Science.gov

Sample records for globular cluster formation

  1. Globular cluster formation - The fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Stephen D.; Lin, Douglas N. C.

    1992-01-01

    Properties of globular clusters which have remained unchanged since their formation are used to infer the internal pressures, cooling times, and dynamical times of the protocluster clouds immediately prior to the onset of star formation. For all globular clusters examined, it is found that the cooling times are much less than the dynamical times, implying that the protoclusters must have been maintained in thermal equilibrium by external heat sources, with fluxes consistent with those found in previous work, and giving the observed rho-T relation. Self-gravitating clouds cannot be stably heated, so that the Jeans mass forms an upper limit to the cluster masses. The observed dependence of protocluster pressure upon galactocentric position implies that the protocluster clouds were in hydrostatic equilibrium after their formation. The pressure dependence is well fitted by that expected for a quasi-statically evolving background hot gas, shock heated to its virial temperature. The observations and inferences are combined with previous theoretical work to construct a picture of globular cluster formation.

  2. Metallicity and star formation history of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mei; Ma, Er

    1993-01-01

    Using population synthesis method, the star formation history in globular clusters has been studied. No single star formation mode with a constant star formation rate (SER) and an invariable initial mass function (IMF) can fit the observations of globular clusters. There are at least two stages of star formation: a pollution stage and a starburst stage. In the pollution stage, either the IMF is very peculiar (only form massive stars), or its SFR is so small that the low-mass stars form only a little. A starburst then follows to form most stars in the globular cluster. Within the framework of Fall and Rees'model, the collisions between warm clouds in the two phase medium may provide a suitable external cause to stimulate the starburst.

  3. Metallicity and star formation history of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mei; Ma, Er

    1993-03-01

    Using population synthesis method, the star formation history in globular clusters has been studied. No single star formation mode with a constant star formation rate (SER) and an invariable initial mass function (IMF) can fit the observations of globular clusters. There are at least two stages of star formation: a pollution stage and a starburst stage. In the pollution stage, either the IMF is very peculiar (only form massive stars), or its SFR is so small that the low-mass stars form only a little. A starburst then follows to form most stars in the globular cluster. Within the framework of Fall and Rees' model, the collisions between warm clouds in the two phase medium may provide a suitable external cause to stimulate the starburst.

  4. Formation of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dengkai

    2014-09-01

    Observations reveal the presence of multiple stellar populations (MSPs) in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in their Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams. We present a scenario for the formation of MSPs in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the anomalous-abundance stars observed in GCs are the merged and accreted stars produced by binary interactions, which are rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation. A stellar population with binaries can reproduce two important observational pieces of evidence of MSPs, the Na-O anticorrelation and the multiple sequences in the HR diagram.

  5. Probing Globular Cluster Formation in Low Metallicity Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kelsey E.; Hunt, Leslie K.; Reines, Amy E.

    2008-12-01

    The ubiquitous presence of globular clusters around massive galaxies today suggests that these extreme star clusters must have been formed prolifically in the earlier universe in low-metallicity galaxies. Numerous adolescent and massive star clusters are already known to be present in a variety of galaxies in the local universe; however most of these systems have metallicities of 12 + log(O/H) > 8, and are thus not representative of the galaxies in which today's ancient globular clusters were formed. In order to better understand the formation and evolution of these massive clusters in environments with few heavy elements, we have targeted several low-metallicity dwarf galaxies with radio observations, searching for newly-formed massive star clusters still embedded in their birth material. The galaxies in this initial study are HS 0822+3542, UGC 4483, Pox 186, and SBS 0335-052, all of which have metallicities of 12 + log(O/H) < 7.75. While no thermal radio sources, indicative of natal massive star clusters, are found in three of the four galaxies, SBS 0335-052 hosts two such objects, which are incredibly luminous. The radio spectral energy distributions of these intense star-forming regions in SBS 0335-052 suggest the presence of ~12,000 equivalent O-type stars, and the implied star formation rate is nearing the maximum starburst intensity limit.

  6. Exploring the Formation of Galaxies through Metallicities of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Chung, Chul; Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Kang, Yong Beom; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Young-Wook; Tamura, Naoyuki; Sohn, S. Tony; Arimoto, Nobuo; Kodama, Tadayuki; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2014-06-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are among the oldest stellar objects in the universe. They have long served the role of providing constraints on many aspects of galaxy evolution theory. Bimodal color distribution of GC systems in many luminous early-type galaxies is an observationally established phenomenon and has been interpreted as evidence of two GC subgroups with different metallicities. In this study, we use spectroscopic data on the GC systems of two giant galaxies, M31 (the Andromeda) and M87 (NGC 4486), to investigate the GC bimodality and the underlying metallicity distributions. Recent high signal-to-ratio spectroscopic data on M31 GCs revealed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Given that spectroscopy provides a more robust probe into stellar population than photometry, the reported spectral line index bimodality may indicate the presence of two distinct GC populations. However, here we show that the spectroscopic dichotomy of M31 GCs is due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and therefore one does not need two separate GC subsystems. We consider this as an analogy to the recent interpretation in which metallicity-color nonlinearity is the prime cause for observed GC color bimodality. We present spectra of ~130 old globular clusters (GCs) associated with the Virgo giant elliptical galaxy M87, obtained with the Multi-Object Spectrography (MOS) mode of Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph (FOCAS) on the Subaru telescope. The fundamental properties of globular clusters such as age, metallicity and elemental abundance ratio are investigated by comparing with a set of Simple Stellar Population (SSP) models. M87 GCs with reliable metallicity measurements exhibit significant inflection along the color-metallicity relations, through which observed color bimodality is reproduced using a broad, unimodal metallicity distribution. Our findings lend further support to this new interpretation of the GC color

  7. The Globular Cluster System of NGC 4636 and Formation of Globular Clusters in Giant Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong; Kim, Sang Chul; Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Tamura, Naoyuki; Onodera, Masato

    2012-11-01

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of the metallicities, ages, and alpha-elements of the globular clusters (GCs) in the giant elliptical galaxy (gE) NGC 4636 in the Virgo Cluster. Line indices of the GCs are measured from the integrated spectra obtained with Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph on the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope. We derive [Fe/H] values of 59 GCs based on the Brodie & Huchra method, and [Z/H], age, and [α/Fe] values of 33 GCs from the comparison of the Lick line indices with single stellar population models. The metallicity distribution of NGC 4636 GCs shows a hint of a bimodality with two peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.23(σ = 0.32) and -0.35(σ = 0.19). The age spread is large from 2 Gyr to 15 Gyr and the fraction of young GCs with age <5 Gyr is about 27%. The [α/Fe] of the GCs shows a broad distribution with a mean value [α/Fe] ≈0.14 dex. The dependence of these chemical properties on the galactocentric radius is weak. We also derive the metallicities, ages, and [α/Fe] values for the GCs in other nearby gEs (M87, M49, M60, NGC 5128, NGC 1399, and NGC 1407) from the line index data in the literature using the same methods as used for NGC 4636 GCs. The metallicity distribution of GCs in the combined sample of seven gEs including NGC 4636 is found to be bimodal, supported by the KMM test with a significance level of >99.9%. All these gEs harbor some young GCs with ages less than 5 Gyr. The mean age of the metal-rich GCs ([Fe/H] >-0.9) is about 3 Gyr younger than that of the metal-poor GCs. The mean value of [α/Fe] of the gE GCs is smaller than that of the Milky Way GCs. We discuss these results in the context of GC formation in gEs. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  8. THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM OF NGC 4636 AND FORMATION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN GIANT ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong; Kim, Sang Chul; Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Tamura, Naoyuki; Onodera, Masato E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr E-mail: sckim@kasi.re.kr E-mail: yoshihiko.yamada@nao.ac.jp E-mail: monodera@phys.ethz.ch

    2012-11-10

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of the metallicities, ages, and alpha-elements of the globular clusters (GCs) in the giant elliptical galaxy (gE) NGC 4636 in the Virgo Cluster. Line indices of the GCs are measured from the integrated spectra obtained with Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph on the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope. We derive [Fe/H] values of 59 GCs based on the Brodie and Huchra method, and [Z/H], age, and [{alpha}/Fe] values of 33 GCs from the comparison of the Lick line indices with single stellar population models. The metallicity distribution of NGC 4636 GCs shows a hint of a bimodality with two peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.23({sigma} = 0.32) and -0.35({sigma} = 0.19). The age spread is large from 2 Gyr to 15 Gyr and the fraction of young GCs with age <5 Gyr is about 27%. The [{alpha}/Fe] of the GCs shows a broad distribution with a mean value [{alpha}/Fe] Almost-Equal-To 0.14 dex. The dependence of these chemical properties on the galactocentric radius is weak. We also derive the metallicities, ages, and [{alpha}/Fe] values for the GCs in other nearby gEs (M87, M49, M60, NGC 5128, NGC 1399, and NGC 1407) from the line index data in the literature using the same methods as used for NGC 4636 GCs. The metallicity distribution of GCs in the combined sample of seven gEs including NGC 4636 is found to be bimodal, supported by the KMM test with a significance level of >99.9%. All these gEs harbor some young GCs with ages less than 5 Gyr. The mean age of the metal-rich GCs ([Fe/H] >-0.9) is about 3 Gyr younger than that of the metal-poor GCs. The mean value of [{alpha}/Fe] of the gE GCs is smaller than that of the Milky Way GCs. We discuss these results in the context of GC formation in gEs.

  9. DYNAMICAL FORMATION OF MILLISECOND PULSARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, C. Y.; Cheng, K. S.; Taam, Ronald E.

    2010-05-10

    The cumulative luminosity distribution functions (CLFs) of radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in globular clusters (GCs) and in the Galactic field at a frequency of 1.4 GHz have been examined. Assuming a functional form, N {proportional_to} L{sup q} where N is the number of MSPs and L is the luminosity at 1.4 GHz, it is found that the CLFs significantly differ with a steeper slope, q = -0.83 {+-} 0.05, in GCs than in the Galactic field (q = -0.48 {+-} 0.04), suggesting a different formation or evolutionary history of MSPs in these two regions of the Galaxy. To probe the production mechanism of MSPs in clusters, a search of the possible relationships between the MSP population and cluster properties was carried out. The results of an investigation of nine GCs indicate positive correlations between the MSP population and the stellar encounter rate and metallicity. This provides additional evidence suggesting that stellar dynamical interactions are important in the formation of the MSP population in GCs.

  10. Formation of Short-Period Binary Pulsars in Globular Clusters.

    PubMed

    Rasio; Pfahl; Rappaport

    2000-03-20

    We present a new dynamical scenario for the formation of short-period binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters. Our work is motivated by the recent observations of 20 radio pulsars in 47 Tuc. In a dense cluster such as 47 Tuc, most neutron stars acquire binary companions through exchange interactions with primordial binaries. The resulting systems have semimajor axes in the range approximately 0.1-1 AU and neutron star companion masses approximately 1-3 M middle dot in circle. For many of these systems, we find that when the companion evolves off the main sequence and fills its Roche lobe, the subsequent mass transfer is dynamically unstable. This leads to a common envelope phase and the formation of short-period neutron star-white dwarf binaries. For a significant fraction of these binaries, the decay of the orbit due to gravitational radiation will be followed by a period of stable mass transfer driven by a combination of gravitational radiation and tidal heating of the companion. The properties of the resulting short-period binaries match well those of observed binary pulsars in 47 Tuc. PMID:10702129

  11. ON THE FORMATION OF MULTIPLE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Charlie, Conroy; Spergel, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all globular clusters (GCs) studied to date show evidence for multiple stellar populations, in stark contrast to the conventional view that GCs are a mono-metallic, coeval population of stars. This generic feature must therefore emerge naturally within massive star cluster formation. Building on earlier work, we propose a simple physical model for the early evolution (several 10{sup 8} yr) of GCs. We consider the effects of stellar mass loss, Type II supernovae (SNe II) and prompt Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), ram pressure, and accretion from the ambient interstellar medium (ISM) on the development of a young GC's own gas reservoir. In our model, SNe II from a first generation of star formation clears the GC of its initial gas reservoir. Over the next several 10{sup 8} yr, mass lost from asymptotic giant branch stars and matter accreted from the ambient ISM collect at the center of the GC. This material must remain quite cool (T {approx} 10{sup 2} K), but does not catastrophically cool on a crossing time because of the high Lyman-Werner flux density in young GCs. The collection of gas within the GC must compete with ram pressure from the ambient ISM. After several 10{sup 8} yr, the Lyman-Werner photon flux density drops by more than three orders of magnitude, allowing molecular hydrogen and then stars to form. After this second generation of star formation, SNe II from the second generation and then prompt SNe Ia associated with the first generation maintain a gas-free GC, thereby ending the cycle of star formation events. Our model makes clear predictions for the presence or absence of multiple stellar populations within GCs as a function of GC mass and formation environment. While providing a natural explanation for the approximately equal number of first- and second-generation stars in GCs, substantial accretion from the ambient ISM may produce fewer chemically peculiar second-generation stars than are observed. Analyzing intermediate-age LMC clusters, we

  12. Formation of globular clusters induced by external ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Kenji; Umemura, Masayuki; Kitayama, Tetsu

    2009-08-01

    We present a novel scenario for globular cluster (GC) formation, where the ultraviolet (UV) background radiation effectively works so as to produce compact star clusters. Recent observations on the age distributions of GCs indicate that many GCs formed even after the cosmic reionization epoch. This implies that a significant fraction of GCs formed in UV background radiation fields. Also, the star formation in an early-generation of subgalactic objects may be affected by strong UV radiation from pre-formed massive stars, e.g. Population III stars. Here, we explore the formation of GCs in UV radiation fields. For this purpose, we calculate baryon and dark matter (DM) dynamics in spherical symmetry, incorporating the self-shielding effects by solving the radiative transfer of UV radiation. In addition, we prescribe the star formation in cooled gas components and pursue the dynamics of formed stars. As a result, we find that the evolution of subgalactic objects in UV background radiation is separated into three types: (i) prompt star formation, where less massive clouds (~105-8Msolar) are promptly self-shielded and undergo star formation, (ii) delayed star formation, where photoionized massive clouds (>~108Msolar) collapse despite high thermal pressure and are eventually self-shielded to form stars in a delayed fashion, and (iii) supersonic infall, where photoionized less massive clouds (~105-8Msolar) contract with supersonic infall velocity and are self-shielded when a compact core forms. In particular, the type (iii) is a novel type found in the present simulations, and eventually produces a very compact star cluster. The resultant mass-to-light ratios, half-mass radii and velocity dispersions for the three types are compared to the observations of GCs, dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) and ultracompact dwarfs (UCDs). It turns out that the properties of star clusters resulting from supersonic infall match well with those of observed GCs, whereas the other two types are

  13. An Abundance Analysis of Red Giant Stars in the Retrograde Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 3201: Implications for Cluster Formation Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmerer, Jennifer A.; Ivans, I. I.

    2011-01-01

    Globular clusters have long been central to the study of Galactic Chemical Evolution. They serve as laboratories for stellar physics, evolution, and nucleosynthesis as well as representing fossil remnants of Galactic assembly processes. Our work addresses two recent areas of interest: globular clusters as accreted objects and globular clusters as hosts for multiple stellar populations. The globular cluster NGC 3201 is a curious object on a retrograde orbit. Some studies suggest that it contains stars of more than one metallicity, a property seen only in the peculiar globular cluster Omega Centauri. Both properties hint at an extra-Galactic origin. We present an elemental abundance pattern for NGC 3201 based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of red giant stars. We present abundance patterns of similar stars from the globular cluster M5 for comparison. Interpretation of our results is complicated by the discovery that at least two of our giants are variable stars. Though we can derive adequate stellar parameter solutions for both stars in every stage of variability and heavy element abundances do not change with the stellar phase, the abundances of the light elements O, Na, Mg, and Al are extremely unstable and vary greatly. Our inability to correctly model light element line formation in the atmosphere of variable red giant stars has significant implications for studies of star to star abundance variations in exactly these elements in globular clusters, which rely on stars at the same evolutionary stage as the variables in NGC 3201.

  14. The Rich Globular Cluster System of Abell 1689 and the Radial Dependence of the Globular Cluster Formation Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamo-Martínez, K. A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Jee, M. J.; Côté, P.; Ferrarese, L.; González-Lópezlira, R. A.; Jordán, A.; Meurer, G. R.; Peng, E. W.; West, M. J.

    2013-09-01

    We study the rich globular cluster (GC) system in the center of the massive cluster of galaxies Abell 1689 (z = 0.18), one of the most powerful gravitational lenses known. With 28 Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys orbits in the F814W bandpass, we reach a magnitude I 814 = 29 with gsim90% completeness and sample the brightest ~5% of the GC system. Assuming the well-known Gaussian form of the GC luminosity function (GCLF), we estimate a total population of N^total_GC = 162{,}850^{+75,450}_{-51,310} GCs within a projected radius of 400 kpc. As many as half of the GCs may comprise an intracluster component. Even with the sizable uncertainties, which mainly result from the uncertain GCLF parameters, this system is by far the largest GC population studied to date. The specific frequency SN is high, but not uncommon for central galaxies in massive clusters, rising from SN ≈ 5 near the center to ~12 at large radii. Passive galaxy fading would increase SN by ~20% at z = 0. We construct the radial mass profiles of the GCs, stars, intracluster gas, and lensing-derived total mass, and we compare the mass fractions as a function of radius. The estimated mass in GCs, {M}_GC^total = 3.9 × 1010 M ⊙, is comparable to ~80% of the total stellar mass of the Milky Way. The shape of the GC mass profile appears intermediate between those of the stellar light and total cluster mass. Despite the extreme nature of this system, the ratios of the GC mass to the baryonic and total masses, and thus the GC formation efficiency, are typical of those in other rich clusters when comparing at the same physical radii. The GC formation efficiency is not constant, but varies with radius, in a manner that appears similar for different clusters; we speculate on the reasons for this similarity in profile.

  15. On the assembly of dwarf galaxies in clusters and their efficient formation of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistani, Pouria A.; Sales, Laura V.; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sanchez-Janssen, Rubén; Vogelsberger, Mark; Nelson, Dylan; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Torrey, Paul; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters contain a large population of low-mass dwarf elliptical galaxies whose exact origin is unclear: their colours, structural properties and kinematics differ substantially from those of dwarf irregulars in the field. We use the Illustris cosmological simulation to study differences in the assembly histories of dwarf galaxies (3 × 108 < M*/M⊙ < 1010) according to their environment. We find that cluster dwarfs achieve their maximum total and stellar mass on average ˜8 and ˜4.5 Gyr ago (or redshifts z = 1.0 and 0.4, respectively), around the time of infall into the clusters. In contrast, field dwarfs not subjected to environmental stripping reach their maximum mass at z = 0. These different assembly trajectories naturally produce a colour bimodality, with blue isolated dwarfs and redder cluster dwarfs exhibiting negligible star formation today. The cessation of star formation happens over median times 3.5-5 Gyr depending on stellar mass, and shows a large scatter (˜1-8 Gyr), with the lower values associated with starburst events that occur at infall through the virial radius or pericentric passages. We argue that such starbursts together with the early assembly of cluster dwarfs can provide a natural explanation for the higher specific frequency of globular clusters (GCs) in cluster dwarfs, as found observationally. We present a simple model for the formation and stripping of GCs that supports this interpretation. The origin of dwarf ellipticals in clusters is, therefore, consistent with an environmentally driven evolution of field dwarf irregulars. However, the z = 0 field analogues of cluster dwarf progenitors have today stellar masses a factor of ˜3 larger - a difference arising from the early truncation of star formation in cluster dwarfs.

  16. The formation of primordial binaries in globular clusters by star-disk interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Stephen D.; Clarke, C. J.; Pringle, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of primordial binaries in globular clusters is examined using simple numerical models. Clusters of protostars collapse until their velocity dispersion rises sufficiently to reverse the infall and the cluster reaches equilibrium. During the collapse, interactions between stars and protostellar disks lead to stellar capture. It is found that binary fraction of a few percent typically result. Binary formation is terminated when the velocity dispersion rises to a point at which most encounters result in disk destruction rather than capture. As a result, much gas is returned to the cluster ISM, limiting the star formation efficiency to a value significantly below 100 percent.

  17. THE RICH GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM OF ABELL 1689 AND THE RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER FORMATION EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Alamo-Martínez, K. A.; González-Lópezlira, R. A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Côté, P.; Ferrarese, L.; Jee, M. J.; Jordán, A.; Meurer, G. R.; Peng, E. W.; West, M. J.

    2013-09-20

    We study the rich globular cluster (GC) system in the center of the massive cluster of galaxies Abell 1689 (z = 0.18), one of the most powerful gravitational lenses known. With 28 Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys orbits in the F814W bandpass, we reach a magnitude I{sub 814} = 29 with ∼>90% completeness and sample the brightest ∼5% of the GC system. Assuming the well-known Gaussian form of the GC luminosity function (GCLF), we estimate a total population of N{sup total}{sub GC}= 162,850{sup +75,450}{sub -51,310} GCs within a projected radius of 400 kpc. As many as half of the GCs may comprise an intracluster component. Even with the sizable uncertainties, which mainly result from the uncertain GCLF parameters, this system is by far the largest GC population studied to date. The specific frequency S{sub N} is high, but not uncommon for central galaxies in massive clusters, rising from S{sub N} ≈ 5 near the center to ∼12 at large radii. Passive galaxy fading would increase S{sub N} by ∼20% at z = 0. We construct the radial mass profiles of the GCs, stars, intracluster gas, and lensing-derived total mass, and we compare the mass fractions as a function of radius. The estimated mass in GCs, M{sub GC}{sup total} = 3.9 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, is comparable to ∼80% of the total stellar mass of the Milky Way. The shape of the GC mass profile appears intermediate between those of the stellar light and total cluster mass. Despite the extreme nature of this system, the ratios of the GC mass to the baryonic and total masses, and thus the GC formation efficiency, are typical of those in other rich clusters when comparing at the same physical radii. The GC formation efficiency is not constant, but varies with radius, in a manner that appears similar for different clusters; we speculate on the reasons for this similarity in profile.

  18. Modeling the Formation of Globular Cluster Systems in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Gnedin, Oleg Y.

    2014-11-01

    The mass distribution and chemical composition of globular cluster (GC) systems preserve fossil record of the early stages of galaxy formation. The observed distribution of GC colors within massive early-type galaxies in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) reveals a multi-modal shape, which likely corresponds to a multi-modal metallicity distribution. We present a simple model for the formation and disruption of GCs that aims to match the ACSVCS data. This model tests the hypothesis that GCs are formed during major mergers of gas-rich galaxies and inherit the metallicity of their hosts. To trace merger events, we use halo merger trees extracted from a large cosmological N-body simulation. We select 20 halos in the mass range of 2 × 1012 to 7 × 1013 M ⊙ and match them to 19 Virgo galaxies with K-band luminosity between 3 × 1010 and 3 × 1011 L ⊙. To set the [Fe/H] abundances, we use an empirical galaxy mass-metallicity relation. We find that a minimal merger ratio of 1:3 best matches the observed cluster metallicity distribution. A characteristic bimodal shape appears because metal-rich GCs are produced by late mergers between massive halos, while metal-poor GCs are produced by collective merger activities of less massive hosts at early times. The model outcome is robust to alternative prescriptions for cluster formation rate throughout cosmic time, but a gradual evolution of the mass-metallicity relation with redshift appears to be necessary to match the observed cluster metallicities. We also affirm the age-metallicity relation, predicted by an earlier model, in which metal-rich clusters are systematically several billion younger than their metal-poor counterparts.

  19. Modeling the formation of globular cluster systems in the Virgo cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Gnedin, Oleg Y. E-mail: ognedin@umich.edu

    2014-11-20

    The mass distribution and chemical composition of globular cluster (GC) systems preserve fossil record of the early stages of galaxy formation. The observed distribution of GC colors within massive early-type galaxies in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) reveals a multi-modal shape, which likely corresponds to a multi-modal metallicity distribution. We present a simple model for the formation and disruption of GCs that aims to match the ACSVCS data. This model tests the hypothesis that GCs are formed during major mergers of gas-rich galaxies and inherit the metallicity of their hosts. To trace merger events, we use halo merger trees extracted from a large cosmological N-body simulation. We select 20 halos in the mass range of 2 × 10{sup 12} to 7 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉} and match them to 19 Virgo galaxies with K-band luminosity between 3 × 10{sup 10} and 3 × 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}. To set the [Fe/H] abundances, we use an empirical galaxy mass-metallicity relation. We find that a minimal merger ratio of 1:3 best matches the observed cluster metallicity distribution. A characteristic bimodal shape appears because metal-rich GCs are produced by late mergers between massive halos, while metal-poor GCs are produced by collective merger activities of less massive hosts at early times. The model outcome is robust to alternative prescriptions for cluster formation rate throughout cosmic time, but a gradual evolution of the mass-metallicity relation with redshift appears to be necessary to match the observed cluster metallicities. We also affirm the age-metallicity relation, predicted by an earlier model, in which metal-rich clusters are systematically several billion younger than their metal-poor counterparts.

  20. Formation of globular clusters induced by external ultraviolet radiation II: Three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Makito; Umemura, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We explore the possibility of the formation of globular clusters under ultraviolet (UV) background radiation. One-dimensional spherical symmetric radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations by Hasegawa et al. have demonstrated that the collapse of low-mass (106-7 M⊙) gas clouds exposed to intense UV radiation can lead to the formation of compact star clusters like globular clusters (GCs) if gas clouds contract with supersonic infall velocities. However, three-dimensional effects, such as the anisotropy of background radiation and the inhomogeneity in gas clouds, have not been studied so far. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional RHD simulations in a semi-cosmological context, and reconsider the formation of compact star clusters in strong UV radiation fields. As a result, we find that although anisotropic radiation fields bring an elongated shadow of neutral gas, almost spherical compact star clusters can be procreated from a "supersonic infall" cloud, since photo-dissociating radiation suppresses the formation of hydrogen molecules in the shadowed regions and the regions are compressed by UV heated ambient gas. The properties of resultant star clusters match those of GCs. On the other hand, in weak UV radiation fields, dark matter-dominated star clusters with low stellar density form due to the self-shielding effect as well as the positive feedback by ionizing photons. Thus, we conclude that the "supersonic infall" under a strong UV background is a potential mechanism to form GCs.

  1. The Celestial Buffet: multiple populations and globular cluster formation in dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Aaron J.; Wadsley, James; Couchman, H. M. P.; Sills, Alison

    2014-04-01

    We present a framework that explains the commonly observed variation in light element abundances in globular clusters. If globular clusters form in the centres of dwarf galaxies, they will be pumped on to larger orbits as star formation progresses. The potential well will only retain the moderate velocity asymptotic giant branch (AGB) ejecta, the expected source of enrichment, but not supernova ejecta. There is no need to increase the initial cluster mass, a requirement of self-enrichment scenarios, as all the stars within the dwarf can contribute. As the clusters move through the dwarf centre they sweep up a mix of AGB ejecta and in-falling pristine gas to form a second generation of stars. The specific mix will vary in time and is thus able to explain the spread in second generation abundances observed in different clusters. The globular clusters will survive to the present day or be stripped as part of the hierarchical merging process of larger galaxies. We illustrate how this process may operate using a high-resolution simulation of a dwarf galaxy at high redshift.

  2. Dynamical Formation of Black Hole Binaries in Globular Clusters and the Origins of GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rodriguez, Carl L.

    2016-06-01

    We show that GW150914, the binary black hole merger detected last year by LIGO, could easily have been formed dynamically through interactions in the dense core of an old globular cluster. Using models of globular clusters with detailed N-body dynamics and stellar evolution, we show that a typical cluster can very naturally form a binary black hole with "heavy" components that will merge at low redshift, like GW150914. We describe in some detail the dynamical interaction processes that could form such a system. Finally, we also show that theoretical predictions for this dynamical formation channel are in general far more robust than those from "population synthesis" studies for isolated massive binaries in the field.

  3. The youngest globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Sara

    2015-11-01

    It is likely that all stars are born in clusters, but most clusters are not bound and disperse. None of the many protoclusters in our Galaxy are likely to develop into long-lived bound clusters. The super star clusters (SSCs) seen in starburst galaxies are more massive and compact and have better chances of survival. The birth and early development of SSCs takes place deep in molecular clouds, and during this crucial stage the embedded clusters are invisible to optical or UV observations but are studied via the radio-infrared supernebulae (RISN) they excite. We review observations of embedded clusters and identify RISN within 10 Mpc whose exciting clusters have ≈ 106 M⊙ or more in volumes of a few pc3 and which are likely to not only survive as bound clusters, but to evolve into objects as massive and compact as Galactic globulars. These clusters are distinguished by very high star formation efficiency η, at least a factor of 10 higher than the few percent seen in the Galaxy, probably due to the violent disturbances their host galaxies have undergone. We review recent observations of the kinematics of the ionized gas in RISN showing outflows through low-density channels in the ambient molecular cloud; this may protect the cloud from feedback by the embedded H II region.

  4. From Globular Clusters to Tidal Dwarfs: Structure Formation in Tidal Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, K.; Hunsberger, S.; Gallagher, S.; Charlton, J.; Whitmore, B.; Hibbard, J.; Kundu, A.; Zaritsky, D.

    1999-12-01

    Galaxy interactions trigger star formation in tidal debris. How does this star formation depend on the local and global physical conditions? Using WFPC2/HST images, we investigate the range of structure within tidal tails of four classic ``Toomre Sequence'' mergers: NGC 4038/9 (``Antennae''), NGC 7252 (``Atoms for Peace''), NGC 3921, and NGC 3256. These tails contain a variety of stellar associations with sizes from globular clusters up to dwarf Irregulars. We explore whether there is a continuum between the two extremes. Our eight fields sample seven tidal tails at a variety of stages in the evolutionary sequence. Some of these tails are rich in HI while others are HI poor. Large tidal dwarfs are embedded in three of the tails. Using V and I WFPC2 images, we measure luminosities and colors of substructures within the tidal tails. The properties of globular cluster candidates in the tails will be contrasted with those of the hundreds of young clusters in the central regions of these mergers. We address whether globular clusters form and survive in the tidal tails and whether tidal dwarfs are composed of only young stars. By comparing the properties of structures in the tails of the four mergers with different ages, we examine systematic evolution of structure along the evolutionary sequence and as a function of HI content. We acknowledge support from NASA through STScI, and from NSF for an REU supplement for Karen Knierman.

  5. Constraining globular cluster formation through studies of young massive clusters - IV. Testing the fast rotating massive star scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, N.; Hollyhead, K.; Cabrera-Ziri, I.

    2014-11-01

    One of the leading models for the formation of multiple stellar populations within globular clusters is the `fast rotating massive star' (FRMS) scenario, where the ejecta of rapidly rotating massive stars is mixed with primordial material left over from the star formation process, to form a second generation of stars within the decretion discs of the high-mass stars. A requirement of this model, at least in its current form, is that young massive (i.e. proto-globular) clusters are not able to eject the unused gas and dust from the star formation process from the cluster for 20-30 Myr after the formation of the first generation of stars, i.e. the cluster remains embedded within the gas cloud in which it forms. Here, we test this prediction by performing a literature search for young massive clusters in nearby galaxies, which have ages less than 20 Myr that are not embedded. We report that a number of such clusters exist, with masses near or significantly above 106 M⊙, with ages between a few Myr and ˜15 Myr, suggesting that even high-mass clusters are able to clear any natal gas within them within a few Myr after formation. Additionally, one cluster, Cluster 23 in ESO 338-IG04, has a metallicity below that of some Galactic globular clusters that have been found to host multiple stellar populations, mitigating any potential effect of differences in metallicity in the comparison. The clusters reported here are in contradiction to the expectations of the FRMS scenario, at least in its current form.

  6. Star formation in globular clusters and dwarf galaxies and implications for the early evolution of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Douglas N. C.; Murray, Stephen D.

    1991-01-01

    Based upon the observed properties of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, we present important theoretical constraints on star formation in these systems. These constraints indicate that protoglobular cluster clouds had long dormant periods and a brief epoch of violent star formation. Collisions between protocluster clouds triggered fragmentation into individual stars. Most protocluster clouds dispersed into the Galactic halo during the star formation epoch. In contrast, the large spread in stellar metallicity in dwarf galaxies suggests that star formation in their pregenitors was self-regulated: we propose the protocluster clouds formed from thermal instability in the protogalactic clouds and show that a population of massive stars is needed to provide sufficient UV flux to prevent the collapsing protogalactic clouds from fragmenting into individual stars. Based upon these constraints, we propose a unified scenario to describe the early epochs of star formation in the Galactic halo as well as the thick and thin components of the Galactic disk.

  7. Globular Cluster Formation Efficiencies from Black Hole X-Ray Binary Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justham, Stephen; Peng, Eric W.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a scenario in which feedback from black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) sometimes begins inside young star clusters before strong supernova (SN) feedback. Those BHXBs could reduce the gas fraction inside embedded young clusters while maintaining virial equilibrium, which may help globular clusters (GCs) to stay bound when SN-driven gas ejection subsequently occurs. Adopting a simple toy model with parameters guided by BHXB population models, we produce GC formation efficiencies consistent with empirically inferred values. The metallicity dependence of BHXB formation could naturally explain why GC formation efficiency is higher at lower metallicity. For reasonable assumptions about that metallicity dependence, our toy model can produce a GC metallicity bimodality in some galaxies without a bimodality in the field-star metallicity distribution.

  8. Globular Clusters, Ultra-Compact Dwarfs, and the Formation of Galaxy Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are a distinctive and ubiquitous constituent of galaxy halos. Their existence alludes to an early epoch of galaxy building characterized by the high star formation rates needed to form massive clusters, and a merging process that produced the extended, spheroidal stellar halos in today's galaxies. While studies of stellar halos are generally limited by low surface brightnesses or the faintness of individual halo stars, GCs are bright and compact, making them excellent tracers of stellar halos out to hundreds of megaparsecs. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is a CFHT Large Program that has acquired imaging of the 104 square degrees within the Virgo Cluster's virial radius. This deep and contiguous imaging of the nearest galaxy cluster provides us a new view of globular clusters across the full range of galaxy morphology and mass, as well as in the regions between galaxies. It also provides the first complete census of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) in Virgo, objects which may be related to massive GCs and galaxy nuclei. In this talk, I will present what we have learned so far about extragalactic GC systems and UCDs from the NGVS, from both photometry and spectroscopy.

  9. Are globular clusters the natural outcome of regular high-redshift star formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik

    2016-02-01

    We summarise the recent progress in understanding the formation and evolution of globular clusters (GCs) in the context of galaxy formation and evolution. It is discussed that an end-to-end model for GC formation and evolution should capture four different phases: (1) star and cluster formation in the high-pressure interstellar medium of high-redshift galaxies, (2) cluster disruption by tidal shocks in the gas-rich host galaxy disc, (3) cluster migration into the galaxy halo, and (4) the final evaporation-dominated evolution of GCs until the present day. Previous models have mainly focussed on phase 4. We present and discuss a simple model that includes each of these four steps - its key difference with respect to previous work is the simultaneous addition of the high-redshift formation and early evolution of young GCs, as well as their migration into galaxy haloes. The new model provides an excellent match to the observed GC mass spectrum and specific frequency, as well as the relations of GCs to the host dark matter halo mass and supermassive black hole mass. These results show (1) that the properties of present-day GCs are reproduced by assuming that they are the natural outcome of regular high-redshift star formation (i.e. they form according to same physical processes that govern massive cluster formation in the local Universe), and (2) that models only including GC evaporation strongly underestimate their integrated mass loss over a Hubble time.

  10. The globular cluster system of NGC 5128

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Kristin Anne

    2010-11-01

    The globular cluster system of a nearby giant elliptical galaxy, NGC 5128 is studied to place constraints on the formation history of the galaxy. In this thesis, we have identified 190 new globular clusters via radial velocity measurements, bringing the total known population of globular clusters to 605 within this galaxy. We have examined the colour and spatial distributions of the globular cluster system and find it is bimodal in colour, with both a red and blue globular cluster population. The blue population is more spatially extended than the red, and both populations fall off in number density with radius as a power-law. There is a clear lack of globular clusters along the isophotal minor axis of the galaxy beyond a galactocentric radius of 15' warranting further search. With this new dataset, we have measured the ages, metallicities, and formation timescales for 72 globular clusters. The spectroscopic metallicity distribution function is bimodal indicating there is a metal-rich and metal-poor globular cluster population that corresponds to the red and blue globular clusters, respectively. We find the majority of both metal-rich (56%) and metal-poor (92%) globular clusters are older than 8 Gyr, comparable to the Milky Way globular cluster system. We do find a smaller fraction, 18% of our sample, are metal-rich globular clusters with ages younger than 5 Gyr, while the remaining globular clusters have intermediate ages between 5--8 Gyr. The formation times of these globular clusters, estimated by their alpha-to-iron abundance ratios, indicate they formed quickly, on a timescale similar to globular clusters in most spiral galaxies, but on slower timescales than those in some other giant elliptical galaxies. The kinematics of the full globular cluster system is analyzed, as well as for the metal-rich and metal-poor globular clusters separately, as a function of galactocentric radius. We find the metal-poor globular cluster system has a small rotation signature of

  11. X-ray diagnostics of globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The presence of compact X-ray sources in globular clusters allows diagnostic studies of both the X-ray sources themselves and the globular clusters to be carried out. A review of much of this work, primarily based on Einstein X-ray observations and supporting studies of globular clusters at radio through UV wavelengths, is presented. The compact X-ray sources in globular clusters are found to be compact binaries containing neutron stars and - in a separate lower luminosity component of an apparently bimodal luminosity function - possibly white dwarfs. Implications for the formation and evolution of compact binary X-ray sources in globular clusters and in the galactic bulge are discussed. In particular, new evidence is presented that the galactic bulge sources may be compact binaries in the remnants of disrupted globular clusters.

  12. Protein cluster formation during enzymatic cross-linking of globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Saricay, Yunus; Dhayal, Surender Kumar; Wierenga, Peter Alexander; de Vries, Renko

    2012-01-01

    Work on enzymatic cross-linking of globular food proteins has mainly focused on food functional effects such as improvements of gelation and enhanced stabilization of emulsions and foams, and on the detailed biochemical characterization of the cross-linking chemistry. What is still lacking is a physical characterization of cluster formation and gelation, as has been done for example, for cluster formation and gelation during heat-induced protein aggregation. Here we present preliminary results along these lines. We propose that enzymatic cross-linking of apo-alpha-lactalbumin is a good model system for studying the problem of cluster formation and gelation during enzymatic cross-linking of globular proteins. We present initial results on cluster sizes produced when crosslinking dilute solutions of apo-alpha-lactalbumin with a range of cross-linking enzymes: microbial transglutaminase, horseradish peroxidase, and mushroom tyrosinase. These results are used to highlight similarities and differences between different enzymes, when acting on the same substrate. Next we consider cluster growth and gelation in somewhat more detail for the specific case of cross-linking by horseradish peroxidase, under the periodic addition of H2O2. Upon increasing the initial concentration of apo-alpha-lactalbumin, at a fixed enzyme-to-substrate ratio and fixed reaction time, the size of the clusters at the end of the reaction increases rapidly, and above a critical concentration, gelation occurs. For the conditions that we have used, gelation occurred at very low initial apo-alpha-lactalbumin concentrations of 34% (w/v), indicating a very dilute cross-linked protein network, with a low average number of cross-links per protein. It is found that reactive protein monomers are first rapidly (1-2 h) incorporated into small covalent clusters. This is followed by a much slower phase (up to about 12 h) in which the small clusters are coupled together to form much larger covalent protein

  13. MOCCA code for star cluster simulations - IV. A new scenario for intermediate mass black hole formation in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giersz, Mirek; Leigh, Nathan; Hypki, Arkadiusz; Lützgendorf, Nora; Askar, Abbas

    2015-12-01

    We discuss a new scenario for the formation of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in dense star clusters. In this scenario, IMBHs are formed as a result of dynamical interactions of hard binaries containing a stellar-mass black hole (BH), with other stars and binaries. We discuss the necessary conditions to initiate the process of intermediate mass BH formation and the influence of an IMBH on the host global globular cluster (GC) properties. We discuss two scenarios for IMBH formation. The SLOW and FAST scenarios. They occur later or earlier in the cluster evolution and require smaller or extremely large central densities, respectively. In our simulations, the formation of IMBHs is highly stochastic. In general, higher formation probabilities follow from larger cluster concentrations (i.e. central densities). We further discuss possible observational signatures of the presence of IMBHs in GCs that follow from our simulations. These include the spatial and kinematic structure of the host cluster, possible radio, X-ray and gravitational wave emissions due to dynamical collisions or mass transfer and the creation of hypervelocity main-sequence escapers during strong dynamical interactions between binaries and an IMBH. All simulations discussed in this paper were performed with the MOCCA (MOnte Carlo Cluster simulAtor) Monte Carlo code. MOCCA accurately follows most of the important physical processes that occur during the dynamical evolution of star clusters but, as with other dynamical codes, it approximates the dissipative processes connected with stellar collisions and binary mergers.

  14. Extragalactic Globular Clusters: Old Spectroscopic Ages and New Views on Their Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.; Cenarro, A. J.; Beasley, Michael A.; Forbes, Duncan A.

    2005-10-01

    We present the results of a meta-analysis of Keck spectra of extragalactic globular clusters (GCs) in a sample of eight galaxies, ranging from dwarf galaxies to massive elliptical galaxies. We infer ages for the metal-poor and metal-rich GCs in these galaxies through comparisons to Galactic GCs. Both subpopulations appear to be no younger than their Galactic counterparts, with ages >~10 Gyr. This is the largest sample of galaxies for which ages have been constrained spectroscopically. Our results support the formation of most GCs in massive galaxies at high redshift. We propose a scenario for the formation of GC subpopulations that synthesizes aspects of both accretion and in situ approaches in the context of galaxy formation through hierarchical merging.

  15. From Globular Clusters to Tidal Dwarfs: Structure Formation in the Tidal Tails of Merging Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Charlton, Jane C.; Hunsberger, Sally D.; Whitmore, Bradley; Kundu, Arunav; Hibbard, J. E.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2003-09-01

    Using V and I images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) of the Hubble Space Telescope, we investigate compact stellar structures within tidal tails. Six regions of tidal debris in the four classic ``Toomre sequence'' mergers: NGC 4038/39 (``Antennae''), NGC 3256, NGC 3921, and NGC 7252 (``Atoms for Peace'') have been studied in order to explore how the star formation depends on the local and global physical conditions. These mergers sample a range of stages in the evolutionary sequence and tails with and without embedded tidal dwarf galaxies. The six tails are found to contain a variety of stellar structures, with sizes ranging from those of globular clusters up to those of dwarf galaxies. From V and I WFPC2 images, we measure the luminosities and colors of the star clusters. NGC 3256 is found to have a large population of blue clusters (0.2<~V-I<~0.9), particularly in its western tail, similar to those found in the inner region of the merger. In contrast, NGC 4038/39 has no clusters in the observed region of the tail, only less luminous point sources likely to be individual stars. NGC 3921 and NGC 7252 have small populations of clusters along their tails. A significant cluster population is clearly associated with the prominent tidal dwarf candidates in the eastern and western tails of NGC 7252. The cluster-rich western tail of NGC 3256 is not distinguished from the others by its dynamical age or by its total H I mass. However, the mergers that have few clusters in the tail all have tidal dwarf galaxies, while NGC 3256 does not have prominent tidal dwarfs. We speculate that star formation in tidal tails may manifest itself either in small structures like clusters along the tail or in large structures such as dwarf galaxies, but not in both. Also, NGC 3256 has the highest star formation rate of the four mergers studied, which may contribute to the high number of star clusters in its tidal tails. Based in part on observations obtained with the

  16. A single model for the variety of multiple-population formation(s) in globular clusters: a temporal sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, F.; Vesperini, E.; D'Ercole, A.; Ventura, P.; Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Tailo, M.

    2016-05-01

    We explain the multiple populations recently found in the `prototype' globular cluster (GC) NGC 2808 in the framework of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) scenario. The chemistry of the five - or more - populations is approximately consistent with a sequence of star formation events, starting after the Type II supernova epoch, lasting approximately until the time when the third dredge-up affects the AGB evolution (age ˜90-120 Myr), and ending when the Type Ia supernovae begin exploding in the cluster, eventually clearing it from the gas. The formation of the different populations requires episodes of star formation in AGB gas diluted with different amounts of pristine gas. In the nitrogen-rich, helium-normal population identified in NGC 2808 by the UV Legacy Survey of GCs, the nitrogen increase is due to the third dredge-up in the smallest mass AGB ejecta involved in the star formation of this population. The possibly iron-rich small population in NGC 2808 may be a result of contamination by a single Type Ia supernova. The NGC 2808 case is used to build a general framework to understand the variety of `second-generation' stars observed in GCs. Cluster-to-cluster variations are ascribed to differences in the effects of the many processes and gas sources which may be involved in the formation of the second generation. We discuss an evolutionary scheme, based on pollution by delayed Type II supernovae, which accounts for the properties of s-Fe-anomalous clusters.

  17. From Globular Clusters to Tidal Dwarfs: Structure Formation in the Tidal Tails of Merging Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, K. A.; Gallagher, S. C.; Charlton, J. C.; Hunsberger, S. D.; Whitmore, B. C.; Kundu, A.; Hibbard, J. E.; Zaritsky, D. F.

    2001-05-01

    Using V and I images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) of the Hubble Space Telescope, we investigate compact stellar structures within tidal tails. Six regions of tidal debris in the four classic ``Toomre Sequence'' mergers: NGC 4038/9 (``Antennae''), NGC 3256, NGC 3921, and NGC 7252 (``Atoms for Peace'') have been studied in order to explore how the star formation depends upon the local and global physical conditions. These mergers sample a range of stages in the evolutionary sequence, and include HI--rich and HI--poor environments. The six tails are found to contain a variety of stellar structures, with sizes ranging from those of globular clusters up to those of dwarf galaxies. From V and I WFPC2 images, we measure the luminosities and colors of the star clusters. NGC 3256 is found to have a large population of young clusters lying along both tails, similar to those found in the inner region of the merger. In contrast, NGC 4038/9 has no clusters in the observed region of the tail, only less luminous point sources likely to be individual stars. NGC 3921 and NGC 7252 have small populations of clusters that are concentrated in certain regions of the tail, and particularly in the prominent tidal dwarfs in the eastern and western tails of NGC 7252. The two cluster--rich tails of NGC 3256 are not distinguished from the others by their ages or by their total HI masses. We acknowledge support from NASA through STScI, and from NSF for an REU supplement for Karen Knierman.

  18. Binary Interactions as a Possible Scenario for the Formation of Multiple Stellar Populations in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dengkai; Han, Zhanwen; Li, Lifang

    2014-07-01

    Observations have revealed the presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. We present a scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the stars with anomalous abundances observed in GCs are merged stars and accretor stars produced by binary interactions—rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation—and that these stars are more massive than normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. We find that, due to their own evolution, these rapidly rotating stars have surface abundances, effective temperatures, and luminosities that are different from normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. This stellar population of binaries reproduces two important points of observational evidence of multiple stellar populations: a Na-O anticorrelation and multiple sequences in the HR diagram. This evidence suggests that binary interactions may be a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs.

  19. Binary interactions as a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Dengkai; Han, Zhanwen; Li, Lifang E-mail: zhanwenhan@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-07-01

    Observations have revealed the presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. We present a scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the stars with anomalous abundances observed in GCs are merged stars and accretor stars produced by binary interactions—rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation—and that these stars are more massive than normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. We find that, due to their own evolution, these rapidly rotating stars have surface abundances, effective temperatures, and luminosities that are different from normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. This stellar population of binaries reproduces two important points of observational evidence of multiple stellar populations: a Na-O anticorrelation and multiple sequences in the HR diagram. This evidence suggests that binary interactions may be a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs.

  20. Four and one more: The formation history and total mass of globular clusters in the Fornax dSph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, T. J. L.; Fraser, M.

    2016-05-01

    We have determined the detailed star formation history and total mass of the globular clusters in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal using archival HST WFPC2 data. Colour-magnitude diagrams were constructed in the F555W and F814W bands and corrected for the effect of Fornax field star contamination, after which we used the routine Talos to derive the quantitative star formation history as a function of age and metallicity. The star formation history of the Fornax globular clusters shows that Fornax 1, 2, 3, and 5 are all dominated by ancient (>10 Gyr) populations. Clusters Fornax 1, 2, and 3 display metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = -2.5, while Fornax 5 is slightly more metal-rich at [Fe/H] = -1.8, consistent with resolved and unresolved metallicity tracers. Conversely, Fornax 4 is dominated by a more metal-rich ([Fe/H] = -1.2) and younger population at 10 Gyr, inconsistent with the other clusters. A lack of stellar populations overlapping with the main body of Fornax argues against the nucleus cluster scenario for Fornax 4. The combined stellar mass in globular clusters as derived from the SFH is (9.57 ± 0.93) × 105 M⊙, which corresponds to 2.5 ± 0.2 percent of the total stellar mass in Fornax. The mass of the four most metal-poor clusters can also be compared to the metal-poor Fornax field to yield a mass fraction of 19.6 ± 3.1 percent. Therefore, the SFH results provide separate supporting evidence for the unusually high mass fraction of the globular clusters compared to the Fornax field population.

  1. Where Are the Universe's Globular Clusters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    -rich ones 4 to 1. [Harris 2016]He finds that globular clusters are most commonly found in galaxies within a surprisingly narrow range around the characteristic luminosity of the Schechter function. This means that, at the current time, the collection of galaxies similar in brightness to the Milky Way or Andromeda host the largest total number of globulars in the universe.Metal-Poor DominanceHarris extends these calculations by examining two subpopulations of globulars: blue (metal-poor) and red (metal-rich). Metal-poor globular clusters are found in all galaxies, but metal-rich ones reside preferentially in massive, bright galaxies. Strikingly, Harris finds that this preference results in metal-poor globulars making up almost 80% of all globular clusters in the universe, outnumbering the metal-rich ones by nearly 4 to 1.This result implies that the earliest stages of hierarchical galaxy mergers when most of the available gas was low-metallicity provided the most favorable conditions for the formation of dense, massive star clusters. This early environment birthed the majority of the globular clusters we see today.CitationWilliam E. Harris 2016 AJ 151 102. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/151/4/102

  2. X-ray binaries in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray and optical studies of compact binaries and globular clusters are reviewed. Topics covered include, the formation of compact binaries by three-body interactions and by tidal capture, studies of the 11 minute binary in NGC 6624 and the 8.5 hour binary in M 15 (AC211), and an evolutionary model for compact binary formation. Optical searches for X-ray binaries in globular clusters are examined including CCD surveys and studies of NGC 6712. In addition, globular clusters with central cusps in their surface brightness profiles, questions concerning the blue color of binaries, diffuse line emission from CVs, and the possibility that X-ray burst sources in the galactic bulge were formed by tidal capture in globular clusters which have since been disrupted are discussed.

  3. Globular clusters as the relics of regular star formation in `normal' high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik

    2015-12-01

    We present an end-to-end, two-phase model for the origin of globular clusters (GCs). In the model, populations of stellar clusters form in the high-pressure discs of high-redshift (z > 2) galaxies (a rapid-disruption phase due to tidal perturbations from the dense interstellar medium), after which the galaxy mergers associated with hierarchical galaxy formation redistribute the surviving, massive clusters into the galaxy haloes, where they remain until the present day (a slow-disruption phase due to tidal evaporation). The high galaxy merger rates of z > 2 galaxies allow these clusters to be `liberated' into the galaxy haloes before they are disrupted within the high-density discs. This physically motivated toy model is the first to include the rapid-disruption phase, which is shown to be essential for simultaneously reproducing the wide variety of properties of observed GC systems, such as their universal characteristic mass-scale, the dependence of the specific frequency on metallicity and galaxy mass, the GC system mass-halo mass relation, the constant number of GCs per unit supermassive black hole mass, and the colour bimodality of GC systems. The model predicts that most of these observables were already in place at z = 1-2, although under rare circumstances GCs may still form in present-day galaxies. In addition, the model provides important constraints on models for multiple stellar populations in GCs by putting limits on initial GC masses and the amount of pristine gas accretion. The paper is concluded with a discussion of these and several other predictions and implications, as well as the main open questions in the field.

  4. FORMATION OF COMPACT STELLAR CLUSTERS BY HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY OUTFLOWS. III. OBSERVABILITY AND CONNECTION TO HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, William J.; Scannapieco, Evan

    2011-12-01

    The early universe hosted a large population of low-mass virialized 'minihalos', that were not massive enough to form stars on their own. While most minihalos were photoevaporated by ionizing photons from star-forming galaxies, these galaxies also drove large outflows, which in some cases would have reached the minihalos in advance of ionization fronts. In the previous papers in this series, we carried out high-resolution, three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations of outflow-minihalo interactions that included non-equilibrium chemistry, radiative cooling, and turbulent mixing. We found that, for a fiducial set of parameters, minihalos were transformed into dense, chemically homogenous stellar clusters. Here we conduct a suite of simulations that follow these interactions over a wide range of parameters including minihalo mass, minihalo formation redshift, outflow energy, outflow redshift, distance, concentration, and spin. In almost all cases, the shocked minihalos form molecules through non-equilibrium reactions and then cool rapidly to become compact, chemically homogenous stellar clusters. Furthermore, we show that the unique properties of these clusters make them a prime target for direct study with the next generation of telescopes, and that there are many reasons to suspect that their low-redshift counterparts are the observed population of halo globular clusters.

  5. ROTATING GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchini, P.; Varri, A. L.; Bertin, G.; Zocchi, A.

    2013-07-20

    Internal rotation is thought to play a major role in the dynamics of some globular clusters. However, in only a few cases has internal rotation been studied by the quantitative application of realistic and physically justified global models. Here, we present a dynamical analysis of the photometry and three-dimensional kinematics of {omega} Cen, 47 Tuc, and M15, by means of a recently introduced family of self-consistent axisymmetric rotating models. The three clusters, characterized by different relaxation conditions, show evidence of differential rotation and deviations from sphericity. The combination of line-of-sight velocities and proper motions allows us to determine their internal dynamics, predict their morphology, and estimate their dynamical distance. The well-relaxed cluster 47 Tuc is interpreted very well by our model; internal rotation is found to explain the observed morphology. For M15, we provide a global model in good agreement with the data, including the central behavior of the rotation profile and the shape of the ellipticity profile. For the partially relaxed cluster {omega} Cen, the selected model reproduces the complex three-dimensional kinematics; in particular, the observed anisotropy profile, characterized by a transition from isotropy to weakly radial anisotropy and then to tangential anisotropy in the outer parts. The discrepancy found for the steep central gradient in the observed line-of-sight velocity dispersion profile and for the ellipticity profile is ascribed to the condition of only partial relaxation of this cluster and the interplay between rotation and radial anisotropy.

  6. Two epochs of globular cluster formation from deep field luminosity functions: implications for reionization and the Milky Way satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Harley; Ricotti, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    The ages of globular clusters in our own Milky Way are known with precision of about ±1 Gyr, hence their formation history at redshifts z ≳ 3 and their role in hierarchical cosmology and the reionization of the intergalactic medium remain relatively undetermined. Here we analyse the effect of globular cluster formation on the observed rest-frame UV luminosity functions (LFs) and UV continuum slopes of high-redshift galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Fields. We find that the majority of present-day globular clusters have formed during two distinct epochs: at redshifts z ˜ 2-3 and at redshifts z ≳ 6. The birth of proto-GC systems produces the steep, faint-end slopes of the galaxy LFs and, because the brightness of proto-GCs fades 5 Myr after their formation, their blue colours are in excellent agreement with observations. Our results suggest that: (i) the bulk of the old globular cluster population with estimated ages ≳12 Gyr (about 50 per cent of the total population) formed in the relatively massive dwarf galaxies at redshifts z ≳ 6; (ii) proto-GC formation was an important mode of star formation in those dwarf galaxies, and likely dominated the reionization process. Another consequence of this scenario is that some of the most massive Milky Way satellites may be faint and yet undiscovered because tidal stripping of a dominant GC population precedes significant stripping of the dark matter haloes of these satellites. This scenario may alleviate some remaining tensions between cold dark matter simulations and observations.

  7. FIRST EVIDENCE OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER FORMATION FROM THE EJECTA OF PROMPT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Bekki, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    Recent spectroscopic observations of globular clusters (GCs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have discovered that one of the intermediate-age GCs, NGC 1718, with [Fe/H] = -0.7 has an extremely low [Mg/Fe] ratio of {approx}-0.9. We propose that NGC 1718 was formed from the ejecta of Type Ia supernovae mixed with very metal-poor ([Fe/H] <-1.3) gas about {approx}2 Gyr ago. The proposed scenario is shown to be consistent with the observed abundances of Fe-group elements such as Cr, Mn, and Ni. In addition, compelling evidence for asymptotic giant branch stars playing a role in chemical enrichment during this GC formation is found. We suggest that the origin of the metal-poor gas is closely associated with efficient gas transfer from the outer gas disk of the Small Magellanic Cloud to the LMC disk. We anticipate that the outer part of the LMC disk contains field stars exhibiting significantly low [Mg/Fe] ratios, formed through the same process as NGC 1718.

  8. Novae in globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Hachisu, Izumi; Henze, Martin

    2013-12-10

    We present the first light-curve analysis of Population II novae that appeared in M31 globular clusters. Our light-curve models, based on the optically thick wind theory, reproduce well both the X-ray turn-on and turnoff times with the white dwarf (WD) mass of about 1.2 M {sub ☉} for M31N 2007-06b in Bol 111 and about 1.37 M {sub ☉} for M31N 2010-10f in Bol 126. The transient supersoft X-ray source CXO J004345 in Bol 194 is highly likely a nova remnant of 1.2-1.3 M {sub ☉} WD. These WD masses are quite consistent with the temperatures deduced from X-ray spectra. We also present the dependence of nova light curves on the metallicity in the range from [Fe/H] = 0.4 to –2.7. Whereas strong optically thick winds are accelerated in Galactic disk novae owing to a large Fe opacity peak, only weak winds occur in Population II novae with low Fe abundance. Thus, nova light curves are systematically slow in low Fe environment. For an extremely low Fe abundance normal nova outbursts may not occur unless the WD is very massive. We encourage V or y filter observation rather than R as well as high cadence X-ray monitorings to open quantitative studies of extragalactic novae.

  9. Globular clusters and their contribution to the formation of the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretta, Eugenio

    2016-08-01

    This is a ``biased'' review because I will show recent evidence on the contribution of globular clusters (GCs) to the halo of our Galaxy seen through the lens of the new paradigm of multiple populations in GCs. I will show a few examples where the chemistry of multiple populations helps to answer hot questions including whether and how much GCs did contribute to the halo population, if we have evidence of the GCs-halo link, what are the strengths and weak points concerning this contribution.

  10. Gravitational interactions between globular and open clusters: an introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, R.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; Reilly, D.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, it has been assumed that globular and open clusters never interact. However, recent evidence suggests that: globular clusters passing through the disk may be able to perturb giant molecular clouds (GMCs) triggering formation of open clusters and some old open clusters may be linked to accreted globulars. Here, we further explore the existence of possible dynamical connections between globular and open clusters, and realize that the most obvious link must be in the form of gravitational interactions. If open clusters are born out of GMCs, they have to move in similar orbits. If we accept that globulars can interact with GMCs, triggering star formation, it follows that globular and open clusters must also interact. Consistently, theoretical arguments as well as observational evidence, show that globular and open clusters certainly are interacting populations and their interactions are far more common than usually thought, especially for objects part of the bulge/disk. Monte Carlo calculations confirm that conclusion. Globular clusters seem capable of not only inducing formation of open clusters but, more often, their demise. Relatively frequent high speed cluster encounters or cluster harassment may also cause, on the long-term, slow erosion and tidal truncation on the globulars involved. The disputed object FSR 1767 (2MASS-GC04) may be, statistically speaking, the best example of an ongoing interaction.

  11. Reconstructing galaxy histories from globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Michael J.; Côté, Patrick; Marzke, Ronald O.; Jordán, Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Nearly a century after the true nature of galaxies as distant `island universes' was established, their origin and evolution remain great unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. One of the most promising ways to investigate galaxy formation is to study the ubiquitous globular star clusters that surround most galaxies. Globular clusters are compact groups of up to a few million stars. They generally formed early in the history of the Universe, but have survived the interactions and mergers that alter substantially their parent galaxies. Recent advances in our understanding of the globular cluster systems of the Milky Way and other galaxies point to a complex picture of galaxy genesis driven by cannibalism, collisions, bursts of star formation and other tumultuous events.

  12. Reconstructing galaxy histories from globular clusters.

    PubMed

    West, Michael J; Côté, Patrick; Marzke, Ronald O; Jordán, Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Nearly a century after the true nature of galaxies as distant 'island universes' was established, their origin and evolution remain great unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. One of the most promising ways to investigate galaxy formation is to study the ubiquitous globular star clusters that surround most galaxies. Globular clusters are compact groups of up to a few million stars. They generally formed early in the history of the Universe, but have survived the interactions and mergers that alter substantially their parent galaxies. Recent advances in our understanding of the globular cluster systems of the Milky Way and other galaxies point to a complex picture of galaxy genesis driven by cannibalism, collisions, bursts of star formation and other tumultuous events. PMID:14702077

  13. The Ages of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. H.

    2001-03-01

    We examine the luminosity levels of the main-sequence turnoffs, MTOv, and horizontal branches, Mv(HB), in 16 globular clusters. An entirely new approach of inferring the luminosity levels by utilizing high-amplitude δ Scuti variables (HADS) is introduced. When the MTOv values are compared with theoretical values inferred from models, we find all 16 clusters (metal-strong to metal-poor) are coeval with an average age of ~11.3 Gyr. A considerable scatter of Mv(HB) values of clusters at similar [Fe/H] values is found. A trend for clusters with blue horizontal branches to have brighter Mv(HB) than clusters with blue-red horizontal branches is suggested by the data. The Mv(HB) values appear to depend on another or other parameters in addition to the [Fe/H] values. In spite of this problem, we derive an equation relating Mv(HB) values of globular clusters to their [Fe/H] values. We also derive an equation relating the MTOv values of clusters to their [Fe/H] values. Both of these equations can be utilized to find cluster distances. The distance modulus of the LMC is found to be 18.66 from the VTO values of three LMC globular clusters; RR Lyrae stars in seven globular clusters yield 18.61, and RR Lyrae stars in the LMC bar yield 18.64.

  14. The age of the globular cluster NGC 288, the formation of the Galactic halo, and the second parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Bolte, M. )

    1989-06-01

    A differential comparison of precise CCD photometry in the globular clusters NGC 288, NGC 362, and NGC 1261 shows that differences exist in the positions of the main-sequence turnoff in these clusters that are most naturally explained if NGC 288 is some 3 billion yr older than NGC 362 and about 1 to 2 billion yr older than NGC 1261. This implies that the formation time for the Galactic halo is significantly longer than a freefall time. Consideration of the inferred ages and horizontal-branch morphologies of the clusters Pal 12, NGC 288, NGC 362, and NGC 1261, all with similar metal abundances, suggests that age may be the parameter that, after overall metal abundance, most determines horizontal-branch morphology. 56 refs.

  15. Globular Clusters in the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, E.; Ortolani, S.; Barbuy, B.

    2016-06-01

    A view of the Galactic bulge by means of their globular clusters is fundamental for a deep understanding of its formation and evolution. Connections between the globular cluster and field star properties in terms of kinematics, orbits, chemical abundances, and ages should shed light on different stellar population components. Based on spatial distribution and metallicity, we define a probable best list of bulge clusters, containing 43 entries. Future work on newly discovered objects, mostly from the VVV survey, is suggested. These candidates might alleviate the issue of missing clusters on the far side of the bulge. We discuss the reddening law affecting the cluster distances towards the centre of the Galaxy, and conclude that the most suitable total-to-selective absorption value appears to be R V=3.2, in agreement with recent analyses. An update of elemental abundances for bulge clusters is provided.

  16. MODELING THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Muratov, Alexander L.; Gnedin, Oleg Y. E-mail: ognedin@umich.ed

    2010-08-01

    Observed metallicities of globular clusters reflect physical conditions in the interstellar medium of their high-redshift host galaxies. Globular cluster systems in most large galaxies display bimodal color and metallicity distributions, which are often interpreted as indicating two distinct modes of cluster formation. The metal-rich and metal-poor clusters have systematically different locations and kinematics in their host galaxies. However, the red and blue clusters have similar internal properties, such as their masses, sizes, and ages. It is therefore interesting to explore whether both metal-rich and metal-poor clusters could form by a common mechanism and still be consistent with the bimodal distribution. We present such a model, which prescribes the formation of globular clusters semi-analytically using galaxy assembly history from cosmological simulations coupled with observed scaling relations for the amount and metallicity of cold gas available for star formation. We assume that massive star clusters form only during mergers of massive gas-rich galaxies and tune the model parameters to reproduce the observed distribution in the Galaxy. A wide, but not the entire, range of model realizations produces metallicity distributions consistent with the data. We find that early mergers of smaller hosts create exclusively blue clusters, whereas subsequent mergers of more massive galaxies create both red and blue clusters. Thus, bimodality arises naturally as the result of a small number of late massive merger events. This conclusion is not significantly affected by the large uncertainties in our knowledge of the stellar mass and cold gas mass in high-redshift galaxies. The fraction of galactic stellar mass locked in globular clusters declines from over 10% at z > 3 to 0.1% at present.

