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Sample records for gluon condensate effects

  1. Effect of the gluon condensate on the holographic heavy quark potential

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngman; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Park, Chanyong; Sin, Sang-Jin

    2009-11-15

    The gluon condensate is very sensitive to the QCD deconfinement transition since its value changes drastically with the deconfinement transition. We calculate the gluon condensate dependence of the heavy quark potential in AdS/CFT to study how the property of the heavy quarkonium is affected by a relic of the deconfinement transition. We observe that the heavy quark potential becomes deeper as the value of the gluon condensate decreases. We interpret this as a dropping of the heavy quarkonium mass just above the deconfinement transition. We finally argue that dropping of the gluon condensate and the pure thermal effect are competing with each other in the physics of heavy quarkonium at high temperature.

  2. Gluon transport equation with effective mass and dynamical onset of Bose–Einstein condensation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we study the transport equation describing a dense system of gluons, in the small scattering angle approximation, taking into account medium-generated effective masses of the gluons. We focus on the case of overpopulated systems that are driven to Bose–Einstein condensation on their way to thermalization. Lastly, the presence of a mass modifies the dispersion relation of the gluon, as compared to the massless case, but it is shown that this does not change qualitatively the scaling behavior in the vicinity of the onset.

  3. Gluon transport equation with effective mass and dynamical onset of Bose-Einstein condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    We study the transport equation describing a dense system of gluons, in the small scattering angle approximation, taking into account medium-generated effective masses of the gluons. We focus on the case of overpopulated systems that are driven to Bose-Einstein condensation on their way to thermalization. The presence of a mass modifies the dispersion relation of the gluon, as compared to the massless case, but it is shown that this does not change qualitatively the scaling behavior in the vicinity of the onset.

  4. Effective degrees of freedom and gluon condensation in the high temperature deconfined phase

    SciTech Connect

    Castorina, P.; Mannarelli, M.

    2007-05-15

    The equation of state and the properties of matter in the high temperature deconfined phase are analyzed by a quasiparticle approach for T>1.2T{sub c}. In order to fix the parameters of our model we employ the lattice QCD data of energy density and pressure. First we consider the pure SU(3) gluon plasma and it turns out that such a system can be described in terms of a gluon condensate and of gluonic quasiparticles whose effective number of degrees of freedom and mass decrease with increasing temperature. Then we analyze QCD with finite quark masses. In this case the numerical lattice data for energy density and pressure can be fitted assuming that the system consists of a mixture of gluon quasiparticles, fermion quasiparticles, boson correlated pairs (corresponding to in-medium mesonic states) and gluon condensate. We find that the effective number of boson degrees of freedom and the in-medium fermion masses decrease with increasing temperature. At T{approx_equal}1.5T{sub c} only the correlated pairs corresponding to the mesonic nonet survive and they completely disappear at T{approx_equal}2T{sub c}. The temperature dependence of the velocity of sound of the various quasiparticles, the effects of the breaking of conformal invariance and the thermodynamic consistency are discussed in detail.

  5. Quark and gluon condensates in isospin matter

    SciTech Connect

    He Lianyi; Jiang Yin; Zhuang Pengfei

    2009-04-15

    By applying the Hellmann-Feynman theorem to a charged pion gas, the quark and gluon condensates at low isospin density are determined by precise pion properties. At intermediate density around f{sub {pi}}{sup 2}m{sub {pi}}, from both the estimation for the dilute pion gas and the calculation with the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, the quark condensate is strongly and monotonously suppressed, while the gluon condensate is enhanced and can be larger than its vacuum value. This unusual behavior of the gluon condensate is universal for Bose condensed matter of mesons. Our results can be tested by lattice calculations at finite isospin density.

  6. Thermalization of gluons with Bose-Einstein condensation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhe; Zhou, Kai; Zhuang, Pengfei; Greiner, Carsten

    2015-05-01

    We study the thermalization of gluons far from thermal equilibrium in relativistic kinetic theory. The initial distribution of gluons is assumed to resemble that in the early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. Only elastic scatterings in static, nonexpanding gluonic matter are considered. At first we show that the occurrence of condensation in the limit of vanishing particle mass requires a general constraint for the scattering matrix element. Then the thermalization of gluons with Bose-Einstein condensation is demonstrated in a transport calculation. We see a continuously increasing overpopulation of low energy gluons, followed by a decrease to the equilibrium distribution, when the condensation occurs. The times of the completion of the gluon condensation and of the entropy production are calculated. These times scale inversely with the energy density. PMID:26000996

  7. Gluon transport equations with condensate in the small angle approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    We derive the set of kinetic equations that control the evolution of gluons in the presence of a condensate. We show that the dominant singularities remain logarithmic when the scattering involves particles in the condensate. This allows us to define a consistent small angle approximation.

  8. Gluon condensate in a pion superfluid beyond the mean-field approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yin; Zhuang Pengfei

    2011-03-15

    We study gluon condensate in a pion superfluid by calculating the equation of state of the system in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. While in mean-field approximation the growing pion condensate leads to an increasing gluon condensate, meson fluctuations reduce the gluon condensate, and the broken scalar symmetry can be smoothly restored at finite isospin density.

  9. Connection between the nuclear matter mean-field equation of state and the quark and gluon condensates at high density

    SciTech Connect

    Malheiro, M.; Dey, M.; Delfino, A.; Dey, J. |||

    1997-01-01

    It is known now that chiral symmetry restoration requires the meson-nucleon couplings to be density-dependent in nuclear-matter mean-field models. We further show that, quite generally, the quark and gluon condensates in medium are related to the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of nuclear matter and in these models the incompressibility K must be less than 3 times the chemical potential {mu}. In the critical density {rho}{sub c}, the gluon condensate is only reduced by 20{percent}, indicating a larger effective nucleon mass. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Model independent determination of the gluon condensate in four dimensional SU(3) gauge theory.

    PubMed

    Bali, Gunnar S; Bauer, Clemens; Pineda, Antonio

    2014-08-29

    We determine the nonperturbative gluon condensate of four-dimensional SU(3) gauge theory in a model-independent way. This is achieved by carefully subtracting high-order perturbation theory results from nonperturbative lattice QCD determinations of the average plaquette. No indications of dimension-two condensates are found. The value of the gluon condensate turns out to be of a similar size as the intrinsic ambiguity inherent to its definition. We also determine the binding energy of a B meson in the heavy quark mass limit. PMID:25215978

  11. Glueballs, gluon condensate, and pure glue QCD below T{sub c}

    SciTech Connect

    Buisseret, F.

    2011-05-23

    A quasiparticle description of pure glue QCD below T{sub c} is presented. It is shown that the strong decrease of both the gluon condensate and the lightest glueball masses when approaching T{sub c} might be the trigger of the phase transition. The proposed model compares favorably with recent lattice data.

  12. Dynamical equation of the effective gluon mass

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Papavassiliou, J.

    2011-10-15

    In this article, we derive the integral equation that controls the momentum dependence of the effective gluon mass in the Landau gauge. This is accomplished by means of a well-defined separation of the corresponding ''one-loop dressed'' Schwinger-Dyson equation into two distinct contributions, one associated with the mass and one with the standard kinetic part of the gluon. The entire construction relies on the existence of a longitudinally coupled vertex of nonperturbative origin, which enforces gauge invariance in the presence of a dynamical mass. The specific structure of the resulting mass equation, supplemented by the additional requirement of a positive-definite gluon mass, imposes a rather stringent constraint on the derivative of the gluonic dressing function, which is comfortably satisfied by the large-volume lattice data for the gluon propagator, both for SU(2) and SU(3). The numerical treatment of the mass equation, under some simplifying assumptions, is presented for the aforementioned gauge groups, giving rise to a gluon mass that is a nonmonotonic function of the momentum. Various theoretical improvements and possible future directions are briefly discussed.

  13. Higgs boson production via gluon fusion: Soft-gluon resummation including mass effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Timo; Spira, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We analyze soft and collinear gluon resummation effects at the N3LL level for Standard Model Higgs boson production via gluon fusion g g →H and the neutral scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs bosons of the minimal supersymmetric extension at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-log (N3LL ) and next-to-next-to-leading-log (NNLL) level, respectively. We introduce refinements in the treatment of quark mass effects and subleading collinear gluon effects within the resummation. Soft and collinear gluon resummation effects amount to up to about 5% beyond the fixed-order results for scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs boson production.

  14. Gluon production in the Color Glass Condensate model of collisions of ultrarelativistic finite nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnitz, Alex; Nara, Yasushi; Venugopalan, Raju

    2003-04-01

    We extend previous work on high energy nuclear collisions in the Color Glass Condensate model to study collisions of finite ultrarelativistic nuclei. The changes implemented include (a) imposition of color neutrality at the nucleon level and (b) realistic nuclear matter distributions of finite nuclei. The saturation scale characterizing the fields of color charge is explicitly position-dependent, Λs= Λs( xT). We compute gluon distributions both before and after the collisions. The gluon distribution in the nuclear wavefunction before the collision is significantly suppressed below the saturation scale when compared to the simple McLerran-Venugopalan model prediction, while the behavior at large momentum pT≫ Λs remains unchanged. We study the centrality dependence of produced gluons and compare it to the centrality dependence of charged hadrons exhibited by the RHIC data. We demonstrate the geometrical scaling property of the initial gluon transverse momentum distributions for different centralities. Classical Yang-Mills results for pT< Λs are simply matched to perturbative QCD computations for pT> Λs—the resulting energy per particle is significantly lower than the purely classical estimates. Our results for nuclear collisions can be used as initial conditions for quantitative studies of the further evolution and possible equilibration of hot and dense gluonic matter produced in heavy ion collisions. Finally, we study pA collisions within the classical framework. Our results agree well with previously derived analytical results in the appropriate kinematical regions.

  15. RHIC PHYSICS: THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA AND THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE: 4 LECTURES

    SciTech Connect

    MCLERRAN,L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to provide an introduction to the physics issues which are being studied in the RHIC heavy ion program. These center around the production of new states of matter. The Quark Gluon Plasma is thermal matter which once existed in the big bang which may be made at RHIC. The Color Glass Condensate is a universal form of matter which controls the high energy limit of strong interactions. Both such forms of matter might be produced and probed at RHIC.

  16. Temperature dependence of quarks and gluon vacuum condensate in the Dyson-Schwinger Equations at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li-Juan; Zheng, Bo; Zhong, Hong-Wei; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-03-01

    Based on the Dyson-Schwinger Equations (DSEs), the two-quark vacuum condensate, the four-quark vacuum condensate, and the quark gluon mixed vacuum condensate in the non-perturbative QCD vacuum state are investigated by solving the DSEs with rainbow truncation at zero- and finite- temperature, respectively. These condensates are important input parameters in QCD sum rule with zero and finite temperature, and in studying hadron physics, as well as predicting the quark mean squared momentum m20- also called quark virtuality in the QCD vacuum state. The present calculated results show that these physical quantities are almost independent of the temperature below the critical point temperature Tc = 131 MeV, and above Tc the chiral symmetry is restored. For comparison we calculate the temperature dependence of the “in-hadron condensate” for pion. At the same time, we also calculate the ratio of the quark gluon mixed vacuum condensate to the two-quark vacuum condensate by using these condensates, and the unknown quark mean squared momentum in the QCD vacuum state has been obtained. The results show that the ratio m20(T) is almost flat in the temperature region from 0 to Tc, although there are drastic changes of the quark vacuum condensate and the quark gluon mixed vacuum condensate at the region. Our predicted ratio comes out to be m20(T)=2.41 GeV2 at the Chiral limit, which is consistent with other theory model predictions, and strongly indicates the significance that the quark gluon mixed vacuum condensate has played in the virtuality calculations. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11365002), Guangxi Natural Science Foundation for Young Researchers (2013GXNSFBB053007, 2011GXNSFA018140), Guangxi Education Department (2013ZD049), Guangxi Grant for Excellent Researchers (2011-54), and Guangxi University of Science and Technology Foundation for PhDs (11Z16)

  17. Vacuum Energy, EoS, and the Gluon Condensate at Finite Baryon Density in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2007-02-27

    The Equation of States (EoS) plays the crucial role in all studies of neutron star properties. Still, a microscopical understanding of EoS remains largely an unresolved problem. We use 2-color QCD as a model to study the dependence of vacuum energy (gluon condensate in QCD) as function of chemical potential {mu} << {lambda}QCD where we find very strong and unexpected dependence on {mu}. We present the arguments suggesting that similar behavior may occur in 3-color QCD in the color superconducting phases. Such a study may be of importance for analysis of EoS when phenomenologically relevant parameters (within such models as MIT Bag model or NJL model) are fixed at zero density while the region of study lies at much higher densities not available for terrestrial tests.

  18. Gluon production in the Lipatov effective action formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, M. A.; Pozdnyakov, S. S.; Salykin, M. Yu.; Vyazovsky, M. I.

    2013-09-01

    Gluon production on two scattering centers is studied in the formalism of reggeized gluons. Different contributions to the inclusive cross section are derived with the help of the Lipatov effective action. The AGK relations between these contributions are established. The inclusive cross section found is compared to the one in the dipole picture and demonstrated to be the same.

  19. Cronin effect and high-p⊥ suppression in the nuclear gluon distribution at small x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iancu, E.; Itakura, K.; Triantafyllopoulos, D. N.

    2004-09-01

    We present a systematic, and fully analytic, study of the ratio R between the gluon distribution in a nucleus and that in a proton scaled up by the atomic number A. We consider initial conditions of the McLerran-Venugopalan type, and quantum evolution in the Color Glass Condensate, with both fixed and running coupling. We perform an analytic study of the Cronin effect in the initial conditions and point out an interesting difference between saturating effects and twist effects in the nuclear gluon distribution. We show that the distribution of the gluons which make up the condensate in the initial conditions is localized at low momenta, but this particular feature does not survive after the quantum evolution. We demonstrate that the rapid suppression of the ratio R in the early stages of the evolution is due to the DGLAP-like evolution of the proton, whose gluon distribution grows much faster than that in the nucleus because of the large separation between the respective saturation momenta. The flattening of the Cronin peak, on the other hand, is due to the evolution of the nucleus. We show that the running coupling effects slow down the evolution, but eventually lead to a stronger suppression in R at sufficiently large energies.

  20. Quark- and gluon-condensate contributions to penguin four-Fermi operators

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmady, Mohammad R.; Elias, Victor

    1999-10-04

    The nonperturbative content of the QCD vacuum permits the occurrence of QCD-vacuum condensate contributions to penguin amplitudes. We calculate the dimension-4 and <{alpha}{sub s}G{sup 2}> contributions to the effective Wilson coefficients for penguin four-Fermi operators, and discuss how such contributions may contribute to nonleptonic B decays.

  1. Combined study of the gluon and ghost condensates and <{epsilon}{sup abc}c{sup b}c{sup c}> in Euclidean SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in the Landau gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Capri, M.A.L.; Lemes, V.E.R.; Sobreiro, R.F.; Sorella, S.P.; Dudal, D.; Verschelde, H.; Gracey, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The ghost condensate <{epsilon}{sup abc}c{sup b}c{sup c}> is considered together with the gluon condensate in SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theories quantized in the Landau gauge. The vacuum polarization ceases to be transverse due to the nonvanishing condensate <{epsilon}{sup abc}c{sup b}c{sup c}>. The gluon propagator itself remains transverse. By polarization effects, this ghost condensate induces then a splitting in the gluon mass parameter, which is dynamically generated through . The obtained effective masses are real when is included in the analysis. In the absence of , the already known result that the ghost condensate induces effective tachyonic masses is recovered. At the one-loop level, we find that the effective diagonal mass becomes smaller than the off-diagonal one. This might serve as an indication for some kind of Abelian dominance in the Landau gauge, similar to what happens in the maximal Abelian gauge.

  2. Indirect lattice evidence for the refined Gribov-Zwanziger formalism and the gluon condensate ⟨A2⟩ in the Landau gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudal, D.; Oliveira, O.; Vandersickel, N.

    2010-04-01

    We consider the gluon propagator D(p2) at various lattice sizes and spacings in the case of pure SU(3) Yang-Mills gauge theories using the Landau gauge fixing. We discuss a class of fits in the infrared region in order to (in)validate the tree level analytical prediction in terms of the (refined) Gribov-Zwanziger framework. It turns out that an important role is played by the presence of the widely studied dimension two gluon condensate ⟨A2⟩. Including this effect allows to obtain an acceptable fit around 1 to 1.5 GeV, while corroborating the refined Gribov-Zwanziger prediction for the gluon propagator. We also discuss the infinite volume extrapolation, leading to the estimate D(0)=8.3±0.5GeV-2. As a by-product, we can also provide the prediction ⟨g2A2⟩≈3GeV2 obtained at the renormalization scale μ=10GeV.

  3. On effects of multiple gluons in J/ψ hadroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, Leszek; Sadzikowski, Mariusz

    2015-04-10

    The three-gluon contribution to J/ψ hadroproduction is calculated within perturbative QCD in the k{sub T}-factorization framework. This mechanism involves double gluon density and enters at a non-leading twist, but it is enhanced at large energies due to large double gluon density at small x. We obtain results for differential p{sub T}-dependent cross-sections for all J/ψ polarisations. The rescattering contribution is found to provide a significant correction to the standard leading twist cross-section at the energies of the Tevatron or the LHC at moderate p{sub T}. We also discuss a possible contribution of the rescattering correction to the anti-shadowing effect for J/ψ production in proton - nucleus collisions.

  4. From a colored glass condensate to the gluon plasma: Equilibration in high energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoraker, Jefferson; Venugopalan, Raju

    2001-02-01

    The initial distribution of gluons at the very early times after a high-energy heavy ion collision is described by the bulk scale Q{sub s} of gluon saturation in the nuclear wave function. The subsequent evolution of the system towards kinetic equilibrium is described by a nonlinear Landau equation for the single particle distributions [A. H. Mueller, Nucl. Phys. B572, 227 (2000); Phys. Lett. B 475, 220 (2000)]. In this paper, we solve this equation numerically for the idealized initial conditions proposed by Mueller, and study the evolution of the system to equilibrium. We discuss the sensitivity of our results on the dynamical screening of collinear divergences. In a particular model of dynamical screening, the convergence to the hydrodynamic limit is seen to be rapid relative to hydrodynamic time scales. The equilibration time, the initial temperature, and the chemical potential are shown to have a strong functional dependence on the initial gluon saturation scale Q{sub s}.

  5. Modeling the gluon propagator in Landau gauge: Lattice estimates of pole masses and dimension-two condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchieri, A.; Dudal, D.; Mendes, T.; Vandersickel, N.

    2012-05-01

    We present an analytic description of numerical results for the Landau-gauge SU(2) gluon propagator D(p2), obtained from lattice simulations (in the scaling region) for the largest lattice sizes to date, in d=2, 3 and 4 space-time dimensions. Fits to the gluon data in 3d and in 4d show very good agreement with the tree-level prediction of the refined Gribov-Zwanziger (RGZ) framework, supporting a massive behavior for D(p2) in the infrared limit. In particular, we investigate the propagator’s pole structure and provide estimates of the dynamical mass scales that can be associated with dimension-two condensates in the theory. In the 2d case, fitting the data requires a noninteger power of the momentum p in the numerator of the expression for D(p2). In this case, an infinite-volume-limit extrapolation gives D(0)=0. Our analysis suggests that this result is related to a particular symmetry in the complex-pole structure of the propagator and not to purely imaginary poles, as would be expected in the original Gribov-Zwanziger scenario.

