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Sample records for globulus labill cuttings

  1. Energy evaluation of forest residues originated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill in Galicia.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Regueira, L; Proupín-Castiñeiras, J; Rodríguez-Añón, J A

    2002-03-01

    The possibility of retrieving the energy contained in forest residues originating from wood exploitation in Galicia (Spain) is evaluated. This study was made on Eucalyptus globulus Labill occupying a forest surface of 240000 ha. This species plays an important role in the economical development of Galicia, as it is the main forest species for production of pulp. Sampling was made over 1999 in seven different zones, three main stations plus four selected for comparison, situated in Galicia. The residues originating from cutting were sorted into three different groups and their calorific values were measured by static bomb calorimetry. These calorific values, close to 7200 kJ kg(-1), make possible the use of this residual biomass as an energy source. Calorific values were measured by static bomb calorimeter in an oxygen atmosphere. Flammability was determined using a standard epiradiator. Simultaneously, some other parameters, elementary chemical composition, heavy metal contents, moisture, density, ash percentage after combustion in the bomb, and main bioclimatic characteristics, were also determined. PMID:11848377

  2. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex. Roem. & Schult.) DC. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. interactions when administered with diazepam.

    PubMed

    Quílez, A M; Saenz, M T; García, M D

    2012-03-01

    The safety of natural drugs is defined by their side effects and toxicity as well as any interactions that may occur if taken together with other drugs. In particular, it is essential to identify synergies, antagonisms and other types of interference with other drugs so that the correct choice can be made from the range of phytomedicines available. The aim of this work was to investigate changes in the pharmacological effect of diazepam (2 mg/kg) on the CNS when administered together with a medicinal plant: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (eucalyptus 6 mg/kg and 3.25 mg/kg) or Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult). DC. (cat's claw, 7.14 mg/kg and 3.54 mg/kg). Various different psychopharmacological effects were evaluated through assessing exploratory behavior, muscle relaxation and spontaneous motor activity. Both phytodrugs interacted with the benzodiazepine. Eucalyptus had an inhibitory effect at both doses and could be useful at the highest dose in cases where the desired effect of the depressant is moderate anxiolytic activity without marked muscle relaxation. Cat's claw, at both doses, enhanced the action of diazepam on spontaneous motor activity and, at the lowest dose, exploratory ability. These herbal drugs could be useful for their antiinflammatory activity in musculoskeletal pathologies treated with benzodiazepines. PMID:21928376

  3. Interactive effects of water supply and defoliation on photosynthesis, plant water status and growth of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    PubMed

    Quentin, A G; O'Grady, A P; Beadle, C L; Mohammed, C; Pinkard, E A

    2012-08-01

    Increased climatic variability, including extended periods of drought stress, may compromise on the health of forest ecosystems. The effects of defoliating pests on plantations may also impact on forest productivity. Interactions between climate signals and pest activity are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the combined effects of reduced water availability and defoliation on maximum photosynthetic rate (A(sat)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), plant water status and growth of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Field-grown plants were subjected to two water-availability regimes, rain-fed (W-) and irrigated (W+). In the summer of the second year of growth, leaves from 75% of crown length removed from trees in both watering treatments and physiological responses within the canopies were examined. We hypothesized that defoliation would result in improved plant water status providing a mechanistic insight into leaf- and canopy-scale gas-exchange responses. Defoliated trees in the W+ treatment exhibited higher A(sat) and g(s) compared with non-defoliated trees, but these responses were not observed in the W- treatment. In contrast, at the whole-plant scale, maximum rates of transpiration (E(max)) and canopy conductance (G(Cmax)) and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (K(P)) increased in both treatments following defoliation. As a result, plant water status was unaffected by defoliation and trees in the defoliated treatments exhibited homeostasis in this respect. Whole-plant soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance was strongly correlated with leaf scale g(s) and A(sat) following the defoliation, providing a mechanistic insight into compensatory up-regulation of photosynthesis. Above-ground height and diameter growth were unaffected by defoliation in both water availability treatments, suggesting that plants use a range of responses to compensate for the impacts of defoliation. PMID:22874831

  4. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and phenolic profile of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Corymbia ficifolia (F. Muell.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson leaves.

    PubMed

    Dezsi, Ștefan; Bădărău, Alexandru Sabin; Bischin, Cristina; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Mocan, Andrei; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and the phenolic profile of Eucalytus globulus Labill. and Corymbia ficifolia (F. Muell.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson leaves. Both leave extracts contain significant amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the phenolic compounds were performed using a HPLC/MS method. The main flavonoid was hyperoside and its highest amount was found in E. globulus (666.42 ± 5.02 μg/g dw plant material). Regarding the flavonol profile, myricetin was the dominant compound and its highest amount was found in C. ficifolia leaves (124.46 ± 0.24 μg/g dw plant material). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c assays, revealing an important antioxidant potential for both species. In the antimicrobial assays, C. ficifolia extract was found to be more active than E. globulus against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains with the exception of Bacillus subtilis. The results of the present study provide new valuable data regarding the bioactivities of these medicinal species. PMID:25786160

  5. Concerted transcription of auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis-related genes underlies improved adventitious rooting of microcuttings derived from far-red treated Eucalyptus globulus Labill mother plants.

    PubMed

    Ruedell, Carolina Michels; de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-12-01

    Economically important plant species, such as Eucalyptus globulus, are often rooting recalcitrant. We have previously shown that far-red light enrichment applied to E. globulus donor-plants improved microcutting rooting competence and increased rooting zone/shoot carbohydrate ratio. To better understand this developmental response, the relative expression profiles of genes involved in auxin signaling (ARF6, ARF8, AGO1), biosynthesis (YUC3) and transport (AUX1, PIN1, PIN2); sucrose cleavage (SUS1, CWINV1), transport (SUC5), hexose phosphorylation (HXK1, FLN1) and starch biosynthesis (SS3) were quantified during adventitious rooting of E. globulus microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far-red or white light. Expression of auxin transport-related genes increased in the first days of root induction. Far-red enrichment of donor plants induced ARF6, ARF8 and AGO1 in microcuttings. The first two gene products could activate GH3 and other rooting related genes, whereas AGO1 deregulation of the repressor ARF17 may relief rooting inhibition. Increased sink strength at the basal stem with sucrose unloading in root tissue mediated by SUC and subsequent hydrolysis by SUS1 were also supported by gene expression profile. Fructose phosphorylation and starch biosynthesis could also contribute to proper carbon allocation at the site of rooting, as evidenced by increased expression of related genes. These data are in good agreement with increased contents of hexoses and starch at the cutting base severed from far-red exposed donor plants. To sum up, pathways integrating auxin and carbohydrate metabolism were activated in microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far red light enrichment, thereby improving rooting response in E. globulus. PMID:26397200

  6. Laboratory evaluation of Melia azedarach L. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Extracts in order to control Ocneridia volxemi Bolivar (Orthoptera, Pamphaginae) hoppers.

    PubMed

    Bounechada, M; Doumandji, S E; Laouer, H

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) dry fruit extracts (oil and water) and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Myrtaceae) dry leaves extracts (water) on Oneridia volxemi hoppers (fifth-instar) feeding on cereals leaves (Triticum durum) under laboratory conditions. Larva feeding reduced and mortality was significatly (p < 0.05) on cereals leaves sprayed with three concentrations 0, 5, 1 and 2% of oil extracted from Melia azederach. In addition, O. volxemi feeding and mortality was significantly (p < 0.05) on cereals leaves sprayed with two concentrations 50 g/l and 80 g/l of water extracts from Melia azedarach dry fruits soaked for 24 hours. the water extract solution of 80 g/l significantly reduced feeding than the other concentrations 50 and 25 g/l. This study showed also the water extract solution from Eucalyptus globulus dry leaves reduced also feeding and induced the mortality of O. volxemi but not better than Melia azedarach dry fruit extracts water at the same concentration (80 g/l). The aim of this study is in an integrated management program for control of O. PMID:15759419

  7. Distinct effects of auxin and light on adventitious root development in Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Fett-Neto, A G; Fett, J P; Veira Goulart, L W; Pasquali, G; Termignoni, R R; Ferreira, A G

    2001-05-01

    Adventitious rooting is essential for vegetative propagation of woody species. We studied the effects of auxin and light on the development of adventitious roots in cuttings obtained from seedlings of Eucalyptus saligna Smith and E. globulus Labill in an attempt to characterize the adventitious rooting process and identify factors controlling rhizogenesis. Root development was scored as rooting percentage, root density (roots per rooted cutting), mean rooting time and root length. In both species, rooting time was reduced in the presence of auxin. Cuttings from 2-month-old E. saligna seedlings were responsive to lower auxin concentrations than comparable cuttings from E. globulus seedlings. Cuttings from 3-month-old E. saligna seedlings rooted promptly and rooting was not significantly affected by light conditions. In contrast, rooting of cuttings from 3-month-old E. globulus seedlings exhibited recalcitrant behavior and no roots were formed if illuminated during the root formation phase. Effective root regeneration of E. globulus cuttings was obtained by a 4-day exposure to 10 mg l(-1) IBA and culture in darkness during the root formation step. Loss of rooting capacity with seedling age was more pronounced in E. globulus than in E. saligna. The possibility of switching adventitious rooting off and on by manipulating light regime and exogenous auxin supply in E. globulus, and the constitutive nature of rooting in E. saligna may provide useful models for examining the rooting process at the biochemical and molecular levels in Eucalyptus. PMID:11340046

  8. Differential Methylation of Genomic Regions Associated with Heteroblasty Detected by M&M Algorithm in the Nonmodel Species Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    PubMed

    Hasbún, Rodrigo; Iturra, Carolina; Bravo, Soraya; Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Valledor, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation plays important biological roles in plants, including timing of flowering and endosperm development. Little is known about the mechanisms controlling heterochrony (the change in the timing or rate of developmental events during ontogeny) in Eucalyptus globulus. DNA methylation has been proposed as a potential heterochrony regulatory mechanism in model species, but its role during the vegetative phase in E. globulus has not been explored. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms governing heterochrony in E. globulus, we have developed a workflow aimed at generating high-resolution hypermethylome and hypomethylome maps that have been tested in two stages of vegetative growth phase: juvenile (6-month leaves) and adult (30-month leaves). We used the M&M algorithm, a computational approach that integrates MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq data, to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Thousands of DMRs between juvenile and adult leaves of E. globulus were found. Although further investigations are required to define the loci associated with heterochrony/heteroblasty that are regulated by DNA methylation, these results suggest that locus-specific methylation could be major regulators of vegetative phase change. This information can support future conservation programs, for example, selecting the best methylomes for a determinate environment in a restoration project. PMID:27123440

  9. Foliar nutrient retranslocation in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Saur, E; Nambiar, E K; Fife, D N

    2000-10-01

    We measured patterns of change in concentrations and contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium in fully expanded leaves of young Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) trees growing in a plantation in southeastern Australia, over a 12-month period beginning at the onset of spring. There was significant net retranslocation of mobile nutrients on a seasonal basis from green leaves, coinciding with continued growth and production of foliage. There was a close positive relationship between initial nutrient content (N, P and K) of the leaf and amount retranslocated, and a tight coupling between N and P retranslocated from leaves. Net retranslocation was significantly correlated with basal area growth increments. Artificial shading of leaves resulted in senescence and reduction in leaf mass. It also induced retranslocation of N, P and K from leaves of different ages and from different position in the canopy. Although the mechanisms underlying the effects of shading intensity on these changes were not elucidated, shading provided an experimental tool for studying retranslocation. Comparison of the results with published data for Pinus radiata (D. Don) grown in the same environment indicated a similarity between the species in patterns of change in foliar nutrient contents and in factors governing foliar nutrient retranslocation, giving rise to unifying principles. PMID:11269962

  10. Chromatographic evaluation and anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil

    PubMed Central

    Taur, D. J.; Kulkarni, V. B.; Patil, R. Y.

    2010-01-01

    In world Helminthes infections are the most widespread of all the infections in humans. The morbidity due to parasitic diseases has been increasing in our population. The gastrointestinal helminthes become resistant to the currently available anthelmintic drugs. Anthelmintic substances having considerable toxicity to human beings are present in foods derived from livestock, posing a serious threat to human health. Due to this, there is a need to derive new chemical substances from natural sources, for helminthes control. In this study, volatile oil isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill was evaluated for its anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma, which have anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. In concentrations of 0.05, 0.01 and 0.15 ml/ml, respectively, all the oil samples showed potent anthelmintic activity as compared to that of the standard drug albendazole at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. PMID:21808553

  11. Regional population expansion in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Suat Hui; Ho, Simon Y W; Thornhill, Andrew H; Foley, William J

    2013-09-01

    Foundation tree species define the structure of forest habitat and influence their ecosystem dynamics. However, there is limited understanding of both the patterns and timing of population fluctuations in foundation trees and how they vary among geographical regions. We have reconstructed the demographic history of five genetically distinct populations of the Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus) at the species and regional levels, using three nuclear loci sequenced from 104 individuals. Analysis using a Bayesian skyline plot indicated that the species experienced two periods of expansion, commencing in the Pliocene. Regional analyses showed that island populations expanded earlier, but that the rate of expansion was relatively slow when compared to that of the mainland group. This highlights the need for local demographic history to be taken into account when inferring local adaptation for candidate genes. Population growth throughout the Quaternary signals the ability of the species to persist and thrive under the predominantly harsh conditions of this period. PMID:23643971

  12. Genetic Control of Heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Corey J.; Freeman, Jules S.; Jones, Rebecca C.; Potts, Brad M.; Wong, Melissa M. L.; Weller, James L.; Hecht, Valérie F. G.; Poethig, R. Scott; Vaillancourt, René E.

    2014-01-01

    A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals from a coastal population of E. globulus with precocious vegetative phase change and individuals from populations in which vegetative phase change occurs several years later implicated the microRNA EglMIR156.5 as a potential contributor to this heterochronic difference. Additional evidence for the involvement of EglMIR156.5 was provided by its differential expression in trees with early and late phase change. Our findings suggest that changes in the expression of miR156 underlie natural variation in vegetative phase change in E. globulus, and may also explain interspecific differences in the timing of this developmental transition. PMID:24950963

  13. Genetic control of heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Jones, Rebecca C; Potts, Brad M; Wong, Melissa M L; Weller, James L; Hecht, Valérie F G; Poethig, R Scott; Vaillancourt, René E

    2014-07-01

    A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals from a coastal population of E. globulus with precocious vegetative phase change and individuals from populations in which vegetative phase change occurs several years later implicated the microRNA EglMIR156.5 as a potential contributor to this heterochronic difference. Additional evidence for the involvement of EglMIR156.5 was provided by its differential expression in trees with early and late phase change. Our findings suggest that changes in the expression of miR156 underlie natural variation in vegetative phase change in E. globulus, and may also explain interspecific differences in the timing of this developmental transition. PMID:24950963

  14. Physiological and biochemical responses to severe drought stress of nine Eucalyptus globulus clones: a multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    Granda, Víctor; Delatorre, Carolina; Cuesta, Candela; Centeno, María L; Fernández, Belén; Rodríguez, Ana; Feito, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    Seasonal drought, typical of temperate and Mediterranean environments, creates problems in establishing plantations and affects development and yield, and it has been widely studied in numerous species. Forestry fast-growing species such as Eucalyptus spp. are an important resource in such environments, selected clones being generally used for production purposes in plantations in these areas. However, use of mono-specific plantations increases risk of plant loss due to abiotic stresses, making it essential to understand differences in an individual clone's physiological responses to drought stress. In order to study clonal differences in drought responses, nine Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) clones (C14, C46, C97, C120, C222, C371, C405, C491 and C601) were gradually subjected to severe drought stress (<14% of field capacity). A total of 31 parameters, physiological (e.g., photosynthesis, gas exchange), biochemical (e.g., chlorophyll content) and hormonal (abscisic acid [ABA] content), were analysed by classic and multivariate techniques. Relationships between parameters were established, allowing related measurements to be grouped into functional units (pigment, growth, water and ABA). Differences in these units showed that there were two distinct groups of E. globulus clones on the basis of their different strategies when faced with drought stress. The C14 group (C14, C120, C405, C491 and C601) clones behave as water savers, maintaining high water content and showing high stomatal adjustment, and reducing their aerial growth to a great extent. The C46 group (C46, C97, C222 and C371) clones behave as water spenders, reducing their water content drastically and presenting osmotic adjustment. The latter maintains the highest growth rate under the conditions tested. The method presented here can be used to identify appropriate E. globulus clones for drought environments, facilitating the selection of material for production and repopulation environments. PMID

  15. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  16. Observed and modelled leaf area index in Eucalyptus globulus plantations: tests of optimality and equilibrium hypotheses.

    PubMed

    White, Donald A; Battaglia, Micheal; Mendham, Daniel S; Crombie, D Stuart; Kinal, Joe; McGrath, John F

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports on variation in leaf area index (L) in five Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in response to application of nitrogen, thinning at age 2 years and variation in climate wetness index (the ratio of rainfall to potential evaporation). Observed L is compared with: (i) L predicted to optimize net primary productivity for a given average annual temperature, annual water use and potential evaporation (L(opt)) and (ii) L calculated as a linear function of climate wetness index (L(eq)). L peaked in fertilized plots at between 4 and 5 years of age or immediately after canopy closure. The value of L from canopy closure to age 8 years was not strongly related to annual rainfall or climate wetness index. At two sites with total soil nitrogen <1.2 mg g(-)(1), L in fertilized plots was about two units greater than in unfertilized plots. This difference persisted until measurements ended in 2004 when the trees were 8 years old. The L of plots thinned to 300 and 600 stems ha(-)(1) at age 2 years recovered quickly and was not significantly different from L in unthinned plots when the trees were 8 years old. L(opt) was a good predictor of the leaf area index of 8-year-old plots of E. globulus when nitrogen and phosphorus were non-limiting (model efficiency (EF) was 0.5). For the same plots, L(eq) underestimated observed L by an average of two units, and the model efficiency was low (-3.25). Data from two nitrogen-limited sites demonstrated that for fertilized plots L(opt) (EF = 0.6) was a much better predictor of L than L(eq) (EF = -3.36). At the same sites, L(eq) (EF = 0.42) was a better model for predicting L of unfertilized plots than L(opt) (-3.59). These results provide evidence that comparing observed L with L(opt) can identify stands limited by factors other than growing climate. PMID:20504775

  17. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

  18. Improvement of growth of Eucalyptus globulus and soil biological parameters by amendment with sewage sludge and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal and saprobe fungi.

    PubMed

    Arriagada, C; Sampedro, I; Garcia-Romera, I; Ocampo, J

    2009-08-15

    Sewage sludge is widely used as an organic soil amendment to improve soil fertility. We investigated the effects of sewage sludge (SS) application on certain biological parameters of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. The plant was either uninoculated or inoculated with saprobe fungi (Coriolopsis rigida and Trichoderma harzianum) or arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomus deserticola and Gigaspora rosea). Sewage sludge was applied to the surface of experimental plots at rates of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g 100 g(-1) of soil. Inoculation with both AM and saprobe fungi in the presence of SS was essential for the promotion of plant growth. The AM, saprobe fungi and SS significantly increased dry shoot weight. The AM fungi induced a significant increase in Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) activity but did not increase beta-glucosidase activity. Addition of SS to AM-inoculated soil did not affect either FDA or alpha-glucosidase activities in plants from soil that was either uninoculated or inoculated with the saprobe fungi. SS increased beta-glucosidase activity when it was applied at 4 g 100 g(-1). SS negatively affected AM colonization as well as the mycelium SDH activity for both mycorrhizal fungi. SS increased Eucalyptus shoot biomass and enhanced its nutrient status. Inoculation of the soil with G. deserticola stimulated significant E. globulus growth and increases in shoot tissue content of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe. Dual inoculation with G. deserticola and either of the saprobe fungi had positive effects on K, Ca, Mg and Fe contents. The application of 8 g 100 g(-1) of SS had no positive effects on plant nutrition. The experimental setup provided a suitable tool for evaluating SS in combination with saprobe and AM fungi as a biological fertiliser for its beneficial effects on E. globulus plant growth. PMID:19515400

  19. Genetic control of cuticular wax compounds in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Gosney, Benjamin J; Potts, Brad M; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Vaillancourt, René E; Fitzgerald, Hugh; Davies, Noel W; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-01-01

    Plant cuticular wax compounds perform functions that are essential for the survival of terrestrial plants. Despite their importance, the genetic control of these compounds is poorly understood outside of model taxa. Here we investigate the genetic basis of variation in cuticular compounds in Eucalyptus globulus using quantitative genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. Quantitative genetic analysis was conducted using 246 open-pollinated progeny from 13 native sub-races throughout the geographic range. QTL analysis was conducted using 112 clonally replicated progeny from an outcross F2 population. Nine compounds exhibited significant genetic variation among sub-races with three exhibiting signals of diversifying selection. Fifty-two QTL were found with co-location of QTL for related compounds commonly observed. Notable among these was the QTL for five wax esters, which co-located with a gene from the KCS family, previously implicated in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes in Arabidopsis. In combination, the QTL and quantitative genetic analyses suggest the variation and differentiation in cuticular wax compounds within E. globulus has a complex genetic origin. Sub-races exhibited independent latitudinal and longitudinal differentiation in cuticular wax compounds, likely reflecting processes such as historic gene flow and diversifying selection acting upon genes that have diverse functions in distinct biochemical pathways. PMID:26262563

  20. Stumps of Eucalyptus globulus as a source of antioxidant and antimicrobial polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Luís, Ângelo; Neiva, Duarte; Pereira, Helena; Gominho, Jorge; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    These past years have seen an enormous development of the area of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. Eucalyptus globulus is widely cultivated in subtropical and Mediterranean regions in intensive short rotation coppice plantations. In the Portuguese context, E. globulus is the third species in terms of forest area. The stump is the basal part of the tree, including the near-the-ground stem portion and the woody roots that remain after stem felling. The purpose of this work was to study the phytochemical profile and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of several crude stump wood and stump bark extracts of E. globulus, comparing it with similar extracts of E. globulus wood (industrial chips). The results showed the presence of high concentrations of total phenolic compounds (>200 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoids (>10 mg QE/g extract) in E. globulus stump extracts. Generally the stump wood extracts stands out from the other ones, presenting the highest percentages of inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. It was also possible to conclude that the extracts were more active against Gram-positive bacteria, presenting low MIC values. This study thus provides information supporting the economic valorization of E. globulus stump wood. PMID:25314604

  1. Photosynthetic enhancement by elevated CO₂ depends on seasonal temperatures for warmed and non-warmed Eucalyptus globulus trees.

    PubMed

    Quentin, A G; Crous, K Y; Barton, C V M; Ellsworth, D S

    2015-11-01

    Arguments based on the biochemistry of photosynthesis predict a positive interaction between elevated atmospheric [CO2] and temperature on photosynthesis as well as growth. In contrast, few long-term studies on trees find greater stimulation of photosynthesis in response to elevated [CO2] at warmer compared with cooler temperatures. To test for CO2 × temperature interactions on leaf photosynthesis and whole-plant growth, we planted Eucalyptus globulus Labill. in climate-controlled chambers in the field at the Hawkesbury Forest Experiment research site, and investigated how photosynthetic enhancement changed across a range of seasonal temperatures. Trees were grown in a complete two-way factorial design with two CO2 concentrations (ambient and ambient + 240 ppm) and two temperatures (ambient and ambient + 3 °C) for 15 months until they reached ∼10 m height, after which they were harvested for biomass. There was significant enhancement of photosynthesis and growth with elevated [CO2], with the photosynthetic stimulation varying with season, but there was no significant effect of warming. Photosynthetic enhancement was higher in summer (+46% at 28 °C) than in winter (+14% at 20 °C). Photosynthetic enhancement as a function of leaf temperature was consistent with theoretical expectations, but was strongly mediated by the intercellular [CO2]/ambient [CO2] (Ci/Ca) ratio across seasons. Total tree biomass after 15 months was 66% larger in elevated CO2 (P = 0.017) with no significant warming effect detected. The fraction of biomass in coarse roots was reduced in warmed trees compared with ambient temperature controls, but there was no evidence of changed biomass allocation patterns in elevated CO2. We conclude that there are strong and consistent elevated CO2 effects on photosynthesis and biomass of E. globulus. It is crucial to consider stomatal conductance under a range of conditions to appraise the interactive effect of [CO2] and temperature on

  2. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in explants of shoot cultures established from adult Eucalyptus globulus and E. saligna × E. maidenii trees.

    PubMed

    Corredoira, E; Ballester, A; Ibarra, M; Vieitez, A M

    2015-06-01

    A reproducible procedure for induction of somatic embryogenesis (SE) from adult trees of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and the hybrid E. saligna Smith × E. maidenii has been developed for the first time. Somatic embryos were obtained from both shoot apex and leaf explants of all three genotypes evaluated, although embryogenic frequencies were significantly influenced by the species/genotype, auxin and explant type. Picloram was more efficient for somatic embryo induction than naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), with the highest frequency of induction being obtained in Murashige and Skoog medium containing 40 µM picloram and 40 mg l(-1) gum Arabic, in which 64% of the shoot apex explants and 68.8% of the leaf explants yielded somatic embryos. The embryogenic response of the hybrid was higher than that of the E. globulus, especially when NAA was used. The cultures initiated on picloram-containing medium consisted of nodular embryogenic structures surrounded by a mucilaginous coating layer that emerged from a watery callus developed from the initial explants. Cotyledonary somatic embryos were differentiated after subculture of these nodular embryogenic structures on a medium lacking plant growth regulators. Histological analysis confirmed the bipolar organization of the somatic embryos, with shoot and root meristems and closed procambial tissue that bifurcated into small cotyledons. The root pole was more differentiated than the shoot pole, which appeared to be formed by a few meristematic layers. Maintenance of the embryogenic lines by secondary SE was attained by subculturing individual cotyledonary embryos or small clusters of globular and torpedo embryos on medium with 16.11 µM NAA at 4- to 5-week intervals. Somatic embryos converted into plantlets after being transferred to liquid germination medium although plant regeneration remained poor. PMID:25877768

  3. Phytoremediation efficiency OF CD by Eucalyptus globulus transplanted from polluted and unpolluted sites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Li; Wang, Jinji

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of plants to uptake heavy metals from contaminated soils has shown great phytoremediation potential. The development, resistibility and Cd extraction of Eucalyptus globulus individuals from metalliferous and clean sites in different years were analyzed under a specific environment. Eucalyptus globulus planted in Guiyu for phytoremediation or cultivated in an uncontaminated, natural environment for economic purposes were transplanted to Yuecheng town, which, in recent years, has been involved in the e-waste dismantling and recycling business, to compare the phytoremediation efficiency of Eucalyptus globulus trees grown in different environments. Trees cultivated in polluted areas can remove far more Cd and Hg from the contaminated soil than the individuals from clean soils because metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus can produce more biomass and uptake more heavy metals than nonmetalliferous plants per year. As polluted environments negatively affect the growth of plants, we speculated that the phytoremediation efficiency of metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus should decrease over time and that nonmetalliferous trees should adapt to the local environment. PMID:26458117

  4. Kinetic modeling of kraft delignification of Eucalyptus globulus

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A.; Rodriguez, F.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Moreno, D.; Garcia-Ochoa, F.

