind power in agriculture were investigated. Building heating projects were conducted using a 15-kW electrical machine to power resistant heaters, and a 4-kW cycloturbine powered a water churn to heat water. The two projects in product storage and processing provided refrigeration for short and long term storage systems. Milk was cooled at a dairy and exhaust heat from the compressor was used to preheat the hot water. In the other project, apples were cooled and stored for six months. The apple storage system incorporated an ice bank for storage during nonwind periods. The two irrigation experiments involved pumping water from a surface reuse system using a vertical axis wind turbine directly coupled to a turbine pump and wind assist pumping from a deep well by combining a wind turbine with a diesel engine. The wind assist concept saved 40% of fuel normally used in pumping the well. Economic analyses of these applications show that most individual loads on a farm are usually too short in duration to make the unit profitable.

  7. Impact of Global Climate Changes on the Wind Power Density in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Fernando; Pereira, Enio; Pes, Marcelo; Segundo, Eliude; Lyra, Andr

    The potential onshore wind power resources in Brazil could reach more than 145,000 MW. Brazil's wind energy production has risen up from 22 MW in 2003 to 602 MW in 2009 thanks to the government policy and incentives to encourage the use of wind power and other renewable sources of energy. An additional 256.4 MW is now under construction and should start the op-eration at the end of 2010. Recently 71 additional projects have been approved as a result of the first wind-only bidding round for energy supply in Brazil of December 2009. The contracts, to-taling 1800MW, will start in July 2012 with a supply period of 20 years. Developing wind power in Brazil will help the country to meet its strategic objectives of enhancing energy security and reducing the country's energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. In spite of this, the long-term growth of the national wind capacity depends not only on a more competitive price for this en-ergy source (today at US84, 8M W h)butalsoonthesustainabledomesticdevelopmentof thistechnology.F urth controldatascreeningprocesstoselectvalidclimatologicaltimeseriesf ollowedbytheKendalltrendtestat95

  8. Global energy consumption and production in 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, E. L.; Davison, C.; Dougher, R.; Edmonds, J. A.; Reilly, J.

    1981-02-01

    This study anticipates that global energy demand will continue to expand through 2000, although at a slower pace than in 1965 to 1978. Growth of supply is expected to be largely in conventional, nonrenewable fuels - coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas. Energy growth is also expected to slow down in terms of energy consumption per unit of output as a consequence of continuing efficiency improvements, which, in turn, result from higher energy prices. Slower rates of economic growth are expected in all groups of countries, developed and underdeveloped.

  9. Global energy fluctuations in a turbulent surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandi, Mahesh; Goldburg, Walter

    2004-11-01

    This is a study of global energy fluctutions in the surface of turbulently stirred water (Taylor microscale Reynold's number, Re = 150). Tracer particles that float on the surface are uniformly distributed at t = 0, and their subsequent time evolution is tracked. The positions and velocities of the floaters are recorded with an overhead camera. The quantity of interest is the rate of change of average kinetic energy \\varepsilon = 1/2d < v^2 > /dt. The brackets denote an average over areas of size greater than and less than integral scale L = 3.5 cm. The particles form a strongly compressible system, unlike the fluid on which they float. The floaters measure the horizontal components of the velocity at the surface and freely exchange kinetic energy with the bulk. The results are compared with the theory of Pumir and Shraiman (J. Stat. Phys. 113, 693 (2003)), who relate \\varepsilon to a global average energy dissipation term calculated using smooth particle hydrodynamics.

  10. Calculation of Zonal Winds using Accelerometer and Rate Data from Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Darren T.; Tolson, Robert; Bougher, Stephen; Steers, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft was initially placed into a high eccentricity, nearly polar orbit about Mars with a 45-hour period. To accomplish the science objectives of the mission, a 2-hour, circular orbit was required. Using a method known as aerobraking, numerous passes through the upper atmosphere slowed the spacecraft, thereby reducing the orbital period and eccentricity. To successfully perform aerobraking, the spacecraft was designed to be longitudinally, aerodynamically stable in pitch and yaw. Since the orbit is nearly polar, the yaw orientation of the spacecraft was sensitive to disturbances caused by the zonal components of wind (east-to-west or west-to-east) acting on the spacecraft at aerobraking altitudes. Zonal wind velocities were computed by equating the aerodynamic and inertia-related torques acting on the spacecraft. Comparisons of calculated zonal winds with those computed from the Mars Thermospheric Global Circulation Model are discussed.

  11. Global measurements of sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric water content from satellite microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.; Swanson, L.

    1983-01-01

    The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) was launched on the Seasat and Nimbus 7 satellites in 1978. The SMMR has the ability to measure sea surface temperature and wind speed with the aid of microwaves. In addition, the instrument was designed to measure water vapor and cloud liquid water with better spatial resolution than previous microwave radiometers, and to make sea-ice measurements with higher precision. A description is presented of the results of global analyses of sea surface temperature, wind speed, water vapor, and cloud liquid water, taking into account data provided by the SMMR on the Seasat satellite. It is found that the SMMR data show good self-consistency, and can usefully measure global distributions of sea surface temperatures, surface winds, water vapor, and cloud liquid water.

  12. Global energy consumption for direct water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Miralles, D. G.; Teuling, R.; He, Y.; Niyogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Despite significant efforts to quantify the mutual inter-dependence of the water and energy sectors, global energy for water (EFW) remains poorly understood, resulting in biases in energy accounting that directly affect water and energy management and policy. We firstly evaluate the global energy consumption for direct water use from 1973 to 2012 with sectoral, regional and process-level details. Over the 40-year period, we detected multiple shifts in EFW by county and region. For example, we find that India, the Middle East and China have surpassed the United States as the three largest consumers of EFW since 2003, mostly because of rapid growth in groundwater-based irrigation, desalination, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. Globally, EFW accounts for 1-3% of total primary energy consumption in 2010, of which 52% is surface water, 36% is groundwater, and 12% is non-fresh water. The sectoral allocation of EFW includes municipal (45%), industrial (29%), and agricultural use (26%), and process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (41%), water purification (19%), water distribution (13%) and wastewater treatment (22%). Our evaluation suggests that the EFW may increase in importance in the future due to growth in population and income, and depletion of surface and shallow aquifer water resources in water-scarce regions. We are incorporating this element into an integrated assessment model (IAM) and linking it back to energy balance within that IAM. By doing this, we will then explore the impacts of EFW on the global energy market (e.g., changes in the share of groundwater use and desalination), and the uncertainty of future EFW under different shared social pathway (SSP) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios, and consequences on the emission of greenhouse gases as well. We expect these EFW induced impacts will be considerable, and will then have significant implications for adaptive management and policy making.

  13. Wind energy for irrigation: wind-assisted pumping from wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.N.; Schneider, A.D.; Nelson, V.; Gilmore, E.; Barieau, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Work is reported on a project whose objectives were: to assemble a complete wind-powered pumping system for irrigation wells in the Southern Great Plains; to adapt or modify existing pumping equipment so that it could effectively be powered by a vertical-axis wind turbine; to develop a data collection system for collecting, recording and processing on-site wind data and mechanical, electrical and hydraulic systems data; to combine data from all systems in an overall analysis that will permit an engineering evaluation of the complete system; to develop a dynamic mathematical model of the pumping system which includes the most appropriate model of the vertical-axis wind turbine; and to make an economic analysis of the wind-powered pumping system and construct a model for predicting the economics of such systems in general. The pumping system uses both a vertical-axis, or Darrieus, wind turbine designed to produce 40 kW in a 15 m/s wind and an electric motor to power a conventional vertical-turbine irrigation pump. The wind turbine furnishes power to the pump only when the windspeed exceeds 6 m/s and is used to reduce the load on the electric motor rather than to replace the motor. The wind-assisted pumping system and its operation are described, as is the data collection system, and the results of the performance data analysis for the wind turbine and the pumping system are discussed. The system's annual energy output is predicted, and the economics are analyzed. (LEW)

  14. High resolution reanalysis of wind speeds over the British Isles for wind energy integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Samuel Lennon

    The UK has highly ambitious targets for wind development, particularly offshore, where over 30GW of capacity is proposed for development. Integrating such a large amount of variable generation presents enormous challenges. Answering key questions depends on a detailed understanding of the wind resource and its temporal and spatial variability. However, sources of wind speed data, particularly offshore, are relatively sparse: satellite data has low temporal resolution; weather buoys and met stations have low spatial resolution; while the observations from ships and platforms are affected by the structures themselves. This work uses a state-of-the art mesoscale atmospheric model to produce a new high-resolution wind speed dataset over the British Isles and surrounding waters. This covers the whole region at a resolution of 3km for a period of eleven consecutive years, from 2000 to 2010 inclusive, and is thought to be the first high resolution re-analysis to represent a true historic time series, rather than a statistically averaged climatology. The results are validated against observations from met stations, weather buoys, offshore platforms and satellite-derived wind speeds, and model bias is reduced offshore using satellite derived wind speeds. The ability of the dataset to predict power outputs from current wind farms is demonstrated, and the expected patterns of power outputs from future onshore and offshore wind farms are predicted. Patterns of wind production are compared to patterns of electricity demand to provide the first conclusive combined assessment of the ability of future onshore and offshore wind generation meet electricity demand and contribute to secure energy supplies..

  15. New Approaches To Off-Shore Wind Energy Management Exploiting Satellite EO Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Marco; Masini, Andrea; Venafra, Sara; Potenza, Marco Alberto Carlo

    2013-12-01

    Wind as an energy resource has been increasingly in focus over the past decades, starting with the global oil crisis in the 1970s. The possibility of expanding wind power production to off-shore locations is attractive, especially in sites where wind levels tend to be higher and more constant. Off-shore high-potential sites for wind energy plants are currently being looked up by means of wind atlases, which are essentially based on NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) archive data and that supply information with low spatial resolution and very low accuracy. Moreover, real-time monitoring of active off- shore wind plants is being carried out using in-situ installed anemometers, that are not very reliable (especially on long time periods) and that should be periodically substituted when malfunctions or damages occur. These activities could be greatly supported exploiting archived and near real-time satellite imagery, that could provide accurate, global coverage and high spatial resolution information about both averaged and near real-time off-shore windiness. In this work we present new methodologies aimed to support both planning and near-real-time monitoring of off-shore wind energy plants using satellite SAR(Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery. Such methodologies are currently being developed in the scope of SATENERG, a research project funded by ASI (Italian Space Agency). SAR wind data are derived from radar backscattering using empirical geophysical model functions, thus achieving greater accuracy and greater resolution with respect to other wind measurement methods. In detail, we calculate wind speed from X-band and C- band satellite SAR data, such as Cosmo-SkyMed (XMOD2) and ERS and ENVISAT (CMOD4) respectively. Then, using also detailed models of each part of the wind plant, we are able to calculate the AC power yield expected behavior, which can be used to support either the design of potential plants (using historical series of satellite images) or the

  16. Clear and Present Atmospheric Science Foci for Wind Energy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulos, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    The energy capacity of installed wind farms, with the exception of 2010, has grown at approximately 40% per year in the United States. Simultaneously, wind turbines have grown in height, rotor diameter and technological sophistication altering the time and space scales relevant to their operation. The meteorological phenomena and micrometeorological climatic conditions at turbine vertical scales, in the regions of the U. S. that have been developed, are different than those from which current wind turbine standards are derived. Some spectacular technological and performance failures have resulted, whose roots can be traced in part to a lack of knowledge transfer from atmospheric science to wind energy engineering and in part to knowledge gaps in atmospheric science. The result is that a wide variety of significant and meaningful basic and applied atmospheric science research topics are available to be addressed in the near term. To consolidate the discussion we will focus on two main areas: 1. Micrometeorological climatology for wind resource assessment, site suitability and wind turbine engineering standards, and, 2. Operational wind energy-focused numerical forecasting, forensics and efficiency.