  6. Asymmetry of the dimension-two gluon condensate: The finite temperature case

    SciTech Connect

    Vercauteren, David; Verschelde, Henri

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, we continue the work begun in a previous article. We compute, in the formalism of local composite operators, the value of the asymmetry in the dimension two condensate for finite temperatures. We find a positive value for the asymmetry, which disappears when the temperature is increased. We also compute the value of the full dimension two condensate for higher temperatures, and we find that it decreases in absolute value, finally disappearing for sufficiently high temperature. We also comment on the temperature dependence of the electric and magnetic components of the condensate separately. We compare our results with the corresponding lattice date found by Chernodub and Ilgenfritz.

  7. The Gluon Contribution to the Sivers Effect COMPASS results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurek, Krzysztof; Szabelski, Adam

    2016-02-01

    The Sivers effect describes the correlation between the spin of the nucleon and the orbital motion of partons. It can be measured via Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering of lepton on a transversely polarised proton and deuteron targets by determining the azimuthal asymmetry related to the modulation in the Sivers angle ϕSiv. In the paper a method of obtaining the Sivers asymmetry for gluons is presented. It is based on the model of lepton nucleon interactions via three single-photon-exchange processes: photon-gluon fusion (PGF), QCD Compton (QCDC) and leading process (LP). A method of simultaneous extraction of the Sivers asymmetries of the three processes with the use of Monte Carlo (MC) and neural networks (NN) approach is presented. The method has been applied to COMPASS data taken with 160GeV/c muon beam scattered off transversely polarised deuteron and transversely polarised proton target. For each target a data sample of events containing at least two hadrons with large transverse momentum has been selected. Finally the results for gluon Sivers asymmetry were obtained to be: Adg = -0.14 ± 0.15(stat.) ± 0.06(syst.) at = 0.13 and Apg = -0.26 ± 0.09(stat.) ± 0.08(syst.) at = 0.15.

  8. Abrikosov Gluon Vortices in Color Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Efrain J.

    2011-09-01

    In this talk I will discuss how the in-medium magnetic field can influence the gluon dynamics in a three-flavor color superconductor. It will be shown how at field strengths comparable to the charged gluon Meissner mass a new phase can be realized, giving rise to Abrikosov's vortices of charged gluons. In that phase, the inhomogeneous gluon condensate anti-screens the magnetic field due to the anomalous magnetic moment of these spin-1 particles. This paramagnetic effect can be of interest for astrophysics, since due to the gluon vortex antiscreening mechanism, compact stars with color superconducting cores could have larger magnetic fields than neutron stars made up entirely of nuclear matter. I will also discuss a second gluon condensation phenomenon connected to the Meissner instability attained at moderate densities by two-flavor color superconductors. In this situation, an inhomogeneous condensate of charged gluons emerges to remove the chromomagnetic instability created by the pairing mismatch, and as a consequence, the charged gluonic currents induce a magnetic field. Finally, I will point out a possible relation between glitches in neutron stars and the existence of the gluon vortices.

  9. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.

    2005-12-15

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy.

  10. Effect of spontaneous condensation on condensation heat transfer in the presence of non-condensable gases

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, J.; Hein, D.

    1999-07-01

    The presence of non condensable gases like nitrogen or air reduces the condensation heat transfer during condensation of binary steam mixtures. The non condensable gas accumulates in the vapor phase boundary layer and causes a high heat transfer resistance. Especially with high pressures and low water temperatures spontaneous condensation reduces heat transfer additionally. Fog forms within the steam-nitrogen boundary layer and the steam condenses on the water droplets of the fog layer. The convective mass transfer to the cooling water interface diminishes. Raman spectroscopy and film theory are used to quantify this effect locally. The calculation of overall condensation rates in large steam nitrogen systems requires to use three dimensional CFD codes. The paper presents equations to predict fog formation in the boundary layer which can be implemented in CFD codes.

  11. Chiral electric separation effect in the quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2015-02-02

    In this paper we introduce and compute a new transport coefficient for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at very high temperature. This new coefficient σχe, the CESE (Chiral Electric Separation Effect) conductivity, quantifies the amount of axial current JA that is generated in response to an externally applied electric field eE: JAχe(eE). Starting with a rather general argument in the kinetic theory framework, we show how a characteristic structure σχe∝μμ5 emerges, which also indicates the CESE as an anomalous transport effect occurring only in a parity-odd environment with nonzero axial charge density μ5 ≠ 0. Using the Hard-Thermal-Loop framework, the CESE conductivity for the QGP is found to be σχe = (#)TTrfQeQA/g⁴ln(1/g) μμ5/T² to the leading-log accuracy with the numerical constant (#) depending on favor content, e.g., (#)=14.5163 for u, d light flavors.

  12. Chiral electric separation effect in the quark-gluon plasma

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2015-02-02

    In this paper we introduce and compute a new transport coefficient for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at very high temperature. This new coefficient σχe, the CESE (Chiral Electric Separation Effect) conductivity, quantifies the amount of axial current JA that is generated in response to an externally applied electric field eE: JA=σχe(eE). Starting with a rather general argument in the kinetic theory framework, we show how a characteristic structure σχe∝μμ5 emerges, which also indicates the CESE as an anomalous transport effect occurring only in a parity-odd environment with nonzero axial charge density μ5 ≠ 0. Using the Hard-Thermal-Loop framework, the CESEmore » conductivity for the QGP is found to be σχe = (#)TTrfQeQA/g⁴ln(1/g) μμ5/T² to the leading-log accuracy with the numerical constant (#) depending on favor content, e.g., (#)=14.5163 for u, d light flavors.« less

  13. Gravity Effects in Condensing and Evaporating Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermanson, J. C.; Som, S. M.; Allen, J. S.; Pedersen, P. C.

    2004-01-01

    A general overview of gravity effects in condensing and evaporating films is presented. The topics include: 1) Research Overview; 2) NASA Recognizes Critical Need for Condensation & Evaporation Research to Enable Human Exploration of Space; 3) Condensation and Evaporation Research in Reduced Gravity is Enabling for AHST Technology Needs; 4) Differing Role of Surface Tension on Condensing/Evaporating Film Stability; 5) Fluid Mechanisms in Condensing and Evaporating Films in Reduced Gravity; 6) Research Plan; 7) Experimental Configurations for Condensing Films; 8) Laboratory Condensation Test Cell; 9) Aircraft Experiment; 10) Condensation Study Current Test Conditions; 11) Diagnostics; 12) Shadowgraph Images of Condensing n- pentane Film in Unstable (-1g) Configuration; 13) Condensing n-Pentane Film in Normal Gravity (-1g) at Constant Pressure; 14) Condensing n-Pentane Film in Normal Gravity (-1g) with Cyclic Pressure; 15) Non-condensing Pumped Film in Normal Gravity (-1g); 16) Heat Transfer Coefficient in Developing, Unstable Condensing Film in Normal Gravity; 17) Heat Transfer for Unsteady Condensing Film (-1g); 18) Ultrasound Measurement of Film Thickness N-pentane Film, Stable (+1g) Configuration; and 19) Ultrasound Measurement of Film Thickness N-pentane Film, Unstable (-1g) Configuration.

  14. Effective vertex of quark production in collision of a Reggeized quark and gluon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, M. G.; Reznichenko, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    We calculate the effective vertex of the quark production in the collision of a Reggeized quark and a Reggeized gluon in the next-to-leading order (NLO). The vertex in question is the missing component of the multi-Regge NLO amplitudes with the quark and gluon exchanges in the ti channels. This multi-Regge form of the amplitudes is the important hypothesis which was recently proved for the gluon exchanges only and remains unverified within the next-to-leading-logarithmic approximation (NLA) for the general case including the quark exchanges. Our calculation allows one to develop the bootstrap approach to the quark Reggeization proof in NLA.

  15. Non-perturbative effects for the Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Begun, V. V. Gorenstein, M. I. Mogilevsky, O. A.

    2012-07-15

    The non-perturbative effects for the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) equation of state (EoS) are considered. The modifications of the bag model EoS are constructed to satisfy the main qualitative features observed for the QGP EoS in the lattice QCD calculations. A quantitative comparison with the lattice results is done for the SU(3) gluon plasma and for the QGP with dynamical quarks. Our analysis advocates a negative value of the bag constant B.

  16. The Cronin effect, quantum evolution and the color glass condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Nara, Yasushi; Venugopalan, Raju

    2003-12-01

    We show that the numerical solution of the classical SU(3) Yang-Mills equations of motion in the McLerran-Venugopalan model for gluon production in central heavy ion collisions leads to a suppression at low pt and an enhancement at the intermediate pt region as compared to peripheral heavy ion and pp collisions at the same energy. Our results are compared to previous, color glass condensate inspired calculations of gluon production in heavy ion collisions. We revisit the predictions of the color glass condensate model for pA (dA) collisions in leading order and show that quantum evolution—in particular, the phenomenon of geometric scaling and change of anomalous dimensions—preserves the Cronin enhancement of pA cross section (when normalized to the leading twist term) in the leading order approximation even though the pt spectrum can change. We comment on the case when gluon radiation is included.

  17. Temperature dependence of dimension-6 gluon operators and their effects on charmonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, HyungJoo; Morita, Kenji; Lee, Su Houng

    2016-01-01

    Starting from an earlier representation of the independent dimension-6 gluon operators in terms of color electric and magnetic fields, we estimate their changes near the critical temperature Tc using the temperature dependence of the dimension-4 electric and magnetic condensates extracted from pure gauge theory on the lattice. We then improve the previous QCD sum rules for the J /ψ mass near Tc based on dimension-4 operators, by including the contribution of the dimension-6 operators to the OPE. We find an enhanced stability in the sum rule and confirm that the J /ψ will undergo an abrupt change in the property across Tc.

  18. Jet Quenching Phenomenology from Soft-Collinear Effective Theory with Glauber Gluons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Lashof-Regas, Robin; Ovanesyan, Grigory; Saad, Philip; Vitev, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    We present the first application of a recently developed effective theory of jet propagation in matter, soft-collinear effective theory with Glauber gluons (SCETG ), to inclusive hadron suppression in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and the LHC. SCETG-based splitting kernels allow us to go beyond the traditional energy loss approximation and unify the treatment of vacuum and medium-induced parton showers. In the soft gluon emission limit, we establish a simple analytic relation between the QCD evolution and energy loss approaches to jet quenching. We quantify the uncertainties associated with the implementation of the in-medim modification of hadron production cross sections and show that the coupling between the jet and the medium can be constrained with better than 10% accuracy.

  19. Searching for gluon number fluctuations effects in eA collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kugeratski, M. S.; Gonçalves, V. P.; Santana Amaral, J. T. de

    2014-11-11

    We propose to investigate the gluon number fluctuations effects in deep inelastic electron-ion scattering at high energies. We estimate the nuclear structure function F{sub 2}{sup A}(x,Q{sup 2}), as well the longitudinal and charm contributions, using a generalization for nuclear targets of the Golec-Biernat-Wusthoff (GBW) model which describes the electron proton HERA data. Here we consider that the nucleus at high energies acts as an amplifier of the physics of high parton densities. For a first investigation we study the scattering with Ca and Pb nuclei. Our preliminary results predict that the effects of gluon number fluctuations are small in the region of the future electron ion collider.

  20. Jet quenching phenomenology from soft-collinear effective theory with Glauber gluons.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Lashof-Regas, Robin; Ovanesyan, Grigory; Saad, Philip; Vitev, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    We present the first application of a recently developed effective theory of jet propagation in matter, soft-collinear effective theory with Glauber gluons (SCET_{G}), to inclusive hadron suppression in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and the LHC. SCET_{G}-based splitting kernels allow us to go beyond the traditional energy loss approximation and unify the treatment of vacuum and medium-induced parton showers. In the soft gluon emission limit, we establish a simple analytic relation between the QCD evolution and energy loss approaches to jet quenching. We quantify the uncertainties associated with the implementation of the in-medim modification of hadron production cross sections and show that the coupling between the jet and the medium can be constrained with better than 10% accuracy. PMID:25793803

  1. Gluon TMD studies at EIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, Daniël

    2016-03-01

    A high-energy Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would offer a most promising tool to study in detail the transverse momentum distributions of gluons inside hadrons. This applies to unpolarized as well as linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized protons, and to left-right asymmetric distributions of gluons inside transversely polarized protons, the so-called gluon Sivers effect. The inherent process dependence of these distributions can be studied by comparing to similar, but often complementary observables at LHC.

  2. From classical to quantum saturationin the nuclear gluon distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllopoulos, D. N.

    2005-08-01

    We study the gluon content of a large nucleus (i) in the semi-classical McLerran-Venugopalan model and (ii) in the high-energy limit as given by the quantum evolution of the color glass condensate. We give a simple and qualitative description of the Cronin effect and high- pT suppression in proton-nucleus collisions.

  3. Impact of the strong electromagnetic field on the QCD effective potential for homogeneous Abelian gluon field configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Galilo, Bogdan V.; Nedelko, Sergei N.

    2011-11-01

    The one-loop quark contribution to the QCD effective potential for the homogeneous Abelian gluon field in the presence of an external strong electromagnetic field is evaluated. The structure of extrema of the potential as a function of the angles between chromoelectric, chromomagnetic, and electromagnetic fields is analyzed. In this setup, the electromagnetic field is considered as an external one while the gluon field represents domain structured nonperturbative gluon configurations related to the QCD vacuum in the confinement phase. Two particularly interesting gluon configurations, (anti-)self-dual and crossed orthogonal chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields, are discussed specifically. Within this simplified framework it is shown that the strong electromagnetic fields can play a catalyzing role for a deconfinement transition. At the qualitative level, the present consideration can be seen as a highly simplified study of an impact of the electromagnetic fields generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions on the strongly interacting hadronic matter.

  4. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  5. Inhomogeneous Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayata, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Arata

    2015-05-01

    We study the spatial inhomogeneity of the Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates. We formulate an effective model of gluons on the background fields of chiral condensates, and perform its lattice simulation. On the background of inhomogeneous chiral condensates, the Polyakov loop exhibits an in-phase spatial oscillation with the chiral condensates. We also analyze the heavy quark potential and show that the inhomogeneous Polyakov loop indicates the inhomogeneous confinement of heavy quarks.

  6. Edge effects on water droplet condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royon, Laurent; Montgruel, Anne; Medici, Marie Gabrielle; Beysens, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The effect of geometrical or thermal discontinuities on the growth of water droplets condensing on a cooled substrate is investigated. Edges, corners, cooled/non cooled boundaries can have a strong effect on the vapor concentration profile and mass diffusion around the drops. In comparison to growth in a pattern where droplets have to compete to catch vapor, which results in a linear water concentration profile directed perpendicular to the substrate, droplets near discontinuities can get more vapor (outer edges, corners), resulting in faster growth or less vapor (inner edges), giving lower growth. When the cooling heat flux limits growth instead of mass diffusion (substrate with low thermal conductivity, strong heat exchange with air), edges effects can be canceled. In certain cases, the growth enhancement can reach nearly 500% on edges or corners which, on an inclined substrate, make droplets near the edges detach sooner than in the middle of the substrate. This effect is frequently observed with dew condensing on windows or car windshields. Such droplets, acting as wipers, can thus appreciably increase dew collection on a substrate.

  7. QCD in the nuclear medium and effects due to Cherenkov gluons

    SciTech Connect

    Dremin, I. M.

    2010-04-15

    The equations of in-medium gluodynamics are proposed. Their classical lowest-order solution is explicitly shown for a color charge moving with constant speed. For chromopermittivity larger than 1 it describes emission of Cherenkov gluons resembling results of classical electrodynamics. The values of the real and imaginary parts of the chromopermittivity are obtained from the fits to experimental data on the double-humped structure around the away-side jet obtained at RHIC. The dispersion of the chromopermittivity is predicted by comparing the RHIC, SPS, and cosmic-ray data. This is important for LHC experiments. Cherenkov gluons may be responsible for the asymmetry of dilepton mass spectra near {rho} meson observed in the SPS experiment with excess in the low-mass wing of the resonance. This feature is predicted to be common for all resonances. The 'color rainbow' quantum effect might appear according to higher-order terms of in-medium QCD if the chromopermittivity depends on color.

  8. Inverted Leidenfrost-like Effect during Condensation.

    PubMed

    Narhe, Ramchandra; Anand, Sushant; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Medici, Marie-Gabrielle; González-Viñas, Wenceslao; Varanasi, Kripa K; Beysens, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Water droplets condensing on solidified phase change materials such as benzene and cyclohexane near their melting point show in-plane jumping and continuous "crawling" motion. The jumping drop motion has been tentatively explained as an outcome of melting and refreezing of the materials surface beneath the droplets and can be thus considered as an inverted Leidenfrost-like effect (in the classical case vapor is generated from a droplet on a hot substrate). We present here a detailed investigation of jumping movements using high-speed imaging and static cross-sectional cryogenic focused ion beam scanning electron microscope imaging. Our results show that drop motion is induced by a thermocapillary (Marangoni) effect. The in-plane jumping motion can be delineated to occur in two stages. The first stage occurs on a millisecond time scale and comprises melting the substrate due to drop condensation. This results in droplet depinning, partial spreading, and thermocapillary movement until freezing of the cyclohexane film. The second stage occurs on a second time scale and comprises relaxation motion of the drop contact line (change in drop contact radius and contact angle) after substrate freezing. When the cyclohexane film cannot freeze, the droplet continuously glides on the surface, resulting in the crawling motion. PMID:25807004

  9. Inclusive two-gluon and valence-quark-gluon production in DIS and pA collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2004-12-01

    We calculate production cross sections of a forward quark-gluon pair and of two gluons at midrapidity in deep inelastic scattering and in high energy proton-nucleus collisions. The calculation is performed in the framework of the color glass condensate formalism. We first calculate the cross sections in the quasiclassical approximation, which includes multiple rescatterings in the target. We then proceed to include the effects of nonlinear small-x evolution in the production cross sections. It is interesting to note that our result for the two-gluon production cross section appears to be in direct violation of Abramovsky-Gribov-Kanchelli cutting rules, which is the first example of such violation in QCD. The calculated quark-gluon and gluon-gluon production cross sections can be used to construct theoretical predictions for two-particle azimuthal correlations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and LHC (I{sup p(d)A}) as well as for deep inelastic scattering experiments at the Hadron Electron Ring Accelerator and the Electron-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  10. Edge effects on water droplet condensation.

    PubMed

    Medici, Marie-Gabrielle; Mongruel, Anne; Royon, Laurent; Beysens, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigate the effect of geometrical or thermal discontinuities on the growth of water droplets condensing on a cooled substrate. Edges, corners, and cooled and noncooled boundaries can have a strong effect on the vapor concentration profile and mass diffusion around the drops. In comparison to growth in a pattern where droplets have to compete to catch vapor, which results in a linear water concentration profile directed perpendicularly to the substrate, droplets near discontinuities can get more vapor (outer edges, corners), resulting in faster growth or less vapor (inner edges), giving lower growth. When the cooling heat flux limits growth instead of mass diffusion (substrate with low thermal conductivity, strong heat exchange with air), edge effects can be canceled. In certain cases, growth enhancement can reach nearly 500% on edges or corners. PMID:25615108

  11. Edge effects on water droplet condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medici, Marie-Gabrielle; Mongruel, Anne; Royon, Laurent; Beysens, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigate the effect of geometrical or thermal discontinuities on the growth of water droplets condensing on a cooled substrate. Edges, corners, and cooled and noncooled boundaries can have a strong effect on the vapor concentration profile and mass diffusion around the drops. In comparison to growth in a pattern where droplets have to compete to catch vapor, which results in a linear water concentration profile directed perpendicularly to the substrate, droplets near discontinuities can get more vapor (outer edges, corners), resulting in faster growth or less vapor (inner edges), giving lower growth. When the cooling heat flux limits growth instead of mass diffusion (substrate with low thermal conductivity, strong heat exchange with air), edge effects can be canceled. In certain cases, growth enhancement can reach nearly 500% on edges or corners.