    1997-10-01

    A kinetic model for the kraft pulping delignification of Eucalyptus globulus is proposed. This model is discriminated among some kinetic expressions often used in the literature, and the kinetic parameters are determined by fitting of experimental results. A total of 25 isothermal experiments at liquor-to-wood ratios of 50 and 5 L/kg have been carried out. Initial, bulk, and residual delignification stages have been observed during the lignin removal, the transitions being, referring to the lignin initial content, about 82 and 3%. Carbohydrate removal and effective alkali-metal and hydrosulfide consumption have been related with the lignin removal by means of effective stoichiometric coefficients for each stage, coefficients also being calculated by fitting of the experimental data. The kinetic model chosen has been used to simulate typical kraft pulping experiments carried out at nonisothermal conditions, using a temperature ramp. The model yields simulated values close to those obtained experimentally for the wood studied and also ably reproduces the trends of the literature data.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mota, Valéria de Siqueira; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, and of the xylitol and papain substances against the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. METHOD The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation was used by means of the agar diffusion test and evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of the tested substances. Chlorhexidine 0.5% was used as control. RESULTS The Eucalyptus globulus oil showed higher inhibition than chlorhexidine when applied to Staphylococcus aureus, and equal inhibition when applied to the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Papain 10% showed lower antimicrobial effect than chlorhexidine in relation to Candida albicans. Xylitol showed no inhibition of the tested microorganisms. CONCLUSION The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended. PMID:25992819

  6. Phytoremediation potential of cadmium-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus globulus under different coppice systems.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Li; Xie, Xianming

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the phytoremediation potential of Eucalyptus globulus in Cd contaminated soil through two different harvest methods. Although replanting is more expensive than coppicing and produces less aboveground biomass, more Cd can be removed from the soil with roots removal at each harvest as the E. globulus absorbs vast majority of heavy metals in non-metabolically active parts like roots. Despite the higher cost of replanting in a single harvest, when phytoremediation efficiency and total duration are considered as important factors, the replanting treatment should be recommended as an appropriate method which can decrease the phytoremediation time obviously. PMID:25543544

  7. The insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil on the development of Musca domestica third stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Abdel Halim, Azza S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2005-08-01

    The insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil (Camphor oil) against the larval maturation and adult emergency of the house-fly, Musca domestica 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Concentrations of 100%, 70%, 50% 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9 % and 0.7% showed 100% larval mortality rate. At concentrations of 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.2% and 0.1% the larval mortality rate was 90%. On the other hand, the developed pupae did not emerge to adults. Eucalyptus globulus oil is safe, cheap and widely used in Medicine. So, it is recommended to be use in controlling larvae of M. domestica. PMID:16083072

  8. Sources of variation in self-incompatibility in the Australian forest tree, Eucalyptus globulus

    PubMed Central

    McGowen, Marian H.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Pilbeam, David J.; Potts, Brad M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims One of the major factors affecting the outcrossing rate in Eucalyptus globulus is thought to be the inherent self-incompatibility (SI) level of the female tree. SI in this species is mainly due to late-acting pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms operating in the ovary, and not S alleles. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic variation in SI levels within E. globulus and determine its genetic control and stability across pollination techniques, sites and seasons. Methods SI levels were estimated for 105 genotypes originating from across the geographical range of E. globulus over multiple years of crossing. Separate grafted trees of some genotypes growing at the same and different sites allowed the genetic basis of the variation in SI to be tested and its stability across sites and seasons to be determined. The SI level of a tree was measured as the relative reduction in seeds obtained per flower pollinated following selfing compared with outcross pollinations. Thus, if seed set is the same, SI is 0 %, and if no self seed is set, SI is 100 %. Key Results The average SI in E. globulus was 91 % and genotypes ranged from 8 to 100 % SI. Most genotypes (>75 %) had SI levels >90 %. There were highly significant differences between genotypes and the within-site broad-sense heritability of percentage SI was high (H2 = 0·80 ± 0·13). However, there was evidence that growing site, and to a lesser extent season, can affect the expression of SI levels. Trees with low reproductive loads produced relatively more seed from selfed flowers. Conclusions There is a strong genetic basis to the phenotypic variation in SI in E. globulus within a site. However, the level of SI was affected, but to a lesser extent, by the environment, which in part may reflect the higher probability of selfed zygotes surviving on sites or in seasons where competition for resources is less. PMID:20228085

  9. Compositional analysis and insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus (family: Myrtaceae) essential oil against housefly (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) was evaluated for its chemical composition and insecticidal activity against the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Chemical composition of E. globulus oil revealed 1,8-cineole (33.6%), α-pinene (14.2%) and d-limonene (10.1%) as major constituents, while vapour profile of E. globulus oil determined through solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis showed 1,8-cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (16.9%), d-limonene (5.5%) and linalool acetate (3.4%) as principal components. Vapour phase of the oil showed increase in the contents of oxygenated monoterpenes. Insecticidal activity of E. globulus oil was assessed against larvae and pupae of housefly, through two different bioassays: contact toxicity and fumigation. Contact toxicity assay with larva showed lethal concentration, LC(50), between 2.73 and 0.60μl/cm(2) for different observation days while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 6.0 and 1.7 days. In fumigant assay for housefly larvae, LC(50) values of 66.1 and 50.1μl/l were obtained in 24h and 48h, respectively. Oil treated larvae showed surface shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Pupicidal effectivity was measured in terms of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) which was 36.0-93.0% for contact toxicity and 67.9-100% for fumigation toxicity assay. Considerable activity of E. globulus oil against larvae and pupae of housefly demonstrates its potentiality as a viable option for the development of eco-friendly product for housefly control. PMID:22326717

  10. Ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus inoculation of Acacia spirorbis and Eucalyptus globulus grown in ultramafic topsoil enhances plant growth and mineral nutrition while limits metal uptake.

    PubMed

    Jourand, Philippe; Hannibal, Laure; Majorel, Clarisse; Mengant, Stéphane; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel

    2014-01-15

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) isolates of Pisolithus albus (Cooke and Massee) from nickel-rich ultramafic topsoils in New Caledonia were inoculated onto Acacia spirorbis Labill. (an endemic Fabaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (used as a Myrtaceae plant host model). The aim of the study was to analyze the growth of symbiotic ECM plants growing on the ultramafic substrate that is characterized by high and toxic metal concentrations i.e. Co, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni, deficient concentrations of plant essential nutrients such as N, P, K, and that presents an unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio (1/19). ECM inoculation was successful with a plant level of root mycorrhization up to 6.7%. ECM symbiosis enhanced plant growth as indicated by significant increases in shoot and root biomass. Presence of ECM enhanced uptake of major elements that are deficient in ultramafic substrates; in particular P, K and Ca. On the contrary, the ECM symbioses strongly reduced transfer to plants of element in excess in soils; in particular all metals. ECM-inoculated plants released metal complexing molecules as free thiols and oxalic acid mostly at lower concentrations than in controls. Data showed that ECM symbiosis helped plant growth by supplying uptake of deficient elements while acting as a protective barrier to toxic metals, in particular for plants growing on ultramafic substrate with extreme soil conditions. Isolation of indigenous and stress-adapted beneficial ECM fungi could serve as a potential tool for inoculation of ECM endemic plants for the successful restoration of ultramafic ecosystems degraded by mining activities. PMID:24331432

  11. Labile sulfide and sulfite in phytochelatin complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Eannetta, N.T.; Steffens, J.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium induce tomato cell cultures to synthesize the metal binding polypeptides ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 3} and ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 4}-Gly (phytochelatins). Tomato cells selected for growth on normally lethal concentrations of CdCl{sub 2} synthesize higher quantities of these polypeptides. Cd{sup r} cells are not cross-resistant to other heavy metals, and recent work suggests that metal detoxification by these peptides may be Cd-specific. The occurrence of labile sulfur as a component of the metal complex raises questions concerning possible functions of phytochelatins besides that of Cd binding. The presence of acid-labile sulfide ion in phytochelatin complexes has been reported by several groups. We report the additional finding that labile sulfite is also present in these complexes and in higher amounts than sulfide. Sulfide and sulfite are both released from the metal binding complex by acidification or by treatment with EDTA.

  12. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bachir, Raho G; Benali, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of essential oil of the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus). Methods The essential oils of this plant were obtained by the hydrodistillation method. The inhibitory effects of this essential oil were tested against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) by using agar disc diffusion and dilution broth methods. Results The results obtained showed that essential oil of the leaves of E. globulus has antimicrobial activity against gram negative bacteria (E. coli) as well as gram positive bacteria (S. aureus). Conclusion The encouraging results indicate the essential oil of E. globulus leaves might be exploited as natural antibiotic for the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these two germs, and could be useful in understanding the relations between traditional cures and current medicines. PMID:23570005

  13. Leaf respiration rates are increased by warm season as well as by elevated temperature treatment in Eucalyptus globulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekenstam, Angelica af; Wallin, Göran; Ellsworth, David; Uddling Fredin, Johan; Crous, Kristine

    2014-05-01

    Plant leaf respiration is one of the major CO2 fluxes between terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere, and its responses to elevated CO2 and temperature thus have important implications for the carbon cycle and rate on ongoing climate change. Non-photorespiratory leaf respiration is reduced in light, Rlight, compared with the rate in the dark, Rdark. It is therefore important to consider both Rlight and Rdark when estimating the exchange of CO2 between the biosphere and the atmosphere, during current and future climates. This study was conducted at the Hawkesbury Forest Experiment, HFE, in Richmond, NSW, Australia. Trees of Tasmanian Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.) were exposed in whole tree chambers (WTC) to a complete factorial combination of ambient and elevated temperature and CO2 (+3 °C and +240 ppm CO2, respectively). The measurements of Rlight and Rdark were made in 2011 after 9 - 15 months exposure in the WTCs. The measurements were made in March (after the year's hottest months) and October (after the coldest period). Rlight was determined at four temperatures ranging between 20 and 40 °C on attached leaves using a portable gas exchange system (LI-6400XT). Rdark was measured at 20-40 °C in October and at 25 °C in March. Rdark was measured after dark acclimation for at least 30 min and Rlight was determined from the intersection of the photosynthetic CO2 responses measured at three different light intensities using the Laisk metod. Trees grown in elevated temperature had a considerably higher Rdark (+53% across all measurement temperatures in October). However, Rlight did not respond significantly to either CO2 or temperature. In October, the Rlight to Rdark ratio indicated an overall light inhibition of respiration of 31% across all temperatures and in March the light inhibition was 22 % at 25 °C. The seasonal comparisons showed that both Rlight and Rdark were considerably higher after the warm compared to cold season, especially when measured

  14. Consequences of resource limitation for recovery from repeated defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus Labilladière.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Quentin, Audrey; Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Recovery following defoliation can be modified by co-occurring site resource limitations. The growth response of young Eucalyptus globulus saplings to two defoliation events was examined in an experimental plantation with combinations of low (-) or high (+) water (W) and nitrogen (N) resources. Artificial defoliation was applied at 3 and 9 months of age to remove ~40 and 55% of leaf area in the upper crown, respectively. At 18 months of age, height, stem diameter and leaf area were not significantly different between control and defoliated saplings, across all resource treatments. However, stem volume, bark volume and branch number were significantly increased in defoliated saplings, including a significant interaction with resource treatment. Total above-ground biomass of saplings in response to defoliation was significantly higher (almost double) than controls for the low water (N + W-) treatment only. Significantly increased foliar starch content (and a trend for increased soluble sugars) in the upper crown zone was found in the defoliated saplings of the N + W- treatment compared with the upper zone of control saplings. Foliar total non-structural carbohydrates were significantly correlated to stem biomass regardless of resource treatment or defoliation, and we suggest that foliar resources are most important for stem growth in E. globulus rather than stored carbon (C) from other tissues. After repeated defoliation and several months recovery, E. globulus saplings were generally not C limited in this study. PMID:22174093

  15. Lability of copper bound to humic acid.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lingchen; Young, Scott D; Bailey, Elizabeth H

    2015-07-01

    Geochemical speciation models generally include the assumption that all metal bound to humic acid and fulvic acid (HA, FA) is labile. However, in the current study, we determined the presence of a soluble 'non-labile' Cu fraction bound to HA extracted from grassland and peat soils. This was quantified by determining isotopically-exchangeable Cu (E-value) and EDTA-extraction of HA-bound Cu, separated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and assayed by coupled ICP-MS. Evidence of time-dependent Cu fixation by HA was found during the course of an incubation study (160 d); up to 50% of dissolved HA-bound Cu was not isotopically exchangeable. This result was supported by extraction with EDTA where approximately 40% of Cu remained bound to HA despite dissolution in 0.05 M Na2-EDTA. The presence of a substantial non-labile metal fraction held by HA challenges the assumption of wholly reversible equilibrium which is central to current geochemical models of metal binding to humic substances. PMID:25863164

  16. Isolation of Labile Pseudohalogen NSO Species.

    PubMed

    Labbow, René; Michalik, Dirk; Reiß, Fabian; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-06-27

    A new synthetic approach enabled the generation of highly labile thionylimide, H-NSO, which was trapped by adduct formation with the bulky Lewis acid B(C6 F5 )3 and fully characterized. For comparison, a series of different Me3 Si-NSO Lewis acid adducts were studied. Treatment of Me3 Si-NSO with the silylium ion [Me3 Si](+) led to the formation of the hitherto unknown iminosulfonium ion [Me3 Si-N=S-O-SiMe3 ](+) , which could be isolated and fully characterized as a salt in the presence of weakly coordinating carborate anions. PMID:27072533

  17. Ecophysiological responses of a young blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation to weed control.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Worledge, Dale; Sands, Peter; Ottenschlaeger, Maria L; Paterson, Steve C; Mendham, Daniel; O'Grady, Anthony P

    2012-08-01

    Early weed control may improve the growth of forest plantations by influencing soil water and nutrient availability. To understand eucalypt growth responses to weed control, we examined the temporal responses of leaf gas-exchange, leaf nitrogen concentration (N) and water status of 7-month-old Eucalyptus globulus L. trees in a paired-plot field trial. In addition, we monitored the growth, leaf N and water status of the competing vegetation in the weed treatment. By the end of the 11-month experiment, complete weed control (WF treatment) of largely woody competitors increased the basal diameter of E. globulus by 14%. As indicated by pre-dawn water potentials of > - 0.05 MPa, interspecies competition for water resources was minimal at this site. In contrast, competition for N appeared to be the major factor limiting growth. Estimations of total plot leaf N (g m(-2) ground) showed that competing vegetation accounted for up to 70% of the total leaf N at the start of the trial. This value fell to 15% by the end of the trial. Despite increased leaf N(area) in WF trees 5 months after imposition of weed control, the photosynthetic capacity (A(1500)) of E. globulus was unaffected by treatment suggesting that the growth gains from weed control were largely unrelated to changes in leaf-level photosynthesis. Increased nutrient availability brought about by weed control enabled trees to increase investment into leaf-area production. Estimates of whole-tree carbon budget based on direct measurements of dark respiration and A(1500) allowed us to clearly demonstrate the importance of leaf area driving greater productivity following early weed control in a nutrient-limited site. PMID:22826381

  18. An unusual Xanthophyllomyces strain from leaves of Eucalyptus globulus in Chile.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roland W S; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario J; Davoli, Paolo

    2008-07-01

    Xanthophyllomyces sp. was isolated as an epiphytic red yeast from leaves of Eucalyptus glo-bulus in Concepción, Chile. Sexual reproduction was by basidiospores produced from one or rarely two metabasidia arising from a yeast cell without preceding paedogamy. The main carotenoid pigment was astaxanthin. This isolate did not cluster with the X. dendrorhous complex (including Phaffia rhodozyma) in ITS and 26S rDNA-based phylogenetic analyses. The phylloplane may be a further habitat for Xanthophyllomyces, in addition to the well-known spring sap-flows of deciduous trees and the recently-characterised ascostromata of Cyttaria hariotii. PMID:18501574

  19. Processing conditions analysis of Eucalyptus globulus plywood bonded with resol-tannin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Stefani, P M; Peña, C; Ruseckaite, R A; Piter, J C; Mondragon, I

    2008-09-01

    Phenol-formaldehyde resol containing mimosa tannin extract was employed to produce plywood panels with two plies from Eucalyptus globulus veneers. The effect of processing conditions and tannin content on the gelation time of the adhesive in the glue line was evaluated by dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA). These results were related with shear strength and wood failure of glue line in the final panels. Hazardous petrochemical phenol could be partially substituted in resols in industrial applications by addition of mimosa tannin extracts. PMID:18024109

  20. A model system to study the lignification process in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Pedro; Cesarino, Igor; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Ferrari, Ilse Fernanda; Kiyota, Eduardo; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Recalcitrance of plant biomass is closely related to the presence of the phenolic heteropolymer lignin in secondary cell walls, which has a negative effect on forage digestibility, biomass-to-biofuels conversion and chemical pulping. The genus Eucalyptus is the main source of wood for pulp and paper industry. However, when compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar, relatively little is known about lignin biosynthesis in Eucalyptus and only a few genes were functionally characterized. An efficient, fast and inexpensive in vitro system was developed to study lignification in Eucalyptus globulus and to evaluate the potential role of candidate genes in this biological process. Seedlings were grown in four different conditions, in the presence or absence of light and with or without sucrose in the growth medium, and several aspects of lignin metabolism were evaluated. Our results showed that light and, to a lesser extent, sucrose induced lignin biosynthesis, which was followed by changes in S/G ratio, lignin oligomers accumulation and gene expression. In addition, higher total peroxidase activity and differential isoperoxidase profile were observed when seedlings were grown in the presence of light and sucrose. Peptide sequencing allowed the identification of differentially expressed peroxidases, which can be considered potential candidate class III peroxidases involved in lignin polymerization in E. globulus. PMID:24444279

  1. Fate and lability of silver in soils: Effect of ageing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate and lability of added soluble Ag in soils over time was examined by measurement of labile metal (E-value) by isotopic dilution using the 110mAg radioactive isotope and the solid-phase speciation of Ag by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrosco...

  2. Labile hypertension and jogging: new diagnostic tool or spurious discovery?

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, W

    1981-01-01

    A labile hypertensive black man reviews his own personal history of hypertension, based on intensive self-study. The evidence suggests that aerobic isotonic exercise (jogging) depresses labile pressure values, forcing them down to near basal levels and preventing a rise to previous blood pressure levels for several hours. PMID:6780119

  3. A GC-FID validated method for the quality control of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and its pharmaceutical products, and gc-ms fingerprinting of 12 Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Buenoa, Paula Carolina Pires; Junior, Milton Groppo; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2014-12-01

    In this work we have validated a method to standardize and control the quality of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and phytomedicines containing either the essential oil or the fluid extract of this plant in the final formulation. Internal standardization provided a simple, fast, and reproducible GC-FID analytical method that accurately quantified 1,8-cineol in different E. globulus sub-products, such as its essential oil, dried leaves, fluid extract, and syrup. In addition, GC-MS identification of the main compounds ofE. globulus species afforded fingerprints for the qualitative analysis of different Eucalyptus species. PMID:25632486

  4. Cutting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  5. Cutting Candles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranucci, Ernest R.

    1973-01-01

    Different regular-polygon-shaped candles wound with a sheet of paper are cut through obliquely. When the papers are unwound, unique patterns are revealed. Investigation of these patterns leads to the discovery of geometric concepts. (JP)

  6. Cystic fibrosis, atopy, and airways lability.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, M; Hobbs, F D; Gordon, I R; Carswell, F

    1978-01-01

    In a survey of cystic fibrosis (CF) in the Avon area, 48 children with CF from 40 families together with 71 of their parents were studied by spirometry, exercise tests, and pinch tests. A control group of 42 young adults was similarly tested; control data for children were taken from previously published work. The prevalence of atopy (any positive prick test) in children with CF was 48%. Sensitivity to grass pollens and house dust mite was no more common in these children (29%) than in a normal population (34%). Hypersensitivity to Aspergillus fumigatus was found in 35% of children with CF and was associated with severe lung disease. The parents had a normal pattern and prevalence of atopy. Exercise-induced airways obstruction was present in only 22% of children with CF; its association with severe lung disease rendered interpretation difficult. The parents had a normal response to exercise. Both hypersensitivity to A. fumigatus and exercise-induced airways lability had the features of acquired characteristics. There was nothing in the present study to support the hypothesis that the possession of a CF gene predisposed to atopy. PMID:365112

  7. Organosolv delignification of Eucalyptus globulus: Kinetic study of autocatalyzed ethanol pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Santos, A.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Garcia-Ochoa, F.; Tijero, J.

    2000-01-01

    The autocatalyzed delignification of Eucalyptus globulus in 50% ethanol (w/w) was modeled as the irreversible and consecutive dissolution of initial, bulk, and residual lignin. Their respective contributions to total lignin was estimated as 9, 75, and 16%. Isothermal pulping experiments were carried out to evaluate an empirical kinetic model among eight proposals corresponding to different reaction schemes. The calculated activation energy was found to be 96.5, 98.5, and 40.8 kJ/mol for initial, bulk, and residual delignification, respectively. The influence of hydrogen ion concentration was expressed by a power-law function model. The kinetic model developed here was validated using data from nonisothermal pulping runs.

  8. Use of new endophytic fungi as pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Ibarra, David; Eugenio, María E

    2015-11-01

    New endophytic fungi are assessed for the first time as pretreatment to enhance saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus wood. The fungi are all laccase-producing ascomycetes and were isolated from eucalyptus trees in Spain. After five endophytes had been assayed alone or in combination with white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62, three were pre-selected. To improve sugar production, an autohydrolysis pretreatment was performed before or after fungal treatment. Pretreatment increased sugar production 2.7 times compared to non-pretreated wood. When fungal and autohydrolysis pretreatments were combined, a synergistic increase in saccharification was observed in all cases. Endophytic fungi Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. produced greater enhancements in saccharification than Trametes sp. I-62 (increase in sugar yields of 8.5, 8.0 and 6.0 times, respectively), demonstrating the high potential of these new endophytic fungi for saccharification enhancement. PMID:26255602

  9. Chronic effects of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus kraft mill effluents and phytosterols on Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    López, D; Chamorro, S; Silva, J; Bay-Schmith, E; Vidal, G

    2011-12-01

    Two kraft pulp mill effluents were compared in terms of their chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna. One resulted from pulping Pinus radiata and the other came from a parallel processing of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus (mixed kraft pulp mill effluent). The concentration of phytosterols found in the mixed kraft pulp mill effluent was higher than in the effluent from Pinus radiata, with values of 0.1082 and 0.02 μg/L, respectively. The phytosterols per se are responsible for 12.9% and 8.1% of the deviation from the natural shape, while the kraft pulp mill effluents account for 25.6%-27.8% of shape deviation. The role of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol is discussed in relation to endocrine disruption. PMID:21979137

  10. Antidiabetic effects of Eucalyptus globulus on pancreatic islets: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, H; Heidari, Z; Bokaeian, M; Moudi, B

    2010-05-01

    The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced damage in pancreatic islands by stereological methods. Fifty mature normoglycaemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10): control; STZ-induced diabetic (D) - by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin; treated control (TC); and treated diabetic (TD1, 2), respectively, received 20 and 62.5 g/kg of eucalyptus in their diet, and 2.5 g/L aqueous extract of eucalyptus in their drinking water from one week after induction of diabetes. After four weeks of the experiment, stereological estimation of volume density and total volume of islets and beta cells, volume-weighted mean islet volume, mass of the islets and pancreas, and total number of islets were carried out. Administration of eucalyptus significantly decreased the weight loss and increase of water and food intake in the treated diabetic groups in comparison to the STZ-induced diabetic (D) group. Volume density and total volume of islets, volume-weighted mean islet volume, mass of islets, and mass of pancreas of both treated diabetic groups were higher than the D group. In TD2, these stereological parameters increased significantly compared to the D group (p < 0.001). Volume density and total volume of beta cells increased 21% and 65%, respectively, in the TD2 group, but it was not statistically significant compared to the diabetic group (p > 0.05). The results suggested that Eucalyptus globulus with a dose-dependent manner ameliorates diabetic states by partial restoration of pancreatic beta cells and repair of STZ-induced damage in rats. This study suggests a beneficial effect of eucalyptus in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:20512762

  11. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

    PubMed Central

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (goomg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  12. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat.

    PubMed

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-05-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (900 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  13. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were <15.75 mg/mL for most of the bacteria and fungi used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the other essential oils were in the range of 15.75-36.33 mg/mL against tested bacteria. This study highlighted the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E. globulus, M. chamomilla, T. Schimperi, and R. officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation. PMID:26880928

  14. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were <15.75 mg/mL for most of the bacteria and fungi used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the other essential oils were in the range of 15.75–36.33 mg/mL against tested bacteria. This study highlighted the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E. globulus, M. chamomilla, T. Schimperi, and R. officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation. PMID:26880928

  15. Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Sphaeridiotrema pseudoglobulus (Digenea): Species Differentiation Based on mtDNA (Barcode) and Partial LSUrDNA Sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergmame, L.; Huffman, J.; Cole, R.; Dayanandan, S.; Tkach, V.; McLaughlin, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Flukes belonging to Sphaeridiotrema are important parasites of waterfowl, and 2 morphologically similar species Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Sphaeridiotrema pseudoglobulus, have been implicated in waterfowl mortality in North America. Cytochrome oxidase I (barcode region) and partial LSU-rDNA sequences from specimens of S. globulus and S. pseudoglobulus, obtained from naturally and experimentally infected hosts from New Jersey and Quebec, respectively, confirmed that these species were distinct. Barcode sequences of the 2 species differed at 92 of 590 nucleotide positions (15.6%) and the translated sequences differed by 13 amino acid residues. Partial LSU-rDNA sequences differed at 29 of 1,208 nucleotide positions (2.4%). Additional barcode sequences from specimens collected from waterfowl in Wisconsin and Minnesota and morphometric data obtained from specimens acquired along the north shore of Lake Superior revealed the presence of S. pseudoglobulus in these areas. Although morphometric data suggested the presence of S. globulus in the Lake Superior sample, it was not found among the specimens sequenced from Wisconsin or Minnesota. ?? 2011 American Society of Parasitologists.