  17. A black hole in a globular cluster.

    PubMed

    Maccarone, Thomas J; Kundu, Arunav; Zepf, Stephen E; Rhode, Katherine L

    2007-01-11

    Globular star clusters contain thousands to millions of old stars packed within a region only tens of light years across. Their high stellar densities make it very probable that their member stars will interact or collide. There has accordingly been considerable debate about whether black holes should exist in these star clusters. Some theoretical work suggests that dynamical processes in the densest inner regions of globular clusters may lead to the formation of black holes of approximately 1,000 solar masses. Other numerical simulations instead predict that stellar interactions will eject most or all of the black holes that form in globular clusters. Here we report the X-ray signature of an accreting black hole in a globular cluster associated with the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 (in the Virgo cluster). This object has an X-ray luminosity of about 4 x 10(39) erg s(-1), which rules out any object other than a black hole in such an old stellar population. The X-ray luminosity varies by a factor of seven in a few hours, which excludes the possibility that the object is several neutron stars superposed. PMID:17203062

  18. The fundamental plane correlations for globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djorgovski, S.

    1995-01-01

    In the parameter space whose axes include a radius (core, or half-light), a surface brightness (central, or average within the half-light radius), and the central projected velocity dispersion, globular clusters lie on a two-dimensional surface (a plane, if the logarithmic quantities are used). This is analogous to the 'fundamental plane' of elliptical galaxies. The implied bivariate correlations are the best now known for globular clusters. The derived scaling laws for the core properties imply that cluster cores are fully virialized, homologous systems, with a constant (M/L) ratio. The corresponding scaling laws on the half-light scale are differrent, but are nearly identical to those derived from the 'fundamental plane' of ellipticals. This may be due to the range of cluster concentrations, which are correlated with other parameters. A similar explanation for elliptical galaxies may be viable. These correlations provide new empirical constraints for models of globular cluster formation and evolution, and may also be usable as rough distance-indicator relations for globular clusters.

  19. Understanding the Milky Way Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2014-05-01

    Studying the evolution of globular clusters is of great interest for a variety of branches in astrophysics and cosmology. The high masses and stellar densities make them important targets for Galactic and extragalactic astronomy, and hotbeds for strong dynamical encounters facilitating several exotic sources. Their old ages provide a direct window into the major star formation episodes in the early universe. Until recently our numerical understanding for these systems was either limited by the number of stars simulations can treat or by omission of some physical processes. Northwestern group's Hénon-type Monte Carlo code CMC can lift these problems and allows creation of star-by-star cluster models that can be directly compared with the observational data. I will present our latest understanding of how these clusters evolve as a whole, explain bulk properties of the Milky Way globular clusters, and identify formation channels for some resolved exotic stellar populations.

  20. Field star interactions with globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei

    1992-09-01

    We investigate a new interaction of globular clusters with galactic field stars. By dynamical friction, high-velocity field stars passing through individual globular clusters are decelerated. This frictional interaction contributes to cluster heating, and, in conjunction with disk shocking and other mechanisms, it helps regulate the evolution of globular clusters. Moreover, penetrating field stars with low relative velocities can even be captured by globular clusters. Our calculated rate of captures suggest that there is a substantial population of stars having an origin external to the globulars in which they now reside. Intriguing candidates for this 'immigrant' population include some blue straggler stars and short-period pulsars.

  1. Globular cluster x-ray sources

    PubMed Central

    Pooley, David

    2010-01-01

    Globular clusters and x-ray astronomy have a long and fruitful history. Uhuru and OSO-7 revealed highly luminous (> 1036 ergs-1) x-ray sources in globular clusters, and Einstein and ROSAT revealed a larger population of low-luminosity (< 1033 ergs-1) x-ray sources. It was realized early on that the high-luminosity sources were low-mass x-ray binaries in outburst and that they were orders of magnitude more abundant per unit mass in globular clusters than in the rest of the galaxy. However, the low-luminosity sources proved difficult to classify. Many ideas were put forth—low-mass x-ray binaries in quiescence (qLMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), active main-sequence binaries (ABs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs)—but secure identifications were scarce. In ROSAT observations of 55 clusters, about 25 low-luminosity sources were found. Chandra has now observed over 80 Galactic globular clusters, and these observations have revealed over 1,500 x-ray sources. The superb angular resolution has allowed for many counterpart identifications, providing clues to the nature of this population. It is a heterogeneous mix of qLMXBs, CVs, ABs, and MSPs, and it has been shown that the qLMXBs and CVs are both, in part, overabundant like the luminous LMXBs. The number of x-ray sources in a cluster correlates very well with its encounter frequency. This points to dynamical formation scenarios for the x-ray sources and shows them to be excellent tracers of the complicated internal dynamics. The relation between the encounter frequency and the number of x-ray sources has been used to suggest that we have misunderstood the dynamical states of globular clusters. PMID:20404204

  2. REGION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6397

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Right A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a small region (1.4 light-years across) in the globular star cluster NGC 6397 shows far fewer stars than would be expected in faint red dwarf stars were abundant. HST resolves about 200 stars. The stellar density is so low that HST can literally see right through the cluster and resolve far more distant background galaxies. This observation shows the surprising cutoff point below which nature apparently doesn't make many stars smaller that 1/5 the mass of our Sun. If there were lower mass stars in the cluster, then the image would contain an estimated 500 stars. This observation provides new insights into star formation in our Galaxy. Left A ground-based sky survey photograph of the globular cluster NGC 6397, one of the nearest and densest agglomerations of stars to Earth. The cluster is located 7,200 light-years away in the southern constellation Ara, and is one of 150 such objects which orbit our Milky Way Galaxy. Globular clusters are ideal laboratories for studying the formation and evolution of stars. This visible light picture was taken on March 3, 1994 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, as part of the HST parallel observing program. Credit: F. Paresce, ST ScI and ESA and NASA

  3. Formation of Globular Clusters in Atomic-cooling Halos Via Rapid Gas Condensation and Fragmentation during the Epoch of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimm, Taysun; Cen, Renyue; Rosdahl, Joakim; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the formation of metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) at the center of two dark matter halos with {M}{{halo}}˜ 4× {10}7 {M}ȯ at z\\gt 10 using cosmological radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. We find that very compact (≲1 pc) and massive (˜ 6× {10}5 {M}ȯ ) clusters form rapidly when pristine gas collapses isothermally with the aid of efficient Lyα emission during the transition from molecular-cooling halos to atomic-cooling halos. Because the local free-fall time of dense star-forming gas is very short (\\ll 1 {{Myr}}), a large fraction of the collapsed gas is turned into stars before stellar feedback processes blow out the gas and shut down star formation. Although the early stage of star formation is limited to a small region of the central star-forming disk, we find that the disk quickly fragments due to metal enrichment from supernovae. Sub-clusters formed in the fragmented clouds eventually merge with the main cluster at the center. The simulated clusters closely resemble the local GCs in mass and size but show a metallicity spread that is much wider than found in the local GCs. We discuss a role of pre-enrichment by Pop III and II stars as a potential solution to the latter issue. Although not without shortcomings, it is encouraging that a naive blind (not tuned) cosmological simulation presents a possible channel for the formation of at least some massive GCs.

  4. Field star diffusion in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei; Weisheit, Jon C.

    1992-10-01

    We investigate a new interaction of globular clusters with galactic field stars: the deceleration (by dynamical friction) of high-velocity field stars diffusing through individual globular clusters. This frictional interaction contributes to cluster heating and, in conjunction with disk shocking and other mechanisms, helps to regulate the evolution of globular clusters. Moreover, penetrating field stars of low relative velocity can even be captured by globular clusters. Our calculated rate of capture suggests that there is a modest population of stars having an origin external to the clusters in which they now reside. Intriguing candidates for this 'immigrant' population include some blue stragglers and short-period pulsars.

  5. HUBBLE SPIES GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN NEIGHBORING GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has captured a view of a globular cluster called G1, a large, bright ball of light in the center of the photograph consisting of at least 300,000 old stars. G1, also known as Mayall II, orbits the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the nearest major spiral galaxy to our Milky Way. Located 130,000 light-years from Andromeda's nucleus, G1 is the brightest globular cluster in the Local Group of galaxies. The Local Group consists of about 20 nearby galaxies, including the Milky Way. The crisp image is comparable to ground-based telescope views of similar clusters orbiting the Milky Way. The Andromeda cluster, however, is nearly 100 times farther away. A glimpse into the cluster's finer details allow astronomers to see its fainter helium-burning stars whose temperatures and brightnesses show that this cluster in Andromeda and the oldest Milky Way clusters have approximately the same age. These clusters probably were formed shortly after the beginning of the universe, providing astronomers with a record of the earliest era of galaxy formation. During the next two years, astronomers will use Hubble to study about 20 more globular clusters in Andromeda. The color picture was assembled from separate images taken in visible and near-infrared wavelengths taken in July of 1994. CREDIT: Michael Rich, Kenneth Mighell, and James D. Neill (Columbia University), and Wendy Freedman (Carnegie Observatories), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  6. The Formation of First Generation Stars and Globular Clusters in Protogalactic Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S

    2003-07-07

    Within collapsing protogalaxies, thermal instability leads to the formation of a population of cool fragments which are confined by the pressure of a residual hot background medium. The critical mass required for the cold clouds to become gravitationally unstable and to form stars is determined by both their internal temperature and external pressure. Massive first generation stars form in primordial clouds with sufficient column density to shield themselves from external UV photons emitted by nearby massive stars or AGNs. Less massive photoionized clouds gain mass due to ram pressure stripping by the residual halo gas. Collisions may also trigger thermal instability and fragmentation into cloudlets. While most cloudlets have substellar masses, the largest become self-gravitating and collapse to form protostellar cores without further fragmentation. The initial stellar mass function is established as these cores capture additional residual cloudlets. Energy dissipation from the mergers ensures that the cluster remains bound in the limit of low star formation efficiency. Dissipation also promotes the formation and retention of the most massive stars in the cluster center. On the scale of the protogalactic clouds, the formation of massive stars generates intense UV radiation which photoionizes gas and quenches star formation in nearby regions. As gas density accumulates in the center of the galactic potential, the self-regulated star formation rate increases. At the location where most of the residual gas can be converted into stars on its internal dynamical timescale, a galaxy attains its asymptotic kinematic structure such as exponential profiles, Tully-Fisher, and Faber-Jackson laws.

  7. Rotation and flattening of globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fall, S. M.; Frenk, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for measuring globular cluster ellipticities and the results of such measurements are reviewed, and the processes that determine the shapes of globular clusters and the ways in which they change with time are discussed. The use of the virial tensor theorem to study the connection between the global rotation, velocity anisotropy, and the shape of a self-gravitating system is addressed, and the employment of N-body models to simulate the evolution of globular clusters with initially anisotropic velocity distributions is examined. The application of a simple evaporation model and Fokker-Planck integrations to study the two-body diffusion in globular clusters is reviewed.

  8. FORMATION OF METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James

    2012-09-20

    The size, mass, luminosity, and space density of Ly{alpha} emitting (LAE) galaxies observed at intermediate to high redshift agree with expectations for the properties of galaxies that formed metal-poor halo globular clusters (GCs). The low metallicity of these clusters is the result of their formation in low-mass galaxies. Metal-poor GCs could enter spiral galaxies along with their dwarf galaxy hosts, unlike metal-rich GCs, which form in the spirals themselves. Considering an initial GC mass larger than the current mass to account for multiple stellar populations, and considering the additional clusters that are likely to form with massive clusters, we estimate that each GC with a mass today greater than 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} was likely to have formed among a total stellar mass {approx}> 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, a molecular mass {approx}> 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, and 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} of older stars, depending on the relative gas fraction. The star formation rate would have been several M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} lasting for {approx}10{sup 7} yr, and the Ly{alpha} luminosity would have been {approx}> 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Integrating the LAE galaxy luminosity function above this minimum, considering the average escape probability for Ly{alpha} photons (25%), and then dividing by the probability that a dwarf galaxy is observed in the LAE phase (0.4%), we find agreement between the comoving space density of LAEs and the average space density of metal-poor GCs today. The local galaxy WLM, with its early starburst and old GC, could be an LAE remnant that did not get into a galaxy halo because of its remote location.

  9. Luminosity Functions for Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, Fabio; Ventura, Paolo; D'Antona, Francesca; Mazzitelli, Italo

    1998-12-01

    We present theoretical mass-luminosity relations and luminosity functions (LFs) for globular cluster stars, from luminosities above the horizontal branch down to the minimum luminosity of hydrogen-burning stars. The LFs are available for metal mass fraction Z from Z = 10-4 to Z = 4 × 10-3, in the Johnson V band and in the Bessell-Cousins I band, and are based on tracks especially computed for this program, with the input physics of the models developed recently by D'Antona et al., Mazzitelli et al., and D'Antona & Mazzitelli. Two typical comparisons with observations are presented and discussed: (1) comparisons and statistical analysis with the LFs of the lower giant branch, turnoff region, and upper main sequence of several globular clusters from low to high metallicity, (2) derivation of the initial mass function (IMF) for the stars below the turnoff for several globular clusters for which Hubble Space Telescope data are available. In the first analysis we find that, for relatively large metallicities (Z >= 10-3) a good fit between theoretical and observed LFs can be found, although a simple χ2 statistical analysis shows that it is not possible to derive a strongly preferred age (or, equivalently, distance modulus) from the LF comparison. The fit with lower metallicity [Z ~ (1-2) × 10-4] LFs is less good but statistically acceptable. The main result is that the difference between observed and theoretical LFs of low-metallicity clusters reported by VandenBerg, Bolte, & Stetson appears to be much reduced in present models, and we give the possible reason why this happens and its consequences for the important parameter of the helium core mass at the flash. In the second application, we explore the effect of varying age and distance modulus on the mass function derived for a globular cluster. Distance moduli corresponding to the ``long'' distance scale (and relatively low ages) seem to be preferred based on these comparisons. The resulting index of the IMF is

  10. Isolated elliptical galaxies and their globular cluster systems. II. NGC 7796 - globular clusters, dynamics, companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richtler, T.; Salinas, R.; Lane, R. R.; Hilker, M.; Schirmer, M.

    2015-02-01

    Context. Rich globular cluster systems, particularly the metal-poor part of them, are thought to be the visible manifestations of long-term accretion processes. The invisible part is the dark matter halo, which may show some correspondence to the globular cluster system. It is therefore interesting to investigate the globular cluster systems of isolated elliptical galaxies, which supposedly have not experienced extended accretion. Aims: We investigate the globular cluster system of the isolated elliptical NGC 7796, present new photometry of the galaxy, and use published kinematical data to constrain the dark matter content. Methods: Deep images in B and R, obtained with the VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph (VIMOS) at the VLT, form the data base. We performed photometry with DAOPHOT and constructed a spherical photometric model. We present isotropic and anisotropic Jeans-models and give a morphological description of the companion dwarf galaxy. Results: The globular cluster system has about 2000 members, so it is not as rich as those of giant ellipticals in galaxy clusters with a comparable stellar mass, but richer than many cluster systems of other isolated ellipticals. The colour distribution of globular clusters is bimodal, which does not necessarily mean a metallicity bimodality. The kinematic literature data are somewhat inconclusive. The velocity dispersion in the inner parts can be reproduced without dark matter under isotropy. Radially anisotropic models need a low stellar mass-to-light ratio, which would contrast with the old age of the galaxy. A MONDian model is supported by X-ray analysis and previous dynamical modelling, but better data are necessary for a confirmation. The dwarf companion galaxy NGC 7796-1 exhibits tidal tails, multiple nuclei, and very boxy isophotes. Conclusions: NGC 7796 is an old, massive isolated elliptical galaxy with no indications of later major star formation events as seen frequently in other isolated ellipticals. Its

  11. CANDIDATE TIDAL DWARF GALAXIES IN Arp 305: LESSONS ON DWARF DETACHMENT AND GLOBULAR CLUSTER FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, Mark; Smith, Beverly J.; Giroux, Mark L.; Hurlock, Sabrina; Struck, Curtis E-mail: smithbj@etsu.edu E-mail: zshh7@goldmail.etsu.edu

    2009-06-15

    To search for Tidal Dwarf Galaxies (TDGs) and to study star formation (SF) in tidal features, we are conducting a large UV imaging survey of interacting galaxies selected from the Arp (1996) Atlas using the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) telescope. As part of that study, we present a GALEX UV and Sloan Digital Sky Survey and SARA optical study of the gas-rich interacting galaxy pair Arp 305 (NGC 4016/7). The GALEX UV data reveal much extended diffuse UV emission and SF outside the disks. This includes a luminous star-forming region between the two galaxies, and a number of such regions in tidal tails. We have identified 45 young star-forming clumps in Arp 305, including several TDG candidates. By comparing the UV and optical colors to population synthesis models, we determined that the clumps are very young, with several having ages {approx}6 Myr. We do not find many intermediate age clumps in spite of the fact that the last closest encounter was about 300 Myr ago. We have used a smooth particle hydrodynamics code to model the interaction and determine the fate of the star clusters and candidate TDGs.

  12. Extragalactic Globular Clusters: Tracers of Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassino, Lilia P.

    2008-09-01

    The study of globular cluster systems provides clues about different topics related to galaxy evolution. In the past years we have been investigating the globular cluster systems of galaxies in the Fornax and Antlia clusters, particularly those associated to the cluster-dominant galaxies. We present here the main results related to these systems. All of them have bimodal color distributions, even those around low-luminosity galaxies, that correspond to the metal-poor (``blue'') and metal-rich (``red'') globular cluster subpopulations. The radial and azimuthal projected areal distributions of the globular clusters are also analyzed. Total globular cluster populations are estimated through the luminosity functions. We stress on the properties of the globular cluster systems that allow us to trace possible interaction processes between the galaxies, like tidal stripping of globular clusters. The observational material consists of CCD images obtained with the wide-field MOSAIC Imager of the CTIO 4-m telescope (La Serena, Chile), and the FORS1 camera at the VLT ``Antu'' 8-m telescope (Cerro Paranal, Chile).

  13. Central Dynamics of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyola, Eva; Baumgardt, H.

    2007-12-01

    Globular clusters have historically been classified into two groups due to their dynamical state. They are considered to be either pre-core-collapse or post-core-collapse systems. Clusters are considered as post-core-collapse when they show concentrated surface brightness profiles, with a steep central cusp; while pre-core collapse clusters are less concentrated and have flat central cores. Recent observational results show that some clusters have central surface brightness profiles with intermediate central slopes, showing shallow cusps. These observations could be explained by the presence of a single or a binary intermediate mass black hole in the center of the clusters. In this work, we create realistic synthetic images from the output of N-body models. The images attempt to mock the resolution and point spread function of the high resolution cameras on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The models are created with and without central black holes, where the no black hole models are allowed to reach core-collapse. We measure surface brightness profiles both from integrated light and from star counts. From the profiles, we obtain parameters such as central surface brightness slope, core radius, and half light radius. We also test how well a King model describes each profile. We find that the black hole models produce shallow cusps if the black hole is larger than a certain mass; while models without central black holes produce more concentrated profiles. This approach, allows to make a thorough comparison between observations and models.

  14. The Hubble Space TelescopeUV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters - V. Constraints on formation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzini, A.; D'Antona, F.; Cassisi, S.; King, I. R.; Milone, A. P.; Ventura, P.; Anderson, J.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T. M.; Piotto, G.; van der Marel, R. P.; Barbuy, B.; Dalessandro, E.; Hidalgo, S.; Marino, A. F.; Ortolani, S.; Salaris, M.; Sarajedini, A.

    2015-12-01

    We build on the evidence provided by our Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters (GC) to submit to a crucial test four scenarios currently entertained for the formation of multiple stellar generations in GCs. The observational constraints on multiple generations to be fulfilled are manifold, including GC specificity, ubiquity, variety, predominance, discreteness, supernova avoidance, p-capture processing, helium enrichment and mass budget. We argue that scenarios appealing to supermassive stars, fast rotating massive stars and massive interactive binaries violate in an irreparable fashion two or more among such constraints. Also the scenario appealing to asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars as producers of the material for next generation stars encounters severe difficulties, specifically concerning the mass budget problem and the detailed chemical composition of second-generation stars. We qualitatively explore ways possibly allowing one to save the AGB scenario, specifically appealing to a possible revision of the cross-section of a critical reaction rate destroying sodium, or alternatively by a more extensive exploration of the vast parameter space controlling the evolutionary behaviour of AGB stellar models. Still, we cannot ensure success for these efforts and totally new scenarios may have to be invented to understand how GCs formed in the early Universe.

  15. Globular Clusters as Cradles of Life and Advanced Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.; Ray, A.

    2016-08-01

    Globular clusters are ancient stellar populations in compact dense ellipsoids. There is no star formation and there are no core-collapse supernovae, but several lines of evidence suggest that globular clusters are rich in planets. If so, and if advanced civilizations can develop there, then the distances between these civilizations and other stars would be far smaller than typical distances between stars in the Galactic disk, facilitating interstellar communication and travel. The potent combination of long-term stability and high stellar densities provides a globular cluster opportunity. Yet the very proximity that promotes interstellar travel also brings danger, as stellar interactions can destroy planetary systems. We find, however, that large portions of many globular clusters are “sweet spots,” where habitable-zone planetary orbits are stable for long times. Globular clusters in our own and other galaxies are, therefore, among the best targets for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). We use the Drake equation to compare the likelihood of advanced civilizations in globular clusters to that in the Galactic disk. We also consider free-floating planets, since wide-orbit planets can be ejected to travel through the cluster. Civilizations spawned in globular clusters may be able to establish self-sustaining outposts, reducing the probability that a single catastrophic event will destroy the civilization. Although individual civilizations may follow different evolutionary paths, or even be destroyed, the cluster may continue to host advanced civilizations once a small number have jumped across interstellar space. Civilizations residing in globular clusters could therefore, in a sense, be immortal.

  16. Close binary stars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Although close binary stars are thought theoretically to play a major role in globular cluster dynamics, virtually no non-degenerate close binaries are known in clusters. We review the status of observations in this area, and report on two new programs which are finally yielding candidate systems suitable for further study. One of the objects, a close eclipsing system in omega Cen, is also a big straggler, thus finally proving firm evidence that globular cluster blue stragglers really are binary stars.

  17. Globular Cluster Orbits from HST Proper Motions: Constraining the Formation and Mass of the Milky Way Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. Tony; Van Der Marel, Roeland P.; Deason, Alis J.; Bellini, Andrea; Besla, Gurtina; Watkins, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The globular cluster (GC) system of the Milky Way (MW) provides important information on the MW's present structure and past evolution. GCs in the halo are particularly useful tracers; because of their long dynamical timescales, their orbits retain imprints of their origin or accretion history. Full 3D motions are required to calculate past orbits. While most GCs have known line of sight velocities, accurate proper motion (PM) measurements are currently available for only a few halo GCs. Our goal is to create the first high-quality PM database for halo GCs. We have identified suitable 1st-epoch data in the HST Archive for 20 halo GCs at 10-100 kpc from the Galactic Center. We are in the process of obtaining the necessary 2nd-epoch data to determine absolute PMs of the target GCs through our HST program GO-14235. We will use the same advanced astrometric techniques that allowed us to measure the PMs of M31 and Leo I. Previous studies of the halo GC system based on e.g., stellar populations, metallicities, RR Lyrae properties, and structural properties have revealed a dichotomy between old and young halo GCs. This may reflect distinct formation scenarios (in situ vs. accreted). Orbit calculations based on our PMs will directly test this. The PMs will also yield the best handle yet on the velocity anisotropy profile of any tracer population in the halo. This will resolve the mass-anisotropy degeneracy to provide an improved estimate of the MW mass, which is at present poorly known. In summary, our project will deliver the first accurate PMs for halo GCs, and will significantly increase our understanding of the formation, evolution, and mass of the MW.

  18. Is the Globular Cluster Colour-Metallicity Relation Universal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, Christopher; Sluggs Survey Team

    2015-01-01

    Visible at much greater distances than resolved stars, globular clusters are important tools for studying galaxy formation and assembly. Studies of extragalactic globular clusters typically use optical colours to derive metallicites. We use Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy and Subaru Suprime-Cam photometry from the SLUGGS Survey to investigate how the globular cluster colour-metallicity relation varies galaxy to galaxy and with globular cluster luminosity. As in previous studies we see variations in the shape of the relationship between (g - i) colour and the strength of the calcium triplet spectral feature. To measure weaker spectral features in the DEIMOS spectra, we stack the spectra by colour and by magnitude. Comparing spectra with the same colours and luminosities but from different galaxies, we see significant differences in the strengths of several spectral features, including the calcium triplet and weak iron lines. We interpret this as strong evidence that the globular cluster colour-metallicity relation varies galaxy-to-galaxy. We suggest differences in globular cluster ages between galaxies and in the abundances of light elements (helium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen) between galaxies as possible explanations for the observed variations in the colour-metallicity relation.

  19. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Pak-Hin T.; Hui, Chung Y.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs). Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC) emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  20. Stellar Populations Archive: The Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, D. R.; Ouellette, J. O.; Shara, M.; Hurley, J.; Ferguson, H.

    2001-12-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope cycle 10 panels have awarded us an archival grant to create a web based archive for the 101 Galactic globular clusters observed with WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope. We will reduce all globular cluster WFPC2 data using ALLFrame in order to provide a photometric database which is precise and consistent from cluster to cluster. In addition the American Museum of Natural History has recently acquired three special purpose computers (GRAPE6) for dynamical simulations of stellar clusters. The simulations will be archived and a public database will be made available. The archive will go online early 2002 and as each cluster is reduced it will be made public. It is hoped that this "service to the community" will encourage comparitive studies of the Galactic globular cluster system. This database will also produce a library of template stellar populations with widespread applications.

  1. Multiple Metal-rich Sub-populations in Galaxies: the Star Formation/Assembly History of Galaxies Probed by Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissler-Patig, Markus

    Extragalactic globular clusters are used since a decade to probe the star formation and assembly history of nearby galaxies. In the early 90's, Zepf & Ashman (1993, MNRAS 264, 611) showed that several galaxies host at least two sub-populations of globular clusters. This fact was reinforced by subsequent studies (e. g. Gebhardt & Kissler-Patig 1999, AJ 118, 1526; Kundu 1999, PhD thesis), and many following studies dealt with the interpretation of the two main sub-populations (e. g. Kissler-Patig 2000, Reviews in Modern Astronomy, Vol. 13, p. 13 for a recent review) and their implications for galaxy formation scenarios. The nature of the metal-poor sub-populations is slowly understood as being a very uniform population in the nearby universe and most probably having formed in small fragments at the very beginning of galaxy formation and assembly. The nature of the metal-rich sub-populations is still hotly debated. It remains unclear whether its origin it mostly due to major mergers, whether it formed in situ during a monolithic bulge collapse, or whether it was accreted or cannibalized. The key to the answer lies in a more detailed analysis of the metal-rich sub-population. Is it itself composed by several sub-components? And can these sub-components tell us which mechanism dominated? First studies of extragalactic globular clusters in the optical and near-infrared show that the metal-rich sub-population might indeed be composed of several components. If confirmed, it would point to a significant contribution of hierarchical-like processes (accretion or mergers) to the metal-rich cluster and stellar component of galaxies.

  2. Ellipticals with Kinematically Distinct Cores: WFPC2 Imaging of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Franx, Marijn; Illingworth, Garth D.; Carollo, C. M.

    1996-08-01

    New globular clusters may form in the merger of two galaxies. Perhaps the best examples of merger remnants are the set of ellipticals with kinematically distinct cores. Here we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) imaging of 14 kinematically distinct core ellipticals to examine their globular cluster systems. In particular, we probe the galaxy central regions, for which we might expect to see the strongest signatures of some formation and destruction processes. These data increase substantially the number of extragalactic globular cluster systems studied to date. We have developed a method for galaxy subtraction and selection of globular clusters which results in about 200 globulars per galaxy to a limiting magnitude of V ~ 25. Simulations of artificial globulars are described also. We find that the globular cluster luminosity, and color, vary only weakly, if at all, with galactocentric distance. The mean colors of globular clusters are constant with globular cluster magnitude. Several clear trends are also present. First, globular cluster colors are bluer (more metal poor by ~0.5 dex) than the underlying galaxy starlight at any given galactocentric distance. Second, we find a good correlation over roughly 10 magnitudes between the mean globular cluster metallicity and parent galaxy luminosity of the form Z is proportional to L^0.4^. This relationship includes dwarf ellipticals, spiral galaxy bulges, and giant ellipticals. Third, we find that globular cluster surface density distribution can be described by a core model, for which the core radius correlates with galaxy luminosity. Last, for the sample as a whole, the globular cluster systems are closely aligned with the galaxy major axis and are slightly rounder than the galaxy itself, although their are some notable exceptions. Our results favor scenarios in which ellipticals form from massive, gas rich progenitors at early epochs. Detailed simulations of the formation of

  3. UV-bright stars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper highlights globular cluster studies with Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) in three areas: the discrepancy between observed ultraviolet HB magnitudes and predictions of theoretical HB models; the discovery of two hot subdwarfs in NGC 1851, a globular not previously known to contain such stars; and spectroscopic follow up of newly identified UV-bright stars in M79 and w Cen. I also present results of a recent observation of NGC 6397 with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer.

  4. Millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Van Paradijs, Jan

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the number of millisecond radio pulsars, in globular clusters, should be larger than 100, applying the standard scenario that all the pulsars descend from low-mass X-ray binaries. Moreover, most of the pulsars are located in a small number of clusters. The prediction that Teran 5 and Liller 1 contain at least about a dozen millisecond radio pulsars each is made. The observations of millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters to date, in particular the discovery of two millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc, are in agreement with the standard scenario, in which the neutron star is spun up during the mass transfer phase.

  5. UNCLOAKING GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE INNER GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Garcia, Javier; Catelan, Marcio; Minniti, Dante; Mateo, Mario; Sen, Bodhisattva; Banerjee, Moulinath; Von Braun, Kaspar E-mail: mcatelan@astro.puc.cl E-mail: mmateo@umich.edu E-mail: moulib@umich.edu

    2012-03-15

    Extensive photometric studies of the globular clusters located toward the center of the Milky Way have been historically neglected. The presence of patchy differential reddening in front of these clusters has proven to be a significant obstacle to their detailed study. We present here a well defined and reasonably homogeneous photometric database for 25 of the brightest Galactic globular clusters located in the direction of the inner Galaxy. These data were obtained in the B, V, and I bands using the Magellan 6.5 m Telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope. A new technique is extensively used in this paper to map the differential reddening in the individual cluster fields, and to produce cleaner, dereddened color-magnitude diagrams for all the clusters in the database. Subsequent papers will detail the astrophysical analysis of the cluster populations, and the properties of the obscuring material along the clusters' lines of sight.

  6. Co-evolution of galactic nuclei and globular cluster systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Tremaine, Scott

    2014-04-10

    We revisit the hypothesis that dense galactic nuclei are formed from inspiraling globular clusters. Recent advances in the understanding of the continuous formation of globular clusters over cosmic time and the concurrent evolution of the galaxy stellar distribution allow us to construct a simple model that matches the observed spatial and mass distributions of clusters in the Galaxy and the giant elliptical galaxy M87. In order to compare with observations, we model the effects of dynamical friction and dynamical evolution, including stellar mass loss, tidal stripping of stars, and tidal disruption of clusters by the growing galactic nucleus. We find that inspiraling globular clusters form a dense central structure, with mass and radius comparable to the typical values in observed nuclear star clusters (NSCs) in late-type and low-mass early-type galaxies. The density contrast associated with the NSC is less pronounced in giant elliptical galaxies. Our results indicate that the NSC mass as a fraction of mass of the galaxy stellar spheroid scales as M{sub NSC}/M{sub ∗}≈0.0025 M{sub ∗,11}{sup −0.5}. Thus disrupted globular clusters could contribute most of the mass of NSCs in galaxies with stellar mass below 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. The inner part of the accumulated cluster may seed the growth of a central black hole via stellar dynamical core collapse, thereby relieving the problem of how to form luminous quasars at high redshift. The seed black hole may reach ∼10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} within ≲ 1 Gyr of the beginning of globular cluster formation.

  7. Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters: Observations, Statistics and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knigge, Christian

    This chapter explores how we might use the observed statistics of blue stragglers in globular clusters to shed light on their formation. This means we will touch on topics also discussed elsewhere in this book, such as the discovery and implications of bimodal radial distributions and the "double sequences" of blue stragglers that have recently been found in some clusters. However, we will focus particularly on the search for a "smoking gun" correlation between the number of blue stragglers in a given globular cluster and a physical cluster parameter that would point towards a particular formation channel. As we shall see, there is little evidence for an intrinsic correlation between blue straggler numbers and stellar collision rates, even in dense cluster cores. On the other hand, there is a clear correlation between blue straggler numbers and the total (core) mass of the cluster. This would seem to point towards a formation channel involving binaries, rather than dynamical encounters. However, the correlation between blue straggler numbers and actual binary numbers—which relies on recently determined empirical binary fractions—is actually weaker than that with core mass. We explain how this surprising result may be reconciled with a binary formation channel if binary fractions depend almost uniquely on core mass. If this is actually the case, it would have significant implications for globular cluster dynamics more generally.

  8. Massive star archeology in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantereau, W.; Charbonnel, C.; Meynet, G.

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters are among the oldest structures in the Universe and they host today low-mass stars and no gas. However, there has been a time when they formed as gaseous objects hosting a large number of short-lived, massive stars. Many details on this early epoch have been depicted recently through unprecedented dissection of low-mass globular cluster stars via spectroscopy and photometry. In particular, multiple populations have been identified, which bear the nucleosynthetic fingerprints of the massive hot stars disappeared a long time ago. Here we discuss how massive star archeology can be done through the lense of these multiple populations.

  9. Color Distributions of 29 Galactic Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Young-Jong; Byun, Yong-Ik; Yim, Hong-Suh; Rhee, Myung-Hyun; Chun, Mun-Suk

    1998-06-01

    U, B, and V CCD images are used to investigate the radial color gradients of twenty nine Galactic globular clusters - twenty two King type clusters and seven Post Core Collapse (PCC) clusters classified on their surface brightness distributions. For King type clusters, eight clusters show radial color gradients with redder center and seven clusters with bluer centers in (B-V). Seven King type clusters have redder centers in (U-B), and five King type clusters show radial color gradients with bluer center in the same color. Among seven PCC clusters, one cluster show a redder center and five clusters show bluer centers in (B-V). Two PCC clusters have redder centers in (U-B), four PCC clusters show radial color gradients with bluer centers in the same color. These results bring an evidence that the color gradient is not unique to PCC clusters with bluer center. >From the Pearson's correlation coefficient tests, we found the horizontal branch morphologies have weak correlations to the radial color gradients within globular clusters.

  10. MOCK OBSERVATIONS OF BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, Alison; Glebbeek, Evert; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A. E-mail: e.glebbeek@astro.ru.nl E-mail: rasio@northwestern.edu

    2013-11-10

    We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will select approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates their lifetimes. We show that our model blue stragglers follow similar trends with cluster properties (core mass, binary fraction, total mass, collision rate) as the true Milky Way blue stragglers as long as we restrict ourselves to model clusters with an initial binary fraction higher than 5%. We also show that, in contrast to earlier work, the number of blue stragglers in the cluster core does have a weak dependence on the collisional parameter Γ in both our models and in Milky Way globular clusters.

  11. Forming Centaurus A's High M/L Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauda Bovill, Mia; Hyazinth Puzia, Thomas; Ricotti, Massimo; Taylor, Matthew Alan

    2015-08-01

    Using a set of high resolution N-body simulations, we develop a formation model for the high M/L globular clusters recently found around Centaurus A. In our model, the high M/L clusters are not true globular clusters, but rather the stripped cores of dwarf galaxies which underwent an epoch of efficient, concentrated star formation, possibly before or during the epoch of reionization. Given the known stellar masses of these objects, their halos virialized with relatively high masses and high redshift, falling into the Centaurus A with > 109 Msolar. These criteria give us a distribution of surviving subhalos which is consistent with the number and three dimensional distribution of the high M/L clusters within 100 pc of Centaurus A.

  12. Globular Cluster Colors Versus Population Synthesis Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmby, Pauline; Jalilian, F. F.

    2011-05-01

    Although the stellar populations of globular clusters are not as simple as we used to believe, they are still the simplest populations available in the nearby universe. As such, they are extremely useful for testing stellar population synthesis models. Using recent mass estimates for Local Group globular clusters, we have compiled a sample of clusters with masses large enough that stochastic effects on integrated photometry should be minimal. We have measured integrated colors in the Spitzer/IRAC bands for as many of these as possible, paying careful attention to systematics in order to get the most accurate colors. We present a comparison of the results with the predictions of the latest generation of population synthesis models, including GALEV and FSPS. Support for this work was provided by a Discovery Grant and an Undergraduate Summer Research Award from NSERC and by an Ontario Early Researcher Award.

  13. Metallicities and Reddenings For Young Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarajedini, Ata; Layden, Andrew

    1996-04-01

    We have obtained VI CCD photometry for the young globular clusters Ruprecht 106, Terzan 7, and Arp 2 using the 0.9m and 1.5m telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The resulting V ~ (V-I) color-magnitude diagrams extend from the tip of the red giant branch to approximately 3 magnitudes below the horizontal branch. We have applied the SRM method of Sarajedini (1994) to the RGBs of these clusters in order to measure their reddenings and metallicities. Furthermore, we have formulated the SRM method in the V ~ (B-V) color-magnitude plane and applied it to published BV photometry for these young globular clusters. The implications of these derived parameters will be discussed.

  14. DARK MATTER HALOS IN GALAXIES AND GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Michael J.; Harris, Gretchen L.; Harris, William E.

    2014-05-20

    We combine a new, comprehensive database for globular cluster populations in all types of galaxies with a new calibration of galaxy halo masses based entirely on weak lensing. Correlating these two sets of data, we find that the mass ratio η ≡ M {sub GCS}/M {sub h} (total mass in globular clusters, divided by halo mass) is essentially constant at (η) ∼ 4 × 10{sup –5}, strongly confirming earlier suggestions in the literature. Globular clusters are the only known stellar population that formed in essentially direct proportion to host galaxy halo mass. The intrinsic scatter in η appears to be at most 0.2 dex; we argue that some of this scatter is due to differing degrees of tidal stripping of the globular cluster systems between central and satellite galaxies. We suggest that this correlation can be understood if most globular clusters form at very early stages in galaxy evolution, largely avoiding the feedback processes that inhibited the bulk of field-star formation in their host galaxies. The actual mean value of η also suggests that about one-fourth of the initial gas mass present in protogalaxies collected into giant molecular clouds large enough to form massive, dense star clusters. Finally, our calibration of (η) indicates that the halo masses of the Milky Way and M31 are (1.2 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}, respectively.

  15. Spectroscopy of candidate young globular clusters in NGC 1275

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Carter, Dave; Sharples, Ray M.; Ashman, Keith

    1995-01-01

    We present spectra of the brightest member of the population of compact blue objects discovered in the peculiar galaxy NGC 1275 by Holtzman et al. (1992) using Hubble Space Telescope images. These spectra show strong Balmer absorption lines like those observed in A-type stars, as expected if the object is a young globular cluster. The age estimated from the strength of the Balmer lines is about 0.5 Gyr, although ages ranging from 0.1 Gyr to 0.9 Gyr cannot be confidently excluded given current models of stellar populations. If these estimated ages are adopted for the young cluster population of NGC 1275 as a whole, the fading predicted by stellar populations models gives a luminosity function which is consistent with that of the Galactic globular cluster system convolved with the observational selection function for the NGC 1275 system. We also use the equivalent widths of the Mg b and Fe 5270 features to constrain the metallicity of the young cluster. Combining these absorption-line widths with the age estimates from the Balmer lines and stellar population models, we find a metallicity of roughly solar, based on the Mg b index, and somewhat higher for the Fe 5270 index. The radial velocity of the absorption lines of the cluster spectrum is offset from the emission lines of the galaxy spectrum at the same position by - 130 km/s, providing further evidence for the identification of the object as a global cluster and opening up the future possibility of studying the kinematics of young cluster systems. The discovery of objects with the characteristics of young globular clusters in NGC 1275, which shows evidence of a recent interaction or merger, supports the hypothesis that galaxy interactions and mergers are favorable sites for the formation of globular clusters.

  16. A SURVEY FOR PLANETARY NEBULAE IN M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoby, George H.; De Marco, Orsola; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Davies, James E.; Kaplan, Evan E-mail: rbc@astro.psu.edu E-mail: mglee@astrog.snu.ac.kr E-mail: hhwang@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: evanskaplan@gmail.com

    2013-05-20

    We report the results of an [O III] {lambda}5007 spectroscopic survey for planetary nebulae (PNe) located within the star clusters of M31. By examining R {approx} 5000 spectra taken with the WIYN+Hydra spectrograph, we identify 3 PN candidates in a sample of 274 likely globular clusters, 2 candidates in objects which may be globular clusters, and 5 candidates in a set of 85 younger systems. The possible PNe are all faint, between {approx}2.5 and {approx}6.8 mag down the PN luminosity function, and, partly as a consequence of our selection criteria, have high excitation, with [O III] {lambda}5007 to H{beta} ratios ranging from 2 to {approx}> 12. We discuss the individual candidates, their likelihood of cluster membership, and the possibility that they were formed via binary interactions within the clusters. Our data are consistent with the suggestion that PN formation within globular clusters correlates with binary encounter frequency, though, due to the small numbers and large uncertainties in the candidate list, this study does not provide sufficient evidence to confirm the hypothesis.

  17. VARIABLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 5024

    SciTech Connect

    Safonova, M.; Stalin, C. S. E-mail: stalin@iiap.res.in

    2011-12-15

    We present the results of a commissioning campaign to observe Galactic globular clusters for the search of microlensing events. The central 10' Multiplication-Sign 10' region of the globular cluster NGC 5024 was monitored using the 2 m Himalayan Chandra Telescope in R-band for a period of about 8 hr on 2010 March 24. Light curves were obtained for nearly 10,000 stars using a modified Differential Image Analysis technique. We identified all known variables within our field of view and revised the periods and status of some previously reported short-period variables. We report about 70 new variable sources and present their equatorial coordinates, periods, light curves, and possible types. Out of these, 15 are SX Phe stars, 10 are W UMa-type stars, and 14 are probable RR Lyrae stars. Nine of the newly discovered SX Phe stars and one eclipsing binary belong to the blue straggler star population.

  18. Predictions of a population of cataclysmic variables in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, R.; Rappaport, S.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the number of cataclysmic variables (CVs) that should be active in globular clusters during the present epoch as a result of binary formation via two-body tidal capture. We predict the orbital period and luminosity distributions of CVs in globular clusters. The results arebased on Monte Carlo simulations combined with evolution calculations appropriate to each system formed during the lifetime of two specific globular clusters, omega Cen and 47 Tuc. From our study of these two clusters, which represent the range of core densities and states of mass segregation that are likely to be interesting, we extrapolate our results to the Galactic globlular cluster system. Although there is at present little direct observational evidence of CVs in globular clusters, we find that there should be a large number of active systems. We predict that there should be more than approximately 100 CVs in both 47 Tuc and omega Cen and several thousand in the Galactic globular cluster system. These numbers are based on two-body processes alone and represent a lower bound on the number of systems that may have been formed as a result of stellar interaction within globular clusters. The relation between these calculations and the paucity of optically detected CVs in globular clusters is discussed. Should future observations fail to find convincing evidence of a substantial population of cluster CVs, then the two-body tidal capture scenario is likely to be seriously constrained. Of the CVs we espect in 47 Tuc and omega Cen, approximately 45 and 20, respectively, should have accretion luminosities above 10(exp 33) ergs/s. If one utilizes a relation for converting accretion luminosity to hard X-ray luminosity that is based on observations of Galactic plane CVs, even these sources will not exhibit X-ray luminosities above 10(exp 33) ergs/s. While we cannot account directly for the most luminous subset of the low-luminosity globular cluster X-ray sources without assuming an

  19. HUBBLE PINPOINTS WHITE DWARFS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, dying stars - called white dwarfs - are giving astronomers a fresh reading on one of the biggest questions in astronomy: How old is the universe? The ancient white dwarfs in M4 are about 12 to 13 billion years old. After accounting for the time it took the cluster to form after the big bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates for the universe's age. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles pinpoint the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within arm's reach of the universe's age. M4 is 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Scorpius. Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 made the observations from January through April 2001. These optical observations were combined to

  20. Understanding the Current Dynamical States of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooley, David

    2008-09-01

    We appear to be on the verge of a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the current dynamical states of Galactic globular clusters. Fregeau (2008) brought together two recent theoretical breakthroughs as well as an observational breakthrough made possible by Chandra -- that a globular cluster's X-ray source population scales with its dynamical encounter frequency -- to persuasively argue that we have misunderstood the dynamical states of Galactic globular clusters. The observational evidence hinges on Chandra results from clusters which are classified as "core collapsed," of which there are only a handful of observations. I propose a nearly complete census with Chandra of the rest of the "core collapsed" globular clusters.

  1. GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND DARK SATELLITE GALAXIES THROUGH THE STREAM VELOCITY

    SciTech Connect

    Naoz, Smadar; Narayan, Ramesh

    2014-08-10

    The formation of purely baryonic globular clusters with no gravitationally bound dark matter is still a theoretical challenge. We show that these objects might form naturally whenever there is a relative stream velocity between baryons and dark matter. The stream velocity causes a phase shift between linear modes of baryonic and dark matter perturbations, which translates to a spatial offset between the two components when they collapse. For a 2σ (3σ) density fluctuation, baryonic clumps with masses in the range 10{sup 5}-2.5 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} (10{sup 5}-4 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}) collapse outside the virial radii of their counterpart dark matter halos. These objects could survive as long-lived, dark-matter-free objects and might conceivably become globular clusters. In addition, their dark matter counterparts, which were deprived of gas, might become dark satellite galaxies.

  2. The globular cluster system of NGC 1316. III. Kinematic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richtler, T.; Hilker, M.; Kumar, B.; Bassino, L. P.; Gómez, M.; Dirsch, B.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The merger remnant NGC 1316 (Fornax A) is one of the most important objects regarding the investigation of and thus an important object to study merger-related processes. A recent photometric study used globular clusters in NGC 1316 to constrain its star formation history, but without the knowledge of individual radial velocities. The kinematical properties of the globular cluster system in comparison with the diffuse stellar light might give more insight into the formation of NGC 1316. Of particular interest is the dark matter content. Planetary nebulae in NGC 1316 indicate a massive dark halo, and globular cluster velocities provide independent evidence. Aims: We aim at measuring radial velocities of globular clusters in NGC 1316. We use these kinematical data to investigate the global structure of NGC 1316 and to constrain the dark matter content. Methods: We perform multiobject spectroscopy with VLT/FORS2 and MXU. Out of 562 slits, we extract radial velocities for 177 globular clusters. Moreover, we measure radial velocities of the integrated galaxy light, using slits with a sufficiently bright sky. To these data, we add 20 cluster velocities from the literature. In an appendix, we identify new morphological features of NGC 1316 and its companion galaxy NGC 1317. Results: The GC sample based on radial velocities confirms the colour peaks already found in our photometric study. The bright clusters, which probably have their origin in a 2 Gyr old starburst and younger star formation events, avoid the systemic velocity. A Gaussian velocity distribution is found only for clusters fainter than about mR = 22 mag. The velocity distribution of clusters shows a pronounced peak at 1600 km s-1. These clusters populate a wide area in the south-western region which we suspect to be a disk population. Globular clusters or subsamples of them do not show a clear rotation signal. This is different from the galaxy light, where rotation along the major axis is

  3. No energy equipartition in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenti, Michele; van der Marel, Roeland

    2013-11-01

    It is widely believed that globular clusters evolve over many two-body relaxation times towards a state of energy equipartition, so that velocity dispersion scales with stellar mass as σ ∝ m-η with η = 0.5. We show here that this is incorrect, using a suite of direct N-body simulations with a variety of realistic initial mass functions and initial conditions. No simulated system ever reaches a state close to equipartition. Near the centre, the luminous main-sequence stars reach a maximum ηmax ≈ 0.15 ± 0.03. At large times, all radial bins convergence on an asymptotic value η∞ ≈ 0.08 ± 0.02. The development of this `partial equipartition' is strikingly similar across our simulations, despite the range of different initial conditions employed. Compact remnants tend to have higher η than main-sequence stars (but still η < 0.5), due to their steeper (evolved) mass function. The presence of an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) decreases η, consistent with our previous findings of a quenching of mass segregation under these conditions. All these results can be understood as a consequence of the Spitzer instability for two-component systems, extended by Vishniac to a continuous mass spectrum. Mass segregation (the tendency of heavier stars to sink towards the core) has often been studied observationally, but energy equipartition has not. Due to the advent of high-quality proper motion data sets from the Hubble Space Telescope, it is now possible to measure η for real clusters. Detailed data-model comparisons open up a new observational window on globular cluster dynamics and evolution. A first comparison of our simulations to observations of Omega Cen yields good agreement, supporting the view that globular clusters are not generally in energy equipartition. Modelling techniques that assume equipartition by construction (e.g. multi-mass Michie-King models) are approximate at best.

  4. Microlensing: Globular Cluster M22 Video File

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    A computerized animation begins outside a globular cluster similar to M22, with the center of the Milky Way in the distance. The camera flies through the center of the cluster and rests with a dark object in the distance. This object, a suspected brown star, passes in front of a star in the galactic bulge, bending its light gravitationally. This bending, or lensing, causes a momentary brightening of the background star. Another sequence begins with a ground-based view of the center of our galaxy in the upper right. We zoom in to reveal a ground-based view of the region surrounding the cluster and continue zooming to reveal the Hubble Space Telescope view of M22. In an interview with Kailash Sahu, Astronomer, he describes the Hubble results, explains why the objects in M22 can't be planets, and explains Hubble's role in the observations of M22. The last image was taken with Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 and pierces the heart of a globular cluster with its needle-sharp vision and uncovers tantalizing clues to what could potentially be a strange and unexpected population of wandering, planet-sized objects.

  5. The Stellar Populations of Nuclei, Globular Clusters, and Stars in dE Galaxies in Virgo and Fornax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield Miller, Bryan; Hyazinth Puzia, Thomas; Hilker, Michael; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Kissler-Patig, Markus

    2015-08-01

    We present ages and metallicities for globular clusters, nuclei, and underlying stars in nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxies (dE,N) in the Virgo and Fornax Cluster based on Lick/IDS index measurements and SSP models. Gemini/GMOS spectroscopy shows that the globular clusters are mostly old and metal-poor, very similar to the globular clusters in the Milky Way halo. The nuclei and underlying stars tend to be more metal-rich than the globular clusters and have a wide range of ages. The [α/Fe] ratios for both the globular clusters and nuclei range between 0.0 and 0.3. Formation scenarios for globular clusters and nuclei will be discussed.

  6. X-ray illumination of globular cluster puzzles. [globular cluster X ray sources as clues to Milky Way Galaxy age and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, A. P.; Grindlay, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Globular clusters are thought to be among the oldest objects in the Galaxy, and provide, in this connection, important clues for determining the age and process of formation of the Galaxy. The present investigation is concerned with puzzles relating to the X-ray emission of globular clusters, taking into account questions regarding the location of X-ray emitting clusters (XEGC) unusually near the galactic plane and/or galactic center. An adopted model is discussed for the nature, formation, and lifetime of X-ray sources in globular clusters. An analysis of the available data is conducted in connection with a search for correlations between binary formation time scales, central relaxation times, galactic locations, and X-ray emission. The positive correlation found between distance from galactic center and two-body binary formation time for globular clusters, explanations for this correlation, and the hypothesis that X-ray sources in globular clusters require binary star systems provide a possible explanation of the considered puzzles.

  7. The gamma-ray pulsar population of globular clusters: implications for the GeV excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that the GeV excess, observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, might originate from a population of millisecond pulsars that formed in globular clusters. With this in mind, we employ the publicly available Fermi data to study the gamma-ray emission from 157 globular clusters, identifying a statistically significant signal from 25 of these sources (ten of which are not found in existing gamma-ray catalogs). We combine these observations with the predicted pulsar formation rate based on the stellar encounter rate of each globular cluster to constrain the gamma-ray luminosity function of millisecond pulsars in the Milky Way's globular cluster system. We find that this pulsar population exhibits a luminosity function that is quite similar to those millisecond pulsars observed in the field of the Milky Way (i.e. the thick disk). After pulsars are expelled from a globular cluster, however, they continue to lose rotational kinetic energy and become less luminous, causing their luminosity function to depart from the steady-state distribution. Using this luminosity function and a model for the globular cluster disruption rate, we show that millisecond pulsars born in globular clusters can account for only a few percent or less of the observed GeV excess. Among other challenges, scenarios in which the entire GeV excess is generated from such pulsars are in conflict with the observed mass of the Milky Way's Central Stellar Cluster.

  8. The gamma-ray pulsar population of globular clusters: Implications for the GeV excess

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim

    2016-08-09

    In this study, it has been suggested that the GeV excess, observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, might originate from a population of millisecond pulsars that formed in globular clusters. With this in mind, we employ the publicly available Fermi data to study the gamma-ray emission from 157 globular clusters, identifying a statistically significant signal from 25 of these sources (ten of which are not found in existing gamma-ray catalogs). We combine these observations with the predicted pulsar formation rate based on the stellar encounter rate of each globular cluster to constrain the gamma-ray luminosity function of millisecondmore » pulsars in the Milky Way's globular cluster system. We find that this pulsar population exhibits a luminosity function that is quite similar to those millisecond pulsars observed in the field of the Milky Way (i.e. the thick disk). After pulsars are expelled from a globular cluster, however, they continue to lose rotational kinetic energy and become less luminous, causing their luminosity function to depart from the steady-state distribution. Using this luminosity function and a model for the globular cluster disruption rate, we show that millisecond pulsars born in globular clusters can account for only a few percent or less of the observed GeV excess. Among other challenges, scenarios in which the entire GeV excess is generated from such pulsars are in conflict with the observed mass of the Milky Way's Central Stellar Cluster.« less

  9. Rosat Observations of Nine Globular Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S.; Dewey, D.; Levine, A.; Macri, L.

    1994-01-01

    The ROSAT HRI was used to image fields around nine Galactic globular clusters that have central densities in the range of 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) solar mass pc(exp -3) and that had not previously been observed with the Einstein Observatory. We detected X-ray sources associated with Pal 2 and NGC 6304 with luminosities of 1.1 x 10(exp 34) ergs/s and 1.2 x 10(exp 33) ergs/s, respectively. No X-ray emission was detected from the source in Ter 6, thus confirming its transient nature. In all, there were 23 serendipitous sources found in the nine fields; none was apparently associated with any of the other seven clusters. The results are discussed in the context of low-luminosity cluster X-ray sources, in general.

  10. A possible formation channel for blue hook stars in globular cluster II - Effects of metallicity, mass ratio, tidal enhancement efficiency and helium abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhenxin; Zhao, Gang; Zeng, Aihua; Shen, Lihua; Lan, Zhongjian; Jiang, Dengkai; Han, Zhanwen

    2016-09-01

    Employing tidally enhanced stellar wind, we studied in binaries the effects of metallicity, mass ratio of primary to secondary, tidal enhancement efficiency and helium abundance on the formation of blue hook (BHk) stars in globular clusters (GCs). Totally, 28 sets of binary models combined with different input parameters are studied. For each set of binary model, we presented the range of initial orbital periods which is needed to produce BHk stars in binaries. All the binary models could produce BHk stars within different range of initial orbital periods. We also compared our results with the observation in the Teff-logg diagram of GC NGC 2808 and ω Cen. Most of the BHk stars in these two GCs locate well in the region predicted by our theoretical models, especially when C/N enhanced model atmospheres is considered. We found that mass ratio of primary to secondary and tidal enhancement efficiency have little effects on the formation of BHk stars in binaries, while metallicity and helium abundance would play important roles, especially for helium abundance. Specifically, with helium abundance increasing in binary models, the space range of initial orbital periods needed to produce BHk stars becomes obviously wider, regardless of other input parameters adopted. Our results were discussed with recent observations and other theoretical models.

  11. CVs and millisecond pulsar progenitors in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Cool, A. M.; Bailyn, C. D.

    1991-01-01

    The recent discovery of a large population of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters, together with earlier studies of both low luminosity X-ray sources and LMXBs in globulars, suggest there should be significant numbers of CVs in globulars. Although they have been searched for without success in selected cluster X-ray source fields, systematic surveys are lacking and would constrain binary production and both stellar and dynamical evolution in globular clusters. We describe the beginnings of such a search, using narrow band H-alpha imaging, and the sensitivities it might achieve.

  12. The first Δa observations of three globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Iliev, I. Kh.; Pintado, O. I.; Baum, H.; Maitzen, H. M.; Netopil, M.; Önehag, A.; Zejda, M.; Fraga, L.

    2014-09-01

    Globular clusters are main astrophysical laboratories to test and modify evolutionary models. Thought to be rather homogeneous in their local elemental distribution of members, results suggest a wide variety of chemical peculiarities. Besides different main sequences, believed to be caused by different helium abundances, peculiarities of blue horizontal-branch stars and on the red giant branch were found. This whole zoo of peculiar objects has to be explained in the context of stellar formation and evolution. The tool of Δa photometry is employed in order to detect peculiar stars in the whole spectral range. This three filter narrow-band system measures the flux distribution in the region from 4900 to 5600 Å in order to find any peculiarities around 5200 Å. It is highly efficient to detect classical chemically peculiar stars of the upper main sequence, Be/Ae, shell and metal-weak objects in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds. We present Δa photometry of 2266 stars from 109 individual frames for three globular clusters (NGC 104, NGC 6205, and NGC 7099). A comparison with published abundances, for three horizontal-branch stars, only, yields an excellent agreement. According to the 3σ detection limit of each globular cluster, about 3 per cent of the stars lie in abnormal regions in the diagnostic diagrams. The first observations of three widely different aggregates give very promising results, which will serve as a solid basis for follow-up observations including photometric as well as spectroscopic studies.

  13. Globular Clusters as Cradles of Life and Advanced Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Ray, Alak

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters are bound groups of about a million stars and stellar remnants. They are old, largely isolated, and very dense. We consider what each of these special features can mean for the development of life, the evolution of intelligent life, and the long-term survival of technological civilizations. We find that, if they house planets, globular clusters provide ideal environments for advanced civilizations that can survive over long times. We therefore propose methods to search for planets in globular clusters. If planets are found and if our arguments are correct, searches for intelligent life are most likely to succeed when directed toward globular clusters. Globular clusters may be the first places in which distant life is identified in our own or in external galaxies.

  14. IC 1257: A New Globular Cluster in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, W. E.; Phelps, R. L.; Madore, B. F.; Pevunova, O.; Skiff, B. A.; Crute, C.; Wilson, B.

    1996-01-01

    New CCD photometry of the faint, compact star cluster IC 1257 (L = 17? = +/- 15?obtained with the Palomar 5m telescope, reveals that it is a highly reddened globular cluster well beyond the Galactic center.

  15. New insights into the star formation histories of candidate intermediate-age early-type galaxies from K'-band imaging of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the age and metallicity distributions of bright globular clusters (GCs) in the candidate intermediate-age early-type galaxies NGC 3610, 584 and 3377 using a combination of new Gemini's Near InfraRed Imager and Spectrometer K'-band imaging and existing optical VI photometry from Hubble Space Telescope data. The V-I versus I-K' colour-colour diagram is found to break the age-metallicity degeneracy present in optical colours and spectroscopy, as I-K' primarily measures a population's metallicity. In addition, it is relatively insensitive to the effect of hot horizontal branch (HB) stars that are known to be present in massive old GCs. By interpolation between simple stellar population model tracks, we derive photometric cluster ages, metallicities and masses. In general, we find that 'metal-poor' GCs with [Z/H] ≲-0.7 dex are older than more metal rich GCs. For the most massive GCs (?) in NGC 3610 with available spectroscopic data, the photometric ages are older by ˜2 Gyr, and this difference is more pronounced for the metal-poor GCs. However, the photometric and spectroscopic metallicities are in good agreement. We suggest that this indicates the presence of a hot HB in these massive clusters, which renders spectroscopic ages from Balmer line strengths to be underestimated. To support this suggestion, we show that all Galactic GCs with ? feature hot HBs, except 47 Tuc. Using a recent observational relation between the luminosity of the most massive GC and the galaxies' star formation rate (SFR) at a given age, we find that the galaxies' peak SFR was attained at the epoch of the formation of the oldest (metal-poor) GCs. The age and [Z/H] distributions of the metal-rich GCs are broad, indicating prolonged galaxy star formation histories. The peak ages of the metal-rich GCs in the sample galaxies NGC 3610, 584 and 3377 are 3.7, 5.9 and 8.9 Gyr, respectively. The peak value of the age and metallicity distributions of the GCs is correlated with the host

  16. Lithium-rich Giants in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Zhang, Andrew J.; Hong, Jerry; Guo, Michelle; Guo, Rachel; Cohen, Judith G.; Cunha, Katia

    2016-03-01

    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron-Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. SEARCH FOR RED DWARF STARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6397

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Left A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a small region (1.4 light-years across) in the globular star cluster NGC 6397. Simulated stars (diamonds) have been added to this view of the same region of the cluster to illustrate what astronomers would have expected to see if faint red dwarf stars were abundant in the Milky Way Galaxy. The field would then contain 500 stars, according to theoretical calculations. Right The unmodified HST image shows far fewer stars than would be expected, according to popular theories of star formation. HST resolves about 200 stars. The stellar density is so low that HST can literally see right through the cluster and resolve far more distant background galaxies. From this observation, scientists have identified the surprising cutoff point below which nature apparently doesn't make many stars smaller that 1/5 the mass of our Sun. These HST findings provide new insights into star formation in our Galaxy. Technical detail:The globular cluster NGC 6397, one of the nearest and densest agglomerations of stars, is located 7,200 light-years away in the southern constellation Ara. This visible-light picture was taken on March 3, 1994 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, as part the HST parallel observing program. Credit: F. Paresce, ST ScI and ESA and NASA

  18. Lack of Energy Equipartition in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenti, Michele

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): It is widely believed that globular clusters evolve over many two-body relaxation times toward a state of energy equipartition, so that velocity dispersion scales with stellar mass as σ∝m^{-η} with η=0.5. I will show instead that this is incorrect, using a suite of direct N-body simulations with a variety of realistic initial mass functions and initial conditions. No simulated system ever reaches a state close to equipartition. Near the center, the luminous main-sequence stars reach a maximum η_{max 0.15±0.03. At large times, all radial bins convergence on an asymptotic value η_{∞ 0.08±0.02. The development of this ``partial equipartition'' is strikingly similar across simulations, despite the range of different initial conditions employed. Compact remnants tend to have higher η than main-sequence stars (but still η< 0.5), due to their steeper (evolved) mass function. The presence of an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) decreases η, consistent with our previous findings of a quenching of mass segregation under these conditions. All these results can be understood as a consequence of the Spitzer instability for two-component systems, extended by Vishniac to a continuous mass spectrum. Mass segregation (the tendency of heavier stars to sink toward the core) has often been studied observationally, but energy equipartition has not. Due to the advent of high-quality proper motion datasets from the Hubble Space Telescope, it is now possible to measure η for real clusters. Detailed data-model comparisons open up a new observational window on globular cluster dynamics, structure, evolution, initial conditions, and possible IMBHs. A first comparison of my simulations to observations of Omega Cen yields good agreement, supporting the view that globular clusters are not generally in energy equipartition. Modeling techniques that assume equipartition by construction (e.g., multi-mass Michie-King models) are thus approximate

  19. The cataclysmic variable population in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Sandoval, Liliana E.; Grindlay, Jonathan; Van Den Berg, Maureen; Anderson, Jay; Heinke, Craig; Ivanova, Natalia; Cohn, Haldan N.; Lugger, Phyllis M.; Edmonds, Peter D.; Cool, Adrienne M.

    2016-07-01

    The cores of globular clusters are perfect places to study dynamical interactions between stars because of the high stellar densities (up to 10^6 stars/pc^3). In this work we use near-ultraviolet images of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In combination with deep optical HST and Chandra X-ray data, we study the cataclysmic variable (CVs) population of the cluster. With magnitudes down to Mv=11.6 mag, we are able to identify CVs at very low mass-accretion rates. This allows us to get the deepest measurements of the cluster CV luminosity function ever. Helping us to understand how the stellar interactions affect the creation and destruction of these binaries. Here I will show our results and I will compare them to the ones of other clusters. I will also discuss our results with respect to the models of formation and evolution of CVs, specifically to the predicted number of these binaries and their radial distribution.

  20. A search for novae in M 31 globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Tamblyn, Peter; Phillips, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    By combining a local sky-fitting algorithm with a Fourier point-spread-function matching technique, nova outbursts have been searched for inside 54 of the globular clusters contained on the Ciardullo et al. (1987 and 1990) H-alpha survey frames of M 31. Over a mean effective survey time of about 2.0 years, no cluster exhibited a magnitude increase indicative of a nova explosion. If the cataclysmic variables (CVs) contained within globular clusters are similar to those found in the field, then these data imply that the overdensity of CVs within globulars is at least several times less than that of the high-luminosity X-ray sources. If tidal capture is responsible for the high density of hard binaries within globulars, then the probability of capturing condensed objects inside globular clusters may depend strongly on the mass of the remnant.