  12. The cool potential of gluons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshier*, André; Giovannoni, Dino

    2016-01-01

    We put forward the idea that the quark-gluon plasma might exist way below the usual confinement temperature Tc. Our argument rests on the possibility that the plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions could reach a transient quasi-equilibrium with ‘over-occupied’ gluon density, as advocated by Blaizot et al. Taking further into account that gluons acquire an effective mass by interaction effects, they can have a positive chemical potential and therefore behave similarly to non-relativistic bosons. Relevant properties of this dense state of interacting gluons, which we dub serried glue, can then be inferred on rather general grounds from Maxwell's relation.

  13. Gluon bremstrahlung effects in large P/sub perpendicular/ hadron-hadron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.C.; Kelly, R.L.

    1982-02-01

    We consider effects of parton (primarily gluon) bremstrahlung in the initial and final states of high transverse momentum hadron-hadron scattering. Monte Carlo calculations based on conventional QCD parton branching and scattering processes are presented. The calculations are carried only to the parton level in the final state. We apply the model to the Drell-Yan process and to high transverse momentum hadron-hadron scattering triggered with a large aperture calorimeter. We show that the latter triggers are biased in that they select events with unusually large bremstrahlung effects. We suggest that this trigger bias explains the large cross section and non-coplanar events observed in the NA5 experiment at the SPS.

  14. Gluons and the NJL coupling constant

    SciTech Connect

    Braghin, Fábio L.; Barros Jr, Ednaldo; Paulo Jr, Ademar

    2014-11-11

    The QCD origin of the NJL model is re-analysed by considering the gluon condensate of order two . The key point is the treatment of the gluon interactions. To linearize the action the auxiliary variable method is employed to introduce a scalar variable φ(x) that yield such condensate by means of its value in the vacuum, and then another auxiliary variable that corresponds to an antisymmetric gluon configuration φ(x). For that, besides that, two different possible limits of the fourth order non local quark interaction that may contribute to the NJL coupling are compared.

  15. Jet quenching phenomenology from soft-collinear effective theory with Glauber gluons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitev, Ivan; Ovanesyan, Grigory; Lashoff-Regas, Robin; Saad, Philip; Vitev, Ivan

    2014-09-01

    We present the first application of a recently-developed effective theory of jet propagation in matter SCETG to inclusive hadron suppression in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. SCETG-based splitting kernels allow us to go beyond the traditional energy loss approximation and unify the treatment of vacuum and medium-induced parton showers. In the soft gluon emission limit, we establish a simple analytic relation between the QCD evolution and energy loss approaches to jet quenching. We quantify the uncertainties associated with the implementation of the in-medium modification of hadron production cross sections and show that the coupling between the jet and the medium can be constrained with better than 10% accuracy.

  16. Mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects in Bose-Einstein-condensed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, G.C.; Bagnato, V.S.; Muniz, S.R.; Spehler, D.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper we extend previous hydrodynamic equations, governing the motion of Bose-Einstein-condensed fluids, to include temperature effects. This allows us to analyze some differences between a normal fluid and a Bose-Einstein-condensed one. We show that, in close analogy with superfluid {sup 4}He, a Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid exhibits the mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects. In our approach we can explain both effects without using the hypothesis that the Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid has zero entropy. Such ideas could be investigated in existing experiments.

  17. Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.

  18. Row effect for R-11 condensation on enhanced tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.L.; Murawski, C.G. )

    1990-08-01

    Experimental results of a condensation row effect study on enhanced tubes are presented. A test cell was constructed to condense Refrigerant-11 on the shell side of a vertical bank of five horizontal tubes. Four distinctly different commercially available tubes were tested. The tubes are a 1024-fpm integral fin, the Wolverine Tube-C, Wieland GEWA-SC, and the Tred-D. A modified Turbo-C tube was also tested. Experimental and visual observations are used to understand the row effect due to condensate loading. By plotting the data in the form of the local condensation coefficient versus condensate Reynolds number, the results may be interpreted for any number of tube rows, up to the maximum Reynolds numbers tested. Bundle average condensation coefficients may be established by integrating the h versus Re values over the number of tube rows.

  19. Josephson effects in condensates of excitons and exciton polaritons

    SciTech Connect

    Shelykh, I. A.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Pavlovic, G.; Malpuech, G.

    2008-07-15

    We analyze theoretically the phenomena related to the Josephson effect for exciton and polariton condensates, taking into account their specific spin degrees of freedom. We distinguish between two types of Josephson effects: the extrinsic effect, related to the coherent tunneling of particles with the same spin between two spatially separated potential traps, and the intrinsic effect, related to the 'tunneling' between different spinor components of the condensate within the same trap. We show that the Josephson effect in the nonlinear regime can lead to nontrivial polarization dynamics and produce spontaneous separation of the condensates with opposite polarization in real space.

  20. Effects of Gravitational Correction on Neutron Stars with Antikaon Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wen-Bo; Hou, Jia-Wei; Qi, Zhan-Qiang; E, Shan-Shan; Bao, Tmurbagan; Liu, Guang-Zhou; Yu, Zi; Zhao, En-Guang

    2016-06-01

    Effects of gravitational correction through the introduction of U bosons on neutron stars with antikaon condensation are studied in the relativistic mean held theory. How the global properties of neutron stars, redshift and the momentum of inertia are modified by gravitational correction and antikaon condensation are discussed here. Results show that antikaon condensation can occur at the core of pulsar PSR J1614-2230. Gravitational correction and antikaon condensation influence each other, and when coupling constant of U bosons and baryons becomes very high, effects of antikaon condensation almost vanish. Moreover, both the redshift and the momentum of inertia of neutron stars are sensitive to the constant of U bosons. Combining with observation data, we can provide a further constraint on coupling constant of U bosons. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11265009, 11271055, and 11175077, and General Project of Liaoning Provincial Department of Education under Grant No. L2015005

  1. Gluon mass generation without seagull divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, Arlene C.; Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2010-02-01

    Dynamical gluon mass generation has been traditionally plagued with seagull divergences, and all regularization procedures proposed over the years yield finite but scheme-dependent gluon masses. In this work we show how such divergences can be eliminated completely by virtue of a characteristic identity, valid in dimensional regularization. The ability to trigger the aforementioned identity hinges crucially on the particular Ansatz employed for the three-gluon vertex entering into the Schwinger-Dyson equation governing the gluon propagator. The use of the appropriate three-gluon vertex brings about an additional advantage: one obtains two separate (but coupled) integral equations, one for the effective charge and one for the gluon mass. This system of integral equations has a unique solution, which unambiguously determines these two quantities. Most notably, the effective charge freezes in the infrared, and the gluon mass displays power-law running in the ultraviolet, in agreement with earlier considerations.

  2. Gravitational effects of condensate dark matter on compact stellar objects

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Y.; Wang, F.Y.; Cheng, K.S. E-mail: fayinwang@gmail.com

    2012-10-01

    We study the gravitational effect of non-self-annihilating dark matter on compact stellar objects. The self-interaction of condensate dark matter can give high accretion rate of dark matter onto stars. Phase transition to condensation state takes place when the dark matter density exceeds the critical value. A compact degenerate dark matter core is developed and alter the structure and stability of the stellar objects. Condensate dark matter admixed neutron stars is studied through the two-fluid TOV equation. The existence of condensate dark matter deforms the mass-radius relation of neutron stars and lower their maximum baryonic masses and radii. The possible effects on the Gamma-ray Burst rate in high redshift are discussed.

  3. Consequences Of Fully Dressing Quark-Gluon Vertex Function With Two-Point Gluon Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hrayr Matevosyan; Anthony Thomas; Peter Tandy

    2007-06-18

    We extend recent studies of the effects of quark-gluon vertex dressing upon the solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger equation for the quark propagator. A momentum delta function is used to represent the dominant infrared strength of the effective gluon propagator so that the resulting integral equations become algebraic. The guark-gluon vertex is constructed from the complete set of diagrams involving only 2-point gluon lines. The additional diagrams, including those with crossed gluon lines, are shown to make an important contribution to the DSE solutions for the quark propagator, because of their large color factors and the rapid growth in their number.

  4. Effects of dynamical masses of gluons and quarks on hadronic B decays

    SciTech Connect

    Zanetti, C. M.; Natale, A. A.

    2010-11-12

    We study hadronic annihilation decays of B mesons within the perturbative QCD at collinear approximation. The regulation of endpoint divergences is performed with the help of an infrared finite gluon propagator characterized by a non-perturbative dynamical gluon mass. The divergences at twist-3 are regulated by a dynamical quark mass. Our results fit quite well the existent data of B{sup 0}{yields}D{sub s}{sup -}K{sup +} and B{sup 0}{yields}D{sub s}{sup -*}K{sup +} for the expected range of dynamical gluon masses. We also make predictions for the rare decays B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}, B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, B{sup +}{yields}D{sub s}{sup (*)+}K-bar{sup 0}, B{sup 0}{yields}D{sub s}{sup {+-}(*)}K{sup {+-}} and B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}D{sup {+-}(*)}{pi}{sup {+-}}, D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}.

  5. The effect of adiabaticity on strongly quenched Bose Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hong; Kain, Ben

    2015-05-01

    We study the properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate following a deep quench to a large scattering length during which the condensate fraction nc changes with time. We construct a closed set of equations that highlight the role of the adiabaticity or equivalently, dnc/dt, the rate change of nc, which is to induce an (imaginary) effective interaction between quasiparticles. We show analytically that such a system supports a steady state characterized by a constant condensate density and a steady but periodically changing momentum distribution, whose time average is described exactly by the generalized Gibbs ensemble. We discuss how the nc -induced effective interaction, which cannot be ignored on the grounds of the adiabatic approximation for modes near the gapless Goldstone mode, can significantly affect condensate populations and Tan's contact for a Bose gas that has undergone a deep quench. In particular, we find that even when the Bose gas is quenched to unitarity, nc(t) does not completely deplete, approaching, instead, to a steady state with a finite condensate fraction. ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; KITP, University of Santa Barbara.

  6. Asymptocic Freedom of Gluons in Hamiltonian Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Rocha, María; Głazek, Stanisław D.

    2016-07-01

    We derive asymptotic freedom of gluons in terms of the renormalized SU(3) Yang-Mills Hamiltonian in the Fock space. Namely, we use the renormalization group procedure for effective particles to calculate the three-gluon interaction term in the front-form Yang-Mills Hamiltonian using a perturbative expansion in powers of g up to third order. The resulting three-gluon vertex is a function of the scale parameter s that has an interpretation of the size of effective gluons. The corresponding Hamiltonian running coupling constant exhibits asymptotic freedom, and the corresponding Hamiltonian {β} -function coincides with the one obtained in an earlier calculation using a different generator.

  7. Nonlinear effects in interference of bose-einstein condensates

    PubMed

    Liu; Wu; Niu

    2000-03-13

    Nonlinear effects in the interference of Bose-Einstein condensates are studied using exact solutions of the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation, which is applicable when the lateral motion is confined or negligible. With the inverse scattering method, the interference pattern is studied as a scattering problem with the linear Schrodinger equation, whose potential is profiled by the initial density distribution of the condensates. Our theory not only provides an analytical framework for quantitative predictions for the one-dimensional case, it also gives an intuitive understanding of some mysterious features of the interference patterns observed in experiments and numerical simulations. PMID:11018868

  8. Quark ACM with topologically generated gluon mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Ishita Dutta; Lahiri, Amitabha

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the effect of a small, gauge-invariant mass of the gluon on the anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) of quarks by perturbative calculations at one-loop level. The mass of the gluon is taken to have been generated via a topological mass generation mechanism, in which the gluon acquires a mass through its interaction with an antisymmetric tensor field Bμν. For a small gluon mass ( < 10 MeV), we calculate the ACM at momentum transfer q2 = -M Z2. We compare those with the ACM calculated for the gluon mass arising from a Proca mass term. We find that the ACM of up, down, strange and charm quarks vary significantly with the gluon mass, while the ACM of top and bottom quarks show negligible gluon mass dependence. The mechanism of gluon mass generation is most important for the strange quarks ACM, but not so much for the other quarks. We also show the results at q2 = -m t2. We find that the dependence on gluon mass at q2 = -m t2 is much less than at q2 = -M Z2 for all quarks.

  9. Gluon Evolution and Saturation Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.D.

    2010-05-26

    Almost 40 years ago, Gribov and colleagues at the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute developed the ideas that led to the Dokhsitzer-Gribov-Altarelli-Parisi the Baltisky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov equations. These equations describe the evolution of the distributions for quarks and gluon inside a hadron to increased resolution scale of a probe or to smaller values of the fractional momentum of a hadronic constituent. I motivate and discuss the generalization required of these equations needed for high energy processes when the density of constituents is large. This leads to a theory of saturation realized by the Color Glass Condensate

  10. Maximal Wavelength of Confined Quarks and Gluons and Properties of Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Shrock, Robert; /YITP, Stony Brook

    2008-08-01

    Because quarks and gluons are confined within hadrons, they have a maximum wavelength of order the confinement scale. Propagators, normally calculated for free quarks and gluons using Dyson-Schwinger equations, are modified by bound-state effects in close analogy to the calculation of the Lamb shift in atomic physics. Because of confinement, the effective quantum chromodynamic coupling stays finite in the infrared. The quark condensate which arises from spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the bound state Dyson-Schwinger equation is the expectation value of the operator {bar q}q evaluated in the background of the fields of the other hadronic constituents, in contrast to a true vacuum expectation value. Thus quark and gluon condensates reside within hadrons. The effects of instantons are also modified. We discuss the implications of the maximum quark and gluon wavelength for phenomena such as deep inelastic scattering and annihilation, the decay of heavy quarkonia, jets, and dimensional counting rules for exclusive reactions. We also discuss implications for the zero-temperature phase structure of a vectorial SU(N) gauge theory with a variable number N{sub f} of massless fermions.

  11. One gluon, two gluon: multigluon production via high energy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2006-11-01

    We develop an approach for calculating the inclusive multigluon production within the JIMWLK high energy evolution. We give a formal expression of multigluon cross section in terms of a generating functional for arbitrary number of gluons n. In the dipole limit the expression simplifies dramatically. We recover the previously known results for single and double gluon inclusive cross section and generalize those for arbitrary multigluon amplitude in terms of Feynman diagramms of Pomeron - like objects coupled to external rapidity dependent field s(η). We confirm the conclusion that the AGK cutting rules in general are violated in multigluon production. However we present an argument to the effect that for doubly inclusive cross section the AGK diagramms give the leading contribution at high energy, while genuine violation only occurs for triple and higher inclusive gluon production. We discuss some general properties of our expressions and suggest a line of argument to simplify the approach further.

  12. Scale evolution of gluon TMDPDFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, Miguel G.; Kasemets, Tomas; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    By applying the effective field theory machinery we factorize the transverse momentum spectrum of Higgs boson production, where the main hadronic quantities are the gluon transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDPDFs). We properly define those quantities, showing explicitly, in the case of an unpolarized hadron, that they are free from rapidity divergences, and extract their evolution properties. It turns out that the evolution for all eight (un-)polarized leading-twist gluon TMDPDFs is driven by the same evolution kernel, for which we derive the necessary ingredients to obtain a resummation of large logarithms at next-tonext-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy. We make predictions for the contribution of linearly polarized gluons to the Higgs boson qT -spectrum.

  13. Nonlocal Quantum Effects with Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Laloee, F.; Mullin, W. J.

    2007-10-12

    We study theoretically the properties of two Bose-Einstein condensates in different spin states, represented by a double Fock state. Individual measurements of the spins of the particles are performed in transverse directions, giving access to the relative phase of the condensates. Initially, this phase is completely undefined, and the first measurements provide random results. But a fixed value of this phase rapidly emerges under the effect of the successive quantum measurements, giving rise to a quasiclassical situation where all spins have parallel transverse orientations. If the number of measurements reaches its maximum (the number of particles), quantum effects show up again, giving rise to violations of Bell type inequalities. The violation of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities with an arbitrarily large number of spins may be comparable (or even equal) to that obtained with two spins.

  14. Influence of collective effects on lifetimes of condensed excited states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, Jonas Stasys

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that collective effects may dramatically influence autoionization-limited lifetimes of condensed excited states is investigated in the context of a two-band model of an insulator in a strong magnetic field. Two different mechanisms for suppressing autoionization are discussed which may prevent the potentially catastrophic destruction of the excited state. Under appropriate circumstances, the residual low-density Auger electrons may be confined in a superconducting state and paired by excitonic fluctuations in the conduction band.

  15. Spatial Dependence of Condensates in Strongly Coupled Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Shrock, Robert; /SUNY, Stony Brook

    2008-03-25

    We analyze quark and gluon condensates in quantum chromodynamics. We suggest that these are localized inside hadrons, because the particles whose interactions are responsible for them are confined within these hadrons. This can explain the results of recent studies of gluon condensate contributions to vacuum correlators. We also give a general discussion of condensates in asymptotically free vectorial and chiral gauge theories.

  16. Properties of gluon jets

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1986-09-01

    The properties of gluon jets are reviewed from an experimental point of view. The measured characteristics are compared to theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, there are remarkable agreements and also intriguing disagreements between experiment and theory. Since much interesting data have begun to emerge from various experiments and the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on our understanding of QCD. Finally, the future prospects are discussed.

  17. Enhancing Condensers for Geothermal Systems: the Effect of High Contact Angles on Dropwise Condensation Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, John M.; Kim, Sunwoo; Kim, Kwang J.

    2009-10-06

    Phase change heat transfer is notorious for increasing the irreversibility of, and therefore decreasing the efficiency of, geothermal power plants. Its significant contribution to the overall irreversibility of the plant makes it the most important source of inefficiency in the process. Recent studies here have shown the promotion of drop wise condensation in the lab by means of increasing the surface energy density of a tube with nanotechnology. The use of nanotechnology has allowed the creation of surface treatments which discourage water from wetting a tube surface during a static test. These surface treatments are unique in that they create high- contact angles on the condensing tube surfaces to promote drop wise condensation.

  18. Condensates in Quantum Chromodynamics and the Cosmological Constant

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Shrock, Robert

    2009-05-08

    Casher and Susskind have noted that in the light-front description, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is a property of hadronic wavefunctions and not of the vacuum. Here we show from several physical perspectives that, because of color confinement, quark and gluon QCD condensates are associated with the internal dynamics of hadrons. We discuss condensates using condensed matter analogues, the AdS/CFT correspondence, and the Bethe-Salpeter/Dyson-Schwinger approach for bound states. Our analysis is in agreement with the Casher and Susskind model and the explicit demonstration of 'in-hadron' condensates by Roberts et al., using the Bethe-Salpeter/Dyson-Schwinger formalism for QCD bound states. These results imply that QCD condensates give zero contribution to the cosmological constant, since all of the gravitational effects of the in-hadron condensates are already included in the normal contribution from hadron masses.