  17. Global Energy and Water Budgets in MERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

    2010-01-01

    Reanalyses, retrospectively analyzing observations over climatological time scales, represent a merger between satellite observations and models to provide globally continuous data and have improved over several generations. Balancing the Earth s global water and energy budgets has been a focus of research for more than two decades. Models tend to their own climate while remotely sensed observations have had varying degrees of uncertainty. This study evaluates the latest NASA reanalysis, called the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), from a global water and energy cycles perspective. MERRA was configured to provide complete budgets in its output diagnostics, including the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU), the term that represents the observations influence on the analyzed states, alongside the physical flux terms. Precipitation in reanalyses is typically sensitive to the observational analysis. For MERRA, the global mean precipitation bias and spatial variability are more comparable to merged satellite observations (GPCP and CMAP) than previous generations of reanalyses. Ocean evaporation also has a much lower value which is comparable to observed data sets. The global energy budget shows that MERRA cloud effects may be generally weak, leading to excess shortwave radiation reaching the ocean surface. Evaluating the MERRA time series of budget terms, a significant change occurs, which does not appear to be represented in observations. In 1999, the global analysis increments of water vapor changes sign from negative to positive, and primarily lead to more oceanic precipitation. This change is coincident with the beginning of AMSU radiance assimilation. Previous and current reanalyses all exhibit some sensitivity to perturbations in the observation record, and this remains a significant research topic for reanalysis development. The effect of the changing observing system is evaluated for MERRA water and energy budget terms.

  18. 75 FR 81637 - Commercial Lease for the Cape Wind Energy Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Lease for the Cape Wind Energy... Continental Shelf (``OCS'') for the Cape Wind Energy Project. SUMMARY: Pursuant to its authority under the... Lease is for the Cape Wind Energy Project (``Project'') which grants Cape Wind Associates, LLC,...

  19. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  20. A New Global Regression Analysis Method for the Prediction of Wind Tunnel Model Weight Corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred; Bridge, Thomas M.; Amaya, Max A.

    2014-01-01

    A new global regression analysis method is discussed that predicts wind tunnel model weight corrections for strain-gage balance loads during a wind tunnel test. The method determines corrections by combining "wind-on" model attitude measurements with least squares estimates of the model weight and center of gravity coordinates that are obtained from "wind-off" data points. The method treats the least squares fit of the model weight separate from the fit of the center of gravity coordinates. Therefore, it performs two fits of "wind- off" data points and uses the least squares estimator of the model weight as an input for the fit of the center of gravity coordinates. Explicit equations for the least squares estimators of the weight and center of gravity coordinates are derived that simplify the implementation of the method in the data system software of a wind tunnel. In addition, recommendations for sets of "wind-off" data points are made that take typical model support system constraints into account. Explicit equations of the confidence intervals on the model weight and center of gravity coordinates and two different error analyses of the model weight prediction are also discussed in the appendices of the paper.

  1. Land-use implications of wind-energy-conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R.J.

    1981-02-01

    An estimated 20 utilities in the United States are now investigating potential wind machine sites in their areas. Identifying sites for wind machine clusters (wind farms) involves more than just finding a location with a suitable wind resource. Consideration must also be given to the proximity of sites to existing transmission lines, environmental impacts, aesthetics, and legal concerns as well as the availability of and alternative uses for the land. These issues have made it increasingly difficult for utilities to bring conventional power plants on-line quickly. Utilities are now required, however, to give careful consideration to specific legal, social, and environmental questions raised by the siting of wind energy conversion systems (WECS).

  2. Energy coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of the path leading to the first approximation expression for the solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function (epsilon), which correlates well with the total energy consumption rate (U sub T) of the magnetosphere. It is shown that epsilon is the primary factor controlling the time development of magnetospheric substorms and storms. The finding of this particular expression epsilon indicates how the solar wind couples its energy to the magnetosphere; the solar wind and the magnetosphere make up a dynamo. In fact, the power generated by the dynamo can be identified as epsilon through the use of a dimensional analysis. In addition, the finding of epsilon suggests that the magnetosphere is closer to a directly driven system than to an unloading system which stores the generated energy before converting it to substorm and storm energies. The finding of epsilon and its implications is considered to have significantly advanced and improved the understanding of magnetospheric processes.

  3. Wind Energy's New Role in Supplying the World's Energy: What Role Will Structural Health Monitoring Play?

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Sheng, S.; Oyague, F.

    2009-12-01

    Wind energy installations are leading all other forms of new energy installations in the United States and Europe. In Europe, large wind plants are supplying as much as 25% of Denmark's energy needs and 8% of the electric needs for Germany and Spain, who have more ambitious goals on the horizon. Although wind energy only produces about 2% of the current electricity demand in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy, in collaboration with wind industry experts, has drafted a plan that would bring the U.S. installed wind capacity up to 20% of the nation's total electrical supply. To meet these expectations, wind energy must be extremely reliable. Structural health monitoring will play a critical role in making this goal successful.

  4. Triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting wind energy and as self-powered wind vector sensor system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya; Zhu, Guang; Zhang, Hulin; Chen, Jun; Zhong, Xiandai; Lin, Zong-Hong; Su, Yuanjie; Bai, Peng; Wen, Xiaonan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-10-22

    We report a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) that plays dual roles as a sustainable power source by harvesting wind energy and as a self-powered wind vector sensor system for wind speed and direction detection. By utilizing the wind-induced resonance vibration of a fluorinated ethylene-propylene film between two aluminum foils, the integrated TENGs with dimensions of 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm × 22 cm deliver an output voltage up to 100 V, an output current of 1.6 μA, and a corresponding output power of 0.16 mW under an external load of 100 MΩ, which can be used to directly light up tens of commercial light-emitting diodes. Furthermore, a self-powered wind vector sensor system has been developed based on the rationally designed TENGs, which is capable of detecting the wind direction and speed with a sensitivity of 0.09 μA/(m/s). This work greatly expands the applicability of TENGs as power sources for self-sustained electronics and also self-powered sensor systems for ambient wind detection. PMID:24044652

  5. Wind Energy Technology: Training a Sustainable Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Kimberly W.; Graham, Bruce; Underbakke, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Through innovative teaching and technology, industry and educational institution partnerships, Cloud County Community College is preparing a qualified workforce for the emerging wind industry estimated to create 80,000 jobs by 2020. The curriculum blends on-campus, on-line and distance learning, land-lab, and field training opportunities for…

  6. Aeroelastic analysis of wind energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugundji, J.

    1978-01-01

    An aeroelastic investigation of horizontal axis wind turbines is described. The study is divided into two simpler areas; (1) the aeroelastic stability of a single blade on a rigid tower; and (2) the mechanical vibrations of the rotor system on a flexible tower. Some resulting instabilities and forced vibration behavior are described.

  7. Large Wind Energy Converter: Growian 3 MW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feustel, J. E.; Helm, S.; Koerber, F.

    1980-01-01

    The final report on the projected application of larger-scale wind turbine on the northern German coast is summarized. The designs of the tower, machinery housing, rotor, and rotor blades are described accompanied various construction materials are examined. Rotor blade adjustment devices auxiliary and accessory equipment are examined.

  8. The energy balance of the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of modifying some of the 'classical' assumptions underlying many of the solar wind models constructed over the past 20 years are examined in an effort to obtain both a better fit with the observations and a deeper understanding of the relevant physical processes.

  9. Global ULF Wave Energy Transport in the Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, I. J.; Mann, I. R.; Donovan, E. F.; Fenrich, F. R.; Watt, C. E. J.; Milling, D. K.; Lester, M.; Singer, H. J.; Reme, H.; Balogh, A.

    Transport of ULF wave energy via large-scale wave modes is extremely important in terms of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling In this paper we present a study in which we fully characterise and diagnose large-scale ULF wave dynamics on a near-global scale We present a study using a favourable radial alignment of the Cluster Polar and geosynchronous satellites in the dusk sector during a high solar wind speed interval We infer that magnetopause undulations observed by Cluster drove compressional waves perhaps in the form of Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetospheric waveguide modes that propagate inward from the magnetopause These compressional waves couple to resonant field lines close to location of Polar and geosynchronous orbit and are observed as a field line resonance on the ground Further we analyse the magnetopause boundary oscillations on both large- and small-scales using the minimum variance technique to identify the planar nature of the boundary layer magnetopause This has important implications for both the DoubleStar and THEMIS missions together with measurements from other satellites such as Cluster Geotail and the geosynchronous satellite fleet flank and dayside conjunctions of these satellites will be able to characterise the full radial and multi-scale nature of Global ULF wave events This technique is valuable for the investigation of tail phenomena excited via the same K-H activity at the flanks for example in the boundary layer model for magnetospheric substorms

  10. A wind energy powered wireless temperature sensor node.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuang; He, Xue-Feng; Li, Si-Yu; Cheng, Yao-Qing; Rao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally. PMID:25734649

  11. Wind, Wave, and Tidal Energy Without Power Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Most present wind, wave, and tidal energy systems require expensive power conditioning systems that reduce overall efficiency. This new design eliminates power conditioning all, or nearly all, of the time. Wind, wave, and tidal energy systems can transmit their energy to pumps that send high-pressure fluid to a central power production area. The central power production area can consist of a series of hydraulic generators. The hydraulic generators can be variable displacement generators such that the RPM, and thus the voltage, remains constant, eliminating the need for further power conditioning. A series of wind blades is attached to a series of radial piston pumps, which pump fluid to a series of axial piston motors attached to generators. As the wind is reduced, the amount of energy is reduced, and the number of active hydraulic generators can be reduced to maintain a nearly constant RPM. If the axial piston motors have variable displacement, an exact RPM can be maintained for all, or nearly all, wind speeds. Analyses have been performed that show over 20% performance improvements with this technique over conventional wind turbines

  12. A Wind Energy Powered Wireless Temperature Sensor Node

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuang; He, Xue-Feng; Li, Si-Yu; Cheng, Yao-Qing; Rao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally. PMID:25734649

  13. Evaluation of wind energy cost and site selection for a wind-farm in the south of Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmemdejahed, M.; Mouhadjer, S.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the wind resource on five sites situated in Algerian Sahara, namely Adrar, Ain Salah, Bordj Badji Mokhtar, Hassi R'Mel and Tindouf. The hourly data used in this study span a period of last five years. The parameters considered are the wind speed. After the evaluation of wind energy, the economic evaluation was conducted for wind farm (18 MW). We select the best site from the five sites and an appropriate wind turbine from nine wind turbine, according to the lowest possible unity cost of energy. Hassi R'Mel is favorable site for installed wind frame In order to reach the rated power 18 MW of the wind farm; our choice is focused on one row of twelve wind turbines (wgt1.5MW) from East South East (ESE) to West North West (WNW), 320 m of distance between each two turbines.

  14. The Sensitivity of a Global Ocean Model to Wind Forcing: A Test Using Sea Level and Wind Observations from Satellites and Operational Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. L.; Chao, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated in this study is the response of a global ocean general circulation model to forcing provided by two wind products: operational analysis from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP); observations made by the ERS-1 radar scatterometer.

  15. Conversion of magnetic field energy into kinetic energy in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    1972-01-01

    The outflow of the solar magnetic field energy (the radial component of the Poynting vector) per steradian is inversely proportional to the solar wind velocity. It is a decreasing function of the heliocentric distance. When the magnetic field effect is included in the one-fluid model of the solar wind, the transformation of magnetic field energy into kinetic energy during the expansion process increases the solar wind velocity at 1 AU by 17 percent.

  16. Plans and status of the NASA-Lewis Research Center wind energy project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R.; Puthoff, R.; Savino, J.; Johnson, W.

    1975-01-01

    Wind energy is investigated as a source of energy. The wind energy program that is managed by the NASA-Lewis Research Center is described. The Lewis Research Center's Wind Power Office, its organization, plans, and status are discussed. Major elements of the wind power project included are: an experimental 100 kW wind-turbine generator; first generation industry-built and user-operated wind turbine generators; and supporting research and technology tasks.