  16. Emotional lability and affective synchrony in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Berghoff, Christopher R; Tull, Matthew T; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri; Gratz, Kim L

    2016-07-01

    Extant research on emotional lability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has focused almost exclusively on lability of individual emotions or emotion types, with limited research considering how different types of emotions shift together over time. Thus, this study examined the temporal dynamics of emotion in BPD at the level of both individual emotions (i.e., self-conscious emotions [SCE], anger, and anxiety) and mixed emotions (i.e., synchrony between emotions). One hundred forty-four women from the community completed a diagnostic interview and laboratory study involving 5 emotion induction tasks (each of which was preceded and followed by a 5-min resting period or neutral task). State ratings of SCE, anger, and anxiety were provided at 14 time points (before and after each laboratory task and resting period). Hierarchical linear modeling results indicate that women with BPD reported greater mean levels of SCE and Anxiety (but not Anger), and greater lability of Anxiety. Women with BPD also exhibited greater variability in lability of all 3 emotions (suggestive of within-group differences in the relevance of lability to BPD). Results also revealed synchrony (i.e., positive relations) between each possible pair of emotions, regardless of BPD status. Follow-up regression analyses suggest the importance of accounting for lability when examining the role of synchrony in BPD, as the relation of SCE-Anger synchrony to BPD symptom severity was moderated by Anger and SCE lability. Specifically, synchronous changes in SCE and Anger were associated with greater BPD symptom severity when large shifts in SCE were paired with minor shifts in Anger. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362623

  17. Cut Costs without Cutting Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2000-01-01

    Districts can save 5 to 10 percent of budgets without damaging student services by adhering to certain principles: utilize public funds efficiently; set service-improvement and cost-cutting goals; involve and reward employees for improvement efforts; and use management systems, business techniques, and information technology. (MLH)

  18. How does P affect photosynthesis and metabolite profiles of Eucalyptus globulus?

    PubMed

    Warren, Charles R

    2011-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) has multiple effects on plant metabolism, but there are many unresolved questions especially for evergreen trees. For example, we do not know the general effects of P on metabolism, or if P affects photosynthesis via the internal conductance to CO(2) transfer from sub-stomatal cavities to chloroplast or amounts of Rubisco. This study investigates how P deficiency affects seedlings of the evergreen tree Eucalyptus globulus grown for 2.5 months with four nutrient solutions differing in P concentration. To determine why photosynthesis was affected by P supply, Rubisco was quantified by capillary electrophoresis, internal conductance was quantified from gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination, and biochemical parameters of photosynthesis were estimated from A/C(c) responses. Additional insights into the effect of P on metabolism were provided by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolite profiling. Larger concentrations of P in the nutrient solution led to significantly faster rates of photosynthesis. There was no evidence that stomatal or internal conductances contributed to the effect of P supply on photosynthesis. The increase in photosynthesis with P supply was correlated with V(cmax), and amounts of P, phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate (6-P). Phosphorous supply affected approximately one-third of the 90 aqueous metabolites quantified by GC-MS, but the effect size was generally smaller than reported for experiments on herbaceous species. Phosphorus deficiency decreased concentrations of phosphate, glucose 6-P and fructose 6-P more than it decreased photosynthesis, suggesting faster turnover of smaller pools of phosphate and phosphorylated intermediates. The effect of P supply on most amino acids was small, with the exception of arginine and glutamine, which increased dramatically under P deficiency. P deficiency had small or non-significant effects on carbohydrates and organic acids of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The

  19. Labile (borderline) hypertension--new aspects of a common disorder.

    PubMed

    Kuchel, O; Cuche, J L; Hamet, P; Tolis, G; Messerli, F H; Barbeau, A; Boucher, R; Genest, J

    1975-09-01

    Labile hypertension in patients under 50 years of age (the non-atherosclerotic form) was found to be characterized by higher urinary excretion of catecholamines and particularly of homovanillic acid; when further analyzed it was shown to be a heterogeneous entity with two types of patients clinically and biochemically distinguishable from each other, from control subjects and from patients with stable hypertension. Reactivity to assuming an upright posture distinguishes one type of labile hypertension having a normal postural pulse rate response from another having an excessive postural increase in pulse rate. The first group also showed normal responses of plasma norepinephrine concentration and of urinary cyclic AMP to posture. The group with excessive pulse rate response, in contrast, showed a decrease in plasma norepinephrine and an excessive increase of urinary cyclic AMP excretion in response to upright posture. The results suggest that not only circulating catecholamines but also the reactivity of their target tissues (as probably reflected by cyclic AMP measurements) are important in bringing about signs of adrenergic excess. The hypothesis that cyclic AMP changes reflect beta-adrenergic receptor reactivity is strongly favoured by data indicating qualitative differences in cyclic AMP responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation or inhibition between control subjects and those labile hypertensive patients with clinical signs of excessive sympathetic reactivity. The study stresses the need for more precise definition of labile hypertension, for dynamic clinical and biochemical correlative studies, and for consideration not only of the circulating hormones but also of the "second messengers" (such as cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP) which reflect the cellular action of hormones. Blood pressure is a very labile parameter in health and disease. In one sense, therefore, hypertension can be considered "labile" in every hypertensive patient. Usually, however, labile (or

  20. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Eucalyptus globulus Bark—A Promising Approach for Triterpenoid Production

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Rui M. A.; Oliveira, Eduardo L. G.; Freire, Carmen S. R.; Couto, Ricardo M.; Simões, Pedro C.; Neto, Carlos P.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Silva, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane. The effects of pressure (100–200 bar), co-solvent (ethanol) content (0, 5 and 8% wt), and multistep operation were studied in order to evaluate the applicability of SFE for their selective and efficient production. The individual extraction curves of the main families of compounds were measured, and the extracts analyzed by GC-MS. Results pointed out the influence of pressure and the important role played by the co-solvent. Ethanol can be used with advantage, since its effect is more important than increasing pressure by several tens of bar. At 160 bar and 40 °C, the introduction of 8% (wt) of ethanol greatly improves the yield of triterpenoids more than threefold. PMID:22837719

  1. Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Treatment of Candidiasis in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eucalyptus + C. albicans, diabetic control, diabetic + C. albicans, diabetic + eucalyptus + C. albicans. Diabetes was induced after a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) and eucalyptus was added to the diet (62.5 g/kg) and drinking water (2.5 g/L) of treated animals for 4 weeks. The concerned groups were inoculated with C. albicans 15 days after diabetes induction. At the end of one month experiment, fasted rats were killed by cervical decapitation. Blood was collected from neck vein for estimation of glucose. C. albicans concentrations were estimated in liver and kidneys using serial dilution culture of tissue homogenates. Results: Eucalyptus administration significantly improved the hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, and it also compensated weight loss of diabetic rats (P<0.05). Moreover, eucalyptus caused a significant reduction in C. albicans concentration in liver and kidney homogenates (P<0.01). Conclusion: The results revealed that eucalyptus improves Candidia infection in normal and diabetic rats that in some ways validates the traditional use of this plant in treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:21079663

  2. Enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus: steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C; Eugenio, Maria E

    2014-09-01

    Steam explosion and steam pre-treatment have proved capable of enhancing enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. However, until now, these methods had not been compared under the same operational conditions and using the same raw material. Both pre-treatments lead to increased yields in the saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus; but results have been better with steam pre-treatments, despite the more accessible surface of exploded samples. The reason for this finding could be enzymatic inhibition: steam explosion causes a more extensive extraction of hemicelluloses and releases a greater amount of degradation products which can inhibit enzymatic action. Enzymatic inhibition is also dependent on the amount and chemical structure of lignin, which was also a contributing factor to the lower enzymatic yields obtained with the most severe pre-treatment. Thus, the highest yields (46.7% glucose and 73.4% xylose yields) were obtained after two cycle of steam treatment, of 5 and 3 min, at 183°C. PMID:24980031

  3. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against fish pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon-Woo; Wendt, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (EOEG) was determined against 7 fish pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, S. parauberis, Lactococcus garviae, Vibrio harveyi, V. ichthyoenteri and Photobacterium damselae) obtained from farmed olive flounder. The inhibitory activity was evaluated by three methods: Disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). According to the disc diffusion test, as the concentration of EOEG (5-40 µg) rises, the inhibitory zone increases in size. Compared with amoxicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, EOEG showed similar antibacterial activity. The MIC of EOEG ranged from 7.8 to 125 mg/mL and MBC values ranged from 62 to 250 mg/mL. These results show that EOEG has antimicrobial activity against all seven bacteria, but there was no marked difference between each genus. From these results, it is suggested that EOEG can be used as an antimicrobial agent against fish bacterial diseases in the fish industry. PMID:27382376

  4. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against fish pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon-Woo; Wendt, Mitchell; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2016-06-01

    The antibacterial activities of the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (EOEG) was determined against 7 fish pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, S. parauberis, Lactococcus garviae, Vibrio harveyi, V. ichthyoenteri and Photobacterium damselae) obtained from farmed olive flounder. The inhibitory activity was evaluated by three methods: Disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). According to the disc diffusion test, as the concentration of EOEG (5-40 µg) rises, the inhibitory zone increases in size. Compared with amoxicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, EOEG showed similar antibacterial activity. The MIC of EOEG ranged from 7.8 to 125 mg/mL and MBC values ranged from 62 to 250 mg/mL. These results show that EOEG has antimicrobial activity against all seven bacteria, but there was no marked difference between each genus. From these results, it is suggested that EOEG can be used as an antimicrobial agent against fish bacterial diseases in the fish industry. PMID:27382376

  5. Kinetics of Eucalyptus globulus delignification in a methanol-water medium

    SciTech Connect

    Gilarranz, M.A.; Rodriguez, F.; Santos, A.; Oliet, M.; Garcia-Ochoa, F.; Tijero, J.

    1999-09-01

    The kinetics of Eucalyptus Globulus delignification in methanol-water pulping has been studied. A total of 17 isothermal runs at a liquor-to-wood ratio of 50 L/kg were carried out to develop the kinetic model describing the system. In a first series of experiments, eight models were considered to study the influence of temperature on the delignification rate. The most suitable model, which was discriminated according to statistical criteria, describes delignification as the consecutive dissolution of three lignin species: initial, bulk, and residual lignin, their content in wood being 10, 69, and 21%, respectively. Initial and residual delignification were considered as irreversible reactions and bulk delignification as reversible. The influence of hydrogen ion concentration was taken into account by means of a general power-law expression. The model proposed was taken into account by means of a general power-law expression. The model proposed was validated by reproducing the experimental data from four runs carried out under nonisothermal conditions and a liquor-to-wood ratio of 7 L/kg, which are closer to industrial operating conditions.

  6. Supercritical fluid extraction of Eucalyptus globulus bark-A promising approach for triterpenoid production.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Rui M A; Oliveira, Eduardo L G; Freire, Carmen S R; Couto, Ricardo M; Simões, Pedro C; Neto, Carlos P; Silvestre, Armando J D; Silva, Carlos M

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane. The effects of pressure (100-200 bar), co-solvent (ethanol) content (0, 5 and 8% wt), and multistep operation were studied in order to evaluate the applicability of SFE for their selective and efficient production. The individual extraction curves of the main families of compounds were measured, and the extracts analyzed by GC-MS. Results pointed out the influence of pressure and the important role played by the co-solvent. Ethanol can be used with advantage, since its effect is more important than increasing pressure by several tens of bar. At 160 bar and 40 °C, the introduction of 8% (wt) of ethanol greatly improves the yield of triterpenoids more than threefold. PMID:22837719

  7. Using Stimulants to Treat ADHD-Related Emotional Lability

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Jonathan; Kass, Erica; Hulvershorn, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Emotional lability, or sudden strong shifts in emotion, commonly occurs in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Although these symptoms are impairing and disruptive, relatively little research has addressed their treatment, likely due to the difficulty of reliable and valid assessment. Promising signals for symptom improvement have come from recent studies using stimulants in adults, children and adolescents. Similarly, neuroimaging studies have begun to identify neurobiological mechanisms underlying stimulants’ impact on emotion regulation capacities. Here, we review these recent clinical and neuroimaging findings, as well as neurocognitive models for emotional lability in ADHD, issues of relevance to prescribers and the important role of psychiatric comorbidity with treatment choices. PMID:25135778

  8. Labile trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Xiaoyue; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on 14 trace elements, including Co, Au, Ga, Rb, Sb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, and In (nearly all of which are moderately or highly labile in meteorites), obtained by radiochemical neutron activation analyses of 42 C2-C6 chondrites, all but three from Antarctica. The data indicate that carbonaceous chondrites of petrographic types 2-6 define compositional continua. It is suggested that carbonaceous C2-C6 chondrites may reflect a mixture of material that formed at low temperatures and that contained cosmic levels of highly labile elements, with material that was devoid of them.

  9. Neuropsychological Correlates of Emotional Lability in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Bjorn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background: Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association remain currently unknown. To address this question, we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms…

  10. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by cellular labile iron.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kyohei; Kawakami, Toru; Yamamoto, Naoki; Tomizawa, Miyu; Fujiwara, Tohru; Ishii, Tomonori; Harigae, Hideo; Ogasawara, Kouetsu

    2016-02-01

    Cellular labile iron, which contains chelatable redox-active Fe(2+), has been implicated in iron-mediated cellular toxicity leading to multiple organ dysfunction. Iron homeostasis is controlled by monocytes/macrophages through their iron recycling and storage capacities. Furthermore, iron sequestration by monocytes/macrophages is regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1, highlighting the importance of these cells in the crosstalk between inflammation and iron homeostasis. However, a role for cellular labile iron in monocyte/macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses has not been defined. Here we describe how cellular labile iron activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes. Stimulation of lipopolysaccharide-primed peripheral blood mononuclear cells with ferric ammonium citrate increases the level of cellular Fe(2+) levels in monocytes and induces production of interleukin-1β in a dose-dependent manner. This ferric ammonium citrate-induced interleukin-1β production is dependent on caspase-1 and is significantly inhibited by an Fe(2+)-specific chelator. Ferric ammonium citrate consistently induced interleukin-1β secretion in THP1 cells, but not in NLRP3-deficient THP1 cells, indicating a requirement for the NLRP3 inflammasome. Additionally, activation of the inflammasome is mediated by potassium efflux, reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, and lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Thus, these results suggest that monocytes/macrophages not only sequestrate iron during inflammation, but also mediate inflammation in response to cellular labile iron, which provides novel insights into the role of iron in chronic inflammation. PMID:26577567

  11. How to Compute Labile Metal-Ligand Equilibria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Levie, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The different methods used for computing labile metal-ligand complexes, which are suitable for an iterative computer solution, are illustrated. The ligand function has allowed students to relegate otherwise tedious iterations to a computer, while retaining complete control over what is calculated.

  12. Memory expression is independent of memory labilization/reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Karina A; Suárez, Luis D; Lynch, Victoria M; Molina, Víctor A; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    There is growing evidence that certain reactivation conditions restrict the onset of both the destabilization phase and the restabilization process or reconsolidation. However, it is not yet clear how changes in memory expression during the retrieval experience can influence the emergence of the labilization/reconsolidation process. To address this issue, we used the context-signal memory model of Chasmagnathus. In this paradigm a short reminder that does not include reinforcement allows us to evaluate memory labilization and reconsolidation, whereas a short but reinforced reminder restricts the onset of such a process. The current study investigated the effects of the glutamate antagonists, APV (0.6 or 1.5 μg/g) and CNQX (1 μg/g), prior to the reminder session on both behavioral expression and the reconsolidation process. Under conditions where the reminder does not initiate the labilization/reconsolidation process, APV prevented memory expression without affecting long-term memory retention. In contrast, APV induced amnesic effects in the long-term when administered before a reminder session that triggers reconsolidation. Under the present parametric conditions, the administration of CNQX prior to the reminder that allows memory to enter reconsolidation impairs this process without disrupting memory expression. Overall, the present findings suggest that memory reactivation--but not memory expression--is necessary for labilization and reconsolidation. Retrieval and memory expression therefore appear not to be interchangeable concepts. PMID:24149057

  13. Mid-infrared spectroscopy for rapid assessment of soil properties after land use change from pastures to Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Dinesh B; Kitching, Matt; Mendham, Daniel S; Weston, Christopher J; Baker, Thomas G

    2016-06-15

    There is an increasing demand for rapid and cost effective techniques to accurately measure the effects of land use change on soil properties. This study evaluated the ability of mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) to rapidly predict soil properties affected by land use change from agriculture (mainly pasture) to Eucalyptus globulus plantations in south-western Australia. We measured total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (Total N), TOC/Total N (C/N ratio), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), and total phosphorus (Total P). The PLSR calibration models were developed using mid-infrared (MIR) spectra (4000 to 450 cm(-1)) and square root transformed measured soil data (n = 180) from 23 paired pasture and E. globulus plantation sites representing the soils and climate of E. globulus plantation estates in south-western Australia. The calibration models for TOC, Total N, C/N ratio and Total P showed excellent correlations between measured and predicted data with coefficient of determination (R(2)) exceeding 0.91 and minimum root-mean-square error (RMSE) of calibration [TOC (R(2) = 0.95, RMSE = 0.36), Total N (R(2) = 0.96, RMSE = 0.10), C/N ratio (R(2) = 0.92, RMSE = 0.14) and Total P (R(2) = 0.91, RMSE = 0.06)]. The calibration models had reasonable predictions for MBC (R(2) = 0.66, RMSE = 0.07) and MBN (R(2) = 0.63, RMSE = 0.06). The calibrated models were validated using soils from 8 independent paired pasture and E. globulus sites (n = 64). The validated predictions were excellent for TOC (R(2) = 0.92, RMSE = 0.40) and Total N (R(2) = 0.91, RMSE = 0.12), but less so for C/N ratio (R(2) = 0.80, RMSE = 0.35), MBC (R(2) = 0.70, RMSE = 0.08) and Total P (R(2) = 0.75, RMSE = 0.12). The results demonstrate the potential of MIRS-PLSR to rapidly, accurately and simultaneously determine several properties in land use change affected soils. PMID:27043775

  14. Life cycle impacts of topsoil erosion on aquatic ecosystems: case study on Eucalyptus globulus forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinteiro, Paula; Van de Broek, Marijn; Cláudia Dias, Ana; Ridoutt, Bradley; Arroja, Luís

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of suspended solids (SS), particularly in the clay and silt size fractions, reaching lotic environments and remaining in suspension can be a significant stressors to the biodiversity of these aquatic systems, degrading the water quality and directly affecting the aquatic biota, namely macroinvertebrates, algae and macrophytes. This damage is presently not considered in Life Cycle Assessment studies. This study is devoted to the effects of SS into freshwater systems due to topsoil erosion by water (environmental mechanism), translated into damage to aquatic ecosystem diversity (endpoint impact category), namely to macroinvertebrates, algae and macrophytes. For this, we have developed a framework to conduct an erosion inventory using the WaTEM/SEDEM model and linked this with, a method to derive regional characterisation for endpoint damage on aquatic ecosystem diversity. A case study was performed for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal, with a functional unit of one hectare of land under production forestry management. To demonstrate how this newly SS ecosystem method can help to improve the environmental assessment in forestry, results were compared with the earlier commonly used impact categories from ReCiPe method. The relevance of the impact from SS delivery to freshwater streams is shown, providing a more comprehensive assessment of the SS impact from land use systems on aquatic environments. The SS impacts ranged from 15.5 to 1234.9 PDF.m3.yr.ha-1.revolution-1 for macroinvertebrates, and from 5.2 to 411.9 PDF.m3.yr.ha-1.revolution-1 for algae and macrophytes. For some stands, SS potential impacts on macroinvertebrates have the same order of magnitude than freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and terrestrial acidification impacts. For algae and macrophytes, most of the stands present SS impacts of the same order of magnitude as terrestrial ecotoxicity, one order of magnitude higher than freshwater

  15. Lignin Composition and Structure in Young versus Adult Eucalyptus globulus Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Nieto, Lidia; Jiménez-Barbero, J.; Faulds, Craig B.; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Martínez, Ángel T.; del Río, José C.

    2011-01-01

    Lignin changes during plant growth were investigated in a selected Eucalyptus globulus clone. The lignin composition and structure were studied in situ by a new procedure enabling the acquisition of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectra on wood gels formed in the NMR tube as well as by analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, milled-wood lignins were isolated and analyzed by 2D-NMR, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and thioacidolysis. The data indicated that p-hydroxyphenyl and guaiacyl units are deposited at the earlier stages, whereas the woods are enriched in syringyl (S) lignin during late lignification. Wood 2D-NMR showed that β-O-4′ and resinol linkages were predominant in the eucalypt lignin, whereas other substructures were present in much lower amounts. Interestingly, open β-1′ structures could be detected in the isolated lignins. Phenylcoumarans and cinnamyl end groups were depleted with age, spirodienone abundance increased, and the main substructures (β-O-4′ and resinols) were scarcely modified. Thioacidolysis revealed a higher predominance of S units in the ether-linked lignin than in the total lignin and, in agreement with NMR, also indicated that resinols are the most important nonether linkages. Dimer analysis showed that most of the resinol-type structures comprised two S units (syringaresinol), the crossed guaiacyl-S resinol appearing as a minor substructure and pinoresinol being totally absent. Changes in hemicelluloses were also shown by the 2D-NMR spectra of the wood gels without polysaccharide isolation. These include decreases of methyl galacturonosyl, arabinosyl, and galactosyl (anomeric) signals, assigned to pectin and related neutral polysaccharides, and increases of xylosyl (which are approximately 50% acetylated) and 4-O-methylglucuronosyl signals. PMID:21098672

  16. The effects of age and environment on the expression of inbreeding depression in Eucalyptus globulus

    PubMed Central

    Costa e Silva, J; Hardner, C; Tilyard, P; Potts, B M

    2011-01-01

    Inbreeding adversely affects fitness traits in many plant and animal species, and the magnitude, stability and genetic basis of inbreeding depression (ID) will have short- and long-term evolutionary consequences. The effects of four degrees of inbreeding (selfing, f=50% full- and half-sib matings, f=25 and 12.5% and unrelated outcrosses, f=0%) on survival and growth of an island population of Eucalyptus globulus were studied at two sites for over 14 years. For selfs, ID in survival increased over time, reaching a maximum of 49% by age 14 years. However, their inbreeding depression for stem diameter remained relatively stable with age, and ranged from 28 to 36% across years and sites. ID for survival was markedly greater on the more productive site, possibly due to greater and earlier onset of inter-tree competition, but was similar on both sites for the diameter of survivors. The deleterious trait response to increasing inbreeding coefficients was linear for survival and diameter. Non-significant quadratic effects suggested that epistasis did not contribute considerably to the observed ID at the population level. Among- and within-family coefficients of variation for diameter increased with inbreeding degree, and the variance among the outcrossed families was significant only on the more productive site. The performance of self-families for diameter was highly stable between sites. This suggests that, for species with mixed mating systems, environmentally stable inbreeding effects in open-pollinated progenies may tend to mask the additive genotype-by-environment interaction for fitness traits and the adaptive response to the environment. PMID:21224873

  17. Hormonal dynamics during recovery from drought in two Eucalyptus globulus genotypes: from root to leaf.

    PubMed

    Correia, Barbara; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Castro, Bruno B; Brossa, Ricard; López-Carbonell, Marta; Pinto, Glória

    2014-09-01

    Drought is a limiting environmental stress that represents a growing constraint to the forestry sector. Eucalyptus globulus is a widely planted coppice species, which capacity to cope with water deficit has already been described. However, the capacity of this species to recover is still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in abscisic acid (ABA), ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) and jasmonic acid (JA) content in leaves, xylem sap and roots of two genotypes (AL-10 and AL-18) during rewatering (2 h, 4 h, 24 h, and 168 h), after a drought stress period (0 h). We wished to clarify the role of these hormones in the recovery from drought and to determine whether these hormonal relations were related to specific genotype metabolisms. Our results showed that drought caused an increased in ABA and ABA-GE levels in all analysed plant parts, while JA content decreased in leaves, increased in xylem sap and did not change in roots. Some of these responses were genotype specific. During rewatering, ABA and ABA-GE content decreased in both genotypes and all plant parts, but at different time scales, and JA levels did not greatly change. Again, the genotypes responded differently. Altogether, our results characterised the response pattern of clone AL-10 as more responsive and defended that leaf should be used in preliminary screening methods of stress tolerance. The hormonal dynamics were related to the previously documented responses of these genotypes and sustain further physiological and molecular studies of water stress in this and other tree species. PMID:24954071

  18. Water stress and recovery in the performance of two Eucalyptus globulus clones: physiological and biochemical profiles.