  19. Interaction effects on number fluctuations in a Bose-Einstein condensate of light.

    PubMed

    van der Wurff, E C I; de Leeuw, A-W; Duine, R A; Stoof, H T C

    2014-09-26

    We investigate the effect of interactions on condensate-number fluctuations in Bose-Einstein condensates. For a contact interaction we variationally obtain the equilibrium probability distribution for the number of particles in the condensate. To facilitate comparison with experiment, we also calculate the zero-time delay autocorrelation function g((2))(0) for different strengths of the interaction. Finally, we focus on the case of a condensate of photons and find good agreement with recent experiments. PMID:25302898

  20. Effective hydrodynamic field theory and condensation picture of topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, AtMa P. O.; Kvorning, Thomas; Ryu, Shinsei; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    While many features of topological band insulators are commonly discussed at the level of single-particle electron wave functions, such as the gapless Dirac boundary spectrum, it remains elusive to develop a hydrodynamic or collective description of fermionic topological band insulators in 3+1 dimensions. As the Chern-Simons theory for the 2+1-dimensional quantum Hall effect, such a hydrodynamic effective field theory provides a universal description of topological band insulators, even in the presence of interactions, and that of putative fractional topological insulators. In this paper, we undertake this task by using the functional bosonization. The effective field theory in the functional bosonization is written in terms of a two-form gauge field, which couples to a U (1 ) gauge field that arises by gauging the continuous symmetry of the target system [the U (1 ) particle number conservation]. Integrating over the U (1 ) gauge field by using the electromagnetic duality, the resulting theory describes topological band insulators as a condensation phase of the U (1 ) gauge theory (or as a monopole condensation phase of the dual gauge field). The hydrodynamic description of the surface of topological insulators and the implication of its duality are also discussed. We also touch upon the hydrodynamic theory of fractional topological insulators by using the parton construction.

  1. Froissart bound and gluon number fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang Wenchang

    2010-05-01

    We study the effect of gluon number fluctuations (Pomeron loops) on the impact parameter behavior of the scattering amplitude in the fixed coupling case. We demonstrate that the dipole-hadron cross section computed from gluon number fluctuations saturates the Froissart bound and the growth of the radius of the black disk with rapidity is enhanced by an additional term as compared to the single event case. We find that the physical amplitude has a Gaussian impact parameter dependence once the gluon number fluctuations are included. This indicates that the fluctuations may be the microscopic origin for the Gaussian impact parameter dependence of the scattering amplitude.

  2. Josephson effects in a Bose–Einstein condensate of magnons

    SciTech Connect

    Troncoso, Roberto E.; Núñez, Álvaro S.

    2014-07-15

    A phenomenological theory is developed, that accounts for the collective dynamics of a Bose–Einstein condensate of magnons. In terms of such description we discuss the nature of spontaneous macroscopic interference between magnon clouds, highlighting the close relation between such effects and the well known Josephson effects. Using those ideas, we present a detailed calculation of the Josephson oscillations between two magnon clouds, spatially separated in a magnonic Josephson junction. -- Highlights: •We presented a theory that accounts for the collective dynamics of a magnon-BEC. •We discuss the nature of macroscopic interference between magnon-BEC clouds. •We remarked the close relation between the above phenomena and Josephson’s effect. •We remark the distinctive oscillations that characterize the Josephson oscillations.

  3. Angular distribution and atomic effects in condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.F.

    1981-11-01

    A general concept of condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy is that angular distribution and atomic effects in the photoemission intensity are determined by different mechanisms, the former being determined largely by ordering phenomena such as crystal momentum conservation and photoelectron diffraction while the latter are manifested in the total (angle-integrated) cross section. In this work, the physics of the photoemission process is investigated in several very different experiments to elucidate the mechanisms of, and correlation between, atomic and angular distribution effects. Theoretical models are discussed and the connection betweeen the two effects is clearly established. The remainder of this thesis, which describes experiments utilizing both angle-resolved and angle-integrated photoemission in conjunction with synchrotron radiation in the energy range 6 eV less than or equal to h ..nu.. less than or equal to 360 eV and laboratory sources, is divided into three parts.

  4. Effects of equation of state on nuclear suppression and the initial entropy density of quark gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Surasree; Alam, Jan-e.

    2012-04-01

    We study the effects of the equation of state on the nuclear suppression of heavy flavors in quark gluon plasma and estimate the initial entropy density of the system produced in Au + Au collision at the highest Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy. For this purpose the experimental data on the charged-particle multiplicity and the nuclear suppression of single-electron spectra originating from the semileptonic decays of open charm and beauty mesons have been employed. We have used inputs from lattice QCD to minimize the model dependence of the results. We obtain the value of the initial entropy density, which varies from 20 to 59/fm3 depending on the value of the velocity of sound that one uses for the analysis. Our investigation leads to a conservative value of the initial entropy density of ˜20/fm3 with a corresponding initial temperature of ˜210 MeV, which is well above the value of the transition temperature predicted by lattice QCD.

  5. Effects of condensation in clothing on heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Lotens, W A; van de Linde, F J; Havenith, G

    1995-06-01

    A condensation theory is presented that enables the calculation of the rate of vapour transfer with its associated effects on temperature and total heat transfer inside a clothing ensemble consisting of underclothing, enclosed air, and outer garment. The model is experimentally tested by three experiments: (1) impermeable garments worn by subjects with and without plastic wrap around the skin, blocking sweat evaporation underneath the clothing; (2) comparison of heat loss in impermeable and semi-permeable garments and the associated discomfort and strain; (3) subjects working in impermeable garments in cool and warm environments at two work rates, until tolerance. The measured heat exchange and temperatures are calculated with satisfying accuracy by the model (mean error = 11, SD = 10 Wm-2 for heat flows and 0.3 and 0.9 degree C for temperatures, respectively). A numerical analysis shows that for total heat loss the major determinants are vapour permeability of the outer garment, skin vapour concentration and air temperature. In the cold the condensation mechanism may completely compensate for the lack of permeability of the clothing as far as heat dissipation is concerned, but in the heat impermeable clothing is more stressful. PMID:7758442

  6. Kinetic Evolution and Bose-Einstein Condensation in the Glasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jinfeng

    2013-10-01

    We study the evolution of a dense system of gluons, such as those produced in the early stages (the Glasma) of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. We describe the approach to thermal equilibrium using the small angle approximation for gluon scattering in a Boltzmann equation that includes the effects of Bose statistics. Simple power counting arguments indicate that the gluon system as in the Glasma is over-occupied and driven towards the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate. We derive and solve the transport equation for initial conditions that correspond to the overpopulated Glasma and present numerical evidence that such over-populated systems reach the onset of Bose-Einstein condensation in a finite time. The approach to condensation is characterized by a scaling behavior that we briefly analyze. Finally we analyze the effects of the inelastic, number changing, processes on the dynamical formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate by analytically deriving the 2 <--> 3 kernel under the collinear and small angle approximations and numerically solving it. References: J. Blaizot, J. Liao and L. McLerran, arXiv:1305.2119; X. Huang and J. Liao, arXiv:1303.7214; J. Blaizot, F. Gelis, J. Liao, L. McLerran and R. Venugopalan, arXiv:1107.5296. I thank the RIKEN BNL Research Center for partial support.

  7. Lifshitz effects on vector condensate induced by a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Bo; Lu, Jun-Wang; Liu, Mo-Lin; Lu, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Yang, Zhuo-Qun

    2014-05-01

    By numerical and analytical methods, we study in detail the effects of the Lifshitz dynamical exponent z on the vector condensate induced by an applied magnetic field in the probe limit. Concretely, in the presence of the magnetic field, we obtain the Landau level independent of z, and we also find the critical value by coupling a Maxwell complex vector field and an SU(2) field into a (3+1)-dimensional Lifshitz black hole, respectively. The research results show that for the two models with the lowest Landau level, the increasing z improves the response of the critical temperature to the applied magnetic field even without the charge density, and the analytical results uphold the numerical results. In addition, we find that, even in the Lifshitz black hole, the Maxwell complex vector model is still a generalization of the SU(2) Yang-Mills model. Furthermore, we construct the square vortex lattice and discuss the implications of these results.

  8. Internal Josephson effects in spinor dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Yasunaga, Masashi; Tsubota, Makoto

    2010-02-15

    We theoretically study the internal Josephson effect, which is driven by spin-exchange interactions and magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, in a three-level system for spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates, obtaining novel spin dynamics. We introduce single spatial mode approximations into the Gross-Pitaevskii equations and derive the Josephson-type equations, which are analogous to tunneling currents through three junctions between three superconductors. From an analogy with two interacting nonrigid pendulums, we identify unique varied oscillational modes, called the 0-{pi}, 0-running, running-running, 2n{pi} and running-2{pi}, single nonrigid pendulum, and two rigid pendulums phase modes. These Josephson modes in the three states are expected to be found in real atomic Bose gas systems.

  9. Transport properties of quark and gluon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Heiselberg, H.

    1993-12-01

    The kinetic properties of relativistic quark-gluon and electron-photon plasmas are described in the weak coupling limit. The troublesome Rutherford divergence at small scattering angles is screened by Debye screening for the longitudinal or electric part of the interactions. The transverse or magnetic part of the interactions is effectively screened by Landau damping of the virtual photons and gluons transferred in the QED and QCD interactions respectively. Including screening a number of transport coefficients for QCD and QED plasmas can be calculated to leading order in the interaction strength, including rates of momentum and thermal relaxation, electrical conductivity, viscosities, flavor and spin diffusion of both high temperature and degenerate plasmas. Damping of quarks and gluons as well as color diffusion in quark-gluon plasmas is, however, shown not to be sufficiently screened and the rates depends on an infrared cut-off of order the ``magnetic mass,`` m{sub mag} {approximately} g{sup 2}T.

  10. QCD sum rule calculation of quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2011-10-21

    We discuss the QCD sum rule calculation of the heavy-quark effective theory parameters {lambda}{sub E} and {lambda}{sub H}, which represent quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function. We update the sum rules for {lambda}{sub E,H} calculating the new higher-order contributions to the operator product expansion for the corresponding correlator, i.e., the order {alpha}{sub s} radiative corrections to the Wilson coefficients associated with the dimension-5 quark-gluon mixed condensate, and the power corrections due to the dimension-6 vacuum condensates. We find that the new radiative corrections significantly improve stability of the corresponding Borel sum rules, modifying the values of {lambda}{sub E,H}.

  11. Gluon TMDs in Quarkonium Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signori, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    I report on our investigations into the impact of (un)polarized transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs or TMDs) for gluons at hadron colliders, especially at A Fixed Target Experiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC). In the context of high energy proton-proton collisions, we look at final states with low mass (e.g. η _b ) in order to investigate the nonperturbative part of TMD PDFs. We study the factorization theorem for the q_T spectrum of η _b produced in proton-proton collisions relying on the effective field theory approach, defining the tools to perform phenomenological investigations at next-to-next-to-leading log and next-to-leading order accuracy in the perturbation theory. We provide predictions for the unpolarized cross section and comment on the possibility of extracting nonperturbative information about the gluon content of the proton once data at low transverse momentum are available.

  12. Gluon TMDs in Quarkonium Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    I report on our investigations into the impact of (un)polarized transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs or TMDs) for gluons at hadron colliders, especially at A Fixed Target Experiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC). In the context of high energy proton-proton collisions, we look at final states with low mass (e.g. η _b) in order to investigate the nonperturbative part of TMD PDFs. We study the factorization theorem for the q_T spectrum of η _b produced in proton-proton collisions relying on the effective field theory approach, defining the tools to perform phenomenological investigations at next-to-next-to-leading log and next-to-leading order accuracy in the perturbation theory. We provide predictions for the unpolarized cross section and comment on the possibility of extracting nonperturbative information about the gluon content of the proton once data at low transverse momentum are available.

  13. Decoherence effects in Bose-Einstein condensate interferometry I. General theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, B.J.

    2011-03-15

    Research Highlights: > Theory of dephasing, decoherence effects for Bose-Einstein condensate interferometry. > Applies to single component, two mode condensate in double potential well. > Phase space theory using Wigner, positive P representations for condensate, non-condensate fields. > Stochastic condensate, non-condensate field equations and properties of noise fields derived. > Based on mean field theory with condensate modes given by generalised Gross-Pitaevskii equations. - Abstract: The present paper outlines a basic theoretical treatment of decoherence and dephasing effects in interferometry based on single component Bose-Einstein condensates in double potential wells, where two condensate modes may be involved. Results for both two mode condensates and the simpler single mode condensate case are presented. The approach involves a hybrid phase space distribution functional method where the condensate modes are described via a truncated Wigner representation, whilst the basically unoccupied non-condensate modes are described via a positive P representation. The Hamiltonian for the system is described in terms of quantum field operators for the condensate and non-condensate modes. The functional Fokker-Planck equation for the double phase space distribution functional is derived. Equivalent Ito stochastic equations for the condensate and non-condensate fields that replace the field operators are obtained, and stochastic averages of products of these fields give the quantum correlation functions that can be used to interpret interferometry experiments. The stochastic field equations are the sum of a deterministic term obtained from the drift vector in the functional Fokker-Planck equation, and a noise field whose stochastic properties are determined from the diffusion matrix in the functional Fokker-Planck equation. The stochastic properties of the noise field terms are similar to those for Gaussian-Markov processes in that the stochastic averages of odd

  14. Temperature effects in excitonic condensation driven by the lattice distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Thi-Hong-Hai; Nguyen, Huu-Nha; Nguyen, Thi-Giang; Phan, Van-Nham

    2016-06-01

    The stability of the excitonic condensation at low temperature driven by a coupling of electrons to vibrational degrees of freedom in semimetal two-dimensional electronic system is discussed. In the framework of the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation, we derive a set of equations to determine both the excitonic condensate order parameter and lattice displacement self-consistently. By lowering temperature we find out a semimetal-insulator transition in the system if the coupling is large enough. The insulating state typifies an excitonic condensation accompanied by a finite lattice distortion. Increasing temperature, both excitonic condensate order parameter and the lattice distortion decrease and then disappear in the same manner. Microscopic analysis in momentum space strongly specifies that the excitonic condensate driven by the lattice distortion favours the BCS type.

  15. Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck . E-mail: khchung@skku.edu

    2006-08-01

    Chronic exposure to marijuana produces adverse effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems in humans; however, the experimental evidence for this presented thus far has not been without controversy. In this study, the estrogenic effect of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) was evaluated using in vitro bioassays, viz., the cell proliferation assay, the reporter gene assay, and the ER competitive binding assay. The results of these assays were compared with those of three major cannabinoids, i.e., THC, CBD, and CBN. The estrogenic effect of MSC was further confirmed by the immature female rat uterotrophic assay. MSC stimulated the estrogenicity related to the ER-mediated pathway, while neither THC, CBD, nor CBN did. Moreover, treatment with 10 and 25 mg/kg MSC induced significant uterine response, and 10 mg/kg MSC resulted in an obvious change in the uterine epithelial cell appearance. MSC also enhanced the IGFBP-1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the constituents of MSC responsible for its estrogenicity, the MSC fractionated samples were examined using another cell proliferation assay, and the estrogenic active fraction was analyzed using GC-MS. In the organic acid fraction that showed the strongest estrogenic activity among the seven fractions of MSC, phenols were identified. Our results suggest that marijuana abuse is considered an endocrine-disrupting factor. Furthermore, these results suggest that the phenolic compounds contained in MSC play a role in its estrogenic effect.

  16. Effects of interactions and noise on tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates through a potential barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Huhtamaeki, J. A. M.; Virtanen, S. M. M.; Moettoenen, M.; Ankerhold, J.

    2007-09-15

    We investigate theoretically the tunneling of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate through a potential barrier. This scenario is closely related to recent experimental studies of condensates trapped in one-dimensional optical lattices. We derive analytical results for the tunneling rate of the condensate with emphasis on the effects of atom-atom interactions. Furthermore, we consider the effect of fluctuating barrier height to the tunneling rate. We have computed the tunneling rate as a function of the characteristic frequency of the noise. The result is seen to be closely related to the excitation spectrum of the condensate. These observations should be experimentally verifiable.

  17. Effect of quark gluon plasma on charm quark produced in relativistic heavy ion collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younus, Mohammed; Srivastava, Dinesh K.; Bass, Steffen A.

    2014-05-01

    Charm quarks are produced mainly in the pre-equilibrium stage of heavy ion collision and serve as excellent probes entering the thermalized medium. They come out with altogether different momenta and energies and fragments into D-mesons and decay into non-photonic electrons which are observed experimentally. Here we present the effect of QGP on charm quark production using two different models: first one based on Wang-Huang-Sarcevic model of multiple scattering of partons and the second one is based on Parton Cascade Model with Boltzmann transport equation used for charm quark evolution in QGP.

  18. Gluon saturation and energy dependence of hadron multiplicity in pp and AA collisions at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Eugene; Rezaeian, Amir H.

    2011-06-01

    The recent results in {radical}(s)=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) reported by the ALICE collaboration shows that the power-law energy-dependence of charged hadron multiplicity in Pb+Pb collisions is significantly different from p+p collisions. We show that this different energy-dependence can be explained by inclusion of a strong angular-ordering in the gluon-decay cascade within the color glass condensate (or gluon saturation) approach. This effect is more important in nucleus-nucleus collisions where the saturation scale is larger than 1 GeV. Our prescription gives a good description of the LHC data both in p+p and Pb+Pb collisions.

  19. Subsonic and Supersonic Effects in Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2003-01-01

    A paper presents a theoretical investigation of subsonic and supersonic effects in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The BEC is represented by a time-dependent, nonlinear Schroedinger equation that includes terms for an external confining potential term and a weak interatomic repulsive potential proportional to the number density of atoms. From this model are derived Madelung equations, which relate the quantum phase with the number density, and which are used to represent excitations propagating through the BEC. These equations are shown to be analogous to the classical equations of flow of an inviscid, compressible fluid characterized by a speed of sound (g/Po)1/2, where g is the coefficient of the repulsive potential and Po is the unperturbed mass density of the BEC. The equations are used to study the effects of a region of perturbation moving through the BEC. The excitations created by a perturbation moving at subsonic speed are found to be described by a Laplace equation and to propagate at infinite speed. For a supersonically moving perturbation, the excitations are found to be described by a wave equation and to propagate at finite speed inside a Mach cone.

  20. Effects of Fermion Exchange on the Polarization of Exciton Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combescot, Monique; Combescot, Roland; Alloing, Mathieu; Dubin, François

    2015-03-01

    Exchange interaction is responsible for the stability of elementary boson condensates with respect to momentum fragmentation. This remains true for composite bosons when single fermion exchanges are included but spin degrees of freedom are ignored. Here, we show that their inclusion can produce a spin fragmentation of the dark exciton condensate, i.e., an unpolarized condensate with an equal amount of spin (+2 ) and (-2 ) excitons not coupled to light. The composite boson many-body formalism allows us to predict that, for spatially indirect excitons, the condensate polarization switches from unpolarized to fully polarized when the distance between the layers confining electrons and holes increases. Importantly, the threshold distance for this switch lies in a regime fully accessible to experiments.