  1. A search for novae in M 31 globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Tamblyn, Peter; Phillips, A. C.

    1990-10-01

    By combining a local sky-fitting algorithm with a Fourier point-spread-function matching technique, nova outbursts have been searched for inside 54 of the globular clusters contained on the Ciardullo et al. (1987 and 1990) H-alpha survey frames of M 31. Over a mean effective survey time of about 2.0 years, no cluster exhibited a magnitude increase indicative of a nova explosion. If the cataclysmic variables (CVs) contained within globular clusters are similar to those found in the field, then these data imply that the overdensity of CVs within globulars is at least several times less than that of the high-luminosity X-ray sources. If tidal capture is responsible for the high density of hard binaries within globulars, then the probability of capturing condensed objects inside globular clusters may depend strongly on the mass of the remnant.

  2. Deep Mixing Statistics in the Globular Cluster NGC5466

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Using VIRUS-P in conjunction with the 2.7m telescope at McDonald Observatory, we obtained a sample of red giants from the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 5466. The flux of the CN and CH absorption features was calculated using the band indices S3839 and SCH respectively. The results indicate that none of the red giants in this sample exhibit deep mixing abundances. To date all similarly surveyed globular clusters show at least some stars with deep mixing abundances. We discuss the cluster properties of NGC 5466 and how this lack of deep mixing stars makes NGC 5466 different from other metal-poor globular clusters.

  3. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  4. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  5. Most Massive Globular Cluster in Our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    Far down in the southern sky, in the constellation of Centaurus, a diffuse spot of light can be perceived with the unaided eye. It may be unimpressive, but when seen through a telescope, it turns out to be a beautiful, dense cluster of innumerable stars [1]. Omega Centauri, as this object is called, is the brightest of its type in the sky. We refer to it as a "globular cluster", due to its symmetric form. It belongs to our Milky Way galaxy and astrophysical investigations have shown that it is located at a distance of about 16,500 light-years (1 light-year = 9,460,000,000,000 km). Nobody knows for sure how many individual stars it contains, but recent estimates run into the millions. Most of these stars are more than 10,000 million years old and it is generally agreed that Omega Centauri has a similar age. Measurements of its motion indicate that Omega Centauri plows through the Milky Way in an elongated orbit. It is not easy to understand how it has managed to keep its stars together during such an extended period. MEASURING STELLAR VELOCITIES IN OMEGA CENTAURI A group of astronomers [2] have recently carried through a major investigation of Omega Centauri. After many nights of observations at the ESO La Silla observatory, they now conclude that not only is this globular cluster the brightest, it is indeed by far the most massive known in the Milky Way. The very time-consuming observations were made during numerous observing sessions over a period of no less than 13 years (1981-1993), with the photoelectric spectrometer CORAVEL mounted on the 1.5-m Danish telescope at La Silla. The CORAVEL instrument (COrelation RAdial VELocities) was built in a joint effort between the Geneva (Switzerland) and Marseilles (France) observatories. It functions according to the cross-correlation technique, by means of which the spectrum of the observed star is compared with a "standard stellar spectrum" [3]. HOW HEAVY IS OMEGA CENTAURI? In the present study, a total of 1701

  6. Binary interactions and multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dengkai

    2015-08-01

    Observations revealed the presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We present a scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the abundance anomalous stars observed in GCs are the merged stars and the accretor stars produced by binary interactions, which are rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation. The stellar population with binaries can reproduce two important observational evidences of multiple stellar populations, the Na-O anticorrelation and the multiple sequences in HR diagram. This suggests that binary interactions may be a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs.

  7. Ultraviolet Spectra of Globular Clusters in Andromeda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. C.

    1999-05-01

    As part of a NASA-funded effort with Ben Dorman of Goddard Space Flight Center, I am engaged in calculating spectra from first principles of solar-type stars of a wide range of metallicity. This paper reports on an extension of this work funded by the Hubble Space Telescope archival program, the derivation of fundamental parameters for several globular clusters in Andromeda (M31). Properties of the underlying stellar population are derived by matching archival HST spectra with composite spectra constructed by weighted coaddition of the calculated spectra for stars of appropriate spectral types. Armed with these ab initio calculations, this work explores the degeneracy in age and metallicity in the ultraviolet, and the affect of unknowns such as the relative abundance of light elements versus iron and the possible presence of blue stragglers or blue horizontal branch stars.

  8. Building the Galactic halo from globular clusters: evidence from chemically unusual red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, S. L.; Smolinski, J. P.; Beers, T. C.; Grebel, E. K.

    2011-10-01

    We present a spectroscopic search for halo field stars that originally formed in globular clusters. Using moderate-resolution SDSS-III/SEGUE-2 spectra of 561 red giants with typical halo metallicities (-1.8 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -1.0), we identify 16 stars, 3% of the sample, with CN and CH bandstrength behavior indicating depleted carbon and enhanced nitrogen abundances relative to the rest of the data set. Since globular clusters are the only environment known in which stars form with this pattern of atypical light-element abundances, we claim that these stars are second-generation globular cluster stars that have been lost to the halo field via normal cluster mass-loss processes. Extrapolating from theoretical models of two-generation globular cluster formation, this result suggests that globular clusters contributed significant numbers of stars to the construction of the Galactic halo: we calculate that a minimum of 17% of the present-day mass of the stellar halo was originally formed in globular clusters. The ratio of CN-strong to CN-normal stars drops with Galactocentric distance, suggesting that the inner-halo population may be the primary repository of these stars. Full Tables 1 and 3 are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/534/A136

  9. STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS FOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M31

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Song; Ma Jun

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we present surface brightness profiles for 79 globular clusters in M31, using images observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, some of which are from new observations. The structural and dynamical parameters are derived from fitting the profiles to several different models for the first time. The results show that in the majority of cases, King models fit the M31 clusters just as well as Wilson models and better than Sersic models. However, there are 11 clusters best fitted by Sersic models with the Sersic index n > 2, meaning that they have cuspy central density profiles. These clusters may be the well-known core-collapsed candidates. There is a bimodality in the size distribution of M31 clusters at large radii, which is different from their Galactic counterparts. In general, the properties of clusters in M31 and the Milky Way fall in the same regions of parameter spaces. The tight correlations of cluster properties indicate a ''fundamental plane'' for clusters, which reflects some universal physical conditions and processes operating at the epoch of cluster formation.

  10. Globular Cluster Systems in Brightest Cluster Galaxies. II. NGC 6166

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William E.; Blakeslee, John P.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Geisler, Douglas; Rothberg, Barry

    2016-01-01

    We present new deep photometry of the globular cluster system (GCS) around NGC 6166, the central supergiant galaxy in Abell 2199. Hubble Space Telescope data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys and WFC3 cameras in F475W and F814W are used to determine the spatial distribution of the GCS, its metallicity distribution function (MDF), and the dependence of the MDF on galactocentric radius and on GC luminosity. The MDF is extremely broad, with the classic red and blue subpopulations heavily overlapped, but a double-Gaussian model can still formally match the MDF closely. The spatial distribution follows a Sérsic-like profile detectably to a projected radius of at least Rgc = 250 kpc. To that radius, the total number of clusters in the system is NGC = 39000 ± 2000, the global specific frequency is SN = 11.2 ± 0.6, and 57% of the total are blue, metal-poor clusters. The GCS may fade smoothly into the intracluster medium (ICM) of A2199; we see no clear transition from the core of the galaxy to the cD halo or the ICM. The radial distribution, projected ellipticity, and mean metallicity of the red (metal-richer) clusters match the halo light extremely well for {R}{gc}≳ 15 {{kpc}}, both of them varying as {σ }{MRGC}∼ {σ }{light}∼ {R}-1.8. By comparison, the blue (metal-poor) GC component has a much shallower falloff {σ }{MPGC}∼ {R}-1.0 and a more nearly spherical distribution. This strong difference in their density distributions produces a net metallicity gradient in the GCS as a whole that is primarily generated by the population gradient. With NGC 6166 we appear to be penetrating into a regime of high enough galaxy mass and rich enough environment that the bimodal two-phase description of GC formation is no longer as clear or effective as it has been in smaller galaxies.

  11. Globular Cluster Streams as Galactic High-Precision Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küpper, Andreas H. W.; Balbinot, Eduardo; Bonaca, Ana; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Hogg, David W.; Kroupa, Pavel; Santiago, Basilio X.

    2016-08-01

    Tidal streams of globular clusters are ideal tracers of the Galactic gravitational potential. Compared to the few known, complex and diffuse dwarf-galaxy streams, they are kinematically cold, have thin morphologies and are abundant in the halo of the Milky Way. Their coldness and thinness in combination with potential epicyclic substructure in the vicinity of the stream progenitor turns them into high-precision scales. With the example of Palomar 5, we demonstrate how modeling of a globular cluster stream allows us to simultaneously measure the properties of the disrupting globular cluster, its orbital motion, and the gravitational potential of the Milky Way.

  12. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE EVIDENCE OF ENDURING HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN AN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY: HIGH [Ca/Fe] IN NGC 5128 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Colucci, Janet E.; Duran, Maria Fernanda; Bernstein, Rebecca A.

    2013-08-20

    We present [Fe/H], ages, and Ca abundances for an initial sample of 10 globular clusters in NGC 5128 obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. The clusters have a range in [Fe/H] between -1.6 and -0.2. In this sample, the average [Ca/Fe] for clusters with [Fe/H] <-0.4 is +0.37 {+-} 0.07, while the average [Ca/Fe] in our Milky Way (MW) and M31 GC samples is +0.29 {+-} 0.09 and +0.24 {+-} 0.10, respectively. This may imply a more rapid chemical enrichment history for NGC 5128 than for either the MW or M31. This sample provides the first quantitative picture of the chemical history of NGC 5128 that is directly comparable to what is available for the MW. Data presented here were obtained with the MIKE echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope.

  13. CENTRAL ROTATIONS OF MILKY WAY GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Rukdee, Surangkhana; Saglia, Roberto P.; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Thomas, Jens; Williams, Michael J.; Noyola, Eva; Opitsch, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Most Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) exhibit measurable flattening, even if on a very low level. Both cluster rotation and tidal fields are thought to cause this flattening. Nevertheless, rotation has only been confirmed in a handful of GCs, based mostly on individual radial velocities at large radii. We are conducting a survey of the central kinematics of Galactic GCs using the new Integral Field Unit instrument VIRUS-W. We detect rotation in all 11 GCs that we have observed so far, rendering it likely that a large majority of the Milky Way GCs rotate. We use published catalogs of GCs to derive central ellipticities and position angles. We show that in all cases where the central ellipticity permits an accurate measurement of the position angle, those angles are in excellent agreement with the kinematic position angles that we derive from the VIRUS-W velocity fields. We find an unexpected tight correlation between central rotation and outer ellipticity, indicating that rotation drives flattening for the objects in our sample. We also find a tight correlation between central rotation and published values for the central velocity dispersion, most likely due to rotation impacting the old dispersion measurements.

  14. Globular clusters: DNA of early-type galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Juan C.; Vega, E. Irene; Faifer, Favio R.; Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Escudero, Carlos; González, Nélida M.; Sesto, Leandro

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores if the mean properties of early-type galaxies (ETGs) can be reconstructed from `genetic' information stored in their globular clusters (GCs; i.e. in their chemical abundances, spatial distributions and ages). This approach implies that the formation of each globular occurs in very massive stellar environments, as suggested by some models that aim at explaining the presence of multipopulations in these systems. The assumption that the relative number of GCs to diffuse stellar mass depends exponentially on chemical abundance, [Z/H], and the presence of two dominant GC subpopulations (blue and red), allows the mapping of low-metallicity haloes and of higher metallicity (and more heterogeneous) bulges. In particular, the masses of the low-metallicity haloes seem to scale up with dark matter mass through a constant. We also find a dependence of the GC formation efficiency with the mean projected stellar mass density of the galaxies within their effective radii. The analysis is based on a selected subsample of galaxies observed within the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope. These systems were grouped, according to their absolute magnitudes, in order to define composite fiducial galaxies and look for a quantitative connection with their (also composite) GCs systems. The results strengthen the idea that GCs are good quantitative tracers of both baryonic and dark matter in ETGs.

  15. Dynamical evolution of globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzio, J.C.

    1987-04-01

    The dynamical processes that affect globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies are analyzed. Two-body and impulsive approximations are utilized to study dynamical friction, drag force, tidal stripping, tidal radii, globular-cluster swapping, tidal accretion, and galactic cannibalism. The evolution of galaxies and the collision of galaxies are simulated numerically; the steps involved in the simulation are described. The simulated data are compared with observations. Consideration is given to the number of galaxies, halo extension, location of the galaxies, distribution of the missing mass, nonequilibrium initial conditions, mass dependence, massive central galaxies, globular-cluster distribution, and lost globular clusters. 116 references.

  16. Mapping the differential reddening in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatto, C.; Campos, Fabíola; Kepler, S. O.

    2013-10-01

    We build differential-reddening maps for 66 Galactic globular clusters (GCs) with archival Hubble Space Telescope WFC/ACS F606W and F814W photometry. Because of the different GC sizes (characterized by the half-light radius Rh) and distances to the Sun, the WFC/ACS field of view (200 arcsec × 200 arcsec) coverage (Robs) lies in the range 1 ≲ Robs/Rh ≲ 15 for about 85 per cent of the sample, with about 10 per cent covering only the inner (Robs ≲ Rh) parts. We divide the WFC/ACS field of view across each cluster in a regular cell grid and extract the stellar-density Hess diagram from each cell, shifting it in colour and magnitude along the reddening vector until matching the mean diagram. Thus, the maps correspond to the internal dispersion of the reddening around the mean. Depending on the number of available stars (i.e. probable members with adequate photometric errors), the angular resolution of the maps range from ≈ 7 arcsec × 7 arcsec to ≈ 20 arcsec × 20 arcsec. We detect spatially variable extinction in the 66 GCs studied, with mean values ranging from < δE(B-V)> ≡ 0.018 (NGC 6981) up to <δE(B-V)> ≡ 0.016 (Palomar 2). Differential-reddening correction decreases the observed foreground reddening and the apparent distance modulus but, since they are related to the same value of E(B - V), the distance to the Sun is conserved. Fits to the mean-ridge lines of the highly extincted and photometrically scattered GC Palomar 2 show that age and metallicity also remain unchanged after the differential-reddening correction, but measurement uncertainties decrease because of the reduced scatter. The lack of systematic variations of <δE(B-V)> with both the foreground reddening and the sampled cluster area indicates that the main source of differential reddening is interstellar.

  17. Where Are Most of the Globular Clusters in Today's Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William E.

    2016-04-01

    The total number of globular clusters (GCs) in a galaxy rises continuously with the galaxy luminosity L, while the relative number of galaxies decreases with L following the Schechter function. The product of these two very nonlinear functions gives the relative number of GCs contained by all galaxies at a given L. It is shown that GCs, in this universal sense, are most commonly found in galaxies within a narrow range around L⋆. In addition, blue (metal-poor) GCs outnumber the red (metal-richer) ones globally by 4 to 1 when all galaxies are added, pointing to the conclusion that the earliest stages of galaxy formation were especially favorable to forming massive, dense star clusters.

  18. Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios for Giant Stars in the Globular Cluster M13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Jaehyon; Pilachowski, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, our paradigm for the formation and evolution of globular clusters has shifted. We now understand that the majority of present-day stars in globular clusters formed as second-generation stars, primarily from the ejecta of first-generation AGB stars, while the majority of first generation, less centrally concentrated stars, have been dynamically lost to the cluster (D'Ercole et al. 2011). This paradigm explains the observed star-to-star variations in the abundances of light element observed in globular clusters, and suggests that the carbon isotope ratio should be similarly differentiated between first and second generation stars. In an effort to verify this scenario, we have recently utilized the Gemini/NIFS to determine carbon isotope abundances (12C and 13C) for 18 giant stars in the globular clusters M13 through medium-resolution (R ˜ 5300) infrared spectroscopy of the first-overtone CO bands near 2.3 μm. Our program stars are distributed from the tip of the RGB to the BLF (the bump in the luminosity function) of M13, and their Na, Mg, and Al abundances are already known from homogeneous data set analysis. Therefore, adding reliable abundances of the stable carbon isotopes to this homogeneous spectroscopic sample permits systematic tests of cluster chemical evolution models. We report preliminary results of the carbon abundance analysis for our NIFS K-band spectra and present an overview of our ongoing effort with other globular clusters.

  19. Chemical Abundance Patterns of Galactic Bulge Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. M.; Kunder, A.; Pilachowski, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Galactic bulge globular clusters are interesting but poorly understood stellar systems. The number of bulge globular cluster stars for which detailed chemical abundance information is available is considerably smaller than for halo cluster stars. However, there is growing evidence that many of the bulge globular clusters exhibit interesting characteristics, such as: double horizontal branches, populations separated by more than a factor of two in metallicity, high metallicity clusters with very blue horizontal branches, and large star-to-star variations of heavy element abundances. In order to investigate some of these problems, we have obtained high resolution spectra of several stars in multiple bulge globular clusters in order to measure detailed chemical abundance patterns. We make use of both new observations with the WIYN-Hydra and Magellan-MIKE spectrographs, and also archival data from VLT-FLAMES. We measure the abundances of several light odd-Z, alpha, Fe-peak, and neutron-capture elements, and compare the bulge globular cluster patterns with those in halo clusters and the bulge field. C.I.J. acknowledges support through the Clay Fellowship administered by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  20. Population Models for Massive Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Wook; Joo, Seok-Joo; Han, Sang-Il; Na, Chongsam; Lim, Dongwook; Roh, Dong-Goo

    2015-03-01

    Increasing number of massive globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way are now turned out to host multiple stellar populations having different heavy element abundances enriched by supernovae. Recent observations have further shown that [CNO/Fe] is also enhanced in metal-rich subpopulations in most of these GCs, including ω Cen and M22 (Marino et al. 2011, 2012). In order to reflect this in our population modeling, we have expanded the parameter space of Y 2 isochrones and horizontal-branch (HB) evolutionary tracks to include the cases of normal and enhanced nitrogen abundances ([N/Fe] = 0.0, 0.8, and 1.6). The observed variations in the total CNO content were reproduced by interpolating these nitrogen enhanced stellar models. Our test simulations with varying N and O abundances show that, once the total CNO sum ([CNO/Fe]) is held constant, both N and O have almost identical effects on the HR diagram (see Fig. 1).

  1. Mergers and ejections of black holes in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarseth, Sverre J.

    2012-05-01

    We report on results of fully consistent N-body simulations of globular cluster models with N= 100 000 members containing neutron stars and black holes (BHs). Using the improved 'algorithmic regularization' method of Hellström & Mikkola for compact subsystems, the new code NBODY7 enables for the first time general relativistic coalescence to be achieved for post-Newtonian terms and realistic parameters. Following an early stage of mass segregation, a few BHs form a small dense core which usually leads to the formation of one dominant binary. The subsequent evolution by dynamical shrinkage involves the competing processes of ejection and mergers by radiation energy loss. Unless the binary is ejected, long-lived triple systems often exhibit Kozai cycles with extremely high inner eccentricity (e > 0.999) which may terminate in coalescence at a few Schwarzschild radii. A characteristic feature is that ordinary stars as well as BHs and even BH binaries are ejected with high velocities. On the basis of the models studied so far, the results suggest a limited growth of a few remaining stellar mass BHs in globular clusters.

  2. Chemical abundances in the old LMC globular cluster Hodge 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateluna, R.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.; Grocholski, A.; Sarajedini, A.; Cole, A.; Smith, V.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The study of globular clusters is one of the most powerful ways to learn about a galaxy's chemical evolution and star formation history. They preserve a record of chemical abundances at the time of their formation and are relatively easy to age date. The most detailed knowledge of the chemistry of a star is given by high resolution spectroscopy, which provides accurate abundances for a wide variety of elements, yielding a wealth of information on the various processes involved in the cluster's chemical evolution. Aims: We studied red giant branch (RGB) stars in an old, metal-poor globular cluster of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Hodge 11 (H11), in order to measure as many elements as possible. The goal is to compare its chemical trends to those in the Milky Way halo and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in order to help understand the formation history of the LMC and our own Galaxy. Methods: We have obtained high resolution VLT/FLAMES spectra of eight RGB stars in H11. The spectral range allowed us to measure a variety of elements, including Fe, Mg, Ca, Ti, Si, Na, O, Ni, Cr, Sc, Mn, Co, Zn, Ba, La, Eu and Y. Results: We derived a mean [Fe/H] = -2.00 ± 0.04, in the middle of previous determinations. We found low [α/Fe] abundances for our targets, more comparable to values found in dwarf spheroidal galaxies than in the Galactic halo, suggesting that if H11 is representative of its ancient populations then the LMC does not represent a good halo building block. Our [Ca/Fe] value is about 0.3 dex less than that of halo stars used to calibrate the Ca IR triplet technique for deriving metallicity. A hint of a Na abundance spread is observed. Its stars lie at the extreme high O, low Na end of the Na:O anti-correlation displayed by Galactic and LMC globular clusters. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal ID 082.B-0458).Table 4 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Multivariate Analysis of the Globular Clusters in M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sukanta; Chattopadhayay, Tanuka; Davoust, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    An objective classification of 147 globular clusters (GCs) in the inner region of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 is carried out with the help of two methods of multivariate analysis. First, independent component analysis (ICA) is used to determine a set of independent variables that are linear combinations of various observed parameters (mostly Lick indices) of the GCs. Next, K-means cluster analysis (CA) is applied on the independent components (ICs), to find the optimum number of homogeneous groups having an underlying structure. The properties of the four groups of GCs thus uncovered are used to explain the formation mechanism of the host galaxy. It is suggested that M87 formed in two successive phases. First a monolithic collapse, which gave rise to an inner group of metal-rich clusters with little systematic rotation and an outer group of metal-poor clusters in eccentric orbits. In a second phase, the galaxy accreted low-mass satellites in a dissipationless fashion, from the gas of which the two other groups of GCs formed. Evidence is given for a blue stellar population in the more metal rich clusters, which we interpret by Helium enrichment. Finally, it is found that the clusters of M87 differ in some of their chemical properties (NaD, TiO1, light-element abundances) from GCs in our Galaxy and M31.

  4. Radio sources in the field of globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Eleven globular clusters have been surveyed in the continuum at 2695 and 8085 MHz with the NRAO Green Bank interferometer. The nine clusters discussed probably show unresolved sources with flux densities of the order of 10 mJy. Most of them are not at cluster centers. The dual-frequency data are mostly consistent with nonthermal spectra or with partial resolution, at the higher frequency, of sources with flat spectra. The planetary nebula in M15 has been detected. The empirical statistics of cosmic field sources suggest that they may account for some, but not all, of the sources in the field of globular clusters.

  5. Enrichment by supernovae in globular clusters with multiple populations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Woo; Kang, Young-Woon; Lee, Jina; Lee, Young-Wook

    2009-11-26

    The most massive globular cluster in the Milky Way, omega Centauri, is thought to be the remaining core of a disrupted dwarf galaxy, as expected within the model of hierarchical merging. It contains several stellar populations having different heavy elemental abundances supplied by supernovae-a process known as metal enrichment. Although M 22 appears to be similar to omega Cen, other peculiar globular clusters do not. Therefore omega Cen and M 22 are viewed as exceptional, and the presence of chemical inhomogeneities in other clusters is seen as 'pollution' from the intermediate-mass asymptotic-giant-branch stars expected in normal globular clusters. Here we report Ca abundances for seven globular clusters and compare them to omega Cen. Calcium and other heavy elements can only be supplied through numerous supernovae explosions of massive stars in these stellar systems, but the gravitational potentials of the present-day clusters cannot preserve most of the ejecta from such explosions. We conclude that these globular clusters, like omega Cen, are most probably the relics of more massive primeval dwarf galaxies that merged and disrupted to form the proto-Galaxy. PMID:19940919

  6. CCD photometry of globular clusters in NGC 3377

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William E.

    1990-08-01

    New CCD photometry to a limit B = 24.3 is presented for a sample of globular clusters around NGC 337, an intermediate-size elliptical in the Leo group. Assuming that the luminosity function of its globular clusters follows the same log-normal form as in other galaxies, a peak frequency level (turnover magnitude) of B(0) = 23.35 + or - 0.40 is derived for a combined sample of clusters in NGC 3377 and NGC 3379. Matching this to the globular clusters in the Milky Way then gives a distance modulus (m - M)B (Leo) = 30.2, or d = (10.7 + or - 2.2) Mpc, in good agreement with other recent distance-scale methods. The clusters around NGC 3377 follow a highly ellipsoidal space distribution; two different tests show that their distribution is at least as flattened as the E6 shape of the galaxy itself.

  7. CCD photometry of globular clusters in NGC 3377

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W.E. )

    1990-09-01

    New CCD photometry to a limit B = 24.3 is presented for a sample of globular clusters around NGC 337, an intermediate-size elliptical in the Leo group. Assuming that the luminosity function of its globular clusters follows the same log-normal form as in other galaxies, a peak frequency level (turnover magnitude) of B(0) = 23.35 + or - 0.40 is derived for a combined sample of clusters in NGC 3377 and NGC 3379. Matching this to the globular clusters in the Milky Way then gives a distance modulus (m - M)B (Leo) = 30.2, or d = (10.7 + or - 2.2) Mpc, in good agreement with other recent distance-scale methods. The clusters around NGC 3377 follow a highly ellipsoidal space distribution; two different tests show that their distribution is at least as flattened as the E6 shape of the galaxy itself. 31 refs.

  8. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A

    2015-07-31

    The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments. PMID:26274407

  9. The evolution of and starburst-agn connection in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies and their link to globular cluster formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Stephanie Lynn

    increased AGN activity if they are older. However, I also find that a young U/LIRG can show a relatively large amount of AGN activity if a very large starburst is present. Then, I quantify the timescales at which the starburst activity in my U/LIRGs evolves with the use of the Tukey-Kramer method of statistical analysis, and fit an exponential curve to the data to describe the expected amount of decrease in SFR seen for a U/LIRG in my sample over a given change in starburst age. Finally, I find evidence that the stellar mass and starburst mass fractions influence whether a U/LIRG in my sample will have a strong AGN and SFR, respectively. I compare the SFR-Mstar relationship seen in my sample with those predicted by models and found from previous observations. I find that the U/LIRGs with older starbursts (>125 Myr) agree with previous results, while those with younger starbursts show a large dispersion in Mstar. I conclude that this is supporting evidence that the star formation histories and timescales at which the IR power sources in U/LIRGs evolve are responsible for the scatter found for the SFR-Mstar relationship. U/LIRGs that form from merging gas-rich disk galaxies could also represent a stage of galaxy evolution involving heavy formation of globular clusters (GCs). It has been suggested that a large number of stellar clusters form during the merging of two gas-rich disk galaxies, leading to open and young massive clusters with the latter likely evolving into GCs. Furthering our understanding of GC formation can uncover the connection between GCs and their host galaxies, which could, at some point during their formation or evolution, be U/LIRGs. To understand GC formation in the context of hierarchical galaxy formation, it is necessary to understand the origin of their abundance patterns. To this effort, I use SDSS spectra from Data Release 8 and 9 to estimate carbon (C) abundances for five GCs by matching synthetic spectra, created with TURBOSPECTRUM using

  10. GEMS Observations of Obscured Galactic Bulge Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Douglas; Saracino, Sara; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Ferraro, Francesco; Lanzoni, Barbara; Mauro, Francesco; Villanova, Sandro; Moni Bidin, Christian; Miocchi, Paolo; Massari, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We will present results for several heavily obscured Galactic globular clusters lying in the bulge, including Liller 1 and NGC 6624. The observations were obtained exploiting the exceptional high-resolution capabilities of the near-IR camera GSAOI combined with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System at the GEMINI South Telescope. The images in the J and K bands are generally sub-0.1", only slightly larger than the diffraction limit of the telescope, yielding the deepest and most accurate color-magnitude diagrams obtained so far from the ground for these clusters. We derived the structural and physical properties of both clusters, supplementing the GEMS data with data from the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea project. We were also able to investigate the age of NGC 6624. We find that Liller 1 is significantly less concentrated and less extended than previously thought. We estimated the mass of Liller 1 to be 2.3 million solar masses, comparable to that of the most massive clusters in the Galaxy. Also, Liller 1 has the second-highest collision rate among all star clusters in the Galaxy, thus confirming that it is an ideal environment for the formation of collisional objects (such as millisecond pulsars). The NGC 6624 CMD reveals the second knee of the mainsequence and allows us to determine a very accurate age of 12.0 +-0.5 Gyr.

  11. Carbon and nitrogen abundance variations in globular cluster red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah L.

    2008-06-01

    This dissertation describes investigations into two of the persistent questions of elemental abundances in Galactic globular clusters: the phenomenon of deep mixing, observed through the progressive depletion of surface carbon abundance as stars evolve along the red giant branch, and abundance bimodality, a phenomenon observed only in globular clusters, in which a subset of stars in a given globular cluster have a distinctive pattern of elemental enhancements and depletions relative to the Solar pattern. The first chapter gives an introduction to the history of globular cluster abundance studies, with particular focus on low-resolution spectroscopy. For both deep mixing and abundance bimodality, the leading theoretical models and the data which support and challenge them are laid out. Each section ends with a description of presently-unanswered questions; these are the motivation for the various projects contained in this dissertation. The second chapter describes the use of molecular handstrengths for determining elemental abundances from low-resolution spectra, and introduces a new CH bandstrength index that is designed to be sensitive to carbon abundance and insensitive to nitrogen abundance in Pop. II red giants over a wide range of metallicity. Various CH indices defined elsewhere in the literature are also discussed, and are shown to have comparable accuracy to the new index only over a limited range of stellar properties. Carbon abundances determined using the new CH index are compared to literature abundances for a few stars, and general concordance with published abundances is found. The third chapter contains a large-scale application of the new CH index: a survey of present-day carbon abundances and calculated carbon depletion rates in bright red giants belonging to eleven Galactic globular clusters spanning the full metallicity range of halo globular clusters. Targets were selected with similar evolutionary states, were observed with one instrument on

  12. Signatures of multiple stellar populations in unresolved extragalactic globular/young massive star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Finzell, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    We present an investigation of potential signatures of the formation of multiple stellar populations in recently formed extragalactic star clusters. All of the Galactic globular clusters for which good samples of individual stellar abundances are available show evidence for multiple populations. This appears to require that multiple episodes of star formation and light element enrichment are the norm in the history of a globular cluster. We show that there are detectable observational signatures of multiple formation events in the unresolved spectra of massive, young extragalactic star clusters. We present the results of a pilot program to search for one of the cleanest signatures that we identify—the combined presence of emission lines from a very recently formed population and absorption lines from a somewhat older population. A possible example of such a system is identified in the Antennae galaxies. This source's spectrum shows evidence of two stellar populations with ages of 8 Myr and 80 Myr. Further investigation shows that these populations are in fact physically separated, but only by a projected distance of 59 pc. We show that the clusters are consistent with being bound and discuss the possibility that their coalescence could result in a single globular cluster hosting multiple stellar populations. While not the prototypical system proposed by most theories of the formation of multiple populations in clusters, the detection of this system in a small sample is both encouraging and interesting. Our investigation suggests that expanded surveys of massive young star clusters should detect more clusters with such signatures.

  13. The globular cluster system of NGC 6822

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veljanoski, J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Mackey, A. D.; Huxor, A. P.; Hurley, J. R.; Bernard, E. J.; Côté, P.; Irwin, M. J.; Martin, N. F.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Kudritzki, R.; Waters, C.

    2015-09-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the globular cluster (GC) system of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. Our study is based on homogeneous optical and near-IR photometry, as well as long-slit spectroscopic observations which are used to determine new radial velocities for six GCs, two of which had no previous spectroscopic information. We construct optical-near-IR colour-colour diagrams and through comparison to simple stellar population models infer that the GCs have old ages consistent with being 9 Gyr or older, while their metallicities are in the range between -1.6 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ -0.4. We conduct a kinematic analysis of the GC population and find tentative evidence for weak net rotation of the GC system, in the same sense as that exhibited by the underlying spheroid. The most likely amplitude of rotation is ≈10 km s-1, approximately half the magnitude of the observed velocity dispersion. Finally, we use the GCs to estimate the dynamical mass of NGC 6822 within ˜11 kpc and we formally find it to be in the range between (3 and 4) × 109 M⊙. This implies an overall mass-to-light ratio in the range of ˜30-40 and indicates that NGC 6822 is highly dark-matter-dominated. The mass and the corresponding mass-to-light ratio estimates are affected by various additional systematic effects due to limitations of the data and the model that are not necessary reflected in the formal uncertainties.

  14. Pulsar-irradiated stars in dense globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the properties of stars irradiated by millisecond pulsars in 'hard' binaries of dense globular clusters. Irradiation by a relativistic pulsar wind as in the case of the eclipsing millisecond pulsar PSR 1957+20 alter both the magnitude and color of the companion star. Some of the blue stragglers (BSs) recently discovered in dense globular clusters can be irradiated stars in binaries containing powerful millisecond pulsars. The discovery of pulsar-driven orbital modulations of BS brightness and color with periods of a few hours together with evidence for radio and/or gamma-ray emission from BS binaries would valuably contribute to the understanding of the evolution of collapsed stars in globular clusters. Pulsar-driven optical modulation of cluster stars might be the only observable effect of a new class of binary pulsars, i.e., hidden millisecond pulsars enshrouded in the evaporated material lifted off from the irradiated companion star.

  15. Astronomers Ponder Lack of Planets in Globular Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This videotape has seven segments, discussing and showing the evidence for the proposition that the galactic clusters do not have many planets. Specifically the segments show: (1) Dr. Ron Gilliland discussing the process of looking for "Hot Jupiters" (i.e., planets about the size of Jupiter, which are hotter than Jupiter) in the globular clusters, (2) a zoom into 47 Tucanae globular cluster, (3) an animation of a planet passing between the host star and the earth with a brightness graph, (4) the same animation as before without the graph, (5) Ron Gilliland of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) discussing possible interpretations of his findings in the 47 Tucanae globular cluster, (6) Ron Gilliland examining the images of 47 Tucanae, and (7) images of 47 Tucanae watching for variations in brightness.

  16. Shedding light on lithium evolution. the globular cluster perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Andreas J.

    I shall review what has been learnt during 20 years of lithium observations in stars belonging to metal-poor globular clusters. The focus will be on little evolved main- sequence, turnoff-point (TOP) and subgiant-branch (SGB) stars expected to display Spite-plateau lithium abundances like those found in the majority of field stars of similar metallicities. But is the Spite plateau of globular clusters the same as those of field stars? What effect does, e.g., cluster-internal pollution have on lithium abundances in the now dominant second generation of stars? It will be shown that it is primarily our incomplete knowledge of the temperature scale of Population II stars which currently limits the diagnostic power of globular clusters as regards the stellar-surface evolution of lithium.

  17. RETENTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Morscher, Meagan; Umbreit, Stefan; Farr, Will M.; Rasio, Frederic A. E-mail: s-umbreit@northwestern.edu E-mail: rasio@northwestern.edu

    2013-01-20

    Globular clusters should be born with significant numbers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs). It has been thought for two decades that very few of these BHs could be retained through the cluster lifetime. With masses {approx}10 M{sub Sun }, BHs are {approx}20 times more massive than an average cluster star. They segregate into the cluster core, where they may eventually decouple from the remainder of the cluster. The small-N core then evaporates on a short timescale. This is the so-called Spitzer instability. Here we present the results of a full dynamical simulation of a globular cluster containing many stellar-mass BHs with a realistic mass spectrum. Our Monte Carlo simulation code includes detailed treatments of all relevant stellar evolution and dynamical processes. Our main finding is that old globular clusters could still contain many BHs at present. In our simulation, we find no evidence for the Spitzer instability. Instead, most of the BHs remain well mixed with the rest of the cluster, with only the innermost few tens of BHs segregating significantly. Over the 12 Gyr evolution, fewer than half of the BHs are dynamically ejected through strong binary interactions in the cluster core. The presence of BHs leads to long-term heating of the cluster, ultimately producing a core radius on the high end of the distribution for Milky Way globular clusters (and those of other galaxies). A crude extrapolation from our model suggests that the BH-BH merger rate from globular clusters could be comparable to the rate in the field.

  18. The Evolution of the Globular Cluster System in a Triaxial Galaxy: Can a Galactic Nucleus Form by Globular Cluster Capture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    1993-10-01

    Among the possible phenomena inducing evolution of the globular cluster system in an elliptical galaxy, dynamical friction due to field stars and tidal disruption caused by a central nucleus is of crucial importance. The aim of this paper is the study of the evolution of the globular cluster system in a triaxial galaxy in the presence of these phenomena. In particular, the possibility is examined that some galactic nuclei have been formed by frictionally decayed globular clusters moving in a triaxial potential. We find that the initial rapid growth of the nucleus, due mainly to massive clusters on box orbits falling in a short time scale into the galactic center, is later slowed by tidal disruption induced by the nucleus itself on less massive clusters in the way described by Ostriker, Binney, and Saha. The efficiency of dynamical friction is such to carry to the center of the galaxy enough globular cluster mass available to form a compact nucleus, but the actual modes and results of cluster-cluster encounters in the central potential well are complicated phenomena which remains to be investigated. The mass of the resulting nucleus is determined by the mutual feedback of the described processes, together with the initial spatial, velocity, and mass distributions of the globular cluster family. The effect on the system mass function is studied, showing the development of a low- and high-mass turnover even with an initially flat mass function. Moreover, in this paper is discussed the possibility that the globular cluster fall to the galactic center has been a cause of primordial violent galactic activity. An application of the model to M31 is presented.

  19. Integrated UV fluxes and the HB morphology of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, W. B.; Catelan, M.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pereira, D.; Stecher, T. P.

    2001-12-01

    The UV ( ~ 1500 Å) flux of a globular cluster will be dominated by its blue horizontal branch (HB) population, provided that such a population is present. Thus, the integrated UV - V color of a globular cluster can provide an indication of its HB morphology, without the need to resolve the cluster into a color-magnitude diagram. To date, UV photometry of extragalactic clusters are available for only a few globulars in M31 (e.g. Bohlin et al. 1993, ApJ, 417, 127), but additional UV photometry of extragalactic globulars is soon expected from GALEX (Yi et al. 2001, AAS, 198, 5501), and from STIS FUV-MAMA observations of M87 (HST program 8643). Here we calibrate the relation between UV flux and HB morphology for Galactic globular clusters. The OAO-2 and ANS data tabulated by deBoer (1985, A&A, 142, 321) are supplemented with photometry of 14 globular clusters observed with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), and a few cluster cores observed with the STIS FUV-MAMA. The UIT data is especially useful since its 40' diameter FOV was sufficient to completely encompass most of the observed clusters, while allowing isolation of hot field and UV-bright stars. We compare the observed Galactic UV color - HB morphology relation with synthetic HB models as a function of age and metallicity. We also estimate the effect of radiative levitation of heavy metals in hot HB stars (e.g. Moehler et al. 2000, , A&A, 360, 120) on the integrated UV flux. This work is funded by STScI grant GO-8358.01.

  20. Full spectral fitting of Milky Way and M 31 globular clusters: ages and metallicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cezario, E.; Coelho, P. R. T.; Alves-Brito, A.; Forbes, D. A.; Brodie, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The formation and evolution of disk galaxies are long standing questions in astronomy. Understanding the properties of globular cluster systems can lead to important insights on the evolution of its host galaxy. Aims: We aim to obtain the stellar population parameters - age and metallicity - of a sample of M 31 and Galactic globular clusters. Studying their globular cluster systems is an important step towards understanding their formation and evolution in a complete way. Methods: Our analysis employs a modern pixel-to-pixel spectral fitting technique to fit observed integrated spectra to updated stellar population models. By comparing observations to models we obtain the ages and metallicities of their stellar populations. We apply this technique to a sample of 38 globular clusters in M 31 and to 41 Galactic globular clusters, used as a control sample. Results: Our sample of M 31 globular clusters spans ages from 150 Myr to the age of the Universe. Metallicities [Fe/H] range from -2.2 dex to the solar value. The age-metallicity relation obtained can be described as having two components: an old population with a flat age-[Fe/H] relation, possibly associated with the halo and/or bulge, and a second one with a roughly linear relation between age and metallicity, higher metallicities corresponding to younger ages, possibly associated with the M 31 disk. While we recover the very well known Galactic GC metallicity bimodality, our own analysis of M 31's metallicity distribution function (MDF) suggests that both GC systems cover basically the same [Fe/H] range yet M 31's MDF is not clearly bimodal. These results suggest that both galaxies experienced different star formation and accretion histories. Table 4 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. THE SIZE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RED AND BLUE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IS NOT DUE TO PROJECTION EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison

    2012-11-10

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  2. The colour-magnitude relation of globular clusters in Centaurus and Hydra. Constraints on star cluster self-enrichment with a link to massive Milky Way globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fensch, J.; Mieske, S.; Müller-Seidlitz, J.; Hilker, M.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We investigate the colour-magnitude relation of metal-poor globular clusters, the so-called blue tilt, in the Hydra and Centaurus galaxy clusters and constrain the primordial conditions for star cluster self-enrichment. Methods: We analyse U,I photometry for about 2500 globular clusters in the central regions of Hydra and Centaurus, based on VLT/FORS1 data. We measure the relation between mean colour and luminosity for the blue and red subpopulation of the globular cluster samples. We convert these relations into mass-metallicity space and compare the obtained GC mass-metallicity relation with predictions from the star cluster self-enrichment model by Bailin & Harris (2009, ApJ, 695, 1082). For this we include effects of dynamical and stellar evolution and a physically well motivated primordial mass-radius scaling. Results: We obtain a mass-metallicity scaling of Z ∝ M0.27 ± 0.05 for Centaurus GCs and Z ∝ M0.40 ± 0.06 for Hydra GCs, consistent with the range of observed relations in other environments. We find that the GC mass-metallicity relation already sets in at present-day masses of a few and is well established in the luminosity range of massive MW clusters like ω Centauri. The inclusion of a primordial mass-radius scaling of star clusters significantly improves the fit of the self-enrichment model to the data. The self-enrichment model accurately reproduces the observed relations for average primordial half-light radii rh ~ 1-1.5 pc, star formation efficiencies f⋆ ~ 0.3-0.4, and pre-enrichment levels of [Fe/H] - 1.7 dex. The slightly steeper blue tilt for Hydra can be explained either by a ~30% smaller average rh at fixed f⋆ ~ 0.3, or analogously by a ~20% smaller f⋆ at fixed rh ~ 1.5 pc. Within the self-enrichment scenario, the observed blue tilt implies a correlation between GC mass and width of the stellar metallicity distribution. We find that this implied correlation matches the trend of width with GC mass measured in Galactic GCs

  3. Color maps of X-ray globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailyn, Charles D.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Cohn, Haldan; Lugger, Phyllis M.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a search for optical counterparts to X-ray sources in six globular clusters, 47 Tuc, NGC 1851, NGC 6441, NGC 6624, NGC 6712, and M15, are reported. Maps of the U-B color of the central regions of the clusters were prepared. A candidate for the optical counterpart of the source in NGC 6712 was found, along with a blue region near the X-ray source in 47 Tuc. Upper limits on the colors and magnitudes of possible optical counterparts are reported for the other three clusters. The use of color maps to determine color gradients in globular clusters is explored. It is found that, while such gradients do exist and vary from cluster to cluster, they can be explained by crowding effects. Crude limits are placed on the excess populations of blue objects such as CVs, which have been postulated to be concentrated in the centers of dense clusters.

  4. Bayesian Analysis of Two Stellar Populations in Galactic Globular Clusters III: Analysis of 30 Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Stenning, D. C.; Sarajedini, A.; von Hippel, T.; van Dyk, D. A.; Robinson, E.; Stein, N.; Jefferys, W. H.

    2016-09-01

    We use Cycle 21 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations and HST archival ACS Treasury observations of 30 Galactic Globular Clusters to characterize two distinct stellar populations. A sophisticated Bayesian technique is employed to simultaneously sample the joint posterior distribution of age, distance, and extinction for each cluster, as well as unique helium values for two populations within each cluster and the relative proportion of those populations. We find the helium differences among the two populations in the clusters fall in the range of ˜0.04 to 0.11. Because adequate models varying in CNO are not presently available, we view these spreads as upper limits and present them with statistical rather than observational uncertainties. Evidence supports previous studies suggesting an increase in helium content concurrent with increasing mass of the cluster and also find that the proportion of the first population of stars increases with mass as well. Our results are examined in the context of proposed globular cluster formation scenarios. Additionally, we leverage our Bayesian technique to shed light on inconsistencies between the theoretical models and the observed data.

  5. Chemical Compositions of Stars in Globular Cluster NGC 2419

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadakia, Shimonee; Smecker-Hane, T.; Bosler, T.

    2007-05-01

    We determine the chemical abundances of 19 red giant branch stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2419. Lying at a distance of 84.2 kpc and a galactocentric distance of 91.5 kpc, NGC 2419 is the fourth brightest globular cluster in the Milky Way with a total magnitude of M_V = -9.6 mag, which is significantly brighter than M_V = -7.5 mag, the typical peak of the globular cluster luminosity functions in external galaxies. Our results will give an insight of whether NGC 2419 is in fact a globular cluster or a core of a disrupted galaxy that merged with the Milky Way. We have used IRAF to reduce spectra we have taken with the DEIMOS spectrograph on the the Keck I 10-meter telescope. Using the strengths of the Ca II triplet absorption lines at approximately 8600 Angstrom, we will determine the chemical abundance of each star. If the chemical abundances differ by significantly more than the observational errors would predict then we can conclude the cluster is a remnant of the core of a galaxy that merged with the Milky Way and not a normal globular cluster, because most globular clusters formed quickly from a well mixed gas cloud, and thus their stars have nearly identical ages and chemical compositions. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from a UROP grant to SK and NSF grant AST-0307863 to TSH. These data were obtained at the Keck Observatory, operated by the California Inst. of Technology, Univ. of California and NASA and made possible by generous financial support from the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  6. Implications of intermediate mass black hole in globular cluster G1 on dark matter detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Zaharijas, G.; High Energy Physics

    2008-07-01

    Recently there has been growing evidence in favor of the presence of an intermediate mass black hole in the globular cluster G1, in Andromeda Galaxy. Under the assumption that formation of this globular cluster occurred within a dark matter halo, we explore whether the presence of a black hole could result in an observable gamma ray signal due to dark matter annihilation in this globular cluster. Starting from an initial Navarro-Frenk-White matter profile, with density parameters consistent with G1 observations, we find that indeed, if the spike in the density has been formed and has survived until the present, the signal could be observed by GLAST and current atmospheric Cerenkov telescope detectors.

  7. Implications of the intermediate mass black hole in globular cluster G1 on dark matter detection

    SciTech Connect

    Zaharijas, Gabrijela

    2008-07-15

    Recently there has been growing evidence in favor of the presence of an intermediate mass black hole in the globular cluster G1, in Andromeda Galaxy. Under the assumption that formation of this globular cluster occurred within a dark matter halo, we explore whether the presence of a black hole could result in an observable gamma ray signal due to dark matter annihilation in this globular cluster. Starting from an initial Navarro-Frenk-White matter profile, with density parameters consistent with G1 observations, we find that indeed, if the spike in the density has been formed and has survived until the present, the signal could be observed by GLAST and current atmospheric Cerenkov telescope detectors.

  8. Detection of a large-scale structure of intracluster globular clusters in the Virgo cluster.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Park, Hong Soo; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2010-04-16

    Globular clusters are usually found in galaxies, and they are excellent tracers of dark matter. Long ago it was suggested that intracluster globular clusters (IGCs) may exist that are bound to a galaxy cluster rather than to any single galaxy. Here we present a map showing the large-scale distribution of globular clusters over the entire Virgo cluster. It shows that IGCs are found out to 5 million light years from the Virgo center and that they are concentrated in several substructures that are much larger than galaxies. These objects might have been mostly stripped off from low-mass dwarf galaxies. PMID:20223950

  9. HST Imaging of the Globular Clusters in the Formax Cluster: Color and Luminosity Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grillmair, C. J.; Forbes, D. A.; Brodie, J.; Elson, R.

    1998-01-01

    We examine the luminosity and B - I color distribution of globular clusters for three early-type galaxies in the Fornax cluster using imaging data from the Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 on the Hubble Space Telescope.

  10. STELLAR COLLISIONS AND BLUE STRAGGLER STARS IN DENSE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.; Sills, Alison; Glebbeek, Evert

    2013-11-10

    Blue straggler stars (BSSs) are abundantly observed in all Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) where data exist. However, observations alone cannot reveal the relative importance of various formation channels or the typical formation times for this well-studied population of anomalous stars. Using a state-of-the-art Hénon-type Monte Carlo code that includes all relevant physical processes, we create 128 models with properties typical of the observed GGCs. These models include realistic numbers of single and binary stars, use observationally motivated initial conditions, and span large ranges in central density, concentration, binary fraction, and mass. Their properties can be directly compared with those of observed GGCs. We can easily identify the BSSs in our models and determine their formation channels and birth times. We find that for central densities above ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉} pc{sup –3}, the dominant formation channel is stellar collisions, while for lower density clusters, mass transfer in binaries provides a significant contribution (up to 60% in our models). The majority of these collisions are binary-mediated, occurring during three-body and four-body interactions. As a result, a strong correlation between the specific frequency of BSSs and the binary fraction in a cluster can be seen in our models. We find that the number of BSSs in the core shows only a weak correlation with the collision rate estimator Γ traditionally used by observers, in agreement with the latest Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys data. Using an idealized 'full mixing' prescription for collision products, our models indicate that the BSSs observed today may have formed several Gyr ago. However, denser clusters tend to have younger (∼1 Gyr) BSSs.

  11. Nearby Spiral Galaxy Globular Cluster Systems. II. Globular Cluster Metallicities in NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantais, Julie B.; Huchra, John P.; Barmby, Pauline; Olsen, Knut A. G.

    2010-03-01

    We present new metallicity estimates for globular cluster (GC) candidates in the Sd spiral NGC 300, one of the nearest spiral galaxies outside the Local Group. We have obtained optical spectroscopy for 44 Sculptor Group GC candidates with the Boller and Chivens (B&C) spectrograph on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. There are two GCs in NGC 253 and 12 objects in NGC 300 with globular-cluster-like spectral features, nine of which have radial velocities above 0 km s-1. The remaining three, due to their radial velocities being below the expected 95% confidence limit for velocities of NGC 300 halo objects, are flagged as possible foreground stars. The non-cluster-like candidates included 13 stars, 15 galaxies, and an H II region. One GC, four galaxies, two stars, and the H II region from our sample were identified in archival Hubble Space Telescope images. For the GCs, we measure spectral indices and estimate metallicities using an empirical calibration based on Milky Way GCs. The GCs of NGC 300 appear similar to those of the Milky Way. Excluding possible stars and including clusters from the literature, the GC system (GCS) has a velocity dispersion of 68 km s-1 and has no clear evidence of rotation. The mean metallicity for our full cluster sample plus one literature object is [Fe/H] = -0.94, lying above the relationship between mean GC metallicity and overall galaxy luminosity. Excluding the three low-velocity candidates, we obtain a mean [Fe/H] = -0.98, still higher than expected, raising the possibility of significant foreground star contamination even in this sample. Visual confirmation of genuine GCs using high-resolution space-based imagery could greatly reduce the potential problem of interlopers in small samples of GCSs in low-radial-velocity galaxies. Data for this project were obtained at the Baade 6.5 m telescope, Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint

  12. Chemical Tagging in the SDSS-III/APOGEE Survey: New Identifications of Halo Stars with Globular Cluster Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Lucatello, Sara; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos; García Hernández, D. A.; Beers, Timothy C.; Nidever, David L.

    2016-07-01

    We present new identifications of five red giant stars in the Galactic halo with chemical abundance patterns that indicate they originally formed in globular clusters. Using data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) Survey available through Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12, we first identify likely halo giants, and then search those for the well-known chemical tags associated with globular clusters, specifically enrichment in nitrogen and aluminum. We find that 2% of the halo giants in our sample have this chemical signature, in agreement with previous results. Following the interpretation in our previous work on this topic, this would imply that at least 13% of halo stars originally formed in globular clusters. Recent developments in the theoretical understanding of globular cluster formation raise questions about that interpretation, and we concede the possibility that these migrants represent a small fraction of the halo field. There are roughly as many stars with the chemical tags of globular clusters in the halo field as there are in globular clusters, whether or not they are accompanied by a much larger chemically untaggable population of former globular cluster stars.

  13. Spectroscopy of the globular clusters in M87

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mould, J. R.; Oke, J. B.; Nemec, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    With a velocity dispersion of 370 + or - 50 km/sec the globular cluster system of M87 is kinematically hotter than the stars in the giant elliptical itself. This is consistent with the clusters' shallower density distribution for isotropic orbits. The mean metallicity of the 27 clusters in the sample analyzed here is no more than a factor of 2 more metal rich than the cluster system of the Milky Way, but considerably more metal poor than the integrated starlight in the field at a radius of 1' from the center of M87. There is no evidence for the existence of young clusters in the system. The mass-radius relation between 1' and 5' required to contain the globular clusters joins on to that required to contain the hot gas around M87.

  14. Spectroscopy of the globular clusters in M87

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mould, J. R.; Oke, J. B.; Nemec, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    With a velocity dispersion of 370 + or - 50 km/sec the globular cluster system of M87 is kinematically hotter than the stars in the giant elliptical itself. This is consistent with the clusters' shallower density distribution for isotropic orbits. The mean metallicity of the 27 clusters in the sample analyzed here is no more than a factor of 2 more metal rich than the cluster system of the Milky Way, but considerably more metal poowr than the integrated starlight in the field at a radius of 1' from the center of M87. There is no evidence for the existence of young clusters in the system. The mass-radius relation between 1' and 5' required to contain the globular clusters joins on to that required to contain the hot gas around M87.

  15. Tidal stripping stellar substructures around four metal-poor globular clusters in the galactic bulge

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Minhee; Jung, DooSeok; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spatial density configuration of stars around four metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6626, NGC 6642, and NGC 6723) in the Galactic bulge region using wide-field deep J, H, and K imaging data obtained with the Wide Field Camera near-infrared array on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. A statistical weighted filtering algorithm for the stars on the color–magnitude diagram is applied in order to sort cluster member candidates from the field star contamination. In two-dimensional isodensity contour maps of the clusters, we find that all four of the globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of tidally stripped stellar features beyond the tidal radius in the form of tidal tails or small density lobes/chunks. The orientations of the extended stellar substructures are likely to be associated with the effect of dynamic interaction with the Galaxy and the cluster's space motion. The observed radial density profiles of the four globular clusters also describe the extended substructures; they depart from theoretical King and Wilson models and have an overdensity feature with a break in the slope of the profile at the outer region of clusters. The observed results could imply that four globular clusters in the Galactic bulge region have experienced strong environmental effects such as tidal forces or bulge/disk shocks of the Galaxy during the dynamical evolution of globular clusters. These observational results provide further details which add to our understanding of the evolution of clusters in the Galactic bulge region as well as the formation of the Galaxy.

  16. GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES: A NEAR-UNIVERSAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION?

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, William E.; O'Halloran, Heather; Cockcroft, Robert E-mail: ohallohm@mcmaster.ca; and others

    2014-12-20

    We present the first results from our Hubble Space Telescope brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) survey of seven central supergiant cluster galaxies and their globular cluster (GC) systems. We measure a total of 48,000 GCs in all seven galaxies, representing the largest single GC database. We find that a log-normal shape accurately matches the observed the luminosity function (LF) of the GCs down to the globular cluster luminosity function turnover point, which is near our photometric limit. In addition, the LF has a virtually identical shape in all seven galaxies. Our data underscore the similarity in the formation mechanism of massive star clusters in diverse galactic environments. At the highest luminosities (L ≳ 10{sup 7} L {sub ☉}), we find small numbers of ''superluminous'' objects in five of the galaxies; their luminosity and color ranges are at least partly consistent with those of ultra-compact dwarfs. Last, we find preliminary evidence that in the outer halo (R ≳ 20 kpc), the LF turnover point shows a weak dependence on projected distance, scaling as L {sub 0} ∼ R {sup –0.2}, while the LF dispersion remains nearly constant.

  17. Globular Cluster Systems in Brightest Cluster Galaxies: A Near-universal Luminosity Function?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William E.; Morningstar, Warren; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; O'Halloran, Heather; Blakeslee, John P.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Côté, Patrick; Geisler, Douglas; Peng, Eric W.; Bailin, Jeremy; Rothberg, Barry; Cockcroft, Robert; Barber DeGraaff, Regina

    2014-12-01

    We present the first results from our Hubble Space Telescope brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) survey of seven central supergiant cluster galaxies and their globular cluster (GC) systems. We measure a total of 48,000 GCs in all seven galaxies, representing the largest single GC database. We find that a log-normal shape accurately matches the observed the luminosity function (LF) of the GCs down to the globular cluster luminosity function turnover point, which is near our photometric limit. In addition, the LF has a virtually identical shape in all seven galaxies. Our data underscore the similarity in the formation mechanism of massive star clusters in diverse galactic environments. At the highest luminosities (L >~ 107 L ⊙), we find small numbers of "superluminous" objects in five of the galaxies; their luminosity and color ranges are at least partly consistent with those of ultra-compact dwarfs. Last, we find preliminary evidence that in the outer halo (R >~ 20 kpc), the LF turnover point shows a weak dependence on projected distance, scaling as L 0 ~ R -0.2, while the LF dispersion remains nearly constant.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the globular cluster systems of early type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Arunav

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the globular cluster systems of 60 early type galaxies using archival Hubble Space Telescope images. We discovered that the color distributions of the cluster systems of 30 to 60 percent of ellipticals is bimodal. The bimodality is most likely a signature of two major epochs of globular cluster formation in the history of these galaxies. At least 10% of the S0 galaxies in our sample show similar evidence of bimodality. However, the mechanism for the formation of the redder or metal-rich set of clusters appears to be different in the two galaxies that we studied in most detail, M87 the giant elliptical at the center of the Virgo cluster, and the S0 galaxy NGC 3115. While the red clusters in M87 appear to have formed during a major merger, the metal-rich clusters in NGC 3115 are associated with the thick disk of the galaxy. It seems likely that the red clusters in NGC 3145 were formed during a minor merger that did not destroy the disk. We measured the turnover luminosity of the globular cluster luminosity function in both the V and I-band. Comparing the turnover luminosities with other distance estimates we find that the absolute magnitude of the turnover luminosity in both bands is constant to within ~ 0.1 to ~ 0.2 mag. We conclude that the peak of the globular cluster luminosity function is an excellent distance indicator, with an accuracy comparable to other competing methods. We have also measured the sizes of individual clusters in our sample. The median size of the clusters appears to be the same in all galaxies. We suggest that this can be exploited to directly measure the distance to galaxies by simple geometrical considerations.

  19. Uncovering Multiple Populations in Globular Clusters with Washington Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Douglas; Cummings, Jeff; Villanova, Sandro; Carraro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Globular Clusters (GCs), long considered as ideal Simple Stellar Populations, are now known to harbor a wide variety of chemical inhomogeneities. Multiple populations (MP) are being found in a growing number of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) via both photometric and spectroscopic techniques. Indeed, it has been suggested that a GC is an object that possesses MP. A definitive investigation of MP in GCs will undoubtedly provide a profound improvement in our understanding of their formation and evolution.However, most studies employ either high resolution VLT spectroscopy, HST photometry or inefficient filters from the ground. A ground-based photometric system which is both efficient and effective would be especially excellent for uncovering MP. We demonstrate that the Washington system meets these goals. The Washington C filter, in addition to being specifically designed for the purpose of detecting MPs, is both much broader and redder than competing UV filters, making it far more efficient at detecting MPs and much less sensitive to reddening and extinction.Our analysis of the well-studied GC NGC 1851 shows indeed that the C filter is both very efficient and effective at detecting its previously discovered MPs in the RGB and SGB, using relatively little telescope time on only a 1-meter telescope. Remarkably, we have also detected an intrinsically broad MS best characterized by two distinct but heavily overlapping populations that cannot be explained by binaries, field stars, or photometric errors. Detailed analysis shows that the MS distribution is in very good agreement with that seen on the RGB. This is the first time MPs in a MS have been discovered from the ground, and just as strikingly, using only a 1-meter telescope. The Washington system thus proves to be a very powerful tool for investigating MPs, and holds particular promise for extragalactic objects where photons are limited.

  20. A CHANDRA STUDY OF THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER OMEGA CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, Daryl; Cool, Adrienne M.; Davies, Melvyn B. E-mail: cool@sfsu.edu

    2009-05-20

    We analyze a {approx}70 ks Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer exposure of the globular cluster {omega} Cen (NGC 5139). The {approx}17' x 17' field of view fully encompasses three core radii and almost twice the half-mass radius. We detect 180 sources to a limiting flux of {approx}4.3 x 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (L{sub x} = 1.2 x 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} at 4.9 kpc). After accounting for the number of active galactic nuclei and possible foreground stars, we estimate that 45-70 of the sources are cluster members. Four of the X-ray sources have previously been identified as compact accreting binaries in the cluster-three cataclysmic variables (CVs) and one quiescent neutron star. Correlating the Chandra positions with known variable stars yields eight matches, of which five are probable cluster members that are likely to be binary stars with active coronae. Extrapolating these optical identifications to the remaining unidentified X-ray source population, we estimate that 20-35 of the sources are CVs and a similar number are active binaries. This likely represents most of the CVs in the cluster, but only a small fraction of all the active binaries. We place a 2{sigma} upper limit of L{sub x} < 3 x 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} on the integrated luminosity of any additional faint, unresolved population of sources in the core. We explore the significance of these findings in the context of primordial versus dynamical channels for CV formation. The number of CVs per unit mass in {omega} Cen is at least 2-3 times lower than in the field, suggesting that primordial binaries that would otherwise lead to CVs are being destroyed in the cluster environment.

  1. The Chemical Evolution of Heavy Elements in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingles, Luke J.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Hirschi, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a chemical evolution model that tracks the composition of heavy elements beyond iron in a globular cluster. The heavy elements can be used as tracers of the nucleosynthetic events that defined the formation and evolution of star clusters in the early Universe. In particular, the chemical evolution model focuses on the hypothesis that rapidly-rotating massive stars produced the heavy elements via the slow neutron-capture process and seeded the proto-cluster while the stars we see today were still forming. We compare our model with heavy element abundances in M4 and M5, and M22. Our results are strongly dependent on the highly uncertain rate of the 17O(α,γ)21Ne reaction, which determines the strength of 16O as a neutron poison. We find that the [Pb/Ba] ratio is too low to match the empirical value, which might suggest that a contribution from AGB stars is required.

  2. Probing the faintest stars in a globular star cluster.

    PubMed

    Richer, Harvey B; Anderson, Jay; Brewer, James; Davis, Saul; Fahlman, Gregory G; Hansen, Brad M S; Hurley, Jarrod; Kalirai, Jasonjot S; King, Ivan R; Reitzel, David; Rich, R Michael; Shara, Michael M; Stetson, Peter B

    2006-08-18

    NGC 6397 is the second closest globular star cluster to the Sun. Using 5 days of time on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have constructed an ultradeep color-magnitude diagram for this cluster. We see a clear truncation in each of its two major stellar sequences. Faint red main-sequence stars run out well above our observational limit and near to the theoretical prediction for the lowest mass stars capable of stable hydrogen burning in their cores. We also see a truncation in the number counts of faint blue stars, namely white dwarfs. This reflects the limit to which the bulk of the white dwarfs can cool over the lifetime of the cluster. There is also a turn toward bluer colors in the least luminous of these objects. This was predicted for the very coolest white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich atmospheres as the formation of H(2) and the resultant collision-induced absorption cause their atmospheres to become largely opaque to infrared radiation. PMID:16917054

  3. Uncovered: Progenitors of globular clusters showing off their multiple stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, Richard; Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai; Geller, Aaron M.; Xin, Yu; Hu, Yi; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre

    2016-01-01

    Stars in star clusters are thought to form in a single burst from a common progenitor cloud of molecular gas, resulting in so-called simple stellar populations. However, old, massive globular clusters—with ages greater than 10 billion years—often host multiple stellar populations, indicating that more than one star-forming event may have occurred during their lifetimes. The most popular scenario for their formation invokes colliding stellar winds from late-stage, asymptotic-giant-branch stars. If this were correct, the initial globular cluster masses should be at least 10 times more massive than their current masses of typically a few x 105 Msun. However, large populations of clusters with masses greater than a few x 106 Msun are not found in the local Universe. Here we present Hubble Space Telescope observations of three 1-2 billion-year-old, massive star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds which show unequivocal evidence of burst-like star-formation activity that occurred a few x 108 years after their initial formation era. The spatial distributions of the younger stellar generations suggest that they may have originated from ambient gas clouds accreted by the clusters while orbiting in the disks of their host galaxies rather than from colliding stellar winds. Simple models imply that such clusters could indeed accrete sufficient gas reservoirs to form these stars. This may eventually give rise to the appearance of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters.

  4. HST Images of Seyfert's Sextet: The Candidate Globular Cluster Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, C.; Zonak, S. G.; Hunsberger, S. D.; Durrell, P. R.; Gallagher, S. C.; Charlton, J. C.; English, J.

    2001-12-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope images of the dense galaxy group, Seyfert's Sextet (Hickson Compact Group 79). This group includes four galaxies with concordant redshifts, a fifth background galaxy, and a bright tidal feature. From UBVI (F336W, F439W, F555W, and F814W) images, we identify globular cluster candidates (GCCs) associated with both the interacting galaxies and the lower surface brightness tidal features. The population of GCCs is compared to both stellar population models and to other interacting groups of galaxies, such as Stephan's Quintet, the Antennae, and other Toomre sequence mergers. Few point sources are detected in the U filter, which indicates that it is unlikely for there to have been much star cluster formation within the past 100 Myr or so. However, a number of sources are detected in B, V, and I. The GCC colors are used to constrain their ages and to elicit information on the star formation history of this interacting group. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSF (grant AST 00-71223) and from STScI (grant HST-GO-08717.04-A).