  17. The UTRC wind energy conversion system performance analysis for horizontal axis wind turbines (WECSPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The theory for the UTRC Energy Conversion System Performance Analysis (WECSPER) for the prediction of horizontal axis wind turbine performance is presented. Major features of the analysis are the ability to: (1) treat the wind turbine blades as lifting lines with a prescribed wake model; (2) solve for the wake-induced inflow and blade circulation using real nonlinear airfoil data; and (3) iterate internally to obtain a compatible wake transport velocity and blade loading solution. This analysis also provides an approximate treatment of wake distortions due to tower shadow or wind shear profiles. Finally, selected results of internal UTRC application of the analysis to existing wind turbines and correlation with limited test data are described.

  18. The effect of smoothed solar wind inputs on global modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Raluca; Liemohn, Michael W.; Ridley, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the role of fluctuations in the solar wind parameters in triggering a magnetic storm and assesses the storm simulation ability of the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) through a model-data comparison. The event of 22 September 1999 is examined through global magnetosphere simulations, using as input Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observations (4 min temporal resolution) along with running averages of this data with windows of 60, 120, and 180 min. It is noted that for this storm the model produces a two phase, fast then slow recovery phase due to a sudden drop in plasma sheet density during the interval of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Also, smoothing the input with a window larger than 60 min changes the entire magnetosphere and reduces the plasma sheet density and pressure, therefore a less intense storm develops. It is worth mentioning that the main phase (measured from Storm Sudden Commencement to minimum Dst) for this magnetic storm lasted about 3 h. This explains the change in the Dst profile for the 120 and 180 min averaged input. Averaging only IMF Bz or solar wind density reveals that all input parameters are important for the development of the storm, but Bz is the most significant. Also, comparison with Dst predictions (using the formula of O'Brien and McPherron (2000)) are presented and discussed. For all cases studied, there are no significant differences for Cross Polar Cap Potential (CPCP) in both hemispheres, while the nightside plasma sheet density shows a sharp drop when the input is averaged over 60 min or more. Our results indicate that the magnetosphere responds nonlinearly to the changes in the energy input, suggesting the need for a threshold in the amount of energy transferred to the system in order for the ring current to develop. Further increase of the energy input leads to a saturation limit where the inner magnetosphere response is no longer affected by any additional amount of energy

  19. 20% Wind Energy - Diversifying Our Energy Portfolio and Addressing Climate Change (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-01

    This brochure describes the R&D efforts needed for wind energy to meet 20% of the U.S. electrical demand by 2030. In May 2008, DOE published its report, 20% Wind Energy by 2030, which presents an in-depth analysis of the potential for wind energy in the United States and outlines a potential scenario to boost wind electric generation from its current production of 16.8 gigawatts (GW) to 304 GW by 2030. According to the report, achieving 20% wind energy by 2030 could help address climate change by reducing electric sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 825 million metric tons (20% of the electric utility sector CO2 emissions if no new wind is installed by 2030), and it will enhance our nation's energy security by diversifying our electricity portfolio as wind energy is an indigenous energy source with stable prices not subject to fuel volatility. According to the report, increasing our nation's wind generation could also boost local rural economies and contribute to significant growth in manufacturing and the industry supply chain. Rural economies will benefit from a substantial increase in land use payments, tax benefits and the number of well-paying jobs created by the wind energy manufacturing, construction, and maintenance industries. Although the initial capital costs of implementing the 20% wind scenario would be higher than other generation sources, according to the report, wind energy offers lower ongoing energy costs than conventional generation power plants for operations, maintenance, and fuel. The 20% scenario could require an incremental investment of as little as $43 billion (net present value) more than a base-case no new wind scenario. This would represent less than 0.06 cent (6 one-hundredths of 1 cent) per kilowatt-hour of total generation by 2030, or roughly 50 cents per month per household. The report concludes that while achieving the 20% wind scenario is technically achievable, it will require enhanced transmission infrastructure

  20. ERDA-NASA wind energy project ready to involve users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R.; Puthoff, R.; Savino, J.; Johnson, W.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA contribution to the Wind Energy Project is discussed. NASA is responsible for the following: (1) identification of cost-effective configurations and sizes of wind-conversion systems, (2) the development of technology needed to produce these systems, (3) the design of wind-conversion systems that are compatible with user requirements, particularly utility networks, and (4) technology transfer obtained from the program to stimulate rapid commercial application of wind systems. Various elements of the NASA program are outlined, including industry-built user operation, the evaluation phase, the proposed plan and schedule for site selection and user involvement, supporting research and technology (e.g., energy storage), and component and subsystem technology development.

  1. Dependability of wind energy generators with short-term energy storage.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, B

    1976-11-26

    Power fluctuations and power duration curves for wind energy generators, including energy storage facilities of a certain capacity, are compared to those of typical nuclear reactors. A storage system capable of delivering the yearly average power output for about 10 hours already makes the dependability of the wind energy system comparable to that of a typical nuclear plant. PMID:17748551

  2. Low cost composite materials for wind energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingart, O.

    1980-01-01

    A winding process utilizing a low-cost E-glass fabric called transverse-filament tape for low-cost production of wind turbine generators (WTG) is described. The process can be carried out continuously at high speed to produce large one-piece parts with tapered wall thicknesses on a tapered mandrel. It is being used to manufacture blades for the NASA/DOE 200-ft-diameter MOD-1 WTG and Rockwell/DOE 40-kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS).

  3. Quantitative analysis of a wind energy conversion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Florian; Gräbner, Anna; Strunz, Andreas; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-03-01

    A rotor of 12 cm diameter is attached to a precision electric motor, used as a generator, to make a model wind turbine. Output power of the generator is measured in a wind tunnel with up to 15 m s-1 air velocity. The maximum power is 3.4 W, the power conversion factor from kinetic to electric energy is cp = 0.15. The v3 power law is confirmed. The model illustrates several technically important features of industrial wind turbines quantitatively.

  4. Transmission Planning for Wind Energy: Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. C.; Osborn, D.; Piwko, R.; Zavadil, R.; Parsons, B.; Hawkins, D.; Lasher, W.; Nickell, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of major transmission planning activities related to wind integration studies in the US and Europe. Transmission planning for energy resources is different from planning for capacity resources. Those differences are explained, and illustrated with examples from several regions of the US and Europe. Transmission planning for wind is becoming an iterative process consisting of generation expansion planning, economic-based transmission planning, system reliability analysis, and wind integration studies. A brief look at the policy environment in which this activity is taking place is provided.

  5. The solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling and magnetospheric disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    1980-01-01

    Energy coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere is examined and the influence of this coupling on magnetospheric disturbances is discussed. Following a review of the components of the total energy production rate of the magnetosphere and progress in the study of solar wind-magnetosphere correlations, the derivation of the solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function, which has been found to correlate well with the total magnetospheric energy production rate, is presented. Examination of the relations between the energy coupling function and the type of magnetic disturbance with which it is associated indicates that magnetic storms with a large sudden storm commencement and a weak main phase are associated with small energy coupling, while values of the coupling function greater than 5 x 10 to the 18th to 10 to the 19th erg/sec are required for the development of a major geomagnetic storm. The magnetospheric substorm is shown to be a direct result of increased solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling rather than the sudden conversion of stored magnetic energy. Finally, it is indicated that at energy couplings greater than 10 to the 19th erg/sec, the positive feedback process responsible for substorms breaks down, resulting in the abnormal growth of the ring current.

  6. Wind Tunnel Measurements of Shuttle Orbiter Global Heating with Comparisons to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Merski, N. Ronald; Blanchard, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    An aerothermodynamic database of global heating images was acquired of the Shuttle Orbiter in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. These results were obtained for comparison to the global infrared images of the Orbiter in flight from the infrared sensing aeroheating flight experiment (ISAFE). The most recent ISAFE results from STS-103, consisted of port side images, at hypersonic conditions, of the surface features that result from the strake vortex scrubbing along the side of the vehicle. The wind tunnel results were obtained with the phosphor thermography system, which also provides global information and thus is ideally suited for comparison to the global flight results. The aerothermodynamic database includes both windward and port side heating images of the Orbiter for a range of angles of attack (20 to 40 deg), freestream unit Reynolds number (1 x 10(exp 6))/ft to 8 x 10(exp 6)/ft, body flap deflections (0, 5, and 10 deg), speed brake deflections (0 and 45 deg), as well as with boundary layer trips for forced transition to turbulence heating results. Sample global wind tunnel heat transfer images were extrapolated to flight conditions for comparison to Orbiter flight data. A windward laminar case for an angle of attack of 40 deg was extrapolated to Mach 11.6 flight conditions for comparison to STS-2 flight thermocouple results. A portside wind tunnel image for an angle of attack of 25 deg was extrapolated for Mach 5 flight conditions for comparison to STS-103 global surface temperatures. The comparisons showed excellent qualitative agreement, however the extrapolated wind tunnel results over-predicted the flight surface temperatures on the order of 5% on the windward surface and slightly higher on the portside.

  7. Wind Measurements with High Energy 2 Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Koch, Grady J.; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Yu, Ji-Rong; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2004-01-01

    A coherent Doppler lidar based on an injection seeded Ho:Tm:YLF pulsed laser was developed for wind measurements. A transmitted pulse energy over 75 mJ at 5 Hz repetition rate has been demonstrated. Designs are presented on the laser, injection seeding, receiver, and signal processing subsystems. Sample data of atmospheric measurements are presented including a wind profile extending from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to the free troposphere.

  8. Transmission Line Series Compensation for Wind Energy Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, Dr C., Prof; Wong, Y. C.

    2015-04-01

    Wind energy has demonstrated to be a clean, copious and absolutely renewable source of energy, and the large penetration of it into the power grid indicates that wind energy is considered an effective means of power generation, Transmission of wind energy from remote locations to load centers necessitates long transmission lines. Series compensation is a proven and economical transmission solution to address system power transfer strength, grid stability, and voltage profile issues of long transmission lines. In this paper, a programmable approach to determine the capacitive reactance of series capacitor and optimum location for its placement to achieve maximum power transfer gas been presented. The respective program with sample solutions has been provided for real-time applications.

  9. Advanced Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators for Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostettler, Jacob

    Various environmental and economic factors have lead to increased global investment in alternative energy technologies such as solar and wind power. Although methodologies for synchronous generator control are well researched, wind turbines present control systems challenges not presented by traditional generation. The varying nature of wind makes achieving synchronism with the existing electrical power grid a greater challenge. Departing from early use of induction machines, permanent magnet synchronous generators have become the focus of power systems and control systems research into wind energy systems. This is due to their self excited nature, along with their high power density. The problem of grid synchronism is alleviated through the use of high performance power electronic converters. In achievement of the optimal levels of efficiency, advanced control systems techniques oer promise over more traditional approaches. Research into sliding mode control, and linear matrix inequalities with nite time boundedness and Hinfinity performance criteria, when applied to the dynamical models of the system, demonstrate the potential of these control methodologies as future avenues for achieving higher levels of performance and eciency in wind energy.

  10. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  11. Problems in Assessment of Wind Energy Potential and Acoustic Noise Distribution when Designing Wind Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, Valerijs; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs; Levins, Nikolajs

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the use of renewable energy in Latvia is increasing every year. Government support and availability of large unpopulated areas on the coast makes the use of these lands for the placement of large wind power plants (WPP) attractive. The key factors that determine the choice of the location of WPP are reliable information about distribution of the resource of wind energy in this area and the influence of wind turbines on the environment. The paper presents the results of years-long observations on the density fluctuations of wind energy at heights of 10 to 60 m in the area in the Baltic Sea coast in Ventspils and Ainaži. The velocity observations since 2007 have been gathered by measurements complex of the LOGGER 9200 Symphonie type. The results are presented in the form of tables, bar charts and graphs. Extrapolation results of wind velocity and density mean values on heights up to 150 m for the two areas with different terrain types were shown. The distribution of acoustic noise in the vicinity of the WPP was studied and an assessment of its impact on the environment in accordance with the Latvian government requirements was conducted.

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Wind Turbine Development Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P. G.; Calvert, S. D.