    PubMed

    Correia, Barbara; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Neves, Lucinda; Brossa, Ricard; Dias, Maria Celeste; Costa, Armando; Castro, Bruno B; Araújo, Clara; Santos, Conceição; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Pinto, Glória

    2014-04-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are among the most productive forest stands in Portugal and Spain, being mostly used for pulp production and, more recently, as an energy crop. However, the region's Mediterranean climate, with characteristic severe summer drought, negatively affects eucalypt growth and increases mortality. Although the physiological response to water shortage is well characterized for this species, evidence about the plants' recovery ability remains scarce. In order to assess the physiological and biochemical response of Eucalyptus globulus during the recovery phase, two genotypes (AL-18 and AL-10) were submitted to a 3-week water stress period at two different intensities (18 and 25% of field capacity), followed by 1 week of rewatering. Recovery was assessed 1 day and 1 week after rehydration. Drought reduced height, biomass, water potential, NPQ and gas exchange in both genotypes. Contrarily, the levels of pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F(v) /F(m) and (φPSII)), MDA and ABA increased. During recovery, the physiological and biochemical profile of stressed plants showed a similar trend: they experienced reversion of altered traits (MDA, ABA, E, g(s), pigments), while other parameters did not recover ((φPSII), NPQ). Furthermore, an overcompensation of CO(2) assimilation was achieved 1 week after rehydration, which was accompanied by greater growth and re-establishment of oxidative balance. Both genotypes were tolerant to the tested conditions, although clonal differences were found. AL-10 was more productive and showed a more rapid and dynamic response to rehydration (namely in carotenoid content, (φPSII) and NPQ) compared to clone AL-18. PMID:24117924

  19. Quantification of Labile Soil Mercury by Stable Isotope Dilution Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetaya, Waleed; Huang, Jen-How; Osterwalder, Stefan; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that can cause severe health problems to humans. Mercury is emitted to the atmosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can be transported over long distances before it is deposited to aquatic and terrestrial environments. Aside from accumulation in soil solid phases, Hg deposited in soils may migrate to surface- and ground-water or enter the food chain, depending on its lability. There are many operationally-defined extraction methods proposed to quantify soil labile metals. However, these methods are by definition prone to inaccuracies such as non-selectivity, underestimation or overestimation of the labile metal pool. The isotopic dilution technique (ID) is currently the most promising method for discrimination between labile and non-labile metal fractions in soil with a minimum disturbance to soil-solid phases. ID assesses the reactive metal pool in soil by defining the fraction of metal both in solid and solution phases that is isotopically-exchangeable known as the 'E-value'. The 'E-value' represents the metal fraction in a dynamic equilibrium with the solution phase and is potentially accessible to plants. This is carried out by addition of an enriched metal isotope to soil suspensions and quantifying the fraction of metal that is able to freely exchange with the added isotope by measuring the equilibrium isotopic ratio by ICP-MS. E-value (mg kg‑1) is then calculated as follows: E-Value = (Msoil/ W) (CspikeVspike/ Mspike) (Iso1IAspike ‑Iso2IAspikeRss / Iso2IAsoil Rss - Iso1IAsoil) where M is the average atomic mass of the metal in the soil or the spike, W is the mass of soil (kg), Cspike is the concentration of the metal in the spike (mg L‑1), Vspike is the volume of spike (L), IA is isotopic abundance, and Rss is the equilibrium ratio of isotopic abundances (Iso1:Iso2). Isotopic dilution has been successfully applied to determine E-values for several elements. However, to our knowledge, this method has not

  20. Photo-lability of deep ocean dissolved black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbins, A.; Niggemann, J.; Dittmar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved black carbon (DBC), defined here as condensed aromatics isolated from seawater via PPL solid phase extraction and quantified as benzene polycarboxylic acid oxidation products, is a significant component of the oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool. These condensed aromatics are widely distributed in the open ocean and appear to be tens of thousands of years old. As such DBC is regarded as highly refractory. In the current study, the photo-lability of DBC, DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM; ultraviolet-visible absorbance) were determined over the course of a 28 d irradiation of North Atlantic Deep Water under a solar simulator. During the irradiation DBC fell from 1044 ± 164 nM C to 55 ± 15 nM C, a 20-fold decrease in concentration. Dissolved black carbon photo-degradation was more rapid and more extensive than for bulk CDOM and DOC. Further, the photo-lability of components of the DBC pool increased with their degree of aromatic condensation. These trends indicate that a continuum of compounds of varying photo-lability exists within the marine DOC pool. In this continuum, photo-lability scales with aromatic character, specifically the degree of condensation. Scaling the rapid photo-degradation of DBC to rates of DOC photo-mineralisation for the global ocean leads to an estimated photo-chemical half-life for oceanic DBC of less than 800 yr. This is more than an order of magnitude shorter than the apparent age of DBC in the ocean. Photo-degradation is therefore posited as the primary sink for oceanic DBC and the survival of DBC molecules in the oceans for millennia appears to be facilitated not by their inherent inertness but by the rate at which they are cycled through the surface ocean's photic zone.

  1. Ovicidal and adulticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil terpenoids against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Choi, Han-Young; Choi, Won-Sil; Clark, J M; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-05-01

    The toxic effects of Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil-derived monoterpenoids [1,8-cineole, l-phellandrene, (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, trans-pinocarveol, gamma-terpinene, and 1-alpha-terpineol] and the known Eucalyptusleaf oil terpenoids (beta-eudesmol and geranyl acetate) on eggs and females of the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, were examined using direct contact and fumigation bioassays and compared with the lethal activity of delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum, two commonly used pediculicides. In a filter paper contact bioassay with female P. h. capitis, the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with Eucalyptus leaf oil than with either delta-phenothrin or pyrethrum on the basis of LT(50) values (0.125 vs 0.25 mg/cm(2)). 1,8-Cineole was 2.2- and 2.3-fold more toxic than either delta-phenothrin or pyrethrum, respectively. The pediculicidal activities of (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, and (E)-pinocarveol were comparable to those of delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. l-Phellandrene, gamma-terpinene, and 1-alpha-terpineol were relatively less active than delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. beta-Eudesmol and geranyl acetate were ineffective. 1-alpha-Terpineol and (E)-pinocaveol were highly effective at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/cm(2), respectively, against P. h. capitis eggs. At 1.0 mg/cm(2), (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, and gamma-terpinene exhibited moderate ovicidal activity, whereas little or no ovicidal activity was observed with the other terpenoids and with delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In fumigation tests with female P. h. capitis at 0.25 mg/cm(2), 1,8-cineole, (-)-alpha-pinene, (E)-pinocarveol, and 1-alpha-terpineol were more effective in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the effect of the monoterpenoids was largely due to action in the vapor phase. Neither delta-phenothrin nor pyrethrum exhibited fumigant toxicity. Eucalyptus leaf oil, particularly 1,8-cineole, 1-alpha-terpineol, and (E)-pinocaveol, merits further study as potential

  2. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of anthelminthic resistance has limited the success of traditional control programmes in several countries, thereby forcing the researchers to search for alternatives. In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus were investigated against the egg and larvae of naturally infected sheep. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the main metabolites identified in the extract. The aqueous extract of E. globulus was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in naturally infected sheep. The various blood parameters, coupled with effects on marker enzymes and antioxidant status, were evaluated during the trial period. Methanolic extract showed better ED50 (3.756 mg/ml) and ED99 (33.809 mg/ml) values in comparison with aqueous extract (ED50 = 1.502 and ED99 = 7.10 mg/ml) in the egg hatch assay. Inverse was true in larval development and larval paralysis tests. The aqueous extract's ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml values in the larval development test and ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml in the larval paralysis test were more potent than those of its methanolic counterpart with ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml and ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml, respectively. A significant amount of 66% faecal egg count reduction was observed in in vivo trail using the aqueous extract on day 21 post treatment, although in initial stages it showed 58.0 and 80% effectiveness on days 7 and 14 post treatment. Though the FCER reduction was somewhat lower in terms of comparison with albendazole, nevertheless, significant and prolong reduction was noticed. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the haematological and biochemical parameters suggesting that the plant could be safer for use in sheep. Though significant changes were observed in SGPT, RBCs, Hb and RDWc levels, other parameters showed nonsignificant variations within the

  3. Effect of veneer side wettability on bonding quality of Eucalyptus globulus plywoods prepared using a tannin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesive.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, G; González-Alvarez, J; López-Suevos, F; Antorrena, G

    2003-05-01

    The influence of rotary peeling on the different behaviour of tight and loose sides of Eucalyptus globulus veneers has been studied. The presence of lathe checks on the loose sides favours wettability, the contact angle decreasing more rapidly on these sides than on tight sides. Additionally, pine bark tannins improved wettability due to their surfactant character. Bonding quality tests carried out on plywoods prepared using a tannin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesive showed that fracture almost invariably occurred in a glue line with at least one loose side, where wood failure appeared. This behaviour, confirmed by analysing the glue lines by means of fluorescence microscopy, was due to the large surface alterations of the loose sides which reduced mechanical strength but allowed greater penetration of the adhesive giving rise to high wood failure. PMID:12507878

  4. Do Vermont's Floodplains Constitute an Important Source of Labile Carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrial, J. N.; Dolan, A.; Kemsley, M.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplains are extremely heterogeneous landscapes with respect to soil and sediment composition and can present an important source of carbon (C) during floods. For example, stream bank soils and sediments are zones of active erosion and deposition of sediment associated C. Due to the presence of plants, riparian soils contain high amounts of C that is exchanged between stream waters and banks. Abandoned channels and meander wetlands that remain hydrologically connected to the main channel contain high amounts of organic matter that can be flushed into the stream during high discharge. This heterogeneity, result of floodplain geomorphology, land cover and use, can profoundly impact the amount and type of dissolved organic matter (DOM) introduced into streams. In order to assess DOM characteristics leached from heterogeneous floodplain soils, aqueous soil extracts were performed on soil samples representative of different land covers (n=20) at four depths. Extracts were analyzed for dissolved organic C and total dissolved nitrogen with a Shimadzu C analyzer. Colored dissolved organic matter characteristics was measured with the Aqualog Fluorescence Spectrometer and quantified with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Preliminary data from three floodplains in Vermont (Connecticut, Missisquoi and Mad River) show a 3D variability of longitudinal, lateral, and vertical extents on water-extractable, mobile C. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations in meander swamp samples were found up to 9 times higher than in those of soils from agricultural field indicative of an important C source. Although C concentrations in adjacent fields were low, high abundance of labile C (indicated by tryptophan-like fluorescence) in water extracts from fields indicates recent biological production of C. This labile C is easily processed by microbes and transformed to the greenhouse gas CO2. These results provide important information on the contribution and lability of different floodplain

  5. Photo-lability of deep ocean dissolved black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbins, A.; Niggemann, J.; Dittmar, T.

    2012-05-01

    Dissolved black carbon (DBC), defined here as condensed aromatics isolated from seawater via PPL solid phase extraction and quantified as benzenepolycarboxylic acid (BPCA) oxidation products, is a significant component of the oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool. These condensed aromatics are widely distributed in the open ocean and appear to be tens of thousands of years old. As such DBC is regarded as highly refractory. In the current study, the photo-lability of DBC, DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM; ultraviolet-visible absorbance) were determined over the course of a 28 day irradiation of North Atlantic Deep Water under a solar simulator. During the irradiation DBC fell from 1044 ± 164 nM-C to 55 ± 15 nM-C, a 20-fold decrease in concentration. Dissolved black carbon photo-degradation was more rapid and more extensive than for bulk CDOM and DOC. The concentration of DBC correlated with CDOM absorbance and the quality of DBC indicated by the ratios of different BPCAs correlated with CDOM absorbance spectral slope, suggesting the optical properties of CDOM may provide a proxy for both DBC concentrations and quality in natural waters. Further, the photo-lability of components of the DBC pool increased with their degree of aromatic condensation. These trends indicate that a continuum of compounds of varying photo-lability exists within the marine DOC pool. In this continuum, photo-lability scales with aromatic character, specifically the degree of condensation. Scaling the rapid photo-degradation of DBC to rates of DOC photo-mineralisation for the global ocean leads to an estimated photo-chemical half-life for oceanic DBC of less than 800 years. This is more than an order of magnitude shorter than the apparent age of DBC in the ocean. Consequently, photo-degradation is posited as the primary sink for oceanic DBC and the apparent survival of DBC molecules in the oceans for millennia appears to be facilitated not by their inherent inertness but

  6. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1984-07-17

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  7. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-04-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  8. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  9. A field study on phytoremediation of a lead-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus globulus in an abandoned mine site - Alagoa, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardo, R.; Kikuchi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Current engineering-based technologies used to clean up soils are very costly and need lots of work. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remove pollutants (i.e. heavy metals) from the environment or render them harmless. In the phytoremediation process several plant species can be used to reduce the concentrations of heavy metals in contaminated soils to environmentally acceptable levels. The idea of using rare plants which hyperaccumulate metals to selectively remove and recycle excessive soil metals has increasingly been examined as a potential practical and more cost effective technology than soil replacement, solidification, or washing strategies presently used. However, most hyperaccumulator species are not suitable for phytoremediation application in the field due to their small biomass and slow growth. Cultivation of woody plants in contaminated soils has showed potential for use in phytoremediation but also it provides aesthetic improvement in the field. In this study we studied the possibility of using the approach of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus in a lead-contaminated soil from an abandoned mine. Although Eucalytpus globulus prefer good ecological conditions in humid temperate climates, there are few studies that have showed their great potential in contaminated areas and important biomonitors of environmental quality. A test field was set up in an abandoned mine site (Alagoa, Portugal) in order to investigate the feasibility of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus. The field soil was characterized as follows: humus - 2.56-7.08%, pH in the soil water - 4.50-5.10, silte - 18-15% and total Pb - 67-239 mg/kg. The soils in some areas exceed the critical value (150 mg/kg) according with Portuguese law. Eucalytus globulus growing on the abandoned mine, contaminated with lead was studied. The results of shoots sample analysis (n = 15) show the total Pb levels of 0.170-0.093 mg/kg in the stem and 2.94-5.14 mg/kg in the leaves

  10. An ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry index to estimate natural organic matter lability

    PubMed Central

    D'Andrilli, Juliana; Cooper, William T; Foreman, Christine M; Marshall, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Determining the chemical constituents of natural organic matter (NOM) by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICRMS) remains the ultimate measure for probing its source material, evolution, and transport; however, lability and the fate of organic matter (OM) in the environment remain controversial. FTICRMS-derived elemental compositions are presented in this study to validate a new interpretative method to determine the extent of NOM lability from various environments. Methods FTICRMS data collected over the last decade from the same 9.4 tesla instrument using negative electrospray ionization at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, Florida, was used to validate the application of a NOM lability index. Solid-phase extraction cartridges were used to isolate the NOM prior to FTICRMS; mass spectral peaks were calibrated internally by commonly identified NOM homologous series, and molecular formulae were determined for NOM composition and lability analysis. Results A molecular lability boundary (MLB) was developed from the FTICRMS molecular data, visualized from van Krevelen diagrams, dividing the data into more and less labile constituents. NOM constituents above the MLB at H/C ≥1.5 correspond to more labile material, whereas NOM constituents below the MLB, H/C <1.5, exhibit less labile, more recalcitrant character. Of all marine, freshwater, and glacial environments considered for this study, glacial ecosystems were calculated to contain the most labile OM. Conclusions The MLB extends our interpretation of FTICRMS NOM molecular data to include a metric of lability, and generally ranked the OM environments from most to least labile as glacial > marine > freshwater. Applying the MLB is useful not only for individual NOM FTICRMS studies, but also provides a lability threshold to compare and contrast molecular data with other FTICRMS instruments that survey NOM from around the world. Copyright © 2015

  11. [Universal implementation of pathogen inactivation in labile blood products is a major step towards transfusion safety].

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Jean-Pierre

    2010-12-01

    Transfusion of labile blood products (red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates and plasma) is vital in the absence of alternatives. Patients and doctors have always feared infections transmitted by blood, blood components and blood-derived drugs. It is potentially dangerous to delay implementation of pathogen inactivation in labile blood products pending a perfect process. Universal implementation of pathogen inactivation in labile blood products is a major step towards transfusion safety. PMID:22043595

  12. Cutting state identification

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-12-31

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.

  13. Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Sphaeridiotrema pseudoglobulus (Digenea): Species differentiation based on mtDNA (Barcode) and partial LSU-rDNA sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergmame, Laura; Huffman, Jane; Cole, Rebecca; Dayanandan, Selvadurai; Tkach, Vasyl; McLaughlin, J. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Flukes belonging to Sphaeridiotrema are important parasites of waterfowl, and 2 morphologically similar species Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Sphaeridiotrema pseudoglobulus, have been implicated in waterfowl mortality in North America. Cytochrome oxidase I (barcode region) and partial LSU-rDNA sequences from specimens of S. globulus and S. pseudoglobulus, obtained from naturally and experimentally infected hosts from New Jersey and Quebec, respectively, confirmed that these species were distinct. Barcode sequences of the 2 species differed at 92 of 590 nucleotide positions (15.6%) and the translated sequences differed by 13 amino acid residues. Partial LSU-rDNA sequences differed at 29 of 1,208 nucleotide positions (2.4%). Additional barcode sequences from specimens collected from waterfowl in Wisconsin and Minnesota and morphometric data obtained from specimens acquired along the north shore of Lake Superior revealed the presence of S. pseudoglobulus in these areas. Although morphometric data suggested the presence of S. globulus in the Lake Superior sample, it was not found among the specimens sequenced from Wisconsin or Minnesota.

  14. Cuts and puncture wounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... cuts and puncture wounds can be treated at home. Take the following steps. FOR MINOR CUTS Wash your hands with soap or antibacterial ... and scissors safely. Make sure you and your child are up to date on vaccinations . A tetanus vaccine is generally recommended every 10 ... Snake bite Minor cut - first aid Sewing a wound closed - series ...

  15. Chemical leaching methods and measurements of marine labile particulate Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revels, B. N.; John, S.

    2012-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for life. Yet its low solubility and concentration in the ocean limits marine phytoplankton productivity in many regions of the world. Dissolved phase Fe (<0.4μm) has traditionally been considered the most biologically accessible form, however, the particulate phase (>0.4μm) may contain an important, labile reservoir of Fe that may also be available to phytoplankton. However, concentration data alone cannot elucidate the sources of particulate Fe to the ocean and to what extent particulate iron may support phytoplankton growth. Isotopic analysis of natural particles may help to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of Fe, though it is important to find a leaching method which accesses bioavailable Fe. Thirty-three different chemical leaches were performed on a marine sediment reference material, MESS-3. The combinations included four different acids (25% acetic acid, 0.01M HCl, 0.5M HCl, 0.1M H2SO4 at pH2), various redox conditions (0.02M hydroxylamine hydrochloride or 0.02M H2O2), three temperatures (25°C, 60°C, 90°C), and three time points (10 minutes, 2 hours, 24 hours). Leached Fe concentrations varied from 1mg/g to 35mg/g, with longer treatment times, stronger acids, and hotter temperatures generally associated with an increase in leached Fe. δ56Fe in these leaches varied from -1.0‰ to +0.2‰. Interestingly, regardless of leaching method used, there was a very similar relationship between the amount of Fe leached from the particles and the δ56Fe of this iron. Isotopically lighter δ56Fe values were associated with smaller amounts of leached Fe whereas isotopically heavier δ56Fe values were associated with larger amounts of leached Fe. Two alternate hypotheses could explain these data. Either, the particles may contain pools of isotopically light Fe that are easily accessed early in dissolution, or isotopically light Fe may be preferentially leached from the particle due to a kinetic isotope effect during dissolution

  16. The role of labile sulfur compounds in thermochemical sulfate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrani, Alon; Zhang, Tongwei; Ma, Qisheng; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Tang, Yongchun

    2008-06-01

    The reduction of sulfate to sulfide coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide, commonly referred to as thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), is an important abiotic alteration process that most commonly occurs in hot carbonate petroleum reservoirs. In the present study we focus on the role that organic labile sulfur compounds play in increasing the rate of TSR. A series of gold-tube hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted with n-octane and CaSO4 in the presence of reduced sulfur (e.g. H2S, S°, organic S) at temperatures of 330 and 356 °C under a constant confining pressure. The in-situ pH was buffered to 3.5 (∼6.3 at room temperature) with talc and silica. For comparison, three types of oil with different total S and labile S contents were reacted under similar conditions. The results show that the initial presence of organic or inorganic sulfur compounds increases the rate of TSR. However, organic sulfur compounds, such as 1-pentanethiol or diethyldisulfide, were significantly more effective in increasing the rate of TSR than H2S or elemental sulfur (on a mole S basis). The increase in rate is achieved at relatively low concentrations of 1-pentanethiol, less than 1 wt% of the total n-octane, which is comparable to the concentration of organic S that is common in many oils (∼0.3 wt%). We examined several potential reaction mechanisms to explain the observed reactivity of organic LSC. First, the release of H2S from the thermal degradation of thiols was discounted as an important mechanism due to the significantly greater reactivity of thiol compared to an equivalent amount of H2S. Second, we considered the generation of olefines in association with the elimination of H2S during thermal degradation of thiols because olefines are much more reactive than n-alkanes during TSR. In our experiments, olefines increased the rate of TSR, but were less effective than 1-pentanethiol and other organic LSC. Third, the thermal decomposition of

  17. Labile carbon and nitrogen from rhizoplane and surface soils of two perennial grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In semiarid perennial grasslands biogeochemical processes that drive nutrient dynamics may be more closely related to the quantity of labile SOM than to total SOM. A small ephemeral pool of labile soluble organic matter becomes active after pulse precipitation events. Rhizoplane soil associated with...

  18. Prevalence and predictors of affective lability after pediatric traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Vasa, Roma A.; Suskauer, Stacy J.; Thorn, Julia M.; Kalb, Luther; Grados, Marco A.; Slomine, Beth S.; Salorio, Cynthia F.; Gerring, Joan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Paediatric severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with significant postinjury affective and behavioral problems. Few studies have examined the prevalence and characteristics of affective lability after paediatric TBI. Methods 97 children with severe TBI were evaluated one year postinjury for the presence of affective lability using the Children’s Affective Lability Scale (CALS). Demographic, clinical, and brain lesion characteristics were also assessed. Results Affective lability significantly increased after injury. Eighty-six children had a preinjury CALS score of 1SD or less from the group preinjury mean (M = 8.11, SD = 9.31) of which 35 and 15 children had a 1SD and 2SD increase in their CALS score from pre- to postinjury, respectively. A variety of affective shifts manifested postinjury including anxiety, silliness, dysphoria, and irritability. The most severe symptoms were irritability and unpredictable temper outbursts. Risk factors for affective lability included elevated preinjury affective lability and psychosocial adversity as well as greater damage to the orbitofrontal cortex. Postinjury affective lability was most frequently associated with a postinjury diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusions Affective lability is common after paediatric TBI and frequently manifests as irritability and unpredictable outbursts. Early intervention is needed to improve psychiatric outcomes. PMID:25950263

  19. Device for cutting protrusions

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  20. In situ, high-resolution imaging of labile phosphorus in sediments of a large eutrophic lake.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Han, Chao; Wang, Yanping; Yao, Lei; Wang, Yan; Xu, Di; Sun, Qin; Williams, Paul N; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the labile status of phosphorus (P) in sediments is crucial for managing a eutrophic lake, but it is hindered by lacking in situ data particularly on a catchment scale. In this study, we for the first time characterized in situ labile P in sediments with the Zr-oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) technique at a two-dimensional (2D), submillimeter resolution in a large eutrophic lake (Lake Taihu, China, with an area of 2338 km(2)). The concentration of DGT-labile P in the sediment profiles showed strong variation mostly ranging from 0.01 to 0.35 mg L(-1) with a considerable number of hotspots. The horizontal heterogeneity index of labile P varied from 0.04 to 4.5. High values appeared at the depths of 0-30 mm, likely reflecting an active layer of labile P under the sediment-water interface (SWI). Concentration gradients of labile P were observed from the high-resolution 1D DGT profiles in both the sediment and overlying water layers close to the SWI. The apparent diffusion flux of P across the SWI was calculated between -21 and 65 ng cm(-2) d(-1), which showed that the sediments tended to be a source and sink of overlying water P in the algal- and macrophyte-dominated regions, respectively. The DGT-labile P in the 0-30 mm active layer showed a better correlation with overlying water P than the labile P measured by ex situ chemical extraction methods. It implies that in situ, high-resolution profiling of labile P with DGT is a more reliable approach and will significantly extend our ability in in situ monitoring of the labile status of P in sediments in the field. PMID:25720671

  1. Low flow and high flow responses to converting natural grassland into bluegum ( Eucalyptus globulus) in Nilgiris watersheds of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikka, A. K.; Samra, J. S.; Sharda, V. N.; Samraj, P.; Lakshmanan, V.

    2003-01-01

    A concern has been raised in many parts of the world over the effect of large scale planting of Eucalyptus on hydrological behaviour of small watersheds. Hydrological response of watersheds due to conversion of natural grasslands into bluegum ( Eucalyptus globulus) plantations on low flows and high flows has been presented in this paper. The concept of using low flow index (LFI) as a tool to study and quantify the effects of bluegum plantation on low flow regime has been demonstrated. Conversion of natural grasslands into bluegum plantations has resulted in decreased low flow volume as well as peak flow, which in turn increased the soil moisture losses. These effects were more pronounced during the second rotation (i.e. first coppiced growth) as compared to the first rotation. Significant reduction in low flow as a result of decline in base flow could be predicted with LFI decreasing by 2.0 and 3.75 times, in the first and second rotation, respectively. Moderation in peak discharge rates was also observed as a result of bluegum plantation. Probability plots of peak discharge tend to suggest that the effect of bluegum plantation on peak flows become insignificant for the floods with higher return periods. These results clearly suggest that caution need to be exercised while planning large scale conversion of natural grasslands into bluegum plantations in the catchments of hydro-electric reservoirs in the Nilgiris which adversely affects water availability especially during lean flow period.

  2. Chemical and structural analysis of Eucalyptus globulus and E. camaldulensis leaf cuticles: a lipidized cell wall region

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Paula; Fernández, Victoria; Graça, José; Cabral, Vanessa; Kayali, Nour; Khayet, Mohamed; Gil, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The plant cuticle has traditionally been conceived as an independent hydrophobic layer that covers the external epidermal cell wall. Due to its complexity, the existing relationship between cuticle chemical composition and ultra-structure remains unclear to date. This study aimed to examine the link between chemical composition and structure of isolated, adaxial leaf cuticles of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. globulus by the gradual extraction and identification of lipid constituents (cutin and soluble lipids), coupled to spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. The soluble compounds and cutin monomers identified could not be assigned to a concrete internal cuticle ultra-structure. After cutin depolymerization, a cellulose network resembling the cell wall was observed, with different structural patterns in the regions ascribed to the cuticle proper and cuticular layer, respectively. Our results suggest that the current cuticle model should be revised, stressing the presence and major role of cell wall polysaccharides. It is concluded that the cuticle may be interpreted as a modified cell wall region which contains additional lipids. The major heterogeneity of the plant cuticle makes it difficult to establish a direct link between cuticle chemistry and structure with the existing methodologies. PMID:25278953

  3. Few Mendelian Genes Underlie the Quantitative Response of a Forest Tree, Eucalyptus globulus, to a Natural Fungal Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jules S.; Potts, Brad M.; Vaillancourt, René E.