  5. Slicing and dicing globular clusters: dynamically evolved single stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, Anna C.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2016-04-01

    We utilize direct N-body models of globular clusters including stellar evolution to calculate magnitudes for each star in the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys 555, 606 and 814 filters. This enables us to analyse the colour of dynamically evolved single stellar populations over time in colour-magnitude diagrams of both, resolved and integrated globular clusters. We find that the change of integrated cluster colour is driven predominantly by the colour of the brightest stars available and hence by stellar evolution, but not by the removal of low-mass stars. We show that even in mass-segregated clusters, different stellar populations are distributed over the entire cluster. This implies that evolved stars also exist within and outside the half-mass radius.

  6. Far-ultraviolet radiation from disk globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, R. M.; Minniti, Dante; Liebert, James

    1993-01-01

    IUE spectra obtained in a survey of the metal-rich disk system of globular clusters are presented. Significant FUV fluxes were detected in the 1200-2000-A short-wavelength (SWP) range of the IUE Observatory in several disk globular clusters. These clusters are the most metal-rich known to have an FUV flux. Three clusters show spectral energy distrbutions (SEDs) clearly rising at shorter wavelengths, not unlike the upturns observed in the bulges of metal-rich elliptical galaxies. Several others with weak SWP detections appear to have flat or uncertain spectral energy distributions. Blue stragglers provide a possible explanation for flux redder than 2000 A in clusters showing weaker flux in the SWP region, and with flat or declining SEDs.

  7. Globular clusters as tracers of the halo assembly of nearby central cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilker, Michael; Richtler, Tom

    2016-08-01

    The properties of globular cluster systems (GCSs) in the core of the nearby galaxy clusters Fornax and Hydra I are presented. In the Fornax cluster we have gathered the largest radial velocity sample of a GCS system so far, which enables us to identify photometric and kinematic sub-populations around the central galaxy NGC 1399. Moreover, ages, metallicities and [α/Fe] abundances of a sub-sample of 60 bright globular clusters (GCs) with high S/N spectroscopy show a multi-modal distribution in the correlation space of these three parameters, confirming heterogeneous stellar populations in the halo of NGC 1399. In the Hydra I cluster very blue GCs were identified. They are not uniformly distributed around the central galaxies. 3-color photometry including the U-band reveals that some of them are of intermediate age. Their location coincides with a group of dwarf galaxies under disruption. This is evidence of a structurally young stellar halo ``still in formation'', which is also supported by kinematic measurements of the halo light that point to a kinematically disturbed system. The most massive GCs divide into generally more extended ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) and genuine compact GCs. In both clusters, the spatial distribution and kinematics of UCDs are different from those of genuine GCs. Assuming that some UCDs represent nuclei of stripped galaxies, the properties of those UCDs can be used to trace the assembly of nucleated dwarf galaxies into the halos of central cluster galaxies. We show via semi-analytical approaches within a cosmological simulation that only the most massive UCDs in Fornax-like clusters can be explained by stripped nuclei, whereas the majority of lower mass UCDs belong to the star cluster family.

  8. Are the globular clusters with significant internal [Fe/H] spreads all former dwarf galaxy nuclei?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Costa, Gary Stewart

    2015-08-01

    In this presentation I will advance the idea that the 'globular clusters' with significant internal [Fe/H] dispersions are in fact the former nuclei or nuclear star clusters of dwarf galaxies that have been disrupted during the formation of the Galactic halo. I'll discuss the characteristics of these clusters, particularly their common properties, and indicate that at present the number of such clusters known is broadly consistent with the disruption hypothesis. Identification of significantly more clusters with large internal [Fe/H] abundance ranges may, however, cast doubt on the hypothesis, if the stars of the disrupted dwarfs remain in the Galactic halo.

  9. FORS2/VLT survey of Milky Way globular clusters. II. Fe and Mg abundances of 51 Milky Way globular clusters on a homogeneous scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, B.; Barbuy, B.; Saviane, I.; Held, E. V.; Da Costa, G. S.; Ortolani, S.; Gullieuszik, M.; Vásquez, S.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Globular clusters trace the formation and evolution of the Milky Way and surrounding galaxies, and outline their chemical enrichment history. To accomplish these tasks it is important to have large samples of clusters with homogeneous data and analysis to derive kinematics, chemical abundances, ages and locations. Aims: We obtain homogeneous metallicities and α-element enhancement for 51 Galactic bulge, disc, and halo globular clusters that are among the most distant and/or highly reddened in the Galaxy's globular cluster system. We also provide membership selection based on stellar radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. The implications of our results are discussed. Methods: We observed R ~ 2000 spectra in the wavelength interval 456-586 nm for over 800 red giant stars in 51 Galactic globular clusters. We applied full spectrum fitting with the code ETOILE together with libraries of observed and synthetic spectra. We compared the mean abundances of all clusters with previous work and with field stars. We used the relation between mean metallicity and horizontal branch morphology defined by all clusters to select outliers for discussion. Results: [Fe/H], [Mg/Fe], and [α/Fe] were derived in a consistent way for almost one-third of all Galactic globular clusters. We find our metallicities are comparable to those derived from high-resolution data to within σ = 0.08 dex over the interval -2.5< [Fe/H] < 0.0. Furthermore, a comparison of previous metallicity scales with our values yields σ< 0.16 dex. We also find that the distribution of [Mg/Fe] and [α/Fe] with [Fe/H] for the 51 clusters follows the general trend exhibited by field stars. It is the first time that the following clusters have been included in a large sample of homogeneous stellar spectroscopic observations and metallicity derivation: BH 176, Djorg 2, Pal 10, NGC 6426, Lynga 7, and Terzan 8. In particular, only photometric metallicities were available previously for the first three

  10. FORS2/VLT survey of Milky Way globular clusters. II. Fe and Mg abundances of 51 Milky Way globular clusters on a homogeneous scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, B.; Barbuy, B.; Saviane, I.; Held, E. V.; Da Costa, G. S.; Ortolani, S.; Gullieuszik, M.; Vásquez, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Globular clusters trace the formation and evolution of the Milky Way and surrounding galaxies, and outline their chemical enrichment history. To accomplish these tasks it is important to have large samples of clusters with homogeneous data and analysis to derive kinematics, chemical abundances, ages and locations. Aims: We obtain homogeneous metallicities and α-element enhancement for 51 Galactic bulge, disc, and halo globular clusters that are among the most distant and/or highly reddened in the Galaxy's globular cluster system. We also provide membership selection based on stellar radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. The implications of our results are discussed. Methods: We observed R ~ 2000 spectra in the wavelength interval 456-586 nm for over 800 red giant stars in 51 Galactic globular clusters. We applied full spectrum fitting with the code ETOILE together with libraries of observed and synthetic spectra. We compared the mean abundances of all clusters with previous work and with field stars. We used the relation between mean metallicity and horizontal branch morphology defined by all clusters to select outliers for discussion. Results: [Fe/H], [Mg/Fe], and [α/Fe] were derived in a consistent way for almost one-third of all Galactic globular clusters. We find our metallicities are comparable to those derived from high-resolution data to within σ = 0.08 dex over the interval -2.5< [Fe/H] < 0.0. Furthermore, a comparison of previous metallicity scales with our values yields σ< 0.16 dex. We also find that the distribution of [Mg/Fe] and [α/Fe] with [Fe/H] for the 51 clusters follows the general trend exhibited by field stars. It is the first time that the following clusters have been included in a large sample of homogeneous stellar spectroscopic observations and metallicity derivation: BH 176, Djorg 2, Pal 10, NGC 6426, Lynga 7, and Terzan 8. In particular, only photometric metallicities were available previously for the first three

  11. THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER MASS FUNCTION AS A REMNANT OF VIOLENT BIRTH

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2010-04-01

    The log-normal shape of the mass function for metal-poor halo globular clusters is proposed to result from an initial M {sup -2} power law modified rapidly by evaporation, collisions with clouds, and mutual cluster interactions in the dense environment of a redshift z {approx} 5-15 disk galaxy. Galaxy interactions subsequently spray these clusters into the galaxy group environment, where they fall into other growing galaxies and populate their halos. Clusters forming later in z {approx} 2-5 galaxies, and those formed during major mergers, produce metal-rich globulars. Monte Carlo models of evolving cluster populations demonstrate the early formation of a log-normal mass function for typical conditions in high-redshift galaxies.

  12. The effect of galaxy triaxiality on globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostriker, J. P.; Binney, J.; Saha, P.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence of triaxiality and central mass concentration in the Galaxy and in M31 and M87 is examined. It is proposed that globular clusters on box orbits in the inner parts of these systems pass close enough to the center to be destroyed by tidal shocks. Remaining clusters will preferentially populate tube orbits with relatively high angular momentum. The process is used to explain the cluster distribution in M87 reported by Lauer and Kormendy (1986). Models are presented for cluster destruction by massive black holes in M87's dark halo. Consideration is given to techniques for testing the suggestion that clusters form only on box orbits.

  13. Possible systematic decreases in the age of globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.; Schramm, D. N.; Dearborn, D. S.P.; Truran, J. W.

    1994-03-01

    The ages of globular clusters inferred from observations depends sensitively on assumptions like the initial helium abundance and the mass loss rate. A high helium abundance (e.g., Y\\approx0.28) or a mass loss rate of \\sim10^{-11}M_\\odot yr^{-1} near the main sequence turn-off region lowers the current age estimate from 14 Gyr to about 10--12 Gyr, significantly relaxing the constraints on the Hubble constant, allowing values as high as 60km/sec/Mpc for a universe with the critical density and 90km/sec/Mpc for a baryon-only universe. Possible mechanisms for the helium enhancement in globular clusters are discussed, as are arguments for an instability strip induced mass loss near the turn-off. Ages lower than 10 Gyr are not possible even with the operation of both of these mechanisms unless the initial helium abundance in globular clusters is >0.30, which would conflict with indirect measurements of helium abundances in globular clusters.

  14. BVRI CCD photometry of the globular cluster NGC 2808

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.; Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E. )

    1990-03-01

    As a part of a continuing program, CCD color-magnitude diagrams are presented for the bright globular cluster NGC 2808 in the four colors comprising BVRI. From a comparison of four different CMDs with theoretical isochrones, an age of 16 + or - 2 Gyr is obtained, assuming a value for Fe/H near -1.3. 28 refs.

  15. Recent Advances in High Dispersion Spectroscopy of Globular Cluster Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, R. G.

    The author discusses some problems concerning the derivation of accurate metal abundances for globular clusters using high dispersion spectra from both the old photographic and the most recent CCD data. The discrepant low abundances found by Cohen (1980), from photographic material for M71 giants, are found to be due to the use of too high microturbulences.

  16. A study of rotating globular clusters. The case of the old, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4372

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacharov, N.; Bianchini, P.; Koch, A.; Frank, M. J.; Martin, N. F.; van de Ven, G.; Puzia, T. H.; McDonald, I.; Johnson, C. I.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. NGC 4372 is a poorly studied old, very metal-poor globular cluster (GC) located in the inner Milky Way halo. Aims: We present the first in-depth study of the kinematic properties and derive the structural parameters of NGC 4372 based on the fit of a Plummer profile and a rotating, physical model. We explore the link between internal rotation to different cluster properties and together with similar studies of more GCs, we put these in the context of globular cluster formation and evolution. Methods: We present radial velocities for 131 cluster member stars measured from high-resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE observations. Their membership to the GC is additionally confirmed from precise metallicity estimates. We build a velocity dispersion profile and a systemic rotation curve using this kinematic data set. Additionally, we obtain an elliptical number density profile of NGC 4372 based on optical images using a Markov chain Monte Carlo fitting algorithm. From this, we derive the cluster's half-light radius and ellipticity as rh = 3.44' ± 0.04' and ɛ = 0.08 ± 0.01. Finally, we give a physical interpretation of the observed morphological and kinematic properties of this GC by fitting an axisymmetric, differentially rotating, dynamical model. Results: Our results show that NGC 4372 has an unusually high ratio of rotation amplitude to velocity dispersion (1.2 vs. 4.5 km s-1) for its metallicity. This puts it in line, however, with two other exceptional, very metal-poor GCs: M 15 and NGC 4590. We also find a mild flattening of NGC 4372 in the direction of its rotation. Given its old age, this suggests that the flattening is indeed caused by the systemic rotation rather than tidal interactions with the Galaxy. Additionally, we estimate the dynamical mass of the GC Mdyn = 2.0 ± 0.5 × 105M⊙ based on the dynamical model, which constrains the mass-to-light ratio of NGC 4372 between 1.4 and 2.3 M⊙/L⊙, representative of an old, purely stellar population. Based on

  17. Bright X-Ray Sources in M31 Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.; Kong, A. K. H.; Garcia, M. R.; Barmby, P.; Greiner, J.; Murray, S. S.; Primini, F. A.

    2002-05-01

    We have conducted Chandra observations of ~2560 arcmin2 (~131 kpc2) of M31 and find that the most luminous X-ray sources in most of our fields are in globular clusters. Of the 28 globular cluster X-ray sources in our fields, 15 are newly discovered. Approximately one-third of all the sources have LX([0.5-7] keV)>1037 ergs s-1, and approximately one-tenth of all the sources have LX([0.5-7] keV) close to or above 1038 ergs s-1. The most luminous source, in the globular cluster Bo 375, is consistently observed to have LX greater than 2×1038 ergs s-1. (1) We present data on the spectra and/or light curves of the five most luminous M31 globular cluster sources. (2) We explore possible explanations for the high X-ray luminosities of the brightest sources. These include that the X-ray sources may be composites, the radiation we receive may be beamed, metallicity effects could be at work, or the sources may be accreting black holes. We weigh each of these possibilities against the data. In addition, we introduce a neutron star model in which mass transfer proceeds on the thermal timescale of the donor star. Our model can produce luminosities of several times 1038 ergs s-1 and leads to a set of well-defined predictions. (3) We compute the X-ray luminosity function and the distribution of counts in wavebands that span the range of energies to which Chandra is sensitive. We find the peak X-ray luminosity is higher and that systems with LX>1037 ergs s-1 constitute a larger fraction of all GC sources than in our Galaxy. (4) We study the possible reasons for this difference between M31 and Galactic globular cluster X-ray sources and identify three promising explanations.

  18. Catalogue of Galactic globular-cluster surface-brightness profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trager, S. C.; King, Ivan R.; Djorgovski, S.

    1995-01-01

    We present a catalogue of surface-brightness profiles (SBPs) of 125 Galactic globular clusters, the largest such collection ever gathered. The SPBs are constructed from generally inhomogeneous data, but are based heavily on the Berkeley Global Cluster Survey of Djorgovski & King. All but four of the SBPs have photometric zero points. We derive central surface brightness, King-model concentrations, core radii, half-light, and other fraction-of-light radii where data permit, and we briefly discuss their use.

  19. Single & Multiple Stellar Populations in Globular Clusters: Chemical Tagging, Photometric Sequences, and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotto, Giampaolo

    2015-08-01

    The discovery of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters has revolutionized our view of these objects one thought to be simple, single population stellar systems. Different star formation scenarios have been proposed in order to account for the photometric and spectroscopic properties of the different populations hosted by the single cluster, and some of them imply that the original cluster should have been much more massive than it is now, with a significant fraction of the original stars lost into the environment (Galaxy halo or bulge). Because of this, globular clusters become relevant not only as tracers of the general process of galaxy halo formation, but also possible incubators of most (all?) halo stars.In my talk I will briefly summarize the basic observational facts that made the community at large to accept the idea of population multiplicity.I will also present the newest results coming from an extensive, multi-wavelength astrometric and photometric survey, which includes UV data from ACS and WFC3/HST of close to half of the Milky Way globular clusters. The increasing number of spectroscopic surveys of stars in globular clusters, coupled with the capability of (UV) photometry to distinguish different populations has largely increased our capability to trace the basic chemical properties of the many populations within a single cluster.I will present a census of the presence of multiple populations in GCs, their chemical tagging, radial distribution, and kinematics.Possible correlations of multiple populations characterizing quantities with the main cluster parameters will also be presented. Implications on multiple stellar populations formation will be discussed as well as the still open issues.

  20. The incidence of binaries in globular cluster stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucatello, S.; Sollima, A.; Gratton, R.; Vesperini, E.; D'Orazi, V.; Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.

    2015-12-01

    Binary fraction and orbital characteristics provide indications on the conditions of star formation, as they shed light on the environment they were born in. Multiple systems are more common in low density environments than in higher density environments. In the current debate about the formation of globular clusters and their multiple populations, studying the binary incidence in the populations they host offers a crucial piece of information on the environment of their birth and their subsequent dynamical evolution. Through a multiyear observational campaign using FLAMES at VLT, we monitored the radial velocity of 968 red-giant-branch stars located around the half-light radii in a sample of ten Galactic globular clusters. We found a total of 21 radial velocity variables identified as bona fide binary stars, for a binary fraction of 2.2% ± 0.5%. When separating the sample into first generation and second generation stars, we find a binary fraction of 4.9% ± 1.3% and 1.2% ± 0.4%, respectively. Through simulations that take possible sources of bias into account in detecting radial velocity variations in the two populations, we show that the difference is significant and only marginally affected by these effects. This kind of different binary fraction strongly suggests different conditions in the environment of formation and evolution of first and second generations stars, with the latter being born in a much denser environment. Our result hence strongly supports the idea that the second generation forms in a dense subsystem at the center of the loosely distributed first generation, where (loose) binaries are efficiently destroyed. Based on data obtained with the Very Large Telescope at the European Southern Observatory, programs: 073.D-0100, 073.D-0211 and 083.D-0208.Full Tables 1, 3, and table of the individual radial velocities are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  1. The extended stellar substructures of four metal-poor globular clusters in the galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2015-08-01

    We investigated stellar spatial density distribution around four metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6626, NGC 6642 and NGC 6723) in order to find extended stellar substructures. Wide-field deep J, H, and K imaging data were taken using the WFCAM near-infrared array on United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). The contamination of field stars around clusters was minimised by applying a statistical weighted filtering algorithm for the stars on the color-magnitude diagram. In two-dimensional isodensity contour map, we find that all four of the globular clusters shows tidal stripping stellar features in the form of tidal tails (NGC 6266 and NGC 6723) or small density lobes/chunk (NGC 6642 and NGC 6723). The stellar substructures extend toward the Galactic centre or anticancer, and the proper motion direction of the clusters. The radial density profiles of the clusters also depart from theoretical King and Wilson models and show overdensity feature with a break in a slope of profile at the outer region of clusters. The observed results indicate that four globular clusters in the Galactic bulge have experienced strong tidal force or bulge/disk shock effect of the Galaxy. These observational results provide us further constraints to understand the evolution of clusters in the Galactic bulge region as well as the formation of the Galaxy.

  2. The ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. VIII. Effects of Environment on Globular Cluster Global Mass Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paust, Nathaniel E. Q.; Reid, I. Neill; Piotto, Giampaolo; Aparicio, Antonio; Anderson, Jay; Sarajedini, Ata; Bedin, Luigi R.; Chaboyer, Brian; Dotter, Aaron; Hempel, Maren; Majewski, Steven; Marín-Franch, A.; Milone, Antonino; Rosenberg, Alfred; Siegel, Michael

    2010-02-01

    We have used observations obtained as part of the Hubble Space Telescope/ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters to construct global present-day mass functions for 17 globular clusters utilizing multi-mass King models to extrapolate from our observations to the global cluster behavior. The global present-day mass functions for these clusters are well matched by power laws from the turnoff, ≈0.8 M sun, to 0.2-0.3 M sun on the lower main sequence. The slopes of those power-law fits, α, have been correlated with an extensive set of intrinsic and extrinsic cluster properties to investigate which parameters may influence the form of the present-day mass function. We do not confirm previous suggestions of correlations between α and either metallicity or Galactic location. However, we do find a strong statistical correlation with the related parameters central surface brightness, μ V , and inferred central density, ρ0. The correlation is such that clusters with denser cores (stronger binding energy) tend to have steeper mass functions (a higher proportion of low-mass stars), suggesting that dynamical evolution due to external interactions may have played a key role in determining α. Thus, the present-day mass function may owe more to nurture than to nature. Detailed modeling of external dynamical effects is therefore a requisite for determining the initial mass function for Galactic globular clusters.

  3. THE ACS SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VIII. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON GLOBULAR CLUSTER GLOBAL MASS FUNCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Paust, Nathaniel E. Q.; Reid, I. Neill; Anderson, Jay E-mail: inr@stsci.edu

    2010-02-15

    We have used observations obtained as part of the Hubble Space Telescope/ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters to construct global present-day mass functions for 17 globular clusters utilizing multi-mass King models to extrapolate from our observations to the global cluster behavior. The global present-day mass functions for these clusters are well matched by power laws from the turnoff, {approx}0.8 M {sub sun}, to 0.2-0.3 M {sub sun} on the lower main sequence. The slopes of those power-law fits, {alpha}, have been correlated with an extensive set of intrinsic and extrinsic cluster properties to investigate which parameters may influence the form of the present-day mass function. We do not confirm previous suggestions of correlations between {alpha} and either metallicity or Galactic location. However, we do find a strong statistical correlation with the related parameters central surface brightness, {mu} {sub V}, and inferred central density, {rho}{sub 0}. The correlation is such that clusters with denser cores (stronger binding energy) tend to have steeper mass functions (a higher proportion of low-mass stars), suggesting that dynamical evolution due to external interactions may have played a key role in determining {alpha}. Thus, the present-day mass function may owe more to nurture than to nature. Detailed modeling of external dynamical effects is therefore a requisite for determining the initial mass function for Galactic globular clusters.

  4. Multiple populations in globular clusters and the origin of the Oosterhoff dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, S.; Lee, Y.-W.

    2016-05-01

    The globular cluster community is now facing a new paradigm of multiple stellar populations. In light of this, we have recently proposed a new model to explain the origin of the difference in mean period of type ab RR Lyrae variables between the two Oosterhoff groups. In our model, the instability strip in the metal-poor group II clusters, such as M15, is populated by second-generation stars (G2) with mildly enhanced helium and CNO abundances, while the RR Lyraes in the relatively metal-rich group I clusters such as M3 are produced mostly by first-generation stars (G1) without these enhancements. When these models are extended to all metallicity regimes, the observed dichotomies in the inner and outer halo globular clusters can be naturally reproduced. We found that specific star formation histories are required for the inner and outer halos, which is consistent with the dual origin of the Milky Way halo.

  5. Variable stars in large Magellanic cloud globular clusters. III. Reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Dame, Kyra; Smith, Horace A.; De Lee, Nathan E-mail: damekyra@msu.edu E-mail: nathan.delee@vanderbilt.edu; and others

    2013-06-01

    This is the third in a series of papers studying the variable stars in old globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The primary goal of this series is to look at how the characteristics and behavior of RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to those of their counterparts in Oosterhoff-I/II systems. In this paper we present the results of our new time-series BVI photometric study of the globular cluster Reticulum. We found a total of 32 variables stars (22 RRab, 4 RRc, and 6 RRd stars) in our field of view. We present photometric parameters and light curves for these stars. We also present physical properties, derived from Fourier analysis of light curves, for some of the RR Lyrae stars. We discuss the Oosterhoff classification of Reticulum and use our results to re-derive the distance modulus and age of the cluster.

  6. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Wehner, Elizabeth M. H.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Rothberg, Barry E-mail: harris@physics.mcmaster.ca E-mail: whitmore@stsci.edu

    2009-09-15

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z {approx} M {sup 0.30{+-}}{sup 0.05}. No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  7. A Deep X-ray Study of the Globular Cluster M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooley, David

    2015-08-01

    We know from observations that globular clusters are very efficient catalysts in forming unusual binary systems, such as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs), with formation rates per unit mass exceeding those in the Galactic disk by orders of magnitude. The high stellar densities in globular clusters trigger various dynamical interactions: exchange encounters, direct collisions, destruction of binaries, and tidal capture. This binary population is, in turn, critical to the stabilization of globular clusters against gravitational collapse; the long-term stability of a cluster is thought to depend on tapping into the gravitational binding energy of such close binaries.We have also learned that not all X-ray sources in a globular cluster are dynamically formed. Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of low-density clusters have shown that the magnetically active main-sequence binaries in those clusters are largely primordial, but few clusters have been observed deeply enough in X-rays to uncover a substantial fraction of these binaries.We report on the results of deep Chandra observations of M4 that were motivated, in part, to uncover a nearly complete census of its active binaries. These observations reach X-ray luminosities below 1029 erg/s, a sensitivity that should detect ~90% of the active main-sequence binary population. We detect ~100 X-ray sources within the half-light radius of M4 and characterize their nature by investigating their optical counterparts (or lack thereof) in deep Hubble Space Telescope observations. We compare the populations of X-ray sources in M4 to other well-studied clusters.

  8. Young globular clusters in the Milky Way Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.; Richer, Harvey B.

    1992-01-01

    Ruprecht 106 and Pal 12 are two known globular clusters in the Milky Way that are unequivocally younger than other clusters of similar metallicity. The Galactic coordinates of Ruprecht 106 place it near to the Magellanic Stream in projection, suggesting a tidal capture from the Magellanic Clouds. It is demonstrated that a family of orbits for both clusters can be constructed that are consistent with this capture hypothesis and that these then lead to a prediction of 3 milliarcseconds per year for the proper motions of both Ruprecht 106 and Pal 12.

  9. Globular clusters, Hipparcos, and the age of the galaxy

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Neill

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the impact of the results from the recent Hipparcos astrometric satellite on distance estimates of galactic globular clusters. Recalibrating the clusters not only implies a relatively small change in the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud, and hence a rescaling of several estimates of the Hubble constant, but also leads to significantly younger cluster ages. Although the data are not yet conclusive, the results so far point to a likely resolution of the apparent paradox of a universe younger than its constituents, without requiring significant modifications to simple cosmological models. PMID:9419316

  10. The Scale Sizes of Globular Clusters: Tidal Limits, Evolution, and the Outer Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William

    2011-10-01

    The physical factors that determine the linear sizes of massive star clusters are not well understood. Their scale sizes were long thought to be governed by the tidal field of the parent galaxy, but major questions are now emerging. Globular clusters, for example, have mean sizes nearly independent of location in the halo. Paradoxically, the recently discovered "anomalous extended clusters" in M31 and elsewhere have scale sizes that fit much better with tidal theory, but they are puzzlingly rare. Lastly, the persistent size difference between metal-poor and metal-rich clusters still lacks a quantitative explanation. Many aspects of these observations call for better modelling of dynamical evolution in the outskirts of clusters, and also their conditions of formation including the early rapid mass loss phase of protoclusters. A new set of accurate measurements of scale sizes and structural parameters, for a large and homogeneous set of globular clusters, would represent a major advance in this subject. We propose to carry out a {WFC3+ACS} imaging survey of the globular clusters in the supergiant Virgo elliptical M87 to cover the complete run of the halo. M87 is an optimum target system because of its huge numbers of clusters and HST's ability to resolve the cluster profiles accurately. We will derive cluster effective radii, central concentrations, luminosities, and colors for more than 4000 clusters using PSF-convolved King-model profile fitting. In parallel, we are developing theoretical tools to model the expected distribution of cluster sizes versus galactocentric distance as functions of cluster mass, concentration, and orbital anisotropy.

  11. A Search for X-ray Emitting Binary Stars in the Globular Cluster Omega Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveny, Sarah; Gallien, Michael; Rickards Vaught, Ryan; Waters, Miranda; Cool, Adrienne; Bellini, Andrea; Anderson, Jay; Henleywillis, Simon; Haggard, Daryl; Heinke, Craig O.

    2016-06-01

    Omega Centauri is one of the most widely studied globular clusters, and is expected to harbor a significant population of binary stars. Binaries play a crucial role in determining the progression of stellar dynamics within globular clusters, and as such are relevant to questions concerning the possible formation of intermediate black holes at their centers. One effective way to identify certain classes of binary systems is to first locate X-ray sources in the cluster and then to search for their optical counterparts. Using Chandra X-ray Observatory's ACIS-I instrument we have identified 275 X-ray sources in and toward Omega Cen, more than 50 of which lie within the cluster's core radius. Here we present a search for the optical counterparts of these core sources using an extensive database of archival Hubble Space Telescope images. Using WFC3/UVIS data from 11 different filters, we construct color-magnitude diagrams that reveal a diverse array of objects, including (in addition to background and foreground objects) cataclysmic variables, coronally active binaries, and, interestingly, stars that lie on Omega Cen's anomalous giant branch. We discuss the significance of these results in the context of studies of the formation and evolution of binary stars in globular clusters.

  12. Evolution of Compact Binary Populations in Globular Clusters: A Boltzmann Study. II. Introducing Stochasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Ghosh, Pranab

    2008-06-01

    We continue the exploration that we began in Paper I of using the Boltzmann scheme to study the evolution of compact binary populations of globular clusters, introducing in this paper our method of handling the stochasticity inherent in the dynamical processes of binary formation, destruction, and hardening in globular clusters. We describe these stochastic processes as "Wiener processes," whereupon the Boltzmann equation becomes a stochastic partial differential equation, the solution of which involves the use of "Itō calculus" (this use being the first, to our knowledge, in this subject), in addition to ordinary calculus. As in Paper I, we focus on the evolution of (1) the number of X-ray binaries NXB in globular clusters and (2) the orbital period distribution of these binaries. We show that, although the details of the fluctuations in the above quantities differ from one "realization" to another of the stochastic processes, the general trends follow those found in the continuous-limit study of Paper I, and the average result over many such realizations is very close to the continuous-limit result. We investigate the dependence of NXB found by these calculations on two essential globular cluster properties, namely, the star-star and star-binary encounter rate parameters Γ and γ, for which we coined the name "Verbunt parameters" in Paper I. We compare our computed results with those from Chandra observations of Galactic globular clusters, showing that the expected scalings of NXB with the Verbunt parameters are in good agreement with those observed. We indicate additional features that can be incorporated into the scheme in the future, as well as how more elaborate problems can be tackled.

  13. Star Clusters in M31. VII. Global Kinematics and Metallicity Subpopulations of the Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Nelson; Romanowsky, Aaron J.

    2016-06-01

    We carry out a joint spatial–kinematical–metallicity analysis of globular clusters (GCs) around the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), using a homogeneous, high-quality spectroscopic data set. In particular, we remove the contaminating young clusters that have plagued many previous analyses. We find that the clusters can be divided into three major metallicity groups based on their radial distributions: (1) an inner metal-rich group ([Fe/H] > -0.4); (2) a group with intermediate metallicity (with median [Fe/H] = ‑1) and (3) a metal-poor group, with [Fe/H] < -1.5. The metal-rich group has kinematics and spatial properties like those of the disk of M31, while the two more metal-poor groups show mild prograde rotation overall, with larger dispersions—in contrast to previous claims of stronger rotation. The metal-poor GCs are the least concentrated group; such clusters occur five times less frequently in the central bulge than do clusters of higher metallicity. Despite some well-known differences between the M31 and Milky Way GC systems, our revised analysis points to remarkable similarities in their chemodynamical properties, which could help elucidate the different formation stages of galaxies and their GCs. In particular, the M31 results motivate further exploration of a metal-rich GC formation mode in situ, within high-redshift, clumpy galactic disks.

  14. ROTATION AND MULTIPLE STELLAR POPULATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bekki, Kenji

    2010-11-20

    We investigate structure and kinematics of the second generation of stars (SG) formed from gaseous ejecta of the first generation of stars (FG) in forming globular clusters (GCs). We consider that SG can be formed from gaseous ejecta from asymptotic giant branch stars of FG with the initial total mass of 10{sup 6} M {sub sun}-10{sup 8} M {sub sun} to explain the present masses of the Galactic GCs. Our three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with star formation show that SG formed in the central regions of FG can have a significant amount of rotation (V/{sigma}{approx} 0.8-2.5). The rotational amplitude of SG can depend strongly on the initial kinematics of FG. We thus propose that some GCs composed of FG and SG had a significant amount of rotation when they were formed. We also suggest that although later long-term ({approx}10 Gyr) dynamical evolution of stars can smooth out the initial structural and kinematical differences between FG and SG to a large extent, initial flattened structures and rotational kinematics of SG can be imprinted on shapes and internal rotation of the present GCs. We discuss these results in terms of internal rotation observed in the Galactic GCs.

  15. Helium abundance difference within globular clusters: NGC 2808.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciari, C.; Pasquini, L.; Valenti, E.; Käufl, H. U.; Mauas, P.

    Multiple populations have been recently detected in most Galactic globular clusters, even with no significant spread in metallicity. Unusual features of the observed colour-magnitude diagrams can be explained by differences in the He content of the stars belonging to the sub-populations. We report on empirical evidence of He abundance spread in a few globular clusters, with particular attention to NGC 2808, where He abundance variation has been measured in a pair of otherwise identical red giant stars using the HeI 1083 nm line. A quantitative estimate of this difference has been derived by appropriate chromospheric modelling, in very good agreement with stellar evolution requirements. Partly based on observations collected at ESO VLT (Chile), under programme 384.D-0283.

  16. Revised GALEX Ultraviolet Catalog of Globular Clusters in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, K.; Kang, Y.; Sohn, T.; GALEX Science Team

    2010-01-01

    We present near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) photometry of the globular clusters (GCs) and globular cluster candidates in M31 from 23 mosaic observations of Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). We construct revised UV-optical merged catalog of GCs and GC candidates in M31 by cross-matching between UV photometry and optical and near-IR photometry from Revised Bolobna Catalog and Caldwell et al. (2009). The UV catalog of M31 GCs includes 626 GCs and 529 GC candidates. We explored the general UV properties and age distribution of GCs comparing with the stellar population models. We suggest UV color-color diagram has advantage of separating GCs very effectively from background galaxies and foreground stars than the optical one.

  17. An Archival Search For Young Globular Clusters in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1995-07-01

    One of the most intriguing results from HST has been the discovery of ultraluminous star clusters in interacting and merging galaxies. These clusters have the luminosities, colors, and sizes that would be expected of young globular clusters produced by the interaction. We propose to use the data in the HST Archive to determine how prevalent this phenomena is, and to determine whether similar clusters are produced in other environments. Three samples will be extracted and studied in a systematic and consistent manner: 1} interacting and merging galaxies, 2} starburst galaxies, 3} a control sample of ``normal'' galaxies. A preliminary search of the archives shows that there are at least 20 galaxies in each of these samples, and the number will grow by about 50 observations become available. The data will be used to determine the luminosity function, color histogram , spatial distribution, and structural properties of the clusters using the same techniques employed in our study of NGC 7252 {``Atoms -for-Peace'' galaxy} and NGC 4038/4039 {``The Antennae''}. Our ultimate goals are: 1} to understand how globular clusters form, and 2} to use the clusters as evolutionary tracers to unravel the histories of interacting galaxies.

  18. Intermediate-Age Globular Clusters in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzia, Thomas

    2005-07-01

    We propose deep ACS/WFC imaging of four halo M31 globular clusters in order to derive their horizontal branch morphologies. Our spectroscopic investigation of their integrated light identifies them as members of an intermediate-age population of globular clusters in M31. Since our spectroscopic results are based on the analysis of Balmer absorption lines, we need to secure our results against an artificial juvenation due to extreme horizontal branch morphologies. The proposed observations will allow a clear-cut answer to the question of whether spectroscopically derived intermediate-age estimates are due to genuinely younger ages or are the result of anomalously hot horizontal branch morphologies. Either way, our results will have important implications for spectroscopically derived ages and metallicities of distant stellar populations. Because of the high spatial resolution of the proposed ACS/WFC observations we will also derive accurate surface brightness profiles of our target globular clusters and investigate the influence of stellar density on horizontal branch morphology. Moreover, together with deep parallel WFPC2 fields we will study the metallicity dispersion of the background stellar population in M31 as a function of galactocentric radius.

  19. A dynamical study of Galactic globular clusters under different relaxation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zocchi, A.; Bertin, G.; Varri, A. L.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: We perform a systematic combined photometric and kinematic analysis of a sample of globular clusters under different relaxation conditions, based on their core relaxation time (as listed in available catalogs), by means of two well-known families of spherical stellar dynamical models. Systems characterized by shorter relaxation time scales are expected to be better described by isotropic King models, while less relaxed systems might be interpreted by means of non-truncated, radially-biased anisotropic f(ν) models, originally designed to represent stellar systems produced by a violent relaxation formation process and applied here for the first time to the study of globular clusters. Methods: The comparison between dynamical models and observations is performed by fitting simultaneously surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles. For each globular cluster, the best-fit model in each family is identified, along with a full error analysis on the relevant parameters. Detailed structural properties and mass-to-light ratios are also explicitly derived. Results: We find that King models usually offer a good representation of the observed photometric profiles, but often lead to less satisfactory fits to the kinematic profiles, independently of the relaxation condition of the systems. For some less relaxed clusters, f(ν) models provide a good description of both observed profiles. Some derived structural characteristics, such as the total mass or the half-mass radius, turn out to be significantly model-dependent. The analysis confirms that, to answer some important dynamical questions that bear on the formation and evolution of globular clusters, it would be highly desirable to acquire larger numbers of accurate kinematic data-points, well distributed over the cluster field. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Photometric and kinematic studies of extragalactic globular cluster systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Jessica

    Globular clusters (GCs) are old, luminous, compact collections of stars found in galaxy halos that formed during the early stages of galaxy formation. Because of this, GCs serve as excellent tracers of the formation, structure, and merger history of their host galaxies. My dissertation will examine both the photometric and kinematic properties of GC systems and their relationship to their host galaxies. In the first section, I will present the analysis of the GC systems of two spiral galaxies, NGC 891 and NGC 1055. I will discuss the photometric methods used to detect GCs using wide-field BVR imaging and to quantify the global properties of the system such as the total number of GCs and their radial distribution. My results for these two GC systems were compared to those of other galaxies. I will also present the results of spectroscopic follow-up for two giant galaxies: the S0 galaxy NGC 4594 (M104), and the elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 (M105). I measured the radial velocities of GCs in these two galaxies, and combined them with published results to determine the mass distribution and mass-to-light (M/L) ratio profile for each galaxy out to large effective radius (7-9 Re). For both galaxies, I found that the M/L profiles increase with radius and do not flatten, which suggests that the dark matter halos in these galaxies extend to the edge of my data. I also looked for evidence of rotation in the GC systems, and found that neither system exhibits significant rotation around the host galaxy. I examined the velocity dispersion profile of each GC system and found kinematic differences between the red and blue GC subpopulations. Finally, I compared my results to mass estimates for these galaxies from other kinematic tracers and considered them in the context of galaxy formation models.

  1. On the Birth Masses of the Ancient Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Charlie

    2012-10-01

    All globular clusters (GCs) studied to date show evidence for internal (star-to-star) variation in their light-element abundances (including Li, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, and probably He). These variations have been interpreted as evidence for multiple star formation episodes within GCs, with secondary episodes fueled, at least in part, by the ejecta of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars from a first generation of stars. A major puzzle emerging from this otherwise plausible scenario is that the fraction of stars associated with the second episode of star formation is observed to be much larger than expected for a standard initial mass function. The present work investigates this tension by modeling the observed anti-correlation between [Na/Fe] and [O/Fe] for 20 Galactic GCs. If the abundance pattern of the retained AGB ejecta does not depend on GC mass at fixed [Fe/H], then a strong correlation is found between the fraction of current GC stellar mass composed of pure AGB ejecta, fp , and GC mass. This fraction varies from 0.20 at low masses (104.5 M ⊙) to 0.45 at high masses (106.5 M ⊙). The fraction of mass associated with pure AGB ejecta is directly related to the total mass of the cluster at birth; the ratio between the initial and present mass in stars can therefore be derived. Assuming a star formation efficiency of 50%, the observed Na-O anti-correlations imply that GCs were at least 10-20 times more massive at birth, a conclusion that is in qualitative agreement with previous work. These factors are lower limits because any mass-loss mechanism that removes first- and second-generation stars equally will leave fp unchanged. The mass dependence of fp probably arises because lower mass GCs are unable to retain all of the AGB ejecta from the first stellar generation. Recent observations of elemental abundances in intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud clusters are re-interpreted and shown to be consistent with this basic scenario. The small scatter in fp at

  2. ON THE BIRTH MASSES OF THE ANCIENT GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie

    2012-10-10

    All globular clusters (GCs) studied to date show evidence for internal (star-to-star) variation in their light-element abundances (including Li, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, and probably He). These variations have been interpreted as evidence for multiple star formation episodes within GCs, with secondary episodes fueled, at least in part, by the ejecta of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars from a first generation of stars. A major puzzle emerging from this otherwise plausible scenario is that the fraction of stars associated with the second episode of star formation is observed to be much larger than expected for a standard initial mass function. The present work investigates this tension by modeling the observed anti-correlation between [Na/Fe] and [O/Fe] for 20 Galactic GCs. If the abundance pattern of the retained AGB ejecta does not depend on GC mass at fixed [Fe/H], then a strong correlation is found between the fraction of current GC stellar mass composed of pure AGB ejecta, f{sub p} , and GC mass. This fraction varies from 0.20 at low masses (10{sup 4.5} M{sub Sun }) to 0.45 at high masses (10{sup 6.5} M{sub Sun }). The fraction of mass associated with pure AGB ejecta is directly related to the total mass of the cluster at birth; the ratio between the initial and present mass in stars can therefore be derived. Assuming a star formation efficiency of 50%, the observed Na-O anti-correlations imply that GCs were at least 10-20 times more massive at birth, a conclusion that is in qualitative agreement with previous work. These factors are lower limits because any mass-loss mechanism that removes first- and second-generation stars equally will leave f{sub p} unchanged. The mass dependence of f{sub p} probably arises because lower mass GCs are unable to retain all of the AGB ejecta from the first stellar generation. Recent observations of elemental abundances in intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud clusters are re-interpreted and shown to be consistent with this

  3. Luminosity Function of Faint Globular Clusters in M87

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Christopher Z.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Lauer, Tod R.; Baltz, Edward A.; Silk, Joseph; /Oxford U.

    2006-07-14

    We present the luminosity function to very faint magnitudes for the globular clusters in M87, based on a 30 orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 imaging program. The very deep images and corresponding improved false source rejection allow us to probe the mass function further beyond the turnover than has been done before. We compare our luminosity function to those that have been observed in the past, and confirm the similarity of the turnover luminosity between M87 and the Milky Way. We also find with high statistical significance that the M87 luminosity function is broader than that of the Milky Way. We discuss how determining the mass function of the cluster system to low masses can constrain theoretical models of the dynamical evolution of globular cluster systems. Our mass function is consistent with the dependence of mass loss on the initial cluster mass given by classical evaporation, and somewhat inconsistent with newer proposals that have a shallower mass dependence. In addition, the rate of mass loss is consistent with standard evaporation models, and not with the much higher rates proposed by some recent studies of very young cluster systems. We also find that the mass-size relation has very little slope, indicating that there is almost no increase in the size of a cluster with increasing mass.

  4. A spectroscopic study of the globular Cluster NGC 4147

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanova, S.; Monaco, L.; Moni Bidin, C.; Assmann, P.

    2016-08-01

    We present the abundance analysis for a sample of 18 red giant branch stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4147 based on medium- and high-resolution spectra. This is the first extensive spectroscopic study of this cluster. We derive abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y, Ba, and Eu. We find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.84 ± 0.02 and an α-enhancement of +0.38 ± 0.05 (errors on the mean), typical of halo globular clusters in this metallicity regime. A significant spread is observed in the abundances of light elements C, N, O, Na, and Al. In particular, we found an Na-O anticorrelation and Na-Al correlation. The cluster contains only ˜15 per cent of stars that belong to the first generation (Na-poor and O-rich). This implies that it suffered a severe mass-loss during its lifetime. Its [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] mean values agree better with the Galactic halo trend than with the trend of extragalactic environments at the cluster metallicity. This possibly suggests that NGC 4147 is a genuine Galactic object at odd with what claimed by some author that proposed the cluster to be member of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. An antirelation between the light s-process element Y and Na may also be present.

  5. HST Search for Planetary Nebulae in Local Group Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    If every star of about solar mass produces a planetary nebula (PN) near the end of its life, there should be several dozen PNe in the globular clusters (GCs) of the Local Group. However, ground-based surveys of Milky Way GCs have revealed only 4 PNe. A converse argument is that it is likely that the remnants of stars now evolving in ancient GCs leave the AGB so slowly that any ejected PN dissipates long before the star becomes hot enough to ionize it. Thus there should not be any PNe in Milky Way GCs--but there are four! It has been suggested that these PNe are the result of binary mergers of binary stars within GCs, i.e., that they are descendants of blue stragglers. To explore these issues and extend them beyond the Milky Way, I carried out a Snapshot imaging survey of GCs throughout the Local Group with the Hubble Space Telescope. Observations were made with the WFPC2 camera in 2007-2008, and with WFC3 in 2009-2011. Frames were obtained in a narrow-band [O III] 5007 filter and in a broad V filter (F555W). In this filter combination, a PN will have a comparable signal in both bandpasses, but stars will be much brighter in the V filter. I surveyed 41 GCs in M31, 4 in M33, 8 in the Magellanic Clouds, 2 in Fornax, and 1 each in NGC 6822, WLM, and NGC 147. Only one candidate PN was found, in the M31 GC B086. My results appear to be consistent with a ground-based spectroscopic survey for PNe in the M31 GCs by Jacoby et al. (2013), which found only 3 PN candidates in 274 clusters. PNe are very rare in GCs, but a few do exist, and they may require binary interactions for their formation.

  6. The DRAGON simulations: globular cluster evolution with a million stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long; Spurzem, Rainer; Aarseth, Sverre; Giersz, Mirek; Askar, Abbas; Berczik, Peter; Naab, Thorsten; Schadow, Riko; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.

    2016-05-01

    Introducing the DRAGON simulation project, we present direct N-body simulations of four massive globular clusters (GCs) with 106 stars and 5 per cent primordial binaries at a high level of accuracy and realism. The GC evolution is computed with NBODY6++GPU and follows the dynamical and stellar evolution of individual stars and binaries, kicks of neutron stars and black holes (BHs), and the effect of a tidal field. We investigate the evolution of the luminous (stellar) and dark (faint stars and stellar remnants) GC components and create mock observations of the simulations (i.e. photometry, colour-magnitude diagrams, surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles). By connecting internal processes to observable features, we highlight the formation of a long-lived `dark' nuclear subsystem made of BHs, which results in a two-component structure. The inner core is dominated by the BH subsystem and experiences a core-collapse phase within the first Gyr. It can be detected in the stellar (luminous) line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles. The outer extended core - commonly observed in the (luminous) surface brightness profiles - shows no collapse features and is continuously expanding. We demonstrate how a King model fit to observed clusters might help identify the presence of post core-collapse BH subsystems. For global observables like core and half-mass radii, the direct simulations agree well with Monte Carlo models. Variations in the initial mass function can result in significantly different GC properties (e.g. density distributions) driven by varying amounts of early mass-loss and the number of forming BHs.

  7. Binary black hole mergers from globular clusters: Masses, merger rates, and the impact of stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Carl L.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of GW150914, the binary black hole merger detected by Advanced LIGO, has the potential to revolutionize observational astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the Universe, we must compare these new observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. Expanding upon our previous work [C. L. Rodriguez, M. Morscher, B. Pattabiraman, S. Chatterjee, C.-J. Haster, and F. A. Rasio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 051101 (2015).], we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N -body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ejected black hole binaries and a cluster's mass and radius. With our improved treatment of stellar evolution, we find that globular clusters can produce a significant population of massive black hole binaries that merge in the local Universe. We explore the masses and mass ratios of these binaries as a function of redshift, and find a merger rate of ˜5 Gpc-3yr-1 in the local Universe, with 80% of sources having total masses from 32 M⊙ to 64 M⊙. Under standard assumptions, approximately one out of every seven binary black hole mergers

  8. Characterization and Modeling of Mass Segregation and Intermediate-Mass Black Holes in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, Roeland

    2011-10-01

    Studies of the dynamics and stellar populations of globular clusters are at the forefront of HST research. These two topics are deeply intertwined. Clusters experience an interplay of collisional processes that drive stars toward energy equipartition, thus segregating more massive stars to the core. In young clusters, this can even lead to the formation of intermediate-mass black holes {IMBHs}, which are of great astrophysical interest, although evidence for them continues to be disputed. Our recent HST{-supported} observational and theoretical studies indicate that equipartition in a cluster is not generally attained. Measurement of the actual mass segregation in clusters can yield significant insight into some of the most important cluster parameters, including the mass of any IMBH {which tends to quench mass segregation}. We have demonstrated this explictly on archival data of NGC2298 and M10. HST imaging {including parallel fields} exists in fact over large radial ranges for many globular clusters. This trove of information remains largely untapped, as studies generally focus on the cluster core. We propose here to rigorously quantify and model the mass segregation in all 66 Galactic globular clusters with suitable HST data. We will create CMDs, LFs, and MFs as function of radius, and will release the resulting Legacy data products to the community to enable a host of ancillary investigations. We will run N-body models to interpret the observed mass segregation in the sample clusters. Data-model comparisons will constrain the mass of any IMBHs, will identify IMBH-candidates for more targeted follow-up, and will shed new light on cluster structure and evolution.

  9. M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTER STRUCTURES AND THE PRESENCE OF X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Agar, J. R. R.; Barmby, P.

    2013-11-01

    The Andromeda galaxy, M31, has several times the number of globular clusters found in the Milky Way. It contains a correspondingly larger number of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) associated with globular clusters, and as such can be used to investigate the cluster properties that lead to X-ray binary formation. The best tracer of the spatial structure of M31 globulars is the high-resolution imaging available from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and we have used HST data to derive structural parameters for 29 LMXB-hosting M31 globular clusters. These measurements are combined with structural parameters from the literature for a total of 41 (of 50 known) LMXB clusters and a comparison sample of 65 non-LMXB clusters. Structural parameters measured in blue bandpasses are found to be slightly different (smaller core radii and higher concentrations) than those measured in red bandpasses; this difference is enhanced in LMXB clusters and could be related to stellar population differences. Clusters with LMXBs show higher collision rates for their mass compared to clusters without LMXBs, and collision rates estimated at the core radius show larger offsets than rates estimated at the half-light radius. These results are consistent with the dynamical formation scenario for LMXBs. A logistic regression analysis finds that, as expected, the probability of a cluster hosting an LMXB increases with increasing collision rate and proximity to the galaxy center. The same analysis finds that probability of a cluster hosting an LMXB decreases with increasing cluster mass at a fixed collision rate, although we caution that this could be due to sample selection effects. Metallicity is found to be a less important predictor of LMXB probability than collision rate, mass, or distance, even though LMXB clusters have a higher metallicity on average. This may be due to the interaction of location and metallicity: a sample of M31 LMXBs with a greater range in galactocentric distance would

  10. Gravitational microlensing by low-mass objects in the globular cluster M22.

    PubMed

    Sahu, K C; Casertano, S; Livio, M; Gilliland, R L; Panagia, N; Albrow, M D; Potter, M

    2001-06-28

    Gravitational microlensing offers a means of determining directly the masses of objects ranging from planets to stars, provided that the distances and motions of the lenses and sources can be determined. A globular cluster observed against the dense stellar field of the Galactic bulge presents ideal conditions for such observations because the probability of lensing is high and the distances and kinematics of the lenses and sources are well constrained. The abundance of low-mass objects in a globular cluster is of particular interest, because it may be representative of the very early stages of star formation in the Universe, and therefore indicative of the amount of dark baryonic matter in such clusters. Here we report a microlensing event associated with the globular cluster M22. We determine the mass of the lens to be 0.13(+0.03)(-0.02) solar masses. We have also detected six events that are unresolved in time. If these are also microlensing events, they imply that a non-negligible fraction of the cluster mass resides in the form of free-floating planetary-mass objects. PMID:11429596

  11. The expected very-high-energy flux from a population of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.

    Given their old ages, globular clusters are expected to harbour many evolved stellar objects. Their high core densities enhance stellar encounter rates, also facilitating the formation of stellar end products. In particular, many millisecond pulsars are found in these clusters. Such a population of millisecond pulsars is expected to radiate several spectral components in the radio through gamma -ray waveband. We present ongoing work involving a refined spectral model that assumes millisecond pulsars as sources of relativistic particles to model the multi-wavelength emission properties of globular clusters. We apply the model to a population of globular clusters that have been observed by H.E.S.S. and use upper limits derived from stacking analyses to test the viability of this ``millisecond pulsar scenario''. We derive general expressions for the ensemble-averaged flux and its error stemming from the uncertainty in free model parameters. The errors exceed this calculated average flux value so that there are regions in parameter space for which the model predictions satisfy the H.E.S.S. upper limits. Improved constraints on single-cluster parameters are therefore needed to aid in discriminating between competing spectral models.

  12. Effects of cosmic string velocities and the origin of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ling; Yamanouchi, Shoma; Brandenberger, Robert

    2015-12-01

    With the hypothesis that cosmic string loops act as seeds for globular clusters in mind, we study the role that velocities of these strings will play in determining the mass distribution of globular clusters. Loops with high enough velocities will not form compact and roughly spherical objects and can hence not be the seeds for globular clusters. We compute the expected number density and mass function of globular clusters as a function of both the string tension and the peak loop velocity, and compare the results with the observational data on the mass distribution of globular clusters in our Milky Way. We determine the critical peak string loop velocity above which the agreement between the string loop model for the origin of globular clusters (neglecting loop velocities) and observational data is lost.

  13. Globular cluster clustering and tidal features around ultra-compact dwarf galaxies in the halo of NGC 1399

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voggel, Karina; Hilker, Michael; Richtler, Tom

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel approach to constrain the formation channels of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). They most probably are an inhomogeneous class of objects, composed of remnants of tidally stripped dwarf elliptical galaxies and star clusters that occupy the high mass end of the globular cluster luminosity function. We use three methods to unravel their nature: 1) we analyzed their surface brightness profiles; 2) we carried out a direct search for tidal features around UCDs; and 3) we compared the spatial distribution of GCs and UCDs in the halo of their host galaxy. Based on FORS2 observations under excellent seeing conditions, we studied the detailed structural composition of a large sample of 97 UCDs in the halo of NGC 1399, the central galaxy of the Fornax cluster, by analyzing their surface brightness profiles. We found that 13 of the UCDs were resolved above the resolution limit of 23 pc and we derived their structural parameters fitting a single Sérsic function. When decomposing their profiles into composite King and Sérsic profiles, we find evidence for faint stellar envelopes at μ = ~ 26 mag arcsec-2, surrounding the UCDs up to an extension of 90 pc in radius. We also show new evidence for faint asymmetric structures and tidal tail-like features surrounding several of these UCDs, a possible tracer of their origin and assembly history within their host galaxy halos. In particular, we present evidence for the first discovery of a significant tidal tail with an extension of ~350 pc around UCD-FORS 2. Finally, we studied the local overdensities in the spatial distribution of globular clusters within the halo of NGC 1399 out to 110 kpc to see if they are related to the positions of the UCDs. We found a local overabundance of globular clusters on a scale of ≤1 kpc around UCDs, when we compared it to the distribution of globulars from the host galaxy. This effect is strongest for the metal-poor blue GCs. We discuss how likely it is that these clustered

  14. The Globular Cluster System of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 7814

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2003-11-01

    We present the results of a wide-field photometric study of the globular cluster (GC) system of the edge-on Sab spiral NGC 7814. This is the first spiral to be fully analyzed from our survey of the GC systems of a large sample of galaxies beyond the Local Group. NGC 7814 is of particular interest because a previous study estimated that it has 500-1000 GCs, giving it the largest specific frequency (SN) known for a spiral. Understanding this galaxy's GC system is important in terms of our understanding of the GC populations of spirals in general and has implications for the formation of massive galaxies. We observed the galaxy in BVR filters with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope and used image classification and three-color photometry to select GC candidates. We also analyzed archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of NGC 7814, both to help quantify the contamination level of the WIYN GC candidate list and to detect GCs in the inner part of the galaxy halo. Combining HST data with high-quality ground-based images allows us to trace the entire radial extent of this galaxy's GC system and determine the total number of GCs directly through observation. We find that rather than being an especially high-SN spiral, NGC 7814 has <~200 GCs and SN~1, making it comparable to the two most well-studied spiral galaxies, the Milky Way and M31. We explore the implications of these results for models of the formation of galaxies and their GC systems. The initial results from our survey suggest that the GC systems of typical elliptical galaxies can be accounted for by the merger of two or more spirals, but that for highly luminous elliptical galaxies, additional physical processes may be needed.

  15. THE BLUE HOOK POPULATIONS OF MASSIVE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas M.; Smith, Ed; Sweigart, Allen V.; Lanz, Thierry; Landsman, Wayne B.; Hubeny, Ivan E-mail: edsmith@stsci.ed E-mail: lanz@astro.umd.ed E-mail: hubeny@aegis.as.arizona.ed

    2010-08-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet color-magnitude diagrams of five massive Galactic globular clusters: NGC 2419, NGC 6273, NGC 6715, NGC 6388, and NGC 6441. These observations were obtained to investigate the 'blue hook' (BH) phenomenon previously observed in UV images of the globular clusters {omega} Cen and NGC 2808. Blue hook stars are a class of hot (approximately 35,000 K) subluminous horizontal branch stars that occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical stellar evolution theory. By coupling new stellar evolution models to appropriate non-LTE synthetic spectra, we investigate various theoretical explanations for these stars. Specifically, we compare our photometry to canonical models at standard cluster abundances, canonical models with enhanced helium (consistent with cluster self-enrichment at early times), and flash-mixed models formed via a late helium-core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve. We find that flash-mixed models are required to explain the faint luminosity of the BH stars, although neither the canonical models nor the flash-mixed models can explain the range of color observed in such stars, especially those in the most metal-rich clusters. Aside from the variation in the color range, no clear trends emerge in the morphology of the BH population with respect to metallicity.

  16. Hunting for Optical Companions to Binary Msps in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    Here we present a proposal which exploits the re-newed potential of HST after the Service Mission 4 for probing the population of binary Millisecond Pulsars {MSPs} in Globular Clusters. In particular we intend to: {1} extend the search for optical counterparts in Terzan 5, by pushing the performance of the WFC3 IR channel to sample the entire MS extension down to M=0.1 Mo; {2} perform a deep multi-band search of MSP companions with the WFC3, in 3 clusters {namely NGC6440, M28 and M5}, where recent radio observations have found particularly interesting objects; {3} derive an accurate radial velocity {with STIS} of the puzzling optical companion COM6266B recently discovered by our group, to firmly assess its cluster membership.This program is the result of a large collaboration among the three major groups {lead by Freire, Ransom and Possenti} which are performing extensive MSP search in GCs in the radio bands, and our group which has a large experience in performing accurate stellar photometry in crowded environments. This collaboration has produced a number of outstanding discoveries. In fact, three of the 6 optical counterparts to binary MSP companions known to date in GCs have been discovered by our group. The observations here proposed would easily double/triple the existing sample of known MSP companions, allowing the first meaningful approach to the study of the formation, evolution and recycling process of pulsar in GCs. Moreover, since most of binary MSPs in GCs are thought to form via stellar interactions in the high density core regions, the determination of the nature of the companion and the incidence of this collisionally induced population has a significant impact on our knowledge of the cluster dynamics. Even more interesting, the study of the optical companions to NSs in GCs allows one to derive tighter constraints {than those obtainable for NS binaries in the Galactic field} on the system properties. This has, in turn, an intrisic importance for

  17. An AO-assisted Variability Study of Four Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, R.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Strader, J.; Hakala, P.; Catelan, M.; Peacock, M. B.; Simunovic, M.

    2016-09-01

    The image-subtraction technique applied to study variable stars in globular clusters represented a leap in the number of new detections, with the drawback that many of these new light curves could not be transformed to magnitudes due to severe crowding. In this paper, we present observations of four Galactic globular clusters, M 2 (NGC 7089), M 10 (NGC 6254), M 80 (NGC 6093), and NGC 1261, taken with the ground-layer adaptive optics module at the SOAR Telescope, SAM. We show that the higher image quality provided by SAM allows for the calibration of the light curves of the great majority of the variables near the cores of these clusters as well as the detection of new variables, even in clusters where image-subtraction searches were already conducted. We report the discovery of 15 new variables in M 2 (12 RR Lyrae stars and 3 SX Phe stars), 12 new variables in M 10 (11 SX Phe and 1 long-period variable), and 1 new W UMa-type variable in NGC 1261. No new detections are found in M 80, but previous uncertain detections are confirmed and the corresponding light curves are calibrated into magnitudes. Additionally, based on the number of detected variables and new Hubble Space Telescope/UVIS photometry, we revisit a previous suggestion that M 80 may be the globular cluster with the richest population of blue stragglers in our Galaxy. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  18. Pal 12 - A metal-rich globular cluster in the outer halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. G.; Frogel, J. A.; Persson, S. E.; Zinn, R.

    1980-01-01

    New optical and infrared observations of several stars in the distant globular cluster Pal 12 show that they have CO strengths and heavy element abundances only slightly less than in M 71, one of the more metal-rich globular clusters. Pal 12 thus has a metal abundance near the high end of the range over which globular clusters exist and lies in the outer galactic halo. Its red horizontal branch is not anomalous in view of the abundance that has been found.

  19. Evidence for the Disky Origin of Luminous Virgo Dwarf Ellipticals from the Kinematics of Their Globular Cluster Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Cenarro, A. Javier; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.

    2009-06-01

    We report evidence for dynamically significant rotation in the globular cluster systems of two luminous Virgo dwarf ellipticals, VCC1261 and VCC1528. Including previous results for VCC1087, the globular cluster systems of all three Virgo dwarf ellipticals studied in detail to date exhibit v rot/σlos>1. Taking the rotation seen in the globular clusters as a maximal disk rotation, and accounting for the possible fading of any hypothetical progenitor galaxy, we find all three dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) lie on the r-band Tully-Fisher relation. We argue that these data support the hypothesis that luminous dEs are the remnants of transformed disk galaxies. We also obtained deep, longslit data for the stars in VCC1261 and VCC1528. Both these galaxies show rapid rotation in their inner regions, with spatial scales of ~0.5 kpc. These rotation velocities are surprisingly similar to those seen in the globular cluster systems. At larger radii, we see little rotation in the dEs themselves. Since our longslit data for Virgo dEs extend out to 1-2 effective radii (typical of deep observations), whereas the globular clusters extend out to 4-7 effective radii, we conclude that nondetections of rotation in many luminous dEs may simply be due to a lack of radial coverage in the stellar data, and that globular clusters represent singularly sensitive probes of the dynamics of dEs. Based on these data, we suggest that gas disks are significant sites of globular cluster formation in the early universe. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  20. The Compositin of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Johnson, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Observations of red giants in the Bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) mounted on the Nasmyth-East port of the Magellan-Clay 6.5m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory reveal a spread in metallicity. Members have been confirmed with radial velocity. NGC 6273 has at least two populations separated by 0.2-0.3 dex in [Fe/H]. The sodium and aluminum abundances are correlated while the magnesium and aluminum abundances are anti-correlated. The cluster also shows a rise in the abundance of the s-process element lanthanum with [Fe/H] similar to other massive clusters. The cluster contains a possible 3rd population depleted in most elements by 0.3 dex.

  1. The age of the LMC globular cluster NGC 1783

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mould, Jeremy; Kristian, Jerome; Nemec, James; Jensen, Joseph; Aaronson, Marc

    1989-01-01

    The age of the LMC red globular cluster NGC 1783 is estimated as 0.9 + or - 0.4 billion yr by photometry of the main-sequence turnoff. The accuracy of the estimate is limited chiefly by the uncertainty in the distance modulus of the cluster. At (m - M)0 = 18.2 the cluster is aged 1.1 + or - 0.2 Gyr; at (m - M)0 = 18.7 it is 0.7 + or - 0.2 Gyr. NGC 1783 is a sufficiently rich cluster that one can see the full development of red giants on the asymptotic giant branch from the M type, through S, to carbon-rich atmospheres.

  2. Age estimates of globular clusters in the Milky Way: constraints on cosmology.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Lawrence M; Chaboyer, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Recent observations of stellar globular clusters in the Milky Way Galaxy, combined with revised ranges of parameters in stellar evolution codes and new estimates of the earliest epoch of globular cluster formation, result in a 95% confidence level lower limit on the age of the Universe of 11.2 billion years. This age is inconsistent with the expansion age for a flat Universe for the currently allowed range of the Hubble constant, unless the cosmic equation of state is dominated by a component that violates the strong energy condition. This means that the three fundamental observables in cosmology-the age of the Universe, the distance-redshift relation, and the geometry of the Universe-now independently support the case for a dark energy-dominated Universe. PMID:12511641

  3. Discovery of near-ultraviolet counterparts to millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Sandoval, Liliana E.

    2016-07-01

    Up to date 144 radio millisecond pulsars have been found in Galactic globular clusters, of which about two-thirds are in a binary. However, until recently only for 10 of those binary millisecond pulsars the companion has been firmly identified at optical wavelengths. We present the discovery of 2 likely He white dwarf companions to millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, as well as the confirmation of 2 tentative identifications in the same cluster, using near-ultraviolet images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. This represents an important contribution to the total number of optical counterparts known in Galactic globular clusters so far. We have also analyzed optical observations taken with Hubble. From these images, we obtained H_α results for some of the counterparts. Based on our UV photometry and He WD cooling models we derived the ages, the masses and the bolometric luminosities for all the He WD companions. I will discuss our results and their implications in the context of the standard millisecond pulsar formation scenario.