    1999-04-26

    This paper provides an overview of wind-turbine development activities in the Unites States and relates those activities to market conditions and projections. Several factors are responsible for a surge in wind energy development in the United States, including a federal production tax credit, ''green power'' marketing, and improving cost and reliability. More development is likely, as approximately 363 GW of new capacity will be needed by 2020 to meet growing demand and replace retiring units. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is helping two companies develop next-generation turbines intended to generate electricity for $0.025/kWh or less. We expect to achieve this objective through a combination of improved engineering methods and configuration advancements. This should ensure that wind power will compete effectively against advanced combined-cycle plants having projected generating costs of $0.031/kWh in 2005. To address the market for small and intermediate-size wind turbines, DOE is assisting five companies in their attempts to develop new turbines having low capital cost and high reliability. Additional information regarding U.S. wind energy programs is available on the internet site www.nrel.gov/wind/. E-mail addresses for the turbine manufacturers are found in the Acknowledgements.

  13. Status of wind energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K.

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  14. North-south asymmetry in global distribution of the solar wind speed during 1985-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Iju, Tomoya

    2015-05-01

    Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations made between 1985 and 2013 are used to investigate the north-south (N-S) asymmetry in global distribution of the solar wind speed. The IPS observations clearly demonstrate that the global distribution of the solar wind speed systematically changes with the solar activity. This change is found to closely correlate with that in polar magnetic fields of the Sun, while fast wind data at solar minima systematically deviate from this correlation. The IPS observations show that notable N-S asymmetry of polar solar winds occurs at the solar maxima, and small but significant N-S asymmetry exists at the solar minima. The observed asymmetry at the solar maxima is consistent with the time lag in the reversal of polar magnetic fields between north and south hemispheres. We also find that significant N-S asymmetry of the polar fast wind lasts for the period between Cycles 23 and 24 solar maxima, starting from predominance of the fast wind over the north pole and ending with that over the south pole. The N-S asymmetry revealed from IPS observations is found to be generally consistent with Ulysses observations. We compare IPS observations with magnetic field data of the Sun and find that the ratio of the quadrupole to dipole coefficients exhibits a similar time variation to that of the N-S asymmetry revealed from IPS observations. This suggests that higher-order multipole moments play an important role in determining the N-S asymmetry of the solar wind when the dipole moment weakens.

  15. Linear retrieval and global measurements of wind speed from the Seasat SMMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Retrievals of wind speed (WS) from Seasat Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) were performed using a two-step statistical technique. Nine subsets of two to five SMMR channels were examined for wind speed retrieval. These subsets were derived by using a leaps and bound procedure based on the coefficient of determination selection criteria to a statistical data base of brightness temperatures and geophysical parameters. Analysis of Monsoon Experiment and ocean station PAPA data showed a strong correlation between sea surface temperature and water vapor. This relation was used in generating the statistical data base. Global maps of WS were produced for one and three month periods.

  16. Expected Characteristics of Global Wind Profile Measurements with a Scanning, Hybrid, Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Over 20 years of investigation by NASA and NOAA scientists and Doppler lidar technologists into a global wind profiling mission from earth orbit have led to the current favored concept of an instrument with both coherent- and direct-detection pulsed Doppler lidars (i.e., a hybrid Doppler lidar) and a stepstare beam scanning approach covering several azimuth angles with a fixed nadir angle. The nominal lidar wavelengths are 2 microns for coherent detection, and 0.355 microns for direct detection. The two agencies have also generated two sets of sophisticated wind measurement requirements for a space mission: science demonstration requirements and operational requirements. The requirements contain the necessary details to permit mission design and optimization by lidar technologists. Simulations have been developed that connect the science requirements to the wind measurement requirements, and that connect the wind measurement requirements to the Doppler lidar parameters. The simulations also permit trade studies within the multi-parameter space. These tools, combined with knowledge of the state of the Doppler lidar technology, have been used to conduct space instrument and mission design activities to validate the feasibility of the chosen mission and lidar parameters. Recently, the NRC Earth Science Decadal Survey recommended the wind mission to NASA as one of 15 recommended missions. A full description of the wind measurement product from these notional missions and the possible trades available are presented in this paper.

  17. Operation of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system under conditions of stochastic change of wind energy.

    PubMed

    Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level. PMID:25215326

  18. Operation of a Wind Turbine-Flywheel Energy Storage System under Conditions of Stochastic Change of Wind Energy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level. PMID:25215326

  19. Wind Power: An Emerging Energy Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    One may ask the question, What is energy? Typically the first answers that come to mind are oil, coal, and natural gas or nuclear energy. Most human activities require some form of energy consumption. This may be the energy produced by the food that one eats or the gasoline that is used in cars, trucks, buses, and other vehicles. One cannot ignore…

  20. Mesoscale Simulations of a Wind Ramping Event for Wind Energy Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M; Lundquist, J K

    2011-09-21

    Ramping events, or rapid changes of wind speed and wind direction over a short period of time, present challenges to power grid operators in regions with significant penetrations of wind energy in the power grid portfolio. Improved predictions of wind power availability require adequate predictions of the timing of ramping events. For the ramping event investigated here, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was run at three horizontal resolutions in 'mesoscale' mode: 8100m, 2700m, and 900m. Two Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes, the Yonsei University (YSU) and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) schemes, were run at each resolution as well. Simulations were not 'tuned' with nuanced choices of vertical resolution or tuning parameters so that these simulations may be considered 'out-of-the-box' tests of a numerical weather prediction code. Simulations are compared with sodar observations during a wind ramping event at a 'West Coast North America' wind farm. Despite differences in the boundary-layer schemes, no significant differences were observed in the abilities of the schemes to capture the timing of the ramping event. As collaborators have identified, the boundary conditions of these simulations probably dominate the physics of the simulations. They suggest that future investigations into characterization of ramping events employ ensembles of simulations, and that the ensembles include variations of boundary conditions. Furthermore, the failure of these simulations to capture not only the timing of the ramping event but the shape of the wind profile during the ramping event (regardless of its timing) indicates that the set-up and execution of such simulations for wind power forecasting requires skill and tuning of the simulations for a specific site.

  1. Integration of Wind Turbines with Compressed Air Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsie, I.; Marano, V.; Rizzo, G.; Moran, M.

    2009-08-01

    Some of the major limitations of renewable energy sources are represented by their low power density and intermittent nature, largely depending upon local site and unpredictable weather conditions. These problems concur to increase the unit costs of wind power, so limiting their diffusion. By coupling storage systems with a wind farm, some of the major limitations of wind power, such as a low power density and an unpredictable nature, can be overcome. After an overview on storage systems, the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is analyzed, and the state of art on such systems is discussed. A Matlab/Simulink model of a hybrid power plant consisting of a wind farm coupled with CAES is then presented. The model has been successfully validated starting from the operating data of the McIntosh CAES Plant in Alabama. Time-series neural network-based wind speed forecasting are employed to determine the optimal daily operation strategy for the storage system. A detailed economic analysis has been carried out: investment and maintenance costs are estimated based on literature data, while operational costs and revenues are calculated according to energy market prices. As shown in the paper, the knowledge of the expected available energy is a key factor to optimize the management strategies of the proposed hybrid power plant, allowing to obtain environmental and economic benefits.

  2. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  3. Development of a wind converter and investigation of its operational function. Part 1: Technical description of the wind energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molly, J. P.; Steinheber, R.

    1982-11-01

    A 10 kW wind energy converter was developed by using as far possible standard serial production parts. The design criteria and the description of the essential machinery components of the MODA 10 wind energy converter are discussed. For some special load cases the safety calculation of the important components is shown. The blade control system which qualified for small wind energy converters, is explained. Weight and cost of the MODA 10 are considered.

  4. Profitability Analysis of Residential Wind Turbines with Battery Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Ying; Erdem, Ergin; Shi, Jing

    Residential wind turbines are often accompanied by an energy storage system for the off-the-grid users, instead of the on-the-grid users, to reduce the risk of black-out. In this paper, we argue that residential wind turbines with battery energy storage could actually be beneficial to the on-the-grid users as well in terms of monetary gain from differential pricing for buying electricity from the grid and the ability to sell electricity back to the grid. We develop a mixed-integer linear programming model to maximize the profit of a residential wind turbine system while meeting the daily household electricity consumption. A case study is designed to investigate the effects of differential pricing schemes and sell-back schemes on the economic output of a 2-kW wind turbine with lithium battery storage. Overall, based on the current settings in California, a residential wind turbine with battery storage carries more economical benefits than the wind turbine alone.

  5. 76 FR 36532 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ..., Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of... Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, and Horizon Wind Energy LLC (Complainants) filed a...

  6. Geographic Information Systems in Support of Wind Energy Activities at NREL: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Heimiller, D. M.; Haymes, S. R.

    2001-09-18

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to further the development of wind energy resources in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program and its Wind Powering America Initiative. Some of the elements of NREL's GIS data used in wind energy activities include wind measurement sites, transmission lines, federal facility information, and modeled wind resources. More complex GIS analyses can define relationships among the mapped wind energy resources, potential energy load characterization, and utility integration problems. A GIS is an outstanding tool for wind energy activities because data can be readily updated and the results of the GIS analyses can be expressed as charts, tables, and maps. These outputs are in digital formats that allow the results of GIS analyses to be quickly and efficiently distributed to the wind energy industry.

  7. Wind Energy Deployment in Isolated Islanded Power Systems: Challenges & Realities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2014-05-01

    Rising costs of fuels, energy surety, and the carbon impacts of diesel fuel are driving remote and islanded communities dependent on diesel power generation to look for alternatives. Over the past few years, interest in using wind energy to reduce diesel fuel consumption has increased dramatically, potentially providing economic, environmental, social, and security benefits to the energy supply of isolated and islanded communities. However, the task of implementing such systems has remained elusive and subject to many cases of lower-than-expected performance. This poster describes the current status of integrating higher contribution wind technology into islanded power systems, the progress of recent initiatives implemented by the U.S. Department of Energy and Interior, and some of the lingering technical and commercial challenges. Operating experience from a number of power systems is described. The worldwide market for wind development in islanded communities (some of these supplying large domestic loads) provides a strong market niche for the wind industry, even in the midst of a slow global recovery.

  8. Analysis of the balancing of the wind and solar energy resources in Andalusia (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Alamillos, F. J.; Pozo-Vazquez, D.; Lara-Fanego, V.; Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Hernandez-Alvaro, J.; Tova-Pescador, J.

    2010-09-01

    A higher penetration of the renewable energy in the electric system in the future will be conditioned to a reduction of the uncertainty of the yield. A way to obtain this goal is to analyze the balancing between the productions of different sources of renewable energy, trying to combine these productions. In this work we analyze, from a meteorological point of view, the balancing between wind and solar energy resources in Andalusia (southern Iberian Peninsula). To this end, wind speed and global radiation data corresponding to an one year integration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model were analyzed. Two method of analysis were used: a point correlation analysis and a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). Results from these analyses allow obtaining, eventually, areas of local and distributed balancing between the wind and solar energy resources. The analysis was carried out separately for the different seasons of the year. Results showed, overall, a considerable balancing effect between the wind and solar resources in the mountain areas of the interior of the region, along the coast of the central part of the region and, specially, in the coastal area near the Gibraltar strait. Nevertheless, considerable differences were found between the seasons of the year, which may lead to compensating effects. Autumn proved to be the season with the most significant results.