    2008-01-01

    Foliar fungal pathogens from the genus Mycosphaerella affect eucalypts in natural forests and plantations worldwide. QTL analysis was conducted to dissect the genetic control of resistance in Eucalyptus globulus to a natural infection by Mycosphaerella leaf disease, using a clonally replicated outbred F2 family (112 genotypes) planted in a field trial. Two major QTL, with high LOD support (20.2 and 10.9) and high genomewide significance, explained a large proportion (52%) of the phenotypic variance in the severity of damage by Mycosphaerella cryptica, which may be indicative of oligogenic control. Both QTL were validated in a second F2 family and one was validated in a third F2 family. The mean values of different genotype classes at both major QTL argue for Mendelian inheritance with resistance dominant over susceptibility. There were strong correlations between the levels of Mycosphaerella damage in related genetic material planted in three widely separated locations in Tasmania. These findings together provide evidence that the genes controlling resistance to Mycosphaerella damage are stable in different genetic backgrounds and across different environments. PMID:18202395

  4. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  5. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  6. Comparison of Outcomes in Patients With Nonobstructive, Labile-Obstructive, and Chronically Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Pozios, Iraklis; Corona-Villalobos, Celia; Sorensen, Lars L; Bravo, Paco E; Canepa, Marco; Pisanello, Chiara; Pinheiro, Aurelio; Dimaano, Veronica L; Luo, Hongchang; Dardari, Zeina; Zhou, Xun; Kamel, Ihab; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Bluemke, David A; Abraham, M Roselle; Abraham, Theodore P

    2015-09-15

    Patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) are considered low risk, generally not requiring aggressive intervention. However, nonobstructive and labile-obstructive HC have been traditionally classified together, and it is unknown if these 2 subgroups have distinct risk profiles. We compared cardiovascular outcomes in 293 patients HC (96 nonobstructive, 114 labile-obstructive, and 83 obstructive) referred for exercise echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging and followed for 3.3 ± 3.6 years. A subgroup (34 nonobstructive, 28 labile-obstructive, 21 obstructive) underwent positron emission tomography. The mean number of sudden cardiac death risk factors was similar among groups (nonobstructive: 1.4 vs labile-obstructive: 1.2 vs obstructive: 1.4 risk factors, p = 0.2). Prevalence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was similar across groups but more non-obstructive patients had late gadolinium enhancement ≥20% of myocardial mass (23 [30%] vs 19 [18%] labile-obstructive and 8 [11%] obstructive, p = 0.01]. Fewer labile-obstructive patients had regional positron emission tomography perfusion abnormalities (12 [46%] vs nonobstructive 30 [81%] and obstructive 17 [85%], p = 0.003]. During follow-up, 60 events were recorded (36 ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation, including 30 defibrillator discharges, 12 heart failure worsening, and 2 deaths). Nonobstructive patients were at greater risk of VT/VF at follow-up, compared to labile obstructive (hazed ratio 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.84, p = 0.03) and the risk persisted after adjusting for age, gender, syncope, family history of sudden cardiac death, abnormal blood pressure response, and septum ≥3 cm (p = 0.04). Appropriate defibrillator discharges were more frequent in nonobstructive (8 [18%]) compared to labile-obstructive (0 [0%], p = 0.02) patients. In conclusion, nonobstructive hemodynamics is associated with more pronounced fibrosis and ischemia than labile

  7. Cistrons encoding Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, W S; Gill, D M; Falkow, S

    1979-01-01

    The structure and products of the two cistrons encoding the Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) were studied. The LT deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) region had been isolated as part of a DNA fragment from the plasmid P307, and this fragment was joined to the cloning vector pBR313. Deletion mutations of various lengths were introduced into the LT DNA region and into the adjacent DNA sequences. Analysis of the deletions indicated that the maximum size of the LT DNA region was 1.2 x 10(6) daltons. Two proteins of 11,500 daltons and 25,500 daltons had been shown to be encoded by the LT DNA region. The functions of these LT gene products were investigated. The 11,500-dalton protein had an adsorption activity for Y-1 adrenal cells, and this protein was shown to form aggregates of four or five monomers. The 25,500-dalton protein was shown to have an adenylate cyclase-activating activity. The two cistrons encoding for each of the LT proteins have been located on a genetic map of the LT DNA region. Both cistrons are probably transcribed from the same promoter. Images PMID:383697

  8. Evolutionarily labile responses to a signal of aggressive intent.

    PubMed Central

    Moretz, Jason A; Morris, Molly R

    2003-01-01

    Males of many swordtail species possess vertical bar pigment patterns that are used both in courtship and agonistic interactions. Expression of the bars may function as a conventional threat signal during conflicts with rival males; bars intensify at the onset of aggression and fade in the subordinate male at contest's end. We used mirror image stimulation and bar manipulations to compare the aggressive responses of the males of four swordtail species to their barred and barless images. We found that having a response to the bars is tightly linked to having genes for bars, while the nature of the response the bars evoked varied across species. Specifically, we report the first known instance where closely related species exhibited differing and contradictory responses to a signal of aggressive motivation. Demonstrating that a signal conveys the same information across species (aggressive intent) while the response to that information has changed among species suggests that the nature of the responses are more evolutionarily labile than the signal. PMID:14613614

  9. Anticariogenic and phytochemical evaluation of Eucalyptus globules Labill.

    PubMed Central

    Ishnava, Kalpesh B.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.; Barad, Mahesh B.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, in vitro anticariogenic potential of ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol and aqueous extracts of plant leaves of Eucalyptus globules Labill. were evaluated by using four cariogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used for this purpose. The ethyl acetate extracted fraction of plant leaves showed good inhibitory effects against all selected bacteria. In Eucalyptus globules, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts found highly effective against, Lactobacillus acidophilus with MIC value of 0.031 and 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. Qualitative phytochemical investigation of above extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, steroids, cardiac glycosides and terpenes. Based on the MIC value and bioautography, ethyl acetate of plant leaf was selected for further study. Further investigation on the structure elucidation of the bioactive compound using IR, GC-MS and NMR techniques revealed the presence of alpha-farnesene, a sesquiterpene. Eucalyptus globules plant leaf extracts have great potential as anticariogenic agents that may be useful in the treatment of oral disease. PMID:23961222

  10. Inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives. II. Physical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, B.; Wiebe, M.E.; Lippin, A.; Vandersande, J.; Stryker, M.H.

    1985-11-01

    The thermal inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives was evaluated by addition of marker viruses (VSV, Sindbis, Sendai, EMC) to anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) concentrates. The rate of virus inactivation at 60 degrees C was decreased by at least 100- to 700-fold by inclusion of 2.75 M glycine and 50 percent sucrose, or 3.0 M potassium citrate, additives which contribute to retention of protein biologic activity. Nonetheless, at least 10(4) infectious units of each virus was inactivated within 10 hours. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 70 or 80 degrees C caused a 90 percent or greater loss in AHF activity. An even greater decline in the rate of virus inactivation was observed on heating AHF in the lyophilized state, although no loss in AHF activity was observed after 72 hours of heating at 60 degrees C. Several of the proteins present in lyophilized AHF concentrates displayed an altered electrophoretic mobility as a result of exposure to 60 degrees C for 24 hours. Exposure of lyophilized AHF to irradiation from a cobalt 60 source resulted in an acceptable yield of AHF at 1.0, but not at 2.0, megarads. At 1 megarad, greater than or equal to 6.0 logs of VSV and 3.3 logs of Sindbis virus were inactivated.

  11. Antiangiogenic nanotherapy with lipase-labile Sn-2 fumagillin prodrug

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dipanjan; Sanyal, Nibedita; Schmieder, Anne H; Senpan, Angana; Kim, Benjamin; Yang, Xiaoxia; Hu, Grace; Allen, John S; Gross, Richard W; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2012-01-01

    Background The chemical instability of antiangiogenic fumagillin, combined with its poor retention during intravascular transit, requires an innovative solution for clinical translation. We hypothesized that an Sn-2 lipase-labile fumagillin prodrug in combination with a contact-facilitated drug delivery mechanism, could be used to address these problems. Methods αvβ3-targeted and nontargeted nanoparticles with and without fumagillin in the prodrug or native forms were evaluated in vitro and in vivo in the Matrigel™ (BD Biosciences, CA, USA) plug model of angiogenesis in mice. Results In vitro experiments demonstrated that the new fumagillin prodrug decreased viability at least as efficacious as the parent compound, on an equimolar basis. In the Matrigel mouse angiogenesis model, αvβ3-fumagillin prodrug decreased angiogenesis as measured by MRI (3T), while the neovasculature was unaffected with the control nanoparticles. Conclusion The present approach resolved the previously intractable problems of drug instability and premature release in transit to target sites. PMID:22709347

  12. Structural Lability of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Virions

    PubMed Central

    Semenyuk, Pavel I.; Abashkin, Dmitry A.; Kalinina, Natalya O.; Arutyunyan, Alexsandr M.; Solovyev, Andrey G.; Dobrov, Eugeny N.

    2013-01-01

    Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP) were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed. PMID:23613760

  13. Starting Trees from Cuttings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for starting tree cuttings from woody plants, explaining "lag time," recommending materials, and giving step-by-step instructions for rooting and planting. Points out species which are likely candidates for cuttings and provides tips for teachers for developing a unit. (JM)

  14. When Students Cut Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikow, Max

    2006-01-01

    Masochism, the irrational self-infliction of pain, is more easily defined than understood. Once, a teacher used the word "cutting" only reference to a student skipping class. But, in recent years, it has taken on additional meaning. Cutting, or self-injury, is a deliberate self-harming behavior but without conscious suicidal ideation. To define…

  15. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  16. Fundamentals of cutting.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G; Patel, Y

    2016-06-01

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology. PMID:27274798

  17. DETERMINATION OF APPARENT QUANTUM YIELD SPECTRA FOR THE FORMATION OF BIOLOGICALLY LABILE PHOTOPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantum yield spectra for the photochemical formation of biologically labile photoproducts from dissolved organic matter (DOM) have not been available previously, although they would greatly facilitate attempts to model photoproduct formation rates across latitudinal, seasonal, a...

  18. Enhanced transpiration in response to wind effects at the edge of a blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P J; Nuberg, I K; Hatton, T J

    2001-04-01

    In Australia, tree planting has been widely promoted to alleviate dryland salinity and one proposed planting configuration is that of strategically placed interception belts. We conducted an experiment to determine the effect of tree position in a belt on transpiration rate. We also assessed how much the effect of tree position can be explained by advection and environmental conditions. Daily transpiration rates were determined by the heat pulse velocity technique for four edge and 12 inner trees in a 7-year-old Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation in South Australia. Various climatic variables were logged automatically at one edge of the plantation. The relationship between daily sap flow and sapwood area was strongly linear for the edge trees (r2 = 0.97), but only moderately correlated for the inner trees (r2 = 0.46), suggesting an edge effect. For all trees, sap flow normalized to sapwood area (Qs) increased with potential evaporation (PE) initially and then became independent as PE increased further. There was a fairly close correlation between transpiration of the edge and inner trees, implying that water availability was partially responsible for the difference between inner and edge trees. However, the ratio of edge tree to inner tree transpiration differed from unity, indicating differences in canopy conductance, which were estimated by an inverse form of the Penman-Monteith equation. When canopy conductances were less than a critical value, there was a strong linear relationship between Qs of the edge and inner trees. When canopy conductances of the edge trees were greater than the critical value, the slope of the linear relationship was steeper, indicating greater transpiration of the edge trees compared with the inner trees. This was interpreted as evidence for enhancement of transpiration of the edge trees by advection of wind energy. PMID:11282580

  19. Whole-plant versus leaf-level regulation of photosynthetic responses after partial defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus saplings.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Davies, Noel W; Corkrey, Ross; Churchill, Keith; O'Grady, Anthony P; Sands, Peter; Mohammed, Caroline

    2013-04-01

    Increases in photosynthetic capacity (A1500) after defoliation have been attributed to changes in leaf-level biochemistry, water, and/or nutrient status. The hypothesis that transient photosynthetic responses to partial defoliation are regulated by whole-plant (e.g. source-sink relationships or changes in hydraulic conductance) rather than leaf-level mechanisms is tested here. Temporal variation in leaf-level gas exchange, chemistry, whole-plant soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (KP), and aboveground biomass partitioning were determined to evaluate mechanisms responsible for increases in A1500 of Eucalyptus globulus L. potted saplings. A1500 increased in response to debudding (B), partial defoliation (D), and combined B&D treatments by up to 36% at 5 weeks after treatment. Changes in leaf-level factors partly explained increases in A1500 of B and B&D treatments but not for D treatment. By week 5, saplings in B, B&D, and D treatments had similar leaf-specific KP to control trees by maintaining lower midday water potentials and higher transpiration rate per leaf area. Whole-plant source:sink ratios correlated strongly with A1500. Further, unlike KP, temporal changes in source:sink ratios tracked well with those observed for A1500. The results indicate that increases in A1500 after partial defoliation treatments were largely driven by an increased demand for assimilate by developing sinks rather than improvements in whole-plant water relations and changes in leaf-level factors. Three carbohydrates, galactional, stachyose, and, to a lesser extent, raffinose, correlated strongly with photosynthetic capacity, indicating that these sugars may function as signalling molecules in the regulation of longer term defoliation-induced gas exchange responses. PMID:23382548

  20. Evaluation of ascorbic acid in protecting labile folic acid derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, S D; Horne, D W

    1983-01-01

    The use of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent to protect labile, reduced derivatives of folic acid has been evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatographic separations and Lactobacillus casei microbiological assay of eluate fractions. Upon heating for 10 min at 100 degrees C, solutions of tetrahydropteroylglutamic acid (H4PteGlu) in 2% sodium ascorbate gave rise to 5,10-methylene-H4PteGlu and 5-methyl-H4PteGlu. H2PteGlu acid gave rise to 5-methyl-H4PteGlu and PteGlu. 10-Formyl-H4PteGlu gave rise to 5-formyl-H4PteGlu and 10-formyl-PteGlu. 5-Formyl-H4-PteGlu gave rise to a small amount of 10-formyl-PteGlu. 5-Methyl-H4PteGlu and PteGlu appeared stable to these conditions. These interconversions were not seen when solutions of these folate derivatives were kept at 0 degrees C in 1% ascorbate. These observations indicate that elevated temperatures are necessary for the interconversions of folates in ascorbate solutions. Assays of ascorbic acid solutions indicated the presence of formaldehyde (approximately equal to 6 mM). This was confirmed by the identification of 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine by UV, visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy and by thin-layer chromatography of chloroform extracts of the reaction mixture of ascorbic acid solutions, acetylacetone, and ammonium acetate. These results indicate that solutions of sodium ascorbate used at elevated temperatures are not suitable for extracting tissue for the subsequent assay of the individual folic acid derivatives. PMID:6415653

  1. Neuropsychological correlates of emotional lability in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Björn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association are currently unknown. To address this question we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms are predicted by particular cognitive and/or motivational dysfunctions and whether these associations are mediated by the presence of ADHD symptoms. Methods A large multi-site sample of 424 carefully diagnosed ADHD cases and 564 unaffected siblings and controls aged 6 to 18 years performed a broad neuropsychological test battery, including a Go/No-Go Task, a warned 4-choice Reaction Time task, the Maudsley Index of Childhood Delay Aversion, and Digit span backwards. Neuropsychological variables were aggregated as indices of processing speed, response variability, executive functions, choice impulsivity and the influence of energetic and/or motivational factors. EL and ADHD symptoms were regressed on each neuropsychological variable in separate analyses controlling for age, gender and IQ, and, in subsequent regression analyses, for ADHD and EL symptoms respectively. Results Neuropsychological variables significantly predicted ADHD and EL symptoms with moderate to low regression coefficients. However, the association between neuropsychological parameters on EL disappeared entirely when the effect of ADHD symptoms was taken into account, revealing that the association between the neuropsychological performance measures and EL is completely mediated statistically by variations in ADHD symptoms. Conversely, neuropsychological effects on ADHD symptoms remained after EL symptom severity was taken into account. Conclusions The neuropsychological parameters examined here predict ADHD more strongly than EL. They cannot explain EL symptoms beyond what is already accounted for by ADHD symptom severity. The association between EL and ADHD

  2. Cutting hospital costs without cutting staff.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, John P

    2011-10-01

    A hospital that is seeking ways to cut costs without compromising care should resist the temptation to lay off staff and instead make it a priority to improve efficiencies. This approach requires a formal program to identify and analyze all of the hospital's processes. The focus of the analysis should be to determine which activities are being performed efficiently, which are being performed inefficiently, and which are unnecessary. This effort will achieve the greatest success if it is customer-centric. PMID:22053641

  3. Maternal emotion socialization differentially predicts third-grade children's emotion regulation and lability.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Megan L; Halberstadt, Amy G; Castro, Vanessa L; MacCormack, Jennifer K; Garrett-Peters, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Numerous parental emotion socialization factors have been implicated as direct and indirect contributors to the development of children's emotional competence. To date, however, no study has combined parents' emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and regulation strategies in one model to assess their cumulative-as well as unique-contributions to children's emotion regulation. We considered the 2 components that have recently been distinguished: emotion regulation and emotional lability. We predicted that mothers' beliefs about the value of and contempt for children's emotions, mothers' supportive and nonsupportive reactions to their children's emotions, as well as mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal and suppression of their own emotions would each contribute unique variance to their children's emotion regulation and lability, as assessed by children's teachers. The study sample consisted of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of 165 mothers and their third-grade children. Different patterns emerged for regulation and lability: Controlling for family income, child gender, and ethnicity, only mothers' lack of suppression as a regulatory strategy predicted greater emotion regulation in children, whereas mothers' valuing of children's emotions, mothers' lack of contempt for children's emotions, mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal to reinterpret events, and mothers' lack of emotional suppression predicted less lability in children. These findings support the divergence of emotion regulation and lability as constructs and indicate that, during middle childhood, children's lability may be substantially and uniquely affected by multiple forms of parental socialization. PMID:26641269

  4. INTERNAL CUTTING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Russell, W.H. Jr.

    1959-06-30

    A device is described for removing material from the interior of a hollow workpiece so as to form a true spherical internal surface in a workpiece, or to cut radial slots of an adjustable constant depth in an already established spherical internal surface. This is accomplished by a spring loaded cutting tool adapted to move axially wherein the entire force urging the tool against the workpiece is derived from the spring. Further features of importance involve the provision of a seal between the workpiece and the cutting device and a suction device for carrying away particles of removed material.

  5. Testing Of Choiced Ceramics Cutting Tools At Irregular Interrupted Cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyncl, Ladislav; Malotová, Šárka; Nováček, Pavel; Nicielnik, Henryk; Šoková, Dagmar; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David; Holubjak, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the test of removable ceramic cutting inserts during machining irregular interrupted cut. Tests were performed on a lathe, with the preparation which simulated us the interrupted cut. By changing the number of plates mounted in a preparation it simulate us a regular or irregular interrupted cut. When with four plates it was regular interrupted cut, the remaining three variants were already irregular cut. It was examined whether it will have the irregular interrupted cutting effect on the insert and possibly how it will change life of inserts during irregular interrupted cut (variable delay between shocks).

  6. Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes

    MedlinePlus

    ... to make sure the animal didn't have rabies. Certain cuts or bites could lead to a ... purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  7. Cut without Killing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The zero-based curriculum model can help school boards and administrators make decisions about what to keep and what to cut. All instructional programs are ranked and judged in categories ranging from required to optional. (MLF)

  8. Material for Fast Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, A.

    1986-01-01

    New material for cutting tools increases productivity of machining processes. Material, called Iscanite (or equivalent), based on silicon nitride contains more than 90 percent silicon. Combines impact resistance close to that of coated carbides with heat and wear resistance close to those of aluminum oxide ceramics. Material used for cutting on old or new machine tools and makes it possible to exploit fully power and speed of machine.

  9. Laser cutting system

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  10. Aerobic moving bed bioreactor performance: a comparative study of removal efficiencies of kraft mill effluents from Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus as raw material.

    PubMed

    Villamar, C A; Jarpa, M; Decap, J; Vidal, G

    2009-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated during 333 days. Two different effluents were fed in six different phases. Phases I and II were fed with effluent where Pinus radiata was used as raw material, while phases III to VI were fed with effluent where Eucalyptus globulus was used as raw material. The HRT was reduced from 85 to 4 h, and the BOD(5):N:P ratio (100:5:1, 100:3:1 and 100:1:1) was also simultaneously evaluated as an operation strategy. When MBBR was operated with Pinus radiata influent, the performance presents a high BOD(5) removal level (above 95%), although COD removal is below 60%. Most of the recalcitrant COD contained in the effluent has a molecular weight higher than 10,000 Da. When MBBR was operated with Eucalyptus globulus influent, the performance is around 97.9-97.6% and 68.6-65.1% for BOD(5) and COD, respectively (with HRT up to 17 h). In the Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globus effluents, the color was mainly found in the molecular weight fraction up to 10,000 Daltons. PMID:19214005

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-07-30

    This is the fourth quarterly progress report for Year-3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between April 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)''; (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions''; (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''; (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  13. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  14. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-04-30

    This is the third quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Jan. 1, 2002 and Mar. 31, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop, progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); and (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  15. Whole-Ecosystem Labile Carbon Production in a North Temperate Deciduous Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, C. M.; Flower, C. E.; Vogel, C. S.; Dragoni, D.; Curtis, P. S.

    2008-12-01

    Management for forest carbon (C) sequestration requires knowledge of the fate of photosynthetic C. Labile C is an essential intermediary between C assimilation and growth in deciduous forests, accumulating when photosynthetic C supply exceeds demand and later depleting when reallocated to growth during periods of depressed photosynthesis. We developed a new approach that combined meteorological and biometric C cycling data for a mixed deciduous forest in Michigan, USA, to provide novel estimates of whole-ecosystem labile C production (PLC) and reallocation to growth inferred from the temporal imbalance between carbon supply from canopy net C assimilation (Ac) and C demand for net primary production (NPP). We substantiated these estimates with measurements of Populus grandidentata and Quercus rubra wood non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration and mass over two years. Our analysis showed that half of annual Ac was allocated to PLC rather than to immediate growth. Labile C produced during the latter half of summer later supported dormant-season growth and respiration, with 35% of NPP in a given year requiring labile C stored during previous years. Seasonal changes in wood NSC concentration and mass generally corroborated patterns of labile C production and reallocation to growth. We observed a negative relationship between current-year PLC and NPP, indicating that disparities between same-year meteorological and biometric net ecosystem production (NEP) estimates can arise when C assimilated via photosynthesis, a flux incorporated into meteorological NEP estimates, is diverted away from NPP, a flux included in biometric NEP estimates, and instead allocated to PLC. A large, annually recharging pool of labile C also may buffer growth from climate conditions that immediately affect Ac. We conclude that a broader understanding of labile C production and reallocation across ecosystems may be important to interpreting lagged canopy C cycling and growth processes.

  16. In Situ, High-Resolution Profiles of Labile Metals in Sediments of Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Gong, Mengdan; Li, Yangyang; Xu, Lv; Wang, Yan; Jing, Rui; Ding, Shiming; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing labile metal distribution and biogeochemical behavior in sediments is crucial for understanding their contamination characteristics in lakes, for which in situ, high-resolution data is scare. The diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique was used in-situ at five sites across Lake Taihu in the Yangtze River delta in China to characterize the distribution and mobility of eight labile metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Co and Cd) in sediments at a 3 mm spatial resolution. The results showed a great spatial heterogeneity in the distributions of redox-sensitive labile Fe, Mn and Co in sediments, while other metals had much less marked structure, except for downward decreases of labile Pb, Ni, Zn and Cu in the surface sediment layers. Similar distributions were found between labile Mn and Co and among labile Ni, Cu and Zn, reflecting a close link between their geochemical behaviors. The relative mobility, defined as the ratio of metals accumulated by DGT to the total contents in a volume of sediments with a thickness of 10 mm close to the surface of DGT probe, was the greatest for Mn and Cd, followed by Zn, Ni, Cu and Co, while Pb and Fe had the lowest mobility; this order generally agreed with that defined by the modified BCR approach. Further analyses showed that the downward increases of pH values in surface sediment layer may decrease the lability of Pb, Ni, Zn and Cu as detected by DGT, while the remobilization of redox-insensitive metals in deep sediment layer may relate to Mn cycling through sulphide coprecipitation, reflected by several corresponding minima between these metals and Mn. These in situ data provided the possibility for a deep insight into the mechanisms involved in the remobilization of metals in freshwater sediments. PMID:27608033

  17. Transfer Rates of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th for E. globulus, A. mearnsii, H. filipendula and Hazardous Effects of the Usage of Medicinal Plants From Around Gold Mine Dump Environs.

    PubMed

    Tshivhase, Victor M; Njinga, Raymond L; Mathuthu, Manny; Dlamini, Thulani C

    2015-12-01

    Medicinal plant consumption can be a source of human exposure to radioactive elements such as (238)U and (232)Th, which can lead to internal radiation doses. The uptake of (238)U and (232)Th from soils to the leaf samples of three different medicinal plant species (Eucalyptus globulus, Acacia mearnsii and Hyparrhenia filipendula) from the purlieu of the Princess gold mine dump, an abandoned contaminated tailings storage site (TSS), located at longitude 27°55'00″E and latitude 26°09'30″S in Davidsonville (Roodepoort, west of Johannesburg, South Africa) was measured. This was done using ICP-MS spectrometry and substantial differences were observed in the soil-plant transfer factor (TF) values between these radionuclides. The plant species E. globulus exhibited the highest uptake of (238)U, with an average TF of 3.97, while that of H. filipendula was 0.01 and the lowest TF of 0.15 × 10(-2) was measured for A. mearnsii. However, in the case of (232)Th, the highest average TF was observed for A. mearnsii (0.29), followed by E. globulus (0.10) and lowest was measured for H. filipendula (0.27 × 10(-2)). The ratio of TF average value i.e., (238)U to (232)Th in the soil-plant leaves was 38.05 for E. globulus, 0.01 for A. mearnsii and 4.38 for H. filipendula. PMID:26690462

  18. Transfer Rates of 238U and 232Th for E. globulus, A. mearnsii, H. filipendula and Hazardous Effects of the Usage of Medicinal Plants From Around Gold Mine Dump Environs

    PubMed Central

    Tshivhase, Victor M.; Njinga, Raymond L.; Mathuthu, Manny; Dlamini, Thulani C.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plant consumption can be a source of human exposure to radioactive elements such as 238U and 232Th, which can lead to internal radiation doses. The uptake of 238U and 232Th from soils to the leaf samples of three different medicinal plant species (Eucalyptus globulus, Acacia mearnsii and Hyparrhenia filipendula) from the purlieu of the Princess gold mine dump, an abandoned contaminated tailings storage site (TSS), located at longitude 27°55′00″E and latitude 26°09′30″S in Davidsonville (Roodepoort, west of Johannesburg, South Africa) was measured. This was done using ICP-MS spectrometry and substantial differences were observed in the soil-plant transfer factor (TF) values between these radionuclides. The plant species E. globulus exhibited the highest uptake of 238U, with an average TF of 3.97, while that of H. filipendula was 0.01 and the lowest TF of 0.15 × 10−2 was measured for A. mearnsii. However, in the case of 232Th, the highest average TF was observed for A. mearnsii (0.29), followed by E. globulus (0.10) and lowest was measured for H. filipendula (0.27 × 10−2). The ratio of TF average value i.e., 238U to 232Th in the soil-plant leaves was 38.05 for E. globulus, 0.01 for A. mearnsii and 4.38 for H. filipendula. PMID:26690462

  19. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  20. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  2. Effects of carbon substrate lability on carbon mineralization dynamics of tropical peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Könönen, Mari; Limin, Suwido; Vasander, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Extensive draining at tropical ombrotrophic peatlands in Southeast Asia has made them global 'hot spots' for greenhouse gas emissions. Management practises and fires have led to changed substrate status, which affects microbial processes. Here, we present the first data on how management practises affect carbon (C) mineralization processes at these soils. We compared the carbon mineralization potentials of pristine forest soils to those of drained fire affected soils at various depths, with and without additional labile substrates (glucose, glutamate and NO3-N) and in oxic and anoxic conditions by dedicated ex situ experiments. Carbon mineralization (CO2 and CH4 production) rates were higher in the pristine site peat, which contains more labile carbon due to higher input via vegetation. Production rates decreased with depth together with decreasing availability of labile carbon. Consequently, the increase in production rates after labile substrate addition was relatively modest from pristine site as compared to the managed site and from the top layers as compared to deeper layers. Methanogenesis had little importance in total carbon mineralization. Adding labile C and N enhanced heterotrophic CO2 production more than the sole addition of N. Surprisingly, oxygen availability was not an ultimate requirement for substantial CO2 production rates, but anoxic respiration yielded comparable rates, especially at the pristine soils. Flooding of these sites will therefore reduce, but not completely cease, peat carbon loss. Reintroduced substantial vegetation and fertilization in degraded peatlands can enrich recalcitrant peat with simple C and N compounds and thus increase microbiological activity.