  4. Structure and Dynamics of the Globular Cluster Palomar 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, J. D.; Geha, M.; Muñoz, R. R.; Santana, F. A.; Simon, J. D.; Côté, P.; Stetson, P. B.; Kirby, E.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2011-12-01

    We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam photometry for the Milky Way globular cluster Palomar 13. We triple the number of spectroscopically confirmed members, including many repeat velocity measurements. Palomar 13 is the only known globular cluster with possible evidence for dark matter, based on a Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer 21 star velocity dispersion of σ = 2.2 ± 0.4 km s-1. We reproduce this measurement, but demonstrate that it is inflated by unresolved binary stars. For our sample of 61 stars, the velocity dispersion is σ = 0.7+0.6 -0.5 km s-1. Combining our DEIMOS data with literature values, our final velocity dispersion is σ = 0.4+0.4 -0.3 km s-1. We determine a spectroscopic metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.6 ± 0.1 dex, placing a 1σ upper limit of σ[Fe/H] ~ 0.2 dex on any internal metallicity spread. We determine Palomar 13's total luminosity to be MV = -2.8 ± 0.4, making it among the least luminous known globular clusters. The photometric isophotes are regular out to the half-light radius and mildly irregular outside this radius. The outer surface brightness profile slope is shallower than typical globular clusters (Σvpropr η, η = -2.8 ± 0.3). Thus at large radius, tidal debris is likely affecting the appearance of Palomar 13. Combining our luminosity with the intrinsic velocity dispersion, we find a dynamical mass of M 1/2 = 1.3+2: 7 -1.3 × 103 M ⊙ and a mass-to-light ratio of M/LV = 2.4+5.0 -2.4 M ⊙/L ⊙. Within our measurement errors, the mass-to-light ratio agrees with the theoretical predictions for a single stellar population. We conclude that, while there is some evidence for tidal stripping at large radius, the dynamical mass of Palomar 13 is consistent with its stellar mass and neither significant dark matter, nor extreme tidal heating, is required to explain the cluster dynamics. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a

  5. Photometric and Kinematic Studies of Extragalactic Globular Cluster Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windschitl-Dowell, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are compact, luminous collections of stars created during the early stages of galaxy formation. As a result, the properties of GC systems provide important clues about the formation, merger history, and structure of their host galaxies. In particular, kinematic studies of GCs can be used to investigate the dark matter distribution in galaxy halos and provide observational evidence that can be used to constrain models of galaxy formation. I will present our study of the GC systems of two spiral galaxies, NGC 891 and NGC 1055, and show how we used wide-field BVR imaging from the WIYN 3.5-m telescope to detect the GC population and measure the global properties of the system. We quantified the radial distribution of the GC system and total number of GCs in these galaxies and compared the results to those of other galaxies.I will also present the results of spectroscopic follow-up for two giant galaxies: the S0 galaxy NGC 4594 (M104), and the elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 (M105). Using spectra taken with AAT/AAOmega, WIYN/HYDRA, and MMT/Hectospec, I measured the radial velocities of GCs, and combined them with published results to determine the mass distribution and V-band mass-to-light (M/LV) ratio profile for each galaxy out to large effective radius (7-9 Re). I compared our results to mass estimates from other kinematic tracers and also considered them in the context of galaxy formation models. For both galaxies, I found that the M/LV profiles increase with radius and do not flatten, which suggests that the dark matter halos in these galaxies extend to the edge of our data. I also looked for evidence of rotation within the GC systems, and found that neither system exhibits significant rotation around the host galaxy. Finally, I examined the velocity dispersion of each GC system as a function of radius and found kinematic differences between the red, metal-rich and blue, metal-poor GC subpopulations.

  6. Intermediate-age globular clusters in four galaxy merger remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Trancho, Gelys; Miller, Bryan W.; Schweizer, François; Burdett, Daniel P.; Palamara, David

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of combining Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry with ground-based K{sub s} -band photometry from the Gemini imagers NIRI and FLAMINGOS-I to study the globular cluster (GC) populations in four early-type galaxies that are candidate remnants of recent mergers (NGC 1700, NGC 2865, NGC 4382, and NGC 7727). These galaxies were chosen based on their blue colors and fine structure, such as shells and ripples that are indicative of past interactions. We fit the combined VIK{sub s} GC data with simple toy models of mixed cluster populations that contain three subpopulations of different age and metallicity. The fits, done via chi-squared mapping of the parameter space, yield clear evidence for the presence of intermediate-age clusters in each galaxy. We find that the ages of ∼1-2 Gyr for these GC subpopulations are consistent with the previously estimated merger ages for the host galaxies.

  7. The Realm of the Galactic Globular Clusters and the Mass of Their Primordial Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Cassisi, Santi; Silich, Sergiy

    2016-07-01

    By adopting the empirical constraints related to the estimates of helium enhancement ({{Δ }}Y), the present mass ratio between first and second stellar generations ({M}1{{G}}/{M}2{{G}}), and the actual mass of Galactic globular clusters (M GC), we envisage a possible scenario for the formation of these stellar systems. Our approach allows for the possible loss of stars through evaporation or tidal interactions and different star-formation efficiencies. In our approach, the star-formation efficiency of the first generation (ɛ 1G) is the central factor that links the stellar generations because it not only defines both the mass in stars of the first generation and the remaining mass available for further star formation, but it also fixes the amount of matter required to contaminate the second stellar generation. In this way, ɛ 1G is fully defined by the He enhancement between successive generations in a GC. We also show that globular clusters fit well within a ΔY versus {M}1{{G}}/{M}2{{G}} diagram that indicates three different evolutionary paths. The central one is for clusters that have not lost stars through tidal interactions from either of their stellar generations, and thus their present M GC value is identical to the amount of low-mass stars (M * ≤ 1 M ⊙) that resulted from both stellar generations. Other possible evolutions imply either the loss of first-generation stars or the combination of a low star-formation efficiency in the second stellar generation and a loss of stars from the second generation. From these considerations, we derive a lower limit to the mass (M tot) of the individual primordial clouds that gave origin to globular clusters.

  8. The Age of the Inner Halo Globular Cluster NGC 6652

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaboyer, Brian; Sarajedini, Ata; Armandroff, Taft E.

    2000-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) (V,I) photometry has been obtained for the inner halo globular cluster NGC 6652. The photometry reaches approximately 4 mag below the turn-off and includes a well populated horizontal branch (HB). This cluster is located close to the Galactic center at RGC approximately equal to 2.0 kpc with a reddening of E(V-I) = 0.15 +/- 0.02 and has a metallicity of [Fe/H] approximately equal to -0.85. Based upon DELTA V (sup SGB) (sub HB), NGC 6652 is 11.7 plus or minus 1.6 Gyr old. Using A HB precise differential ages for 47 Tuc (a thick disk globular), M107 and NGC 1851 (both halo clusters) were obtained. NGC 6652 appears to be the same age as 47 Tuc and NGC 1851 (within +/- 1.2 Gyr), while there is a slight suggestion that M107 is older than NGC 6652 by 2.3 +/- 1.5 Gyr. As this is a less than 2 sigma result, this issue needs to be investigated further before a definitive statement regarding the relative age of M107 and NGC 6652 may be made.

  9. Search for Variable Stars in Six Southern Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Joo; Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Dong-Jin; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Lee, Jae Woo; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Lee; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Yongseok; Lim, Beomdu; Park, Byeong-Gon; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2015-08-01

    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has installed wide-field photometric survey systems called Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) at three Southern observatories of CTIO in Chile, SAAO in South Africa, and SSO in Australia. Each system consists of a wide-field optical telescope with 1.6m diameter and a mosaic CCD camera with 18k by 18k pixels, having a 2.0 by 2.0 square degree field of view. Its primary scientific goal is to search for extrasolar planets, especially Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone, by using the gravitational microlensing method. We have performed the pre-science run of these three telescopes, with attaching a 4k CCD camera for a few months at each site before installing the 18k mosaic CCD camera. Considering the rather small field of view of the 4k CCD camera, we chose six globular clusters NGC 288, NGC 1851, NGC 3201, NGC 4372, NGC 6752, and NGC 6809 to monitor photometrically. Difference Image Analysis (DIA) technique was applied to the time-series CCD images in order to minimize the blending effect in the crowded field of globular clusters. We will present the preliminary results to search for variable stars in the clusters.

  10. Multiple stellar populations in the globular cluster NGC 1851

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretta, E.; Lucatello, S.; Gratton, R. G.; Bragaglia, A.; D'Orazi, V.

    2011-09-01

    We present a detailed chemical tagging of individual stellar populations in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 1851. Abundances are derived from FLAMES spectra for the largest sample of giants (124) and the most extensive number of elements ever analysed in this peculiar GC. The chemistry is characterised using homogeneous abundances of proton-capture (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si), α-capture (Ca, Ti), Fe-peak (Sc, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu), and neutron-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Dy). We confirm the presence of an [Fe/H] spread larger than the observational errors in this cluster, but too small to clearly separate different sub-populations. We instead propose a classification scheme using a combination of Fe and Ba (which is much more abundant in the more metal-rich group) by means of a cluster analysis. With this approach, we separated stars into two components of a metal-rich (MR) and a metal-poor (MP) population. Each component displays a Na-O anticorrelation, which is a signature of a genuine GC, but has different ratios of primordial (FG) to polluted (SG) stars. Moreover, clear (anti)correlations of Mg and Si with Na and O are found for each component. The level of [α/H] tracks iron and is higher in the MR population, which might therefore have received an additional contribution from core-collapse supernovae. When considering all s-process elements, the MR population shows a larger enrichment than the MP one. This is probably due to the contribution of intermediate-low mass stars, because we find that the level of heavy s-process elements is higher than that of light s-process nuclei in the MR stars; however, a large contribution from low mass stars is unlikely, because it would likely cancel the O-Na anticorrelation. Finally, we confirm the presence of correlations between the amount of proton-capture elements and the level of s-process elements previously found by other investigations, at least for the MR population. This finding apparently requires a

  11. Deep Mixing and Metallicity in Globular Cluster Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah L.

    2007-12-01

    We present results from a study of carbon depletion and deep mixing in globular cluster red giants across a wide range of metallicity. CH bandstrengths are measured from low-resolution (R 1000) spectra and converted to [C/Fe] abundances by comparisons with synthetic spectra. Although some models of deep mixing predict that its efficiency will be reduced at high metallicity, no sign of such a cutoff is seen in our data, which span the range -2.29 < [Fe/H] < -1.29.

  12. A Comparison of the Detailed Chemical Abundances of Globular Clusters in the Milky Way, Andromeda, and Centaurus A Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    We present a homogeneous analysis of high resolution spectra of globular clusters in three massive galaxies: the Milky Way, M31, and NGC 5128. We measure detailed abundance ratios for alpha, light, Fe-peak, and neutron capture elements using our technique for analyzing the integrated light spectra of globular clusters. For many of the heavy elements we provide a first look at the detailed chemistry of old populations in an early type galaxy. We discuss similarities and differences between the galaxies and the potential implications for their star formation histories.

  13. Bayesian Analysis of Multiple Populations in Galactic Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner-Kaiser, Rachel A.; Sarajedini, Ata; von Hippel, Ted; Stenning, David; Piotto, Giampaolo; Milone, Antonino; van Dyk, David A.; Robinson, Elliot; Stein, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    We use GO 13297 Cycle 21 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations and archival GO 10775 Cycle 14 HST ACS Treasury observations of Galactic Globular Clusters to find and characterize multiple stellar populations. Determining how globular clusters are able to create and retain enriched material to produce several generations of stars is key to understanding how these objects formed and how they have affected the structural, kinematic, and chemical evolution of the Milky Way. We employ a sophisticated Bayesian technique with an adaptive MCMC algorithm to simultaneously fit the age, distance, absorption, and metallicity for each cluster. At the same time, we also fit unique helium values to two distinct populations of the cluster and determine the relative proportions of those populations. Our unique numerical approach allows objective and precise analysis of these complicated clusters, providing posterior distribution functions for each parameter of interest. We use these results to gain a better understanding of multiple populations in these clusters and their role in the history of the Milky Way.Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant numbers HST-GO-10775 and HST-GO-13297 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant NNX11AF34G issued through the Office of Space Science. This project was supported by the National Aeronautics & Space Administration through the University of Central Florida's NASA Florida Space Grant Consortium.

  14. Variable Stars In the Unusual, Metal-Rich Globular Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Marcio; Sweigart, Allen V.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have undertaken a search for variable stars in the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6388 using time-series BV photometry. Twenty-eight new variables were found in this survey, increasing the total number of variables found near NGC 6388 to approx. 57. A significant number of the variables are RR Lyrae (approx. 14), most of which are probable cluster members. The periods of the fundamental mode RR Lyrae are shown to be unusually long compared to metal-rich field stars. The existence of these long period RRab stars suggests that the horizontal branch of NGC 6388 is unusually bright. This implies that the metallicity-luminosity relationship for RR Lyrae stars is not universal if the RR Lyrae in NGC 6388 are indeed metal-rich. We consider the alternative possibility that the stars in NGC 6388 may span a range in [Fe/H]. Four candidate Population II Cepheids were also found. If they are members of the cluster, NGC 6388 would be the most metal-rich globular cluster to contain Population II Cepheids. The mean V magnitude of the RR Lyrae is found to be 16.85 +/- 0.05 resulting in a distance of 9.0 to 10.3 kpc, for a range of assumed values of (M(sub V)) for RR Lyrae. We determine the reddening of the cluster to be E(B - V) = 0.40 +/- 0.03 mag, with differential reddening across the face of the cluster. We discuss the difficulty in determining the Oosterhoff classification of NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 due to the unusual nature of their RR Lyrae, and address evolutionary constraints on a recent suggestion that they are of Oosterhoff type II.

  15. Star and cluster formation in NGC 1275

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richer, Harvey B.; Crabtree, Dennis R.; Fabian, A. C.; Lin, D. N. C.

    1993-01-01

    Luminous, blue, and unresolved objects have been found by imaging the nuclear region of the central galaxy in the Perseus Cluster, NGC 1275. Stellar formation in a cooling flow in which gas clouds confined by weak magnetic fields are allowed to remain at low densities is favored. Cloud-cloud collisions and coagulation in the high cloud density environment at the center of the galaxy then causes some clouds to become gravitationally unstable and to form globular clusters.

  16. The Counterparts of the Luminous, Bursting X-ray Sources in Globular Clusters-LTSA98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Scott F.

    2003-01-01

    Under the fifth year of the LTSA, we have extended our HST and Chandra work to a number of additional globular clusters. The remarkable sensitivity and positional accuracy of the Chandra observations are enabling us to maximally exploit HST for UV/optical identifications for X-ray binaries in the cores of multiple globular clusters. The dozens of lower-luminosity X-ray sources in each globular cluster deeply examined thus far have moved us firmly into the era of studies which encompass populations of close; the large range of cluster properties we are studying have, for the first tine, established a firm empirical confirmation of the (long-suspected theoretically) high importance that close binaries play in the dynamical stability and evolution of globular clusters. The LTSA support has been a cornerstone of our success over the past 5 years in studies of globular cluster X-ray sources and their counterparts.

  17. Dark Matter Content in Three Galactic Globular Clusters - 47 Tuc, NGC 1851, and M 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joowon; Shin, Jihye; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2015-08-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are known to have a very small amount of or no dark matter (DM). Even if GCs are formed in individual DM halos, they must have lost the majority of the DM through dynamical processes such as mass segregation and tidal shocks. NGC 2419 and NGC 6397 did not show any evidence of significant amounts of DM, however, similar studies for other galactic GCs would be needed to understand the GC formation. Using Fokker-Planck (FP) calculations, we investigate the dynamical evolution of the Galactic GCs initially residing in mini DM halos. We trace the amount of DM of 47 Tuc, NGC 1851, and M15, which are a ‘disk/bulge’ cluster, an ‘old halo’ cluster, and a ‘young halo’ cluster, respectively. We find that the three GCs must have initially had insignificant amounts of DM, less than 20 percent of the initial stellar mass of each cluster.

  18. Multiple populations in more metal-rich galactic globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Maria J.

    In this thesis we present chemical abundances for bright stars in the intermediate metallicity globular cluster (GC) M5, and the relatively metal-rich GCs M71 and 47 Tuc with the goal of improving the understanding of chemical evolution in the metallicity regime sampled by these three GCs. The first chapter presents a brief historical overview in light element abundance variations in globular clusters. In the second chapter we present the results obtained for 47 Tuc, the most-metal rich cluster of my sample. 47 Tuc is an ideal target to study chemical evolution and GC formation in massive more metal-rich GCs since it is the closest massive GC. Chemical abundances for O, Na, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, La, and Eu were determined for 164 red giant branch (RGB) stars in 47 Tuc using spectra obtained with both the Hydra multi-fiber spectrograph at the Blanco 4-m telescope and the FLAMES multi-object spectrograph at the ESO Very Large Telescope. The average [Fe/H]= --0.79+/-0.09 dex is consistent with literature values, as well as over-abundances of alpha-elements ([alpha/Fe] ~ 0.3 dex). The n-capture process elements indicate that 47 Tuc is r-process dominated ([Eu/La]=+0.24), and the light elements O, Na, and Al exhibit star-to-star variations. The Na-O anti-correlation, a signature typically seen in Galactic GCs, is present in 47 Tuc, and extends to include a small number of stars with [O/Fe] ~ --0.5. Additionally, the [O/Na] ratios of our sample reveal that the cluster stars can be separated into three distinct populations. A KS-test demonstrates that the O-poor/Na-rich stars are more centrally concentrated than the O-rich/Na-poor stars. The observed number and radial distribution of 47 Tuc's stellar populations, as distinguished by their light element composition, agrees closely with the results obtained from photometric data. We do not find evidence supporting a strong Na-Al correlation in 47 Tuc, which is consistent with current models of AGB nucleosynthesis yields

  19. Measuring consistent masses for 25 Milky Way globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmig, Brian; Seth, Anil; Ivans, Inese I.; Anderton, Tim; Gregersen, Dylan; Strader, Jay; Caldwell, Nelson

    2015-02-01

    We present central velocity dispersions, masses, mass-to-light ratios (M/Ls ), and rotation strengths for 25 Galactic globular clusters (GCs). We derive radial velocities of 1951 stars in 12 GCs from single order spectra taken with Hectochelle on the MMT telescope. To this sample we add an analysis of available archival data of individual stars. For the full set of data we fit King models to derive consistent dynamical parameters for the clusters. We find good agreement between single-mass King models and the observed radial dispersion profiles. The large, uniform sample of dynamical masses we derive enables us to examine trends of M/L with cluster mass and metallicity. The overall values of M/L and the trends with mass and metallicity are consistent with existing measurements from a large sample of M31 clusters. This includes a clear trend of increasing M/L with cluster mass and lower than expected M/Ls for the metal-rich clusters. We find no clear trend of increasing rotation with increasing cluster metallicity suggested in previous work.

  20. Intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters: observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Gebhardt, Karl; Baumgardt, Holger; Kruijssen, Diederik; Noyola, Eva; Neumayer, Nadine; de Zeeuw, Tim; Feldmeier, Anja; van der Helm, Edwin; Pelupessy, Inti; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2016-02-01

    The study of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is a young and promising field of research. If IMBHs exist, they could explain the rapid growth of supermassive black holes by acting as seeds in the early stage of galaxy formation. Formed by runaway collisions of massive stars in young and dense stellar clusters, intermediate-mass black holes could still be present in the centers of globular clusters, today. Our group investigated the presence of intermediate-mass black holes for a sample of 10 Galactic globular clusters. We measured the inner kinematic profiles with integral-field spectroscopy and determined masses or upper limits of central black holes in each cluster. In combination with literature data we further studied the positions of our results on known black-hole scaling relations (such as M • - σ) and found a similar but flatter correlation for IMBHs. Applying cluster evolution codes, the change in the slope could be explained with the stellar mass loss occurring in clusters in a tidal field over its life time. Furthermore, we present results from several numerical simulations on the topic of IMBHs and integral field units (IFUs). We ran N-body simulations of globular clusters containing IMBHs in a tidal field and studied their effects on mass-loss rates and remnant fractions and showed that an IMBH in the center prevents core collapse and ejects massive objects more rapidly. These simulations were further used to simulate IFU data cubes. For the specific case of NGC 6388 we simulated two different IFU techniques and found that velocity dispersion measurements from individual velocities are strongly biased towards lower values due to blends of neighboring stars and background light. In addition, we use the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment (AMUSE) to combine gravitational physics, stellar evolution and hydrodynamics to simulate the accretion of stellar winds onto a black hole.

  1. A New Database of Globular Clusters Parameters: Distributions of Cluster Properties and Correlations Between Them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, S.; Meylan, G.

    1993-05-01

    The forthcoming ASPCS volume, ``Structure and Dynamics of Globular Clusters'' (expected publication date: early summer of 1993) will contain a set of appendices with data resources on Galactic globular clusters; the authors of these papers include I.R. King, S. Peterson, C.T. Pryor, S.C. Trager, and ourselves. From these papers we have compiled a data base of various observed and derived parameters for globular clusters (143 of them at last count). Our main purpose is to use these data for correlative studies of globular cluster properties. Others may find it useful for similar purposes, for planning and support of observations, for testing of theoretical models, etc. We will describe the data base, and present some simple analysis of the cluster properties and correlations among them. The data will be made available to the community in a computer form, as ASCII files. Interested users should send an email message to the Internet address: george @ deimos.caltech.edu, and may also find the above mentioned ASPCS volume useful in their work. We thank our colleagues who contributed data for this compilation for their efforts. S.D. acknowledges a partial support from the NASA contract NAS5-31348, and the NSF PYI award AST-9157412.

  2. A NEW ABUNDANCE SCALE FOR THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 Tuc

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Andreas; McWilliam, Andrew E-mail: andy@ociw.edu

    2008-04-15

    We present chemical abundances for O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe in eight red giants and one turnoff star in the metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tuc, based on spectroscopy with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle high-resolution spectrograph on the Magellan 6.5 m Clay telescope. A robust line by a line differential abundance analysis technique, relative to the K-giant Arcturus, was used to reduce systematic errors from atmospheric and atomic parameters. Our derived mean LTE [Fe/H] of -0.76 {+-} 0.01 {+-} 0.04 dex (random and systematic error, respectively) is more metal poor by about 0.1 dex than recent literature results. The chemical element ratios in this nearby globular cluster most closely resemble those of the Galactic bulge, although there is a non-negligible overlap with the composition of thick-disk stars. We find that the [Al/Fe] and [Na/Fe] ratios coincide with the upper boundary of the trends seen in the bulge and thick disk. There is only a small intrinsic scatter in the majority of the abundance ratios, indicating that 47 Tuc is mostly a rather chemically homogeneous system.

  3. THE FIRST CONFIRMED MICROLENS IN A GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrukowicz, P.; Udalski, A.; Minniti, D.; Alonso-Garcia, J.; Jetzer, Ph.

    2012-01-10

    In 2000 July/August a microlensing event occurred at a distance of 2.'33 from the center of the globular cluster M22 (NGC 6656), observed against the dense stellar field of the Milky Way bulge. We have used the adaptive optics system NACO at the ESO Very Large Telescope to resolve the two objects that participated in the event: the lens and the source. The position of the objects measured in 2011 July is in agreement with the observed relative proper motion of M22 with respect to the background bulge stars. Based on the brightness of the microlens components we find that the source is a solar-type star located at a distance of 6.0 {+-} 1.5 kpc in the bulge, while the lens is a 0.18 {+-} 0.01 M{sub Sun} dwarf member of the globular cluster located at the known distance of 3.2 {+-} 0.2 kpc from the Sun.

  4. CN ANOMALIES IN THE HALO SYSTEM AND THE ORIGIN OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, Daniela; Martell, Sarah L.; Beers, Timothy C.; Freeman, Ken C. E-mail: smartell@aao.gov.au E-mail: kcf@mso.anu.edu.au

    2013-06-01

    We explore the kinematics and orbital properties of a sample of red giants in the halo system of the Milky Way that are thought to have formed in globular clusters based on their anomalously strong UV/blue CN bands. The orbital parameters of the CN-strong halo stars are compared to those of the inner- and outer-halo populations as described by Carollo et al., and to the orbital parameters of globular clusters with well-studied Galactic orbits. The CN-strong field stars and the globular clusters both exhibit kinematics and orbital properties similar to the inner-halo population, indicating that stripped or destroyed globular clusters could be a significant source of inner-halo field stars, and suggesting that both the CN-strong stars and the majority of globular clusters are primarily associated with this population.

  5. A DOUBLE MAIN SEQUENCE IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6397

    SciTech Connect

    Milone, A. P.; Aparicio, A.; Marino, A. F.; Piotto, G.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Cassisi, S.; Rich, R. M. E-mail: aparicio@iac.es E-mail: giampaolo.piotto@unipd.it E-mail: bedin@stsci.edu E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-01-20

    High-precision multi-band Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry reveals that the main sequence of the globular cluster NGC 6397 splits into two components, containing {approx}30% and {approx}70% of the stars. This double sequence is consistent with the idea that the cluster hosts two stellar populations: (1) a primordial population that has a composition similar to field stars, containing {approx}30% of the stars, and (2) a second generation with enhanced sodium and nitrogen, depleted carbon and oxygen, and a slightly enhanced helium abundance ({Delta}Y {approx} 0.01). We examine the color difference between the two sequences across a variety of color baselines and find that the second sequence is anomalously faint in m{sub F336W}. Theoretical isochrones indicate that this could be due to NH depletion.

  6. The orbital eccentricities of binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Heggie, Douglas C.

    1995-01-01

    Low-mass binary millisecond pulsars (LMBPs) are born with very small orbital eccentricities, typically of order e(sub i) approximately 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -3). In globular clusters, however, higher eccentricities e(sub f) much greater than e(sub i) can be induced by dynamical interactions with passing stars. Here we show that the cross section for this process is much larger than previously estimated. This is becuse, even for initially circular binaries, the induced eccentricity e(sub f) for an encounter with pericenter separation r(sub p) beyond a few times the binary semimajor axis a declines only as a power law (e(sub f) varies as (r(sub p)/a)(exp -5/2), and not as an exponential. We find that all currently known LMBPs in clusters were probably affected by interactions, with their current eccentricities typically greater than at birth by an order of magnitude or more.

  7. Soar adaptive optics observations of the globular cluster NGC 6496

    SciTech Connect

    Fraga, Luciano; Kunder, Andrea; Tokovinin, Andrei E-mail: lfraga@lna.br

    2013-06-01

    We present high-quality BVRI photometric data in the field of globular cluster NGC 6496 obtained with the SOAR Telescope Adaptive Module (SAM). Our observations were collected as part of the ongoing SAM commissioning. The distance modulus and cluster color excess as found from the red clump are (m – M) {sub V} = 15.71 ± 0.02 mag and E(V – I) = 0.28 ± 0.02 mag. An age of 10.5 ± 0.5 Gyr is determined from the difference in magnitude between the red clump and the subgiant branch. These parameters are in excellent agreement with the values derived from isochrone fitting. From the color-magnitude diagram we find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = –0.65 dex and hence support a disk classification for NGC 6496. The complete BVRI data set for NGC 6469 is made available in the electronic edition of the Journal.

  8. Dynamical evolution and spatial mixing of multiple population globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesperini, Enrico; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; D'Antona, Francesca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2013-03-01

    Numerous spectroscopic and photometric observational studies have provided strong evidence for the widespread presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters. In this paper, we study the long-term dynamical evolution of multiple population clusters, focusing on the evolution of the spatial distributions of the first- (FG) and second-generation (SG) stars. In previous studies, we have suggested that SG stars formed from the ejecta of FG AGB stars are expected initially to be concentrated in the cluster inner regions. Here, by means of N-body simulations, we explore the time-scales and the dynamics of the spatial mixing of the FG and the SG populations and their dependence on the SG initial concentration. Our simulations show that, as the evolution proceeds, the radial profile of the SG/FG number ratio, NSG/NFG, is characterized by three regions: (1) a flat inner part; (2) a declining part in which FG stars are increasingly dominant and (3) an outer region where the NSG/NFG profile flattens again (the NSG/NFG profile may rise slightly again in the outermost cluster regions). Until mixing is complete and the NSG/NFG profile is flat over the entire cluster, the radial variation of NSG/NFG implies that the fraction of SG stars determined by observations covering a limited range of radial distances is not, in general, equal to the SG global fraction, (NSG/NFG)glob. The distance at which NSG/NFG equals (NSG/NFG)glob is approximately between 1 and 2 cluster half-mass radii. The time-scale for complete mixing depends on the SG initial concentration, but in all cases complete mixing is expected only for clusters in advanced evolutionary phases, having lost at least 60-70 per cent of their mass due to two-body relaxation (in addition to the early FG loss due to the cluster expansion triggered by SNII ejecta and gas expulsion).The results of our simulations suggest that in many Galactic globular clusters the SG should still be more spatially concentrated than the

  9. THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM OF THE VIRGO GIANT ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4636. II. KINEMATICS OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Park, Hong Soo; Hwang, Ho Seong; Arimoto, Nobuo; Tamura, Naoyuki; Onodera, Masato E-mail: hspark@astro.snu.ac.k E-mail: masato.onodera@cea.f E-mail: naoyuki@subaru.naoj.or

    2010-02-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of the globular cluster (GC) system in the giant elliptical galaxy (gE) NGC 4636 in the Virgo cluster. Using the photometric and spectroscopic database of 238 GCs (108 blue GCs and 130 red GCs) at the galactocentric radius 0.'39 < R < 15.'43, we have investigated the kinematics of the GC system. The NGC 4636 GC system shows weak overall rotation, which is dominated by the red GCs. However, both the blue GCs and red GCs show some rotation in the inner region at R < 4.'3 (=2.9R{sub eff} = 18.5 kpc). The velocity dispersion for all the GCs is derived to be sigma{sub p} = 225{sup +12}{sub -9} km s{sup -1}. The velocity dispersion for the blue GCs (sigma{sub p} = 251{sup +18}{sub -12} km s{sup -1}) is slightly larger than that for the red GCs (sigma{sub p} = 205{sup +11}{sub -13} km s{sup -1}). The velocity dispersions for the blue GCs about the mean velocity and about the best-fit rotation curve have a significant variation depending on the galactocentric radius. Comparison of observed stellar and GC velocity dispersion profiles (VDPs) with the VDPs calculated from the stellar mass profile shows that the mass-to-light ratio should increase as the galactocentric distance increases, indicating the existence of an extended dark matter halo. From the comparison of the observed GC VDPs and the VDPs calculated for the X-ray mass profiles in the literature, we find that the orbit of the GC system is tangential, and that the orbit of the red GCs is slightly more tangential than that of the blue GCs. We compare the GC kinematics of NGC 4636 with those of other six gEs, finding that the kinematic properties of the GCs are diverse among gEs. We find several correlations between the kinematics of the GCs and the global parameters of their host galaxies. We discuss the implication of the results for the formation models of the GC system in gEs, and suggest a mixture scenario for the origin of the GCs in gEs.

  10. The Frequency of Lithium-Rich Giants in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Zhang, Andrew J.; Hong, Jerry; Guo, Michelle; Guo, Rachel; Cohen, Judith G.; Cunha, Katia M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Although red giants destroy lithium, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron-Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  11. Dynamical friction in multi-component evolving globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Alessandrini, Emiliano; Lanzoni, Barbara; Miocchi, Paolo; Ciotti, Luca; Ferraro, Francesco R.

    2014-11-10

    We use the Chandrasekhar formalism and direct N-body simulations to study the effect of dynamical friction on a test object only slightly more massive than the field stars, orbiting a spherically symmetric background of particles with a mass spectrum. The main goal is to verify whether the dynamical friction time (t {sub DF}) develops a non-monotonic radial dependence that could explain the bimodality of the blue straggler radial distributions observed in globular clusters. In these systems, in fact, relaxation effects lead to a mass and velocity radial segregation of the different mass components, so that mass-spectrum effects on t {sub DF} are expected to be dependent on radius. We find that in spite of the presence of different masses, t {sub DF} is always a monotonic function of radius, at all evolutionary times and independently of the initial concentration of the simulated cluster. This is because the radial dependence of t {sub DF} is largely dominated by the total mass density profile of the background stars (which is monotonically decreasing with radius). Hence, a progressive temporal erosion of the blue straggler star (BSS) population at larger and larger distances from the cluster center remains the simplest and the most likely explanation of the shape of the observed BSS radial distributions, as suggested in previous works. We also confirm the theoretical expectation that approximating a multi-mass globular cluster as made of (averaged) equal-mass stars can lead to significant overestimations of t {sub DF} within the half-mass radius.

  12. Variable stars in the globular cluster M 28 (NGC 6626)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, G.; Catelan, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Pritzl, B. J.; Smith, H. A.; Alonso-García, J.

    2012-07-01

    Context. We present a new search for variable stars in the Galactic globular cluster M 28 (NGC 6626). Aims: The search is based on a series of BVI images obtained with the SMARTS Consortium's 1.3 m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. Methods: The search was carried out using the ISIS v2.2 image subtraction package. Results: We find a total of 25 variable stars in the field of the cluster, nine being new discoveries. Of the newly found variables, one is an ab-type RR Lyrae star, six are c-type RR Lyrae, and two are long-period/semi-regular variables. V22, previously classified as a type II Cepheid, appears as a bona-fide RRc in our data. In turn, V20, previously classified as an ab-type RR Lyrae, could not be properly phased with any reasonable period. Conclusions: The properties of the ab-type RR Lyrae stars in M 28 appear most consistent with an Oosterhoff-intermediate classification, which is unusual for bona-fide Galactic globulars clusters. However, the cluster's c-type variables do not clearly support such an Oosterhoff type, and a hybrid Oosterhoff I/II system is accordingly another possibility, thus raising the intriguing possibility of multiple populations being present in M 28. Coordinates, periods, and light curves in differential fluxes are provided for all the detected variables. Based on observations obtained with the SMARTS Consortium 1.3 m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile.Figures 2-5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Mass segregation in the outer halo globular cluster Palomar 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Matthias J.; Grebel, Eva K.; Küpper, Andreas H. W.

    2014-09-01

    We present evidence for mass segregation in the outer halo globular cluster Palomar 14, which is intuitively unexpected since its present-day two-body relaxation time significantly exceeds the Hubble time. Based on archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we analyse the radial dependence of the stellar mass function in the cluster's inner 39.2 pc in the mass range of 0.53 ≤ m ≤ 0.80 M⊙, ranging from the main-sequence turn-off down to a V-band magnitude of 27.1 mag. The mass function at different radii is well approximated by a power law and rises from a shallow slope of 0.6 ± 0.2 in the cluster's core to a slope of 1.6 ± 0.3 beyond 18.6 pc. This is seemingly in conflict with the finding by Beccari et al., who interpret the cluster's non-segregated population of (more massive) blue straggler stars, compared to (less massive) red giants and horizontal branch stars, as evidence that the cluster has not experienced dynamical segregation yet. We discuss how both results can be reconciled. Our findings indicate that the cluster was either primordially mass segregated and/or used to be significantly more compact in the past. For the latter case, we propose tidal shocks as the mechanism driving the cluster's expansion, which would imply that Palomar 14 is on a highly eccentric orbit. Conversely, if the cluster formed already extended and with primordial mass segregation, this could support an accretion origin of the cluster.

  14. Discovery of Remote Globular Cluster Satellites of M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparkman, Lea; Guo, Rachel; Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric W.; Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; NGVS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of several tens of globular clusters (GCs) in the outer regions of the giant elliptical M87, the brightest galaxy in the Virgo Cluster. These M87 GC satellites were discovered in the course of Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic follow up of GC candidates that were identified in the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS). Specifically, the primary targets of this Keck spectroscopic campaign were GC satellites of early-type dwarf (dE) galaxies. However, we found that our sample contained a subset of GCs for which M87 is the most likely host. This subset is consistent with having an r^-1 power-law surface density distribution and a radial velocity distribution both centered on M87. The remote M87 GC satellites span the radial range 140 to 900 kpc, out to about a third of the Virgo Cluster's virial radius (for comparison, M87's effective radius is only 8 kpc). These M87 GC satellites are probably former satellites of other Virgo Cluster galaxies that have subsequently been cannibalized by M87.This research was supported by the National Science Foundation and the UC Santa Cruz Science Internship Program.

  15. MULTIWAVELENGTH PHOTOMETRY IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M2

    SciTech Connect

    Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F.R.; Beccari, G.; Schiavon, R.; Rood, R.T.

    2009-06-15

    We present a multiwavelength photometric analysis of the globular cluster M2. The data set has been obtained by combining high-resolution (Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 and ACS) and wide-field (Galaxy Evolution Explorer) space observations and ground-based (MEGACAM-CFHT, EMMI-NTT) images. The photometric sample covers the entire cluster extension from the very central regions up to the tidal radius and beyond. It allows an accurate determination of the cluster center of gravity and other structural parameters derived from the star count density profile. Moreover, we study the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) population and its radial distribution. A total of 123 BSSs have been selected, and their radial distribution has been found to be bimodal (highly peaked in the center, decreasing at intermediate radii, and rising outward), as already found in a number of other clusters. The radial position of the minimum of the BSS distribution is consistent with the radius of avoidance caused by the dynamical friction of massive (1.2 M {sub sun}) objects over the cluster age. We also searched for gradients in the red giant branch (RGB) and the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) populations. At the 2{sigma} level, we found an overabundance of AGB stars within the core radius and confirmed the result of Sohn et al. that the central region of M2 is bluer than the outer part. We show that the latter is due to a deficit of very luminous RGB stars in the central region.

  16. CN and CH Bandstrengths in Bright Globular Cluster Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah L.; Smith, G. H.

    2006-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a survey of CN and CH bandstrengths in bright red giant stars (MV -1.5) in Galactic globular clusters. Our cluster sample spans a wide metallicity range, from M92 ([Fe/H]=-2.28) to M71 ([Fe/H]=-0.73). The data were all taken using the Shane 120-inch telescope and the Kast spectrograph at Lick Observatory; the homogeneity of the sample makes it ideal for a comparative study of carbon depletion (and therefore deep mixing rate) as a function of stellar metallicity. Thus far we have measured molecular bandstrength indices for CH and CN, as well as indices for Ca and Mg lines; the task of converting the index measurements to carbon and nitrogen abundances will require comparisons with synthetic spectra. The molecular CN index behaves as expected from a study of the literature: within individual clusters, it varies significantly from star to star. The data also allow us to examine the dependence of the Ca and Mg indices on cluster metallicity at a given MV. The index MHK shows clear sensitivity to [Fe/H] across the full metallicity range of our sample. A similar study is also in progress involving analogous stars in the open clusters NGC 188, NGC 2158, NGC 6791, and NGC 7789 (-0.3 < [Fe/H] < +0.3).

  17. Radial velocities in the globular cluster ω Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijns, R. A.; Seitzer, P.; Arnold, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Ingerson, T.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van de Ven, G.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    2006-01-01

    We have used the ARGUS multi-object spectrometer at the CTIO 4 m Blanco telescope to obtain 2756 radial velocity measurements for 1966 individual stars in the globular cluster ω Centauri brighter than blue photographic magnitude of about 16.5. Of these, 1589 stars are cluster members. A comparison with two independent radial velocity studies, carried out by Suntzeff & Kraft and by Mayor et al., demonstrates that the median error of our measurements is below 2 km s-1 for the stars brighter than B-magnitude 15, which constitute the bulk of the sample. The observed velocity dispersion decreases from about 15 km s-1 in the inner few arcmin to about 6 km s-1 at a radius of 25'. The cluster shows significant rotation, with a maximum amplitude of about 6 km s-1 in the radial zone between 6' and 10'. In a companion paper by van de Ven et al., we correct these radial velocities for the perspective rotation caused by the space motion of the cluster, and combine them with the internal proper motions of nearly 8000 cluster members measured by van Leeuwen et al., to construct a detailed dynamical model of ω Centauri and to measure its distance.

  18. Neutron stars and millisecond pulsars from accretion-induced collapse in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailyn, Charles D.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the limits on the number of millisecond pulsars which could be formed in globular clusters by the generally accepted scenario (in which a neutron star is created by the supernova of an initially massive star and subsequently captures a companion to form a low-mass X-ray binary which eventually becomes a millisecond pulsar). It is found that, while the number of observed low-mass X-ray binaries can be adequately explained in this way, the reasonable assumption that the pulsar luminosity function in clusters extends below the current observational limits down to the luminosity of the faintest millisecond pulsars in the field suggests a cluster population of millisecond pulsars which is substantially larger than the standard model can produce. Alleviating this problem by postulating much shorter lifetimes for the X-ray binaries requires massive star populations sufficiently large that the mass loss resulting from their evolution would be likely to unbind the cluster. It is argued that neutron star formation in globular clusters by accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs may resolve the discrepancy in birthrates.

  19. The Main Sequence Luminosity Function of Low-Mass Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme

    2009-07-01

    Theoretical work indicates that the dynamical evolution of globular clusters of low mass and low central concentration is strongly determined by mass-loss processes, such as stellar evaporation and tidal stripping, that can eventually lead to cluster dissolution. In fact, mass loss and cluster disruption is now considered to be a viable explanation for the form of the faint end of the Milky Way globular cluster luminosity function. A clear observational demonstration of the prevalence of cluster mass-loss would have ramifications not only for the dynamical evolution of individual globular clusters and their internal stellar mass distributions, but also for the relationships between halo field and cluster stars and the properties of globular cluster systems in galaxies. Our previous WFPC2 imaging of the low-mass diffuse halo cluster Palomar 5 revealed a main sequence deficient in stars compared to other low-concentration globular clusters of much higher mass, consistent with there having been a considerable loss of stars from this system. But is Pal 5 typical of low-mass, low-concentration halo clusters? We propose to place the mass-loss scenario on a firm observational footing {or otherwise} by using WFC3 imaging to measure the main-sequence stellar mass functions of two of the lowest-mass lowest-concentration globular clusters in the Milky Way, AM-4 and Palomar 13, in order to search for analogous evidence of stellar depletion.

  20. WFPC2 Observations of the Sagittarius Globular Cluster Arp 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueñas, E. N.; Mighell, K. J.

    2002-12-01

    We present our preliminary analysis of archival Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 observations in the F555W (V) and F814W (I) filters of the metal-poor globular cluster Arp 2 in the nearby Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The deep V vs. (V-I) color-magnitude diagram reaches 3.5 magnitudes below the main sequence turnoff with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 or greater in both filters; it also features a well-defined subgiant branch as well as a few blue stragglers. The upper red giant branch is not analyzed due to photometric saturation. Most previous studies of Arp 2 analyzed the ground-based BV observations of Buonanno et al. (1995) or the ground-based VI observations of Sarajedini & Layden (1997). Buonanno et al. found that Arp 2 is a metal-poor, intermediate age cluster, while Layden & Sarajedini (2000) determined that it is coeval with other ancient Galactic globular clusters, e.g. 13.1 +/- 0.9 Gyr. We have analyzed our space-based observations with the Yonsei-Yale (Y2) isochrones of Yi et al. (2001) and present evidence that confirms the Layden & Sarajedini's ancient-age hypothesis for Arp 2. Dueñas was supported, in part, by awards to South Carolina State University from NASA/MU-SPIN (NCC 5-534) and NASA/OSS (NAG 5-10145), and the NOAO/KPNO REU Program, funded by the National Science Foundation. Mighell was supported by a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), S-67046-F, awarded by the Long-Term Space Astrophysics program of NASA's Office of Space Science.

  1. Massive binaries as the source of abundance anomalies in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mink, S. E.; Pols, O. R.; Langer, N.; Izzard, R. G.

    2009-11-01

    Abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster stars indicate pollution with material processed by hydrogen burning. Two main sources have been suggested: asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars rotating near the break-up limit (spin stars). We propose massive binaries as an alternative source of processed material. We compute the evolution of a 20 {M}⊙ star in a close binary considering the effects of non conservative mass and angular momentum transfer and of rotation and tidal interaction to demonstrate the principle. We find that this system sheds about 10 {M}⊙ of material, nearly the entire envelope of the primary star. The ejecta are enriched in He, N, Na, and Al and depleted in C and O, similar to the abundance patterns observed in gobular cluster stars. However, Mg is not significantly depleted in the ejecta of this model. In contrast to the fast, radiatively driven winds of massive stars, this material is typically ejected with low velocity. We expect that it remains inside the potential well of a globular cluster and becomes available for the formation or pollution of a second generation of stars. We estimate that the amount of processed low-velocity material ejected by massive binaries is greater than the contribution of AGB stars and spin stars combined, assuming that the majority of massive stars in a proto-globular cluster interact with a companion and return their envelope to the interstellar medium. If we take the possible contribution of intermediate mass stars in binaries into account and assume that the ejecta are diluted with an equal amount of unprocessed material, we find that this scenario can potentially provide enough material to form a second generation of low-mass stars, which is as numerous as the first generation of low-mass stars, without the need to make commonly adopted assumptions, such as preferential loss of the first generation of stars, external pollution of the cluster, or an anomalous initial mass function.

  2. Globular Cluster Star Classification: Application to M13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimmi, R.

    2013-06-01

    Starting from recent determination of Fe, O, Na abundances on a restricted sample (N=67) of halo and thick disk stars, a natural and well motivated selection criterion is defined for the classification globular cluster stars. An application is performed to M13 using a sample (N=113) for which Fe, O, Na abundances have been recently inferred from observations. A comparison is made between the current and earlier M13 star classifications. Both O and Na empirical differential abundance distributions are determined for each class and for the whole sample (with the addition of Fe in the last case) and compared with their theoretical counterparts due to cosmic scatter obeying a Gaussian distribution whose parameters are inferred from related subsamples. The occurrence of an agreement between the empirical and theoretical distributions is interpreted as absence of significant chemical evolution and vice versa. The procedure is repeated with regard to four additional classes depending on whether oxygen and sodium abundance is above (stage CE) or below (stage AF) a selected threshold. Both O and Na empirical differential abundance distributions, related to the whole sample, exhibit a linear fit for the AF and CE stage. Within the errors, the oxygen slope for the CE stage is equal and of opposite sign with respect to the sodium slope for AF stage, while the contrary holds when dealing with the oxygen slope for the AF stage with respect to the sodium slope for the CE stage. In the light of simple models of chemical evolution applied to M13, oxygen depletion appears to be mainly turned into sodium enrichment for [O/H]≥-1.35 and [Na/H]≤-1.45, while one or more largely preferred channels occur for [O/H]<-1.35 and [Na/H]>-1.45. In addition, the primordial to the current M13 mass ratio can be inferred from the true sodium yield in units of the sodium solar abundance. Though the above results are mainly qualitative due to large (∓.5 dex) uncertainties in abundance

  3. New EGRET/COMPTEL studies of globular clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manandhar, R. P.; Grindlay, J. E.; Thompson, D. J.

    1996-12-01

    We present results of our Phase 2 program of observations of two nearby globular clusters, NGC 6397 and NGC 6752, with EGRET and COMPTEL to search for the integrated emission from their populations of millisecond pulsars, LMXBs (in quiescence), and CVs. Upper limits were derived for each cluster that are a factor of 2 more sensitive than in the general cluster survey of Michelson et al. (1994ApJ...435..218M) using EGRET. Our COMPTEL limits are the first reported for the 1-30MeV band for these clusters and are comparably sensitive to the EGRET limits for an assumed Crab-like spectrum yet can also constrain source spectra if they break at energies below 30MeV. These limits are better than the COMPTEL limits recently reported for 47 Tuc by O'Flaherty et al. (1995A&A...297L..29O). The lowest upper limits, for NGC 6397, restrict the integrated luminosity to be below ~10^35^ergs/s in either the COMPTEL or EGRET energy bands. A serendipitous source, GRO J1718-60, was detected (4.1σ) with EGRET, near (but not coincident with) NGC 6397. Although this source would be consistent with the nearby (1.7°) pulsar J1704-60, the published spindown luminosity is too low for it to be a plausible counterpart. Constraints on the typical gamma-ray luminosity for millisecond pulsars and quiescent LMXBs are derived and discussed.

  4. Effect of dynamical interactions on integrated properties of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yulong; Zhang, Fenghui; Anders, Peter; Ruan, Zhifeng; Cheng, Liantao; Kang, Xiaoyu

    2015-02-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are generally treated as natural validators of simple stellar population (SSP) models. However, there are still some differences between real GCs and SSPs. In this work, we use a direct N-body simulation code NBODY6 to study the influences of dynamical interactions, metallicity and primordial binaries on Milky Way GCs' integrated properties. Our models start with N = 100 000 stars, covering a metallicity range Z = 0.0001 ˜ 0.02, a subset of our models contain primordial binaries, resulting in a binary fraction as currently observed at a model age of GCs. Stellar evolution and external tidal field representative for an average Milky Way GC are taken into consideration. The integrated colours and Lick indices are calculated using BaSeL and Bluered stellar spectral libraries separately. By including dynamical interactions, our model clusters show integrated features (i.e. colours up to 0.01 mag bluer, Hβ up to 0.1 Å greater and [MgFe]' 0.05 Å smaller) making the clusters appear slightly younger than the model clusters without dynamical interactions. This effect is caused mainly by the preferential loss of low-mass stars which have a stronger contribution to redder passbands as well as different spectral features compared to higher mass stars. In addition, this effect is larger at lower metallicities. On the contrary, the incorporation of primordial binaries reduces this effect.

  5. Homogeneous Photometry. V. The Globular Cluster NGC 4147

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Peter B.; Catelan, M.; Smith, Horace A.

    2005-12-01

    New BVRI broadband photometry and astrometry are presented for the globular cluster NGC 4147, based upon measurements derived from 524 ground-based CCD images mostly either donated by colleagues or retrieved from public archives. We have also reanalyzed five exposures of the cluster obtained with WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope in the F439W and F555W (B and V) filters. We present calibrated color-magnitude and color-color diagrams. Analysis of the color-magnitude diagram reveals morphological properties generally consistent with published metal-abundance estimates for the cluster, and an age typical of other Galactic globular clusters of similar metallicity. We have also redetermined the periods and mean magnitudes for the RR Lyrae variables, including a new c-type variable reported here for the first time. Our data do not show clear evidence for photometric variability in candidate V18, recently reported by Arellano Ferro et al. (2004, Rev. Mex. A&A, 40, 209). These observations also support the nonvariable status of candidates V5, V9, and V15. The union of our light-curve data with those of Newburn (1957, AJ, 62, 197), Mannino (1957, Mem. Soc. Astron. Italiana, 28, 285), and Arellano Ferro et al. (op. cit.) permits the derivation of significantly improved periods. The mean periods and the Bailey period-amplitude diagrams support the classification of the cluster as Oosterhoff I, despite its predominantly blue horizontal branch. The number ratio of c- to ab-type RR Lyrae stars, on the other hand, is unusually high for an Oosterhoff I cluster. The calibrated results have been made available through the first author's Web site. Based in part on archival observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal Observatory under program ID 60.A-9050(A). This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center

  6. Confirming the intrinsic abundance spread in the globular cluster NGC 6273 (M 19) with calcium triplet spectroscopy★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, David; Da Costa, Gary S.; Norris, John E.

    2016-05-01

    We present metallicities for red giant stars in the globular cluster NGC 6273 based on intermediate resolution GMOS-S spectra of the calcium triplet region. For the 42 radial velocity members with reliable calcium triplet line strength measurements, we obtain metallicities, [Fe/H], using calibrations established from standard globular clusters. We confirm the presence of an intrinsic abundance dispersion identified by Johnson et al. (2015). The total range in [Fe/H] is ˜1.0 dex and after taking into account the measurement errors, the intrinsic abundance dispersion is σint[Fe/H] = 0.17 dex. Among the Galactic globular clusters, the abundance dispersion in NGC 6273 is only exceeded by ω Cen, which is regarded as the remnant of a disrupted dwarf galaxy, and M 54, which is the nuclear star cluster of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. If these three globular clusters share the same formation mechanism, then NGC 6273 may also be the remnant nucleus of a disrupted dwarf galaxy.

  7. Confirming the intrinsic abundance spread in the globular cluster NGC 6273 (M19) with calcium triplet spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, David; Da Costa, Gary S.; Norris, John E.

    2016-08-01

    We present metallicities for red giant stars in the globular cluster NGC 6273 based on intermediate resolution GMOS-S spectra of the calcium triplet region. For the 42 radial velocity members with reliable calcium triplet line strength measurements, we obtain metallicities, [Fe/H], using calibrations established from standard globular clusters. We confirm the presence of an intrinsic abundance dispersion identified by Johnson et al. The total range in [Fe/H] is ˜1.0 dex and after taking into account the measurement errors, the intrinsic abundance dispersion is σint[Fe/H] = 0.17 dex. Among the Galactic globular clusters, the abundance dispersion in NGC 6273 is only exceeded by ω Cen, which is regarded as the remnant of a disrupted dwarf galaxy, and M54, which is the nuclear star cluster of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. If these three globular clusters share the same formation mechanism, then NGC 6273 may also be the remnant nucleus of a disrupted dwarf galaxy.

  8. SHRINKING THE BRANEWORLD: BLACK HOLE IN A GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Zepf, Stephen E. E-mail: tjm@astro.soton.ac.u E-mail: zepf@pa.msu.ed

    2009-11-10

    Large extra dimensions have been proposed as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem in physics. In one of the suggested models, the RS2 braneworld model, black holes may evaporate by Hawking radiation faster than in general relativity, on a timescale that depends on the black hole mass and on the asymptotic radius of curvature of the extra dimensions. Thus the size of the extra dimensions can be constrained by astrophysical observations. Here we point out that the black hole, recently discovered in an extragalactic globular cluster, places the strongest upper limit on the size of the extra dimensions in the RS2 model, L approx< 0.003 mm. This black hole has the virtues of old age and relatively small mass. The derived upper limit is within an order of magnitude of the absolute limit afforded by astrophysical observations of black holes.

  9. DO INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES EXIST IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS?

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Mou-Yuan; Jin, Ya-Ling; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Tong; Lin, Da-Bin; Lu, Ju-Fu

    2013-10-20

    The existence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in globular clusters (GCs) remains a crucial problem. Searching for IMBHs in GCs reveals a discrepancy between radio observations and dynamical modelings: the upper mass limits constrained by radio observations are systematically lower than that of dynamical modelings. One possibility for such a discrepancy is that, as we suggest in this work, there exist outflows in accretion flows. Our results indicate that, for most sources, current radio observations cannot rule out the possibility that IMBHs may exist in GCs. In addition, we adopt an M-dot -L{sub R} relation to revisit this issue, which confirms the results obtained by the fundamental plane relation.

  10. Dark matter and the age of globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, David; Raffelt, Georg; Salati, Pierre; Silk, Joseph; Bouquet, Alain

    1990-01-01

    The ability of weakly interacting particles called cosmions to suppress convection in the cores of horizontal-branch stars is investigated numerically. It is found that such convection-breaking in horizontal-branch stars by cosmions or by any other novel mode of energy transfer induces thermal relaxation oscillations with a period of about 500,000 yr, corresponding to the core Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale. These thermal pulses can be understood analytically in terms of a simple two-zone model. Observationally, the brightness and brightness dispersion of horizontal-branch stars increases, the periods of RR Lyrae stars change over a pulsation time scale, and the duration of central helium burning slightly decreases. None of these effects is in conflict with observations but, on the contrary, point to a speculative resolution of the age problem for globular clusters and to an alternative explanation of the period fluctuations of RR Lyrae stars.

  11. On the Galactic globular cluster Delta VHBbump parameter .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cecco, A.; Bono, G.; Pietrinferni, A.; Becucci, R.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P.; Monelli, M.; Buonanno, R.; Corsi, C. E.; Caputo, F.; Iannicola, G.; Ferraro, I.; Pulone, L.; Walker, A. R.

    We calculated new estimates of the Delta VHBbump parameter for 15 Galactic Globular Clusters (GGCs) using accurate ground-based photometric data. We enlarged our sample with literature data and we obtained a sample of 62 GGCs covering a wide metallicity range (-2.16le [M/H]le -0.58 dex). To compare the data with the theory we used theoretical models from \\citet{pie04} and two different metallicity scales. We found that the observed values are higher (˜0.4 mag) than the canonical predictions. Moreover, the discepancy increases in the \\citet{ki03} metallicity scale and it decreases in the \\citet{cg97} scale. We investigated also the impact of CNONa extreme mixture and higher He-enhanced abundance (Y=0.30). The use of these models is not in the direction to explain the observed discrepancy.

  12. Giant Rapid X-ray Flares in Extragalactic Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Jimmy; Maksym, W. Peter; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Lin, Dacheng

    2016-01-01

    There is only one known class of non-destructive, highly energetic astrophysical object in the Universe whose energy emission varies by more than a factor of 100 on time scales of less than a minute -- soft gamma repeaters/anomalous X-ray pulsars, whose flares are believed to be caused by the energy release from the cracking of a neutron star's surface by very strong magnetic fields. All other known violent, rapid explosions, including gamma-ray bursts and supernovae, are believed to destroy the object in the process. Here, we report the discovery of a second class of non-destructive, highly energetic rapidly flaring X-ray object located within two nearby galaxies with fundamentally different properties than soft gamma repeaters/anomalous X-ray pulsars. One source is located within a suspected globular cluster of the host galaxy and flared one time, while the other source is located in either a globular cluster of the host galaxy or the core of a stripped dwarf companion galaxy that flared on five occasions over a seven year time span. When not flaring, the sources appear as normal accreting neutron star or black hole X-ray binaries, indicating that the flare event does not significantly disrupt the host system. While the nature of these sources is still unclear, the discovery of these sources in decade-old archival Chandra X-ray Observatory data illustrates the under-utilization of X-ray timing as a means to discover new classes of explosive events in the Universe.

  13. An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

    2013-08-01

    Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9 ± 0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC 6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47 Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC 6397. PMID:23903747

  14. GeMS MCAO observations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808: the absolute age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, D.; Fiorentino, G.; McConnachie, A.; Bono, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Turri, P.; Tolstoy, E.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Globular clusters are the oldest stellar systems in the Milky Way, and they probe the early epoch of the Galaxy formation. However, the uncertainties on their absolute age are still too large to soundly constrain how the Galactic structures have assembled. Aims: The aim of this work is to obtain an accurate estimate of the absolute age of the globular cluster NGC 2808 using deep IR data obtained with the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system operating at the Gemini South telescope (GeMS). Methods: This exquisite photometry, combined with that obtained in V and I-bands with HST, allowed us to detect the faint Main Sequence Knee feature in NGC 2808 colour magnitude diagram. The difference between this point and the main sequence turn-off is a good age estimator that provides ages with unprecedented accuracy. Results: We find that NGC 2808 has an age of t = 10.9 ± 0.7 (intrinsic) ±0.45 (metallicity term) Gyr. A possible contamination by He-enhanced population could make the cluster up to 0.25 Gyr older. Although this age estimate agrees with the age coming from the classical turn-off method (t = 11.0 Gyr), its uncertainty is a factor ~3 better, since it avoids systematics in reddening, distance assumptions, and photometric zero point determination. The final absolute age indicates that NGC 2808 is slightly younger than other Galactic globular clusters with similar metallicity. Tables of the photometry are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A51

  15. On the Serendipitous Discovery of a Li-rich Giant in the Globular Cluster NGC 362

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Angelou, George C.; Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio; Lattanzio, John C.; Lucatello, Sara; Momany, Yazan; Sollima, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    We have serendipitously identified the first lithium-rich giant star located close to the red giant branch bump in a globular cluster. Through intermediate-resolution FLAMES spectra we derived a lithium abundance of A(Li) = 2.55 (assuming local thermodynamical equilibrium), which is extremely high considering the star’s evolutionary stage. Kinematic and photometric analysis confirm the object as a member of the globular cluster NGC 362. This is the fourth Li-rich giant discovered in a globular cluster, but is the only one known to exist at a luminosity close to the bump magnitude. The three previous detections are clearly more evolved, located close to, or beyond, the tip of their red giant branch. Our observations are able to discard the accretion of planets/brown dwarfs, as well as an enhanced mass-loss mechanism as a formation channel for this rare object. While the star sits just above the cluster bump luminosity, its temperature places it toward the blue side of the giant branch in the color-magnitude diagram. We require further dedicated observations to unambiguously identify the star as a red giant: we are currently unable to confirm whether Li production has occurred at the bump of the luminosity function or if the star is on the pre-zero-age horizontal branch. The latter scenario provides the opportunity for the star to have synthesized Li rapidly during the core helium flash or gradually during its red giant branch ascent via some extra mixing process. Based on observations taken with ESO telescopes under program 094.D-0363(A).

  16. A proper motion study of the globular cluster M55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zloczewski, K.; Kaluzny, J.; Thompson, I. B.

    2011-07-01

    We have derived the absolute proper motion (PM) of the globular cluster M55 using a large set of CCD images collected with the du Pont telescope between 1997 and 2008. We find (μα cos δ, μδ) = (-3.31 ± 0.10, -9.14 ± 0.15) mas yr-1 relative to background galaxies. Membership status was determined for 16 945 stars with 14 < V < 21 from the central part of the cluster. The PM catalogue includes 52 variables, of which 43 are probable members of M55. This sample not only is dominated by pulsating blue straggler stars, but also includes five eclipsing binaries, three of which are main-sequence objects. The survey also identified several candidate blue, yellow and red straggler stars belonging to the cluster. We detected 15 likely members of the Sgr dSph galaxy located behind M55. The average PM for these stars was measured to be (μα cos δ, μδ) = (-2.23 ± 0.14, -1.83 ± 0.24) mas yr-1.

  17. AN ECLIPSING BLUE STRAGGLER IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER {omega} CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Li Kai; Qian Shengbang

    2012-12-01

    {omega} Centauri is the largest globular cluster in the Milky Way and hence contains the largest number of variable stars within a single cluster. The results of photometric solutions are presented for the EA-type binary V239 in this cluster. According to our analysis, V239 is a typical Algol-type binary. We obtain M = 1.20 {+-} 0.10 M{sub Sun }, R = 1.21 {+-} 0.03 R{sub Sun }, and L = 13.68 {+-} 0.63 L{sub Sun} for the primary component. The secondary component has M = 0.07 {+-} 0.02 M{sub Sun }, R = 0.90 {+-} 0.03 R{sub Sun }, and L = 2.17 {+-} 0.14 L{sub Sun }. The binary system is located in the blue straggler region on the color-magnitude diagram of {omega} Centauri and the mass of the primary component exceeds the mass of a turnoff star. Therefore, we think that V239 is a blue straggler and that V239 was formed by mass transfer from the present secondary component to the present primary.

  18. Stromvil CCD Photometry in Globular Cluster M 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Richard P.; Janusz, R.; Philip, A. G. D.; Straizys, V.; Vrba, F.

    2007-12-01

    We observed the globular cluster M 3 in the 7-band Stromvil system plus Vilnius X-band at the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope with a 2K CCD giving a 6-arcmin field. We observed the open cluster M 67 in the same run. Here from the residuals of many stars fit to quality CCD Vilnius photometry (Laugalys et al., 2004, Baltic Astronomy, 13, 1) we reshape and thus correct the initial flatfields. M 67 with a wide color base gives the color transformations of the run by calibrating from about 12 photoelectric standards in the Stromvil and similar Vilnius systems. In M 3 six photoelectric standards of moderate quality, all red stars of 13th magnitude in the Vilnius system calibrate the zero-point magnitude scale. Point-spread-function fitting to the stars in the crowded M 3 field resolves blends. With relatively short exposures of minutes a limiting magnitude V=15 is obtained with a signal/noise ratio about 100. So from this new photometry we subsequently can classify all types of stars and treat questions of reddening, distances, membership and metallicity at least at the horizontal branch of the cluster.

  19. On the nature of the globular cluster X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.; Arons, J.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that the globular cluster X-ray sources can be interpreted in terms of mass shed by evolving postmain-sequence stars in the central regions of the globular cluster and accreting onto a massive (approximately 100-1000 solar masses) central black hole. Tentative indications that support this hypothesis include the high central escape velocities and the distribution of metallicities among the four globular clusters containing luminous X-ray sources. We argue that these X-ray sources cannot be explained as a consequence of the close capture of a nuclear burning star by a compact stellar remnant.

  20. New Breakthroughs in the Battle of the Bulge Using Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Bidin, C. M.; Cohen, R.; Chené, A.; Villanova, S.; Cummings, J.; Gormaz, A.; Minniti, D.; Alonso-García, J.; Hempel, M.; VVV Team

    2015-05-01

    We present some recent work undertaken mostly at the Universidad de Concepción using bulge globular clusters to better understand this important but poorly studied Galactic component, especially based on data from the VVV Survey. This includes discovering new bulge globulars, investigating dual HBs, and obtaining Ca triplet metallicities and velocities.

  1. A novel look at energy equipartition in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, P.; van de Ven, G.; Norris, M. A.; Schinnerer, E.; Varri, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Two-body interactions play a major role in shaping the structural and dynamical properties of globular clusters (GCs) over their long-term evolution. In particular, GCs evolve towards a state of partial energy equipartition that induces a mass dependence in their kinematics. By using a set of Monte Carlo cluster simulations evolved in quasi-isolation, we show that the stellar mass dependence of the velocity dispersion σ(m) can be described by an exponential function σ2 ∝ exp (-m/meq), with the parameter meq quantifying the degree of partial energy equipartition of the systems. This simple parametrization successfully captures the behaviour of the velocity dispersion at lower as well as higher stellar masses, that is, the regime where the system is expected to approach full equipartition. We find a tight correlation between the degree of equipartition reached by a GC and its dynamical state, indicating that clusters that are more than about 20 core relaxation times old, have reached a maximum degree of equipartition. This equipartition-dynamical state relation can be used as a tool to characterize the relaxation condition of a cluster with a kinematic measure of the meq parameter. Vice versa, the mass dependence of the kinematics can be predicted knowing the relaxation time solely on the basis of photometric measurements. Moreover, any deviations from this tight relation could be used as a probe of a peculiar dynamical history of a cluster. Finally, our novel approach is important for the interpretation of state-of-the-art Hubble Space Telescope proper motion data, for which the mass dependence of kinematics can now be measured, and for the application of modelling techniques which take into consideration multimass components and mass segregation.