  9. Harnessing Wind and Sun: Using Energy Wisely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primary Science Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Cassop Primary School and Eastchurch Church of England Primary School were winners of the 2006 Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy. This article describes how these schools have proved that the promotion of sustainable energy and the responsible use of energy is a central part of their practice and culture. Over the last eight years, a dedicated…

  10. Solar and wind energy resources in Northern Hungary, including bi-variate distribution and long-term tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Janos; Dobi-Wantuch, Ildiko; Tóth-Tarjányi Zsuzsanna, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Zsofia; Kitti Csabai, Edina; Razsi, Andras

    2014-05-01

    Spatial interpolation and mapping of renewable energy resources is an important task of potential estimation in case of atmospheric renewable energy sources. Its first steps, concerning global radiation measured at horizontal surfaces (not on optimally tilted ones) and near-surface wind speed measured at 10 m height above the surface (not at 60-120 m of contemporary wind-turbines). Based on these standard meteorological observations, experts of the Hungarian Meteorological Service elaborated a series of digital maps with 0.1 x 0.1 deg resolution compiled in the framework of the CarpatClim Project (www.carpatclim-eu.org). The grid-point values are based on homogenised data using MASH theory and software (SZENTIMREY, 1999). The interpolation has been performed by the MISH theory and software (SZENTIMREY and BIHARI, 2006). The study tackles the solar and wind energy in four aspects. Firstly, a trial for validation of the gridded data is provided by comparison a single station, Eger for 2001-2010 (global radiation) and 1996-2010 (wind speed cube). The horizontal distance between the closest grid-point and the station is less than 1 km. Gridded global radiation data perform very well comparing to the observations, based on various statistical parameters of the distribution, whereas for the wind speed cube, used as indicator of available energy, there is a considerable bias between the two sets of data. Secondly, the annual cycles of the area-mean global radiation and wind-speed are presented, based on the gridded data of a selected ca. 50x50 km2 (6x8 grid-points) region. Both the averages and standard deviations of the diurnal mean values are presented for the 1981-2010 reference period. Presenting the maps of the distribution within this area is our third aspect, considering both averages and standard deviations. Finally the point-wise trends are drown for both energy sources in the single grid-point used in the aspect one in 1981-2010, and also in the nearby located

  11. Understanding the Global Structure and Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical progress made during the first six months of the second year of the NASA Living with a Star program contract Understanding the global structure and evolution of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind, between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation, and covers the period November 18, 2003 - May 17,2004. Under this contract SAIC has conducted numerical and data analysis related to fundamental issues concerning the origin, intrinsic properties, global structure, and evolution of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind. During this working period we have focused on a quantitative assessment of 5 flux rope fitting techniques. In the following sections we summarize the main aspects of this work and our proposed investigation plan for the next reporting period. Thus far, our investigation has resulted in 6 refereed scientific publications and we have presented the results at a number of scientific meetings and workshops.

  12. Statistical and Spectral Analysis of Wind Characteristics Relevant to Wind Energy Assessment Using Tower Measurements in Complex Terrain

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Belu, Radian; Koracin, Darko

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate spatial and temporal characteristics of the wind speed and direction in complex terrain that are relevant to wind energy assessment and development, as well as to wind energy system operation, management, and grid integration. Wind data from five tall meteorological towers located in Western Nevada, USA, operated from August 2003 to March 2008, used in the analysis. The multiannual average wind speeds did not show significant increased trend with increasing elevation, while the turbulence intensity slowly decreased with an increase were the average wind speed. The wind speed and direction weremore » modeled using the Weibull and the von Mises distribution functions. The correlations show a strong coherence between the wind speed and direction with slowly decreasing amplitude of the multiday periodicity with increasing lag periods. The spectral analysis shows significant annual periodicity with similar characteristics at all locations. The relatively high correlations between the towers and small range of the computed turbulence intensity indicate that wind variability is dominated by the regional synoptic processes. Knowledge and information about daily, seasonal, and annual wind periodicities are very important for wind energy resource assessment, wind power plant operation, management, and grid integration.« less

  13. Criteria for Global Nuclear Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Michael J.

    2002-07-01

    Global energy consumption will at least double over the next fifty years due to population growth, increased consumption, and an urgent need to improve the standard of living in under-developed countries. Thirty percent of this growth will be for electricity. At the same time, carbon emissions must be significantly reduced to respond to concerns regarding global warming. The use of nuclear energy to meet this growing electricity demand without carbon emissions is an obvious solution to many observers, however real concerns over economics, safety, waste and proliferation must be adequately addressed. The issue is further complicated by the fact that developing countries, which have the most pressing need for additional electricity generation, have the least capability and infrastructure to deploy nuclear energy. Nevertheless, if the specific needs of developing countries are appropriately considered now as new generation reactors are being developed, and institutional arrangements based upon the fundamental principles of President Eisenhower's 1953 Atoms For Peace speech are followed, nuclear energy could be deployed in any country. From a technical perspective, reactor safety and accessibility of special nuclear material are primary concerns. Institutionally, plant and fuel ownership and waste management issues must be addressed. International safety and safeguards authority are prerequisites. While the IAEA's IMPRO program and the United States' Generation IV programs are focusing on technical solutions, institutional issues, particularly with regard to deployment in developing countries, are not receiving corresponding attention. Full-service, cradle-to-grave, nuclear electricity companies that retain custody and responsibility for the plant and materials, including waste, are one possible solution. Small modular reactors such as the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor could be ideal for such an arrangement. While waste disposal remains a major obstacle, this is already

  14. Environmental Assessment Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-03-02

    The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. DOE completed an environmental assessment of the original proposed project in August 1997. Since then, the geographic scope and the design of the project changed, necessitating additional review of the project under the National Environmental Policy Act. The project now calls for the possible construction of up to 48 wind turbines on State and private lands. PSCo and its partners have initiated construction of the project on private land in Weld County, Colorado. A substation, access road and some wind turbines have been installed. However, to date, DOE has not provided any funding for these activities. DOE, through its Commercialization Ventures Program, has solicited applications for financial assistance from state energy offices, in a teaming arrangement with private-sector organizations, for projects that will accelerate the commercialization of emerging renewable energy technologies. The Commercialization Ventures Program was established by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-218) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486). The Program seeks to assist entry into the marketplace of newly emerging renewable energy technologies, or of innovative applications of existing technologies. In short, an emerging renewable energy technology is one which has already proven viable but which has had little or no operational experience. The Program is managed by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The

  15. Global imaging of solar wind-magnospheric coupling through soft X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, B.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Collier, M. R.; Cravens, T.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. S.; Robertson, I. P.; Sibeck, D. G.; Snowden, S. L.; Thomas, N.

    2013-12-01

    The last several decades have seen great progress in our understanding of the processes that control solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. This understanding has been gained primarily through multipoint in situ spacecraft measurements. Global imaging is better suited to comprehending the global dynamics of the system as a whole. We present ongoing progress towards global magnetospheric imaging through soft (0.05-2 keV) X-rays emitted from the charge exchange of high charge state solar wind ions with exospheric neutrals. We begin by summarizing results from the wide field-of-view soft x-ray imager flown for the first time as a piggyback on the recent DXL rocket flight. Then, employing both an exospheric neutral model and the University of Michigan's BATS-R-US MHD model as run at GSFC's CCMC for the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction we quantify the strength of the emissions expected from the cusp and magnetosheath in comparison with the full range of local as well as galactic backgrounds. The utility of these emissions for bow shock, magnetosheath, and magnetopause studies is also tested.

  16. Study of a wind energy conversion system in New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, J.; Kraft, G.; Pregent, G.; Smukler, L.

    1981-08-01

    Concern over conventional energy costs and supplies is currently strong, particularly in New England region where eighty percent of the total energy is oil based; furthermore, forty percent of this region's total energy is OPEC oil. These figures contrast with national averages of forty-seven and thirteen percent, respectively (1). The quest to develop alternative and renewable energy sources indigenous to New England is understandable in light of these figures. The wind is one such source. The study of wind energy can be divided into three basic areas; these are technical, legal-institutional, and financial. The technical area encompasses collection and analysis of wind data, selection and installation of wind turbines and peripheral equipment, and operation and maintenance. The legal-institutional area encompasses the resolution of such issues as land use policies, power contracts, and state and federal regulations. The financial area encompasses the examination of investment opportunities made available by various site-machine combinations and the selling of such opportunities to the investment community.

  17. Impact of novel energy sources: OTEC, wind, goethermal, biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Alternate energy conversion methods such as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), wind power, geothermal wells and biomass conversion are being explored, and re-examined in some cases, for commercial viability. At a time when United States fossil fuel and uranium resources are found to be insufficient to supply national needs into the twenty-first century, it is essential to broaden the base of feasible energy conversion technologies. The motivations for development of these four alternative energy forms are established. Primary technical aspects of OTEC, wind, geothermal and biomass energy conversion systems are described along with a discussion of relative advantages and disadvantages of the concepts. Finally, the sentiment is voiced that each of the four systems should be developed to the prototype stage and employed in the region of the country and in the sector of economy which is complimentary to the form of system output.

  18. 78 FR 15737 - Incidental Take Permit Amendment and Supplemental Environmental Assessment for Wind Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    .... The Service previously advertised (71 FR 951), and issued in September 2006, TE104073 as a 40-year ITP... for Wind Energy Development, Guayanilla, Puerto Rico AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... documents for wind energy development by San Francisco Wind Farm LLC (formerly WindMar R.E.)...

  19. 75 FR 6020 - Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project... their proposed Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) in Garfield and Columbia counties, Washington. To interconnect the Wind Project, BPA will construct a new substation (Central Ferry...

  20. Wind Energy Forecasting: A Collaboration of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and Xcel Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, K.; Wan, Y. H.; Wiener, G.; Liu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    The focus of this report is the wind forecasting system developed during this contract period with results of performance through the end of 2010. The report is intentionally high-level, with technical details disseminated at various conferences and academic papers. At the end of 2010, Xcel Energy managed the output of 3372 megawatts of installed wind energy. The wind plants span three operating companies1, serving customers in eight states2, and three market structures3. The great majority of the wind energy is contracted through power purchase agreements (PPAs). The remainder is utility owned, Qualifying Facilities (QF), distributed resources (i.e., 'behind the meter'), or merchant entities within Xcel Energy's Balancing Authority footprints. Regardless of the contractual or ownership arrangements, the output of the wind energy is balanced by Xcel Energy's generation resources that include fossil, nuclear, and hydro based facilities that are owned or contracted via PPAs. These facilities are committed and dispatched or bid into day-ahead and real-time markets by Xcel Energy's Commercial Operations department. Wind energy complicates the short and long-term planning goals of least-cost, reliable operations. Due to the uncertainty of wind energy production, inherent suboptimal commitment and dispatch associated with imperfect wind forecasts drives up costs. For example, a gas combined cycle unit may be turned on, or committed, in anticipation of low winds. The reality is winds stayed high, forcing this unit and others to run, or be dispatched, to sub-optimal loading positions. In addition, commitment decisions are frequently irreversible due to minimum up and down time constraints. That is, a dispatcher lives with inefficient decisions made in prior periods. In general, uncertainty contributes to conservative operations - committing more units and keeping them on longer than may have been necessary for purposes of maintaining reliability. The downside is costs are

  1. Proceedings of the fourth biennial conference and workshop on wind energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kottler, Jr., R. J.

    1980-06-01

    Separate abstracts are included for papers presented concerning research and development requirements and utility interface and institutional issues for small-scale systems; design requirements and research and development requirements for large-scale systems; economic and operational requirements of large-scale wind systems; wind characteristics and wind energy siting; international activities; wind energy applications in agriculture; federal commercialization and decentralization plans; and wind energy innovative systems.

  2. Development of an Integrated Global Energy Model

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1999-07-08

    The primary objective of this research was to develop a forefront analysis tool for application to enhance understanding of long-term, global, nuclear-energy and nuclear-material futures. To this end, an existing economics-energy-environmental (E{sup 3}) model was adopted, modified, and elaborated to examine this problem in a multi-regional (13), long-term ({approximately}2,100) context. The E{sup 3} model so developed was applied to create a Los Alamos presence in this E{sup 3} area through ''niche analyses'' that provide input to the formulation of policies dealing with and shaping of nuclear-energy and nuclear-materials futures. Results from analyses using the E{sup 3} model have been presented at a variety of national and international conferences and workshops. Through use of the E{sup 3} model Los Alamos was afforded the opportunity to participate in a multi-national E{sup 3} study team that is examining a range of global, long-term nuclear issues under the auspices of the IAEA during the 1998-99 period . Finally, the E{sup 3} model developed under this LDRD project is being used as an important component in more recent Nuclear Material Management Systems (NMMS) project.