  3. Cutting Guide for Fibrous Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A., D.

    1985-01-01

    Tool facilitates repetitive cutting of fibrous sheets. Flexible aluminum tape allows metal strips folded back on themselves, exposing fresh material for cutting. More than one strip folded back, and cutting width therefore increased in multiples of strip width. Developed for cutting strips of alumina-fiber matting, tool also used on such materials as felts, textiles, and sheet metals.

  4. Apparatus for cutting elastomeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbett, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    Sharp thin cutting edge is held in head of milling machine designed for metal working. Controls of machine are used to position cutting edge in same plane as vibrating specimen. Controls then are operated, making blade come into contact with specimen, to cut it into shapes and sizes desired. Cut surfaces appear mirror-smooth; vibrating mechanism causes no visible striations.

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  6. Cutting assembly. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Treuhaft, M.B.; Oser, M.S.

    1981-06-25

    A mining auger comprises a cutting head carried at one end of a tubular shaft and a plurality of wall segments which in a first position thereof are disposed side by side around said shaft and in a second position thereof are disposed oblique to said shaft. A vane projects outwardly from each wall segment. When the wall segments are in their first position, the vanes together form a substantially continuous helical wall. A cutter is mounted on the peripheral edge of each of the vanes. When the wall segments are in their second position, the cutters on the vanes are disposed radially outward from the perimeter of the cutting head.

  7. Radial cutting torch

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.C.

    1997-01-08

    The project`s aim is to complete development of the Radial Cutting Torch, a pyrotechnic cutter, for use in all downhole tubular cutting operations in the petroleum industry. Project objectives are to redesign and pressure test nozzle seals to increase product quality, reliability, and manufacturability; improve the mechanical anchor to increase its temperature tolerance and its ability to function in a wider variety of wellbore fluids; and redesign and pressure test the RCT nozzle for operation at pressures from 10 to 20 ksi. The proposal work statement is included in the statement of work for the grant via this reference.

  8. Harnessing Labile Bonds between Nanogels Particles to Create Self-Healing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakov, German; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna

    2009-03-01

    Using computational modeling, we demonstrate the self-healing behavior of novel materials composed of nanoscopic gel particles that are interconnected into a macroscopic network by both stable and labile bonds. Under mechanical stress, the labile bonds between the nanogels can break and readily reform with reactive groups on neighboring units. This breaking and reforming allows the units in the network to undergo a structural rearrangement that preserves the mechanical integrity of the sample. The stable bonds between the nanogels play an essential role by forming a backbone that provides a mechanical strength to the material. The simulations show that just a relatively small fraction of such labile bonds (roughly 15%) are needed to prevent the catastrophic failure of the sample. The findings provide guidelines for creating high-strength, self-healing materials.

  9. A reactivity-based probe of the intracellular labile ferrous iron pool.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Benjamin; Morgan, Charles W; Fontaine, Shaun D; Vander Wal, Mark N; Chang, Christopher J; Wells, James A; Renslo, Adam R

    2016-09-01

    Improved methods for studying intracellular reactive Fe(II) are of significant interest for studies of iron metabolism and disease-relevant changes in iron homeostasis. Here we describe a highly selective reactivity-based probe in which a Fenton-type reaction with intracellular labile Fe(II) leads to unmasking of the aminonucleoside puromycin. Puromycin leaves a permanent and dose-dependent mark on treated cells that can be detected with high sensitivity and precision using a high-content, plate-based immunofluorescence assay. Using this new probe and screening approach, we detected alteration of cellular labile Fe(II) in response extracellular iron conditioning, overexpression of iron storage and/or export proteins, and post-translational regulation of iron export. We also used this new tool to demonstrate that labile Fe(II) pools are larger in cancer cells than in nontumorigenic cells. PMID:27376690

  10. Atmospheric deposition of metallic pollutants over the Ligurian Sea: labile and residual inputs.

    PubMed

    Sandroni, Valérie; Migon, Christophe

    2002-05-01

    Atmospheric fluxes of six trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) with Al as a crustal reference were measured at Cap Ferrat (French Riviera) between February 1997 and July 1998. An original sampling protocol enabled the separation of labile (seawater at pH 2) and residual fractions in the total atmospheric input. Median acid-labile fractions were 91%, 69%, 83%, 84%, 97% and 98% of the total for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. Under the conditions used, lability of individual metals is related to the anthropogenic component of the samples. Enrichment factors and anthropogenic fraction are estimated for each metal. Some interannual changes are investigated (Pb, Zn). The observed increase of Zn inputs may be linked to local input from the Nice district waste plant (commissioned in 1988), 6.5 km away. PMID:12079071

  11. The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor increases mercury lability and methylation in intertidal mudflats.

    PubMed

    Sizmur, Tom; Canário, João; Edmonds, Samuel; Godfrey, Adam; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2013-08-01

    The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor engineers its environment by creating oxygenated burrows in anoxic intertidal sediments. The authors carried out a laboratory microcosm experiment to test the impact of polychaete burrowing and feeding activity on the lability and methylation of mercury in sediments from the Bay of Fundy, Canada. The concentration of labile inorganic mercury and methylmercury in burrow walls was elevated compared to worm-free sediments. Mucus secretions and organic detritus in worm burrows increased labile mercury concentrations. Worms decreased sulfide concentrations, which increased Hg bioavailability to sulfate-reducing bacteria and increased methylmercury concentrations in burrow linings. Because the walls of polychaete burrows have a greater interaction with organisms, and the overlying water, the concentrations of mercury and methylmercury they contain is more toxicologically relevant to the base of a coastal food web than bulk samples. The authors recommend that researchers examining Hg in marine environments account for sediment dwelling invertebrate activity to more fully assess mercury bioavailability. PMID:23633443

  12. Labile and Paroxysmal Hypertension: Common Clinical Dilemmas in Need of Treatment Studies.

    PubMed

    Mann, Samuel J

    2015-11-01

    Although "labile hypertension" is regularly encountered by clinicians, there is a paucity of information available to guide therapeutic decisions. This review discusses its clinical relevance, the limitations of current knowledge, and possible directions for future research and clinical management. Results of studies that assessed measures of blood pressure variability or reactivity are reviewed. The limited information about effects of antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure variability is discussed. Two different clinical presentations are differentiated: labile hypertension and paroxysmal hypertension. Labile hypertension remains a clinical impression without defined criteria or treatment guidance. Paroxysmal hypertension, also called pseudopheochromocytoma, presents as dramatic episodes of abrupt and severe blood pressure elevation. The disorder can be disabling. Although it regularly raises suspicion of a pheochromocytoma, such a tumor is found in <2 % of patients. The cause, which involves both emotional factors and the sympathetic nervous system, and treatment approaches, are presented. PMID:26370555

  13. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  14. Mood lability among offspring of parents with bipolar disorder and community controls

    PubMed Central

    Birmaher, Boris; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Axelson, David A; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Fan, Jieyu; Iyengar, Satish; Ha, Wonho; Diler, Rasim S; Goldstein, Tina; Brent, David; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Sakolsky, Dara; Kupfer, David J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Early identification of bipolar disorder (BP) symptomatology is crucial for improving the prognosis of this illness. Increased mood lability has been reported in BP. However, mood lability is ubiquitous across psychiatric disorders and may be a marker of severe psychopathology and not specific to BP. To clarify this issue, this study examined the prevalence of mood lability and its components in offspring of BP parents and offspring of community control parents recruited through the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study. Methods Forty-one school-age BP offspring of 38 BP parents, 257 healthy or non-BP offspring of 174 BP parents, and 192 offspring of 117 control parents completed a scale that was developed to evaluate mood lability in youth, i.e., the Children’s Affective Lability Scale (CALS). Results A factor analysis of the parental CALS, and in part the child CALS, revealed Irritability, Mania, and Anxiety/Depression factors, with most of the variance explained by the Irritability factor. After adjusting for confounding factors (e.g., parental and offspring non-BP psychopathology), BP offspring of BP parents showed the highest parental and child total and factor scores, followed by the non-BP offspring of BP parents, and then the offspring of the controls. Conclusions Mood lability overall and mania-like, anxious/depressed, and particularly irritability symptoms may be a prodromal phenotype of BP among offspring of parents with BP. Prospective studies are warranted to clarify whether these symptoms will predict the development of BP and/or other psychopathology. If confirmed, these symptoms may become a target of treatment and biological studies before BP develops. PMID:23551755

  15. Labile iron in cells and body fluids: physiology, pathology, and pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Cabantchik, Zvi Ioav

    2014-01-01

    In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI) composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the medium redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower μM range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS) formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (Tf; that renders iron essentially non-labile), in systemic iron overload (IO), the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma Tf approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI) emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of IO, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in intravenous iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI) following parenteral iron administration

  16. Radiation-induced heat-labile sites that convert into DNA double-strand breaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The yield of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in SV40 DNA irradiated in aqueous solution was found to increase by more than a factor of two as a result of postirradiation incubation of the DNA at 50 degrees C and pH 8.0 for 24 h. This is in agreement with data from studies performed at 37 degrees C that were published previously. Importantly, similar results were also obtained from irradiation of mammalian DNA in agarose plugs. These results suggest that heat-labile sites within locally multiply damaged sites are produced by radiation and are subsequently transformed into DSBs. Since incubation at 50 degrees C is typically employed for lysis of cells in commonly used pulsed-field gel assays for detection of DSBs in mammalian cells, the possibility that heat-labile sites are present in irradiated cells was also studied. An increase in the apparent number of DSBs as a function of lysis time at 50 degrees C was found with kinetics that was similar to that for irradiated DNA, although the magnitude of the increase was smaller. This suggests that heat-labile sites are also formed in the cell. If this is the case, a proportion of DSBs measured by the pulsed-field gel assays may occur during the lysis step and may not be present in the cell as breaks but as heat-labile sites. It is suggested that such sites consist mainly of heat-labile sugar lesions within locally multiply damaged sites. Comparing rejoining of DSBs measured with short and long lysis procedure indicates that the heat-labile sites are repaired with fast kinetics in comparison with repair of the bulk of DSBs.

  17. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu; Sri Suresh Kumar Thiroveedhula

    2000-04-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with water under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic drilling fluids. Initial calibration tests have been conducted by using water. Currently, the base oil of the Petrobras synthetic drilling fluid is being tested. Foam flow experiments have been conducted. Currently, more experiments are being conducted while data are being analyzed to characterize the rheology of the foam. Cuttings transport experiments have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Preliminary results have shown that it may not be possible to avoid cuttings bed deposition under any practical combination of air and water flow rates. Foam stability analyses have been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. A software for controlling the data sampling and data storage during cuttings monitoring process have been developed.

  18. Electron beam cutting

    DOEpatents

    Mochel, Margaret E.; Humphreys, Colin J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions.

  19. Electron beam cutting

    DOEpatents

    Mochel, M.E.; Humphreys, C.J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions. 2 figs.

  20. Classroom Cut Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Discovering identity can be a lifelong challenge for some people, while others seem to figure it out right away. During the middle school years, finding one's identity can be a daunting task. Most students will spend a considerable amount of time during these middle years looking for it. This lesson on cut-paper self-portraits lets students delve…

  1. Collaborating To Cut Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strosnider, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Private colleges across the country are collaborating to cut costs, streamline services, and increase efficiency. An ambitious Ohio project, involving 35 colleges, to redesign business operations hopes to save $20-25 million. Other efforts include joint classes using interactive television, shared library resources, cross-registration, jointly…

  2. Cuts endanger more services.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-06-01

    WHEN BARNSLEY council put out its tender for the 0-19 service last autumn, it laid down strict criteria. A ceiling of £4.8 million a year was put on any bids for the service, which incorporates school nursing teams and health visitors. That represented a cut of more than £1 million on the existing contract. PMID:27266736

  3. A Cut below

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Today, thousands of California students worry about vanishing college affordability and access, especially for historically under-represented and marginalized populations. The author reports on how students and faculty throughout California are grappling with the effects of draconian state cuts to postsecondary education that have topped more than…

  4. Think before You Cut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettifor, Ann

    2010-01-01

    With the main political parties set on reducing public spending, one might be forgiven for supposing that "savage" cuts are the only way forward. However, the author believes there are alternatives, and that is why public education about the financial system is so important. Today, UK is trying to clear up a mess--a mess made by the greedy and…

  5. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  6. Kids Who Cut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Doris Rhea; Simpson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of whether it is cutting, burning or some other form of self-harm, self-injury is a serious problem requiring serious solutions. This article reviews the various types of self-harm, descriptions of self-mutilators, common myths about self-mutilation, and effective treatment methods. (GCP)

  7. Labile carbon concentrations are strongly linked to plant production in Arctic tussock tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Weintraub, M. N.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Steltzer, H.; Sullivan, P.

    2013-12-01

    The exchange of carbon and nutrients between plants and microbes is a key determinant of carbon balance in Arctic soils. Microbes rely on labile plant carbon for the energy they need to produce enzymes that can release nutrients and less energetically favorable carbon from soil organic matter. One of the main mechanisms of carbon transfer is rhizodeposition, the exudation of labile plant carbon such as sugars from roots into the rhizosphere. Despite the importance of this flow of energy and materials from plants to microbes, there have been few attempts to quantify labile carbon pools or fluxes in Arctic soils. To improve our knowledge of labile carbon dynamics in Arctic soils, we address two basic questions: (1) What are the seasonal patterns of labile carbon concentrations? and (2) How do seasonal patterns in labile carbon correlate with plant production, microbial biomass, and soil nutrients? We measured concentrations of total reducing sugars (TRS) in the soil solution of moist acidic tussock tundra on 28 dates during the 2012 growing season in 20 plots of an early snowmelt × warming experiment. We evaluated these total reducing sugar concentrations in the context of eddy flux carbon exchange data, plant NDVI, total dissolved carbon in soils, microbial biomass, and soil nutrients. Though we did not see treatment effects of the snowmelt × warming experiment, we did observe a clear seasonal pattern in TRS concentrations in which they started low at the time of thaw, then built to a maximum value around the time of peak plant physiology in July, followed by a decline as plants senesced. We observed a clear correlation between TRS and gross primary production (GPP). NDVI values also increased with TRS concentrations during the first half of the season and then leveled off as TRS began its decline. These relationships were in contrast to labile N concentrations, which remained at low concentrations all season. Our data suggest that rhizodeposition of labile carbon

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Eucalyptus globulus using explants with shoot apex with introduction of bacterial choline oxidase gene to enhance salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Etsuko; Nanto, Kazuya; Oishi, Masatoshi; Ebinuma, Hiroyasu; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Shimada, Teruhisa

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most economically important plantation hardwoods for paper making. However, its low transformation frequency has prevented genetic engineering of this species with useful genes. We found the hypocotyl section with a shoot apex has the highest regeneration ability among another hypocotyl sections, and have developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method using these materials. We then introduced a salt tolerance gene, namely a bacterial choline oxidase gene (codA) with a GUS reporter gene, into E. globulus. The highest frequency of transgenic shoot regeneration from hypocotyls with shoot apex was 7.4% and the average frequency in four experiments was 4.0%, 12-fold higher than that from hypocotyls without shoot apex. Using about 10,000 explants, over 250 regenerated buds were confirmed as transformants by GUS analysis. Southern blot analysis of 100 elongated shoots confirmed successful generation of stable transformants. Accumulation of glycinebetaine was investigated in 44 selected transgenic lines, which showed 1- to 12-fold higher glycinebetaine levels than non-transgenic controls. Rooting of 16 transgenic lines was successful using a photoautotrophic method under enrichment with 1,000 ppm CO(2). The transgenic whole plantlets were transplanted into potting soil and grown normally in a growth room. They showed salt tolerance to 300 mM NaCl. The points of our system are using explants with shoot apex as materials, inhibiting the elongation of the apex on the selection medium, and regenerating transgenic buds from the side opposite to the apex. This approach may also solve transformation problems in other important plants. PMID:22009051

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  10. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Ramos, T.J.

    1982-09-30

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece.

  11. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Ramos, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  12. Skylab Exhibit Ribbon Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A metal strap became tangled over one of the folded solar array panels when Skylab lost its micro meteoroid shield during its launch. Cutters like the ones used to free the solar array were used to cut the ribbon opening to the public a new full-scale Skylab cluster exhibit at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Wielding the cutters are (left to right): Alabama Senator James B. Allen; Marshall Space Flight Center director, Dr. William R. Lucas, Huntsville Mayor, Joe Davis; Madison County Commission Chairman, James Record (standing behind Mayor Davis); and chairman of the Alabama Space Science Exhibit Commission, Jack Giles. Astronauts Conrad and Kerwin used the same type of tool in Earth orbit to cut the aluminum strap which jammed the Skylab solar array.

  13. Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to investigate the content of carbohydrates and amino compounds in three labile fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). Soil samples were collected from two agricultural fields in southern Italy and the light fraction (LF), the 500–53-µm particulate organic matter (POM) and the mobil...

  14. Labile compounds in plant litter reduce the sensitivity of decomposition to warming and altered precipitation.

    PubMed

    Suseela, Vidya; Tharayil, Nishanth; Xing, Baoshan; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2013-10-01

    Together, climate and litter quality strongly regulate decomposition rates. Although these two factors and their interaction have been studied across species in continent-scale experiments, few researchers have studied how labile and recalcitrant compounds interact to influence decomposition, or the climate sensitivity of decomposition, within a litter type. Over a period of 3 yr, we studied the effects of warming and altered precipitation on mass loss and compound-specific decomposition using two litter types that possessed similar heteropolymer chemistry, but different proportions of labile and recalcitrant compounds. Climate treatments immediately affected the mass loss of the more recalcitrant litter, but affected the more labile litter only after 2 yr. After 3 yr, although both litter types had lost similar amounts of mass, warming (c. 4°C) and supplemental precipitation (150% of ambient) together accelerated the degradation of alkyl-carbon and lignin only in the more recalcitrant litter, highlighting the role of initial litter quality in determining whether the chemistry of litter residues converges or diverges under different climates. Our finding that labile compounds in litter reduce the climate sensitivity of mass loss and the decomposition of recalcitrant matrix is novel. Our results highlight the potential for litter quality to regulate the effect of climatic changes on the sequestration of litter-derived carbon. PMID:23822593

  15. Similarity of Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins in Level and Lability of Subclinically Depressed Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wierzbicki, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Ninety-two adult twin-pairs were recruited. Twin zygosity was determined by self-report inventory. Monozygotic twins resembled one another more than dizygotic twins in most measures of both level and lability of mood, which provides modest evidence for a genetic influence on subclinical levels of depression. (Author/ABB)

  16. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing.

    PubMed

    Donner, E; Scheckel, K; Sekine, R; Popelka-Filcoff, R S; Bennett, J W; Brunetti, G; Naidu, R; McGrath, S P; Lombi, E

    2015-10-01

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that biosolids Ag concentrations have decreased significantly over recent decades. XANES revealed the importance of reduced-sulfur binding environments for Ag speciation in materials ranging from freshly produced sludge to biosolids weathered under ambient environmental conditions for more than 50 years. Isotopic dilution with (110 m)Ag showed that Ag was predominantly non-labile in both fresh and aged biosolids (13.7% mean lability), with E-values ranging from 0.3 to 60 mg/kg and 5 mM CaNO3 extractable Ag from 1.2 to 609 μg/kg (0.002-3.4% of the total Ag). This study indicates that at the time of soil application, biosolids Ag will be predominantly Ag-sulfides and characterised by low isotopic lability. PMID:26021819

  17. [Effects of straw application and earthworm inoculation on soil labile organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Guang; Li, Hui Xin; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Hu, Feng

    2007-04-01

    A six-year field plot experiment of rice-wheat rotation was conducted to study the effects of straw application and earthworm inoculation on cropland soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon. Five treatments were installed, i.e., CK, straw mulch (M), straw mulch plus earthworm inoculation (ME), incorporated straw with soil (I), and incorporated straw with soil plus earthworm inoculation (IE). The results showed that soil organic carbon content increased significantly after six years straw application, and treatment I was more efficient than treatment M. Earthworm inoculation under straw application had no significant effects on soil organic carbon content. Straw application, whether straw mulch or incorporated straw with soil, increased the content of soil labile organic carbon, and incorporated straw with soil was more beneficial to the increase of the contents of hot water-extractable carbon, potentially mineralizable carbon, acid-extractable carbon, readily oxidizable carbon, particulate organic carbon, and light fraction organic carbon. There was a little relationship between the quantitative variations of soil dissoluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon and the patterns of straw application. Among the treatments, the activity of soil organic carbon was decreased in the order of IF > I > M > ME > CK. Straw application pattern was the main factor affecting soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon, while earthworm inoculation was not universally significanfly effective to all kinds of soil labile organic carbon. PMID:17615878

  18. Enzymatically- and Ultraviolet-labile Phosphorus in Humic Acid Fractions From Rice Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humic acid is an important soil component which can improve nutrient availability and impact other important chemical, biological, and physical properties of soils. We investigated the lability of phosphorus (P) in the mobile humic acid (MHA) and calcium humate (CaHA) fractions of four rice soils as...

  19. Forms and Lability of Phosphorus in Humic Acid Fractions of Hord Silt Loam Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) has long been known to be present in soil humic fractions, but little is known about specific P forms in humic fractions, or their lability. We extracted the mobile humic acid (MHA) and recalcitrant calcium humate (CaHA) fractions from a Nebraska Hord silt loam soil under continuous c...

  20. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that...

  1. Measurement of labile copper in wine by medium exchange stripping potentiometry utilising screen printed carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew C; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2016-07-01

    The presence of copper in wine is known to impact the reductive, oxidative and colloidal stability of wine, and techniques enabling measurement of different forms of copper in wine are of particular interest in understanding these spoilage processes. Electrochemical stripping techniques developed to date require significant pretreatment of wine, potentially disturbing the copper binding equilibria. A thin mercury film on a screen printed carbon electrode was utilised in a flow system for the direct analysis of labile copper in red and white wine by constant current stripping potentiometry with medium exchange. Under the optimised conditions, including an enrichment time of 500s and constant current of 1.0μA, the response range was linear from 0.015 to 0.200mg/L. The analysis of 52 red and white wines showed that this technique generally provided lower labile copper concentrations than reported for batch measurement by related techniques. Studies in a model system and in finished wines showed that the copper sulfide was not measured as labile copper, and that loss of hydrogen sulfide via volatilisation induced an increase in labile copper within the model wine system. PMID:27154696

  2. Manual bamboo cutting tool.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Mariana Pereira; Correia, Walter Franklin Marques; da Costa Campos, Fabio Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a cutting tool guide, specifically for the harvest of bamboo. The development was made based on precepts of eco-design and ergonomics, for prioritizing the physical health of the operator and the maintenance of the environment, as well as meet specific requirements of bamboo. The main goal is to spread the use of bamboo as construction material, handicrafts, among others, from a handy, easy assembly and material available tool. PMID:22317613

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability/Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that, for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion regulation was a mediator between emotion lability/negativity and internalizing symptomatology, whereas emotion lability/negativity was not a mediator between emotion regulation and internalizing symptomatology. Early maltreatment was associated with high emotion lability/negativity (age 7) that contributed to poor emotion regulation (age 8), which in turn was predictive of increases in internalizing symptomatology (from age 8 to 9). The results imply important roles of emotion regulation in the development of internalizing symptomatology, especially for children with high emotion lability/negativity. PMID:23034132

  6. Oxygen consumption and labile dissolved organic carbon uptake by benthic biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Falco, Natalie; Boano, Fulvio; Arnon, Shai

    2015-04-01

    Biogeochemical activity in streams is often magnified at interfaces, such as in the case of biofilm growth near the surface of the stream sediments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of surficial biofilms versus the biofilm in the hyporheic zone to the processes of biodegradation of a labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and to oxygen consumption. Experiments were conducted in a recirculating flume, equipped with a drainage system that enables the control on losing and gaining fluxes. A surficial biofilm was developed over a sandy streambed with dune-shaped bed forms, by providing labile DOC (sodium benzoate) and nitrate. Homogeneously distributed biofilm was obtained by the same feeding strategy but with mixing the sediments manually on a daily basis. After the biofilm growth period, transformation of the labile DOC under different overlying velocities and losing or gaining fluxes was studied after spiking with sodium benzoate and by monitoring the decrease in DOC concentration in the bulk water over time using an online UV/Vis spectrophotometer. In addition, oxygen profiles across the water-streambed interface were measured at different locations along the bed form using oxygen microelectrodes. Preliminary results showed that the rate of labile DOC degradation increased exponentially with increasing overlying water velocity, regardless of the type of biofilm. Gaining and losing conditions did not play a critical role in the DOC degradation regardless of the type of biofilm, because the labile DOC was quickly utilized close to the surface. Under losing conditions, complete depletion of oxygen was observed within the top 5 millimeters, regardless of the biofilm type. In contrast, oxygen profiles under gaining condition showed an incomplete consumption of oxygen followed by an increase in the concentration of oxygen deeper in the sediments due to the upward flow of oxygenated groundwater. The results suggest that the transformation

  7. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pus. For Bleeding From a Large Cut or Laceration: Wash the wound thoroughly with water. This will ... immediate medical attention for all large cuts or lacerations, or if: you're unable to stop the ...