  2. POTASSIUM IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER STARS: COMPARING NORMAL CLUSTERS TO THE PECULIAR CLUSTER NGC 2419

    SciTech Connect

    Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Sollima, A.; Gratton, R. G.; Lucatello, S.; D'Orazi, V.; Sneden, C. E-mail: angela.bragaglia@oabo.inaf.it E-mail: raffaele.gratton@oapd.inaf.it E-mail: valentina.dorazi@mq.edu.au

    2013-05-20

    Two independent studies recently uncovered two distinct populations among giants in the distant, massive globular cluster (GC) NGC 2419. One of these populations has normal magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) abundances for halo stars: enhanced Mg and roughly solar K. The other population has extremely depleted Mg and very enhanced K. To better anchor the peculiar NGC 2419 chemical composition, we have investigated the behavior of K in a few red giant branch stars in NGC 6752, NGC 6121, NGC 1904, and {omega} Cen. To verify that the high K abundances are intrinsic and not due to some atmospheric features in giants, we also derived K abundances in less evolved turn-off and subgiant stars of clusters 47 Tuc, NGC 6752, NGC 6397, and NGC 7099. We normalized the K abundance as a function of the cluster metallicity using 21 field stars analyzed in a homogeneous manner. For all GCs of our sample, the stars lie in the K-Mg abundance plane on the same locus occupied by the Mg-normal population in NGC 2419 and by field stars. This holds for both giants and less-evolved stars. At present, NGC 2419 seems unique among GCs.

  3. A Spectroscopic Analysis of the Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 6273 (M19)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Crane, Jeffrey D.

    2015-08-01

    A combined effort utilizing spectroscopy and photometry has revealed the existence of a new globular cluster class. These “anomalous” clusters, which we refer to as “iron-complex” clusters, are differentiated from normal clusters by exhibiting large (≳0.10 dex) intrinsic metallicity dispersions, complex sub-giant branches, and correlated [Fe/H] and s-process enhancements. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, we have measured radial velocities and chemical abundances for red giant branch stars in the massive, but scarcely studied, globular cluster NGC 6273. The velocities and abundances were determined using high resolution (R ˜ 27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay 6.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that NGC 6273 has an average heliocentric radial velocity of +144.49 km s-1 (σ = 9.64 km s-1) and an extended metallicity distribution ([Fe/H] = -1.80 to -1.30) composed of at least two distinct stellar populations. Although the two dominant populations have similar [Na/Fe], [Al/Fe], and [α/Fe] abundance patterns, the more metal-rich stars exhibit significant [La/Fe] enhancements. The [La/Eu] data indicate that the increase in [La/Fe] is due to almost pure s-process enrichment. A third more metal-rich population with low [X/Fe] ratios may also be present. Therefore, NGC 6273 joins clusters such as ω Centauri, M2, M22, and NGC 5286 as a new class of iron-complex clusters exhibiting complicated star formation histories. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  4. Integrated Light Chemical Abundance Analyses of 7 M31 Outer Halo Globular Clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakari, Charli; Venn, Kim; Mackey, Dougal; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Dotter, Aaron L.; Wallerstein, George

    2015-01-01

    Detailed chemical abundances of globular clusters provide insight into the formation and evolution of galaxies and their globular cluster systems. This talk presents detailed chemical abundances for seven M31 outer halo globular clusters (with projected radii greater than 30 kpc), as derived from high resolution integrated light spectra. Five of these clusters were recently discovered in the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS). The integrated abundances show that 4 of these clusters are metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1.5) while the other 3 are more metal-rich. The most metal-poor globular clusters are α-enhanced, though 3 of the 4 are possibly less α-enhanced than MW stars (at the 1σ level). Other chemical abundance ratios ([Ba/Eu], [Eu/Ca], and [Ni/Fe]) are consistent with origins in low mass dwarf galaxies (similar to Fornax). The most metal-rich cluster ([Fe/H] ~ -1) stands out as being chemically distinct from Milky Way field stars of the same metallicity---its chemical abundance ratios agree best with the stars and clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal (Sgr) than with the Milky Way field stars. The other metal-rich clusters, H10 and H23, look similar to the LMC and Milky Way field stars in all abundance ratios. These results indicate that M31's outer halo is being at least partially built up by the accretion of dwarf satellites, in agreement with previous observations.

  5. AN ULTRACOMPACT X-RAY BINARY IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 1851

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, D. R.; Knigge, C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Dieball, A.; Long, K. S.

    2009-07-10

    We present far-ultraviolet photometry obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 0513-40 in the globular cluster NGC 1851. Our observations reveal a clear, roughly sinusoidal periodic signal with P {approx_equal} 17 minutes and amplitude 3%-10%. The signal appears fully coherent and can be modeled as a simple reprocessing effect associated with the changing projected area presented by the irradiated face of a white dwarf donor star in the system. All of these properties suggest that the signal we have detected is orbital in nature, thus confirming 4U 0513-40 as an ultracompact X-ray binary (UCXB). All four confirmed UCXBs in globular clusters have orbital periods below 30 minutes, whereas almost all UCXBs in the Galactic field have orbital periods longer than this. This suggests that dynamical formation processes dominate UCXB production in clusters, producing a different orbital period distribution than observed among field UCXBs. Based on the likely system parameters, we show that 4U 0513-40 should be a strong gravitational wave source and may be detectable by Laser Interferometer Space Antenna over the course of a multiyear mission.

  6. The metal content of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6528

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccali, M.; Barbuy, B.; Hill, V.; Ortolani, S.; Renzini, A.; Bica, E.; Momany, Y.; Pasquini, L.; Minniti, D.; Rich, R. M.

    2004-08-01

    High resolution spectra of five stars in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6528 were obtained at the 8m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph. Out of the five stars, two of them showed evidence of binarity. The target stars belong to the horizontal and red giant branch stages, at 4000 < Tefflt; 4800 K. Multiband V, I, J, H, Ks photometry was used to derive initial effective temperatures and gravities. The main purpose of this study is the determination of metallicity and elemental ratios for this template bulge cluster, as a basis for the fundamental calibration of metal-rich populations. The present analysis provides a metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.1±0.2 and the α-elements O, Mg and Si, show [α/Fe] ≈ +0.1, whereas Ca and Ti are around the solar value or below, resulting in an overall metallicity Z ≈ Z⊙. Observations collected both at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal and La Silla, Chile (ESO programme 65.L-0340) and with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by AURA Inc. under contract to NASA. Tables \\ref{targets}, \\ref{logobs}, \\ref{tablines} and Fig. \\ref{chart} are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  7. The ATCA Survey for Black Holes in Southern Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, Jay; Miller-Jones, James; Maccarone, Tom; Chomiuk, Laura

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) are expected to form in the early lives of most globular star clusters (GCs), mass segregate to the cluster center, and largely be ejected through mutual gravitational interactions. Observations by our group have provided the first strong evidence for stellar-mass BHs in Galactic GCs. The key advance has been the use of radio continuum observations sensitive to BHs with low mass accretion rates. The existence of stellar-mass BHs in GCs would have broad implications: (i) GCs would become important hunting grounds for stellar-mass BHs; (ii) BHs in GCs would offer tests of the physics of low-luminosity accretion; (iii) GCs might offer a less biased view of the BH mass function than the field; and (iv) the prospects for detecting gravitational wave sources such as BH--BH or BH--pulsar binaries would be improved. The same radio observations can also reveal the presence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in the centers of GCs. The dynamical evidence for IMBHs is hard to interpret uniquely; IMBHs should also be detectable through accretion. Our radio observations have placed the strongest limits to date on the presence of IMBHs in several Galactic GCs. We have begun a deep, systematic radio continuum survey for BHs in Galactic GCs. Here we propose ATCA data for a pilot sample of five southern GCs. With well-defined selection criteria, our sample will allow the first statistical determination of the presence of BHs in GCs.

  8. Heavy elements in globular clusters: The role of asymptotic giant branch stars

    SciTech Connect

    Straniero, O.; Cristallo, S.; Piersanti, L.

    2014-04-10

    Recent observations of heavy elements in globular clusters reveal intriguing deviations from the standard paradigm of the early galactic nucleosynthesis. If the r-process contamination is a common feature of halo stars, s-process enhancements are found in a few globular clusters only. We show that the combined pollution of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with a mass ranging between 3 to 6 M {sub ☉} may account for most of the features of the s-process overabundance in M4 and M22. In these stars, the s process is a mixture of two very different neutron-capture nucleosynthesis episodes. The first is due to the {sup 13}C(α, n){sup 16}O reaction and takes place during the interpulse periods. The second is due to the {sup 22}Ne(α, n){sup 25}Mg reaction and takes place in the convective zones generated by thermal pulses. The production of the heaviest s elements (from Ba to Pb) requires the first neutron burst, while the second produces large overabundances of light s (Rb, Sr, Y, Zr). The first mainly operates in the less massive AGB stars, while the second dominates in the more massive. From the heavy-s/light-s ratio, we derive that the pollution phase should last for 150 ± 50 Myr, a period short enough compared to the formation timescale of the globular cluster system, but long enough to explain why the s-process pollution is observed in a few cases only. With few exceptions, our theoretical prediction provides a reasonable reproduction of the observed s-process abundances, from Sr to Hf. However, Ce is probably underproduced by our models, while Rb and Pb are overproduced. Possible solutions are discussed.

  9. Photometric binary stars in Praesepe and the search for globular cluster binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolte, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A radial velocity study of the stars which are located on a second sequence above the single-star zero-age main sequence at a given color in the color-magnitude diagram of the open cluster Praesepe, (NGC 2632) shows that 10, and possibly 11, of 17 are binary systems. Of the binary systems, five have full amplitudes for their velocity variations that are greater than 50 km/s. To the extent that they can be applied to globular clusters, these results suggests that (1) observations of 'second-sequence' stars in globular clusters would be an efficient way of finding main-sequence binary systems in globulars, and (2) current instrumentation on large telescopes is sufficient for establishing unambiguously the existence of main-sequence binary systems in nearby globular clusters.

  10. The extended stellar substructures of four metal-poor globular clusters in the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the stellar density substructures around four metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6626, NGC 6642, and NGC 6723) in the Galactic bulge. Wide-field near-infrared (JHK s ) imaging data were obtained from WFCAM of UKIRT telescope. Field stars contamination around the globular clusters was reduced by using a statistical weighted filtering algorithm. Tidal stripping stellar substructures in the form of tidal tail (NGC 6266 and NGC 6626) or small density lobes/chunk (NGC 6642 and NGC 6723) were found around the four globular clusters in the two-dimensional density contour maps. We also find the overdensity features, which deviate from the theoretical models, in the outer region of radial density profiles. The observed results imply that the four globular clusters have experienced a strong tidal force or the bulge/disk shock effect of the Galaxy.

  11. Giant X-ray Flares From Suspected Black Holes in Extragalactic Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Jimmy; Speegle, Tyler; Prado, Ian; Mildebrath, David; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay

    2014-08-01

    The existence of both stellar- and intermediate-mass black holes within globular clusters has been the subject of intense debate for decades. The rich globular cluster populations of nearby elliptical galaxies provide much more fertile hunting grounds over the meager globular cluster population of the Milky Way to search for accreting black holes emitting near their Eddington limit. Extreme X-ray variability of >1e39 ergs/s sources provide the best means of identifying such black holes. We present results from our search for short-term (< few hours) X-ray flares from extragalactic globular clusters. Interesting candidates include a source that flared to 8e40 ergs/s on a ~1 minute time scale, and another source that flared by a factor of 50 to 2e39 ergs/s for several hundred seconds in four different Chandra epochs.

  12. The Universe and Globular Clusters: An Age Conflict?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, F.; Caloi, V.; Mazzitelli, I.

    1997-03-01

    Chaboyer (1995) has recently shown that the range of possible ages of globular clusters, τ ~ 14-18 Gyr, corresponding to different choices of distance scales, is further enlarged mainly by uncertainties in modeling convection. Within the mixing-length theory (MLT) the result is τ = 11-21 Gyr. Bolte & Hogan (1995) adopted the field subdwarfs as indicators of the distance scale and, assuming that τ is insensitive to the treatment of convection, found that τ = (15.8 +/- 2.1) Gyr. Within Chaboyer's findings, it is marginally possible to avoid an ``age conflict'' with the expansion age of the universe, even if this latter is t0 = 8-11 Gyr, while this is not the case with the Bolte & Hogan (1995) conclusion. Mazzitelli, D'Antona, & Caloi (1995) have implemented updated macro- and microphysics inputs and determined the distance scale by fitting the horizontal-branch models to the horizontal branch of metal-poor globular clusters. Within the MLT, they find τ ~= 14 Gyr. Switching from MLT to a full spectrum of turbulence (FST) model of convection (Canuto & Mazzitelli 1991) lowers the value of τ by 1-2 Gyr. Since the Mazzitelli et al. (1995) results would alleviate the age conflict to the point of making it disappear, it is important to assess their validity by answering the following questions. Independently of the assumptions on the distance scale: 1. What is the role of convection near turnoff on both its shape and luminosity? Chaboyer (1995) and Mazzitelli et al. (1995) find an appreciable effect, while Bolte & Hogan (1995) a priori assume no such effect. 2. How meaningful is the fit of the red giant branch in the determination of τ?In this paper, we answer question (1) carrying out extensive new stellar model calculations. When we assume the long distance scale, the FST results differ from the MLT values both in the shape and in the luminosity of the turnoff, while there is no appreciable difference if one employs the short distance scale. Helium sedimentation

  13. Estimated number of field stars toward Galactic globular clusters and Local Group Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, K. U.; Bahcall, J. N.

    1985-01-01

    Field star densities are estimated for 89 fields with /b/ greater than 10 degrees based on the Galaxy model of Bahcall and Soneira (1980, 1984; Bahcall et al. 1985). Calculated tables are presented for 76 of the fields toward Galactic globular clusters, and 16 Local Group Galaxies in 13 fields. The estimates can be used as an initial guide for planning both ground-based and Space Telescope observations of globular clusters at intermediate-to-high Galactic latitudes.

  14. Mapping Tidal Streams and Tails around Galactic Globular Clusters using RAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunder, Andrea; Steinmetz, M.; RAVE Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Stellar population studies of globular clusters have suggested that the brightest globular clusters in the Galaxy are actually the remnant nuclei of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. If present Galactic globular clusters formed within larger stellar systems, they are likely surrounded by extra-tidal halos and tails made up of stars that were tidally stripped from their parent systems. Also, they would have lost the majority fraction of the initial mass due to their internal and external dynamical effects, such as tidal heating and stripping. This information suggests that surroundings around globular clusters can provide an excellent example of such a structure. We use the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) to search for signatures of tidal tails around the globular clusters prominently featured in the extensive RAVE footprint. Stars with RAVE metallicities, radial velocities and proper motions consistent with the abundance patterns and properties of the cluster are presented for Omega Centauri, NGC 3201, NGC 362, NGC 2808 and NGC 1851. The bright magnitudes of these stars make them easy targets for high resolution follow-up observations, allowing us to carry out chemical tagging to identify (or exclude) stars outside the tidal radius of the cluster as tidal debris. As these clusters are well studied with accurate abundances and distances, the RAVE stars located within the tidal radius of these clusters will also aid in the improvement of the stellar parameters and abundances extracted from the RAVE spectra.

  15. Application of three-body stability to globular clusters - I. The stability radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Gareth F.

    2014-11-01

    The tidal radius is commonly determined analytically by equating the tidal field of the galaxy to the gravitational potential of the cluster. Stars crossing this radius can move from orbiting the cluster centre to independently orbiting the galaxy. In this paper, the stability radius of a globular cluster is estimated using a novel approach from the theoretical standpoint of the general three-body problem. This is achieved by an analytical formula for the transition radius between stable and unstable orbits in a globular cluster. A stability analysis, outlined by Mardling, is used here to predict the occurrence of unstable stellar orbits in the outermost region of a globular cluster in a distant orbit around a galaxy. It is found that the eccentricity of the cluster-galaxy orbit has a far more significant effect on the stability radius of globular clusters than previous theoretical results of the tidal radius have found. A simple analytical formula is given for determining the transition between stable and unstable orbits, which is analogous to the tidal radius for a globular cluster. The stability radius estimate is interior to tidal radius estimates and gives the innermost region from which stars can random walk to their eventual escape from the cluster. The time-scale for this random walk process is also estimated using numerical three-body scattering experiments.

  16. The onset of gravothermal oscillations in globular cluster evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeden, Joseph L.; Cohn, Haldan N.; Hut, Piet

    1994-01-01

    We have carried out an extensive set of Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters on very long timescales, up to 600 times the initial core collapse time t(sub cc). We consider an idealized equal mass star cluster, with a wide range of values for the total number of stars, 7000 less than N less than 2 x 10(exp 6). Our models include the heating effect of compact binaries formed in three-body encounters, which halts the initial core collapse and drives a core reexpansion. Postcollapse gravothermal oscillations of the cluster core are found to occur for all N approximately greater than or equal to 8000. For 8000 approximately less than or equal to N approximately less than or equal to 11,000, the oscillation has a simple, regular waveform with a single, well-defined period. For N approximately equals 12,000, the oscillations become nonlinear in a process resembling a period doubling. For N approximately greater than or equal to 14,000, the waveform of the oscillations becomes increasingly more irregular with increasing N, resembling chaotic behavior for N approximately greater than or equal to 15,000. During the oscillations, the core radius and core mass vary dramatically: by more than a factor of 10 for N greater than 15,000, by more than a factor of 100 for N greater than 5 x 10(exp 4), and by more than a factor of 1000 for N greater than 5 x 10(exp 5). However, even during the times of maximum expansion, the core contains only a small fraction of the cluster mass. For most N values, the maximum core mass at any time after core collapse is less than 1% of the cluster mass. The exceptions lie in the range 5 x 10(exp 4) approximately less than or equal to N approximately equal to or less than 2 x 10(exp 5), where the maximum post-collapse core mass reaches approximately 2% of the cluster mass. We discuss the observational implications of these predictions.

  17. Galactic bulge X-ray burst sources from disrupted globular clusters?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Hertz, P.

    1985-01-01

    The origin of the bright galactic bulge X-ray sources, or GX sources, is unclear despite intensive study for the past 15 years. It is suggested that the fact that many (or most) of the GX sources are X-ray burst sources (GXRBS) and are otherwise apparently identical to the luminous X-ray sources found in globular cluster cores implies that they too may have a globular cluster origin. The possibility that the compact X-ray binaries found in globulars are ejected is constrained by observations of CVs in and out of clusters. The GXRBS are instead hypothesized to have been formed by capture processes in globular clusters which have now largely been disrupted by repeated tidal stripping and shocking in the galactic plane. A statistical analysis of the 12 GXRBS which have precise positions from Einstein and/or optical (or radio) observations indicate that it is probably significant that a bright, of less than about 19, G or K star is found within the error circle (3 arcmin radius) in four cases. These may be surviving giants in a disrupted globular cluster core. Implications for globular cluster evolution and the GXRBS themselves are discussed.

  18. THE DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF STELLAR BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Rodriguez, Carl; Rasio, Frederic A.; Umbreit, Stefan

    2015-02-10

    Our current understanding of the stellar initial mass function and massive star evolution suggests that young globular clusters (GCs) may have formed hundreds to thousands of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), the remnants of stars with initial masses from ∼20-100 M {sub ☉}. Birth kicks from supernova explosions may eject some BHs from their birth clusters, but most should be retained. Using a Monte Carlo method we investigate the long-term dynamical evolution of GCs containing large numbers of stellar BHs. We describe numerical results for 42 models, covering a broad range of realistic initial conditions, including up to 1.6 × 10{sup 6} stars. In almost all models we find that significant numbers of BHs (up to ∼10{sup 3}) are retained all the way to the present. This is in contrast to previous theoretical expectations that most BHs should be ejected dynamically within a few gigayears The main reason for this difference is that core collapse driven by BHs (through the Spitzer {sup m}ass segregation instability{sup )} is easily reverted through three-body processes, and involves only a small number of the most massive BHs, while lower-mass BHs remain well-mixed with ordinary stars far from the central cusp. Thus the rapid segregation of stellar BHs does not lead to a long-term physical separation of most BHs into a dynamically decoupled inner core, as often assumed previously. Combined with the recent detections of several BH X-ray binary candidates in Galactic GCs, our results suggest that stellar BHs could still be present in large numbers in many GCs today, and that they may play a significant role in shaping the long-term dynamical evolution and the present-day dynamical structure of many clusters.

  19. Terzan 8: a Sagittarius-flavoured globular cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Gratton, R. G.; D'Orazi, V.; Lucatello, S.; Sollima, A.

    2014-01-01

    Massive globular clusters (GCs) contain at least two generations of stars with slightly different ages and clearly distinct light element abundances. The Na-O anticorrelation is the best studied chemical signature of multiple stellar generations. Instead, low-mass clusters usually appear to be chemically homogeneous. We are investigating low-mass GCs to understand what the lower mass limit is where multiple populations can form, mainly using the Na and O abundance distribution. We used VLT/FLAMES spectra of giants in the low-mass, metal-poor GC Terzan 8 that belongs to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy to determine abundances of Fe, O, Na, α-, Fe-peak, and neutron-capture elements in six stars observed with UVES and 14 observed with GIRAFFE. The average metallicity is [Fe/H] = -2.27 ± 0.03 (rms = 0.08), based on the six high-resolution UVES spectra. Only one star, observed with GIRAFFE, shows an enhanced abundance of Na and we tentatively assign it to the second generation. In this cluster, unlike what happens in more massive GCs, the second generation seems to represent at most a minority fraction. We discuss the implications of our findings, comparing Terzan 8 with the other Sgr dSph GCs, and to GCs and field stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, Fornax, and in other dwarfs galaxies. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programme 087.B-0086Tables 2, 3, 7-10 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A87

  20. Ruprecht 106: The First Single Population Globular Cluster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Carraro, G.; Moni Bidin, C.; Muñoz, C.

    2013-12-01

    All old Galactic globular clusters (GCs) studied in detail to date host at least two generations of stars, where the second is formed from gas polluted by processed material produced by massive stars of the first. This process can happen if the initial mass of the cluster exceeds a threshold above which ejecta are retained and a second generation is formed. A determination of this mass threshold is mandatory in order to understand how GCs form. We analyzed nine red giant branch stars belonging to the cluster Ruprecht 106. Targets were observed with the UVES@VLT2 spectrograph. Spectra cover a wide range and allowed us to measure abundances for light (O, Na, Mg, Al), α (Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak (Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), and neutron-capture (Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Pb) elements. Based on these abundances, we show that Ruprecht 106 is the first convincing example of a single-population GC (i.e., a true simple stellar population), although the sample is relatively small. This result is supported also by an independent photometric test and by the horizontal branch morphology and the dynamical state. It is old (~12 Gyr) and, at odds with other GCs, has no α-enhancement. The material it formed from was contaminated by both s- and r-process elements. The abundance pattern points toward an extragalactic origin. Its present-day mass (M = 104.83 M ⊙) can be assumed as a strong lower limit for the initial mass threshold below which no second generation is formed. Clearly, its initial mass must have been significantly greater, but we have no current constraints on the amount of mass loss during its evolution.

  1. On the Density Profile of the Globular Cluster M92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cecco, A.; Zocchi, A.; Varri, A. L.; Monelli, M.; Bertin, G.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Nonino, M.; Buonanno, R.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Kunder, A.; Walker, A. R.

    2013-04-01

    We present new number density and surface brightness profiles for the globular cluster M92 (NGC 6341). These profiles are calculated from optical images collected with the CCD mosaic camera MegaCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ground-based data were supplemented with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric catalog. Special care was taken to discriminate candidate cluster stars from field stars and to subtract the background contamination from both profiles. By examining the contour levels of the number density, we found that the stellar distribution becomes clumpy at radial distances larger than ~13', and there is no preferred orientation of contours in space. We performed detailed fits of King and Wilson models to the observed profiles. The best-fit models underestimate the number density inside the core radius. Wilson models better represent the observations, in particular in the outermost cluster regions: the good global agreement of these models with the observations suggests that there is no need to introduce an extra-tidal halo to explain the radial distribution of stars at large radial distances. The best-fit models for the number density and the surface brightness profiles are different, even though they are based on the same observations. Additional tests support the evidence that this fact reflects the difference in the radial distribution of the stellar tracers that determine the observed profiles (main-sequence stars for the number density, bright evolved stars for the surface brightness). Based in part on data obtained from the ST-ECF Science Archive Facility. This research used the facilities of the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre operated by the National Research Council of Canada with the support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  2. The Dynamical Evolution of Stellar Black Holes in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Rodriguez, Carl; Rasio, Frederic A.; Umbreit, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Our current understanding of the stellar initial mass function and massive star evolution suggests that young globular clusters (GCs) may have formed hundreds to thousands of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), the remnants of stars with initial masses from ~20-100 M ⊙. Birth kicks from supernova explosions may eject some BHs from their birth clusters, but most should be retained. Using a Monte Carlo method we investigate the long-term dynamical evolution of GCs containing large numbers of stellar BHs. We describe numerical results for 42 models, covering a broad range of realistic initial conditions, including up to 1.6 × 106 stars. In almost all models we find that significant numbers of BHs (up to ~103) are retained all the way to the present. This is in contrast to previous theoretical expectations that most BHs should be ejected dynamically within a few gigayears The main reason for this difference is that core collapse driven by BHs (through the Spitzer "mass segregation instability") is easily reverted through three-body processes, and involves only a small number of the most massive BHs, while lower-mass BHs remain well-mixed with ordinary stars far from the central cusp. Thus the rapid segregation of stellar BHs does not lead to a long-term physical separation of most BHs into a dynamically decoupled inner core, as often assumed previously. Combined with the recent detections of several BH X-ray binary candidates in Galactic GCs, our results suggest that stellar BHs could still be present in large numbers in many GCs today, and that they may play a significant role in shaping the long-term dynamical evolution and the present-day dynamical structure of many clusters.

  3. Ruprecht 106: The first single population globular cluster?

    SciTech Connect

    Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Muñoz, C.; Carraro, G.; Moni Bidin, C.

    2013-12-01

    All old Galactic globular clusters (GCs) studied in detail to date host at least two generations of stars, where the second is formed from gas polluted by processed material produced by massive stars of the first. This process can happen if the initial mass of the cluster exceeds a threshold above which ejecta are retained and a second generation is formed. A determination of this mass threshold is mandatory in order to understand how GCs form. We analyzed nine red giant branch stars belonging to the cluster Ruprecht 106. Targets were observed with the UVES@VLT2 spectrograph. Spectra cover a wide range and allowed us to measure abundances for light (O, Na, Mg, Al), α (Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak (Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), and neutron-capture (Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Pb) elements. Based on these abundances, we show that Ruprecht 106 is the first convincing example of a single-population GC (i.e., a true simple stellar population), although the sample is relatively small. This result is supported also by an independent photometric test and by the horizontal branch morphology and the dynamical state. It is old (∼12 Gyr) and, at odds with other GCs, has no α-enhancement. The material it formed from was contaminated by both s- and r-process elements. The abundance pattern points toward an extragalactic origin. Its present-day mass (M = 10{sup 4.83} M {sub ☉}) can be assumed as a strong lower limit for the initial mass threshold below which no second generation is formed. Clearly, its initial mass must have been significantly greater, but we have no current constraints on the amount of mass loss during its evolution.

  4. THE OBSERVATIONAL AND THEORETICAL TIDAL RADII OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M87

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Sills, Alison; Harris, William E.

    2012-02-10

    Globular clusters have linear sizes (tidal radii) which theory tells us are determined by their masses and by the gravitational potential of their host galaxy. To explore the relationship between observed and expected radii, we utilize the globular cluster population of the Virgo giant M87. Unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 are used to measure the effective and limiting radii of approximately 2000 globular clusters. To compare with these observations, we simulate a globular cluster population that has the same characteristics as the observed M87 cluster population. Placing these simulated clusters in the well-studied tidal field of M87, the orbit of each cluster is solved and the theoretical tidal radius of each cluster is determined. We compare the predicted relationship between cluster size and projected galactocentric distance to observations. We find that for an isotropic distribution of cluster velocities, theoretical tidal radii are approximately equal to observed limiting radii for R{sub gc} < 10 kpc. However, the isotropic simulation predicts a steep increase in cluster size at larger radii, which is not observed in large galaxies beyond the Milky Way. To minimize the discrepancy between theory and observations, we explore the effects of orbital anisotropy on cluster sizes, and suggest a possible orbital anisotropy profile for M87 which yields a better match between theory and observations. Finally, we suggest future studies which will establish a stronger link between theoretical tidal radii and observed radii.

  5. Globular Clusters and Spur Clusters in NGC 4921, the Brightest Spiral Galaxy in the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung

    2016-03-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in the Coma cluster. We also find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3 × 105 M⊙. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70 < (V - I) ≤ 1.05) in the halo are estimated V(max) = 27.11 ± 0.09 mag and I(max) = 26.21 ± 0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max) = 26.25 ± 0.03 mag. Adopting MI (max) = -8.56 ± 0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies to be 91 ± 4 Mpc. Combining this with the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H0 = 77.9 ± 3.6 km s-1 Mpc-1. We estimate the GC specific frequency of NGC 4921 to be SN = 1.29 ± 0.25, close to the values for early-type galaxies. This indicates that NGC 4921 is in the transition phase to S0s.

  6. Constraining Stellar Population Models. I. Age, Metallicity and Abundance Pattern Compilation for Galactic Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roediger, Joel C.; Courteau, Stéphane; Graves, Genevieve; Schiavon, Ricardo P.

    2014-01-01

    We present an extensive literature compilation of age, metallicity, and chemical abundance pattern information for the 41 Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) studied by Schiavon et al. Our compilation constitutes a notable improvement over previous similar work, particularly in terms of chemical abundances. Its primary purpose is to enable detailed evaluations of and refinements to stellar population synthesis models designed to recover the above information for unresolved stellar systems based on their integrated spectra. However, since the Schiavon sample spans a wide range of the known GGC parameter space, our compilation may also benefit investigations related to a variety of astrophysical endeavors, such as the early formation of the Milky Way, the chemical evolution of GGCs, and stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. For instance, we confirm with our compiled data that the GGC system has a bimodal metallicity distribution and is uniformly enhanced in the α elements. When paired with the ages of our clusters, we find evidence that supports a scenario whereby the Milky Way obtained its globular clusters through two channels: in situ formation and accretion of satellite galaxies. The distributions of C, N, O, and Na abundances and the dispersions thereof per cluster corroborate the known fact that all GGCs studied so far with respect to multiple stellar populations have been found to harbor them. Finally, using data on individual stars, we verify that stellar atmospheres become progressively polluted by CN(O)-processed material after they leave the main sequence. We also uncover evidence which suggests that the α elements Mg and Ca may originate from more than one nucleosynthetic production site. We estimate that our compilation incorporates all relevant analyses from the literature up to mid-2012. As an aid to investigators in the fields named above, we provide detailed electronic tables of the data upon which our work is based at http

  7. Chemical Abundances of Multiple Stellar Populations in Massive Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Anna

    2015-08-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed that, contrary to expectations, some of the most massive globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way show variations in the heavy element content, including s-process elements and iron, and that these stellar groups populate different sequences on the color-magnitude diagram. We refer to these objects as anomlous GCs, as discussed in Marino et al. (2015, arXiv150207438M). On the other hand, typical Galactic GCs show just variations in the elements involved in the hot H-burning, resulting in well-known chemical patterns such as the C-N/O-Na/Mg-Al anticorrelations.Interestingly, the chemical analogies of these newly-discovered anomalous GCs with the most massive Milky Way GC, Omega Centauri, considered the nuclear relict of a dwarf galaxy, suggest the fascinating idea that they could be the survived nuclei of more massive systems.Hence, the most massive GCs could be the ''bridge'' between *normal* mono-metallic GCs, those showing chemical variations only in the light elements, and more massive systems like dwarf galaxies.I will present the spectroscopic and photometric current obsevational scenario for the anomalous GCs, focusing on Omega Centauri, M22, NGC5286 and NGC1851; and discuss the observational scenario in the context of the possible origin of these objects as nuclei of dwarf galaxies.

  8. Metallicity distributions of globular cluster systems in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eerik, H.; Tenjes, P.

    We collected a sample of 100 galaxies for which different observers have determined colour indices of globular cluster candidates. The sample includes representatives of galaxies of various morphological types and different luminosities. Colour indices (in most cases (V-I), but also (B-I) and (C-T_1)) were transformed into metallicities [Fe/H] according to a relation by Kissler-Patig (1998). These data were analysed with the KMM software in order to estimate similarity of the distribution with uni- or bimodal Gaussian distribution. We found that 45 of 100 systems have bimodal metallicity distributions. Mean metallicity of the metal-poor component for these galaxies is < [Fe/H]> = -1.40 +/- 0.02, of the metal-rich component < [Fe/H]> = -0.69 +/- 0.03. Dispersions of the distributions are 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. Distribution of unimodal metallicities is rather wide. These data will be analysed in a subsequent paper in order to find correlations with parameters of galaxies and galactic environment.

  9. Multicolor NTT Photometry of the Anomalous Globular Cluster NGC 288

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaino, Gonzalo; Liller, William; Alvarado, Franklin

    1997-12-01

    We present UBV photometry of 2494 stars in a 38 arcmin square field in the anomalous high latitude globular cluster NGC 288 observed with a CCD camera and the 3.5 m NTT at ESO/La Silla. Our results can be summarized as follows: VTO=18.90±0.l4, and turnoff colors at (B-V)TO=0.46±0.05, (U - B)TO= -0.02±0.05 and independently (U - V)TO=0.45±0.07 (estimated external uncertainties). By fitting the resulting B - V ridge line to the theoretical isochrones of Bergbusch & VandenBerg (1992, ApJS, 81, 163) with [Fe/H]=-1.26, Y=0.2358, and [O/Fe]=+0.55, we derive the following values: the apparent distance modulus, (m - M)V = 14.85±0.10 and the interstellar reddening E(B - V) =0.04±0.02, and an age of 14±2 Gyr. We note the presence of approximately 17 blue stragglers, 4 hot faint BHB stars, and 5 faint possibly variable stars.

  10. Detail Chemical Composition of M33 Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliam, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    I propose to perform the first high-resolution detailed chemical abundance study of globular clusters (GCs) in the Local Group spiral galaxy M33 with Keck HIRES. My integrated-light technique permits detailed chemical abundance measurement (and approximate ages) for old populations at larger distance than ever done before. The basic goal is to accurately define the chemical abundance properties of the M33 GC system, for a comparison with the Milky Way, LMC, SMC and Local Group dwarf galaxies. Abundances of Fe, (alpha)-elements, Na and Al will constrain the relative contributions of Type Ia and Type II SNe and probe ~1 Gyr enrichment timescales. The s-process elements (e.g. Zr, Y, Ba, La), made by AGB stars, will probe timescales of several Gyr. These elements are sensitive to whether chemical enrichment occurred slowly, or in a burst, and whether the enrichment was global, or occurred in disparate systems, such as dwarf galaxies that were later accreted. The project will provide basic information to advance an understanding of chemical enrichment and nucleosynthesis, and galaxy evolution.

  11. Spectroscopy of chromospheric lines of giants in the globular cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Hartmann, Lee; Smith, Graeme H.; Rodgers, A. W.; Roberts, W. H.; Zucker, D. B.

    1994-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of chromospheric transitions (Mg II, H-alpha, and Ca II K) from two red giants (A31 and A59) in the globular cluster NGC 6572 were made with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope and the coude spectrograph of the 1.9 m telescope at the Mount Stromlo Observatory. These measurements give evidence for chromospheric activity and outward motions within the atmospheres. The surface flux of the Mg II emission is comparable to that in disk population giants of similar (B-V) color. The Mg II profiles are asymmetric, which is most likely caused by absorption in an expanding stellar atmosphere and/or by possible interstellar features. Notches are found in the core of the H-alpha line of A59, which are similar to those found in Cepheids. This suggests that shocks are present in the atmosphere of A59 and indicates that hydrodynamic phenomena are influencing the levvel of chromospheric emission and producing upper atmospheric motions which may lead to mass loss.

  12. Atmosphere composition of quiescent accreting neutron stars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servillat, M.

    2012-12-01

    Through the study of the quiescent X-ray emission of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries it is possible to constrain the equation of state of dense matter. However, the chemical composition of the neutron star atmosphere is still uncertain. Using deep Chandra observations, we report the detailed spectral analysis of a neutron star in the globular cluster M28. For the first time for this kind of object, different atmosphere models composed of hydrogen, helium or carbon are used. The carbon model can be ruled out, and the derived mass and radius are clearly distinct depending on the composition of the atmosphere, leading to different constraints on the equation of state. We compare those results with the other similar neutron stars studied with a hydrogen atmosphere model only and show that a helium model could be relevant in many cases. Measurements of neutron star masses/radii by spectral fitting should consider the possibility of heavier element atmospheres, which produce larger masses/radii for the same data, unless the composition of the accretor is known independently.

  13. New SX Phe variables in the globular cluster NGC 288

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinazzi, E.; Kepler, S. O.; Costa, J. E. S.; Pieres, A.; Bonatto, C.; Bica, E.; Fraga, L.

    2015-03-01

    We report the discovery of two new variable stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 288, found by means of time series CCD photometry. We classified the new variables as SX Phoenicis (SX Phe) due to their characteristic fundamental mode periods (1.02 ± 0.01 and 0.69 ± 0.01 h), and refine the period estimates for other six known variables. SX Phe stars are known to follow a well-defined period-luminosity (P-L) relation and, thus, can be used for determining distances; they are more numerous than RR Lyraes in NGC 288. We obtain the P-L relation for the fundamental mode MV = (-2.59 ± 0.18) log P0(d) + (-0.34 ± 0.24) and for the first-overtone mode MV = (-2.59 ± 0.18) log P1(d) + (0.50 ± 0.25). Multichromatic isochrone fits to our UBV colour-magnitude diagrams, based on the Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Database, provide <[Fe/H]> = -1.3 ± 0.1, E(B - V) = 0.02 ± 0.01 and absolute distance modulus (m - M)0 = 14.72 ± 0.01 for NGC 288.

  14. Are Some Milky Way Globular Clusters Hosted by Undiscovered Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Crnojević, Denija; Sand, David J.

    2016-07-01

    The confirmation of a globular cluster (GC) in the recently discovered ultrafaint galaxy Eridanus II (Eri II) motivated us to examine the question posed in the title. After estimating the halo mass of Eri II using a published stellar mass—halo mass relation, the one GC in this galaxy supports extending the relationship between the number of GCs hosted by a galaxy and the galaxy’s total mass about two orders of magnitude in stellar mass below the previous limit. For this empirically determined specific frequency of between 0.06 and 0.39 GCs per 109 M ⊙ of total mass, the surviving Milky Way (MW) subhalos with masses smaller than 1010 M ⊙ could host as many as 5–31 GCs, broadly consistent with the actual population of outer halo MW GCs, although matching the radial distribution in detail remains a challenge. Using a subhalo mass function from published high-resolution numerical simulations and a Poissonian model for populating those halos with the aforementioned empirically constrained frequency, we find that about 90% of these GCs lie in lower-mass subhalos than that of Eri II. From what we know about the stellar mass–halo mass function, the subhalo mass function, and the mass-normalized GC specific frequency, we conclude that some of the MW’s outer halo GCs are likely to be hosted by undetected subhalos with extremely modest stellar populations.

  15. The next generation Virgo cluster survey. VIII. The spatial distribution of globular clusters in the Virgo cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Durrell, Patrick R.; Accetta, Katharine; Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; McConnachie, Alan; Gwyn, Stephen; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hongxin; Mihos, J. Christopher; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jordán, Andrés; Lançon, Ariane; Liu, Chengze; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Duc, Pierre-Alain; and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a large-scale study of the distribution of globular clusters (GCs) throughout the Virgo cluster, based on photometry from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a large imaging survey covering Virgo's primary subclusters (Virgo A = M87 and Virgo B = M49) out to their virial radii. Using the g{sub o}{sup ′}, (g' – i') {sub o} color-magnitude diagram of unresolved and marginally resolved sources within the NGVS, we have constructed two-dimensional maps of the (irregular) GC distribution over 100 deg{sup 2} to a depth of g{sub o}{sup ′} = 24. We present the clearest evidence to date showing the difference in concentration between red and blue GCs over the full extent of the cluster, where the red (more metal-rich) GCs are largely located around the massive early-type galaxies in Virgo, while the blue (metal-poor) GCs have a much more extended spatial distribution with significant populations still present beyond 83' (∼215 kpc) along the major axes of both M49 and M87. A comparison of our GC maps to the diffuse light in the outermost regions of M49 and M87 show remarkable agreement in the shape, ellipticity, and boxiness of both luminous systems. We also find evidence for spatial enhancements of GCs surrounding M87 that may be indicative of recent interactions or an ongoing merger history. We compare the GC map to that of the locations of Virgo galaxies and the X-ray intracluster gas, and find generally good agreement between these various baryonic structures. We calculate the Virgo cluster contains a total population of N {sub GC} = 67, 300 ± 14, 400, of which 35% are located in M87 and M49 alone. For the first time, we compute a cluster-wide specific frequency S {sub N,} {sub CL} = 2.8 ± 0.7, after correcting for Virgo's diffuse light. We also find a GC-to-baryonic mass fraction ε {sub b} = 5.7 ± 1.1 × 10{sup –4} and a GC-to-total cluster mass formation efficiency ε {sub t} = 2.9 ± 0.5 × 10{sup –5}, the latter values

  16. CN and CH Abundance Analysis in a Sample of Eight Galactic Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolinski, Jason P.; Lee, Y.; Beers, T. C.; Martell, S. L.; An, D.; Sivarani, T.

    2011-01-01

    Galactic globular clusters exhibit star-to-star variations in their light element abundances that are not predicted by formation and evolution models involving single stellar generations. Recently it has been suggested that internal pollution from early supernovae and AGB winds may have played important roles in forming a second generation of enriched stars. We present updated results of a CN and CH abundance analysis of stars from the base to the tip of the red giant branch, and in some cases down onto the main sequence, for eight globular clusters with available photometric and spectroscopic data from SDSS-I and SDSS-II/SEGUE. These results include a discussion of the radial distribution of CN enrichment and how this may impact the current paradigm. Funding for SDSS-I and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS Web Site is http://www.sdss.org/. This work was supported in part by grants PHY 02-16783 and PHY 08-22648: Physics Frontiers Center/Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), awarded by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  17. PEERING INTO THE CORE OF A GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers have used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to peer into the center of a dense swarm of stars called Omega Centauri. Located some 17,000 light-years from Earth, Omega Centauri is a massive globular star cluster, containing several million stars swirling in locked orbits around a common center of gravity. The stars are packed so densely in the cluster's core that it is difficult for ground-based telescopes to make out individual stars. Hubble's high resolution is able to pick up where ground-based telescopes leave off, capturing distinct points of light from stars at the very center of the cluster. Omega Centauri is so large in our sky that only a small part of it fits within the field of view of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Yet even this tiny patch contains some 50,000 stars, all packed into a region only about 13 light-years wide. For comparison, a similarly sized region centered on the Sun would contain about a half dozen stars. The vast majority of stars in this Hubble image are faint, yellow-white dwarf stars similar to our Sun. The handful of bright yellow-orange stars are red giants that have begun to exhaust their nuclear fuel and have expanded to diameters about a hundred times that of the Sun. A number of faint blue stars are also visible in the image. These are in a brief phase of evolution between the dwarf stage and the red-giant stage, during which the surface temperature is high. The stars in Omega Centauri are all very old, about 12 billion years. Stars with a mass as high as that of our Sun have already completed their evolution and have faded away as white dwarfs, too faint to be seen even in the Hubble image. The stars in the core of Omega Centauri are so densely packed that occasionally one of them will actually collide with another one. Even in the dense center of Omega Centauri, stellar collisions will be infrequent. But the cluster is so old that many thousands of collisions have occurred

  18. GALEX Grism Spectroscopy of the Globular Cluster Omega Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweigart, Allen

    We propose to obtain GALEX FUV-only grism spectroscopy of the hot stars in omega Centauri, the most massive globular cluster in our Galaxy. Previous UIT imagery of omega Cen showed that it contains about 2000 hot horizontal branch (HB) stars, and we estimate that GALEX spectra can be obtained for about 500 of these stars in the outer regions of the cluster, including about 50 of the hot ``blue hook'' stars discovered with UIT. The blue hook stars appear to be both hotter (35,000 K) and less luminous in the UIT color-magnitude diagram than predicted by canonical HB models and, indeed, are unexplained by standard evolutionary theory. Brown et al. (2001) have suggested that the blue hook stars are the progeny of stars which mixed their surface hydrogen into their hot He-burning interior during a delayed helium flash subsequent to leaving the red giant branch. This ``flash-mixing'' results in a hot hydrogen-deficient star with a typical surface abundance of 96% He and 4% C by mass. The GALEX spectral region includes the strong lines of C III 1426, 1578 A, C IV 1550 A, and He II 1640 A which will allow this predicted carbon and helium enrichment to be detected. These observations will therefore provide a crucial test of the Brown et al. flash-mixing hypothesis and will determine if flash mixing represents a new evolutionary channel for populating the hot HB. The GALEX spectra will also address other questions concerning the hot HB in omega Cen including (1) the metallicity distribution of HB stars with 9,000 K < Teff < 11,000 K, (2) the effect of radiative levitation on the UV spectra of stars with Teff > 11,000 K, and (3) the origin of the subluminous HB stars found in the UIT photometry with 15,000K < Teff < 30,000 K.

  19. BVRI CCD photometry of the globular cluster NGC 6362

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1986-02-01

    We have obtained 78 BVRI CCD frames with the 1.54 m Danish telescope at ESO, La Silla, and have constructed V vs B - V, V vs V - R, V vs R - I, V vs V - I, and V vs B - I color-magnitude diagrams in a 4' × 2.'5 field of the globular cluster NGC 6362. From these five CMDs we find that the main-sequence turnoffs are all close to the same magnitude, namely VTO = 18.75 ± 0.1, and the color turn-offs at B-V = 0.50 ± 0.02, V-R = 0.31 ± 0.02, R-I = 0.35 ± 0.02, V-I = 0.68 ± 0.02, and B - I = 1.18 ± 0.03. The magnitude difference between the turnoff and the horizontal branch for the five diagrams is Δ Mv = 3.40 ± 0.15 in excellent agreement with the value given by Sandage (1982). Using Y = 0.2, Z = 0.001 ([Fe/H] = - 1.27), a = 1.65, a distance modulus of (m -M)v = 14.74, and E(B - V) = 0.10, we find that the VandenBerg and Bell isochrones (1985) yield a consistent age for NGC 6362 in all colors indexes of 16 ± 1.5 × 100 yr. The solar distance to the cluster is 7.7 kpc and the galactic distance is 5.6 kpc assuming R0 = 9 kpc.

  20. A search for eclipsing binaries in galactic globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Braun, Kaspar

    2002-09-01

    We report on the discovery and analysis of short-period (0.1 days < P < 5 days), photometrically varying binary stars around and below the main-sequence turnoff of the globular clusters (GCs) NGC 3201, M10, & M12. These eclipsing binaries (EBs) may be used to determine directly the distances to GCs and constrain the Population II stellar main-sequence masses. During our search for binaries, we discovered the signature of differential reddening across the cluster fields which was especially strong for NGC 3201 and M10. We correct for this differential reddening by calculating average EV-I values for stars in small subregions of the field with respect to a fiducial region, which significantly improves the appearance of the GC color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The reddening zero point to be added to the differential value is determined by isochrone fitting. The results of our differential dereddening are presented in the form of high-resolution extinction maps. Our search for EBs returned 14 variable stars (11 EBs) in the field of NGC 3201, 3 variables (1 EB) in M10, and 2 EBs in M12. Of these variables, only one EB in NGC 3201 (a blue straggler W Ursa Majoris contact system) is a definite GC-member, based on spectroscopic observations. Another W UMa contact EB in M12 is most likely a member of M12, based on its location in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and its empirically calculated absolute magnitude. We present the phased lightcurves for all variables, estimate their distances and GC membership, and show their locations in the GC fields and CMDs, as well as the spectra of the NGC 3201 EBs. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results and outline future work.

  1. CN and CH variations in the globular cluster M55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briley, Michael M.; Smith, Graeme H.; Hesser, James E.; Bell, R. A.

    1993-07-01

    Blue spectra of a sample of 24 bright M55 red giants within the magnitude range of V between 11.8 and 14 have been obtained with the CTIO 4 m telescope and Argus multifiber spectrograph. Indices sensitive to absorption by the 3883 A CN band were measured from these spectra and combined with the CN data of Smith and Norris (1982) to yield CN band strength measurements for 47 stars. Aside from the CH star L2406, no stars with unusually strong 3883 A CN bands were detected. Analysis with the aid of synthetic spectra indicates a star-to-star spread in (N/A) of less than 0.3 dex. A similar treatment of the CTIO G-band (CH) strengths suggests a decrease in C abundance of 0.1 to 0.3 dex with increasing luminosity on the red giant branch from M(V) about -0.1 to -2.3. Similar trends have also been noted in other metal-poor clusters and are believed to be the result of the progressive mixing of CN-processed material into the stellar atmosphere. The (C/A) abundances of the asymptotic giant branch stars are consistent with those of the brightest red giants in our sample, implying little mixing during horizontal and asymptotic branch evolution. The overall star-to-star variation in (C/A) on the red giant branch for M(V) less than -0.8 appears to be 0.2 dex. From these data it appears that M55 may be atypical of the Galactic globular clusters in terms of its homogeneity of star-to-star surface abundances of both C and N.

  2. Are Young Massive Star Clusters in the Local Universe Analogous to Globular Clusters Progenitors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnel, Corinne

    2015-08-01

    Several models do compete to reproduce the present-day characteristics of globular clusters (GC) and to explain the origin of the multiple stellar populations these systems are hosting.In parallel, independent clues on GC early evolution may be derived from observations of young massive clusters (YMC) in the Local Group.But are these two populations of clusters related? In this talk, we discuss how and if GC and YMC data can be reconciled.We revisit in particular the impact of massive stars on the early evolution of massive star clusters, as well as the question of early gas expulsion.We propose several tests to probe whether the YMC we are observing today can be considered as the analogues of GC progenitors.

  3. THE EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF CLUSTERS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD-MISSING LINKS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Stefan C.; Mackey, A. Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.

    2011-04-10

    Recent observations of intermediate-age (1-3 Gyr) massive star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud have revealed that the majority possess bifurcated or extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO) morphologies. This effect can be understood to arise from subsequent star formation among the stellar population with age differences between constituent stars amounting to 50-300 Myr. Age spreads of this order are similarly invoked to explain the light-element abundance variations witnessed in ancient globular clusters (GCs). In this paper, we explore the proposition that the clusters exhibiting the EMSTO phenomenon are a general phase in the evolution of massive clusters, one that naturally leads to the particular chemical properties of the ancient GC population. We show that the isolation of EMSTO clusters to intermediate ages is the consequence of observational selection effects. In our proposed scenario, the EMSTO phenomenon is identical to that which establishes the light-element abundance variations that are ubiquitous in the ancient GC population. Our scenario makes a strong prediction: EMSTO clusters will exhibit abundance variations in the light-elements characteristic of the ancient GC population.

  4. Magnetic fields and radiative shocks in protogalaxies and the origin of globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Kang, Hyesung

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines the hypothesis that globular clusters formed from gravitational instability in dense sheets of gas produced behind radiative shocks inside protogalaxies, such as those produced by the collision of subgalactic mass fragments partaking of the virial motions within the protogalaxy, in order to determine the differences which result if a magnetic field is present in the preshock medium. The MHD conservation equations are solved along with rate equations for nonequilibrium ionization, recombination, molecular formation and dissociation, and the equations of radiative transfer for steady-state shocks of velocity 300 km/s in a gas of preshock densities of 0.1-1 cu cm, and magnetic field strengths of 0.1-6 micro-G. The magnetic field is found to limit the degree of postshock compression and, thereby, to reduce the level of external radiation flux required to suppress H2 formation and cooling.

  5. LIMITS ON [O III] 5007 EMISSION FROM NGC 4472'S GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: CONSTRAINTS ON PLANETARY NEBULAE AND ULTRALUMINOUS BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2012-06-20

    We have searched for [O III] 5007 emission in high-resolution spectroscopic data from FLAMES/GIRAFFE Very Large Telescope observations of 174 massive globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4472. No planetary nebulae (PNe) are observed in these clusters, constraining the number of PNe per bolometric luminosity, {alpha} < 0.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} PN/L{sub Sun }. This is significantly lower than the rate predicted from stellar evolution, if all stars produce PNe. Comparing our results to populations of PNe in galaxies, we find most galaxies have a higher {alpha} than these GCs (more PNe per bolometric luminosity-though some massive early-type galaxies do have similarly low {alpha}). The low {alpha} required in these GCs suggests that the number of PNe per bolometric luminosity does not increase strongly with decreasing mass or metallicity of the stellar population. We find no evidence for correlations between the presence of known GC PNe and either the presence of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) or the stellar interaction rates in the GCs. This, and the low {alpha} observed, suggests that the formation of PNe may not be enhanced in tight binary systems. These data do identify one [O III] emission feature, this is the (previously published) broad [O III] emission from the cluster RZ 2109. This emission is thought to originate from the LMXB in this cluster, which is accreting at super-Eddington rates. The absence of any similar [O III] emission from the other clusters favors the hypothesis that this source is a black hole LMXB, rather than a neutron star LMXB with significant geometric beaming of its X-ray emission.

  6. The Chemical Properties of Milky Way and M31 Globular Clusters. I. A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Strader, Jay; Forbes, Duncan A.; Proctor, Robert N.; Barmby, Pauline; Huchra, John P.

    2004-10-01

    A comparative analysis is performed between high-quality integrated spectral indices of 30 M31 globular clusters, 20 Milky Way globular clusters, and a sample of field and cluster elliptical galaxies. We find that the Lick CN indices in the M31 and Galactic clusters are enhanced relative to the bulges of the Milky Way, M31, and elliptical spheroids, in agreement with Burstein and coworkers. Although not particularly evident in the Lick CN indices, the near-UV cyanogen feature (λ3883) is strongly enhanced with respect to the Galactic globular clusters at metallicities -1.5<[Fe/H]<-0.3. Carbon shows signs of varying among these two groups. For [Fe/H]>-0.8, we observe no systematic differences in the Hδ, Hγ, or Hβ indices between the M31 and Galactic globular clusters, in contrast to previous studies. The elliptical galaxy sample lies offset from the loci of the globular clusters in both the cyanogen-[MgFe] and Balmer-line-[MgFe] planes. Six of the M31 clusters appear young and are projected onto the M31 disk. Population synthesis models suggest that these are metal-rich clusters with ages 100-800 Myr, metallicities -0.20<=[Fe/H]<=0.35, and masses 0.7-~7.0×104 Msolar. Two other young clusters are Hubble V in NGC 205, observed as a template, and an older (~3 Gyr) cluster some 7 kpc away from the plane of the disk. The six clusters projected onto the disk show signs of rotation similar to the H I gas in M31, and three clusters exhibit thin disk kinematics, according to Morrison and coworkers. Dynamical mass estimates and detailed structural parameters are required for these objects to determine whether they are massive open clusters or globular clusters. If they are the latter, our findings suggest globular clusters may trace the buildup of galaxy disks. In either case, we conclude that these clusters are part of a young, metal-rich disk cluster system in M31, possibly as young as 1 Gyr old.

  7. Evidence for a Dark Side to NGC 5128’s Globular Cluster System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyazinth Puzia, Thomas; Taylor, Matthew Alan

    2015-08-01

    Evidence for a new type of star cluster from the dynamical mass scaling relations of compact stellar systems (CSSs) will be presented, based on a study of 125 CSSs around the nearby giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5128, using high-resolution spectra (R=26000) obtained with VLT/FLAMES. All radial velocity (vr) and line-of-sight velocity dispersion (σlos) measurements are performed with the penalized pixel fitting (ppxf) technique. The σlos estimates are corrected to the 2D projected half-light radii, (σ1/2), as well as the cluster cores, (σ0), accounting for observational/aperture effects and are combined with structural parameters in order to derive dynamical half-mass estimates (M1/2), and total dynamical masses (Mdyn), for 116 CSSs around NGC 5128. In total, 93 CSSs have Mdyn measured for the first time along with the corresponding dynamical mass-to-light ratios (M/L)dyn. We find two distinct sequences in the (M/L)dyn-Mdyn plane, which are well fit by power laws of the forms (M/L)dyn ~ M(0.33+/-0.04) and (M/L)dyn ~ M(0.91+/-0.04). The shallower sequence corresponds to the very bright tail of the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF), with indications for angular momentum content that increases with Mdyn. The steeper relation appears to be populated by a distinct group of objects with significant dark gravitating mass components, such as central massive black holes and/or exotically compact dark matter distributions. This result would suggest that the formation and evolution of these CSSs is markedly different from the classical globular clusters in NGC 5128 despite the fact that they have luminosities similar to the GCLF turn-over magnitude.

  8. THE ORIGIN OF GAMMA RAYS FROM GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K. S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Hui, C. Y.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2010-11-10

    Fermi has detected gamma-ray emission from eight globular clusters (GCs). It is commonly believed that the energy sources of these gamma rays are millisecond pulsars (MSPs) inside GCs. Also it has been standard to explain the spectra of most Fermi Large Area Telescope pulsars including MSPs resulting from the curvature radiation (CR) of relativistic electrons/positrons inside the pulsar magnetosphere. Therefore, gamma rays from GCs are expected to be the collection of CR from all MSPs inside the clusters. However, the angular resolution is not high enough to pinpoint the nature of the emission. In this paper, we calculate the gamma rays produced by the inverse Compton (IC) scattering between relativistic electrons/positrons in the pulsar wind of MSPs in the GCs and background soft photons including cosmic microwave/relic photons, background star lights in the clusters, the galactic infrared photons, and the galactic star lights. We show that the gamma-ray spectrum from 47 Tucanae can be explained equally well by upward scattering of either the relic photons, the galactic infrared photons, or the galactic star lights, whereas the gamma-ray spectra from the other seven GCs are best fitted by the upward scattering of either the galactic infrared photons or the galactic star lights. We also find that the observed gamma-ray luminosity is correlated better with the combined factor of the encounter rate and the background soft photon energy density. Therefore, the IC scattering may also contribute to the observed gamma-ray emission from GCs detected by Fermi in addition to the standard CR process. Furthermore, we find that the emission region of high-energy photons from GCs produced by the IC scattering is substantially larger than the cores of GCs with a radius >10 pc. The diffuse radio and X-rays emitted from GCs can also be produced by the synchrotron radiation and IC scattering, respectively. We suggest that future observations including radio, X-rays, and gamma rays

  9. Primordial binary populations in low-density star clusters as seen by Chandra: globular clusters versus old open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Maureen C.

    2015-08-01

    The binaries in the core of a star cluster are the energy source that prevents the cluster from experiencing core collapse. To model the dynamical evolution of a cluster, it is important to have constraints on the primordial binary content. X-ray observations of old star clusters are very efficient in detecting the close interacting binaries among the cluster members. The X-ray sources in star clusters are a mix of binaries that were dynamically formed and primordial binaries. In massive, dense star clusters, dynamical encounters play an important role in shaping the properties and numbers of the binaries. In contrast, in the low-density clusters the impact of dynamical encounters is presumed to be very small, and the close binaries detected in X-rays represent a primordial population. The lowest density globular clusters have current masses and central densities similar to those of the oldest open clusters in our Milky Way. I will discuss the results of studies with the Chandra X-ray Observatory that have nevertheless revealed a clear dichotomy: far fewer (if any at all) X-ray sources are detected in the central regions of the low-density globular clusters compared to the number of secure cluster members that have been detected in old open clusters (above a limiting X-ray luminosity of typically 4e30 erg/s). The low stellar encounter rates imply that dynamical destruction of binaries can be ignored at present, therefore an explanation must be sought elsewhere. I will discuss several factors that can shed light on the implied differences between the primordial close binary populations in the two types of star clusters.

  10. Two stellar-mass black holes in the globular cluster M22.

    PubMed

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J; Miller-Jones, James C A; Seth, Anil C

    2012-10-01

    Hundreds of stellar-mass black holes probably form in a typical globular star cluster, with all but one predicted to be ejected through dynamical interactions. Some observational support for this idea is provided by the lack of X-ray-emitting binary stars comprising one black hole and one other star ('black-hole/X-ray binaries') in Milky Way globular clusters, even though many neutron-star/X-ray binaries are known. Although a few black holes have been seen in globular clusters around other galaxies, the masses of these cannot be determined, and some may be intermediate-mass black holes that form through exotic mechanisms. Here we report the presence of two flat-spectrum radio sources in the Milky Way globular cluster M22, and we argue that these objects are black holes of stellar mass (each ∼10-20 times more massive than the Sun) that are accreting matter. We find a high ratio of radio-to-X-ray flux for these black holes, consistent with the larger predicted masses of black holes in globular clusters compared to those outside. The identification of two black holes in one cluster shows that ejection of black holes is not as efficient as predicted by most models, and we argue that M22 may contain a total population of ∼5-100 black holes. The large core radius of M22 could arise from heating produced by the black holes. PMID:23038466

  11. The Chemical Properties of Milky Way and M31 Globular Clusters. II. Stellar Population Model Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Strader, Jay; Forbes, Duncan A.; Proctor, Robert N.; Barmby, Pauline; Huchra, John P.

    2005-03-01

    We derive ages, metallicities, and abundance ratios ([α/Fe]) from the integrated spectra of 23 globular clusters in M31 by employing multivariate fits to two different stellar population models. We also perform a parallel analysis on 21 Galactic globular clusters as a consistency check and in order to facilitate a differential analysis. Our analysis shows that the M31 globular clusters separate into three distinct components in age and metallicity; we identify an old, metal-poor group (seven clusters), an old, metal-rich group (10 clusters), and an intermediate-age (3-6 Gyr), intermediate-metallicity ([Z/H]~-1) group (six clusters). This third group is not identified in the Galactic globular cluster sample. We also see evidence that the old, metal-rich Galactic globular clusters are 1-2 Gyr older than their counterparts in M31. The majority of globular clusters in both samples appear to be enhanced in α-elements, but the degree of enhancement is rather model-dependent. The intermediate-age globular clusters appear to be the most enhanced, with [α/Fe]~0.4. These clusters are clearly depressed in CN with respect to the models and the bulk of the M31 and Milky Way sample. Compared with the bulge of M31, M32, and NGC 205, these clusters most resemble the stellar populations in NGC 205 in terms of age, metallicity, and CN abundance. We infer horizontal branch morphologies for the M31 clusters using the Rose Ca II index and demonstrate that blue horizontal branches are not leading to erroneous age estimates in our analysis. We discuss and reject as unlikely the hypothesis that these objects are in fact foreground stars contaminating the optical catalogs. The intermediate-age clusters have generally higher velocities than the bulk of the M31 cluster population. Spatially, three of these clusters are projected onto the bulge region, and the remaining three are distributed at large radii. We discuss these objects within the context of the build-up of the M31 halo and

  12. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Kinematics of seven Galactic globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardo, C.; Pancino, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Bragaglia, A.; Donati, P.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Feltzing, S.; Jeffries, R. D.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bergemann, M.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; de Laverny, P.; Marconi, G.; Masseron, T.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO survey is a large public spectroscopic survey aimed at investigating the origin and formation history of our Galaxy by collecting spectroscopy of representative samples (about 105 Milky Way stars) of all Galactic stellar populations, in the field and in clusters. The survey uses globular clusters as intra- and inter-survey calibrators, deriving stellar atmospheric parameters and abundances of a significant number of stars in clusters, along with radial velocity determinations. We used precise radial velocities of a large number of stars in seven globular clusters (NGC 1851, NGC 2808, NGC 4372, NGC 4833, NGC 5927, NGC 6752, and NGC 7078) to validate pipeline results and to preliminarily investigate the cluster internal kinematics. Radial velocity measurements were extracted from FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra processed by the survey pipeline as part of the second internal data release of data products to ESO. We complemented our sample with ESO archival data obtained with different instrument configurations. Reliable radial velocity measurements for 1513 bona fide cluster star members were obtained in total. We measured systemic rotation, estimated central velocity dispersions, and present velocity dispersion profiles of all the selected clusters, providing the first velocity dispersion curve and the first estimate of the central velocitydispersion for the cluster NGC 5927. Finally, we explore the possible link between cluster kinematics and other physical parameters. The analysis we present here demonstrates that Gaia-ESO survey data are sufficiently accurate to be used in studies of kinematics of stellar systems and stellar populations in the Milky Way. Full Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A115Based on data products from observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme 188.B-3002 (the

  13. Heart of darkness: dust obscuration of the central stellar component in globular clusters younger than ˜100 Myr in multiple stellar population models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longmore, S. N.