  3. Characterization through global hybrid simulations of solar wind ions impacting the dayside of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanteur, Gérard M.; Modolo, Ronan; Hess, Sébastien; Leblanc, François; Richer, Emilie

    2014-05-01

    It has long been suspected since Mariner-10 observations that solar wind ions could reach the surface of Mercury: Kallio & Janhunen (2003) and Travnicek et al (2010) have presented simulated maps of precipitating proton fluxes. Attempts to refine estimations of precipitating fluxes of solar wind ions are important as these precipitations create additional sources of exospheric and possibly magnetospheric populations, and as their space-weathering effects modify the properties of the regolith. We run the global hybrid model used by Richer et al. (2012) which takes self-consistently into account the alpha particles of the solar wind to estimate fluxes of solar wind protons and alphas impacting the surface of Mercury under different IMF conditions. The internal source of the Hermean magnetic field is axisymmetric and is the superposition of a dipole and a quadrupole consistent with MESSENGER observations (Anderson et al., 2011) as in Richer et al. (2012). Results are briefly compared to predictions made with the offset dipole model of the planetary field. New simulations, made with an improved spatial resolution of 40km, reveal important differences between proton and alpha fluxes and show large variations with interplanetary conditions. In a first step we investigate the properties of solar wind ions impacting the dayside of the planet, precipitations on the night side will be examined later in a second step. References Anderson et al., Science, 333 , 1859, (2011) Kallio, E., and P. Janhunen, Solar wind and magnetospheric ion impact on Mercury's surface, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(17), 1877, doi:10.1029/2003GL017842, 2003. Travnicek, P.M., D. Schriver, P. Hellinger, D. Hercik, B.J. Anderson, M. Sarantos, and J.A.Slavin, Mercury's magnetosphere-solar wind interaction for northward and southward interplanetary magnetic field: Hybrid simulation results, Icarus, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.01.008, 2010 Richer, E., R. Modolo, G. M. Chanteur, S. Hess, and F. Leblanc (2012), A

  4. Electron energy transport in the solar wind: Ulysses observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scime, Earl; Gary, S. Peter; Phillips, J. L.; Corniileau-Wehrlin, N.; Solomon, J.

    1995-01-01

    The electron heat flux in the solar wind has been measured by the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment in the ecliptic from 1 to 5 AU and out of the ecliptic during the recently completed pass over the solar south pole and the ongoing pass over the solar north pole. Although the electron heat flux contains only a fraction of the kinetic energy of the solar wind. the available energy is sufficient to account for the non-adiabatic expansion of the solar wind electrons. The Ulysses measurements indicate that the electron heat flux is actively dissipated in the solar wind. The exact mechanism or mechanisms is unknown. but a model based on the whistler heat flux instability predicts radial gradients for the electron heat flux in good agreement with the data. We will present measurements of the correlation between wave activity measured by the unified radio and plasma experiment (URAP) and the electron heat flux throughout the Ulysses mission. The goal is to determine if whistler waves are a good candidate for the observed electron heat flux dissipation. The latitudinal gradients of the electron heat flux. wave activity. and electron pressure will be discussed in light of the changes in the magnetic field geometry from equator to poles.

  5. Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Regulators Workshop: Lessons from Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E. Ian

    2015-09-03

    Ian Baring-Gould presented these lessons learned from wind energy to an audience of marine hydrokinetic regulators. Lessons learned spanned the areas of technology advances, using collaborative approaches to involve key stakeholders; using baseline studies to measure and prioritize wildlife impacts, and look at avoidance and mitigation options early in the process.

  6. High-Energy 2-Micrometers Doppler Lidar for Wind Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy 2-micrometer wavelength lasers have been incorporated in a prototype coherent Doppler lidar to test component technologies and explore applications for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Design of the lidar is presented including aspects in the laser transmitter, receiver, photodetector, and signal processing. Calibration tests and sample atmospheric data are presented on wind and aerosol profiling.

  7. Occupational Contact Dermatitis in the Wind Energy Industry.

    PubMed

    Lárraga-Piñones, G; Heras-Mendaza, F; Conde-Salazar, L

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In 2010, wind energy coverage in Spain increased by 16%, making the country the world's fourth largest producer in a fast-developing industry that is also a source of employment. Occupational skin diseases in this field have received little attention. The present study aims to describe the main characteristics of skin diseases affecting workers in the wind energy industry and the allergens involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive, observational study of workers from the wind energy industry with suspected contact dermatitis who were referred to the occupational dermatology clinic of the National School of Occupational Medicine (Escuela Nacional de Medicina del Trabajo) between 2009 and 2011. We took both a clinical history and an occupational history, and patients underwent a physical examination and patch testing with the materials used in their work. RESULTS: We studied 10 workers (8 men, 2 women), with a mean age of 33.7 years. The main finding was dermatitis, which affected the face, eyelids, forearms, and hands. Sensitization to epoxy resins was detected in 4 workers, 1 of whom was also sensitized to epoxy curing agents. One worker was sensitized to bisphenol F resin but had a negative result with epoxy resin from the standard series. In the 5 remaining cases, the final diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis due to fiberglass. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational skin diseases are increasingly common in the wind energy industry. The main allergens are epoxy resins. Fiberglass tends to produce irritation. PMID:22795575

  8. Proceedings: panel on information dissemination for wind energy

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, P.

    1980-04-01

    This meeting was called as part of a multi-year planning effort. Groups involved in the production and/or dissemination of information on wind energy were invited to describe their current activities and their perceptions of the needs of the 80's in this area. Participants exchanged copies of materials they distribute regularly and discussed frequently asked questions.

  9. Wind and solar energy resources on the 'Roof of the World'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandler, Harald; Morche, Thomas; Samimi, Cyrus

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan, often referred to as 'Roof of the World', are an arid high mountain plateau characterized by severe energy poverty that may have great potential for renewable energy resources due to the prevailing natural conditions. The lack of energetic infrastructure makes the region a prime target for decentralized integration of wind and solar power. However, up to date no scientific attempt to assess the regional potential of these resources has been carried out. In this context, it is particularly important to evaluate if wind and solar energy are able to provide enough power to generate thermal energy, as other thermal energy carriers are scarce or unavailable and the existing alternative, local harvest of dwarf shrubs, is unsustainable due to the slow regeneration in this environment. Therefore, this study examines the feasibility of using wind and solar energy as thermal energy sources. Financial frame conditions were set on a maximum amount of five million Euros. This sum provides a realistic scenario as it is based on the current budget of the KfW development bank to finance the modernization of the local hydropower plant in the regions only city, Murghab, with about 1500 households. The basis for resource assessment is data of four climate stations, erected for this purpose in 2012, where wind speed, wind direction, global radiation and temperature are measured at a half hourly interval. These measurements confirm the expectation of a large photovoltaic potential and high panel efficiency with up to 84 percent of extraterrestrial radiation reaching the surface and only 16 hours of temperatures above 25°C were measured in two years at the village stations on average. As these observations are only point measurements, radiation data and the ASTER GDEM was used to train a GIS based solar radiation model to spatially extrapolate incoming radiation. With mean validation errors ranging from 5% in July (minimum) to 15% in December (maximum

  10. Exploring the calibration of a wind forecast ensemble for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heppelmann, Tobias; Ben Bouallegue, Zied; Theis, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    In the German research project EWeLiNE, Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) and Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology (IWES) are collaborating with three German Transmission System Operators (TSO) in order to provide the TSOs with improved probabilistic power forecasts. Probabilistic power forecasts are derived from probabilistic weather forecasts, themselves derived from ensemble prediction systems (EPS). Since the considered raw ensemble wind forecasts suffer from underdispersiveness and bias, calibration methods are developed for the correction of the model bias and the ensemble spread bias. The overall aim is to improve the ensemble forecasts such that the uncertainty of the possible weather deployment is depicted by the ensemble spread from the first forecast hours. Additionally, the ensemble members after calibration should remain physically consistent scenarios. We focus on probabilistic hourly wind forecasts with horizon of 21 h delivered by the convection permitting high-resolution ensemble system COSMO-DE-EPS which has become operational in 2012 at DWD. The ensemble consists of 20 ensemble members driven by four different global models. The model area includes whole Germany and parts of Central Europe with a horizontal resolution of 2.8 km and a vertical resolution of 50 model levels. For verification we use wind mast measurements around 100 m height that corresponds to the hub height of wind energy plants that belong to wind farms within the model area. Calibration of the ensemble forecasts can be performed by different statistical methods applied to the raw ensemble output. Here, we explore local bivariate Ensemble Model Output Statistics at individual sites and quantile regression with different predictors. Applying different methods, we already show an improvement of ensemble wind forecasts from COSMO-DE-EPS for energy applications. In addition, an ensemble copula coupling approach transfers the time-dependencies of the raw

  11. Onshore wind energy potential over Iberia: present and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochinha, Carlos A.; Santos, João A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2014-05-01

    Onshore grid-connected wind power generation has been explored for more than three decades in the Iberian Peninsula. Further, increasing attention has been devoted to renewable energy sources in a climate change context. While advantages of wind energy are widely recognized, its distribution is not spatially homogeneous and not uniform throughout the year. Hence, understanding these spatial-temporal distributions is critical in power system planning. The present study aims at assessing the potential power output estimated from 10 m wind components simulated by a regional climate model (CCLM), driven by ERA40 reanalysis. Datasets are available on a grid with a high spatial resolution (approximately 20 km) and over a 40-yr period (1961-2000). Furthermore, several target sites, located in areas with high installed wind generation capacity, are selected for local-to-regional scale assessments. The results show that potential wind power is higher over northern Iberia, mostly in Cantabria and Galicia, while Andalucía and Cataluña record the lowest values. With respect to the intra-annual variability, summer is by far the season with the lowest potential energy outputs. Furthermore, the inter-annual variability reveals an overall downward long-term trend over the 40-yr period, particularly in the winter time series. A CCLM transient experiment, forced by the SRES A1B emission scenario, is also discussed for a future period (2041-2070), after a model validation/calibration process (bias corrections). Significant changes in the wind power potential are projected for the future throughout Iberia, but their magnitude largely depends on the locations. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  12. Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hiester, T.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

  13. Effect of wind and temperature gradients on received acoustic energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brienzo, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of refraction due to wind and temperature gradients on energy received from low flying aircraft is examined. A series of helicopter and jet flyby's were recorded with a microphone array on two separate days, each with distinctly different meteorological conditions. Energy in the 100 to 200 Hertz band is shown as a function of aircraft range from the array, and compared with the output of the Fast Field Program.

  14. Wind energy potential in coastal areas in India

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesh, A.

    1983-12-01

    The strength of the surface winds over any location is governed by the magnitude of the pressure gradient just above the planetary boundary layer, the atmospheric stability in the boundary layer as well as the modifying influences of local topography. Near the coasts, winds tend to be stronger due to the additional pressure gradient provided by the thermal contrast between the land and the sea. In this paper an attempt is made to estimate the energy availability at some coastal locations based on windspeed data of Indian Meteorological Department (1958-1968).

  15. Evaluation of representativeness of near-surface winds in station measurements, global and regional reanalysis for Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, Frank; Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea K.; Heene, Vera; Borsche, Michael; Keller, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Within the preparation activities for a European COPERNICUS Climate Change Service (C3S) several ongoing research projects analyse the potential of global and regional model-based climate reanalyses for applications. A user survey in the FP7-project CORE-CLIMAX revealed that surface wind (10 m) is among the most frequently used parameters of global reanalysis products. The FP7 project UERRA (Uncertainties in Ensembles of Regional Re-Analysis) has the focus on regional European reanalysis and the associated uncertainties, also from a user perspective. Especially in the field of renewable energy planning and production there is a need for climatological information across all spatial scales, i.e., from climatology at a certain site to the spatial scale of national or continental renewable energy production. Here, we focus on a comparison of wind measurements of the Germany's meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) with global reanalyses of ECWMF and a regional reanalysis for Europe based on DWD's NWP-model COSMO (performed by the Hans-Ertel-Center for Weather Research, University of Bonn). Reanalyses can provide valuable additional information on larger scale variability, e.g. multi-annual variation over Germany. However, changes in the observing system, model errors and biases have to be carefully considered. On the other hand, the ground-based observation networks partly suffer from change of the station distribution, changes in instrumentation, measurements procedures and quality control as well as local changes which might modify their spatial representativeness. All these effects might often been unknown or hard to characterize, although plenty of the meta-data information has been recorded for the German stations. One focus of the presentation will be the added-value of the regional reanalysis.