  1. Effects of fermion exchange on the polarization of exciton condensates.

    PubMed

    Combescot, Monique; Combescot, Roland; Alloing, Mathieu; Dubin, François

    2015-03-01

    Exchange interaction is responsible for the stability of elementary boson condensates with respect to momentum fragmentation. This remains true for composite bosons when single fermion exchanges are included but spin degrees of freedom are ignored. Here, we show that their inclusion can produce a spin fragmentation of the dark exciton condensate, i.e., an unpolarized condensate with an equal amount of spin (+2) and (-2) excitons not coupled to light. The composite boson many-body formalism allows us to predict that, for spatially indirect excitons, the condensate polarization switches from unpolarized to fully polarized when the distance between the layers confining electrons and holes increases. Importantly, the threshold distance for this switch lies in a regime fully accessible to experiments. PMID:25793784

  2. Observation of airplane flow fields by natural condensation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James F.; Chambers, Joseph R.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    1988-01-01

    In-flight condensation patterns can illustrate a variety of airplane flow fields, such as attached and separated flows, vortex flows, and expansion and shock waves. These patterns are a unique source of flow visualization that has not been utilized previously. Condensation patterns at full-scale Reynolds number can provide useful information for researchers experimenting in subscale tunnels. It is also shown that computed values of relative humidity in the local flow field provide an inexpensive way to analyze the qualitative features of the condensation pattern, although a more complete theoretical modeling is necessary to obtain details of the condensation process. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that relative humidity is more sensitive to changes in local static temperature than to changes in pressure.

  3. Universality of Unintegrated Gluon Distributions at small x

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Fabio; Marquet, Cyrille; Xiao, Bowen; Yuan, Feng

    2011-01-04

    We systematically study dijet production in various processes in the small-x limit and establish an effective kt-factorization for hard processes in a system with dilute probes scattering on a dense target. In the large-Nc limit, the unintegrated gluon distributions involved in different processes are shown to be related to two widely proposed ones: the Weizsacker-Williams gluon distribution and the dipole gluon distribution.

  4. Gluon polarization in nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahveh, Abolfazl; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh; Arash, Firooz

    2010-07-01

    In the context of the so-called valon model, we calculate δg/g and show that although it is small and compatible with the measured values, the gluon contribution to the spin of nucleon can be sizable. The smallness of δg/g in the measured kinematical region should not be interpreted as δg being small. In fact, δg itself at small x, and the first moment of the polarized gluon distribution in the nucleon, Δg (Q2), are large.

  5. Infrared behavior of scalar condensates in effective holographic theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Pani, Paolo; Serra, Matteo

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the infrared behavior of the spectrum of scalar-dressed, asymptotically Anti de Sitter (AdS) black brane (BB) solutions of effective holographic models. These solutions describe scalar condensates in the dual field theories. We show that for zero charge density the ground state of these BBs must be degenerate with the AdS vacuum, must satisfy conformal boundary conditions for the scalar field and it is isolated from the continuous part of the spectrum. When a finite charge density is switched on, the ground state is not anymore isolated and the degeneracy is removed. Depending on the coupling functions, the new ground state may possibly be energetically preferred with respect to the extremal Reissner-Nordstrom AdS BB. We derive several properties of BBs near extremality and at finite temperature. As a check and illustration of our results we derive and discuss several analytic and numerical, BB solutions of Einstein-scalar-Maxwell AdS gravity with different coupling functions and different potentials. We also discuss how our results can be used for understanding holographic quantum critical points, in particular their stability and the associated quantum phase transitions leading to superconductivity or hyperscaling violation.

  6. Open-beauty production in pPb collisions at √{sNN}=5 TeV: Effect of the gluon nuclear densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conesa del Valle, Z.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Fleuret, F.; Lansberg, J. P.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.

    2014-06-01

    We present our results on open-beauty production in proton-nucleus collisions for the recent LHC pPb run at √{sNN}=5 TeV. We have analyzed the effect of the modification of the gluon PDFs in a nucleus at the level of the nuclear modification factor. Because of the absence of measurements in pp collisions at the same collision energy, √{sNN}, we also propose the study of the forward-to-backward yield ratio in which the unknown proton-proton yield cancels. Our results are compared with the data obtained by the LHCb collaboration and show a good agreement.

  7. SU(3) Landau gauge gluon and ghost propagators using the logarithmic lattice gluon field definition

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgenfritz, Ernst-Michael; Menz, Christoph; Mueller-Preussker, Michael; Schiller, Arwed; Sternbeck, Andre

    2011-03-01

    We study the Landau gauge gluon and ghost propagators of SU(3) gauge theory, employing the logarithmic definition for the lattice gluon fields and implementing the corresponding form of the Faddeev-Popov matrix. This is necessary in order to consistently compare lattice data for the bare propagators with that of higher-loop numerical stochastic perturbation theory. In this paper we provide such a comparison, and introduce what is needed for an efficient lattice study. When comparing our data for the logarithmic definition to that of the standard lattice Landau gauge we clearly see the propagators to be multiplicatively related. The data of the associated ghost-gluon coupling matches up almost completely. For the explored lattice spacings and sizes discretization artifacts, finite size, and Gribov-copy effects are small. At weak coupling and large momentum, the bare propagators and the ghost-gluon coupling are seen to be approached by those of higher-order numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  8. Finite temperature effects in Bose-Einstein condensed dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Harko, Tiberiu; Madarassy, Enikö J.M. E-mail: eniko.madarassy@physics.uu.se

    2012-01-01

    Once the critical temperature of a cosmological boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Zero temperature condensed dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian gravitational condensate, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state, with barotropic index equal to one. In the present paper we analyze the effects of the finite dark matter temperature on the properties of the dark matter halos. We formulate the basic equations describing the finite temperature condensate, representing a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation that takes into account the presence of the thermal cloud. The static condensate and thermal cloud in thermodynamic equilibrium is analyzed in detail, by using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. The condensed dark matter and thermal cloud density and mass profiles at finite temperatures are explicitly obtained. Our results show that when the temperature of the condensate and of the thermal cloud are much smaller than the critical Bose-Einstein transition temperature, the zero temperature density and mass profiles give an excellent description of the dark matter halos. However, finite temperature effects may play an important role in the early stages of the cosmological evolution of the dark matter condensates.

  9. Persistent Superfluid Flow Arising from the He-McKellar-Wilkens Effect in Molecular Dipolar Condensates.

    PubMed

    Wood, A A; McKellar, B H J; Martin, A M

    2016-06-24

    We show that the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect can induce a persistent flow in a Bose-Einstein condensate of polar molecules confined in a toroidal trap, with the dipolar interaction mediated via an electric dipole moment. For Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms with a magnetic dipole moment, we show that although it is theoretically possible to induce persistent flow via the Aharonov-Casher effect, the strength of the electric field required is prohibitive. We also outline an experimental geometry tailored specifically for observing the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect in toroidally trapped condensates. PMID:27391706

  10. Persistent Superfluid Flow Arising from the He-McKellar-Wilkens Effect in Molecular Dipolar Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, A. A.; McKellar, B. H. J.; Martin, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    We show that the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect can induce a persistent flow in a Bose-Einstein condensate of polar molecules confined in a toroidal trap, with the dipolar interaction mediated via an electric dipole moment. For Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms with a magnetic dipole moment, we show that although it is theoretically possible to induce persistent flow via the Aharonov-Casher effect, the strength of the electric field required is prohibitive. We also outline an experimental geometry tailored specifically for observing the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect in toroidally trapped condensates.

  11. Constraining gluon poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikin, I. V.; Teryaev, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    In this letter, we revise the QED gauge invariance for the hadron tensor of Drell-Yan type processes with the transversely polarized hadron. We perform our analysis within the Feynman gauge for gluons and make a comparison with the results obtained within the light-cone gauge. We demonstrate that QED gauge invariance leads, first, to the need of a non-standard diagram and, second, to the absence of gluon poles in the correlators < ψ bar γ⊥A+ ψ > related traditionally to dT (x , x) / dx. As a result, these terms disappear from the final QED gauge invariant hadron tensor. We also verify the absence of such poles by analyzing the corresponding light-cone Dirac algebra.

  12. The effect of surface wettability on water vapor condensation in nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Niu, D.; Tang, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surface wettability on condensation heat transfer in a nanochannel is studied with the molecular dynamics simulations. Different from the conventional size, the results show that the filmwise mode leads to more efficient heat transfer than the dropwise mode, which is attributed to a lower interfacial thermal resistance between the hydrophilic surface and the condensed water compared with the hydrophobic case. The observed temperature jump at the solid-liquid surface confirms that the hydrophilic properties of the solid surface can suppress the interfacial thermal resistance and improve the condensation heat transfer performance effectively. PMID:26754316

  13. Grand-canonical simulation of DNA condensation with two salts, effect of divalent counterion size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Toan T.

    2016-02-01

    The problem of DNA- DNA interaction mediated by divalent counterions is studied using a generalized grand-canonical Monte-Carlo simulation for a system of two salts. The effect of the divalent counterion size on the condensation behavior of the DNA bundle is investigated. Experimentally, it is known that multivalent counterions have strong effect on the DNA condensation phenomenon. While tri- and tetra-valent counterions are shown to easily condense free DNA molecules in solution into toroidal bundles, the situation with divalent counterions is not as clear cut. Some divalent counterions like Mg+2 are not able to condense free DNA molecules in solution, while some like Mn+2 can condense them into disorder bundles. In restricted environment such as in two dimensional system or inside viral capsid, Mg+2 can have strong effect and able to condense them, but the condensation varies qualitatively with different system, different coions. It has been suggested that divalent counterions can induce attraction between DNA molecules but the strength of the attraction is not strong enough to condense free DNA in solution. However, if the configuration entropy of DNA is restricted, these attractions are enough to cause appreciable effects. The variations among different divalent salts might be due to the hydration effect of the divalent counterions. In this paper, we try to understand this variation using a very simple parameter, the size of the divalent counterions. We investigate how divalent counterions with different sizes can lead to varying qualitative behavior of DNA condensation in restricted environments. Additionally, a grand canonical Monte-Carlo method for simulation of systems with two different salts is presented in detail.

  14. Grand-canonical simulation of DNA condensation with two salts, effect of divalent counterion size.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Toan T

    2016-02-14

    The problem of DNA- DNA interaction mediated by divalent counterions is studied using a generalized grand-canonical Monte-Carlo simulation for a system of two salts. The effect of the divalent counterion size on the condensation behavior of the DNA bundle is investigated. Experimentally, it is known that multivalent counterions have strong effect on the DNA condensation phenomenon. While tri- and tetra-valent counterions are shown to easily condense free DNA molecules in solution into toroidal bundles, the situation with divalent counterions is not as clear cut. Some divalent counterions like Mg(+2) are not able to condense free DNA molecules in solution, while some like Mn(+2) can condense them into disorder bundles. In restricted environment such as in two dimensional system or inside viral capsid, Mg(+2) can have strong effect and able to condense them, but the condensation varies qualitatively with different system, different coions. It has been suggested that divalent counterions can induce attraction between DNA molecules but the strength of the attraction is not strong enough to condense free DNA in solution. However, if the configuration entropy of DNA is restricted, these attractions are enough to cause appreciable effects. The variations among different divalent salts might be due to the hydration effect of the divalent counterions. In this paper, we try to understand this variation using a very simple parameter, the size of the divalent counterions. We investigate how divalent counterions with different sizes can lead to varying qualitative behavior of DNA condensation in restricted environments. Additionally, a grand canonical Monte-Carlo method for simulation of systems with two different salts is presented in detail. PMID:26874503

  15. Gluon density in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, A.L.; Ducati, M.B.G.; Levin, E.M.

    1996-10-01

    In this talk we present our detailed study (theory and numbers) on the shadowing corrections to the gluon structure functions for nuclei. Starting from rather controversial information on the nucleon structure function which is originated by the recent HERA data, we develop the Glauber approach for the gluon density in a nucleus based on Mueller formula and estimate the value of the shadowing corrections in this case. Then we calculate the first corrections to the Glauber approach and show that these corrections are big. Based on this practical observation we suggest the new evolution equation which takes into account the shadowing corrections and solve it. We hope to convince you that the new evolution equation gives a good theoretical tool to treat the shadowing corrections for the gluons density in a nucleus and, therefore, it is able to provide the theoretically reliable initial conditions for the time evolution of the nucleus-nucleus cascade. The initial conditions should be fixed both theoretically and phenomenologically before to attack such complicated problems as the mixture of hard and soft processes in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy or the theoretically reliable approach to hadron or/and parton cascades for high energy nucleus-nucleus interaction. 35 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Gluon saturation and inclusive production at low transverse momenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Eugene

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we suggest the generalization of kT factorization formula for inclusive gluon production for the dense-dense parton system scattering. It turns out that the soft gluon production with transverse momentum pT is suppressed by an additional Sudakov-like factor that depends on the pT2/Qs2 ratio in good agreement with the first numerical calculation in the color glass condensate approach by J. P. Blaizot, T. Lappi, and Y. Mehtar-Tan.

  17. Gluon saturation and inclusive production at low transverse momenta

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Eugene

    2010-11-15

    In this paper we suggest the generalization of k{sub T} factorization formula for inclusive gluon production for the dense-dense parton system scattering. It turns out that the soft gluon production with transverse momentum p{sub T} is suppressed by an additional Sudakov-like factor that depends on the p{sub T}{sup 2}/Q{sub s}{sup 2} ratio in good agreement with the first numerical calculation in the color glass condensate approach by J. P. Blaizot, T. Lappi, and Y. Mehtar-Tan.

  18. Field effects on the vortex states in spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang-Liang; Liu, Yong-Kai; Feng, Shiping; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2016-06-01

    Multi-quantum vortices can be created in the ground state of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates with spin-orbit couplings. We investigate the effects of external fields, either a longitudinal field or a transverse field, on the vortex states. We reveal that both fields can effectively reduce the number of vortices. In the latter case we further find that the condensate density packets are pushed away in the horizontal direction and the vortices finally disappear to form a plane wave phase.

  19. Constraining the double gluon distribution by the single gluon distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof; Lewandowska, Emilia; Serino, Mirko; Snyder, Zachary; Staśto, Anna M.

    2015-11-01

    We show how to consistently construct initial conditions for the QCD evolution equations for double parton distribution functions in the pure gluon case. We use to momentum sum rule for this purpose and a specific form of the known single gluon distribution function in the MSTW parameterization. The resulting double gluon distribution satisfies exactly the momentum sum rule and is parameter free. We also study numerically its evolution with a hard scale and show the approximate factorization into product of two single gluon distributions at small values of x, whereas at large values of x the factorization is always violated in agreement with the sum rule.

  20. Geometric Hall Effect of ^{23}Na Condensate in a Time- and Space-Dependent Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Gong-Ping; Yang, Ling-Ling; Chang, Gao-Zhan; Wu, Zhe

    2016-04-01

    We simulate numerically the dynamics of ^{23}Na condensate in a time- and space-dependent magnetic field with a variational approach. It is shown to be an efficient method to describe the complex dynamics of the system, which may excite the breather mode, the scissor mode, and the dipole mode simultaneously. Our results agree with the experimental observations of Choi et al. (Phys Rev Lett 111:245301, 2013). We reproduce qualitatively the geometric Hall effect and resonance behavior. We also find that the condensate shows a scissor-mode-like motion, which may play the shearing force to deform the condensate and consequently leads to the dynamical nucleation of quantized vortices.

  1. Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients Dan Wendt, Greg Mines Idaho National Laboratory The use of mixed working fluids in binary power plants can provide significant increases in plant performance, provided the heat exchangers are designed to take advantage of these fluids non-isothermal phase changes. In the 1980's testing was conducted at DOE's Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) where mixtures of different compositions were vaporized at supercritical pressures and then condensed. This testing had focused on using the data collected to verify that Heat Transfer Research Incorporated (HTRI) codes were suitable for the design of heat exchangers that could be used with mixtures. The HCRF data includes mixture compositions varying from 0% to 40% isopentane and condenser tube orientations of 15{sup o}, 60{sup o}, and 90{sup o} from horizontal. Testing was performed over a range of working fluid and cooling fluid conditions. Though the condenser used in this testing was water cooled, the working fluid condensation occurred on the tube-side of the heat exchanger. This tube-side condensation is analogous to that in an air-cooled condenser. Tube-side condensing heat transfer coefficient information gleaned from the HCRF testing is used in this study to assess the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs for use with mixtures. Results of an air-cooled binary plant process model performed with Aspen Plus indicate that that the optimal mixture composition (producing the maximum net power for the scenario considered) is within the range of compositions for which data exist. The HCRF data is used to assess the impact of composition, tube orientation, and process parameters on the condensing heat transfer coefficients. The sensitivity of the condensing coefficients to these factors is evaluated and the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs with mixtures is assessed. This paper summarizes the evaluation of the HCRF

  2. Buoyancy effects on the vapor condensation rate on a horizontal liquid surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Lin, Chin-Shun

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented of a numerical study of the effects of buoyancy on the direct condensation of saturated or nearly saturated vapor on a horizontal liquid surface in a cylindrical tank. The liquid motion beneath the liquid-vapor interface is induced by an axisymmetric laminar jet of subcooled liquid. Analysis and numerical results show that the dominant parameter which determines the influence of buoyancy on the condensation rate is the Richardson number. However, the effect of buoyancy on the condensation rate cannot be quantified in terms of the Richardson number alone. The critical value of the Richardson number below which the condensation rate is not significantly reduced depends on the Reynolds number as well as the Prandtl number.

  3. Buoyancy effects on the vapor condensation rate on a horizontal liquid surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Lin, Chin-Shun

    1989-01-01

    The results are presented of a numerical study of the effects of buoyancy on the direct condensation of saturated or nearly saturated vapor on a horizontal liquid surface in a cylindrical tank. The liquid motion beneath the liquid-vapor interface is induced by an axisymmetric laminar jet of subcooled liquid. Analysis and numerical results show that the dominant parameter which determines the influence of buoyancy on the condensation rate is the Richardson number. However, the effect of buoyancy on the condensation rate cannot be quantified in terms of the Richardson number alone. The critical value of the Richardson number below which the condensation rate is not significantly reduced depends on the Reynolds number as well as the Prandtl number.

  4. Quark-gluon plasma (Selected Topics)

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, V. I.

    2012-09-15

    Introductory lectures to the theory of (strongly interacting) quark-gluon plasma given at the Winter School of Physics of ITEP (Moscow, February 2010). We emphasize theoretical issues highlighted by the discovery of the low viscosity of the plasma. The topics include relativistic hydrodynamics, manifestations of chiral anomaly in hydrodynamics, superfluidity, relativistic superfluid hydrodynamics, effective stringy scalars, holographic models of Yang-Mills theories.

  5. Quark Gluon Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-05-07

    Matter is malleable and can change its properties with temperature. This is most familiar when comparing ice, liquid water and steam, which are all different forms of the same thing. However beyond the usual states of matter, physicists can explore other states, both much colder and hotter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the hottest known state of matter – a state that is so hot that protons and neutrons from the center of atoms can literally melt. This form of matter is called a quark gluon plasma and it is an important research topic being pursued at the LHC.