    2015-03-01

    To explain the observed anomalies in stellar populations within globular clusters, many globular cluster formation theories require two independent episodes of star formation. A fundamental prediction of these models is that the clusters must accumulate large gas reservoirs as the raw material to form the second stellar generation. We show that young clusters containing the required gas reservoir should exhibit the following observational signatures: (i) a dip in the measured luminosity profile or an increase in measured reddening towards the cluster centre, with AV > 10 mag within a radius of a few pc; (ii) bright (sub)mm emission from dust grains; (iii) bright molecular line emission once the gas is dense enough to begin forming stars. Unless the initial mass function is anomalously skewed towards low-mass stars, the clusters should also show obvious signs of star formation via optical emission lines (e.g. Hα) after the stars have formed. These observational signatures should be readily observable towards any compact clusters (radii of a few pc) in the nearby Universe with masses ≳106 M⊙ and ages ≲100 Myr. This provides a straightforward way to directly test globular cluster formation models which predict large gas reservoirs are required to form the second stellar generation. The fact that no such observational evidence exists calls into question whether such a mechanism happens regularly for young massive clusters in galaxies within a few tens of Mpc.

  14. Evolution of long-lived globular cluster stars. II. Sodium abundance variations on the asymptotic giant branch as a function of globular cluster age and metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnel, Corinne; Chantereau, William

    2016-02-01

    Context. Long-lived stars in globular clusters exhibit chemical peculiarities with respect to their halo counterparts. In particular, sodium-enriched stars are identified as belonging to a second stellar population born from cluster material contaminated by the hydrogen-burning ashes of a first stellar population. Their presence and numbers in different locations of the colour-magnitude diagram provide important constraints on the self-enrichment scenarios. In particular, the ratio of Na-poor to Na-rich stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) has recently been found to vary strongly from cluster to cluster (NGC 6752, 47 Tuc, and NGC 2808), while it is relatively constant on the red giant branch (RGB). Aims: We investigate the impact of both age and metallicity on the theoretical sodium spread along the AGB within the framework of the fast rotating massive star (FRMS) scenario for globular cluster self-enrichment. Methods: We computed evolution models of low-mass stars for four different metallicities ([Fe/H] = -2.2, -1.75, -1.15, -0.5) assuming the initial helium-sodium abundance correlation for second population stars derived from the FRMS models and using mass loss prescriptions on the RGB with two realistic values of the free parameter in the Reimers formula. Results: Based on this grid of models we derive the theoretical critical initial mass for a star born with a given helium, sodium, and metal content that determines whether that star will climb or not the AGB. This allows us to predict the maximum sodium content expected on the AGB for globular clusters as a function of both their metallicity and age. We find that (1) at a given metallicity, younger clusters are expected to host AGB stars exhibiting a larger sodium spread than older clusters and (2) at a given age, higher sodium dispersion along the AGB is predicted in the most metal-poor globular clusters than in the metal-rich ones. We also confirm the strong impact of the mass loss rate in the earlier

  15. Multiple populations in the Sagittarius nuclear cluster M 54 and in other anomalous globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A. P.

    2016-08-01

    M 54 is the central cluster of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. This stellar system is now in process of being disrupted by the tidal interaction with the Milky Way and represents one of the building blocks of the Galactic Halo. Recent discoveries, based on the synergy of photometry and spectroscopy have revealed that the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of some massive, anomalous, Globular Clusters (GCs) host stellar populations with different content of heavy elements. In this paper, I use multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry to detect and characterize multiple stellar populations in M 54. I provide empirical evidence that this GC shares photometric and spectroscopic similarities with the class of anomalous GCs. These findings make it tempting to speculate that, similarly to Sagittarius nuclear cluster M 54, other anomalous GCs were born in an extra-Galactic environment.

  16. MANGANESE ABUNDANCES IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER {omega} CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Bergemann, Maria; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Lambert, David L.

    2010-07-01

    We present manganese abundances in 10 red giant members of the globular cluster {omega} Centauri; eight stars are from the most metal-poor population (RGB MP and RGB MInt1) while two targets are members of the more metal-rich groups (RGB MInt2 and MInt3). This is the first time Mn abundances have been studied in this peculiar stellar system. The LTE values of [Mn/Fe] in {omega} Cen overlap those of Milky Way stars in the metal-poor {omega} Cen populations ([Fe/H] {approx}-1.5 to -1.8), however unlike what is observed in Milky Way halo and disk stars, [Mn/Fe] declines in the two more metal-rich RGB MInt2 and MInt3 targets. Non-LTE calculations were carried out in order to derive corrections to the LTE Mn abundances. The non-LTE results for {omega} Cen in comparison with the non-LTE [Mn/Fe] versus [Fe/H] trend obtained for the Milky Way confirm and strengthen the conclusion that the manganese behavior in {omega} Cen is distinct. These results suggest that low-metallicity supernovae (with metallicities {<=} -2) of either Type II or Type Ia dominated the enrichment of the more metal-rich stars in {omega} Cen. The dominance of low-metallicity stars in the chemical evolution of {omega} Cen has been noted previously in the s-process elements where enrichment from metal-poor asymptotic giant branch stars is indicated. In addition, copper, which also has metallicity-dependent yields, exhibits lower values of [Cu/Fe] in the RGB MInt2 and MInt3 {omega} Cen populations.

  17. Far-ultraviolet photometry of the globular cluster omega Cen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Jonathan H.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Rood, Robert T.; Dorman, Ben; Landsman, Wayne B.; Cheng, K.-P.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Hintzen, Paul M. N.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.

    1994-01-01

    We present far-ultraviolet images of the globular cluster omega Centauri obtained with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) during the 1990 December Astro-1 mission. A total of 1957 sources are detected at 1620 A to a limiting ultraviolet (UV) magnitude of 16.4 in the central 24 min diameter region of the field and a limit of 15.6 over the remainder of the 40 min diameter field. Over 1400 of these sources are matched with stars on a Stroemgren u band charge coupled devices (CCD) frame obtained with the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 0.9 m telescope to produce a (far-UV, u) color-magnitude diagram (CMD). Completeness of the sample and error estimates are determined by photometry of artificial stars added to the images. The horizontal branch (HB) of the CMD is heavily populated hotter than 9000 K. A large number of 'extreme HB' stars are found hotter than a conspicuous break in the HB at T(sub e) approximately 16000 K. There is also a significant population of stars above the HB, the brightest of which is 4 mag brighter than the HB. Most of the hotter of these appear to be 'AGB-manque' or 'Post-Early Asymptotic Giant Branch' stars. We compare the observations to recent theoretical evolutionary tracks for the zero-age HB and subsequent phases. The tracks match the data well, with the exception of the hotter HB stars, many of which fall below the zero-age horizontal branch. It is unclear as yet whether these are a special population or an artifact of errors in the models or photometry. We identify 33 stars with T(sub e) greater than or approximately = 50000 K, which are hotter than zero-age HB stars with envelope masses of 0.003 solar mass.

  18. INITIAL SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jihye; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Kim, Juhan

    2013-01-10

    Despite the importance of their size evolution in understanding the dynamical evolution of globular clusters (GCs) of the Milky Way, studies that focus specifically on this issue are rare. Based on the advanced, realistic Fokker-Planck (FP) approach, we theoretically predict the initial size distribution (SD) of the Galactic GCs along with their initial mass function and radial distribution. Over one thousand FP calculations in a wide parameter space have pinpointed the best-fit initial conditions for the SD, mass function, and radial distribution. Our best-fit model shows that the initial SD of the Galactic GCs is of larger dispersion than today's SD, and that the typical projected half-light radius of the initial GCs is {approx}4.6 pc, which is 1.8 times larger than that of the present-day GCs ({approx}2.5 pc). Their large size signifies greater susceptibility to the Galactic tides: the total mass of destroyed GCs reaches 3-5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }, several times larger than previous estimates. Our result challenges a recent view that the Milky Way GCs were born compact on the sub-pc scale, and rather implies that (1) the initial GCs were generally larger than the typical size of the present-day GCs, (2) the initially large GCs mostly shrank and/or disrupted as a result of the galactic tides, and (3) the initially small GCs expanded by two-body relaxation, and later shrank by the galactic tides.

  19. A NEW DISTANT MILKY WAY GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN THE PAN-STARRS1 3π SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Sesar, Branimir; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schlafly, Edward F.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Denneau, Larry; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Sweeney, William E.; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Price, Paul A.; and others

    2014-05-01

    We present a new satellite in the outer halo of the Galaxy, the first Milky Way satellite found in the stacked photometric catalog of the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1) Survey. From follow-up photometry obtained with WFI on the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope, we argue that the object, located at a heliocentric distance of 145 ± 17 kpc, is the most distant Milky Way globular cluster yet known. With a total magnitude of M{sub V} = –4.3 ± 0.2 and a half-light radius of 20 ± 2 pc, it shares the properties of extended globular clusters found in the outer halo of our Galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy. The discovery of this distant cluster shows that the full spatial extent of the Milky Way globular cluster system has not yet been fully explored.

  20. No sign (yet) of intergalactic globular clusters in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, A. D.; Beasley, M. A.; Leaman, R.

    2016-04-01

    We present Gemini/GMOS imaging of twelve candidate intergalactic globular clusters (IGCs) in the Local Group, identified in a recent survey of the SDSS footprint by di Tullio Zinn & Zinn (2015). Our image quality is sufficiently high, at ˜0.4″ - 0.7″, that we are able to unambiguously classify all twelve targets as distant galaxies. To reinforce this conclusion we use GMOS images of globular clusters in the M31 halo, taken under very similar conditions, to show that any genuine clusters in the putative IGC sample would be straightforward to distinguish. Based on the stated sensitivity of the di Tullio Zinn & Zinn (2015) search algorithm, we conclude that there cannot be a significant number of IGCs with MV ≤ -6 lying unseen in the SDSS area if their properties mirror those of globular clusters in the outskirts of M31 - even a population of 4 would have only a ≈1% chance of non-detection.

  1. Red variables in globular clusters . Comparison with the Bulge and the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, N.; Nakada, Y.; Tanabé, T.; Fukushi, H.; Ita, Y.

    We are conducting a project aimed at surveys and repeated observations of red variables (or long-period variables) in globular clusters. Using the IRSF/SIRIUS near-infrared facility located at South Africa, we are observing 145 globular clusters that are accessible from the site. In this contribution, we present our observations and preliminary results. We have discovered many red variables, especially in the Bulge region, whose memberships to the clusters remain to be confirmed. Using a sample of all red variables (both already known and newly discovered ones) in globular clusters except those projected to the Bulge region, we produce a log P-K diagram and compare it with those for the Bulge and the Large Magellanic Cloud. A prominent feature is that the bright part of overtone-pulsators' sequence (B+ and C\\prime) is absent. We discuss its implication on the evolution of red variables.

  2. Using Globular Clusters to Test Gravity in the Weak Acceleration Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Marconi, Gianni; Gilmozzi, Roberto; Carraro, Giovanni

    2007-06-01

    We report on the results from an ongoing programme aimed at testing Newton's law of gravity in the low acceleration regime using globular clusters. We find that all clusters studied so far behave like galaxies, that is, their velocity dispersion profiles flatten out at large radii where the acceleration of gravity goes below 10 8 cm s 2, instead of following the expected Keplerian fall-off. In galaxies this behaviour is ascribed to the existence of a dark matter halo. Globular clusters, however, are not supposed to contain dark matter, hence this result might indicate that our present understanding of gravity in the weak regime of accelerations is incomplete and possibly incorrect.

  3. Integrated K-band spectra of old and intermediate-age globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubenova, M.; Kuntschner, H.; Rejkuba, M.; Silva, D. R.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Larsen, S. S.

    2010-02-01

    Current stellar population models have arguably the largest uncertainties in the near-IR wavelength range, partly due to a lack of large and well calibrated empirical spectral libraries. In this paper we present a project whose aim it is to provide the first library of luminosity weighted integrated near-IR spectra of globular clusters to be used to test the current stellar population models and serve as calibrators for future ones. Our pilot study presents spatially integrated K-band spectra of three old (≥10 Gyr) and metal poor ([Fe/H] ~ -1.4), and three intermediate age (1-2 Gyr) and more metal rich ([Fe/H] ~ - 0.4) globular clusters in the LMC. We measured the line strengths of the Na I, Ca I and 12CO (2-0) absorption features. The Na I index decreases with increasing age and decreasing metallicity of the clusters. The DCO index, used to measure the 12CO (2-0) line strength, is significantly reduced by the presence of carbon-rich TP-AGB stars in the globular clusters with age ~1 Gyr. This is in contradiction to the predictions of the stellar population models of Maraston (2005, MNRAS, 362, 799). We find that this disagreement is due to the different CO absorption strength of carbon-rich Milky Way TP-AGB stars used in the models and the LMC carbon stars in our sample. For globular clusters with age ≥ 2 Gyr we find DCO index measurements consistent with the model predictions. Based on observation collected at the ESO Paranal La Silla Observatory, Chile, Prog. ID 078.B-0205.Spectra in FITS format are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/510/A19

  4. HST observations of globular clusters in M 31. 1: Surface photometry of 13 objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecci, F. Fusi; Battistini, P.; Bendinelli, O.; Bonoli, F.; Cacciari, C.; Djorgovski, S.; Federici, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Parmeggiani, G.; Weir, N.

    1994-01-01

    We present the initial results of a study of globular clusters in M 31, using the Faint Object Camera (FOC) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The sample of objects consists of 13 clusters spanning a range of properties. Three independent image deconvolution techniques were used in order to compensate for the optical problems of the HST, leading to mutually fully consistent results. We present detailed tests and comparisons to determine the reliability and limits of these deconvolution methods, and conclude that high-quality surface photometry of M 31 globulars is possible with the HST data. Surface brightness profiles have been extracted, and core radii, half-light radii, and central surface brightness values have been measured for all of the clusters in the sample. Their comparison with the values from ground-based observations indicates the later to be systematically and strongly biased by the seeing effects, as it may be expected. A comparison of the structural parameters with those of the Galactic globulars shows that the structural properties of the M 31 globulars are very similar to those of their Galactic counterparts. A candidate for a post-core-collapse cluster, Bo 343 = G 105, has been already identified from these data; this is the first such detection in the M 31 globular cluster system.

  5. Observing globular cluster RR Lyraes with the BYU West Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, E. J.; Joner, M. D.; Walton, R. S.

    2016-05-01

    We have utilized the 0.9-meter telescope of the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory to secure data on six northern hemi- sphere globular clusters. Here we present observations of RR Lyrae stars located in these clusters. We compare light curves produced using both DAOPHOT and ISIS software packages. Light curve fitting is done with FITLC.

  6. GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC HALO: NEW HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS IMAGING OF SIX GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER AGE-METALLICITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dotter, Aaron; Anderson, Jay; Sarajedini, Ata

    2011-09-01

    Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) derived from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys F606W, F814W photometry of six globular clusters (GCs) are presented. The six GCs form two loose groupings in Galactocentric distance (R{sub GC}): IC 4499, NGC 6426, and Ruprecht 106 at {approx}15-20 kpc and NGC 7006, Palomar 15, and Pyxis at {approx}40 kpc. The CMDs allow the ages to be estimated from the main-sequence turnoff in every case. In addition, the age of Palomar 5 (R{sub GC} {approx} 18 kpc) is estimated using archival HST Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 V, I photometry. The age analysis reveals the following: IC 4499, Ruprecht 106, and Pyxis are 1-2 Gyr younger than inner halo GCs with similar metallicities; NGC 7006 and Palomar 5 are marginally younger than their inner halo counterparts; NGC 6426 and Palomar 15, the two most metal-poor GCs in the sample, are coeval with all the other metal-poor GCs within the uncertainties. Combined with our previous efforts, the current sample provides strong evidence that the Galactic GC age-metallicity relation consists of two distinct branches. One suggests a rapid chemical enrichment in the inner Galaxy while the other suggests prolonged GC formation in the outer halo. The latter is consistent with the outer halo GCs forming in dwarf galaxies and later being accreted by the Milky Way.

  7. Radial velocities of stars in the globular cluster M4 and the cluster distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. C.; Rees, Richard F.; Cudworth, Kyle M.

    1995-01-01

    The internal stellar velocity distribution of the globular cluster M4 is evaluated from nearly 200 new radial velocity measurements good to 1 km/s and a rederivation of existing proper motions. The mean radial velocity of the cluster is 70.9 +/- 0.6 km/s. The velocity dispersion is 3.5 +/- 0.3 km/s at the core, dropping marginally towards the outskirts. Such a low internal dispersion is somewhat at odds with the cluster's orbit, for which the perigalacticon is sufficiently close to the galactic center that the probability of cluster disruption is high; a tidal radius two-thirds the currently accepted value would eliminate the discrepancy. The cluster mass-to-light ratio is also small, M/L(sub V) = 1.0 +/- 0.4 in solar units. M4 thus joins M22 as a cluster of moderate and concentration with a mass-to-light ratio among the lowest known. The astrometric distance to the cluster is also smaller than expected, 1.72 +/- 0.14 kpc. This is only consistent with conventional estimates of the luminosity of horizontal branch stars provided an extinction law R = A(sub V)/E(B-V) approximately 4 is adopted, as has been suggested recently by several authors.

  8. New cluster members and halo stars of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navin, Colin A.; Martell, Sarah L.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2015-10-01

    NGC 1851 is an intriguing Galactic globular cluster, with multiple stellar evolutionary sequences, light and heavy element abundance variations and indications of a surrounding stellar halo. We present the first results of a spectroscopic study of red giant stars within and outside of the tidal radius of this cluster. Our results identify nine probable new cluster members (inside the tidal radius) with heliocentric radial velocities consistent with that of NGC 1851. We also identify, based on their radial velocities, four probable extratidal cluster halo stars at distances up to ˜3.1 times the tidal radius, which are supportive of previous findings that NGC 1851 is surrounded by an extended stellar halo. Proper motions were available for 12 of these 13 stars and all are consistent with that of NGC 1851. Apart from the cluster members and cluster halo stars, our observed radial velocity distribution agrees with the expected distribution from a Besançon disc/N-body stellar halo Milky Way model generated by the GALAXIA code, suggesting that no other structures at different radial velocities are present in our field. The metallicities of these stars are estimated using equivalent width measurements of the near-infrared calcium triplet absorption lines and are found, within the limitations of this method, to be consistent with that of NGC 1851. In addition we recover 110 red giant cluster members from previous studies based on their radial velocities and identify three stars with unusually high radial velocities.

  9. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. V. NONLINEAR ABSORPTION-LINE INDEX VERSUS METALLICITY RELATIONS AND BIMODAL INDEX DISTRIBUTIONS OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook; Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Kang, Yongbeom; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2013-05-10

    Recent spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of M31 with unprecedented precision witnessed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Such division of extragalactic GCs, so far asserted mainly by photometric color bimodality, has been viewed as the presence of merely two distinct metallicity subgroups within individual galaxies and forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Given that spectroscopy is a more detailed probe into stellar population than photometry, the discovery of index bimodality may point to the very existence of dual GC populations. However, here we show that the observed spectroscopic dichotomy of M31 GCs emerges due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and thus one does not necessarily have to invoke two separate GC subsystems. We take this as a close analogy to the recent view that metallicity-color nonlinearity is primarily responsible for observed GC color bimodality. We also demonstrate that the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line displays non-negligible metallicity-index nonlinearity and Balmer lines show rather strong nonlinearity. This gives rise to bimodal index distributions, which are routinely interpreted as bimodal metallicity distributions, not considering metallicity-index nonlinearity. Our findings give a new insight into the constitution of M31's GC system, which could change much of the current thought on the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  10. On the uniqueness of kinematical signatures of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zocchi, Alice; Gieles, Mark; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    Finding an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) in a globular cluster (GC), or proving its absence, is a crucial ingredient in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The challenge is to identify a unique signature of an IMBH that cannot be accounted for by other processes. Observational claims of IMBH detection are often based on analyses of the kinematics of stars, such as a rise in the velocity dispersion profile towards the centre. In this contribution we discuss the degeneracy between this IMBH signal and pressure anisotropy in the GC. We show that that by considering anisotropic models it is possible to partially explain the innermost shape of the projected velocity dispersion profile, even though models that do not account for an IMBH do not exhibit a cusp in the centre.

  11. Optical, X-ray and gamma-ray observations of compact objects in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    In the past three years, a new era of study of globular clusters has begun with multiwavelength observations from the current generation of astronomical telescopes in space. We review the recent results obtained from our studies of compact binaries and x-ray sources in globulars with ROSAT and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as well as our balloon-borne hard x-ray telescope EXITE (Energetic X-ray Imaging Telescope Experiment) and ground-based observations (CTIO). With ROSAT, we have obtained the most sensitive high resolution soft x-ray images of clusters which show multiple low luminosity sources in cluster cores that are likely indicative of the long-sought population of cataclysmic variables (CVs). We have obtained deep H-alpha images of two clusters with HST and found CV candiates for 3 of the ROSAT sources in the core of NGC 6397. New CTIO imaging and spectroscopy of two 'dim source' fields in omega-Cen are also described. With EXITE we carried out the first hard x-ray imaging observations of the cluster 47 Tuc; such studies can ultimately limit the populations of millisecond pulsars and pulsar emission mechanisms. A long ROSAT exposure on 47 Tuc also shows probable cluster diffuse emission, possibly due to hot gas from ablating millisecond pulsars. Multiwavelength studies of globular clusters may provide new constraints on problems as diverse as the origin of CVs and low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and the origin of hot gas in globulars.

  12. A Rich Globular Cluster System in Dragonfly 17: Are Ultra-diffuse Galaxies Pure Stellar Halos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Eric W.; Lim, Sungsoon

    2016-05-01

    Observations of nearby galaxy clusters at low surface brightness have identified galaxies with low luminosities, but sizes as large as L ⋆ galaxies, leading them to be dubbed “ultra-diffuse galaxies” (UDGs). The survival of UDGs in dense environments like the Coma cluster suggests that UDGs could reside in much more massive dark halos. We report the detection of a substantial population of globular clusters (GCs) around a Coma UDG, Dragonfly 17 (DF17). We find that DF17 has a high GC specific frequency of S N = 26 ± 13. The GC system is extended, with an effective radius of 12″ ± 2″, or 5.6 ± 0.9 kpc at Coma distance, 70% larger than the galaxy itself. We also estimate the mean of the GC luminosity function to infer a distance of {97}-14+17 Mpc, providing redshift-independent confirmation that one of these UDGs is in the Coma cluster. The presence of a rich GC system in DF17 indicates that, despite its low stellar density, star formation was intense enough to form many massive star clusters. If DF17's ratio of total GC mass to total halo mass is similar to those in other galaxies, then DF17 has an inferred total mass of ˜1011 M ⊙, only ˜10% the mass of the Milky Way, but extremely dominated by dark matter, with M/L V ≈ 1000. We suggest that UDGs like DF17 may be “pure stellar halos,” i.e., galaxies that formed their stellar halo components, but then suffered an early cessation in star formation that prevented the formation of any substantial central disk or bulge. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  13. The ACS Fornax Cluster Survey. XI. Catalog of Globular Cluster Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, Andrés; Peng, Eric W.; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Eyheramendy, Susana; Ferrarese, Laura

    2015-11-01

    We present catalogs of globular cluster (GC) candidates for 43 galaxies from the ACS Fornax Cluster survey, a program designed to carry out imaging of early-type members of the Fornax cluster using the Advanded Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The procedure to select bona fide GC candidates from the full list of detections is based on model-based clustering methods, similar to those adopted for a survey of 100 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. For each detected source, we measure its position, magnitudes in the F475W (≈Sloan g) and F850LP (≈Sloan z) bandpasses, half-light radii obtained by fitting point-spread function-convolved King models to the observed light distribution, and an estimate of the probabilty {p}{GC} that each cataloged source is a GC. These measurements are presented for 9136 sources, of which 6275 have {p}{GC}≥slant 0.5, and are thus likely GCs. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  14. Formation and Assembly of Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Stephen

    The formation of stars and star clusters is a major unresolved problem in astrophysics. It is central to modeling stellar populations and understanding galaxy luminosity distributions in cosmological models. Young massive clusters are major components of starburst galaxies, while globular clusters are cornerstones of the cosmic distance scale and represent vital laboratories for studies of stellar dynamics and stellar evolution. Yet how these clusters form and how rapidly and efficiently they expel their natal gas remain unclear, as do the consequences of this gas expulsion for cluster structure and survival. Also unclear is how the properties of low-mass clusters, which form from small-scale instabilities in galactic disks and inform much of our understanding of cluster formation and star-formation efficiency, differ from those of more massive clusters, which probably formed in starburst events driven by fast accretion at high redshift, or colliding gas flows in merging galaxies. Modeling cluster formation requires simulating many simultaneous physical processes, placing stringent demands on both software and hardware. Simulations of galaxies evolving in cosmological contexts usually lack the numerical resolution to simulate star formation in detail. They do not include detailed treatments of important physical effects such as magnetic fields, radiation pressure, ionization, and supernova feedback. Simulations of smaller clusters include these effects, but fall far short of the mass of even single young globular clusters. With major advances in computing power and software, we can now directly address this problem. We propose to model the formation of massive star clusters by integrating the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code into the Astrophysical Multi-purpose Software Environment (AMUSE) framework, to work with existing stellar-dynamical and stellar evolution modules in AMUSE. All software will be freely distributed on-line, allowing

  15. Constraints on the neutrino magnetic dipole moment: The tip-RGB luminosity of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arceo-Díaz, S.; Schröder, K.-P.; Zuber, K.; Jack, D.

    2015-10-01

    In this work we compared the predictions about the tip-RGB bolometric luminosity of low-mass stars in stellar models built with the Cambridge-STARS code for stellar evolution, with the evidence provided by the observational data of 25 globular clusters from the largest homogeneous database in the NIR. We found that 12 well populated globular clusters (headed up by omega Centauri, the largest globular cluster in the galaxy) suggest mu_{nu}≤ 2.2× 10(-12}mu_{B) , while the uncertainties of both the stellar models and the observations require the more robust constraint mu_{nu}≤ 2.6× 10(-12}mu_{B) . Finally, using synthetic spectra constructed with the PHOENIX code for stellar atmospheres, we qualitatively estimated the effect on the brightness of specific NIR-bands.

  16. POSSIBLE SUBGROUPS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND PLANETARY NEBULAE IN NGC 5128

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Kristin A.; Harris, William E. E-mail: harris@physics.mcmaster.ca

    2011-01-15

    We use recently compiled position and velocity data for the globular cluster and planetary nebula subsystems in NGC 5128, the nearby giant elliptical, to search for evidence of past dwarf-satellite accretion events. Beyond a 10' ({approx}11 kpc) radius in galactocentric distance, we find tentative evidence for four subgroups of globular clusters and four subgroups of planetary nebulae. These each have more than four members within a search radius of 2' and internal velocity dispersion of {approx}<40 km s{sup -1}, typical parameters for a dwarf galaxy. In addition, two of the globular cluster groupings overlap with two of the planetary nebulae groupings, and two subgroupings also appear to overlap with previously known arc and shell features in the halo light. Simulation tests of our procedure indicate that the probability of finding false groups due to chance is <1%.

  17. The shape of the mass distribution in M31 from its globular cluster system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, Stephen M.; Huchra, John P.; Stauffer, John

    1989-01-01

    The velocity dispersion and rotation velocity of the M31 globular cluster system depend on the relative division of mass between the flat disk and a spherically symmetric halo. Using the tensor virial theorem, it is shown in detail how the mass ratio can be constrained. Radial velocities have been collected for 149 globular clusters in M31. With no assumptions about the isotropy of the velocity distribution, the globular cluster kinematics are consistent with the mass distribution inferred by the rotation curve but otherwise place no strong constraints on the relative division of the mass. If the velocity distribution is isotropic, models with the disk mass ranging between 1/2 and 1 times its maximum possible value are marginally favored.

  18. Investigation of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolinski, Jason P.

    This dissertation describes the study of abundance variations among stars in Galactic globular clusters using the large set of spectroscopic data collected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Globular clusters have typically been considered to be simple stellar populations---groups of stars that are coeval and chemically homogeneous. Observations within the last forty years have shed light on the possibility that they are not so simple after all by revealing the presence of star-to-star variations in light-element abundances. Additionally, several globular clusters are known to harbor multiple populations of stars by the presence of multiple sequences on a color-magnitude diagram. In this study, the procedure for membership selection is first described. Stars are selected from the vast data set available from SDSS Data Release 7 and several cuts are made to reduce the sample down to only those stars that are members of the globular clusters in this sample. This procedure is also performed on three open clusters as well and is further used to validate the current SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. CN and CH molecular absorption indices are then measured for all globular cluster member stars and their distributions are analyzed. Bimodal distributions in CN are seen on the red giant branch in all clusters with [Fe/H] > -2.1, and hints of bimodality are seen for two metal-poor clusters as well. CN-CH anticorrelations are also seen and the implications are discussed. The observed distributions of CN absorption bandstrengths are examined and compared to theoretical predictions from two-population models. These results are combined with radial distributions and positions on the color-magnitude diagram as evidence for the presence of multiple populations of stars within the clusters in this sample.

  19. Spectroscopic Metallicities for Fornax Ultracompact Dwarf Galaxies, Globular Clusters, and Nucleated Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieske, S.; Hilker, M.; Infante, L.; Jordán, A.

    2006-05-01

    Various formation channels for the puzzling ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) have been proposed in the last few years. To better judge some of the competing scenarios, we present spectroscopic [Fe/H] estimates for a sample of 26 compact objects in the central region of the Fornax Cluster, covering the magnitude range of UCDs and bright globular clusters (18 mag-11 mag. This metallicity break is accompanied by a change in the size-luminosity relation for compact objects, as deduced from Hubble Space Telescope imaging: for MV<-11 mag, rh scales with luminosity, while for MV>-11 mag, rh is almost luminosity-independent. In our study we therefore assume a limiting absolute magnitude of MV=-11 mag between UCDs and globular clusters. The mean metallicity of five Fornax nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxy (dE,N) nuclei included in our study is about 0.8 dex lower than that of the UCDs, a difference significant at the 4.5 σ level. This difference is marginally higher than expected from a comparison of their (V-I) colors, indicating that UCDs are younger than or at most coeval to dE,N nuclei. Because of the large metallicity discrepancy between UCDs and nuclei, we disfavor the hypothesis that most of the Fornax UCDs are the remnant nuclei of tidally stripped dE,Ns. Our metallicity estimates for UCDs are closer to but slightly below those derived for young massive clusters (YMCs) of comparable masses. We therefore favor a scenario in which most UCDs in Fornax are successors of merged YMCs produced in the course of violent galaxy-galaxy mergers. It is noted that, in contrast, the properties of Virgo UCDs are more consistent with the stripping scenario, suggesting that different UCD formation channels may

  20. CCD photometry of the globular cluster NGC 5897 - Morphology of the color-magnitude diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarajedini, Ata

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents CCD photometry in the B and V bands of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 5897. The color-magnitude diagram (CMD) obtained for this cluster is used to examine the properties of the cluster and to compare the NGC 5897 to the well-known globular cluster M3. It was found that the metallicity of the NGC 5897 is in the range of the metallicity of M3 and that the age of NGC 5897 is about 2 Gyr greater than that of M3. The CMD for NGC 5897 also reveals a significant population of blue straggler stars (BSS) more massive than the cluster subgiant branch stars. A pseudomain sequence is constructed for NGC 5897 and the previously studied (Sarajedini and Da Costa, 1991) global cluster 6101, which includes the BSS and extends to the faintest regions of the unevolved main sequence.

  1. TESTING STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS MODELS WITH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY COLORS OF M31's GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav

    2011-08-10

    Accurate stellar population synthesis models are vital in understanding the properties and formation histories of galaxies. In order to calibrate and test the reliability of these models, they are often compared with observations of star clusters. However, relatively little work has compared these models in the ugriz filters, despite the recent widespread use of this filter set. In this paper, we compare the integrated colors of globular clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with those predicted from commonly used simple stellar population (SSP) models. The colors are based on SDSS observations of M31's clusters and provide the largest population of star clusters with accurate photometry available from the survey. As such, it is a unique sample with which to compare SSP models with SDSS observations. From this work, we identify a significant offset between the SSP models and the clusters' g - r colors, with the models predicting colors which are too red by g - r {approx} 0.1. This finding is consistent with previous observations of luminous red galaxies in the SDSS, which show a similar discrepancy. The identification of this offset in globular clusters suggests that it is very unlikely to be due to a minority population of young stars. The recently updated SSP model of Maraston and Stroembaeck better represents the observed g - r colors. This model is based on the empirical MILES stellar library, rather than theoretical libraries, suggesting an explanation for the g - r discrepancy.

  2. THE FRACTION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SECOND-GENERATION STARS IN THE GALACTIC HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Vesperini, Enrico; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; D'Antona, Francesca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2010-08-01

    Many observational studies have revealed the presence of multiple stellar generations in Galactic globular clusters. These studies suggest that second-generation stars make up a significant fraction of the current mass of globular clusters, with the second-generation mass fraction ranging from {approx}50% to 80% in individual clusters. In this Letter, we carry out hydrodynamical simulations to explore the dependence of the mass of second-generation stars on the initial mass and structural parameters and stellar initial mass function (IMF) of the parent cluster. We then use the results of these simulations to estimate the fraction f{sub SG,H} of the mass of the Galactic stellar halo composed of second-generation stars that originated in globular clusters. We study the dependence of f{sub SG,H} on the parameters of the IMF of the Galactic globular cluster system. For a broad range of initial conditions, we find that the fraction of mass of the Galactic stellar halo in second-generation stars is always small, f{sub SG,H} < 4%-6% for a Kroupa-1993 IMF and f{sub SG,H} < 7%-9% for a Kroupa-2001 IMF.

  3. NO HEAVY-ELEMENT DISPERSION IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M92

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Judith G.

    2011-10-20

    Although there have been recent claims that there is a large dispersion in the abundances of the heavy neutron capture elements in the old Galactic globular cluster M92, we show that the measured dispersion for the absolute abundances of four of the rare earth elements within a sample of 12 luminous red giants in M92 ({<=}0.07 dex) does not exceed the relevant sources of uncertainty. As expected from previous studies, the heavy elements show the signature of the r-process. Their abundance ratios are essentially identical to those of M30, another nearby globular cluster of similar metallicity.

  4. Blue stragglers in the core of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, F.; Meylan, G.; Shara, M.; Baxter, D.; Greenfield, P.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution observations of the core of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae with the Faint Object Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope reveal a high density of 'blue straggler' stars, occupying the upper end of the main sequence from which all stars in the cluster should have long since evolved. Their presence in the dense core supports the hypothesis that they formed by stellar collision and coalescence, and, as the heaviest objects in the cluster, have drifted to the core.

  5. TIME-SERIES PHOTOMETRY OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: M62 (NGC 6266), THE MOST RR LYRAE-RICH GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN THE GALAXY?

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, R.; Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.; Kuehn, C. A.; Pritzl, B. J.; Borissova, J.

    2010-12-15

    We present new time-series CCD photometry, in the B and V bands, for the moderately metal-rich ([Fe/H] {approx_equal} -1.3) Galactic globular cluster M62 (NGC 6266). The present data set is the largest obtained so far for this cluster and consists of 168 images per filter, obtained with the Warsaw 1.3 m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory and the 1.3 m telescope of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, in two separate runs over the time span of 3 months. The procedure adopted to detect the variable stars was the optimal image subtraction method (ISIS v2.2), as implemented by Alard. The photometry was performed using both ISIS and Stetson's DAOPHOT/ALLFRAME package. We have identified 245 variable stars in the cluster fields that have been analyzed so far, of which 179 are new discoveries. Of these variables, 133 are fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars (RRab), 76 are first overtone (RRc) pulsators, 4 are type II Cepheids, 25 are long-period variables (LPVs), 1 is an eclipsing binary, and 6 are not yet well classified. Such a large number of RR Lyrae stars places M62 among the top two most RR Lyrae-rich (in the sense of total number of RR Lyrae stars present) globular clusters known in the Galaxy, second only to M3 (NGC 5272) with a total of 230 known RR Lyrae stars. Since this study covers most but not all of the cluster area, it is not unlikely that M62 is in fact the most RR Lyrae-rich globular cluster in the Galaxy. In like vein, thanks to the time coverage of our data sets, we were also able to detect the largest sample of LPVs known so far in a Galactic globular cluster. We analyze a variety of Oosterhoff type indicators for the cluster, including mean periods, period distribution, Bailey diagrams, and Fourier decomposition parameters (as well as the physical parameters derived therefrom). All of these indicators clearly show that M62 is an Oosterhoff type I system. This is in good agreement with the moderately high metallicity of the cluster, in spite

  6. The mass distribution of the Fornax dSph: constraints from its globular cluster distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, David R.; Dehnen, Walter; Read, Justin I.; Wilkinson, Mark I.

    2012-10-01

    Uniquely among the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, Fornax hosts globular clusters. It remains a puzzle as to why dynamical friction has not yet dragged any of Fornax's five globular clusters to the centre, and also why there is no evidence that any similar star cluster has been in the past (for Fornax or any other tidally undisrupted dSph). We set up a suite of 2800 N-body simulations that sample the full range of globular cluster orbits and mass models consistent with all existing observational constraints for Fornax. In agreement with previous work, we find that if Fornax has a large dark matter core, then its globular clusters remain close to their currently observed locations for long times. Furthermore, we find previously unreported behaviour for clusters that start inside the core region. These are pushed out of the core and gain orbital energy, a process we call 'dynamical buoyancy'. Thus, a cored mass distribution in Fornax will naturally lead to a shell-like globular cluster distribution near the core radius, independent of the initial conditions. By contrast, cold dark matter-type cusped mass distributions lead to the rapid infall of at least one cluster within Δt = 1-2 Gyr, except when picking unlikely initial conditions for the cluster orbits (˜2 per cent probability), and almost all clusters within Δt = 10 Gyr. Alternatively, if Fornax has only a weakly cusped mass distribution, then dynamical friction is much reduced. While over Δt = 10 Gyr this still leads to the infall of one to four clusters from their present orbits, the infall of any cluster within Δt = 1-2 Gyr is much less likely (with probability 0-70 per cent, depending on Δt and the strength of the cusp). Such a solution to the timing problem requires (in addition to a shallow dark matter cusp) that in the past the globular clusters were somewhat further from Fornax than today; they most likely did not form within Fornax, but were accreted.

  7. Galaxy structure from multiple tracers - I. A census of M87's globular cluster populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, L. J.; Auger, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new photometric catalogue of the rich globular cluster (GC) system around M87, the brightest cluster galaxy in Virgo. Using archival Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey images in the ugriz bands, observed with Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaPrime, we perform a careful subtraction of the galaxy's halo light in order to detect objects at small galactocentric radii as well as in the wider field, and find 17 620 GC candidates over a radius range from 1.3 to 445 kpc with g < 24 mag. By inferring their colour, radial and magnitude distributions in a Bayesian way, we find that they are well described as a mixture of two GC populations and two distinct contaminant populations, but confirm earlier findings of radius-dependent colour gradients in both GC populations. This is consistent with a picture in which the more enriched GCs reside deeper in the galaxy's potential well, indicating a role for dissipative collapse in the formation of both the red and the blue GCs.

  8. K2 and M4: A Unique Opportunity to Unlock the Mysteries of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Stello, Dennis; Campbell, Simon; Drury, Jason; de Silva, Gayandhi; Maclean, Ben; Bedding, Timothy R.; Huber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One of the most exciting opportunities presented by K2 is the ability to study variable stars in globular clusters (GCs). The K2 observations allow us to perform ensemble asteroseismology of a population that is much older than that in the open clusters in the original Kepler field. This should help us answer long-standing questions concerning mass loss on the red giant branch and the spread in masses along the horizontal branch. By combining the asteroseismic data with chemical tagging of sub-populations from spectroscopy, we hope to better constrain stellar evolution models and potentially shed some light on the formation history of GCs. The very crowded nature of stars in GCs poses a challenge, however, due to Kepler's large pixels. M4, observed during K2's campaign 2, presents an excellent opportunity to study GCs with a combination of K2 and ground-based data. M4 is one of the two nearest GCs and thus should appear less crowded and brighter; in fact M4 is likely the only GC whose horizontal branch stars, other than RR Lyraes, will be accessible with K2. We discuss our method of obtaining photometry for the stars in M4 and present sample lightcurves for different classes of oscillating stars in the cluster. We also discuss efforts to use ground-based observations to increase the utility of the K2 dataset.

  9. On the nature of the brightest globular cluster in M81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayya, Y. D.; Rosa-González, D.; Santiago-Cortés, M.; Rodríguez-Merino, L. H.; Vega, O.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Bressan, A.; Carrasco, L.

    2013-12-01

    We analyse the photometric, chemical, star formation history and structural properties of the brightest globular cluster (GC) in M81, referred to as GC1 in this work, with the intention of establishing its nature and origin. We find that it is a metal-rich ([Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.10), alpha-enhanced ([α/Fe] ˜ 0.20 ± 0.05), core-collapsed (core radius rc = 1.2 pc, tidal radius rt = 76rc), old (>13 Gyr) cluster. It has an ultraviolet excess equivalent of ˜2500 blue horizontal branch stars. It is detected in X-rays indicative of the presence of low-mass binaries. With a mass of 1.0 × 107 M⊙, the cluster is comparable in mass to M31-G1 and is four times more massive than ω Cen. The values of rc, absolute magnitude and mean surface brightness of GC1 suggest that it could be, like massive GCs in other giant galaxies, the left-over nucleus of a dissolved dwarf galaxy.

  10. Supernovae and Their Expanding Blast Waves during the Early Evolution of Galactic Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Silich, Sergiy; Cassisi, Santi

    2015-11-01

    Our arguments deal with the early evolution of Galactic globular clusters and show why only a few of the supernovae (SNe) products were retained within globular clusters and only in the most massive cases (M ≥ 106 M⊙), while less massive clusters were not contaminated at all by SNe. Here, we show that SN blast waves evolving in a steep density gradient undergo blowout and end up discharging their energy and metals into the medium surrounding the clusters. This inhibits the dispersal and the contamination of the gas left over from a first stellar generation. Only the ejecta from well-centered SNe that evolve into a high-density medium available for a second stellar generation (2SG) in the most massive clusters would be retained. These are likely to mix their products with the remaining gas, eventually leading in these cases to an Fe-contaminated 2SG.

  11. Origin and evolution of X-ray binaries in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical model developed by Grindlay (1984 and 1985) and Grindlay and Hertz (1985) to explain the relative numbers of low-luminosity and high-luminosity X-ray sources in Galactic globular clusters is briefly characterized, and the relevant observational evidence is summarized. In the model, high-rate mass transfer onto white dwarfs in about 1 percent of the low-luminosity binary sources produces neutron stars, which then form compact high-luminosity X-ray binaries (by tidal capture in the dense cluster cores); these in turn evolve into hierarchical triple systems. Evidence considered includes observations of the high-luminosity giant-fed X-ray binary in M 15, the results of searches for CVs in globulars, comparisons of X-ray-binary and host-globular evolution, and indications that GX 17 + 2 is a bound triple.

  12. Stellar abundances and ages for metal-rich Milky Way globular clusters. Stellar parameters and elemental abundances for 9 HB stars in NGC 6352

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltzing, S.; Primas, F.; Johnson, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Metal-rich globular clusters provide important tracers of the formation of our Galaxy. Moreover, and not less important, they are very important calibrators for the derivation of properties of extra-galactic metal-rich stellar populations. Nonetheless, only a few of the metal-rich globular clusters in the Milky Way have been studied using high-resolution stellar spectra to derive elemental abundances. Additionally, Rosenberg et al. identified a small group of metal-rich globular clusters that appeared to be about 2 billion years younger than the bulk of the Milky Way globular clusters. However, it is unclear if like is compared with like in this dataset as we do not know the enhancement of α-elements in the clusters and the amount of α-elements is well known to influence the derivation of ages for globular clusters. Aims: We derive elemental abundances for the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6352 and we present our methods to be used in up-coming studies of other metal-rich globular clusters. Methods: We present a study of elemental abundances for α- and iron-peak elements for nine HB stars in the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6352. The elemental abundances are based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph on VLT. The elemental abundances have been derived using standard LTE calculations and stellar parameters have been derived from the spectra themselves by requiring ionizational as well as excitational equilibrium. Results: We find that NGC 6352 has [Fe/H] = -0.55, is enhanced in the α-elements to about +0.2 dex for Ca, Si, and Ti relative to Fe. For the iron-peak elements we find solar values. Based on the spectroscopically derived stellar parameters we find that an E(B-V) = 0.24 and (m-M) ≃ 14.05 better fits the data than the nominal values. An investigation of log gf-values for suitable Fe i lines lead us to the conclusion that the commonly used correction to the May et al. (1974) data should not be

  13. THE ACS VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XVII. THE SPATIAL ALIGNMENT OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS WITH EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qiushi; Peng, Eric W.; Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordan, Andres; Mei, Simona; West, Michael J.

    2013-06-01

    We study the azimuthal distribution of globular clusters (GCs) in early-type galaxies and compare them to their host galaxies using data from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. We find that in host galaxies with visible elongation ({epsilon} > 0.2) and intermediate to high luminosities (M{sub z} < -19), the GCs are preferentially aligned along the major axis of the stellar light. The red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations show strong alignment with the major axis of the host galaxy, which supports the notion that these GCs are associated with metal-rich field stars. The metal-rich GCs in lenticular galaxies show signs of being more strongly associated with disks rather than bulges. Surprisingly, we also find that the blue (metal-poor) GCs can also show the same correlation. If the metal-poor GCs are part of the early formation of the halo and built up through mergers, then our results support a picture where halo formation and merging occur anisotropically, and that the present-day major axis is an indicator of the preferred merging axis.

  14. A Science Portal and Archive for Extragalactic Globular Cluster Systems Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Michael; Rhode, Katherine L.; Gopu, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    For several years we have been carrying out a wide-field imaging survey of the globular cluster populations of a sample of giant spiral, S0, and elliptical galaxies with distances of ~10-30 Mpc. We use mosaic CCD cameras on the WIYN 3.5-m and Kitt Peak 4-m telescopes to acquire deep BVR imaging of each galaxy and then analyze the data to derive global properties of the globular cluster system. In addition to measuring the total numbers, specific frequencies, spatial distributions, and color distributions for the globular cluster populations, we have produced deep, high-quality images and lists of tens to thousands of globular cluster candidates for the ~40 galaxies included in the survey.With the survey nearing completion, we have been exploring how to efficiently disseminate not only the overall results, but also all of the relevant data products, to the astronomical community. Here we present our solution: a scientific portal and archive for extragalactic globular cluster systems data. With a modern and intuitive web interface built on the same framework as the WIYN One Degree Imager Portal, Pipeline, and Archive (ODI-PPA), our system will provide public access to the survey results and the final stacked mosaic images of the target galaxies. In addition, the astrometric and photometric data for thousands of identified globular cluster candidates, as well as for all point sources detected in each field, will be indexed and searchable. Where available, spectroscopic follow-up data will be paired with the candidates. Advanced imaging tools will enable users to overlay the cluster candidates and other sources on the mosaic images within the web interface, while metadata charting tools will allow users to rapidly and seamlessly plot the survey results for each galaxy and the data for hundreds of thousands of individual sources. Finally, we will appeal to other researchers with similar data products and work toward making our portal a central repository for data

  15. Galactic evolution of sulphur as traced by globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacharov, N.; Koch, A.; Caffau, E.; Sbordone, L.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Sulphur is an important volatile α element, but its role in the Galactic chemical evolution is still uncertain, and more observations constraining the sulphur abundance in stellar photospheres are required. Aims: We derive the sulphur abundances in red giant branch (RGB) stars in three Galactic halo globular clusters (GC) that cover a wide metallicity range (-2.3 < [Fe/H] < -1.2): M 4 (NGC 6121), M 22 (NGC 6656), and M 30 (NGC 7099). The halo field stars show a large scatter in the [S/Fe] ratio in this metallicity span, which is inconsistent with canonical chemical evolution models. To date, very few measurements of [S/Fe] exist for stars in GCs, which are good tracers of the chemical enrichment of their environment. However, some light and α elements show star-to-star variations within individual GCs, and it is as yet unclear whether the α element sulphur also varies between GC stars. Methods: We used the infrared spectrograph CRIRES to obtain high-resolution (R ~ 50 000), high signal-to-noise (S/N ~ 200 per px) spectra in the region of the S I multiplet 3 at 1045 nm for 15 GC stars selected from the literature (six stars in M 4,six stars in M 22, and three stars in M 30). Multiplet 3 is better suited for S abundance derivation than the more commonly used lines of multiplet 1 at 920 nm, since its lines are not blended by telluric absorption or other stellar features at low metallicity. Results: We used spectral synthesis to derive the [S/Fe] ratio of the stars assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We find mean [S/Fe]LTE = 0.58 ± 0.01 ± 0.20 dex (statistical and systematic error) for M 4, [S/Fe]LTE = 0.57 ± 0.01 ± 0.19 dex for M 22, and [S/Fe]LTE = 0.55 ± 0.02 ± 0.16 dex for M 30. The negative NLTE corrections are estimated to be in the order of the systematic uncertainties. We do not detect star-to-star variations of the S abundance in any of the observed GCs, with the possible exception of two individual stars, one in M 22 and one in M

  16. A class of spherical, truncated, anisotropic models for application to globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vita, Ruggero; Bertin, Giuseppe; Zocchi, Alice

    2016-04-01

    Recently, a class of non-truncated, radially anisotropic models (the so-called f(ν)-models), originally constructed in the context of violent relaxation and modelling of elliptical galaxies, has been found to possess interesting qualities in relation to observed and simulated globular clusters. In view of new applications to globular clusters, we improve this class of models along two directions. To make them more suitable for the description of small stellar systems hosted by galaxies, we introduce a "tidal" truncation by means of a procedure that guarantees full continuity of the distribution function. The new fT(ν)-models are shown to provide a better fit to the observed photometric and spectroscopic profiles for a sample of 13 globular clusters studied earlier by means of non-truncated models; interestingly, the best-fit models also perform better with respect to the radial-orbit instability. Then, we design a flexible but simple two-component family of truncated models to study the separate issues of mass segregation and multiple populations. We do not aim at a fully realistic description of globular clusters to compete with the description currently obtained by means of dedicated simulations. The goal here is to try to identify the simplest models, that is, those with the smallest number of free parameters, but still have the capacity to provide a reasonable description for clusters that are evidently beyond the reach of one-component models. With this tool, we aim at identifying the key factors that characterize mass segregation or the presence of multiple populations. To reduce the relevant parameter space, we formulate a few physical arguments based on recent observations and simulations. A first application to two well-studied globular clusters is briefly described and discussed.

  17. A class of spherical, truncated, anisotropic models for application to globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vita, Ruggero; Bertin, Giuseppe; Zocchi, Alice

    2016-05-01

    Recently, a class of non-truncated, radially anisotropic models (the so-called f(ν)-models), originally constructed in the context of violent relaxation and modelling of elliptical galaxies, has been found to possess interesting qualities in relation to observed and simulated globular clusters. In view of new applications to globular clusters, we improve this class of models along two directions. To make them more suitable for the description of small stellar systems hosted by galaxies, we introduce a "tidal" truncation by means of a procedure that guarantees full continuity of the distribution function. The new fT(ν)-models are shown to provide a better fit to the observed photometric and spectroscopic profiles for a sample of 13 globular clusters studied earlier by means of non-truncated models; interestingly, the best-fit models also perform better with respect to the radial-orbit instability. Then, we design a flexible but simple two-component family of truncated models to study the separate issues of mass segregation and multiple populations. We do not aim at a fully realistic description of globular clusters to compete with the description currently obtained by means of dedicated simulations. The goal here is to try to identify the simplest models, that is, those with the smallest number of free parameters, but still have the capacity to provide a reasonable description for clusters that are evidently beyond the reach of one-component models. With this tool, we aim at identifying the key factors that characterize mass segregation or the presence of multiple populations. To reduce the relevant parameter space, we formulate a few physical arguments based on recent observations and simulations. A first application to two well-studied globular clusters is briefly described and discussed.

  18. A Complete Sample of Hot Post-AGB Stars in Globular Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, W.; Moehler, S.; Napiwotzki, R.; Heber, U.; Sweigart, A.; Catelan, M.; Stecher, T.

    1999-01-01

    Ultraviolet images of globular clusters are often dominated by one or two "UV-bright" stars. The most luminous of these are believed to be post-AGB stars, which go through a luminous UV-bright phase as they leave the AGB and move rapidly across the HR diagram toward their final white dwarf state. During the two flights of the ASTRO observatory in 1990 and 1995, the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT, Stecher 1997, PASP, 109, 584) was used to obtained ultraviolet (1600 A) images of 14 globular clusters. These images provide a complete census of hot (> 8000 K) post-AGB stars in the observed globular clusters, because the 40' field of view of UIT is large enough to image the entire population of most Galactic globulars, and because the dominant cool star population is suppressed in ultraviolet images, allowing UV-bright stars to be detected into the cluster core. We have begun a program of optical and STIS ultraviolet spectroscopy to determine the fundamental stellar parameters (\\log L, T_eff, \\log g) of all the hot post-AGB candidates discovered on the UIT images. Among the goals of our program are to test theoretical post-AGB lifetimes across the HR diagram, and to estimate the mass of the currently forming white dwarfs in globular clusters. Two trends are already apparent in our survey. First, the UV-selected sample has removed a bias against the detection of the hottest post-AGB stars, and resulted in the discovery of five cluster post-AGB stars with Teff > 50,000 K. Second, most of the new discoveries have been lower luminosity (2.5 $<$\\log L $<$ 3.0) than expected for stars which leave the AGB during the thermally pulsating phase.

  19. The Globular Cluster System of M60 (NGC 4649). I. Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope MOS Spectroscopy and Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Hong Soo; Park, Jang-Hyun; Kim, Sang Chul; Sohn, Young-Jong; Lee, Sang-Gak; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Young-Wook; Kim, Ho-Il

    2008-02-01

    We present radial velocity measurements for globular clusters in M60, a giant elliptical galaxy in the Virgo Cluster. Target globular cluster candidates were selected using Washington photometry based on deep 16' × 16' images taken at the KPNO 4 m telescope and using VI photometry derived from Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 archival images. The spectra of the target objects were obtained with the Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We have measured the radial velocities of 111 objects in the field of M60: 93 globular clusters (72 blue globular clusters with 1.0 <= C-T1 < 1.7, and 21 red globular clusters with 1.7 <= C-T1 < 2.4), 11 foreground stars, six small galaxies, and the nucleus of M60. The measured velocities of the 93 globular clusters range from ~500 to ~1600 km s-1, with a mean value of 1070+ 27-25 km s-1, which is in good agreement with the velocity of the nucleus of M60 (vgal = 1056 km s-1). Combining our results with data from the literature, we present a master catalog of radial velocities for 121 globular clusters in M60. The velocity dispersion of the clusters in the master catalog is found to be 234+ 13-14 km s-1 for the entire sample, 223+ 13-16 km s-1 for 83 blue globular clusters, and 258+ 21-31 km s-1 for 38 red globular clusters. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work was organized by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute.

  20. GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS: FIRST RESULTS FROM S{sup 4}G EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Aravena, Manuel; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Hinz, Joannah L.; Ho, Luis C.; Holwerda, Benne; Sheth, Kartik

    2015-02-01

    Using 3.6 μm images of 97 early-type galaxies, we develop and verify methodology to measure globular cluster populations from the S{sup 4}G survey images. We find that (1) the ratio, T {sub N}, of the number of clusters, N {sub CL}, to parent galaxy stellar mass, M {sub *}, rises weakly with M {sub *} for early-type galaxies with M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} when we calculate galaxy masses using a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) but that the dependence of T {sub N} on M {sub *} is removed entirely once we correct for the recently uncovered systematic variation of IMF with M {sub *}; and (2) for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, there is no trend between N {sub CL} and M {sub *}, the scatter in T {sub N} is significantly larger (approaching two orders of magnitude), and there is evidence to support a previous, independent suggestion of two families of galaxies. The behavior of N {sub CL} in the lower-mass systems is more difficult to measure because these systems are inherently cluster-poor, but our results may add to previous evidence that large variations in cluster formation and destruction efficiencies are to be found among low-mass galaxies. The average fraction of stellar mass in clusters is ∼0.0014 for M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and can be as large as ∼0.02 for less massive galaxies. These are the first results from the S{sup 4}G sample of galaxies and will be enhanced by the sample of early-type galaxies now being added to S{sup 4}G and complemented by the study of later-type galaxies within S{sup 4}G.

  1. M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTER ABUNDANCES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED-LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Colucci, Janet E.; McWilliam, Andrew; Cohen, Judith G. E-mail: sacamero@umich.ed E-mail: andy@ociw.ed

    2009-10-10

    We report the first detailed chemical abundances for five globular clusters (GCs) in M31 from high-resolution (R approx 25,000) spectroscopy of their integrated light (IL). These GCs are the first in a larger set of clusters observed as part of an ongoing project to study the formation history of M31 and its GC population. The data presented here were obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck I telescope and are analyzed using a new IL spectra analysis method that we have developed. In these clusters, we measure abundances for Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Y, and Ba, ages >=10 Gyr, and a range in [Fe/H] of -0.9 to -2.2. As is typical of Milky Way GCs, we find these M31 GCs to be enhanced in the alpha-elements Ca, Si, and Ti relative to Fe. We also find [Mg/Fe] to be low relative to other [alpha/Fe], and [Al/Fe] to be enhanced in the IL abundances. These results imply that abundances of Mg, Al (and likely O, Na) recovered from IL do display the inter- and intra-cluster abundance variations seen in individual Milky Way GC stars, and that special care should be taken in the future in interpreting low- or high-resolution IL abundances of GCs that are based on Mg-dominated absorption features. Fe-peak and the neutron-capture elements Ba and Y also follow Milky Way abundance trends. We also present high-precision velocity dispersion measurements for all five M31 GCs, as well as independent constraints on the reddening toward the clusters from our analysis.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities in seven globular clusters (Lardo+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardo, C.; Pancino, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Bragaglia, A.; Donati, P.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Feltzing, S.; Jeffries, R. D.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bergemann, M.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Hourihane, A.; Jofree, P.; de Laverny, P.; Marconi, G.; Masseron, T.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.

    2014-11-01

    Velocities are given for 1826 stars in the field of the globular clusters NGC 1851, NGC 2808, NGC 4372, NGC 4833, NGC 5927, NGC 6752, and NGC 7078 observed with FLAMES/GIRAFFE@VLT. The table provides the individual identifications, coordinates, V magnitudes, velocities and their associated uncertainties for each star. (2 data files).

  3. Potassium: A New Actor on the Globular Cluster Chemical Evolution Stage. The Case of NGC 2808

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciarelli, Alessio; Bellazzini, Michele; Merle, Thibault; Plez, Bertrand; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Ibata, Rodrigo

    2015-03-01

    We derive [K/Fe] abundance ratios for 119 stars in the globular cluster NGC 2808, all of them having O, Na, Mg, and Al abundances homogeneously measured in previous works. We detect an intrinsic star-to-star spread in the potassium abundance. Moreover [K/Fe] abundance ratios display statistically significant correlations with [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe], and anti-correlations with [O/Fe] and [Mg/Fe]. All the four Mg deficient stars ([Mg/Fe] < 0.0) discovered so far in NGC 2808 are enriched in K by ~0.3 dex with respect to those with normal [Mg/Fe]. NGC 2808 is the second globular cluster, after NGC 2419, where a clear Mg-K anti-correlation is detected, albeit of weaker amplitude. The simultaneous correlation/anti-correlation of [K/Fe] with all the light elements usually involved in the chemical anomalies observed in globular cluster stars strongly support the idea that these abundance patterns are due to the same self-enrichment mechanism that produces Na-O and Mg-Al anti-correlations. This finding suggests that detectable spreads in K abundances may be typical in the massive globular clusters where the self-enrichment processes are observed to produce their most extreme manifestations. Based on data obtained at the ESO Very Large Telescope under the programs 072.D-0507 and 091.D-0329.

  4. FUV and Optical Spectroscopy of Hot Post-AGB Stars in Globular Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, William V.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this program was to determine the atmospheric parameters (effective temperature and surface gravity) and abundances of the hot, post-AGB (PAGB) stars in globular clusters observed with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) on the Astro-l and 2 missions.

  5. Photoelectric UBVRI sequences in the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6752 and NGC 6864

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E.; Alcaino, G.; Liller, W. )

    1990-05-01

    UBVRI photoelectric sequences for the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6752 and NGC 6864 are presented. Both of them include fields suitable for CCD exposures. From five UBV sequences in NGC 6572, only five stars are in common with the previous works. 15 refs.

  6. A CN Band Survey of Red Giants in the Globular Cluster M53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, S. L.; Smith, G. H.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the star-to-star variations in λ 3883 CN bandstrength among red giant stars in the low-metallicity globular cluster M53 ([Fe/H] = --2.0). Our data were taken with the Kast spectrograph on the 3-meter Shane telescope at Lick Observatory in April 2001. Star-to-star variations in CN bandstrength are common in intermediate- and high-metallicity globular clusters ([Fe/H] ≥ --1.6). Our data were obtained to test whether that variation will also be present in a low-metallicity globular cluster, or whether it will be suppressed by the overall lack of metals in the stars. Our preliminary result is that the λ 3883 CN band is weak in our program stars, which span the brightest magnitude of the red giant branch. On visual inspection, the M53 giants appear to be similar in their CN bandstrength to the four CN-weak giants in NGC 6752 whose average spectrum is plotted in Fig. 4 of Norris et al. (1981, ApJ, 244, 205). This work is planned to form part of a larger study of the metallicity dependence of CN bandstrength and carbon abundance behavior on the upper giant branch of globular clusters. This work is supported by NSF grant AST 00-98453 and by an award from the ARCS foundation, Northern California Chapter.

  7. Swift-XRT globular cluster monitor: April 2016 Terzan 5 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, M.; Chenevez, J.

    2016-04-01

    As part of our Swift-XRT monitoring program of Galactic globular clusters, publicly available here, Swift observed Terzan 5 on 2016 April 17 for 3.2 ksec. Two additional 1.5-ksec-long observations were taken on April 21 and 23 (ATel #8982).

  8. A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and ~100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra-diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Danieli, Shany; Merritt, Allison; Mowla, Lamiya; Romanowsky, Aaron; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-09-01

    Recently a population of large, very low surface brightness, spheroidal galaxies was identified in the Coma cluster. The apparent survival of these ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in a rich cluster suggests that they have very high masses. Here, we present the stellar kinematics of Dragonfly 44, one of the largest Coma UDGs, using a 33.5 hr integration with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope. We find a velocity dispersion of σ ={47}-6+8 {km} {{{s}}}-1, which implies a dynamical mass of {M}{dyn}(\\lt {r}1/2)={0.7}-0.2+0.3× {10}10 {M}ȯ within its deprojected half-light radius of {r}1/2=4.6+/- 0.2 {kpc}. The mass-to-light ratio is M/{L}I(\\lt {r}1/2)={48}-14+21 {M}ȯ /{L}ȯ , and the dark matter fraction is 98% within {r}1/2. The high mass of Dragonfly 44 is accompanied by a large globular cluster population. From deep Gemini imaging taken in 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 seeing we infer that Dragonfly 44 has {94}-20+25 globular clusters, similar to the counts for other galaxies in this mass range. Our results add to other recent evidence that many UDGs are “failed” galaxies, with the sizes, dark matter content, and globular cluster systems of much more luminous objects. We estimate the total dark halo mass of Dragonfly 44 by comparing the amount of dark matter within r=4.6 {kpc} to enclosed mass profiles of NFW halos. The enclosed mass suggests a total mass of ∼ {10}12 {M}ȯ , similar to the mass of the Milky Way. The existence of nearly dark objects with this mass is unexpected, as galaxy formation is thought to be maximally efficient in this regime.

  9. A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and ~100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra-diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Danieli, Shany; Merritt, Allison; Mowla, Lamiya; Romanowsky, Aaron; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-09-01

    Recently a population of large, very low surface brightness, spheroidal galaxies was identified in the Coma cluster. The apparent survival of these ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in a rich cluster suggests that they have very high masses. Here, we present the stellar kinematics of Dragonfly 44, one of the largest Coma UDGs, using a 33.5 hr integration with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope. We find a velocity dispersion of σ ={47}-6+8 {km} {{{s}}}-1, which implies a dynamical mass of {M}{dyn}(\\lt {r}1/2)={0.7}-0.2+0.3× {10}10 {M}ȯ within its deprojected half-light radius of {r}1/2=4.6+/- 0.2 {kpc}. The mass-to-light ratio is M/{L}I(\\lt {r}1/2)={48}-14+21 {M}ȯ /{L}ȯ , and the dark matter fraction is 98% within {r}1/2. The high mass of Dragonfly 44 is accompanied by a large globular cluster population. From deep Gemini imaging taken in 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 seeing we infer that Dragonfly 44 has {94}-20+25 globular clusters, similar to the counts for other galaxies in this mass range. Our results add to other recent evidence that many UDGs are “failed” galaxies, with the sizes, dark matter content, and globular cluster systems of much more luminous objects. We estimate the total dark halo mass of Dragonfly 44 by comparing the amount of dark matter within r=4.6 {kpc} to enclosed mass profiles of NFW halos. The enclosed mass suggests a total mass of ˜ {10}12 {M}ȯ , similar to the mass of the Milky Way. The existence of nearly dark objects with this mass is unexpected, as galaxy formation is thought to be maximally efficient in this regime.