  16. Development of a global backscatter model for NASA's laser atmospheric wind sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowdle, David; Collins, Laurie; Mach, Douglas; Mcnider, Richard; Song, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    During the Contract Period April 1, 1989, to September 30, 1992, the Earth Systems Science Laboratory (ESSL) in the Research Institute at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) conducted a program of basic research on atmospheric backscatter characteristics, leading to the development of a global backscatter model. The ESSL research effort was carried out in conjunction with the Earth System Observing Branch (ES43) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, as part of NASA Contract NAS8-37585 under the Atmospheric Dynamics Program at NASA Headquarters. This research provided important inputs to NASA's GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) program, especially in the understanding of global aerosol life cycles, and to NASA's Doppler Lidar research program, especially the development program for their prospective space-based Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS).

  17. Wind energy development in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.; Prose, D.

    1987-01-01

    Windfarms have been developed rapidly in California in the last few years. The impetus has been a legislated goal to generate 10% of California's electricity by windpower by the year 2000, and generous state and federal tax incentives. Windpower is promoted as environmentally benign, which it is in traditional uses. The California program, however, is not traditional: it calls for centralized development of a magnitude sufficient to offset significant amounts of fossil fuels now used to generate electricity. Centralized windfarm development, as exemplified by the Altamont Pass, Tehachapi Mountains, and San Gorgonio Pass developments, involves major road building projects in erosion-sensitive terrain, effective closure of public lands, and other detrimental effects. A windfarm consisting of 200 turbines with 17-m rotors located in steep terrain 16 km from an existing corridor might occupy 235 ha and physically disturb 86 ha. With average annual wind speeds of 22.5 km/h, the farm would generate about 10??106 kWh/year at present levels of capacity. This annual production would offset 1% of one day's consumption of oil in California. To supply 10% of the state's electricity (at 1984 production rates) would require about 600,000 turbines of the type in common use today and would occupy more than 685,000 ha. It is likely that indirect effects would be felt in much larger areas and would include increased air and water pollution resulting from accelerated erosion, degradation of habitat of domestic and wild animals, damage to archaeological sites, and reduction of scenic quality of now-remote areas of the state. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  18. The Evaluation and Testing of Various Bladeless Wind Turbine Designs for use as an alternative renewable energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Ian; Ray, Taylor

    2014-03-01

    Over the last two decades wind turbines have proven themselves globally as a reliable, renewable, and clean energy source. Even though wind turbines are simpler in design and do not pollute during operation as compared to conventional energy sources, many improvements can still be made. The design of a bladeless wind turbine offers potential improvements such as cost savings, reduction of operating noise level, simplification of the manufacturing process, reduction of maintenance costs, and incorporation of eco-friendly features. In order to analyze various turbine designs, a wind tunnel with a 30.3 cm x 29.1 cm test section was constructed at Georgia College. Several different wing sections are being evaluated in order to determine the turbine design and engineered for optimal aerodynamic efficiency over a Range of Reynolds numbers. Other factors like Pressure coefficients and overall drag profile of the designs will also be analyzed as well.

  19. Potential contribution of wind energy to climate change mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.

    2014-08-01

    It is still possible to limit greenhouse gas emissions to avoid the 2 °C warming threshold for dangerous climate change. Here we explore the potential role of expanded wind energy deployment in climate change mitigation efforts. At present, most turbines are located in extra-tropical Asia, Europe and North America, where climate projections indicate continuity of the abundant wind resource during this century. Scenarios from international agencies indicate that this virtually carbon-free source could supply 10-31% of electricity worldwide by 2050 (refs , ). Using these projections within Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) climate forcing scenarios, we show that dependent on the precise RCP followed, pursuing a moderate wind energy deployment plan by 2050 delays crossing the 2 °C warming threshold by 1-6 years. Using more aggressive wind turbine deployment strategies delays 2 °C warming by 3-10 years, or in the case of RCP4.5 avoids passing this threshold altogether. To maximize these climate benefits, deployment of non-fossil electricity generation must be coupled with reduced energy use.

  20. How important is getting the land surface energy exchange correct in WRF for wind energy forecasting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, S.; Simpson, M.; Osuna, J. L.; Newman, J. F.; Biraud, S.

    2013-12-01

    Wind power forecasting is plagued with difficulties in accurately predicting the occurrence and intensity of atmospheric conditions at the heights spanned by industrial-scale turbines (~ 40 to 200 m above ground level). Better simulation of the relevant physics would enable operational practices such as integration of large fractions of wind power into power grids, scheduling maintenance on wind energy facilities, and deciding design criteria based on complex loads for next-generation turbines and siting. Accurately simulating the surface energy processes in numerical models may be critically important for wind energy forecasting as energy exchange at the surface strongly drives atmospheric mixing (i.e., stability) in the lower layers of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which in turn largely determines wind shear and turbulence at heights found in the turbine rotor-disk. We hypothesize that simulating accurate a surface-atmosphere energy coupling should lead to more accurate predictions of wind speed and turbulence at heights within the turbine rotor-disk. Here, we tested 10 different land surface model configurations in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model including Noah, Noah-MP, SSiB, Pleim-Xiu, RUC, and others to evaluate (1) the accuracy of simulated surface energy fluxes to flux tower measurements, (2) the accuracy of forecasted wind speeds to observations at rotor-disk heights, and (3) the sensitivity of forecasting hub-height rotor disk wind speed to the choice of land surface model. WRF was run for four, two-week periods covering both summer and winter periods over the Southern Great Plains ARM site in Oklahoma. Continuous measurements of surface energy fluxes and lidar-based wind speed, direction and turbulence were also available. The SGP ARM site provided an ideal location for this evaluation as it centrally located in the wind-rich Great Plains and multi-MW wind farms are rapidly expanding in the area. We found significant differences in

  1. NWTC Aerodynamics Studies Improve Energy Capture and Lower Costs of Wind-Generated Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have expanded wind turbine aerodynamic research from blade and rotor aerodynamics to wind plant and atmospheric inflow effects. The energy capture from wind plants is dependent on all of these aerodynamic interactions. Research at the NWTC is crucial to understanding how wind turbines function in large, multiple-row wind plants. These conditions impact the cumulative fatigue damage of turbine structural components that ultimately effect the useful lifetime of wind turbines. This work also is essential for understanding and maximizing turbine and wind plant energy production. Both turbine lifetime and wind plant energy production are key determinants of the cost of wind-generated electricity.

  2. Global Climatology of the Coastal Low-Level Wind Jets using different Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Daniela C. A.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Semedo, Alvaro; Cardoso, Rita M.

    2016-04-01

    Coastal Low-Level Jets (henceforth referred to as "coastal jets" or simply as CLLJ) are low-tropospheric mesoscale wind features, with wind speed maxima confined to the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), typically bellow 1km. Coastal jets occur in the eastern flank of the semi-permanent subtropical mid-latitude high pressure systems, along equatorward eastern boundary currents, due to a large-scale synoptic forcing. The large-scale synoptic forcing behind CLLJ occurrences is a high pressure system over the ocean and a thermal low inland. This results in coastal parallel winds that are the consequence of the geostrophic adjustment. CLLJ are found along the California (California-Oregon) and the Canary (Iberia and Northeastern Africa) currents in the Northern Hemisphere, and along the Peru-Humboldt (Peru-Chile), Benguela (Namibia) and Western Australia (West Australia) currents in the Southern Hemisphere. In the Arabian Sea (Oman CLLJ), the interaction between the high pressure over the Indian Ocean in summer (Summer Indian Monsoon) and the Somali (also known as Findlater) Jet forces a coastal jet wind feature off the southeast coast of Oman. Coastal jets play an important role in the regional climates of the mid-latitude western continental regions. The decrease of the sea surface temperatures (SST) along the coast due to upwelling lowers the evaporation over the ocean and the coast parallel winds prevents the advection of marine air inshore. The feedback processes between the CLLJ and upwelling play a crucial role in the regional climate, namely, promoting aridity since the parallel flow prevents the intrusion of moisture inland, and increasing fish stocks through the transport of rich nutrient cold water from the bottom. In this study, the global coastal low-level wind jets are identified and characterized using an ensemble of three reanalysis, the ECMWF Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim), the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) and the NCEP Climate Forecast

  3. Global warming, energy use, and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Neha

    The dissertation comprises four papers that explore the interactions between global warming, energy use, and economic growth. While the papers are separate entities, they share the underlying theme of highlighting national differences in the growth experience and their implications for long-term energy use and climate change. The first paper provides an overview of some key economic issues in the climate change literature. In doing so, the paper critically appraises the 1995 draft report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The focus is the choice of a pure rate of time preference in the economic modeling of climate change, abatement costs differentials between developed and developing countries, and contrasting implications of standard discount rates and value of life estimates for these two country groups. The second paper develops a global model that takes account of the depletion of oil resources in the context of a geo-economic model for climate change. It is found that in the presence of non-decreasing carbon and energy intensities and declining petroleum availability, the carbon emissions trajectory is much higher than that typically projected by other models of this genre. Furthermore, by introducing price and income sensitive demand functions for fossil fuels, the model provides a framework to assess the effectiveness of fuel specific carbon taxes in reducing the COsb2 emissions trajectory. Cross-price substitution effects necessitate unrealistically high tax rates in order to lower the projected emissions trajectory to the optimal level. The economic structure of five integrated assessment models for climate change is reviewed in the third paper, with a special focus on the macroeconomic and damage assessment modules. The final paper undertakes an econometric estimation of the changing shares of capital, labour, energy, and technical change in explaining the growth patterns of 38 countries. Production elasticities vary by

  4. Economics of wind energy use for irrigation in India.

    PubMed

    Tewari, S K

    1978-11-01

    The production of energy from windmills designed specifically to operate in the low wind velocities that usually prevail in India during the main irrigation season is estimated to be reasonably economical for irrigating small farms from open wells. The economics would improve if irrigation was practiced all year round, even in the hot summer season. The calculations made here are expected to be valid for the windier 10 percent of the locations identified from available wind speed records. Other, windier locations are expected to be identified when more wind speed data are collected in the future. Governmental policies along lines similar to those for rural electrification may be needed to support research and development efforts to optimize the designs of windmills and to promote their use in rural areas. PMID:17813470

  5. Prediction of the far field noise from wind energy farms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic physical factors involved in making predictions of wind turbine noise and an approach which allows for differences in the machines, the wind energy farm configurations and propagation conditions are reviewed. Example calculations to illustrate the sensitivity of the radiated noise to such variables as machine size, spacing and numbers, and such atmosphere variables as absorption and wind direction are presented. It is found that calculated far field distances to particular sound level contours are greater for lower values of atmospheric absorption, for a larger total number of machines, for additional rows of machines and for more powerful machines. At short and intermediate distances, higher sound pressure levels are calculated for closer machine spacings, for more powerful machines, for longer row lengths and for closer row spacings.

  6. Simulating and validating coastal gradients in wind energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, Andrea; Floors, Rogier; Karagali, Ioanna; Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Simon, Elliot; Courtney, Michael; Badger, Merete; Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    The experimental campaign of the RUNE (Reducing Uncertainty of Near-shore wind resource Estimates) project took place on the western coast of Denmark during the winter 2015-2016. The campaign used onshore scanning lidar technology combined with ocean and satellite information and produced a unique dataset to study the transition in boundary layer dynamics across the coastal zone. The RUNE project aims at reducing the uncertainty of near-shore wind resource estimates produced by mesoscale modeling. With this in mind, simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were performed to identify the sensitivity in the coastal gradients of wind energy resources to various model parameters and model inputs. Among these: model horizontal grid spacing and the planetary boundary layer and surface-layer scheme. We report on the differences amongst these simulations and preliminary results on the comparison of the model simulations with the RUNE observations of lidar and satellite measurements and near coastal tall mast.