  6. Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons pumped by the bulk spin Seebeck effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Bender, Scott A.; Duine, Rembert A.; Flebus, Benedetta

    2016-03-01

    We propose inducing Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons in a magnetic insulator by a heat flow oriented toward its boundary. At a critical heat flux, the oversaturated thermal gas of magnons accumulated at the boundary precipitates the condensate, which then grows gradually as the thermal bias is dialed up further. The thermal magnons thus pumped by the magnonic bulk (spin) Seebeck effect must generally overcome both the local Gilbert damping associated with the coherent magnetic dynamics as well as the radiative spin-wave losses toward the magnetic bulk, in order to achieve the threshold of condensation. We quantitatively estimate the requisite bias in the case of the ferrimagnetic yttrium iron garnet, discuss different physical regimes of condensation, and contrast it with the competing (so-called Doppler-shift) bulk instability.

  7. Resummation and the gluon damping rate in hot QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1990-08-01

    At high temperature a consistent perturbative expansion requires the resummation of an infinite subset of loop corrections into an effective expansion. This effective exansion is used to compute the gluon damping rate at leading order. 25 refs.

  8. Effects of interaction on thermodynamics of a repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Satadal; Das, Tapan Kumar; Chakrabarti, Barnali

    2013-11-01

    We report the effects of interaction on thermodynamic properties of a repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a harmonic trap by using the correlated potential harmonics expansion method. This many-body technique permits the use of a realistic interactomic interaction, which gives rise to the effective long-range interaction of the condensate in terms of the s-wave scattering length. We have computed temperature (T) dependence of the chemical potential, specific heat, condensate fraction, entropy, pressure, and the average energy per particle of a system containing a large number (A) of 87Rb atoms in the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) trap. The repulsion among the interacting bosons results in a small but measurable drop of condensate fraction and critical temperature (Tc), compared to those of a noninteracting condensate. These are in agreement with the experiment. Although all thermodynamic quantities have a strong dependence on A and to a smaller extent on the interatomic interaction, our numerical calculation appears to show that a thermodynamic quantity per particle follows a universal behavior as a function of T/Tc. This shows the importance of Tc for all thermodynamic properties of the condensate. As expected, for T>Tc, these properties follow those of a trapped noncondensed Bose gas.

  9. Effects of a dressed quark-gluon vertex in vector heavy-light mesons and theory average of the Bc* meson mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Rocha, M.; Hilger, T.; Krassnigg, A.

    2016-04-01

    We extend earlier investigations of heavy-light pseudoscalar mesons to the vector case, using a simple model in the context of the Dyson-Schwinger-Bethe-Salpeter approach. We investigate the effects of a dressed quark-gluon vertex in a systematic fashion and illustrate and attempt to quantify corrections beyond the phenomenologically very useful and successful rainbow-ladder truncation. In particular we investigate the dressed quark-photon vertex in such a setup and make a prediction for the experimentally as yet unknown mass of the Bc* , which we obtain at 6.334 GeV well in line with predictions from other approaches. Furthermore, we combine a comprehensive set of results from the theoretical literature. The theoretical average for the mass of the Bc* meson is 6.336 ±0.002 GeV .

  10. Effect of interactions on vortices in a nonequilibrium polariton condensate.

    PubMed

    Krizhanovskii, D N; Whittaker, D M; Bradley, R A; Guda, K; Sarkar, D; Sanvitto, D; Vina, L; Cerda, E; Santos, P; Biermann, K; Hey, R; Skolnick, M S

    2010-03-26

    We demonstrate the creation of vortices in a macroscopically occupied polariton state formed in a semiconductor microcavity. A weak external laser beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is used to imprint a vortex on the condensate arising from the polariton optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The vortex core radius is found to decrease with increasing pump power, and is determined by polariton-polariton interactions. As a result of OAM conservation in the parametric scattering process, the excitation consists of a vortex in the signal and a corresponding antivortex in the idler of the OPO. The experimental results are in good agreement with a theoretical model of a vortex in the polariton OPO. PMID:20366553

  11. Non-equilibrium effects on the chemistry of nebular condensates - Implications for the planets and asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blander, M.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetic effects, for example nucleation constraints and slow reactions, should have been important in nebular condensation. Consideration of these effects leads to the prediction of pressure-dependent compositions and physical properties of nebular condensates which is consistent with (1) the differences between different classes of chondritic meteorites, (2) some of the differences between planets, and (3) the presence of oxidized iron on the moon and in the eucrite parent body (presumably an asteroid) despite the low abundance of volatiles. Diffusion effects appear to be important for understanding oxygen isotope anomalies in refractory inclusions in Allende. The consideration of kinetic effects leads to more information concerning nebular processes than if equilibrium is assumed.

  12. Unitarity bound for gluon shadowing

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Levin, E.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2009-06-15

    Although at small Bjorken x gluons originated from different nucleons in a nucleus overlap in the longitudinal direction, most of them are still well separated in the transverse plane and therefore cannot fuse. For this reason the gluon density in nuclei cannot drop at small x below a certain bottom bound, which we evaluated in a model independent manner assuming the maximal strength of gluon fusion. We also calculated gluon shadowing in the saturated regime using the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation and found the nuclear ratio to be well above the unitarity bound. The recently updated analysis of parton distributions in nuclei, including BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) data on high-p{sub T} hadron production at forward rapidities, led to strong gluon shadowing. Such strong shadowing and therefore the interpretation of the nuclear modification of the p{sub T} spectra in dA collisions at RHIC seem to be inconsistent with this unitarity bound.

  13. Radiative dark-bright instability and the critical Casimir effect in DQW exciton condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakioğlu, T.; Özgün, Ege

    2011-07-01

    It is already well known that radiative interband interaction in the excitonic normal liquid in semiconducting double quantum wells is responsible for a negligible splitting between the energies of the dark and bright excitons enabling us to consider a four fold spin degeneracy. This has also lead many workers to naively consider the same degeneracy in studying the condensate. On the other hand, the non-perturbative aspects of this interaction in the condensed phase, e.g. its consequences on the order parameter and the dark-bright mixture in the ground state have not been explored. In this work, we demonstrate that the ground state concentrations of the dark and the bright exciton condensates are dramatically different beyond a sharp interband coupling threshold where the contribution of the bright component in the ground state vanishes. This shows that the effect of the radiative interband interaction on the condensate is nonperturbative. We also observe in the free energy a discontinuous derivative with respect to the layer separation at the entrance to the condensed phase, indicating a strong critical Casimir force. An estimate of its strength shows that it is measurable. Measuring the Casimir force is challenging, but at the same time it has a conclusive power about the presence of the long sought for condensed phase.

  14. Quark-gluon vertex model and lattice-QCD data

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagwat, M.S.; Tandy, P.C.

    2004-11-01

    A model for the dressed-quark-gluon vertex, at zero gluon momentum, is formed from a nonperturbative extension of the two Feynman diagrams that contribute at one loop in perturbation theory. The required input is an existing ladder-rainbow model Bethe-Salpeter kernel from an approach based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations; no new parameters are introduced. The model includes an Ansatz for the triple-gluon vertex. Two of the three vertex amplitudes from the model provide a pointwise description of the recent quenched-lattice-QCD data. An estimate of the effects of quenching is made.

  15. Cooperative effect of ultraviolet and near-infrared beams in laser-induced condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.; Henin, S.; Pomel, F.; Kasparian, J.; Wolf, J.-P.; Théberge, F.; Daigle, J.-F.; Lassonde, P.; Kieffer, J.-C.

    2013-12-23

    We demonstrate the cooperative effect of near infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet (UV) beams on laser-induced condensation. Launching a UV laser after a NIR pulse yields up to a 5-fold increase in the production of nanoparticles (25–300 nm) as compared to a single NIR beam. This cooperative effect exceeds the sum of those from the individual beams and occurs for delays up to 1 μs. We attribute it to the UV photolysis of ozone created by the NIR pulses. The resulting OH radicals oxidize NO{sub 2} and volatile organic compounds, producing condensable species.

  16. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1993-01-01

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  17. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1993-04-27

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  18. The effect of heat conduction in the vapor on the dynamics of downflowing condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliakhandler, Igor L.; Davis, Stephen H.; Bankoff, S. George

    2002-01-01

    A vapor fills the gap between two vertical plates, one hot and one cold. The temperatures are adjusted so that condensate forms on the cold wall. It is the dynamics of the system that is examined. The paper extends the one-sided model of evaporation-condensation to account the heat conduction in the vapor phase, which turns out to be important in many condensation problems. For the considered flow, both vapor recoil and Marangoni effect are stabilizing; as a result, the condensate becomes unstable at nonzero Reynolds numbers in contrast to the usual film flow down a vertical wall. A nonlinear evolution equation is derived and analyzed for the interaction of viscous shear and evaporation-condensation. It turns out that the one-sided model of heat and mass transfer gives a very good description of the initial stage of thin-film growth; in later stages, however, the heat conduction through the vapor becomes important when the film is sufficiently thick.

  19. Control of a Bose-Einstein condensate by dissipation: Nonlinear Zeno effect

    SciTech Connect

    Shchesnovich, V. S.; Konotop, V. V.

    2010-05-15

    We show that controlled dissipation can be used as a tool for exploring fundamental phenomena and managing mesoscopic systems of cold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates. Even the simplest boson-Josephson junction, that is, a Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well trap, subjected to removal of atoms from one of the two potential minima allows one to observe such phenomena as the suppression of losses and the nonlinear Zeno effect. In such a system the controlled dissipation can be used to create desired macroscopic states and implement controlled switching among different quantum regimes.

  20. Some effects of non-condensible gas in geothermal reservoirs with steam-water counterflow

    SciTech Connect

    McKibbin, R.; Pruess, K.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for fluid and heat flow in two-phase geothermal reservoirs containing non-condensible gas (CO{sub 2}). Vertical profiles of temperature, pressures and phase saturations in steady-state conditions are obtained by numerically integrating the coupled ordinary differential equations describing conservation of water, CO{sub 2}, and energy. Solutions including binary diffusion effects in the gas phase are generated for cases with net mass throughflow as well as for balanced liquid-vapor counterflow. Calculated examples illustrate some fundamental characteristics of two-phase heat transmission systems with non-condensible gas. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Some effects of non-condensible gas in geothermal reservoirs with steam-water counterflow

    SciTech Connect

    McKibbin, Robert; Pruess, Karsten

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for fluid and heat flow in two-phase geothermal reservoirs containing non-condensible gas (CO{sub 2}). Vertical profiles of temperature, pressures and phase saturations in steady-state conditions are obtained by numerically integrating the coupled ordinary differential equations describing conservation of water, CO{sub 2}, and energy. Solutions including binary diffusion effects in the gas phase are generated for cases with net mass throughflow as well as for balanced liquid-vapor counterflow. Calculated examples illustrate some fundamental characteristics of two-phase heat transmission systems with non-condensible gas.

  2. A simple modelling of mass diffusion effects on condensation with noncondensable gases for the CATHARE Code

    SciTech Connect

    Coste, P.; Bestion, D.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a simple modelling of mass diffusion effects on condensation. In presence of noncondensable gases, the mass diffusion near the interface is modelled using the heat and mass transfer analogy and requires normally an iterative procedure to calculate the interface temperature. Simplifications of the model and of the solution procedure are used without important degradation of the predictions. The model is assessed on experimental data for both film condensation in vertical tubes and direct contact condensation in horizontal tubes, including air-steam, Nitrogen-steam and Helium-steam data. It is implemented in the Cathare code, a french system code for nuclear reactor thermal hydraulics developed by CEA, EDF, and FRAMATOME.

  3. Investigating the Effectiveness of a POE-Based Teaching Activity on Students' Understanding of Condensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a Predict-Observe-Explain, POE-based teaching strategy to facilitate conceptual change and its effectiveness on student understanding of condensation. The sample consisted of 52 first-year students in primary science education department. Students' ideas were elicited using a test consisting of five probe…

  4. Torrefaction of almond shells: effects of torrefaction conditions on properties of solid and condensate products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond shells were torrefied in a fixed bed reactor and their solid and condensate products were collected for analysis. A central composite design and response surface methodology were used to examine effects of torrefaction temperature and time on mass and energy yields of solid products as well a...

  5. Condensates in quantum chromodynamics and the cosmological constant

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Shrock, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Casher and Susskind [Casher A, Susskind L (1974) Phys Rev 9:436–460] have noted that in the light-front description, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is a property of hadronic wavefunctions and not of the vacuum. Here we show from several physical perspectives that, because of color confinement, quark and gluon condensates in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are associated with the internal dynamics of hadrons. We discuss condensates using condensed matter analogues, the Anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, and the Bethe–Salpeter–Dyson–Schwinger approach for bound states. Our analysis is in agreement with the Casher and Susskind model and the explicit demonstration of “in-hadron” condensates by Roberts and coworkers [Maris P, Roberts CD, Tandy PC (1998) Phys Lett B 420:267–273], using the Bethe–Salpeter–Dyson–Schwinger formalism for QCD-bound states. These results imply that QCD condensates give zero contribution to the cosmological constant, because all of the gravitational effects of the in-hadron condensates are already included in the normal contribution from hadron masses.

  6. Probing the Gluon Self-Interaction in Light Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Christian S.; Williams, Richard

    2009-09-18

    We investigate masses and decay constants of light mesons from a coupled system of Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. We explicitly take into account dominant non-Abelian contributions to the dressed quark-gluon vertex stemming from the gluon self-interaction. We construct the corresponding Bethe-Salpeter kernel that satisfies the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity. Our numerical treatment fully includes all momentum dependencies with all equations solved completely in the complex plane. This approach goes well beyond the rainbow-ladder approximation and permits us to investigate the influence of the gluon self-interaction on the properties of mesons. As a first result we find indications of a nonperturbative cancellation of the gluon self-interaction contributions and pion cloud effects in the mass of the rho meson.

  7. A new model of holographic QCD and chiral condensate in dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Shigenori; Sin, Sang-Jin

    2013-10-01

    We consider the model of holographic QCD with asymptotic freedom and gluon condensation in its vacuum. It consists of the color D4-branes and D0-branes as a background and the flavor D8-branes as a probe. By taking a specific field theory limit, the effective coupling decreases. We then introduce the uniformly distributed baryons in terms of the baryon vertices and study the density dependence of chiral condensate, which is evaluated using the worldsheet instanton method. In the confined phase, the chiral condensate as a function of density monotonically decreases in high baryon density. Such behavior is in agreement with the expectation, while in extremely low density it increases. We attribute this anomaly to the incorrect approximation of uniformity in very low density. In the deconfined phase the chiral condensate monotonically decreases in the whole region of density.

  8. Half-quantum circulation and optical spin Hall effect in a polariton spinor ring condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gangqiang; Snoke, David; Daley, Andrew; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Kenneth

    2015-05-01

    We have observed half-quantum circulation in a macroscopic polariton spinor condensate in a ring trap. In our experiment, the polaritons come from the strong coupling between photons and electronic excitations (excitons) in quantum wells embedded in a microcavity. The polaritons are repulsively interacting bosons with small effective mass. The ring trap is a combination of a strain-induced harmonic trap and a laser-generated central barrier. By measuring the phase and polarization of the condensate, we find that theres is a phase rotation of π in connection with a polarization rotation of π around a closed path. In addition, the handedness of the circular polarization component, which gives the spin of the polariton, flips from one side of the ring to the other. Such a state is allowed in a ring geometry but is prohibited in a simply-connected geometry. The direction of circulation of the flow around the ring fluctuates randomly between clockwise and counterclockwise; this corresponds to spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in the system. In contrast, the polarization pattern of the condensate is very stable which is very likely due to the optical spin Hall effect playing a role as the condensate is generated. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants DMR-1104383 and PHY-1148957. The work at Princeton was partially funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation as well as the National Science Foundation MRSEC Program (DMR-081986).

  9. Effects of Evaporation/Condensation on Spreading and Contact Angle of a Volatile Liquid Drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.; Singh, Bhim S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Effects of evaporation/condensation on spreading and contact angle were experimentally studied. A sessile drop of R-113 was tested at different vapor environments to determine the effects of evaporation/condensation on the evolution of contact diameter and contact angle of the drop. Condensation on the drop surface occurs at both the saturated and a nonsaturated vapor environments and promotes the spreading. When the drop is placed in the saturated vapor environment it tends to completely wetting and spreads rapidly. In a nonsaturated vapor environment, the evolution of the sessile drop is divided three stages: condensation-spreading stage, evaporation-retracting stage and rapid contracting stage. In the first stage the drop behaves as in the saturated environment. In the evaporation -retracting stage, the competition between spreading and evaporation of the drop determines the evolution characteristics of the contact diameter and the contact angle. A lower evaporation rate struggles against the spreading power to turn the drop from spreading to retracting with a continuous increase of the contact angle. The drop placed in open air has a much higher evaporation rate. The strong evaporation suppresses the spreading and accelerates the retraction of the drop with a linear decrease of the contact diameter. The contraction of the evaporating drops is gradually accelerated when the contact diameter decreases to 3 min and less till drying up, though the evaporation rate is gradually slowing down.

  10. Effective one-dimensional dynamics of elongated Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz Mateo, A. Delgado, V.

    2009-03-15

    By using a variational approach in combination with the adiabatic approximation we derive a new effective 1D equation of motion for the axial dynamics of elongated condensates. For condensates with vorticity vertical bar q vertical bar = 0 or 1, this equation coincides with our previous proposal [A. Munoz Mateo, V. Delgado, Phys. Rev. A 77 (2008) 013617]. We also rederive the nonpolynomial Schroedinger equation (NPSE) in terms of the adiabatic approximation. This provides a unified treatment for obtaining the different effective equations and allows appreciating clearly the differences and similarities between the various proposals. We also obtain an expression for the axial healing length of cigar-shaped condensates and show that, in the local density approximation and in units of the axial oscillator length, it coincides with the inverse of the condensate axial half-length. From this result it immediately follows the necessary condition for the validity of the local density approximation. Finally, we obtain analytical formulas that give the frequency of the axial breathing mode with accuracy better than 1%. These formulas can be relevant from an experimental point of view since they can be expressed in terms only of the axial half-length and remain valid in the crossover between the Thomas-Fermi and the quasi-1D mean-field regimes. We have corroborated the validity of our results by numerically solving the full 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  11. Exact kinematics in the small-x evolution of the color dipole and gluon cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, Leszek; Stasto, Anna M.

    2009-04-15

    The problem of kinematic effects in gluon and color dipole cascades is addressed in the large N{sub c} limit of SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theory. We investigate the tree-level multigluon components of the gluon light-cone wave functions in the light-cone gauge keeping the exact kinematics of the gluon emissions. We focus on the components with all helicities identical to the helicity of the incoming gluon. The recurrence relations for the gluon wave functions are derived. In the case when the virtuality of the incoming gluon is neglected the exact form of the multigluon wave function is obtained. Furthermore, we propose an approximate scheme to treat the kinematic effects in the color dipole evolution kernel. The new kernel entangles longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom and leads to a reduced diffusion in the impact parameter. When evaluated in the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy, the kernel reproduces the correct form of the double logarithmic terms of the dipole size ratios present in the exact NLL dipole kernel. Finally, we analyze the scattering of the incoming gluon light-cone components off a gluon target and the fragmentation of the scattered state into the final state. The equivalence of the resulting amplitudes and the maximally helicity-violating amplitudes is demonstrated in the special case when the target gluon is far in rapidity from the evolved gluon wave function.