  8. Reagan Administration Prepares Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Describes tentative federal budget cuts affecting science education in the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, and the specific areas these budget cuts will affect. (DS)

  9. Using isotopic dilution to assess chemical extraction of labile Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in soils.

    PubMed

    Garforth, J M; Bailey, E H; Tye, A M; Young, S D; Lofts, S

    2016-07-01

    Chemical extractants used to measure labile soil metal must ideally select for and solubilise the labile fraction, with minimal solubilisation of non-labile metal. We assessed four extractants (0.43 M HNO3, 0.43 M CH3COOH, 0.05 M Na2H2EDTA and 1 M CaCl2) against these requirements. For soils contaminated by contrasting sources, we compared isotopically exchangeable Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb (EValue, mg kg(-1)), with the concentrations of metal solubilised by the chemical extractants (MExt, mg kg(-1)). Crucially, we also determined isotopically exchangeable metal in the soil-extractant systems (EExt, mg kg(-1)). Thus 'EExt - EValue' quantifies the concentration of mobilised non-labile metal, while 'EExt - MExt' represents adsorbed labile metal in the presence of the extractant. Extraction with CaCl2 consistently underestimated EValue for Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, while providing a reasonable estimate of EValue for Cd. In contrast, extraction with HNO3 both consistently mobilised non-labile metal and overestimated the EValue. Extraction with CH3COOH appeared to provide a good estimate of EValue for Cd; however, this was the net outcome of incomplete solubilisation of labile metal, and concurrent mobilisation of non-labile metal by the extractant (MExtEValue). The Na2H2EDTA extractant mobilised some non-labile metal in three of the four soils, but consistently solubilised the entire labile fraction for all soil-metal combinations (MExt ≈ EExt). Comparison of EValue, MExt and EExt provides a rigorous means of assessing the underlying action of soil chemical extraction methods and could be used to refine long-standing soil extraction methodologies. PMID:27153236

  10. Glaciers as a source of ancient and labile organic matter to the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Hood, Eran; Fellman, Jason; Spencer, Robert G M; Hernes, Peter J; Edwards, Rick; D'Amore, David; Scott, Durelle

    2009-12-24

    Riverine organic matter supports of the order of one-fifth of estuarine metabolism. Coastal ecosystems are therefore sensitive to alteration of both the quantity and lability of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (DOM) delivered by rivers. The lability of DOM is thought to vary with age, with younger, relatively unaltered organic matter being more easily metabolized by aquatic heterotrophs than older, heavily modified material. This view is developed exclusively from work in watersheds where terrestrial plant and soil sources dominate streamwater DOM. Here we characterize streamwater DOM from 11 coastal watersheds on the Gulf of Alaska that vary widely in glacier coverage (0-64 per cent). In contrast to non-glacial rivers, we find that the bioavailability of DOM to marine microorganisms is significantly correlated with increasing (14)C age. Moreover, the most heavily glaciated watersheds are the source of the oldest ( approximately 4 kyr (14)C age) and most labile (66 per cent bioavailable) DOM. These glacial watersheds have extreme runoff rates, in part because they are subject to some of the highest rates of glacier volume loss on Earth. We estimate the cumulative flux of dissolved organic carbon derived from glaciers contributing runoff to the Gulf of Alaska at 0.13 +/- 0.01 Tg yr(-1) (1 Tg = 10(12) g), of which approximately 0.10 Tg is highly labile. This indicates that glacial runoff is a quantitatively important source of labile reduced carbon to marine ecosystems. Moreover, because glaciers and ice sheets represent the second largest reservoir of water in the global hydrologic system, our findings indicate that climatically driven changes in glacier volume could alter the age, quantity and reactivity of DOM entering coastal oceans. PMID:20033045

  11. Drilling cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  13. Photochemical cutting of fabrics

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged.

  14. Photochemical cutting of fabrics

    SciTech Connect

    Piltch, M.S.

    1994-11-22

    Apparatus is described for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged. 1 fig.

  15. The cutting edge.

    PubMed

    Hagland, M; Lumsdon, K; Montague, J; Serb, C

    1995-08-01

    With managed care payment becoming the norm, employers actively pursuing keener benefits management, health care markets evolving at warp speed, and clinical and information technologies spawning new capabilities every day, the cutting edge in health care keeps slicing ever-deeper. With that in mind, we at Hospitals & Health Networks have developed a browser's compendium of some of the leading people, places (organizations and programs) and technologies that are helping move the field forward into the next stage. Each entry is unique; what they all share is an innovative quality that others will emulate. PMID:7627230

  16. Vibrator improves spark erosion cutting process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrall, L. R.

    1966-01-01

    Variable frequency mechanical vibrator improves spark erosion cutting process. The vibration of the cutting tip permits continual flushing away of residue around the cut area with nondestructive electric transformer oil during the cutting process.

  17. Adhesin degradation accelerates delivery of heat-labile toxin by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Roy, Koushik; Kansal, Rita; Bartels, Scott R; Hamilton, David J; Shaaban, Salwa; Fleckenstein, James M

    2011-08-26

    Many enteric pathogens, including enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), produce one or more serine proteases that are secreted via the autotransporter (or type V) bacterial secretion pathway. These molecules have collectively been referred to as SPATE proteins (serine protease autotransporter of the Enterobacteriaceae). EatA, an autotransporter previously identified in ETEC, possesses a functional serine protease motif within its secreted amino-terminal passenger domain. Although this protein is expressed by many ETEC strains and is highly immunogenic, its precise function is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that EatA degrades a recently characterized adhesin, EtpA, resulting in modulation of bacterial adhesion and accelerated delivery of the heat-labile toxin, a principal ETEC virulence determinant. Antibodies raised against the passenger domain of EatA impair ETEC delivery of labile toxin to epithelial cells suggesting that EatA may be an effective target for vaccine development. PMID:21757737

  18. Flocculated meltwater particles control Arctic land-sea fluxes of labile iron

    PubMed Central

    Markussen, Thor Nygaard; Elberling, Bo; Winter, Christian; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest

    2016-01-01

    Glacial meltwater systems supply the Arctic coastal ocean with large volumes of sediment and potentially bioavailable forms of iron, nitrogen and carbon. The particulate fraction of this supply is significant but estuarine losses have been thought to limit the iron supply from land. Here, our results reveal how flocculation (particle aggregation) involving labile iron may increase horizontal transport rather than enhance deposition close to the source. This is shown by combining field observations in Disko Fjord, West Greenland, and laboratory experiments. Our data show how labile iron affects floc sizes, shapes and densities and consequently yields low settling velocities and extended sediment plumes. We highlight the importance of understanding the flocculation mechanisms when examining fluxes of meltwater transported iron in polar regions today and in the future, and we underline the influence of terrestrial hotspots on the nutrient and solute cycles in Arctic coastal waters. PMID:27050673

  19. The Effect of Multiple Parallel Bonds on the Self-healing of Labile Crosslinked Nanogel Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salib, Isaac G.; Kolmakov, German V.; Gnegy, Chet N.; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna C.

    2011-03-01

    We develop a hybrid computational approach to examine the mechanical properties and self-healing behavior of nanogel particles that are crosslinked primarily by highly reactive bonds that can break and readily remake (labile bonds). The individual nanogels are modeled via the lattice spring model (LSM). The crosslinks between the nanogels are simulated via a modified Hierarchical Bell Model (HBM), which allows us to capture both the rupturing and reforming of multiple, parallel bonds due to an applied force. Using our hybrid HBM/LSM, we simulate the behavior of the crosslinked nanogels under a tensile deformation. In these simulations, each labile linkage between the nanogels contains at most N parallel bonds. We reveal that while numerous parallel bonds within a linkage enhance the strength of the material, these bonds diminish the ductility and the ability of the material to undergo the structural rearrangements that are necessary for self-repair.

  20. Flocculated meltwater particles control Arctic land-sea fluxes of labile iron.

    PubMed

    Markussen, Thor Nygaard; Elberling, Bo; Winter, Christian; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest

    2016-01-01

    Glacial meltwater systems supply the Arctic coastal ocean with large volumes of sediment and potentially bioavailable forms of iron, nitrogen and carbon. The particulate fraction of this supply is significant but estuarine losses have been thought to limit the iron supply from land. Here, our results reveal how flocculation (particle aggregation) involving labile iron may increase horizontal transport rather than enhance deposition close to the source. This is shown by combining field observations in Disko Fjord, West Greenland, and laboratory experiments. Our data show how labile iron affects floc sizes, shapes and densities and consequently yields low settling velocities and extended sediment plumes. We highlight the importance of understanding the flocculation mechanisms when examining fluxes of meltwater transported iron in polar regions today and in the future, and we underline the influence of terrestrial hotspots on the nutrient and solute cycles in Arctic coastal waters. PMID:27050673

  1. Flocculated meltwater particles control Arctic land-sea fluxes of labile iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markussen, Thor Nygaard; Elberling, Bo; Winter, Christian; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest

    2016-04-01

    Glacial meltwater systems supply the Arctic coastal ocean with large volumes of sediment and potentially bioavailable forms of iron, nitrogen and carbon. The particulate fraction of this supply is significant but estuarine losses have been thought to limit the iron supply from land. Here, our results reveal how flocculation (particle aggregation) involving labile iron may increase horizontal transport rather than enhance deposition close to the source. This is shown by combining field observations in Disko Fjord, West Greenland, and laboratory experiments. Our data show how labile iron affects floc sizes, shapes and densities and consequently yields low settling velocities and extended sediment plumes. We highlight the importance of understanding the flocculation mechanisms when examining fluxes of meltwater transported iron in polar regions today and in the future, and we underline the influence of terrestrial hotspots on the nutrient and solute cycles in Arctic coastal waters.

  2. Protein degradation by ubiquitin–proteasome system in formation and labilization of contextual conditioning memory

    PubMed Central

    Sol Fustiñana, María; de la Fuente, Verónica; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this case, the inhibition of the UPS during consolidation impairs memory. Similar results were reported for memory reconsolidation. However, in other cases, the inhibition of UPS had no effect on memory consolidation and reconsolidation but impedes the amnesic action of protein synthesis inhibition after retrieval. The last finding suggests a specific action of the UPS inhibitor on memory labilization. However, another interpretation is possible in terms of the synthesis/degradation balance of positive and negative elements in neural plasticity, as was found in the case of long-term potentiation. To evaluate these alternative interpretations, other reconsolidation-interfering drugs than translation inhibitors should be tested. Here we analyzed initially the UPS inhibitor effect in contextual conditioning in crabs. We found that UPS inhibition during consolidation impaired long-term memory. In contrast, UPS inhibition did not affect memory reconsolidation after contextual retrieval but, in fact, impeded memory labilization, blocking the action of drugs that does not affect directly the protein synthesis. To extend these finding to vertebrates, we performed similar experiments in contextual fear memory in mice. We found that the UPS inhibitor in hippocampus affected memory consolidation and blocked memory labilization after retrieval. These findings exclude alternative interpretations to the requirement of UPS in memory labilization and give evidence of this mechanism in both vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:25135196

  3. Protein degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome system in formation and labilization of contextual conditioning memory.

    PubMed

    Sol Fustiñana, María; de la Fuente, Verónica; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this case, the inhibition of the UPS during consolidation impairs memory. Similar results were reported for memory reconsolidation. However, in other cases, the inhibition of UPS had no effect on memory consolidation and reconsolidation but impedes the amnesic action of protein synthesis inhibition after retrieval. The last finding suggests a specific action of the UPS inhibitor on memory labilization. However, another interpretation is possible in terms of the synthesis/degradation balance of positive and negative elements in neural plasticity, as was found in the case of long-term potentiation. To evaluate these alternative interpretations, other reconsolidation-interfering drugs than translation inhibitors should be tested. Here we analyzed initially the UPS inhibitor effect in contextual conditioning in crabs. We found that UPS inhibition during consolidation impaired long-term memory. In contrast, UPS inhibition did not affect memory reconsolidation after contextual retrieval but, in fact, impeded memory labilization, blocking the action of drugs that does not affect directly the protein synthesis. To extend these finding to vertebrates, we performed similar experiments in contextual fear memory in mice. We found that the UPS inhibitor in hippocampus affected memory consolidation and blocked memory labilization after retrieval. These findings exclude alternative interpretations to the requirement of UPS in memory labilization and give evidence of this mechanism in both vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:25135196

  4. Labile and stabilised fractions of soil organic carbon in some intensively cultivated alluvial soils.

    PubMed

    Verma, B C; Datta, S P; Rattan, R K; Singh, A K

    2013-11-01

    The present investigation was undertaken in view of the limited information on the relative proportion of labile and stabilized fractions of soil organic carbon (SOC) in intensively cultivated lands, particularly under tropics. The specific objectives were i) to study the comparative recovery of SOC by different methods of labile carbon estimation under intensively cultivated lands and ii) to evaluate the impact of agricultural practices on carbon management index. For this purpose, in all, 105 surface soil samples were collected from intensively cultivated tube well and sewage irrigated agricultural lands. These samples were analysed for total as well as labile pools of SOC. Results indicated that Walkley and Black, KMnO4-oxidizable and microbial biomass carbon constituted the total SOC to the extent of 10.2 to 47.4, 1.66 to 23.2 and 0.30 to 5.49%, respectively with the corresponding mean values of 26.2, 9.16 and 2.15%. Lability of SOC was considerably higher in sewage irrigated soils than tube well irrigated soils under intensive cropping. Under soybean-wheat, the higher values of carbon management index (CMI) (279 and 286) were associated with the treatments where entire amount of nitrogen was supplied through FYM. Similar results were obtained under rice-wheat, whereas in case of maize-wheat the highest value of CMI was recorded under treatment receiving NPK through chemical fertilizer along with green manure. There was also a significant improvement in CMI under integrated (chemical fertilizer + organics) and chemical fertilizer-treated plots. The values of CMI ranged from 220 to 272 under cultivated lands receiving irrigation through sewage and industrial effluents. PMID:24555339

  5. A Solvent-Free Thermosponge Nanoparticle Platform for Efficient Delivery of Labile Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein therapeutics have gained attention recently for treatment of a myriad of human diseases due to their high potency and unique mechanisms of action. We present the development of a novel polymeric thermosponge nanoparticle for efficient delivery of labile proteins using a solvent-free polymer thermo-expansion mechanism with clinical potential, capable of effectively delivering a range of therapeutic proteins in a sustained manner with no loss of bioactivity, with improved biological half-lives and efficacy in vivo. PMID:25333768

  6. Calcium oscillations and T-wave lability precede ventricular arrhythmias in acquired long QT type 2

    PubMed Central

    Němec, Jan; Kim, Jong J.; Gabris, Beth; Salama, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Background Alternans of intracellular Ca2+ (Cai) underlies T-wave alternans, a predictor of cardiac arrhythmias. A related phenomenon, T-Wave Lability (TWL), precedes Torsade de Pointes (TdP) in patients and animal models with impaired repolarization. However, the role of Cai in TWL remains unexplored. Methods Action potentials (APs) and Cai transients, (CaTs) were mapped optically from paced Langendorff female rabbit hearts (n=8) at 1.2s cycle length, after AV node ablation. Hearts were perfused with normal Tyrode's solution then with dofetilide (0.5 μM) and reduced [K+] (2 mM) and [Mg2+] (0.5 mM) to elicit long QT type 2 (LQT2). Lability of EKG, voltage and Cai signals were evaluated during regular paced rhythm, before and after dofetilide perfusion. Results In LQT2, lability of Cai, voltage and EKG signals increased during paced rhythm, before the appearance of early afterdepolarizations (EADs). LQT2 resulted in AP prolongation and multiple (1-3) additional Cai upstrokes, while APs remained monophasic. When EADs appeared, Cai rose before voltage upstrokes at the origins of propagating EADs. Interventions (i.e. ryanodine and thapsigargin, n=3 or low [Ca]o and nifedipine, n=4) that suppressed Cai oscillations also abolished EADs. Conclusions In LQT2, Cai oscillations (CaiO) precede EADs by minutes, indicating that they result from spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release rather than spontaneous ICaL reactivation. CaiO likely produce oscillations of Na/Ca exchange current, INCX. Depolarizing INCX during the AP plateau contributes to the generation of EADs by re-activating Ca2+-channels that have recovered from inactivation. TWL reflects CaTs and APs lability that occur before EADs and TdP. PMID:20599524

  7. Mayolenes: labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar (Pieris rapae).

    PubMed

    Smedley, Scott R; Schroeder, Frank C; Weibel, Douglas B; Meinwald, Jerrold; Lafleur, Katie A; Renwick, J Alan; Rutowski, Ronald; Eisner, Thomas

    2002-05-14

    Larvae of the European cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae (Pieridae), are beset with glandular hairs, bearing droplets of a clear oily secretion at their tip. The fluid consists primarily of a series of chemically labile, unsaturated lipids, the mayolenes, which are derived from 11-hydroxylinolenic acid. In bioassays with the ant Crematogaster lineolata, the secretion was shown to be potently deterrent, indicating that the fluid plays a defensive role in nature. PMID:11997469

  8. Bis(haloBODIPYs) with Labile Helicity: Valuable Simple Organic Molecules That Enable Circularly Polarized Luminescence.

    PubMed

    Ray, César; Sánchez-Carnerero, Esther M; Moreno, Florencio; Maroto, Beatriz L; Agarrabeitia, Antonia R; Ortiz, María J; López-Arbeloa, Íñigo; Bañuelos, Jorge; Cohovi, Komlan D; Lunkley, Jamie L; Muller, Gilles; de la Moya, Santiago

    2016-06-20

    Simple organic molecules (SOM) based on bis(haloBODIPY) are shown to enable circularly polarized luminescence (CPL), giving rise to a new structural design for technologically valuable CPL-SOMs. The established design comprises together synthetic accessibility, labile helicity, possibility of reversing the handedness of the circularly polarized emission, and reactive functional groups, making it unique and attractive as advantageous platform for the development of smart CPL-SOMs. PMID:27123965

  9. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-01

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  11. Making the cut

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Chris

    2013-01-01

    ‘Deliberate self-harm’, ‘self-mutilation’ and ‘self-injury’ are just some of the terms used to describe one of the most prominent issues in British mental health policy in recent years. This article demonstrates that contemporary literature on ‘self-harm’ produces this phenomenon (to varying extents) around two key characteristics. First, this behaviour is predominantly performed by those identified as female. Second, this behaviour primarily involves cutting the skin. These constitutive characteristics are traced back to a corpus of literature produced in the 1960s and 1970s in North American psychiatric inpatient institutions; analysis shows how pre-1960 works were substantially different. Finally, these gendered and behavioural assertions are shown to be the result of historically specific processes of exclusion and emphasis. PMID:23741086

  12. Labile soil carbon inputs mediate the soil microbial community composition and plant residue decomposition rates

    SciTech Connect

    De Graaff, Marie-Anne; Classen, Aimee T; Castro Gonzalez, Hector F; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2010-01-01

    Root carbon (C) inputs may regulate decomposition rates in soil, and in this study we ask: how do labile C inputs regulate decomposition of plant residues, and soil microbial communities? In a 14 d laboratory incubation, we added C compounds often found in root exudates in seven different concentrations (0, 0.7, 1.4, 3.6, 7.2, 14.4 and 21.7 mg C g{sup -1} soil) to soils amended with and without {sup 13}C-labeled plant residue. We measured CO{sub 2} respiration and shifts in relative fungal and bacterial rRNA gene copy numbers using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Increased labile C input enhanced total C respiration, but only addition of C at low concentrations (0.7 mg C g{sup -1}) stimulated plant residue decomposition (+2%). Intermediate concentrations (1.4, 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) had no impact on plant residue decomposition, while greater concentrations of C (> 7.2 mg C g{sup -1}) reduced decomposition (-50%). Concurrently, high exudate concentrations (> 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) increased fungal and bacterial gene copy numbers, whereas low exudate concentrations (< 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) increased metabolic activity rather than gene copy numbers. These results underscore that labile soil C inputs can regulate decomposition of more recalcitrant soil C by controlling the activity and relative abundance of fungi and bacteria.

  13. Substrate lability and plant activity controls greenhouse gas release from Neotropical peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjogersten, Sofie; Hoyos, Jorge; Lomax, Barry; Turner, Ben; Wright, Emma

    2014-05-01

    Almost one third of global CO2 emissions resulting from land use change and substantial CH4 emissions originate from tropical peatlands. However, our understanding of the controls of CO2 and CH4 release from tropical peatlands are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peat lability and the activity of the vegetation on gas release using a combination of field and laboratory experiments. We demonstrated that peat lability constrained CH4 production to the surface peat under anaerobic conditions. The presence of plants shifted the C balance from a C source to a C sink with respect to CO2 while the activity of the root system strongly influenced CH4 emissions through its impact on soil O2 inputs. Both field and laboratory data suggest a coupling between the photosynthetic activity of the vegetation and the release of both CO2 and CH4 following the circadian rhythm of the dominant plant functional types. Forest clearance for agriculture resulted in elevated CH4 release, which we attribute in part to the cessation of root O2 inputs to the peat. We conclude that high emissions of CO2 and CH4 from forested tropical peatlands are likely driven by labile C inputs from the vegetation but that root O2 release may limit CH4 emissions.

  14. Bacillithiol is a major buffer of the labile zinc pool in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhen; Chandrangsu, Pete; Helmann, Tyler C.; Romsang, Adisak; Gaballa, Ahmed; Helmann, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular zinc levels are tightly regulated since zinc is an essential cofactor for numerous enzymes, yet can be toxic when present in excess. The majority of intracellular zinc is tightly associated with proteins and is incorporated during synthesis from a poorly defined pool of kinetically labile zinc. In Bacillus subtilis, this labile pool is sensed by equilibration with the metalloregulator Zur, as an indication of zinc sufficiency, and by CzrA, as an indication of zinc excess. Here, we demonstrate that the low molecular weight thiol bacillithiol (BSH) serves as a major buffer of the labile zinc pool. Upon shift to conditions of zinc excess, cells transiently accumulate zinc in a low molecular weight pool, and this accumulation is largely dependent on BSH. Cells lacking BSH are more sensitive to zinc stress, and they induce zinc efflux at lower external zinc concentrations. Thiol reactive agents such as diamide and cadmium induce zinc efflux by interfering with the Zn-buffering function of BSH. Our data provide new insights into intracellular zinc buffering and may have broad relevance given the presence of BSH in pathogens and the proposed role of zinc sequestration in innate immunity. PMID:25213752

  15. Comparison of metal lability in air-dried and fresh dewatered drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhao, Yaqian

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the labilities of Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in air-dried (for 60 days) and fresh dewatered WTRs were compared using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), fractionation, in vitro digestion and a plant enrichment test. The results showed that the air-dried and fresh dewatered WTRs had different properties, e.g., organic matter composition and available nutrients. The air-dried and fresh dewatered WTRs were non-haf zardous according to the TCLP assessment method used in the United States; however, the metals in the two types of WTRs had different lability. Compared with the metals in the fresh dewatered WTRs, those in the air-dried WTRs tended to be in more stable fractions and also exhibited lower bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, air-drying can decrease the metal lability and thereby reduce the potential metal pollution risk of WTRs. PMID:25560259

  16. Involvement of vasodilator mechanisms in arterial pressure lability after sino-aortic baroreceptor denervation in rat.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z Q; Barrès, C; Julien, C

    1995-01-01

    1. To examine the regional haemodynamic basis of arterial pressure lability seen after sino-aortic baroreceptor denervation (SAD), simultaneous beat-to-beat recordings of arterial pressure and indices of regional blood flows (Doppler probes around the subdiaphragmatic and lower abdominal aortae and the superior mesenteric artery) were performed in the same conscious rats (n = 7) before, 1 and 14 days after SAD. 2. Acute SAD increased arterial pressure, decreased regional blood flows and vascular conductances, and potentiated the depressor and vasodilator effects of ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan, suggesting sympathetic overactivity. All parameters chronically returned to or near normal. 3. Both acute and chronic SAD increased the variability of arterial pressure and of regional conductances. Arterial pressure lability was characterized by a mixture of depressor and pressor events which were associated with regional vasodilatations and vasoconstrictions, respectively. This haemodynamic pattern was not affected by acute beta-adrenoceptor blockade with propranolol. 4. In conscious rats, the baroreceptor reflex acts to buffer the spontaneous variability of regional vascular conductances and thereby stabilizes arterial pressure. Sino-aortic baroreceptor denervation-induced arterial pressure lability does not depend on the level of sympathetic activation, and is determined by the relative contribution of depressor and pressor events accompanied by extensive vasodilatations and vasoconstrictions, respectively. Vasodilatations are not caused by the stimulation of vascular beta 2-adrenoceptors. PMID:7714834

  17. Are more diverse parts of the mammalian skull more labile?

    PubMed

    Linde-Medina, Marta; Boughner, Julia C; Santana, Sharlene E; Diogo, Rui

    2016-04-01

    Morphological variation is unevenly distributed within the mammalian skull; some of its parts have diversified more than others. It is commonly thought that this pattern of variation is mainly the result of the structural organization of the skull, as defined by the pattern and magnitude of trait covariation. Patterns of trait covariation can facilitate morphological diversification if they are aligned in the direction of selection, or these patterns can constrain diversification if oriented in a different direction. Within this theoretical framework, it is thought that more variable parts possess patterns of trait covariation that made them more capable of evolutionary change, that is, are more labile. However, differences in the degree of morphological variation among skull traits could arise despite variation in trait lability if, for example, some traits have evolved at a different rate and/or undergone stabilizing selection. Here, we test these hypotheses in the mammalian skull using 2D geometric morphometrics to quantify skull shape and estimating constraint, rates of evolution, and lability. Contrary to the expectations, more variable parts of the skull across mammalian species are less capable of evolutionary change than are less variable skull parts. Our results suggest that patterns of morphological variation in the skull could result from differences in rate of evolution and stabilizing selection. PMID:27069580

  18. Labile synthetic cadmium complexes are not bioavailable to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in resin buffered solutions.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, L; Merckx, R; Smolders, E

    2012-11-15

    The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) predicts that cadmium (Cd) uptake by organisms is identical for solutions with the same free Cd(2+) concentration and inorganic composition. Clear exceptions to the FIAM have been shown for Cd uptake by plant roots, periphyton and human cells where labile Cd complexes increase bioavailability and which has been attributed to their role in enhancing Cd diffusion towards the uptake cells. Here, we assessed the role of labile Cd complexes on Cd uptake by algae, for which diffusion limitations should be less pronounced due to their smaller size. Long-term (3 days) Cd uptake by the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was measured in resin buffered solutions with or without synthetic ligands and at three Cd(2+) ion activities (pCd 8.2-5.7). The free Cd(2+) activity was maintained during the test using a metal-selective resin located in the algal bottles. Total dissolved Cd increased up to 35-fold by adding the synthetic ligands at constant Cd(2+) activity. In contrast, Cd uptake by algae increased maximally 2.8 fold with increasing concentration of the synthetic ligands and the availability of the complexes were maximally 5.2% relative to Cd(2+) for NTA and CDTA complexes. It is concluded that labile Cd complexes do not greatly enhance Cd bioavailability to the unicellular algae and calculations suggest that Cd transport from solution to these small cells is not rate limiting. PMID:22903064

  19. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity and environmental tolerance of a labile quantitative character in a fluctuating environment.