  7. An Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, B.

    2010-04-01

    Assessing the potential environmental and human effects of deploying renewable wind energy requires a new way of evaluating potential environmental and human impacts. This paper explores an integrated risk framework for renewable wind energy siting decisionmaking.

  8. Effects of wind-energy facilities on grassland bird distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Jill A.; Buhl, Deb

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of renewable energy to meet worldwide demand continues to grow. Wind energy is one of the fastest growing renewable sectors, but new wind facilities are often placed in prime wildlife habitat. Long-term studies that incorporate a rigorous statistical design to evaluate the effects of wind facilities on wildlife are rare. We conducted a before-after-control-impact (BACI) assessment to determine if wind facilities placed in native mixed-grass prairies displaced breeding grassland birds. During 2003–2012, we monitored changes in bird density in 3 study areas in North Dakota and South Dakota (U.S.A.). We examined whether displacement or attraction occurred 1 year after construction (immediate effect) and the average displacement or attraction 2–5 years after construction (delayed effect). We tested for these effects overall and within distance bands of 100, 200, 300, and >300 m from turbines. We observed displacement for 7 of 9 species. One species was unaffected by wind facilities and one species exhibited attraction. Displacement and attraction generally occurred within 100 m and often extended up to 300 m. In a few instances, displacement extended beyond 300 m. Displacement and attraction occurred 1 year after construction and persisted at least 5 years. Our research provides a framework for applying a BACI design to displacement studies and highlights the erroneous conclusions that can be made without the benefit of adopting such a design. More broadly, species-specific behaviors can be used to inform management decisions about turbine placement and the potential impact to individual species. Additionally, the avoidance distance metrics we estimated can facilitate future development of models evaluating impacts of wind facilities under differing land-use scenarios.

  9. Evaluating the risk-reduction benefits of wind energy

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, M.C.; Bell, K.; Bernow, S.; Duckworth, M.; Spinney P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study to evaluate the risk-reduction benefits of wind power for a case study utility system using decision analysis techniques. The costs and risks of two alternative decisions-whether to build a 400 MW gas-fired combined cycle plant or a 1600 MW wind plant in 2003-were compared through computer simulations as fuel prices, environmental regulatory costs, wind and conventional power plant availability, and load growth were allowed to vary. Three different market scenarios were examined: traditional regulation, a short-term power pool, and fixed-price contracts of varying duration. The study concludes that, from the perspective of ratepayers, wind energy provides a net levelized risk-reduction benefit of $3.4 to $7.8/MWh under traditional regulation, and less in the other scenarios. From the perspective of the utility plant owners, wind provides a significant risk benefit in the unregulated market scenarios but none in a regulated market. The methodology and findings should help inform utility resource planning and industry restructuring efforts. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. A desalination plant with solar and wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Ye, Z.; Gao, W.

    2013-12-01

    The shortage of freshwater resources has become a worldwide problem. China has a water shortage, although the total amount of water resources is the sixth in the world, the per capita water capacity is the 121th (a quarter of the world's per capita water capacity), and the United Nations considers China one of the poorest 13 countries in the world in terms of water. In order to increase the supply of fresh water, a realistic way is to make full use of China's long and narrow coastline for seawater desalination. This paper discusses a sea water desalination device, the device adopts distillation, uses the greenhouse effect principle and wind power heating principle, and the two-type start is used to solve the problem of vertical axis wind turbine self-starting. Thrust bearings are used to ensure the stability of the device, and to ensure absorbtion of wind energy and solar energy, and to collect evaporation of water to achieve desalination. The device can absorb solar and wind energy instead of input energy, so it can be used in ship, island and many kinds of environment. Due to the comprehensive utilization of wind power and solar power, the efficiency of the device is more than other passive sea water desalting plants, the initial investment and maintenance cost is lower than active sea water desalting plant. The main part of the device cannot only be used in offshore work, but can also be used in deep sea floating work, so the device can utilise deep sea energy. In order to prove the practicability of the device, the author has carried out theory of water production calculations. According to the principle of conservation of energy, the device ais bsorbing solar and wind power, except loose lost part which is used for water temperature rise and phase transition. Assume the inflow water temperature is 20 °C, outflow water temperature is 70 °C, the energy utilization is 60%, we can know that the water production quantity is 8 kg/ m2 per hour. Comparing with the

  11. Economic Development Benefits from Wind Energy in Nebraska: A Report for the Nebraska Energy Office (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.

    2009-06-01

    This report focuses on the economic development impacts estimated from building and operating 7,800 MW of new wind power in Nebraska. This level of development is on the scale envisioned in the Department of Energy (DOE) report 20% Wind Energy by 2030. A practical first step to building 7,800 of wind is completing 1,000 MW. We also include the estimated economic impacts to Nebraska from building 1,000 MW of wind power. Our primary analysis indicates that the development and construction of approximately 7,800 MW of wind energy in Nebraska by 2030 will support 20,600 to 36,500 annual full-time equivalents (AFTE). In addition, operating the full 7,800 MW of wind energy could support roughly 2,000 to 4,000 full-time workers throughout the operating life of the wind facilities (LFTE). Nebraska's economy is estimated to see an average annual boost in economic activity ranging from $140 million to $260 million solely from construction and development related activities between 2011 and 2030. An additional boost of $250 - $442 million annually is estimated from operating 7,800 MW of wind capacity.

  12. From dust devil to sustainable swirling wind energy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingxu; Luo, Xilian; Li, Tianyu; Zhang, Liyuan; Meng, Xiangzhao; Kase, Kiwamu; Wada, Satoshi; Yu, Chuck Wah; Gu, Zhaolin

    2015-01-01

    Dust devils are common but meteorologically unique phenomena on Earth and on Mars. The phenomenon produces a vertical vortex motion in the atmosphere boundary layer and often occurs in hot desert regions, especially in the afternoons from late spring to early summer. Dust devils usually contain abundant wind energy, for example, a maximum swirling wind velocity of up to 25 m/s, with a 15 m/s maximum vertical velocity and 5 m/s maximum near-surface horizontal velocity can be formed. The occurrences of dust devils cannot be used for energy generation because these are generally random and short-lived. Here, a concept of sustained dust-devil-like whirlwind is proposed for the energy generation. A prototype of a circular shed with pre-rotation vanes has been devised to generate the whirlwind flow by heating the air inflow into the circular shed. The pre-rotation vanes can provide the air inflow with angular momentum. The results of numerical simulations and experiment illustrate a promising potential of the circular shed for generating swirling wind energy via the collection of low-temperature solar energy. PMID:25662574

  13. From Dust Devil to Sustainable Swirling Wind Energy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingxu; Luo, Xilian; Li, Tianyu; Zhang, Liyuan; Meng, Xiangzhao; Kase, Kiwamu; Wada, Satoshi; Yu, Chuck Wah; Gu, Zhaolin

    2015-01-01

    Dust devils are common but meteorologically unique phenomena on Earth and on Mars. The phenomenon produces a vertical vortex motion in the atmosphere boundary layer and often occurs in hot desert regions, especially in the afternoons from late spring to early summer. Dust devils usually contain abundant wind energy, for example, a maximum swirling wind velocity of up to 25 m/s, with a 15 m/s maximum vertical velocity and 5 m/s maximum near-surface horizontal velocity can be formed. The occurrences of dust devils cannot be used for energy generation because these are generally random and short-lived. Here, a concept of sustained dust-devil-like whirlwind is proposed for the energy generation. A prototype of a circular shed with pre-rotation vanes has been devised to generate the whirlwind flow by heating the air inflow into the circular shed. The pre-rotation vanes can provide the air inflow with angular momentum. The results of numerical simulations and experiment illustrate a promising potential of the circular shed for generating swirling wind energy via the collection of low-temperature solar energy. PMID:25662574

  14. Community investment in wind farms: funding structure effects in wind energy infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Beery, Joshua A; Day, Jennifer E

    2015-03-01

    Wind energy development is an increasingly popular form of renewable energy infrastructure in rural areas. Communities generally perceive socioeconomic benefits accrue and that community funding structures are preferable to corporate structures, yet lack supporting quantitative data to inform energy policy. This study uses the Everpower wind development, to be located in Midwestern Ohio, as a hypothetical modeling environment to identify and examine socioeconomic impact trends arising from corporate, community and diversified funding structures. Analysis of five National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jobs and Economic Development Impact models incorporating local economic data and review of relevant literature were conducted. The findings suggest that community and diversified funding structures exhibit 40-100% higher socioeconomic impact levels than corporate structures. Prioritization of funding sources and retention of federal tax incentives were identified as key elements. The incorporation of local shares was found to mitigate the negative effects of foreign private equity, local debt financing increased economic output and opportunities for private equity investment were identified. The results provide the groundwork for energy policies focused to maximize socioeconomic impacts while creating opportunities for inclusive economic participation and improved social acceptance levels fundamental to the deployment of renewable energy technology. PMID:25621885

  15. Magnetospheric vortices and their global effect after a solar wind dynamic pressure decrease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Shen, X. C.; Tang, B. B.; Tian, A. M.; Shi, Q. Q.; Weygand, J. M.; Yao, Z. H.; Zong, Q.-G.; Fu, S. Y.; Yao, S. T.; Xiao, T.; Pu, Z. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using multipoint data from three Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellites, we report a magnetospheric flow vortex driven by a negative solar wind dynamic pressure pulse. The observed vortex rotated in a direction opposite to that associated with positive solar wind dynamic pressure pulses. The vortex was moving tailward, as confirmed by a global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation. In addition, the equivalent ionospheric currents (EICs) deduced from ground magnetometer station data reveal that a current vortex in the ionosphere near the foot point of the satellites has a rotation sense consistent with that observed in the magnetosphere. The field-aligned current (FAC) density estimated from three THEMIS satellites is about 0.15 nA/m2, and the total FAC of the vortex is about 1.5-3 × 105 A, on the order of the total FAC in a pseudobreakup, but less than the total FAC in most moderate substorms, 106 A.

  16. 76 FR 30325 - Application to Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Application to Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC AGENCY: Office... Global Energy, LLC (E-T Global) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico for five years as a power...

  17. 75 FR 23798 - Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Minerals Management Service Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in...), announces the availability of an EA and FONNSI for the Cape Wind Energy Project proposed for Nantucket Sound... Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cape Wind Energy Project. The FEIS assessed the physical, biological,...

  18. 77 FR 19683 - Proposed Information Collection; Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines AGENCY..., on an emergency basis, our request to collect information associated with the Land- Based Wind Energy... proposed wind energy facilities may have on wildlife and their habitat. OMB approved our request...

  19. Renewable: A key component of our global energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.

    1995-12-31

    Inclusion of renewable energy sources in national and international energy strategies is a key component of a viable global energy future. The global energy balance is going to shift radically in the near future brought about by significant increases in population in China and India, and increases in the energy intensity of developing countries. To better understand the consequences of such global shifts in energy requirements and to develop appropriate energy strategies to respond to these shifts, we need to look at the factors driving choices among supply options by geopolitical consumers and the impact these factors can have on the future energy mix.

  20. Current Applications of Scanning Coherent Doppler Lidar in Wind Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, R.; Boquet, M.; Osler, E.

    2016-06-01

    Scanning Doppler Lidars have become more prominent in the wind energy industry for a variety of applications. Scanning Lidar's provide spatial variation of winds and direction over a large area, which can be used to assess the spatial uncertainty of winds and analyze complex flows. Due to the recent growth in wind energy, wind farms are being built in complex terrain areas and fine tuning of the existing wind farms for optimized performance have gained significant interest. Scanning Lidar is an ideal tool for improved assessment of flow over complex terrains and wake characterization of large wind farms. In this article, the various applications of Lidar in the wind industry are discussed and results from several campaigns conducted in US and Europe is presented. The conglomeration of results provided in this article would assist wind energy developers and researchers in making improved decisions about their wind farm operations and pre-construction analysis using scanning Lidar's.