  12. Shining a gluon beam through quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesler, Paul M.; Ho, Ying-Yu; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2012-06-01

    We compute the energy density radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma. If it were in vacuum, this quark would radiate a beam of strongly coupled radiation whose angular distribution has been characterized and is very similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in electrodynamics. Here, we watch this beam of gluons getting quenched by the strongly coupled plasma. We find that a beam of gluons of momenta ˜q≫πT is attenuated rapidly, over a distance ˜q1/3(πT)-4/3 in a plasma with temperature T. As the beam propagates through the plasma at the speed of light, it sheds trailing sound waves with momenta ≲πT. Presumably these sound waves would thermalize in the plasma if they were not hit soon after their production by the next pulse of gluons from the lighthouselike rotating quark. At larger and larger q, the trailing sound wave becomes less and less prominent. The outward-going beam of gluon radiation itself shows no tendency to spread in angle or to shift toward larger wavelengths, even as it is completely attenuated. In this regard, the behavior of the beam of gluons which we analyze is reminiscent of the behavior of jets produced in heavy ion collisions at the LHC which lose a significant fraction of their energy without appreciable change in their angular distribution or their momentum distribution as they plow through the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma produced in these collisions.

  13. High pressure effects on the structural functionality of condensed globular-protein matrices.

    PubMed

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Kasapis, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    High pressure technology is the outcome of consumer demand for better quality control of processed foods. There is great potential to apply HPP to condensed systems of globular proteins for the generation of industry-relevant biomaterials with advanced techno- and biofunctionality. To this end, research demonstrates that application of high hydrostatic pressure generates a coherent structure and preserves the native conformation in condensed globular proteins, which is an entirely unexpected but interesting outcome on both scientific and technological grounds. In microbiological challenge tests, high pressure at conventional commercial conditions, demonstrated to effectively reduce the concentration of typical Gram negative or Gram positive foodborne pathogens, and proteolytic enzymes in high-solid protein samples. This may have industrial significance in relation to the formulation and stabilisation of "functional food" products as well as in protein ingredients and concentrates by replacing spray dried powders with condensed HPP-treated pastes that maintain structure and bioactivity. Fundamental concepts and structural functionality of condensed matrices of globular proteins are the primary interest in this mini-review, which may lead to opportunities for industrial exploitation, but earlier work on low-solid systems is also summarised presently to put recent developments in context of this rapidly growing field. PMID:27060534

  14. Condensation model for the ESBWR passive condensers

    SciTech Connect

    Revankar, S. T.; Zhou, W.; Wolf, B.; Oh, S.

    2012-07-01

    In the General Electric's Economic simplified boiling water reactor (GE-ESBWR) the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) plays a major role in containment pressure control in case of an loss of coolant accident. The PCCS condenser must be able to remove sufficient energy from the reactor containment to prevent containment from exceeding its design pressure following a design basis accident. There are three PCCS condensation modes depending on the containment pressurization due to coolant discharge; complete condensation, cyclic venting and flow through mode. The present work reviews the models and presents model predictive capability along with comparison with existing data from separate effects test. The condensation models in thermal hydraulics code RELAP5 are also assessed to examine its application to various flow modes of condensation. The default model in the code predicts complete condensation well, and basically is Nusselt solution. The UCB model predicts through flow well. None of condensation model in RELAP5 predict complete condensation, cyclic venting, and through flow condensation consistently. New condensation correlations are given that accurately predict all three modes of PCCS condensation. (authors)

  15. Effects of condensed tannins on hydrogen sulfide production and the sulfate-reducing bacterial population of swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Condensed tannins are natural plant compounds that have antibacterial properties and have been used in studies to reduce methane emissions and frothy bloat in cattle. The objective of this study was to test the effects of condensed tannins on swine manure to target bacterial groups responsible for ...

  16. Dielectric effects at a magnetic Bose-Einstein condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povarov, Kirill; Reichert, Aaron; Wulf, Erik; Zheludev, Andrey

    In the presence of magnetoelectric coupling one can expect non-trivial dielectric properties at a magnetic quantum phase transition. A ``toy model'' here is a spin spiral undergoing a field-induced transition into a quantum-disordered phase. In the incommensurate phase the in-plane spin rotational symmetry is protected, making the analogy between the magnetic long-range ordering and BEC exact, but the spin spiral may also host an electric polarization complicating the picture. We have experimentally studied this transition in the spin tube material Sul-Cu2Cl4 to understand if it can be described as a magnetic BEC. We have found that indeed it can. Dielectric spectroscopy results combined with calorimetric measurements, clearly show the absence of polarization fluctuations in the disordered phase down to the very critical point. At the same time the ordered phase shows a huge nonlinearity in dielectric permittivity even for small electric fields. The phase boundary shows beautiful consistency with the 3D BEC universality class. We conclude, that although magnetoelectric coupling does not alter the nature of the transition, it gives rise to complex magnetoelectric effects in the helimagnetically ordered phase. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, Division 2.

  17. Ghost-gluon coupling, power corrections, and {Lambda}{sub MS} from twisted-mass lattice QCD at N{sub f}=2

    SciTech Connect

    Blossier, B.; Boucaud, Ph.; Gravina, M.; Pene, O.; De soto, F.; Morenas, V.

    2010-08-01

    We present results concerning the nonperturbative evaluation of the ghost-gluon running QCD coupling constant from N{sub f}=2 twisted-mass lattice calculations. A novel method for calibrating the lattice spacing, independent of the string tension and hadron spectrum, is presented with results in agreement with previous estimates. The value of {Lambda}{sub MS} is computed from the running of the QCD coupling only after extrapolating to zero dynamical quark mass and after removing a nonperturbative operator-product expansion contribution that is assumed to be dominated by the dimension-two gluon condensate. The effect due to the dynamical quark mass in the determination of {Lambda}{sub MS} is discussed.

  18. What is the effective molecular polarizability of water in condensed phases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xiaochuan; Lu, Deyu

    Electronic polarization plays a crucial role in determining the structural and dynamical properties of water with different boundary conditions. Although it is well known that the molecular polarization in condensed phases behaves substantially differently from that in the vacuum due to the intermolecular interaction, these environmental effects have not been fully understood from first principles methods. As a result, how to rigorously define and calculate the effective molecular polarizability of a water molecule in different chemical environments remains an open question. The answer to this question not only improves our fundamental understanding of water, but also has immediate practical impact on computational modeling of water, e.g, through an accurate polarizable force field model. A main challenge to this puzzle arises from the intrinsic non-local nature of the electronic susceptibility.Recently we developed an ab initio local dielectric response theory [arxiv 1508.03563] that partitions dielectric response in real space based on a Wannier representation. In this work we apply this method to compute the effective molecular polarizability of water in the condensed phase, and discuss how the effective molecular polarizability evolves from gas phase to the condensed phase. This research used resources of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, which is a U.S. DOE Office of Science Facility, at Brookhaven National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-SC0012704.

  19. Radioprotective effects produced by the condensation of plasmid DNA with avidin and biotinylated gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Perry, Christopher C; Urata, Sarah M; Lee, Melissa; Aguilera, Joe A; Milligan, Jamie R

    2012-11-01

    The treatment of aqueous solutions of plasmid DNA with the protein avidin results in significant changes in physical, chemical, and biochemical properties. These effects include increased light scattering, formation of micron-sized particles containing both DNA and protein, and plasmid protection against thermal denaturation, radical attack, and nuclease digestion. All of these changes are consistent with condensation of the plasmid by avidin. Avidin can be displaced from the plasmid at higher ionic strengths. Avidin is not displaced from the plasmid by an excess of a tetra-arginine ligand, nor by the presence of biotin. Therefore, this system offers the opportunity to reversibly bind biotin-labeled species to a condensed DNA-protein complex. An example application is the use of biotinylated gold nanoparticles. This system offers the ability to examine in better detail the chemical mechanisms involved in important radiobiological effects. Examples include protein modulation of radiation damage to DNA, and radiosensitization by gold nanoparticles. PMID:22825766

  20. Increasing the Oxidative Stress Response Allows Escherichia coli To Overcome Inhibitory Effects of Condensed Tannins

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexandra H.; Imlay, James A.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are plant-derived polyphenols with antimicrobial effects. The mechanism of tannin toxicity towards Escherichia coli was determined by using an extract from Acacia mearnsii (Black wattle) as a source of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins). E. coli growth was inhibited by tannins only when tannins were exposed to oxygen. Tannins auto-oxidize, and substantial hydrogen peroxide was generated when they were added to aerobic media. The addition of exogenous catalase permitted growth in tannin medium. E. coli mutants that lacked HPI, the major catalase, were especially sensitive to tannins, while oxyR mutants that constitutively overexpress antioxidant enzymes were resistant. A tannin-resistant mutant was isolated in which a promoter-region point mutation increased the level of HPI by 10-fold. Our results indicate that wattle condensed tannins are toxic to E. coli in aerobic medium primarily because they generate H2O2. The oxidative stress response helps E. coli strains to overcome their inhibitory effect. PMID:12788743

  1. Effects of low-energy electrons on DNA constituents: effective cross sections for condensed thymidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panajotovic, Radmila

    2009-05-01

    Since the first experiments of low-energy electron scattering from condensed DNA [1] have been performed, the interest in studying low-energy electron-biomolecule interactions has been increasing. Knowledge of effective cross sections for single- and double-strand breaks of DNA and for vibrational and electronic excitation of nucleic bases and nucleosides are opening the door to better understanding of effects of radiation on live tissue and possibly indicating interaction pathways leading to gene mutations and cancer. The strong variation of effective cross sections for DNA single-strand breaks with incident electron energy and the resonant enhancement at 1 eV suggested that considerable damage is inflicted by very low-energy electrons to DNA, and indicates the important role of π* shape resonances in the bond-breaking process. However, the complexity of DNA, even if studied as a short single-strand chain, imposes a need to perform measurements on its isolated constituents, such as nucleic bases and nucleosides. Thymidine is one of the most important nucleosides of DNA and an important component of antiviral compounds. In the condensed phase, thymidine's 2'-deoxyribose ring is in the pentose sugar ring form, which is a true conformation of this nucleoside in DNA. Results from High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss [2] study of monomolecular films of thymidine will be discussed and the presence of resonances in the effective cross sections at incident energy below 5 eV will be commented as a possible indication of the dissociative electron attachment. In addition, results on the resonance structures in the effective cross sections for electronic excitations for the incident electron energy from 1.5 to 12 eV will be discussed as a possible pathway for strand brakes in DNA. [4pt] [1] Boudaiffa B, Cloutier P, Hunting D, Huels M A and Sanche L 2002 Rad. Res. 157 227-234[0pt] [2] Panajotovic R, Martin F, Cloutier P, Hunting, D, and Sanche L, 2006 Rad.Res. 165 452

  2. QCD corrections to vector boson pair production in gluon fusion including interference effects with off-shell Higgs at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caola, Fabrizio; Dowling, Matthew; Melnikov, Kirill; Röntsch, Raoul; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    We compute next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to the production of two massive electroweak bosons in gluon fusion. We consider both the prompt production process gg → V V and the production mediated by an exchange of an s-channel Higgs boson, gg → H ∗ → V V . We include final states with both on- and off-shell vector bosons with leptonic decays. The gluonic production of vector bosons is a loop-induced process, including both massless and massive quarks in the loop. For gg → ZZ production, we obtain the NLO QCD corrections to the massive loops through an expansion around the heavy top limit. This approximation is valid below the top production threshold, giving a broad range of invariant masses between the Higgs production and the top production thresholds in which our results are valid. We explore the NLO QCD effects in gg → ZZ focusing, in particular, on the interference between prompt and Higgs-mediated processes. We find that the QCD corrections to the interference are large and similar in size to the corrections to both the signal and the background processes. At the same time, we observe that corrections to the interference change rapidly with the four-lepton invariant mass in the region around the ZZ production threshold. We also study the interference effects in gg → W + W - production where, due to technical limitations, we only consider contributions of massless loops. We find that the QCD corrections to the interference in this case are somewhat larger than those for either the signal or the background.

  3. Closed-String Tachyon Condensation and the Worldsheet Super-Higgs Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Horava, Petr; Horava, Petr; Keeler, Cynthia A.

    2007-09-13

    Alternative gauge choices for worldsheet supersymmetry can elucidate dynamical phenomena obscured in the usual superconformal gauge. In the particular example of the tachyonic E_8 heterotic string, we use a judicious gauge choice to show that the process of closed-string tachyon condensation can be understood in terms of a worldsheet super-Higgs effect. The worldsheet gravitino assimilates the goldstino and becomes a dynamical propagating field. Conformal, but not superconformal, invariance is maintained throughout.

  4. Lattice gluon and ghost propagators and the strong coupling in pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory: Finite lattice spacing and volume effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Anthony G.; Oliveira, Orlando; Silva, Paulo J.

    2016-07-01

    The dependence of the Landau gauge two-point gluon and ghost correlation functions on the lattice spacing and on the physical volume are investigated for pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions using lattice simulations. We present data from very large lattices up to 1284 and for two lattice spacings 0.10 fm and 0.06 fm corresponding to volumes of ˜(13 fm )4 and ˜(8 fm )4 , respectively. Our results show that, for sufficiently large physical volumes, both propagators have a mild dependence on the lattice volume. On the other hand, the gluon and ghost propagators change with the lattice spacing a in the infrared region, with the gluon propagator having a stronger dependence on a compared to the ghost propagator. In what concerns the strong coupling constant αs(p2), as defined from gluon and ghost two-point functions, the simulations show a sizeable dependence on the lattice spacing for the infrared region and for momenta up to ˜1 GeV .

  5. Linker histone partial phosphorylation: effects on secondary structure and chromatin condensation.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Rita; Sarg, Bettina; Lindner, Herbert; Bartolomé, Salvador; Ponte, Inma; Suau, Pedro; Roque, Alicia

    2015-05-19

    Linker histones are involved in chromatin higher-order structure and gene regulation. We have successfully achieved partial phosphorylation of linker histones in chicken erythrocyte soluble chromatin with CDK2, as indicated by HPCE, MALDI-TOF and Tandem MS. We have studied the effects of linker histone partial phosphorylation on secondary structure and chromatin condensation. Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed a gradual increase of β-structure in the phosphorylated samples, concomitant to a decrease in α-helix/turns, with increasing linker histone phosphorylation. This conformational change could act as the first step in the phosphorylation-induced effects on chromatin condensation. A decrease of the sedimentation rate through sucrose gradients of the phosphorylated samples was observed, indicating a global relaxation of the 30-nm fiber following linker histone phosphorylation. Analysis of specific genes, combining nuclease digestion and qPCR, showed that phosphorylated samples were more accessible than unphosphorylated samples, suggesting local chromatin relaxation. Chromatin aggregation was induced by MgCl2 and analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Phosphorylated chromatin had lower percentages in volume of aggregated molecules and the aggregates had smaller hydrodynamic diameter than unphosphorylated chromatin, indicating that linker histone phosphorylation impaired chromatin aggregation. These findings provide new insights into the effects of linker histone phosphorylation in chromatin condensation. PMID:25870416

  6. Fog inerting effects on hydrogen combustion in a PWR ice condenser contaminant

    SciTech Connect

    Luangdilok, W.; Bennett, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    A mechanistic fog inerting model has been developed to account for the effects of fog on the upward lean flammability limits of a combustible mixture based on the thermal theory of flame propagation. Benchmarking of this model with test data shows reasonably good agreement between the theory and the experiment. Applications of the model and available fog data to determine the upward lean flammability limits of the H{sub 2}-air-steam mixture in the ice condenser upper plenum region of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice condenser contaminant during postulated large loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions indicate that combustion may be suppressed beyond the downward flammability limit (8 percent H{sub 2} by volume). 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Effects of water matrix on virus inactivation using common virucidal techniques for condensate urine disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiaojun; Chu, Xiaona; Hu, Jiangyong

    2015-10-01

    Three common virucidal techniques (chlorine, UV and UV/TiO2) were applied to inactivate virus (MS2 and Phi X174) in condensate water after the evaporation of source-separated urine for reclaimed water. The inactivation efficiencies were compared with the results of previous studies, with the emphasis on the analysis of water matrix effects. Results showed that all virus inactivation in condensate water were lower than the control (in sterilized DI water). As for UV/TiO2 disinfection, both nitrate and ammonia nitrogen could promote slightly viral inactivation, while the inhibition by urea was dominant. Similarly, ammonia nitrogen had greater impacts on chlorine disinfection than urea and nitrate. In contrast, all water matrices (urea, nitrate and ammonia nitrogen) had little influence on UV disinfection. Based on the findings in this study, UV disinfection could be recommended for disinfecting the reclaimed water from the evaporation of source-separated urine. PMID:25966330

  8. The Dynamics of Partial Cavities and Effect of Non-Condensable Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makiharju, Simo A.; Ganesh, Harish; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2015-11-01

    Partial cavitation is encountered in a variety of common applications, from fuel injectors to lifting surfaces, and in general it has detrimental effects on the system wear and performance. Partial cavities undergoing auto-oscillation can cause large pressure oscillations, unsteady hydrodynamic loading, and significant noise. In the present study, experiments were conducted focusing on the dynamics of shedding cavities forming in a canonical geometry (downstream of a wedge apex). The inlet cavitation number was fixed at 2.0 and the Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter was 6x105. The effects of dissolved gas content and of non-condensable gas injection into the cavity were carefully studied utilizing dynamic pressure transducers and x-ray densitometry. Gas was injected either immediately downstream of the wedge's apex or further downstream into mid-cavity. The gas injected near the wedge apex was found to end up in the separated shear layer, and relatively miniscule amounts of gas were enough to significantly reduce the vapor production rate and dampen the cavity's auto-oscillations. In addition, the results suggest that non-condensable gas injection can cause the shedding mechanism to switch from one dominated by condensation shock to one dominated by re-entrant liquid jet. Work supported by the Office of Naval Research Grant N00014-14-1-0292, program manager Dr. Ki-Han Kim.

  9. Gluon polarization in the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Steven D.; Casey, Andrew; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2011-03-15

    We combine heavy-quark renormalization group arguments with our understanding of the nucleon's wave function to deduce a bound on the gluon polarization {Delta}g in the proton. The bound is consistent with the values extracted from spin experiments at COMPASS and RHIC.