  10. EGRET upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars in nearby globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, P. F.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K.; Chiang, J.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a number of globular clusters. The observations were done as part of an all-sky survey by the energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during Phase I of the CGRO mission (1991 June to 1992 November). Several theoretical models suggest that MSPs may be sources of high-energy gamma radiation emitted either as primary radiation from the pulsar magnetosphere or as secondary radiation generated by conversion into photons of a substantial part of the relativistic e(+/-) pair wind expected to flow from the pulsar. To date, no high-energy emission has been detected from an individual MSP. However, a large number of MSPs are expected in globular cluster cores where the formation rate of accreting binary systems is high. Model predictions of the total number of pulsars range in the hundreds for some clusters. These expectations have been reinforced by recent discoveries of a substantial number of radio MSPs in several clusters; for example, 11 have been found in 47 Tucanae (Manchester et al.). The EGRET observations have been used to obtain upper limits for the efficiency eta of conversion of MSP spin-down power into hard gamma rays. The upper limits are also compared with the gamma-ray fluxes predicted from theoretical models of pulsar wind emission (Tavani). The EGRET limits put significant constraints on either the emission models or the number of pulsars in the globular clusters.

  11. Simultaneous modelling of the stellar halo and globular cluster system of NGC 5128

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Michael. A.; Harris, William E.; Harris, Gretchen L. H.; Forbes, Duncan A.

    2003-03-01

    An important test for models of galaxy formation lies in the metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) of spheroid stars and their globular clusters (GCs). We have compared the MDFs obtained from spectroscopy of the GCs and the star-by-star photometry of the old halo red giants in the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 5128, with the predictions of a Λ-cold dark matter (ΛCDM) semi-analytic galaxy formation model. We have selected model ellipticals comparable in luminosity and environment to NGC 5128, and reconstructed their MDFs by summing the total star formation occurring over all their progenitors. A direct comparison between models and data shows that the MDFs are qualitatively similar, both have stellar components that are predominantly metal-rich (~0.8 Zsolar), with a small fraction of metal-poor stars extending down to 0.002 Zsolar. The model MDFs show only small variations between systems, whether they constitute brightest cluster galaxies or low-luminosity group ellipticals. Our comparison also reveals that these model MDFs harbour a greater fraction of stars at Z > Zsolar than the observations, producing generally more metal-rich (by ~0.1 dex) MDFs. One possibility is that the outer-bulge observations are missing some of the highest-metallicity stars in this galaxy. We find good agreement between the model and observed GC MDFs, provided that the metal-poor GC formation is halted early (z~ 5) in the model. Under this proviso, both the models and data are bimodal with peaks at 0.1 Zsolar and Zsolar, and cover similar metallicity ranges. This broad agreement for the stars and GCs suggests that the bulk of the stellar population in NGC 5128 may have been built up in a hierarchical fashion, involving both quiescent and merger-induced star formation. The predicted existence of age structure amongst the metal-rich GCs needs to be tested against high-quality data for this galaxy.

  12. Bayesian Analysis of Two Stellar Populations in Galactic Globular Clusters. I. Statistical and Computational Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenning, D. C.; Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Robinson, E.; van Dyk, D. A.; von Hippel, T.; Sarajedini, A.; Stein, N.

    2016-07-01

    We develop a Bayesian model for globular clusters composed of multiple stellar populations, extending earlier statistical models for open clusters composed of simple (single) stellar populations. Specifically, we model globular clusters with two populations that differ in helium abundance. Our model assumes a hierarchical structuring of the parameters in which physical properties—age, metallicity, helium abundance, distance, absorption, and initial mass—are common to (i) the cluster as a whole or to (ii) individual populations within a cluster, or are unique to (iii) individual stars. An adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is devised for model fitting that greatly improves convergence relative to its precursor non-adaptive MCMC algorithm. Our model and computational tools are incorporated into an open-source software suite known as BASE-9. We use numerical studies to demonstrate that our method can recover parameters of two-population clusters, and also show how model misspecification can potentially be identified. As a proof of concept, we analyze the two stellar populations of globular cluster NGC 5272 using our model and methods. (BASE-9 is available from GitHub: https://github.com/argiopetech/base/releases).

  13. The Discovery of Globular Clusters in the Protospiral Galaxy NGC 2915: Implications for Hierarchical Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Sirianni, M.; Ford, H. C.; Illingworth, G. D.; Benítez, N.; Clampin, M.; Menanteau, F.; Tran, H. D.; Kimble, R. A.; Hartig, G. F.; Ardila, D. R.; Bartko, F.; Bouwens, R. J.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Brown, R. A.; Burrows, C. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cross, N. J. G.; Feldman, P. D.; Golimowski, D. A.; Gronwall, C.; Infante, L.; Krist, J. E.; Lesser, M. P.; Martel, A. R.; Miley, G. K.; Postman, M.; Rosati, P.; Sparks, W. B.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; White, R. L.; Zheng, W.

    2003-12-01

    We have discovered three globular clusters beyond the Holmberg radius in Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys images of the gas-rich dark matter-dominated blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 2915. The clusters, all of which start to resolve into stars, have MV606=-8.9 to -9.8 mag, significantly brighter than the peak of the luminosity function of Milky Way globular clusters. Their colors suggest a metallicity [Fe/H]~-1.9 dex, typical of metal-poor Galactic globular clusters. The specific frequency of clusters is at a minimum normal, compared to spiral galaxies. However, since only a small portion of the system has been surveyed, it is more likely that the luminosity and mass normalized cluster content is higher, like that seen in elliptical galaxies and galaxy clusters. This suggests that NGC 2915 resembles a key phase in the early hierarchical assembly of galaxies-the epoch when much of the old stellar population has formed but little of the stellar disk. Depending on the subsequent interaction history, such systems could go on to build up larger elliptical galaxies, evolve into normal spirals, or in rare circumstances remain suspended in their development to become systems like NGC 2915.

  14. Primordial main equence binary stars in the globular cluster M71

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Lin; Mateo, Mario

    1994-01-01

    We report the identification of five short-period variables near the center of the metal-rich globular cluster M71. Our observations consist of multiepoch VI charge coupled device (CCD) images centered on the cluster and covering a 6.3 min x 6.3 min field. Four of these variables are contact eclipsing binaries with periods between 0.35 and 0.41 days; one is a detached or semidetached eclipsing binary with a period of 0.56 days. Two of the variables were first identified as possible eclipsing binaries in an earlier survey by Hodder et al. (1992). We have used a variety of arguments to conclude that all five binary stars are probable members of M71, a result that is consistent with the low number (0.15) of short-period field binaries expected along this line of sight. Based on a simple model of how contact binaries evolve from initially detached binaries, we have determined a lower limit of 1.3% on the frequency of primordial binaries in M71 with initial orbital periods in the range 2.5 - 5 days. This implies that the overall primordial binary frequency, f, is 22(sup +26)(sub -12)% assuming df/d log P = const ( the 'flat' distribution), or f = 57(sup +15)(sub -8)% for df/d log P = 0.032 log P + const as observed for G-dwarf binaries in the solar neighborhood (the 'sloped' distribution). Both estimates of f correspond to binaries with initial periods shorter than 800 yr since any longer-period binaries would have been disrupted over the lifetime of the cluster. Our short-period binary frequency is in excellent agreement with the observed frequency of red-giant binaries observed in globulars if we adopt the flat distribution. For the sloped distribution, our results significantly overestimate the number of red-giant binaries. All of the short-period M71 binaries lie within 1 mag of the luminosity of the cluster turnoff in the color-magnitude diagram despite the fact we should have easily detected similar eclipsing binaries 2 - 2.5 mag fainter than this. We discuss the

  15. The Extended Spatial Distribution of Globular Clusters in the Core of the Fornax Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Abrusco, R.; Cantiello, M.; Paolillo, M.; Pota, V.; Napolitano, N. R.; Limatola, L.; Spavone, M.; Grado, A.; Iodice, E.; Capaccioli, M.; Peletier, R.; Longo, G.; Hilker, M.; Mieske, S.; Grebel, E. K.; Lisker, T.; Wittmann, C.; van de Ven, G.; Schipani, P.; Fabbiano, G.

    2016-03-01

    We report the discovery of a complex extended density enhancement in the Globular Clusters (GCs) in the central ˜ 0.5{(^\\circ )}2 (˜ 0.06 Mpc2) of the Fornax cluster, corresponding to ˜ 50% of the area within 1 core radius. This overdensity connects the GC system of NGC 1399 to most of those of neighboring galaxies within ˜ 0\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_fdg;6 (˜ 210 kpc) along the W-E direction. The asymmetric density structure suggests that the galaxies in the core of the Fornax cluster experienced a lively history of interactions that have left a clear imprint on the spatial distribution of GCs. The extended central dominant structure is more prominent in the distribution of blue GCs, while red GCs show density enhancements that are more centrally concentrated on the host galaxies. We propose that the relatively small-scale density structures in the red GCs are caused by galaxy-galaxy interactions, while the extensive spatial distribution of blue GCs is due to stripping of GCs from the halos of core massive galaxies by the Fornax gravitational potential. Our investigations are based on density maps of candidate GCs extracted from the multi-band VLT Survey Telescope (VST) survey of Fornax (FDS), identified in a three-dimensional color space and further selected based on their g-band magnitude and morphology.

  16. Detailed chemical abundances of extragalactic globular clusters using high resolution, integrated light spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Janet E.

    Globular clusters (GCs) are luminous, observationally accessible objects that are good tracers of the total star formation and evolutionary history of galaxies. We present the first detailed chemical abundances for GCs in M31 using a new abundance analysis technique designed for high resolution, integrated light (IL) spectra of GCs. This technique has recently been developed using a training set of old GCS in the Milky Way (MW), and makes possible detailed chemical evolution studies of distant galaxies, where high resolution abundance analysis of individual stars are not obtainable. For the 5 M31 GCs presented here, we measure abundances of 14 elements: Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Y, and Ba. We find the M31 GCs have ages (>10 Gyr) and chemical properties similar to MW GCs, including an enhancement in the alpha-elements Ca, Ti and Si of [alpha/Fe]˜ +0.4. In this thesis, we also further develop this IL abundance analysis method to include GCs of ages 10 Myr--12 Gyrs using GCs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which contains the necessary sample of clusters over this wide age range. This work demonstrates for the first time that this IL abundance analysis method can be used on clusters of all ages, and that ages can be constrained to within 1--2 Gyr for clusters with ages of ˜2 Gyr and within a few 100 Myr for clusters with ages <1 Gyr. We find that we can measure [Fe/H] in clusters with ages <12 Gyrs with similar or only slightly larger uncertainties (0.1--0.25 dex) than those obtained for old GCs; the slightly larger uncertainties are due to the rapid evolution in stellar populations at these ages. Using the LMC clusters, we also investigate the effects of statistical fluctuations in the theoretical cluster stellar populations used in our analysis. We also develop strategies to allow for statistical variations in these stellar populations, and find that the stability of the Fe line abundance solution can provide tight constraints on the

  17. Binary-binary collisions involving main-sequence stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, P.J.T.; Davies, M.B.

    1993-12-31

    We consider collisions between dynamically-evolved primordial binaries consisting of main-sequence stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters. In our four-body binary-binary scattering experiments, we allow stars to ``stick`` if they pass close enough to each other, which leads to the formation of a wide variety of exotic objects. Most of these objects have binary companions. Also, relatively clean exchange interactions can produce binaries containing neutron stars that eventually receive material from their companions. Such systems will be observable as X-ray binaries.

  18. The motion of a star in the vicinity of a globular cluster in an elliptical galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasanov, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    The spatial motion of a star in the vicinity of a globular cluster located in an inhomogeneous, rotating elliptical galaxy (EG) is considered. Perturbations due to the gravitation of the galaxy are taken into account, taking it to be a two-layer system together with its halo: an inner ellipsoid, representing the lumious part of the galaxy, and a homeoid, representing space filled with dark matter between inner and outer ellipsoidal boundaries. The ellipsoids are taken to be homothetic and to have a common center, with the boundary of the outer ellipsoid coincident with the boundary of the galactic halo. The luminous part of the EG and the homeoid have different densities. The motion of the star near a globular cluster occurs outside the luminous part of the EG, but inside the homeoid. The concept of the "vicinity of the globular cluster" is concretized using the concept of a "sphere of influence" (and the gravitational sphere and Hill gravitational sphere). Stellar motions inside and outside the sphere of influence of the globular cluster are considered, and the region of possible motions is determined. A quasi-integral and surfaces of minimum energy are found, which under certain conditions can be transformed into an analog of the Jacobi integral and surfaces of zero velocity. The Lyapunov stability of the stationary solutions obtained is established. The results are applied to model EGs whose parameters coincide with those of NGC 4472 (M49), NGC 4636, and NGC 4374, which contain a large number of globular clusters, and are presented in the form of figures and tables. Using these galaxies as examples, it is shown that studying stellar motions, and also determining the libration points and establishing their stability, requires use of an exact, rather than an approximate, expression for the potential of the luminous part of the elliptical galaxy.

  19. The Globular Cluster Systems of Five Nearby Spiral Galaxies: New Insights from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandar, Rupali; Whitmore, Bradley; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2004-08-01

    We use available multifilter Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 imaging of five (M81, M83, NGC 6946, M101, and M51, in order of distance) low-inclination, nearby spiral galaxies to study ancient star cluster populations. Combining rigorous selection criteria to reject contaminants (individual stars, background galaxies, and blends) with optical photometry including the U bandpass, we unambiguously detect ancient globular cluster (GC) systems in each galaxy. We present luminosities, colors, and size (effective radius) measurements for our candidate GCs. These are used to estimate specific frequencies, to assess whether intrinsic color distributions are consistent with the presence of both metal-poor and metal-rich GCs, and to compare relative sizes of ancient clusters between different galaxy systems. M81 globulars have intrinsic color distributions that are very similar to those in the Milky Way and M31, with ~40% of sample clusters having colors expected for a metal-rich population. The GC system in M51 meanwhile, appears almost exclusively blue and metal-poor. This lack of metal-rich GCs associated with the M51 bulge indicates that the bulge formation history of this Sbc galaxy may have differed significantly from that of our own. Ancient clusters in M101 and possibly in NGC 6946, two of the three later type spirals in our sample, appear to have luminosity distributions that continue to rise to our detection limit (MV~-6.0), well beyond the expected turnover (MV~-7.4) in the luminosity function. This is reminiscent of the situation in M33, a Local Group galaxy of similar Hubble type. The faint ancient cluster candidates in M101 and NGC 6946 have properties (colors and reff) similar to their more luminous counterparts, and we suggest that these are either intermediate-age (3-9 Gyr) disk clusters or the low-mass end of the original GC population. Potentially, these lower mass clusters were not destroyed because of different dynamical conditions relative to those

  20. High-dispersion spectroscopy of giants in metal-poor globular clusters. I - Iron abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minniti, Dante; Geisler, Doug; Peterson, Ruth C.; Claria, Juan J.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution, high-SNR CCD spectra have been obtained for 16 giants in eight metal-poor Galactic globular clusters. Fe abundances accurate to 0.15 dex have been determined by a fully consistent set of model atmospheres and spectrum synthesis techniques. A metallicity scale is presented for metal-poor clusters that should prove useful for calibrating a wide variety of photometric and low-resolution spectroscopic metallicity indicators.

  1. BVRI CCD photometry of the metal-poor globular cluster M68 (NGC 4590)

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.; Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E. )

    1990-06-01

    BVRI photometry of the low metallicity globular cluster M68 (NGC 4590) was obtained with a CCD camera and the 2.2-m ESO telescope. The resulting BV color-magnitude diagrams are compared with the observations of McClure et al. (1987). The observations are also compared with theoretical isochrones, yielding a cluster age of 13 Gyr with a likely external uncertainty of 2 or 3 Gyr. 25 refs.

  2. Nonlinear Color-Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. III. On the Discrepancy in Metallicity between Globular Cluster Systems and Their Parent Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Blakeslee, John P.; Peng, Eric W.; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Cho, Jaeil; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Kim, Sooyoung; Lee, Young-Wook

    2011-12-01

    One of the conundrums in extragalactic astronomy is the discrepancy in observed metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) between the two prime stellar components of early-type galaxies—globular clusters (GCs) and halo field stars. This is generally taken as evidence of highly decoupled evolutionary histories between GC systems and their parent galaxies. Here we show, however, that new developments in linking the observed GC colors to their intrinsic metallicities suggest nonlinear color-to-metallicity conversions, which translate observed color distributions into strongly peaked, unimodal MDFs with broad metal-poor tails. Remarkably, the inferred GC MDFs are similar to the MDFs of resolved field stars in nearby elliptical galaxies and those produced by chemical evolution models of galaxies. The GC MDF shape, characterized by a sharp peak with a metal-poor tail, indicates a virtually continuous chemical enrichment with a relatively short timescale. The characteristic shape emerges across three orders of magnitude in the host galaxy mass, suggesting a universal process of chemical enrichment among various GC systems. Given that GCs are bluer than field stars within the same galaxy, it is plausible that the chemical enrichment processes of GCs ceased somewhat earlier than that of the field stellar population, and if so, GCs preferentially trace the major, vigorous mode of star formation events in galactic formation. We further suggest a possible systematic age difference among GC systems, in that the GC systems in more luminous galaxies are older. This is consistent with the downsizing paradigm whereby stars of brighter galaxies, on average, formed earlier than those of dimmer galaxies; this additionally supports the similar nature shared by GCs and field stars. Although the sample used in this study (the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel, WFPC2, and WFC3 photometry for the GC systems in the Virgo galaxy cluster) confines our

  3. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. III. ON THE DISCREPANCY IN METALLICITY BETWEEN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AND THEIR PARENT ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Cho, Jaeil; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Kim, Sooyoung; Lee, Young-Wook; Blakeslee, John P.; Peng, Eric W.; Sohn, Sangmo T.

    2011-12-20

    One of the conundrums in extragalactic astronomy is the discrepancy in observed metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) between the two prime stellar components of early-type galaxies-globular clusters (GCs) and halo field stars. This is generally taken as evidence of highly decoupled evolutionary histories between GC systems and their parent galaxies. Here we show, however, that new developments in linking the observed GC colors to their intrinsic metallicities suggest nonlinear color-to-metallicity conversions, which translate observed color distributions into strongly peaked, unimodal MDFs with broad metal-poor tails. Remarkably, the inferred GC MDFs are similar to the MDFs of resolved field stars in nearby elliptical galaxies and those produced by chemical evolution models of galaxies. The GC MDF shape, characterized by a sharp peak with a metal-poor tail, indicates a virtually continuous chemical enrichment with a relatively short timescale. The characteristic shape emerges across three orders of magnitude in the host galaxy mass, suggesting a universal process of chemical enrichment among various GC systems. Given that GCs are bluer than field stars within the same galaxy, it is plausible that the chemical enrichment processes of GCs ceased somewhat earlier than that of the field stellar population, and if so, GCs preferentially trace the major, vigorous mode of star formation events in galactic formation. We further suggest a possible systematic age difference among GC systems, in that the GC systems in more luminous galaxies are older. This is consistent with the downsizing paradigm whereby stars of brighter galaxies, on average, formed earlier than those of dimmer galaxies; this additionally supports the similar nature shared by GCs and field stars. Although the sample used in this study (the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel, WFPC2, and WFC3 photometry for the GC systems in the Virgo galaxy cluster) confines our

  4. HORIZONTAL BRANCH MORPHOLOGY AND MULTIPLE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN THE ANOMALOUS GLOBULAR CLUSTER M 22

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P.; Lind, K. E-mail: milone@iac.es

    2013-05-01

    M 22 is an anomalous globular cluster that hosts two groups of stars with different metallicity and s-element abundance. The star-to-star light-element variations in both groups, with the presence of individual Na-O and C-N anticorrelations, demonstrates that this Milky Way satellite has experienced a complex star formation history. We have analyzed FLAMES/UVES spectra for seven stars covering a small color interval on the reddest horizontal branch (HB) portion of this cluster and investigated possible relations between the chemical composition of a star and its location along the HB. Our chemical abundance analysis takes into account effects introduced by deviations from the local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE effects), which are significant for the measured spectral lines in the atmospheric parameters range spanned by our stars. We find that all the analyzed stars are barium-poor and sodium-poor, thus supporting the idea that the position of a star along the HB is strictly related to the chemical composition, and that the HB morphology is influenced by the presence of different stellar populations.

  5. LIGHT-ELEMENT ABUNDANCES OF GIANT STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M71 (NGC 6838)

    SciTech Connect

    Cordero, M. J.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Vesperini, E.; Johnson, C. I. E-mail: catyp@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu

    2015-02-10

    Aluminum is the heaviest light element displaying large star-to-star variations in Galactic globular clusters (GCs). This element may provide additional insight into the origin of the multiple populations, now known to be common place in GCs, and also the nature of the first-generation stars responsible for a cluster's chemical inhomogeneities. In a previous analysis, we found that unlike more metal-poor GCs, 47 Tuc did not exhibit a strong Na-Al correlation, which motivates a careful study of the similar metallicity but less massive GC M71. We present chemical abundances of O, Na, Al, and Fe for 33 giants in M71 using spectra obtained with the WIYN-Hydra spectrograph. Our spectroscopic analysis finds that similar to 47 Tuc and in contrast with more metal-poor GCs, M71 stars do not exhibit a strong Na-Al correlation and span a relatively narrow range in [Al/Fe], which are characteristics that GC formation models must reproduce.

  6. Light-element Abundances of Giant Stars in the Globular Cluster M71 (NGC 6838)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, M. J.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.; Vesperini, E.

    2015-02-01

    Aluminum is the heaviest light element displaying large star-to-star variations in Galactic globular clusters (GCs). This element may provide additional insight into the origin of the multiple populations, now known to be common place in GCs, and also the nature of the first-generation stars responsible for a cluster's chemical inhomogeneities. In a previous analysis, we found that unlike more metal-poor GCs, 47 Tuc did not exhibit a strong Na-Al correlation, which motivates a careful study of the similar metallicity but less massive GC M71. We present chemical abundances of O, Na, Al, and Fe for 33 giants in M71 using spectra obtained with the WIYN-Hydra spectrograph. Our spectroscopic analysis finds that similar to 47 Tuc and in contrast with more metal-poor GCs, M71 stars do not exhibit a strong Na-Al correlation and span a relatively narrow range in [Al/Fe], which are characteristics that GC formation models must reproduce. The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory.

  7. No Evidence for Multiple Stellar Populations in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster E 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Ricardo; Strader, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M˜ 1.4× {10}4 {M}⊙ ) globular cluster E3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue cyanogen (CN) absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multistellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  8. Keck spectroscopy and imaging of globular clusters in the lenticular galaxy NGC 524

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Kissler-Patig, Markus

    2004-02-01

    We have obtained Keck Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer imaging and spectra for 29 globular clusters associated with the lenticular galaxy NGC 524. Using the empirical calibration of Brodie & Huchra we find that our spectroscopic sample spans a metallicity range of -2.0 <=[Fe/H]<= 0. We have compared the composite spectrum of the metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) and metal-rich clusters with stellar population models in order to estimate the ages of the NGC 524 globular clusters. We conclude that the clusters are generally old, and are coeval at the 2σ confidence level. To determine the mean [α/Fe] ratios of the globular clusters, we have employed the Milone et al. α-enhanced stellar population models. We verified the reliability of these models by comparing them with high signal-to-noise Galactic globular cluster spectra. We observe a weak trend of decreasing [α/Fe] ratios with increasing metallicity in the NGC 524 clusters; the metal-poor clusters possess [α/Fe]~0.3, whilst the metal-rich clusters exhibit [α/Fe] ratios closer to solar-scaled values. Analysis of the cluster system kinematics reveals that the full sample (excluding an outlying cluster) exhibits a rotation of 114 +/- 60 km s-1 around a position angle of 22°+/- 27°, and a velocity dispersion of 186 +/- 29 km s-1 at a mean radius of 89 arcsec from the galaxy centre. Subdividing the clusters into metal-poor and metal-rich subcomponents (at [Fe/H]=-1.0), we find that the metal-poor (17) clusters and metal-rich (11) clusters have similar velocity dispersions (197 +/- 40 and 169 +/- 47 km s-1, respectively). However, the metal-poor clusters dominate the rotation in our sample with 147 +/- 75 km s-1, whilst the metal-rich clusters show no significant rotation (68 +/- 84 km s-1). We derive a virial and projected mass estimation for NGC 524 of between 4 and 13 × 1011 Msolar (depending on the assumed orbital distribution) interior to ~2 effective radii of this galaxy.

  9. Observing Globular Cluster RR Lyrae Variables with the BYU West Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, E. J.; Joner, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    We have utilized the 0.9-meter telescope of the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory to secure data on six northern hemisphere globular clusters. Here we present representative observations of RR Lyrae stars located in these clusters, including light curves. We compare light curves produced using both DAOPHOT and ISIS software packages. Light curve fitting is done with FITLC. We find that for well-separated stars, DAOPHOT and ISIS provide comparable results. However, for stars within the cluster core, ISIS provides superior results. These improved techniques will allow us to better measure the properties of cluster variable stars.

  10. An aluminium tool for multiple stellar generations in the globular clusters 47 Tucanae and M 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretta, E.; Gratton, R. G.; Bragaglia, A.; D'Orazi, V.; Lucatello, S.

    2013-02-01

    We present aluminium abundances for a sample of about 100 red giant stars in each of the Galactic globular clusters 47 Tuc (NGC 104) and M 4 (NGC 6121). We have derived homogeneous abundances from intermediate-resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra. Aluminium abundances are from the strong doublet Al i 8772-8773 Å, as in previous works done for giants in NGC 6752 and NGC 1851, and nitrogen abundances are extracted from a large number of features of the CN molecules by assuming a suitable carbon abundance. We added previous homogeneous abundances of O and Na and newly derived abundances of Mg and Si for our samples of 83 stars in M 4 and 116 stars in 47 Tuc to obtain the full set of elements from proton-capture reactions produced by different stellar generations in these clusters. By simultaneously studying the Ne-Na and Mg-Al cycles of H-burning at high temperature, our main aims are to understand the nature of the polluters at work in the first generation and to ascertain whether the second generation of cluster stars was formed in one or, rather, several episodes of star formation. Our data confirm that in M 4 only two stellar populations are visible. On the other hand, for 47 Tuc a cluster analysis performed on our full dataset suggests that at least three distinct groups of stars are present on the giant branch. The abundances of O, Na, Mg, and Al in the intermediate group can be produced within a pollution scenario; results for N are ambiguous, depending on the C abundance we adopt for the three groups. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under program 085.D-0205 and on public data from the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility.Tables 2 and 3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. RUBIDIUM ABUNDANCES IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS NGC 6752, NGC 1904, AND NGC 104 (47 Tuc)

    SciTech Connect

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Lugaro, Maria; Campbell, Simon W.; Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Lucatello, Sara; D'Antona, Francesca

    2013-10-10

    Large star-to-star variations of the abundances of proton-capture elements, such as Na and O, in globular clusters (GCs) are interpreted as the effect of internal pollution resulting from the presence of multiple stellar populations. To better constrain this scenario, we investigate the abundance distribution of the heavy element rubidium (Rb) in NGC 6752, NGC 1904, and NGC 104 (47 Tuc). Combining the results from our sample with those in the literature, we found that Rb exhibits no star-to-star variations, regardless of cluster metallicity, with the possible intriguing, although very uncertain, exception of the metal-rich bulge cluster NGC 6388. If no star-to-star variations can be confirmed for all GCs, this finding implies that the stellar source of the proton-capture element variations must not have produced significant amounts of Rb. This element is observed to be enhanced at extremely high levels in intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (IM-AGB) stars in the Magellanic Clouds (i.e., at a metallicity similar to 47 Tuc and NGC 6388). This fact may present a challenge to this popular candidate polluter, unless the mass range of the observed IM-AGB stars does not participate in the formation of the second-generation stars in GCs. A number of possible solutions are available to resolve this conundrum, including the fact that the Magellanic Cloud observations are very uncertain and may need to be revised. The fast rotating massive stars scenario would not face this potential problem as the slow mechanical winds of these stars during their main-sequence phase do not carry any Rb enhancements; however, these candidates face even bigger issues such as the production of Li and the close overlap with core-collapse supernova timescales. Observations of Sr, Rb, and Zr in metal-rich clusters such as NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 are sorely needed to clarify the situation.

  12. Cataclysmic and Close Binaries in Star Clusters. III. Recovery of the Quiescent Nova 1860 a.d. (T Scorpii) in the Core of the Globular Cluster M80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shara, Michael M.; Drissen, Laurent

    1995-07-01

    Only two candidate classical nova eruptions have ever been seen in globular clusters. Only one, that of Nova 1860 (T Sco in M80), seems beyond any doubt a cluster member. We have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imagery of the central regions of M80 and find a very blue candidate within 1" of the astrometric position reported in 1860. Only one other object (of 8000) occupies a similar position in the cluster color-magnitude diagram. On the basis of position, color, and brightness we claim the first recovery of a quiescent old nova in a globular cluster core. The present luminosity of the old, quiescent nova is almost an order of magnitude less than that of most decades-old novae. This low-luminosity determination is the most accurate value known for an old nova, and consistent with the prediction of the hibernation scenario for cataclysmic binary evolution between nova eruptions. The presence of only one other blue, faint star in the core of M80 is striking and highly significant. Dozens of bright, blue cataclysmic variables should easily have been detectable in our HST images if simple tidal capture theory is correct. The extraordinary paucity of cataclysmics implies that either these binaries escape formation, are quickly destroyed or ejected from the cluster, or somehow "hide" by maintaining themselves in very low mass-transfer states.

  13. A Gemini/GMOS Study of Intermediate Luminosity Early-type Virgo Cluster Galaxies. I. Globular Cluster and Stellar Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Biao; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hong-xin; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordán, Andrés; Liu, Chengze; Mei, Simona; Puzia, Thomas H.; Takamiya, Marianne; Trancho, Gelys; West, Michael J.

    2015-06-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of the globular cluster (GC) systems and diffuse stellar light of four intermediate luminosity (sub-L*) early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster based on Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs (GMOS) data. Our galaxy sample is fainter (-23.8\\lt {{M}K}\\lt -22.7) than most previous studies, nearly doubling the number of galaxies in this magnitude range that now have GC kinematics. The data for the diffuse light extends to 4Re, and the data for the GCs reaches 8-12Re. We find that the kinematics in these outer regions are all different despite the fact that these four galaxies have similar photometric properties, and are uniformly classified as “fast rotators” from their stellar kinematics within 1Re. The GC systems exhibit a wide range of kinematic morphology. The rotation axis and amplitude can change between the inner and outer regions, including a case of counter-rotation. This difference shows the importance of wide-field kinematic studies, and shows that stellar and GC kinematics can change significantly as one moves beyond the inner regions of galaxies. Moreover, the kinematics of the GC systems can differ from that of the stars, suggesting that the formation of the two populations are also distinct.

  14. NGC 6273: Towards Defining A New Class of Galactic Globular Clusters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, Robert Michael; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario L.; Ira Bailey, John; Crane, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of observations have found that several Galactic globular clusters exhibit abundance dispersions beyond the well-known light element (anti-)correlations. These clusters tend to be very massive, have >0.1 dex intrinsic metallicity dispersions, have complex sub-giant branch morphologies, and have correlated [Fe/H] and s-process element enhancements. Interestingly, nearly all of these clusters discovered so far have [Fe/H]~-1.7. In this context, we have examined the chemical composition of 18 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the massive, metal-poor Galactic bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 using high signal-to-noise, high resolution (R~27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph mounted on the Magellan-Clay 6.5m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that the cluster exhibits a metallicity range from [Fe/H]=-1.80 to -1.30 and is composed of two dominant populations separated in [Fe/H] and [La/Fe] abundance. The increase in [La/Eu] as a function of [La/H] suggests that the increase in [La/Fe] with [Fe/H] is due to almost pure s-process enrichment. The most metal-rich star in our sample is not strongly La-enhanced, but is α-poor and may belong to a third "anomalous" stellar population. The two dominant populations exhibit the same [Na/Fe]-[Al/Fe] correlation found in other "normal" globular clusters. Therefore, NGC 6273 joins ω Centauri, M 22, M 2, and NGC 5286 as a possible new class of Galactic globular clusters.

  15. Short-term X-ray variability of the globular cluster source 4U 1820 - 30 (NGC 6624)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, L.; Kahn, S. M.; Grindlay, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical techniques for improved identification of the temporal and spectral variability properties of globular cluster and galactic bulge X-ray sources are described in terms of their application to a large set of observations of the source 4U 1820 - 30 in the globular cluster NGC 6624. The autocorrelation function, cross-correlations, time skewness function, erratic periodicities, and pulse trains are examined. The results are discussed in terms of current models with particular emphasis on recent accretion disk models. It is concluded that the analyzed observations provide the first evidence for shot-noise variability in a globular cluster X-ray source.

  16. PRIMORDIAL r-PROCESS DISPERSION IN METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.

    2011-05-01

    Heavy elements, those produced by neutron-capture reactions, have traditionally shown no star-to-star dispersion in all but a handful of metal-poor globular clusters (GCs). Recent detections of low [Pb/Eu] ratios or upper limits in several metal-poor GCs indicate that the heavy elements in these GCs were produced exclusively by an r-process. Re-examining GC heavy element abundances from the literature, we find unmistakable correlations between the [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] ratios in four metal-poor GCs (M5, M15, M92, and NGC 3201), only two of which were known previously. This indicates that the total r-process abundances vary from star to star (by factors of 2-6) relative to Fe within each GC. We also identify potential dispersion in two other GCs (M3 and M13). Several GCs (M12, M80, and NGC 6752) show no evidence of r-process dispersion. The r-process dispersion is not correlated with the well-known light element dispersion, indicating that it was present in the gas throughout the duration of star formation. The observations available at present suggest that star-to-star r-process dispersion within metal-poor GCs may be a common but not ubiquitous phenomenon that is neither predicted by nor accounted for in current models of GC formation and evolution.

  17. A New Explanation of Globular Cluster Color Bimodality: 6-year Results and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2012-05-01

    The colors of globular clusters (GCs) in most large early-type galaxies are bimodal. This is generally taken as evidence for the presence of two GC subpopulations with different geneses, and thus forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. However, Yoon et al. (2006, Science 311, 1129) showed that the metallicity-color relations are highly inflected due to two complementary effects: (i) the integrated color of main-sequence and giant-branch is a mild nonlinear function of metallicity, and (ii) the rapid change in color due to the onset of the hot horizontal-branch further strengthens the non-linearity. Such nonlinear nature creates ''bimodal'' color distributions of old GCs from a broad underlying metallicity spread, even if it is unimodal. In this contribution, we summarize the 6-year results of theoretical and observational studies on the ''nonlinear color-metallicity relation'' scenario for the GC color bimodality and its implications on galaxy formation theories. We show that the hypothesis gives remarkably simple and cohesive explanations for all the key observations, including the close link of the GC color distributions to the host galaxy properties and the curious discrepancy in metallicity distribution functions between GC systems and their host galaxies’ constituent stars.

  18. Neutrino and axion bounds from the globular cluster M5 (NGC 5904).

    PubMed

    Viaux, N; Catelan, M; Stetson, P B; Raffelt, G G; Redondo, J; Valcarce, A A R; Weiss, A

    2013-12-01

    The red-giant branch (RGB) in globular clusters is extended to larger brightness if the degenerate helium core loses too much energy in "dark channels." Based on a large set of archival observations, we provide high-precision photometry for the Galactic globular cluster M5 (NGC 5904), allowing for a detailed comparison between the observed tip of the RGB with predictions based on contemporary stellar evolution theory. In particular, we derive 95% confidence limits of g(ae)<4.3×10(-13) on the axion-electron coupling and μ(ν)<4.5×10(-12)μ(B) (Bohr magneton μ(B)=e/2m(e)) on a neutrino dipole moment, based on a detailed analysis of statistical and systematic uncertainties. The cluster distance is the single largest source of uncertainty and can be improved in the future. PMID:24476250

  19. RR Lyrae stars and color-magnitude diagram of the globular cluster NGC 6388

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silbermann, N. A.; Smith, Horace A.; Bolte, Michael; Hazen, Martha L.

    1994-01-01

    We present new V, B-V, and V, V-R color-magnitude diagrams for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6388. These diagrams indicate that NGC 6388 is a metal-rich globular cluster with color-magnitude morphology similar to that of 47 Tucanae. We have conducted a search for new variable stars close to NGC 6388, finding three new RR Lyrae stars. The membership of these and previously discovered RR Lyrae stars near NGC 6388 is discussed. There is reason for believing that some of these variables are nonmembers. Others, however, may belong to the cluster and may be similar to the RR Lyrae star V9 in 47 Tuc.

  20. THE IMPACT OF CONTAMINATED RR LYRAE/GLOBULAR CLUSTER PHOTOMETRY ON THE DISTANCE SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Majaess, D.; Turner, D.; Lane, D.; Gieren, W.

    2012-06-10

    RR Lyrae variables and the stellar constituents of globular clusters are employed to establish the cosmic distance scale and age of the universe. However, photometry for RR Lyrae variables in the globular clusters M3, M15, M54, M92, NGC 2419, and NGC 6441 exhibit a dependence on the clustercentric distance. For example, variables and stars positioned near the crowded high-surface brightness cores of the clusters may suffer from photometric contamination, which invariably affects a suite of inferred parameters (e.g., distance, color excess, absolute magnitude, etc.). The impetus for this study is to mitigate the propagation of systematic uncertainties by increasing awareness of the pernicious impact of contaminated and radial-dependent photometry.

  1. Constraints on Helium Enhancement in the Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272): The Horizontal Branch Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catelan, M.; Grundahl, F.; Sweigart, A. V.; Valcarce, A. A. R.; Cortes, C.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the presence of multiple populations showing various amounts of helium enhancement is a common feature among globular star clusters. In this scenario, such a helium enhancement would be particularly apparent in the enhanced luminosity of thc blue horizontal branch (HB) stars compared to the red HB stars. In this Letter, wc test this scenario in the case of the Galactic globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272), using high-precision Stromgren photometry and spectroscopic gravities for blue HB stars. We find that any helium enhancement among the cluster's blue HB stars must be significantly less than I%, thus ruling out the much higher helium enhancements that have been proposed in the literature.

  2. Using globular clusters to test gravity in the weak acceleration regime: NGC 6171

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Marconi, Gianni; Gilmozzi, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    As part of an ongoing program to test Newton’s law of gravity in the low acceleration regime using globular clusters, we present here new results obtained for NGC 6171. Combining VLT spectra for 107 stars with data from the literature, we were able to trace the velocity dispersion profile up to 16 pc from the cluster center, probing accelerations of gravity down to 3.5x10-9 cm s-2 . The velocity dispersion is found to remain constant at large radii (with an asymptotic values of 2.7 km s-1 ) rather than follow the Keplerian falloff. Similar results were previously found for the globular clusters ω Centauri and M15. We have now studied three clusters and all three have been found to have a flat dispersion profile beyond the radius where their internal acceleration of gravity is a0 1.2x10-8 cm s-2 . Whether this indicates a failure of Newtonian dynamics or some more conventional dynamical effect (e.g., tidal heating) is still unclear. However, the similarities emerging between globular clusters and elliptical galaxies seem to favor the first of the two possibilities.

  3. Globular Cluster Variable Stars—Atlas and Coordinate Improvement using AAVSOnet Telescopes (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, D.; Henden, A.; Bell, T.; Suen, C.; Fare, I.; Sills, A.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The variable stars of globular clusters have played and continue to play a significant role in our understanding of certain classes of variable stars. Since all stars associated with a cluster have the same age, metallicity, distance and usually very similar (if not identical reddenings), such variables can produce uniquely powerful constraints on where certain types of pulsation behaviors are excited. Advanced amateur astronomers are increasingly well-positioned to provide long-term CCD monitoring of globular cluster variable star but are hampered by a long history of poor or inaccessible finder charts and coordinates. Many of variable-rich clusters have published photographic finder charts taken in relatively poor seeing with blue-sensitive photographic plates. While useful signal-to-noise ratios are relatively straightforward to achieve for RR Lyrae, Type 2 Cepheids, and red giant variables, correct identification remains a difficult issue—particularly when images are taken at V or longer wavelengths. We describe the project and report its progress using the OC61, TMO61, and SRO telescopes of AAVSOnet after the first year of image acquisition and demonstrate several of the data products being developed for globular cluster variables.

  4. Chemical Abundances of Red Giant Branch Stars in the Globular Clusters NGC 6333 and NGC 6366

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. M.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Kunder, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present chemical abundances and radial velocities for >20 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6333 ([Fe/H]≈-1.8) and NGC 6366 ([Fe/H]≈-0.6). The results are based on moderate resolution (R=18,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (>100) spectra obtained with the Hydra multifiber positioner and bench spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Both objects are likely associated with the Galactic bulge globular cluster system, and we therefore compare the cluster abundance patterns with those of nearby bulge field stars. Additionally, we investigate differences in the O-Na anticorrelation and neutron-capture element dispersion between the two clusters, and compare their abundance patterns with those of similar metallicity halo globular clusters. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under award No. AST-1003201 to C.I.J. C.A.P. gratefully acknowledges support from the Daniel Kirkwood Research Fund at Indiana University. R.M.R. acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-0709479 and AST-121120995.

  5. Study of Compact Binaries in the Extreme Globular Cluster Terzan 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    1997-07-01

    Stellar collisions and interactions in dense star clusters are fundamental to the evolution of globular clusters and galactic nuclei. The highest stellar collision rate suspected in the Galaxy is in the obscured bulge globular, Terzan 5. We shall identify compact binaries formed, and ejected, in this cluster with Paschen alpha {F187N} vs. continuum {F187W or F190N} imaging to identify emission line objects and CVs. By centering NIC1 on the bright eclipsing {1.8h} millisecond pulsar 32" from the cluster center, we shall also conduct a sensitive search for its counterpart and both constrain the pulsar spin up and cluster gravitational potential, while the highest resolution NIC1 field surveys the cluster core. Scaling from our successful H Alpha vs. R {WFPC1} and followup FOS programs in NGC 6397, we expect at least 30 emission line CVs in the cluster core. Ter 5 is both more massive and much more metal rich, enabling constraints on WD and NS production vs. original IMF of the cluster. This cluster can only be studied in the near-IR, and HST resolution is essential given its extreme crowding.

  6. MUSE crowded field 3D spectroscopy of over 12 000 stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397. I. The first comprehensive HRD of a globular cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husser, Tim-Oliver; Kamann, Sebastian; Dreizler, Stefan; Wendt, Martin; Wulff, Nina; Bacon, Roland; Wisotzki, Lutz; Brinchmann, Jarle; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Roth, Martin M.; Monreal-Ibero, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We demonstrate the high multiplex advantage of crowded field 3D spectroscopy with the new integral field spectrograph MUSE by means of a spectroscopic analysis of more than 12 000 individual stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397. Methods: The stars are deblended with a point spread function fitting technique, using a photometric reference catalogue from HST as prior, including relative positions and brightnesses. This catalogue is also used for a first analysis of the extracted spectra, followed by an automatic in-depth analysis via a full-spectrum fitting method based on a large grid of PHOENIX spectra. Results: We analysed the largest sample so far available for a single globular cluster of 18 932 spectra from 12 307 stars in NGC 6397. We derived a mean radial velocity of vrad = 17.84 ± 0.07 km s-1 and a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.120 ± 0.002, with the latter seemingly varying with temperature for stars on the red giant branch (RGB). We determine Teff and [Fe/H] from the spectra, and log g from HST photometry. This is the first very comprehensive Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) for a globular cluster based on the analysis of several thousands of stellar spectra, ranging from the main sequence to the tip of the RGB. Furthermore, two interesting objects were identified; one is a post-AGB star and the other is a possible millisecond-pulsar companion. Data products are available at http://muse-vlt.eu/scienceBased on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programme ID 60.A-9100(C)).

  7. Abundances of lithium, oxygen, and sodium in the turn-off stars of Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskas, V.; Kučinskas, A.; Bonifacio, P.; Korotin, S. A.; Steffen, M.; Sbordone, L.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Royer, F.; Prakapavičius, D.

    2014-05-01

    Context. The cluster 47 Tuc is among the most metal-rich Galactic globular clusters and its metallicity is similar to that of metal-poor disc stars and open clusters. Like other globular clusters, it displays variations in the abundances of elements lighter than Si, which is generally interpreted as evidence of the presence of multiple stellar populations. Aims: We aim to determine abundances of Li, O, and Na in a sample of of 110 turn-off (TO) stars, in order to study the evolution of light elements in this cluster and to put our results in perspective with observations of other globular and open clusters, as well as with field stars. Methods: We use medium resolution spectra obtained with the GIRAFFE spectrograph at the ESO 8.2 m Kueyen VLT telescope and use state of the art 1D model atmospheres and NLTE line transfer to determine the abundances. We also employ CO5BOLD hydrodynamical simulations to assess the impact of stellar granulation on the line formation and inferred abundances. Results: Our results confirm the existence of Na-O abundance anti-correlation and hint towards a possible Li-O anti-correlation in the TO stars of 47 Tuc. At the same time, we find no convincing evidence supporting the existence of Li-Na correlation. The obtained 3D NLTE mean lithium abundance in a sample of 94 TO stars where Li lines were detected reliably, ⟨A(Li)3D NLTE⟩ = 1.78 ± 0.18 dex, appears to be significantly lower than what is observed in other globular clusters. At the same time, star-to-star spread in Li abundance is also larger than seen in other clusters. The highest Li abundance observed in 47 Tuc is about 0.1 dex lower than the lowest Li abundance observed among the un-depleted stars of the metal-poor open cluster NGC 2243. Conclusions: The correlations/anti-correlations among light element abundances confirm that chemical enrichment history of 47 Tuc was similar to that of other globular clusters, despite the higher metallicity of 47 Tuc. The lithium

  8. A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE HALF-LIGHT RADII, LUMINOSITIES, AND UBV COLORS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M31 AND THE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Bergh, Sidney

    2010-10-15

    The Milky Way system and the Andromeda galaxy experienced radically different evolutionary histories. Nevertheless, it is found that these two galaxies ended up with globular cluster systems in which individual clusters have indistinguishable distributions of half-light radii. Furthermore, globulars in both M31 and the Galaxy are found to have radii that are independent of their luminosities. In this respect, globular clusters differ drastically from early-type galaxies in which half-light radius and luminosity are tightly correlated. Metal-rich globular clusters in M31 occupy a slightly larger volume than do those in the Galaxy. The specific globular cluster frequency in the Andromeda galaxy is found to be significantly higher than it is in the Milky Way system. The present discussion is based on the 107 Galactic globular clusters, and 200 putative globulars in M31, for which UBV photometry was available.

  9. A populous intermediate-age open cluster and evidence of an embedded cluster among the FSR globular cluster candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, E.; Bonatto, C.

    2008-03-01

    We study the nature of the globular cluster (GC) candidates FSR 1603 and FSR1755 selected from the catalogue of Froebrich, Scholz & Raftery. Their properties are investigated with Two-Micron All-Sky Survey field-star decontaminated photometry, which is used to build colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and stellar radial density profiles. FSR1603 has the open cluster Ruprecht 101 as optical counterpart, and we show it to be a massive intermediate-age cluster. Relevant parameters of FSR1603 are the age ~1Gyr, distance from the Sun dsolar ~ 2.7kpc, Galactocentric distance RGC ~ 6.4kpc, core radius RC ~ 1.1pc, mass function slope χ ~ 1.8, observed stellar mass (for stars with mass in the range 1.27 <= m <= 2.03Msolar) Mobs ~ 500Msolar and a total (extrapolated to m = 0.08Msolar) stellar mass Mtot ~ 2300Msolar. FSR1755, on the other hand, is not a populous cluster. It may be a sparse young cluster embedded in the HII region Sh2-3, subject to an absorption AV ~ 4.1, located at dsolar ~ 1.3kpc. Important field-star contamination, spatially variable heavy dust obscuration, even in Ks, and gas emission characterize its field. A nearly vertical, sparse blue stellar sequence shows up in the CMDs.

  10. Multiple Stellar Populations of Globular Clusters from Homogeneous Ca by Photometry. I. M22 (NGC 6656)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Woo

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the multiple stellar populations in one of the peculiar globular clusters (GCs), M22, using new ground-based wide-field Ca by and Hubble Space Telescope Wide-Field Camera 3 photometry with equivalent passbands, confirming our previous result that M22 has a distinctive red giant branch (RGB) split mainly due to the difference in metal abundances. We also make use of radial velocity measurements by others of the large number of cluster membership stars. Our main results are the following. (1) The RGB and the subgiant branch number ratios show that the calcium-weak (Ca-w) group is the dominant population of the cluster. However, an irreconcilable difference can be seen in the rather simple classification into two horizontal branches by others. (2) Each group has its own CN-CH anticorrelation. However, the alleged CN-CH positive correlation is likely illusory. (3) The location of the RGB bump of the calcium-strong (Ca-s) group is significantly fainter, which may pose a challenge to the helium enhancement scenario in the Ca-s group. (4) The positions of the centers are similar. (5) The Ca-w group is slightly more centrally concentrated, whereas the Ca-s is more elongated at larger radii. (6) The mean radial velocities for both groups are similar, but the Ca-s group has a larger velocity dispersion. (7) The Ca-s group rotates faster. The plausible scenario for the formation of M22 is that it formed via a merger of two GCs in a dwarf galaxy environment and accreted later to our Galaxy. Partially based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  11. Nitrogen abundances and multiple stellar populations in the globular clusters of the Fornax dSph

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Søren S.; Strader, Jay

    2014-12-10

    We use measurements of nitrogen abundances in red giants to search for multiple stellar populations in the four most metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Fornax 1, 2, 3, and 5). New imaging in the F343N filter, obtained with the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope, is combined with archival F555W and F814W observations to determine the strength of the NH band near 3370 Å. After accounting for observational errors, the spread in the F343N-F555W colors of red giants in the Fornax GCs is similar to that in M15 and corresponds to an abundance range of Δ[N/Fe] ∼ 2 dex, as observed also in several Galactic GCs. The spread in F555W-F814W is, instead, fully accounted for by observational errors. The stars with the reddest F343N-F555W colors (indicative of N-enhanced composition) have more centrally concentrated radial distributions in all four clusters, although the difference is not highly statistically significant within any individual cluster. From double-Gaussian fits to the color distributions, we find roughly equal numbers of 'N-normal' and 'N-enhanced' stars (formally ∼40% N-normal stars in Fornax 1, 3, and 5 and ∼60% in Fornax 2). We conclude that GC formation, in particular, regarding the processes responsible for the origin of multiple stellar populations, appears to have operated similarly in the Milky Way and in the Fornax dSph. Combined with the high ratio of metal-poor GCs to field stars in the Fornax dSph, this places an important constraint on scenarios for the origin of multiple stellar populations in GCs.

  12. Observation with XMM-Newton of the globular cluster M22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendre, Bruce; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier

    2002-01-01

    We present preliminary results from XMM-Newton/EPIC observations of the nearby globular cluster M22. We have detected 34 low luminosity sources (< 1034.5 erg s-1) in the direction of the cluster, searching down to a luminosity of ≅ 3.0 times 1030 erg s-1. Only seven of these sources have been previously detected by either ROSAT or EINSTEIN. Three sources (two previously undetected) lie within the core radius of the cluster. For the strongest source in the observation we have a spectrum and a light curve. Finally we discuss the nature of this dim X-ray source, in light of these observations.

  13. Globular Clusters as a Test for Gravity in the Weak Acceleration Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Marconi, Gianni; Gilmozzi, Roberto

    2006-03-01

    Non-baryonic Dark Matter (DM) appears in galaxies and other cosmic structures when and only when the acceleration of gravity, as computed considering only baryons, goes below a well defined value a0 = 1.2 × 10-8 cm s-2. This fact is extremely important and suggestive of the possibility of a breakdown of Newton's law of gravity (or inertia) below a0. It is therefore important to verify whether Newton's law of gravity holds in this regime of accelerations. In order to do this, one has to study the dynamics of objects that do not contain significant amounts of DM and therefore should follow Newton's prediction for whatever small accelerations. Globular clusters are believed, even by strong supporters of DM, to contain negligible amounts of DM and therefore are ideal for testing Newtonian dynamics in the low acceleration limit. Here, we discuss the status of an ongoing program aimed to do this test. Compared to other studies of globular clsuters, the novelty is that we trace the velocity dispersion profile of globular clusters far enough from the center to probe gravitational accelerations well below a0. In all three clusters studied so far the velocity dispersion is found to remain constant at large radii rather than follow the Keplerian falloff. On average, the flattening occurs at the radius where the cluster internal acceleration of gravity is 1.8 +/- 0.4 × 10-8 cm s-2, fully consistent with MOND predictions.

  14. No sign (yet) of intergalactic globular clusters in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, A. D.; Beasley, M. A.; Leaman, R.

    2016-07-01

    We present Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) imaging of 12 candidate intergalactic globular clusters (IGCs) in the Local Group, identified in a recent survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint by di Tullio Zinn & Zinn. Our image quality is sufficiently high, at ˜0.4-0.7 arcsec, that we are able to unambiguously classify all 12 targets as distant galaxies. To reinforce this conclusion we use GMOS images of globular clusters in the M31 halo, taken under very similar conditions, to show that any genuine clusters in the putative IGC sample would be straightforward to distinguish. Based on the stated sensitivity of the di Tullio Zinn & Zinn search algorithm, we conclude that there cannot be a significant number of IGCs with MV ≤ -6 lying unseen in the SDSS area if their properties mirror those of globular clusters in the outskirts of M31 - even a population of 4 would have only a ≈1 per cent chance of non-detection.

  15. The transient neutron star LMXB in the globular cluster Terzan 5 has turned into a Z-source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamirano, D.; Homan, J.; Linares, M.; Patruno, A.; Yang, Y.; Watts, A.; Kalamkar, M.; Casella, P.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Russell, D.; Kaur, R.; van der Klis, M.; Rea, N.; Wijnands, R.

    2010-10-01

    We report on the recent RXTE pointed observations of the the ongoing outburst of the neutron star (NS) transient source in the globular cluster Terzan 5 (Atel #2919, #2920, #2922, #2924, #2929, #2932, #2933, #2937, #2939, #2940, #2946).

  16. What Is A Globular Cluster? Discovery Of An Old, Massive, Star Cluster With A Single Stellar Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Douglas; Villanova, S.

    2012-05-01

    Globular Clusters (GCs), long considered as ideal Single Stellar Populations, are now known to harbor a wide variety of chemical inhomogeneities. In particular, Carretta et al. (2009) showed that all GCs studied to date have at least a spread (or anticorrelation) in the light-elements O and Na. Indeed, they suggest a new definition of a GC as a cluster which exhibits such an anticorrelation, with the implication that all GCs, at least those above a certain mass limit, must posses this characteristic. The explanation is that GCs had at least two epochs of star formation and thus two generations of stars, where the second was formed from gas polluted by processed material produced by massive stars of the first. This multiplicity can only happen if the initial cluster mass exceeds a threshold above which stellar ejecta are retained and eventually a second generation is formed. A determination of this mass-threshold is mandatory in order to understand how GCs form. However, no convincing case of a single population GC has so far been found. We present a detailed abundance analysis of a large sample of stars from the ''GC" Ruprecht 106 observed with UVES@VLT2. We show that Ruprecht 106 is the first convincing example of a true single population ''GC". It is old (12 Gyrs) and, at odds with other GCs, has no alpha-element enhancement and a much lower C+N+O content. The abundance pattern points toward an extragalactic origin. Its present day mass can be assumed as a lower limit for the initial mass threshold below which no second generation is formed.

  17. The Relative and Absolute Ages of Old Globular Clusters in the LCDM Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenti, Michele; Padoan, Paolo; Jimenez, Raul

    2015-08-01

    Old globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way have ages of about 13 Gyr, placing their formation time in the reionization epoch. We propose a novel scenario for the formation of these systems based on the merger of two or more atomic cooling halos at high redshift (z\\gt 6). First-generation stars are formed as an intense burst in the center of a minihalo that grows above the threshold for hydrogen cooling (halo mass {M}{{h}}∼ {10}8 {M}ȯ ) by undergoing a major merger within its cooling timescale (∼150 Myr). Subsequent minor mergers and sustained gas infall bring a new supply of pristine gas to the halo center, creating conditions that can trigger new episodes of star formation. The dark-matter halo around the GC is then stripped during assembly of the host-galaxy halo. Minihalo merging is efficient only in a short redshift window, set by the {{Λ }}{CDM} parameters, allowing us to make a strong prediction on the age distribution for old GCs. From cosmological simulations, we derive an average merging redshift < z> =9 and a narrow distribution {{Δ }}z=2, implying average GC age < {t}{age}> =13.0+/- 0.2 {Gyr} including ∼0.2 Gyr of star formation delay. Qualitatively, our scenario reproduces other general old GC properties (characteristic masses and number of objects, metallicity versus galactocentric radius anticorrelation, radial distribution), but unlike age, these generally depend on details of baryonic physics. In addition to improved age measurements, direct validation of the model at z∼ 10 may be within reach with ultradeep gravitationally lensed observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  18. Footprints in the sand: What can globular clusters tell us about NGC 4753 past?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caso, Juan Pablo; Bassino, Lilia P.; Gómez, Matías

    2015-11-01

    NGC 4753 is a bright (MV ≈ 22.3) lenticular galaxy. It is a very interesting target to test different theories of formation of lenticular galaxies, due to its low-density environment and complex structure. We perform the first comprehensive study of NGC 4753 globular cluster system (GCS), using Gemini/Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) and CTIO (Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory)/MOSAIC II images. Our results indicate a rather poor GCS of ≈1000 members. Its azimuthal distribution follows the shape of the galaxy bulge. The GC colour distribution is peculiar, presenting an intermediate subpopulation in addition to blue and red ones. This intermediate subgroup can be explained by a single stellar population with an age of 1.53 Gyr and 0.5-1 Z⊙. The GC-specific frequency SN = 1.3 ± 0.15 is surprisingly low for a galaxy of its class. The GC luminosity function is also peculiar, with an excess of bright GCs compared to the expected Gaussian distribution. The underlying galaxy body has significant substructure, with remnants of spiral arms, dust filaments, and isophote twisting. This, and the fact that NGC 4753 hosted two Type Ia supernovae, support the possibility that the intermediate GC subpopulation may have originated during a recent merger, 13 Gyr ago.

  19. PROBING THE INTERMEDIATE-AGE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN NGC 5128 FROM ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, Soo-Chang; Kang, Yongbeom; Lee, Kyeongsook; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Lee, Young-Wook; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Chung, Chul; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Beasley, Michael A.; Rich, R. Michael; Bianch, Luciana; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Martin, D. Christopher; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark

    2009-07-20

    We explore the age distribution of the globular cluster (GC) system of the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 using ultraviolet (UV) photometry from GALEX observations, with UV-optical colors used as the age indicator. Most GCs in NGC 5128 follow the general trends of GCs in M31 and the Milky Way in the UV-optical color-color diagram, which indicates that the majority of GCs in NGC 5128 are old similar to the age range of old GCs in M31 and the Milky Way. A large fraction of spectroscopically identified intermediate-age GC (IAGC) candidates with {approx}3-8 Gyr are not detected in the far-UV (FUV) passband. Considering the nature of intermediate-age populations being faint in the FUV passband, we suggest that many of the spectroscopically identified IAGCs may be truly intermediate in age. This is in contrast to the case of M31 where a large fraction of spectroscopically suggested IAGCs are detected in FUV and therefore may not be genuine IAGCs but rather older GCs with developed blue horizontal branch stars. Our UV photometry strengthens the results previously suggesting the presence of GC and stellar subpopulation with intermediate age in NGC 5128. The existence of IAGCs strongly indicates the occurrence of at least one more major star formation episode after a starburst at high redshift.

  20. THE SLUGGS SURVEY: NGC 3115, A CRITICAL TEST CASE FOR METALLICITY BIMODALITY IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Jean P.; Conroy, Charlie; Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A.; Strader, Jay

    2012-11-10

    Due to its proximity (9 Mpc) and the strongly bimodal color distribution of its spectroscopically well-sampled globular cluster (GC) system, the early-type galaxy NGC 3115 provides one of the best available tests of whether the color bimodality widely observed in GC systems generally reflects a true metallicity bimodality. Color bimodality has alternatively been attributed to a strongly nonlinear color-metallicity relation reflecting the influence of hot horizontal-branch stars. Here, we couple Subaru Suprime-Cam gi photometry with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to accurately measure GC colors and a CaT index that measures the Ca II triplet. We find the NGC 3115 GC system to be unambiguously bimodal in both color and the CaT index. Using simple stellar population models, we show that the CaT index is essentially unaffected by variations in horizontal-branch morphology over the range of metallicities relevant to GC systems (and is thus a robust indicator of metallicity) and confirm bimodality in the metallicity distribution. We assess the existing evidence for and against multiple metallicity subpopulations in early- and late-type galaxies and conclude that metallicity bi/multimodality is common. We briefly discuss how this fundamental characteristic links directly to the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies.

  1. EVIDENCE AGAINST DARK MATTER HALOS SURROUNDING THE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS MGC1 AND NGC 2419

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Loeb, Abraham; Spergel, David N.

    2011-11-10

    The conjecture that the ancient globular clusters (GCs) formed at the center of their own dark matter (DM) halos was first proposed by Peebles in 1984 and has recently been revived to explain the puzzling abundance patterns observed within many GCs. In this paper, we demonstrate that the outer stellar density profile of isolated GCs is very sensitive to the presence of an extended dark halo. The GCs NGC 2419, located at 90 kpc from the center of our Galaxy, and MGC1, located at {approx}200 kpc from the center of M31, are ideal laboratories for testing the scenario that GCs formed at the centers of massive dark halos. Comparing analytic models to observations of these GCs, we conclude that these GCs cannot be embedded within dark halos with a virial mass greater than 10{sup 6} M{sub sun}, or, equivalently, the DM halo-mass-to-stellar mass ratio must be M{sub DM}/M{sub *} < 1. If these GCs have indeed orbited within weak tidal fields throughout their lifetimes, then these limits imply that these GCs did not form within their own dark halos. Recent observations of an extended stellar halo in the GC NGC 1851 are also interpreted in the context of our analytic models. Implications of these results for the formation of GCs are briefly discussed.

  2. About the Chemical Evolution of dSphs (and the peculiar Globular Cluster ω Cen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolini, Andrea; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2008-12-01

    We present three dimensional hydrodynamical simulations aimed at studying the dynamical and chemical evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM) in isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). This evolution is driven by the explosion of Type II and Type Ia supernovae, whose different contribution on both the dynamics and chemical enrichment is taken into account. Radiative losses are effective in radiating away the huge amount of energy released by SNe explosions, and the dSph is able to retain most of the gas allowing a long period (≥ 2 - 3 Gyr) of star formation, as usually observed in this kind of galaxies. We are able to reproduce the stellar metallicity distribution function (MDF) as well as the peculiar chemical properties of strongly O-depleted stars observed in several dSphs. The model also naturally predicts two different stellar populations, with an anti-correlation between [Fe/H] and velocity dispersion, similarly to what observed in the Sculptor and Fornax dSphs. These results derive from the inhomogeneous pollution of the SNe Ia, a distinctive characteristic of our model. We also applied the model to the peculiar globular cluster (GC) ω Cen in the hypothesis that it is the remnant of a formerly larger stellar system, possibly a dSph.

  3. Anchoring the Population II Distance Scale: Accurate Ages for Globular Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaboyer, Brian C.; Chaboyer, Brian C.; Carney, Bruce W.; Latham, David W.; Dunca, Douglas; Grand, Terry; Layden, Andy; Sarajedini, Ataollah; McWilliam, Andrew; Shao, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The metal-poor stars in the halo of the Milky Way galaxy were among the first objects formed in our Galaxy. These Population II stars are the oldest objects in the universe whose ages can be accurately determined. Age determinations for these stars allow us to set a firm lower limit, to the age of the universe and to probe the early formation history of the Milky Way. The age of the universe determined from studies of Population II stars may be compared to the expansion age of the universe and used to constrain cosmological models. The largest uncertainty in estimates for the ages of stars in our halo is due to the uncertainty in the distance scale to Population II objects. We propose to obtain accurate parallaxes to a number of Population II objects (globular clusters and field stars in the halo) resulting in a significant improvement in the Population II distance scale and greatly reducing the uncertainty in the estimated ages of the oldest stars in our galaxy. At the present time, the oldest stars are estimated to be 12.8 Gyr old, with an uncertainty of approx. 15%. The SIM observations obtained by this key project, combined with the supporting theoretical research and ground based observations outlined in this proposal will reduce the estimated uncertainty in the age estimates to 5%).

  4. The evolution of highly compact binary stellar systems in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, J. H.; Meiksin, A.; Joss, P. C.

    1984-01-01

    A highly compact binary represents a system which is composed of a collapsed object (degenerate dwarf, neutron star, or black hole) in orbit with a low-mass (equal to or less than 0.5 solar mass) secondary star. Matter may be transferred from the secondary to the collapsed star due to the decay of the orbit resulting from the emission of gravitational radiation. The present investigation has the objective to study quantitatively the evolution of highly compact binaries in globular cluster cores, subject to the interplay of gravitational radiation and collisions with field stars. The investigation is exploratory in nature. The numerical methods employed are based on the techniques developed by Rappaport et al. (1982). It is found that occasional close encounters with field stars strongly dominate the evolution of highly compact binaries in dense globular cluster cores. Attention is given to the applicability of the findings to observations of X-ray sources and cataclysmic variables.

  5. A Swift/UVOT NUV Study of RR Lyrae Stars in the Globular Cluster M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porterfield, Blair; Siegel, M.; Swift; UVOT

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of a program to monitor RR Lyrae stars in globular clusters with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope. Although variable stars have their strongest pulsations in the UV, no comprehensive catalog o