    PubMed

    Lande, R

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative genetic models of evolution of phenotypic plasticity are used to derive environmental tolerance curves for a population in a changing environment, providing a theoretical foundation for integrating physiological and community ecology with evolutionary genetics of plasticity and norms of reaction. Plasticity is modelled for a labile quantitative character undergoing continuous reversible development and selection in a fluctuating environment. If there is no cost of plasticity, a labile character evolves expected plasticity equalling the slope of the optimal phenotype as a function of the environment. This contrasts with previous theory for plasticity influenced by the environment at a critical stage of early development determining a constant adult phenotype on which selection acts, for which the expected plasticity is reduced by the environmental predictability over the discrete time lag between development and selection. With a cost of plasticity in a labile character, the expected plasticity depends on the cost and on the environmental variance and predictability averaged over the continuous developmental time lag. Environmental tolerance curves derived from this model confirm traditional assumptions in physiological ecology and provide new insights. Tolerance curve width increases with larger environmental variance, but can only evolve within a limited range. The strength of the trade-off between tolerance curve height and width depends on the cost of plasticity. Asymmetric tolerance curves caused by male sterility at high temperature are illustrated. A simple condition is given for a large transient increase in plasticity and tolerance curve width following a sudden change in average environment. PMID:24724972

  20. Assessing the Selectivity of Extractant Solutions for Recovering Labile Arsenic Associated with Iron (Hydr)oxides and Sulfides in Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sequential extractions can provide analytical constraints on the identification of mineral phases that control arsenic speciation in sediments. Model solids were used in this study to evaluate different solutions designed to extract arsenic from relatively labile solid phases. ...

  1. Molecular insights into the microbial formation of marine dissolved organic matter: recalcitrant or labile?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.; Witt, M.; Passow, U.

    2014-08-01

    The degradation of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important control variable in the global carbon cycle. For our understanding of the kinetics of organic matter cycling in the ocean, it is crucial to achieve a mechanistic and molecular understanding of its transformation processes. A long-term microbial experiment was performed to follow the production of non-labile DOM by marine bacteria. Two different glucose concentrations and dissolved algal exudates were used as substrates. We monitored the bacterial abundance, concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), nutrients, amino acids and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) for 2 years. The molecular characterization of extracted DOM was performed by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) after 70 days and after ∼2 years of incubation. Although glucose quickly degraded, a non-labile DOC background (5-9% of the initial DOC) was generated in the glucose incubations. Only 20% of the organic carbon from the algal exudate degraded within the 2 years of incubation. The degradation rates for the non-labile DOC background in the different treatments varied between 1 and 11 μmol DOC L-1 year-1. Transparent exopolymer particles, which are released by microorganisms, were produced during glucose degradation but decreased back to half of the maximum concentration within less than 3 weeks (degradation rate: 25 μg xanthan gum equivalents L-1 d-1) and were below detection in all treatments after 2 years. Additional glucose was added after 2 years to test whether labile substrate can promote the degradation of background DOC (co-metabolism; priming effect). A priming effect was not observed but the glucose addition led to a slight increase of background DOC. The molecular analysis demonstrated that DOM generated during glucose degradation differed appreciably from DOM transformed during the degradation of the algal exudates. Our

  2. The evolution of labile traits in sex- and age-structured populations.

    PubMed

    Childs, Dylan Z; Sheldon, Ben C; Rees, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Many quantitative traits are labile (e.g. somatic growth rate, reproductive timing and investment), varying over the life cycle as a result of behavioural adaptation, developmental processes and plastic responses to the environment. At the population level, selection can alter the distribution of such traits across age classes and among generations. Despite a growing body of theoretical research exploring the evolutionary dynamics of labile traits, a data-driven framework for incorporating such traits into demographic models has not yet been developed. Integral projection models (IPMs) are increasingly being used to understand the interplay between changes in labile characters, life histories and population dynamics. One limitation of the IPM approach is that it relies on phenotypic associations between parents and offspring traits to capture inheritance. However, it is well-established that many different processes may drive these associations, and currently, no clear consensus has emerged on how to model micro-evolutionary dynamics in an IPM framework. We show how to embed quantitative genetic models of inheritance of labile traits into age-structured, two-sex models that resemble standard IPMs. Commonly used statistical tools such as GLMs and their mixed model counterparts can then be used for model parameterization. We illustrate the methodology through development of a simple model of egg-laying date evolution, parameterized using data from a population of Great tits (Parus major). We demonstrate how our framework can be used to project the joint dynamics of species' traits and population density. We then develop a simple extension of the age-structured Price equation (ASPE) for two-sex populations, and apply this to examine the age-specific contributions of different processes to change in the mean phenotype and breeding value. The data-driven framework we outline here has the potential to facilitate greater insight into the nature of selection and its

  3. Reduced contribution of thermally-labile sugar lesions to DNA double-strand break formation after exposure to neutrons.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyendra K; Wu, Wenqi; Stuschke, Martin; Bockisch, Andreas; Iliakis, George

    2012-12-01

    In cells exposed to ionizing radiation, double-strand breaks (DSBs) form within clustered damage sites from lesions disrupting the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone. It is commonly assumed that DSBs form promptly and are immediately detected and processed by the cellular DNA damage response apparatus. However, DSBs also form by delayed chemical conversion of thermally-labile sugar lesions (TLSL) to breaks. We recently reported that conversion of thermally-labile sugar lesions to breaks occurs in cells maintained at physiological temperatures. Here, we investigate the influence of radiation quality on the formation of thermally-labile sugar lesions dependent DSBs. We show that, although the yields of total DSBs are very similar after exposure to neutrons and X rays, the yields of thermally-labile sugar lesions dependent DSBs from neutrons are decreased in comparison to that from X rays. Thus, the yields of prompt DSBs for neutrons are greater than for X rays. Notably, after neutron irradiation the decreased yield of thermally-labile sugar lesion dependent DSBs is strongly cell line dependent, likely reflecting subtle differences in DNA organization. We propose that the higher ionization density of neutrons generates with higher probability prompt DSBs within ionization clusters and renders the ensuing chemical evolution of thermally-labile sugar lesions inconsequential to DNA integrity. Modification of thermally-labile sugar lesion evolution may define novel radiation protection strategies aiming at decreasing DSB formation by chemically preserving thermally-labile sugar lesions until other DSB contributing lesions within the clustered damage site are removed by non-DSB repair pathways. PMID:23088767

  4. Condensed lignin structures and re-localization achieved at high severities in autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus wood and their relationship with cellulose accessibility.

    PubMed

    Araya, Fabio; Troncoso, Eduardo; Mendonça, Regis Teixeira; Freer, Juanita

    2015-09-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood was subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment at different severity factors. The pretreated materials were enzymatically saccharified at a substrate load of 10% (w/v) using a cellulase enzyme complex. Around 82-95% of original glucans were retained in the pretreated material, and the enzymatic hydrolysis yields ranged from 58% to 90%. The chemical and structural changes in the pretreated materials were investigated by microscopic (SEM, LSCM) and spectroscopic (2D-HSQC NMR and FT-IR) techniques. 2D-NMR results showed a reduction in the amounts of β-O-4 aryl-ether linkages and suggested the presence of newly condensed structures of lignin in the biomass pretreated at the more severe conditions. Furthermore, the microscopic analysis showed that lignin migrates out of the cell wall and re-deposits in certain regions of the fibers at the more severe conditions to form droplet-like structures and expose the cellulose surface. These changes improved the glucose yield up to 69%, on dry wood basis. PMID:25851426

  5. Energy expenditure cutting supercane.

    PubMed

    Spurr, G B; Barac-nieto, M; Maksud, M G

    1975-12-01

    VO2 VE, and heart rates (fH) were measured in 61 Colombian sugarcane cutters while harvesting cane in the AM and PM and in the laboratory during a VO2max test. Productivity and sweat rates were also measured in the field. The subjects had an estimated dietary intake of 2,970 kcal/day, which was lower than calculated daily energy expenditure. During the work measurements the VO2 was 1.5 1/min, VE 48 1/min, and fH 135 beats/min; there were no differences between AM and PM values. The subjects sustained about 35% of VO2max during the 8 h workday, but worked at 57% of VO2max during the tests. Measured energy cost was 7.4 +/- 1.5 kcal/min during the workday. Sweat rates were higher PM than AM (5 KG/8 h day). Grouping of the men according to productivity demonstrated that taller, heavier men were better producers and had lower calculated heart rates at VO2 1.51/min. Efficiency of cane cutting was higher (9%) PM. PMID:1240097

  6. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, Earl D. (Inventor); Goodfriend, Roger (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup-shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduces breakage thereof.

  7. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, John A.

    1983-01-01

    A mining assembly includes a primary rotary cutter mounted on one end of a support shaft and four secondary rotary cutters carried on the same support shaft and positioned behind the primary cutters for cutting corners in the hole cut by the latter.

  8. Cutting and Self-Harm

    MedlinePlus

    ... sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self-injury, is when a person ... about how one girl helps herself not self-harm. What are signs of self-injury in others? ...

  9. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  10. Labile Low-Molecular-Mass Metal Complexes in Mitochondria: Trials and Tribulations of a Burgeoning Field.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Paul A; Moore, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and molybdenum play important roles in mitochondrial biochemistry, serving to help catalyze reactions in numerous metalloenzymes. These metals are also found in labile "pools" within mitochondria. Although the composition and cellular function of these pools are largely unknown, they are thought to be comprised of nonproteinaceous low-molecular-mass (LMM) metal complexes. Many problems must be solved before these pools can be fully defined, especially problems stemming from the lability of such complexes. This lability arises from inherently weak coordinate bonds between ligands and metals. This is an advantage for catalysis and trafficking, but it makes characterization difficult. The most popular strategy for investigating such pools is to detect them using chelator probes with fluorescent properties that change upon metal coordination. Characterization is limited because of the inevitable destruction of the complexes during their detection. Moreover, probes likely react with more than one type of metal complex, confusing analyses. An alternative approach is to use liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). With help from a previous lab member, the authors recently developed an LC-ICP-MS approach to analyze LMM extracts from yeast and mammalian mitochondria. They detected several metal complexes, including Fe580, Fe1100, Fe1500, Cu5000, Zn1200, Zn1500, Mn1100, Mn2000, Co1200, Co1500, and Mo780 (numbers refer to approximate masses in daltons). Many of these may be used to metalate apo-metalloproteins as they fold inside the organelle. The LC-based approach also has challenges, e.g., in distinguishing artifactual metal complexes from endogenous ones, due to the fact that cells must be disrupted to form extracts before they are passed through chromatography columns prior to analysis. Ultimately, both approaches will be needed to characterize these intriguing complexes and to

  11. Interactions between recalcitrant and labile organic carbon in streams - Can stream biofilms mediate a priming effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, M. M.; Wagner, K.; Herberg, E. R.; Burns, N. R.; Wanek, W.; Battin, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    Inland waters - such as streams, rivers and lakes - are increasingly recognized as important components in the global carbon cycle. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in these systems is diverse in structure, origin and reactivity, and a fraction of it is regarded as recalcitrant to microbial degradation. In soils, degradation of recalcitrant carbon is often controlled by the availability of labile carbon sources. This is linked to the priming effect (PE). Mounting evidence suggests that PE is also important in aquatic ecosystems but there are so far very few studies addressing this topic. Biofilms are vital components of aquatic ecosystems. In stream biofilms, heterotrophic bacteria and algae coexist in close proximity, exposing the bacteria to both recalcitrant DOC of terrestrial origin and labile organic carbon from the algae. We hypothesize that this makes stream biofilms hotspots for PE. We used plug-flow bioreactors inoculated with natural stream biofilm bacterial communities to test the potential of a priming effect in aquatic ecosystems. The bioreactors were amended with an isotope-labeled plant extract serving as a model of recalcitrant DOC in streams. Labile carbon sources, in the form of glucose and an algal extract were added to induce PE. Nitrate and phosphate were also added to assess the role of these inorganic nutrients on carbon uptake. Microbial uptake of the different carbon sources was monitored by measuring the concentrations and isotopic ratios of respired CO2, biomass and DOC. Our results suggest that the priming effect plays a role in stream carbon cycling and that it is potentially an important process in other aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Total and Labile Phosphorus Concentrations as Influenced by Riparian Buffer Soil Properties.

    PubMed

    Young, Eric O; Ross, Donald S

    2016-01-01

    Riparian buffers can act as a phosphorus (P) source under active stream bank erosion. Using soil and landscape variables (soil series, drainage class, organic matter, and pH) to index P concentrations could improve P loss risk tools for buffers. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if soil properties could predict total and labile P concentrations within a 10-ha riparian buffer and (ii) to quantify the degree of spatial dependence of P and related properties. Soil samples were taken in 15-cm increments to a depth of 60 cm using a grid ( = 71) from an established riparian buffer along the Rock River in Vermont. Total soil P (TP), plant-available P determined by Modified Morgan extraction (MM-P), pH, soil organic matter (SOM), soil texture, and select cations were measured. We found that TP (152-1536 mg P kg) and MM-P (0.4-14.6 mg kg) ranged widely, with distinct differences between soil series. Mean TP and MM-P were greater in alluvial and glaciolacustrine soils compared with glacial till. Across all samples, MM-P was weakly related to soil properties; however, total labile P (orthophosphate + organic P measured by ICP) and unreactive labile P (ICP-P - colorimetric-P) could both be predicted by SOM ( = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). Strong spatial dependence was found for P and related properties as revealed by geospatial analyses. Results show that P availability in the buffer was strongly related to soil genesis and support site-specific approaches for P loss risk evaluation in buffers. PMID:26828185

  13. Dissolved organic carbon lability increases with water residence time in the alluvial aquifer of a river floodplain ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, Ashley M.; Wright, Meredith S.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Cory, Rose M.; Stanford, Jack A.

    2015-04-01

    We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lability and composition throughout the alluvial aquifer of the 16 km2 Nyack Floodplain in northwest Montana, USA. Water influx to the aquifer derives almost exclusively from the Middle Fork of the Flathead River, and water residence times within the aquifer range from days to months. Across seasons and channel discharge conditions, we measured DOC concentration, lability, and optical properties of aquifer water sampled from 12 wells, both near and ~3 m below the water table. Concentrations of DOC were typically low (542 ± 22.7 µg L-1; mean ± se), and the percentage of labile DOC averaged 18 ± 12% during 3 day laboratory assays. Parallel factor analysis of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices revealed two humic-like and two amino acid-like fluorescence groups. Total DOC, humic-like components, and specific UV absorbance decreased with water residence time, consistent with sorption to aquifer sediments. However, labile DOC (both concentration and fraction) increased with water residence time, suggesting a concurrent influx or production of labile DOC. Thus, although the carbon-poor, oxygen-rich aquifer is a net sink for DOC, recalcitrant DOC appears to be replaced with more labile DOC along aquifer flow paths. Our observation of DOC production in long flow paths contrasts with studies of hyporheic DOC consumption along short (centimeters to meters) flow paths and highlights the importance of understanding the role of labile organic matter production and/or influx in alluvial aquifer carbon cycling.

  14. Labile Compounds in Plant Litter Reduce the Sensitivity of Decomposition to Warming and Altered Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suseela, V.; Tharayil, N.; Xing, B.; Dukes, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Together, climate and litter quality strongly regulate decomposition rates. While these two factors and their interaction have been studied across species in continent-scale experiments, few researchers have studied how labile and recalcitrant compounds interact to influence decomposition, or the climate sensitivity of decomposition, within a litter type. Over a period of three years, we studied the effects climate change on mass loss and compound-specific decomposition using two litter types that differed in the relative proportions of labile and recalcitrant compounds, but that had heteropolymers with similar molecular structure. We examined how warming and altered precipitation affected the decomposition of two types of Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed) litter (stem litter that was either newly senesced or one year old), at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment (BACE), in Massachusetts, USA. We placed litter bags in an old-field ecosystem exposed to four levels of warming (up to 4oC) and three levels of precipitation (ambient, drought (-50%) and wet (+50%) treatments. The compound-specific degradation of litter was assessed using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Climate treatments immediately affected mass loss of the more recalcitrant litter, but affected the more labile litter only after two years. After three years, although both litter types had lost similar amounts of mass, warming (~4oC) and supplemental precipitation (150% of ambient) together accelerated degradation of alkyl-carbon and lignin only in the more recalcitrant litter, highlighting the role of initial litter quality in determining whether the chemistry of litter residues converges or diverges under different climates. The results from this study indicate that the effect of climate on litter decomposition depends on the quality of litter; litter with a greater initial proportion of labile compounds was less

  15. Inhibition of heat-labile cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins by brefeldin A.

    PubMed

    Donta, S T; Beristain, S; Tomicic, T K

    1993-08-01

    Cholera enterotoxin and the related heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli enter their target cells through noncoated vesicles, but how the toxins are processed intracellularly and how they get to their targeted enzyme, adenylate cyclase, remain to be defined. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the trans-Golgi network, is shown herein to transiently block the morphologic and enzymatic effects of the toxin at a step distal to the initial binding process but prior to activation of adenylate cyclase by the toxin. It is likely, therefore, that these toxins are processed by the Golgi apparatus before trafficking to the membrane adenylate cyclase. PMID:8392970

  16. Inhibition of heat-labile cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins by brefeldin A.

    PubMed Central

    Donta, S T; Beristain, S; Tomicic, T K

    1993-01-01

    Cholera enterotoxin and the related heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli enter their target cells through noncoated vesicles, but how the toxins are processed intracellularly and how they get to their targeted enzyme, adenylate cyclase, remain to be defined. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the trans-Golgi network, is shown herein to transiently block the morphologic and enzymatic effects of the toxin at a step distal to the initial binding process but prior to activation of adenylate cyclase by the toxin. It is likely, therefore, that these toxins are processed by the Golgi apparatus before trafficking to the membrane adenylate cyclase. Images PMID:8392970

  17. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition-the roles of cell morphology, labile adhesion and junctional coupling.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Tariq; Luna-Zurita, Luis; de la Pompa, José Luis; Schleich, Jean-Marc; Summers, Ron

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process during development and disease, including development of the heart valves and tumour metastases. An extended cellular Potts model was implemented to represent the behaviour emerging from autonomous cell morphology, labile adhesion, junctional coupling and cell motility. Computer simulations normally focus on these functional changes independently whereas this model facilitates exploration of the interplay between cell shape changes, adhesion and migration. The simulation model is fitted to an in vitro model of endocardial EMT, and agrees with the finding that Notch signalling increases cell-matrix adhesion in addition to modulating cell-cell adhesion. PMID:23787029

  18. Enantiomeric Excesses of Acid Labile Amino Acid Precursors of the Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    Amino acids present in carbonaceous chondrite are extracted in water in part as free compounds and in approximately equal part as acid labile precursors. On the assumption that they would be free of contamination, the precursors of two Murchison amino acids that have terrestrial occurrence, alanine and glutamic acid, have been targeted for analysis of their enantiomeric ratios. Pyroglutamic acid, the precursor of glutamic acid, was found with an L-enantiomeric excess comparable to that of the free acid, while alanine's precursor, N-acetyl alanine, appears approximately racemic. Also alpha-imino propioacetic acid, a proposed end product of alanine synthesis in the meteorite, was analyzed and found racemic.

  19. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R.

    1987-01-01

    Kidney stones lodged in urinary tract disintegrated with increased safety and efficiency by cutting head attached to end of vibrated wire probe. Aligns probe with stone and enables probe to vibrate long enough to disintegrate stone. Design of cutting head reduces risk of metal-fatigue-induced breakage of probe tip leaving metal fragments in urinary tract. Teeth of cutting head both seat and fragment kidney stone, while extension of collar into catheter lessens mechanical strain in probe wire, increasing probe life and lessening danger of in situ probe breakage.

  20. Refrigerated cutting tools improve machining of superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    Freon-12 applied to tool cutting edge evaporates quickly, leaves no residue, and permits higher cutting rate than with conventional coolants. This technique increases cutting rate on Rene-41 threefold and improves finish of machined surface.

  1. Cutting thin sections of bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    Medical equipment for obtaining repetitive planoparallel sections of bone to study healing of bone structure under high gravity stress is described. Device consists of modified saw with diamond cutting edges. Construction of device and manner of use are explained.

  2. Laser cutting of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, T.; Muenchausen, R.; Sanchez, J.

    1998-12-01

    The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of safely and efficiently cutting and drilling metal cases containing a variety of high explosives (HE) using a Nd:YAG laser. Spectral analysis of the optical emission, occurring during the laser-induced ablation process, is used to identify the removed material. By monitoring changes in the optical emission during the cutting process, the metal-He interface can be observed in real time and the cutting parameters adjusted accordingly. For cutting the HE material itself, the authors have demonstrated that this can be safely and efficiently accomplished by means of a ultraviolet (UV) laser beam obtained from the same Nd:YAG laser using the third or fourth harmonics. They are currently applying this technology to UXO identification and ordnance demilitarization.

  3. Drought increases heat tolerance of leaf respiration in Eucalyptus globulus saplings grown under both ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2] and temperature.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Paul P G; Crous, Kristine Y; Ayub, Gohar; Duan, Honglang; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Ellsworth, David S; Tjoelker, Mark G; Evans, John R; Tissue, David T; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is resulting in increasing atmospheric [CO2], rising growth temperature (T), and greater frequency/severity of drought, with each factor having the potential to alter the respiratory metabolism of leaves. Here, the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], sustained warming, and drought on leaf dark respiration (R(dark)), and the short-term T response of R(dark) were examined in Eucalyptus globulus. Comparisons were made using seedlings grown under different [CO2], T, and drought treatments. Using high resolution T-response curves of R(dark) measured over the 15-65 °C range, it was found that elevated [CO2], elevated growth T, and drought had little effect on rates of R(dark) measured at T <35 °C and that there was no interactive effect of [CO2], growth T, and drought on T response of R(dark). However, drought increased R(dark) at high leaf T typical of heatwave events (35-45 °C), and increased the measuring T at which maximal rates of R(dark) occurred (Tmax) by 8 °C (from 52 °C in well-watered plants to 60 °C in drought-treated plants). Leaf starch and soluble sugars decreased under drought and elevated growth T, respectively, but no effect was found under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] increased the Q 10 of R(dark) (i.e. proportional rise in R(dark) per 10 °C) over the 15-35 °C range, while drought increased Q 10 values between 35 °C and 45 °C. Collectively, the study highlights the dynamic nature of the T dependence of R dark in plants experiencing future climate change scenarios, particularly with respect to drought and elevated [CO2]. PMID:25205579

  4. Drought increases heat tolerance of leaf respiration in Eucalyptus globulus saplings grown under both ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2] and temperature

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Paul P. G.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Ayub, Gohar; Duan, Honglang; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Ellsworth, David S.; Tjoelker, Mark G.; Evans, John R.; Tissue, David T.; Atkin, Owen K.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in increasing atmospheric [CO2], rising growth temperature (T), and greater frequency/severity of drought, with each factor having the potential to alter the respiratory metabolism of leaves. Here, the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], sustained warming, and drought on leaf dark respiration (R dark), and the short-term T response of R dark were examined in Eucalyptus globulus. Comparisons were made using seedlings grown under different [CO2], T, and drought treatments. Using high resolution T–response curves of R dark measured over the 15–65 °C range, it was found that elevated [CO2], elevated growth T, and drought had little effect on rates of R dark measured at T <35 °C and that there was no interactive effect of [CO2], growth T, and drought on T response of R dark. However, drought increased R dark at high leaf T typical of heatwave events (35–45 °C), and increased the measuring T at which maximal rates of R dark occurred (T max) by 8 °C (from 52 °C in well-watered plants to 60 °C in drought-treated plants). Leaf starch and soluble sugars decreased under drought and elevated growth T, respectively, but no effect was found under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] increased the Q 10 of R dark (i.e. proportional rise in R dark per 10 °C) over the 15–35 °C range, while drought increased Q 10 values between 35 °C and 45 °C. Collectively, the study highlights the dynamic nature of the T dependence of R dark in plants experiencing future climate change scenarios, particularly with respect to drought and elevated [CO2]. PMID:25205579

  5. Impacts of Population Structure and Analytical Models in Genome-Wide Association Studies of Complex Traits in Forest Trees: A Case Study in Eucalyptus globulus

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Martín N.; Acuña, Cintia; Borralho, Nuno M. G.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Marcucci Poltri, Susana N.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model (UMM) on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303) with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S∶G ratio), a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S∶G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  6. Relationship between the lability of sediment-bound metals (Cd, Cu, Zn) and their bioaccumulation in benthic invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiard, J.-C.; Geffard, A.; Amiard-Triquet, C.; Crouzet, C.

    2007-04-01

    The present study has investigated metal contamination at nine sites (10 sampling stations) from the English Channel to the Mediterranean Sea, including low level and highly contaminated sediments. Both total and labile concentrations of metals were determined in superficial sediments. The influence of different pHs was tested and metal lability at pHs encountered in the gut of invertebrates (the ragworm Nereis diversicolor, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas) was compared with the distribution of metals in various operationally defined geochemical fractions. Cd showed the highest lability and Cu the lowest, whereas Zn lability was intermediate. Metal concentrations were determined in bivalves at six sites and in worms at three sites. Cd in living organisms and labile Cd in sediments increased in proportion over the gradient of contamination. This relationship did not always hold for Cu and Zn and these exceptions are discussed. Even if sediments are not the only source of metal contamination in marine invertebrates, the procedure proposed here to assess metal bioavailability by remobilising sediment-bound metals at physiological pHs, seems a significant improvement of the existing methodologies of risk assessment.

  7. EPA rule could cut pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a rule on November 14 that it claims could nearly eliminate dioxin discharges into waterways and reduce other toxic pollutants into the air and water from 155 pulp and paper mills.EPA estimates that results will include a 96% reduction in dioxin and a nearly 60% reduction in toxic air pollutants. Also, volatile organic compounds and sulfur emissions could be cut in half, with particulate matter cut by 37%.

  8. Interactive cutting path analysis programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.

  9. Cutting head for ultrasonic lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anguluo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is described. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduce breakage thereof.

  10. Economic technology of laser cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.

    2000-02-01

    The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.