  10. Condensing and Fluidizing Effects of Ganglioside GM1 on Phospholipid Films

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Shelli L.; Chi, Eva Y.; Arratia, Cristóbal; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Kjaer, Kristian; Lee, Ka Yee C.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed monolayers of the ganglioside GM1 and the lipid dipalmitoylphosphatidlycholine (DPPC) at air-water and solid-air interfaces were investigated using various biophysical techniques to ascertain the location and phase behavior of the ganglioside molecules in a mixed membrane. The effects induced by GM1 on the mean molecular area of the binary mixtures and the phase behavior of DPPC were followed for GM1 concentrations ranging from 5 to 70 mol %. Surface pressure isotherms and fluorescence microscopy imaging of domain formation indicate that at low concentrations of GM1 (<25 mol %), the monolayer becomes continually more condensed than DPPC upon further addition of ganglioside. At higher GM1 concentrations (>25 mol %), the mixed monolayer becomes more expanded or fluid-like. After deposition onto a solid substrate, atomic force microscopy imaging of these lipid monolayers showed that GM1 and DPPC pack cooperatively in the condensed phase domain to form geometrically packed complexes that are more ordered than either individual component as evidenced by a more extended total height of the complex arising from a well-packed hydrocarbon tail region. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction on the DPPC/GM1 binary mixture provides evidence that ordering can emerge when two otherwise fluid components are mixed together. The addition of GM1 to DPPC gives rise to a unit cell that differs from that of a pure DPPC monolayer. To determine the region of the GM1 molecule that interacts with the DPPC molecule and causes condensation and subsequent expansion of the monolayer, surface pressure isotherms were obtained with molecules modeling the backbone or headgroup portions of the GM1 molecule. The observed concentration-dependent condensing and fluidizing effects are specific to the rigid, sugar headgroup portion of the GM1 molecule. PMID:18192361

  11. Effects of Ionic Dependence of DNA Persistence Length on the DNA Condensation at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wei; Liu, Yan-Hui; Hu, Lin; Xu, Hou-Qiang

    2016-05-01

    DNA persistence length is a key parameter for quantitative interpretation of the conformational properties of DNA and related to the bending rigidity of DNA. A series of experiments pointed out that, in the DNA condensation process by multivalent cations, the condensed DNA takes elongated coil or compact globule states and the population of the compact globule states increases with an increase in ionic concentration. At the same time, single molecule experiments carried out in solution with multivalent cations (such as spermidine, spermine) indicated that DNA persistence length strongly depends on the ionic concentration. In order to revolve the effects of ionic concentration dependence of persistence length on DNA condensation, a model including the ionic concentration dependence of persistence length and strong correlation of multivalent cation on DNA is provided. The autocorrelation function of the tangent vectors is found as an effective way to detect the ionic concentration dependence of toroidal conformations. With an increase in ion concentration, the first periodic oscillation contained in the autocorrelation function shifts, the number of segment contained in the first periodic oscillation decreases gradually. According to the experiments, the average long-axis length is defined to estimate the ionic concentration dependence of condensation process further. The relation between long-axis length and ionic concentration matches the experimental results qualitatively. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11047022, 11204045, 11464004 and 31360215; The Research Foundation from Ministry of Education of China (212152), Guizhou Provincial Tracking Key Program of Social Development (SY20123089, SZ20113069); The General Financial Grant from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2014M562341); The Research Foundation for Young University Teachers from Guizhou University (201311); The West Light Foundation (2015) and College

  12. Condensing and fluidizing effects of ganglioside GM1 on phospholipid films.

    PubMed

    Frey, Shelli L; Chi, Eva Y; Arratia, Cristóbal; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Kjaer, Kristian; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2008-04-15

    Mixed monolayers of the ganglioside G(M1) and the lipid dipalmitoylphosphatidlycholine (DPPC) at air-water and solid-air interfaces were investigated using various biophysical techniques to ascertain the location and phase behavior of the ganglioside molecules in a mixed membrane. The effects induced by G(M1) on the mean molecular area of the binary mixtures and the phase behavior of DPPC were followed for G(M1) concentrations ranging from 5 to 70 mol %. Surface pressure isotherms and fluorescence microscopy imaging of domain formation indicate that at low concentrations of G(M1) (<25 mol %), the monolayer becomes continually more condensed than DPPC upon further addition of ganglioside. At higher G(M1) concentrations (>25 mol %), the mixed monolayer becomes more expanded or fluid-like. After deposition onto a solid substrate, atomic force microscopy imaging of these lipid monolayers showed that G(M1) and DPPC pack cooperatively in the condensed phase domain to form geometrically packed complexes that are more ordered than either individual component as evidenced by a more extended total height of the complex arising from a well-packed hydrocarbon tail region. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction on the DPPC/G(M1) binary mixture provides evidence that ordering can emerge when two otherwise fluid components are mixed together. The addition of G(M1) to DPPC gives rise to a unit cell that differs from that of a pure DPPC monolayer. To determine the region of the G(M1) molecule that interacts with the DPPC molecule and causes condensation and subsequent expansion of the monolayer, surface pressure isotherms were obtained with molecules modeling the backbone or headgroup portions of the G(M1) molecule. The observed concentration-dependent condensing and fluidizing effects are specific to the rigid, sugar headgroup portion of the G(M1) molecule. PMID:18192361

  13. Quark gluon bags as reggeons

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, K. A.; Petrov, V. K.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2009-05-15

    The influence of the medium-dependent finite width of quark gluon plasma (QGP) bags on their equation of state is analyzed within an exactly solvable model. It is argued that the large width of the QGP bags not only explains the observed deficit in the number of hadronic resonances but also clarifies the reason why the heavy QGP bags cannot be directly observed as metastable states in a hadronic phase. The model allows us to estimate the minimal value of the width of QGP bags being heavier than 2 GeV from a variety of the lattice QCD data and get that the minimal resonance width at zero temperature is about 600 MeV, whereas the minimal resonance width at the Hagedorn temperature is about 2000 MeV. As shown, these estimates are almost insensitive to the number of the elementary degrees of freedom. The recent lattice QCD data are analyzed and it is found that in addition to the {sigma}T{sup 4} term the lattice QCD pressure contains T-linear and T{sup 4}lnT terms in the range of temperatures between 240 and 420 MeV. The presence of the last term in the pressure bears almost no effect on the width estimates. Our analysis shows that at high temperatures the average mass and width of the QGP bags behave in accordance with the upper bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the linear asymptotics), whereas at low temperatures they obey the lower bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the square root one). Since the model explicitly contains the Hagedorn mass spectrum, it allows us to remove an existing contradiction between the finite number of hadronic Regge families and the Hagedorn idea of the exponentially growing mass spectrum of hadronic bags.

  14. Effects of Adding Nanoparticles on Boiling and Condensing Heat Transfer inside a horizontal round tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen; Sadoughi, Mohammadkazem; Shariatmadar, Hamed; Akhavan-Behabadi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-11-01

    An experimental investigation is performed on heat transfer evaluation of a nano-refrigerant flow during condensation and evaporation inside a horizontal round tube. Experiments are carried out for three working fluid types including: i) pure refrigerant (R600a); ii) refrigerant/lubricant (R600a/oil); and iii) nano-refrigerant: refrigerant/lubricant/nanoparticles (R600a/oil/CuO). Nanoparticles are added to the lubricant and their mixture is mixed with pure refrigerant. Therefore, nano-refrigerants (R600a/oil/CuO) are prepared by dispersing CuO nanoparticles with different fractions of 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% in the baseline mixture (R600a/oil). Effects of different factors including vapor quality, mass flux, and nanoparticles on the heat transfer coefficient are examined for both of condensation and evaporation flows, separately. The results shows that maximum heat transfer augmentation of 79% and 83% are achieved by using the refrigerant/lubricant/nanoparticles mixture, in comparison with the pure refrigerant case in condensation and evaporation, respectively which are occurred for nano-refrigerant with 1.5% mass fraction in both of them.

  15. Effect of makeup water properties on the condenser fouling in power planr cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on heat exchanger surfaces. In that regard, predicting the accelerated rate of scaling and fouling in condenser is crucial to evaluate the condenser performance. To achieve this goal, water chemistry should be incorporated in cooling system modeling and simulation. This paper addresses the effects of various makeup water properties on the cooling system, namely pH and aqueous speciation, both of which are important factors affecting the fouling rate in the main condenser. Detailed modeling of the volatile species desorption (i.e. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}), the formation of scale in the recirculating system, and the relationship between water quality and the corresponding fouling rates is presented.

  16. The Effect of Disinfection by Spray Atomization on Dimensional Accuracy of Condensation Silicone Impressions

    PubMed Central

    Saleh Saber, Fariba; Abolfazli, Nader; Kohsoltani, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims The condensation silicone impression materials are available, but there is little knowledge of their accuracy after disinfection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the disinfection by spray atomization on dimensional accuracy of condensation silicone impressions. Materials and methods Impressions were made on a stainless steel master model containing a simulated two complete crown preparation with an edentulous space interposed using Spidex® and Rapid® impression materials. 44 impressions were made with each material, of which 16 were disinfected with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 16 were disinfected with 10% iodophor and 12 were not disinfected. Three dimensional measurements of working casts, including interpreparation distance, height, and diameter, were calculated using a measuring microscope graduated at 0.001 mm. Dimensional changes (mm) between the disinfected and non-disinfected working casts were compared. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyze the data (α=0.05). Results Disinfection of each condensation silicone material by spraying atomization with two different disinfectant material resulted in significant change in interpreparation distance (p<0.05). Changes in height and diameter were only significant in Spidex® impressions (p<0.05). Conclusion Significant changes in the mean dimensions were seen as a result of disinfection by spraying; however, the dimensional changes do not seem great enough to cause critical positional distortion of teeth when fixed partial denture restorations are made. PMID:23346339

  17. SUSY-QCD Effects in Top Quark Pair Production in Association with a Gluon at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ning

    2015-08-01

    Given the null results of searches for new physics at the LHC, we investigate the one-loop effects SUSY QCD in the process e^ + e^ - \\to t\\bar tg at the ILC in Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We find that the relative SUSY-QCD corrections to the cross section of e^ + e^ - \\to t\\bar tg can maximally reach 6.5%(3.2%) at the ILC with \\sqrt s = 1000 GeV when m\\bar t1 = 313.4 GeV and m\\bar g = 500≤ft( {1500} \\right) GeV. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC) under Grant Nos. 11305049, 11275057, and 11405047, by Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No. 20134104120002 and by the Startup Foundation for Doctors of Henan Normal University under Grant No. 11112

  18. The effect of spraying different disinfectants on condensational silicone impressions; an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Badrian, Hamid; Davoudi, Amin; Molazem, Meysam; Zare, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dentistry equipment are exposed to different types of pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of spraying three different types of disinfectants on condensational silicones after 5 and 10 min. Materials and Methods: Totally, 66 circular samples of condensational silicone impression materials of 1 cm diameter and 2 mm thickness were contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans fungus. Except for control samples, all of them were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 0.525%, Deconex and Epimax by spraying method. Afterward, they kept in plastic bags with humid rolled cotton for 5 and 10 min. In order to isolate microbiotas, the samples were immersed in 2% trypsin for 1 h and diluted with normal saline in a portion of 1, 1/2, and 1/4. The trypsin suspensions were transferred to culture plates for incubation and colony-forming unit assay. The data were analyzed by Mann–Whitney test and SPSS software version 16 at a significant level of 0.05. Results: There was a meaningful difference between disinfection effects of Epimax-Deconex for all mentioned microorganisms after 5 min (P = 0.034), and between disinfection effects of NaOCl 0.525%-Epimax for S. aureus (P = 0.043) and P. aeruginosa (P = 0.046) after 5 min. Furthermore, there was a meaningful difference between disinfection effects of Epimax-Deconex (P = 0.034) and NaOCl 0.525%-Epimax (P = 0.034) for P. aeruginosa after 10 min. Conclusion: Condensational silicone can be effectively disinfected by spraying tested three disinfecting agents. More specifically, Deconex showed the best results compared to the other agents. PMID:26929523

  19. Direct Anthelmintic Effects of Condensed Tannins from Diverse Plant Sources against Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of

  20. Polyakov loop and gluon quasiparticles in Yang-Mills thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggieri, M.; Alba, P.; Castorina, P.; Plumari, S.; Ratti, C.; Greco, V.

    2012-09-01

    We study the interpretation of lattice data about the thermodynamics of the deconfinement phase of SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, in terms of gluon quasiparticles propagating in a background of a Polyakov loop. A potential for the Polyakov loop, inspired by the strong coupling expansion of the QCD action, is introduced; the Polyakov loop is coupled to transverse gluon quasiparticles by means of a gaslike effective potential. This study is useful to identify the effective degrees of freedom propagating in the gluon medium above the critical temperature. A main general finding is that a dominant part of the phase transition dynamics is accounted for by the Polyakov loop dynamics; hence, the thermodynamics can be described without the need for diverging or exponentially increasing quasiparticle masses as T→Tc, at variance respect to standard quasiparticle models.

  1. Effect of condensed tannins on egg hatching and larval development of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Molan, A L; Waghorn, G C; McNabb, W C

    2002-01-19

    The effects of condensed tannins extracted from seven forages on the viability of the eggs and first stage (L1) larvae of the sheep nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis were evaluated in in vitro assays. The extracts of condensed tannins were obtained from Lotus pedunculatus (LP), Lotus corniculatus (LC), sulla (Hedysarum coronarium), sainfoin (Onobrychus viciifolia), Dorycnium pentaphylum (DP), Dorycnium rectum (DR) and dock (Rumex obtusifolius). Extracts containing 200 to 500 microg/ml reduced the proportion of eggs that hatched. The larval development assay was used to evaluate the effect of the extracts on the development of either eggs or L1 larvae to L3 infective larvae. Development was allowed to proceed for seven days by which time the larvae in control incubations had reached the infective L3 stage. Extracts containing 200 microg/ml from LP, DP, DR or dock prevented egg development, and only 11, 8 and 2 per cent of the eggs developed to L3 larvae with extracts from LC, sulla and sainfoin, respectively. When the concentration was 400 microg/ml no eggs developed to L3 larvae. The addition of the extracts after hatching also inhibited the development of L1 to L3 larvae; 200 microg/ml extracted from LP, LC, sulla, sainfoin, DP, DR and dock resulted in only 14, 18, 17, 15, 14, 16 and 4 per cent of L1 larvae developing to the L3 stage compared with 85 per cent for controls, and 400 microg/ml further reduced the development of L1 larvae. Statistical analyses showed that when the extracts were added before hatching they were significantly (P<0.001) more effective at inhibiting the larval development than when they were added after hatching. The condensed tannins from dock had the greatest inhibitory effect on egg development followed by the tannins from DR, sainfoin, DP, LP, sulla and LC. PMID:11837588

  2. The quantum acousto-optic effect in Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the interaction between a single mode light field and an elongated cigar shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), subject to a temporal modulation of the trap frequency in the tight confinement direction. Under appropriate conditions, the longitudinal sound like waves (Faraday waves) in the direction of weak confinement acts as a dynamic diffraction grating for the incident light field analogous to the acousto-optic effect in classical optics. The change in the refractive index due to the periodic modulation of the BEC density is responsible for the acousto-optic effect. The dynamics is characterised by Bragg scattering of light from the matter wave Faraday grating and simultaneous Bragg scattering of the condensate atoms from the optical grating formed due to the interference between the incident light and the diffracted light fields. Varying the intensity of the incident laser beam we observe the transition from the acousto-optic effect regime to the atomic Bragg scattering regime, where Rabi oscillations between two momentum levels of the atoms are observed. We show that the acousto-optic effect is reduced as the atomic interaction is increased.

  3. Chaotic Josephson effects in two-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jianshu; Hai, Wenhua; Chong, Guishu; Xie, Qiongtao

    2005-04-01

    We discuss the chaotic Josephson effects in two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). The boson Josephson junction (BJJ) dynamics in BECs is governed by the two-mode Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We obtained a perturbed chaotic solution of the BJJ equation by using the direct perturbation technique. Theoretical analysis reveals that the stable oscillating orbits are embedded in the Melnikov chaotic attractors. The corresponding numerical results show that the Poincaré sections in the equivalent phase space (φ,φ˙) sensitively depends on the system parameter and initial conditions. Therefore, we can control the transitions between chaos and order by adjusting these parameters and conditions.

  4. Effect of scattering lengths on the dynamics of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Csire, Gabor; Apagyi, Barnabas

    2010-12-15

    We examine the effect of the intra- and interspecies scattering lengths on the dynamics of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate, particularly focusing on the existence and stability of solitonic excitations. For each type of possible soliton pairs, stability ranges are presented in tabulated form. We also compare the numerically established stability of bright-bright, bright-dark, and dark-dark solitons with our analytical prediction and with that of Painleve analysis of the dynamical equation. We demonstrate that tuning the interspecies scattering length away from the predicted value (keeping the intraspecies coupling fixed) breaks the stability of the soliton pairs.

  5. Low-momentum ghost dressing function and the gluon mass

    SciTech Connect

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Gomez, M. E.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2010-09-01

    We study the low-momentum ghost propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Landau gauge, assuming for the truncation a constant ghost-gluon vertex, as it is extensively done, and a simple model for a massive gluon propagator. Then, regular Dyson-Schwinger equation solutions (the zero-momentum ghost dressing function not diverging) appear to emerge, and we show the ghost propagator to be described by an asymptotic expression reliable up to the order O(q{sup 2}). That expression, depending on the gluon mass and the zero-momentum Taylor-scheme effective charge, is proven to fit pretty well some low-momentum ghost propagator data [I. L. Bogolubsky, E. M. Ilgenfritz, M. Muller-Preussker, and A. Sternbeck, Phys. Lett. B 676, 69 (2009); Proc. Sci., LAT2007 (2007) 290] from big-volume lattice simulations where the so-called ''simulated annealing algorithm'' is applied to fix the Landau gauge.

  6. Worldline calculation of the three-gluon vertex

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadiniaz, N.; Schubert, C.

    2012-10-23

    The three-gluon vertex is a basic object of interest in nonabelian gauge theory. At the one-loop level, it has been calculated and analyzed by a number of authors. Here we use the worldline formalism to unify the calculations of the scalar, spinor and gluon loop contributions to the one-loop vertex, leading to an extremely compact representation in terms of field strength tensors. We verify its equivalence with previously obtained representations, and explain the relation of its structure to the low-energy effective action. The sum rule found by Binger and Brodsky for the scalar, spinor and gluon loop contributions in the present approach relates to worldline supersymmetry.

  7. Advances in SAW Gas Sensors Based on the Condensate-Adsorption Effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiuling; Wang, Wen; Li, Shunzhou; Liu, Minghua; He, Shitang

    2011-01-01

    A surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) gas sensor with a low detection limit and fast response for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on the condensate-adsorption effect detection is developed. In this sensor a gas chromatography (GC) column acts as the separator element and a dual-resonator oscillator acts as the detector element. Regarding the surface effective permittivity method, the response mechanism analysis, which relates the condensate-adsorption effect, is performed, leading to the sensor performance prediction prior to fabrication. New designs of SAW resonators, which act as feedback of the oscillator, are devised in order to decrease the insertion loss and to achieve single-mode control, resulting in superior frequency stability of the oscillator. Based on the new phase modulation approach, excellent short-term frequency stability (±3 Hz/s) is achieved with the SAW oscillator by using the 500 MHz dual-port resonator as feedback element. In a sensor experiment investigating formaldehyde detection, the implemented SAW gas sensor exhibits an excellent threshold detection limit as low as 0.38 pg. PMID:22247697

  8. Geometric phase in vacuum condensates, application to Unruh effect and to quantum thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capolupo, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    We report on the recent results revealing the presence of the geometric phase in all the systems characterized by particle creation from vacuum and vacuum condensates. This fact makes the geometric phase a useful tool in the study and the understanding of disparate phenomena. Its possible application ranges from the dynamical Casimir effect to the Hawking effect, from quantum field theory in curved space to the study of CP and CPT symmetries, from the graphen physics to superconductivity and to the Bose Einstein condensate. Here, we consider the possibility of the detection of the Unruh effect and of the fabrication of a very precise quantum thermometer. We analyze the Mukunda-Simon phase for a two level atom system and consider two case: 1) atoms accelerated in electromagnetic field, and 2) atoms interacting with thermal states. The Mukunda-Simon phase generalizes the Berry phase to the case of non-cyclic and non-adiabatic evolutions; therefore it represents a more useful instrument in experimental implementations with respect to the Berry phase.

  9. Probing the quark-gluon interaction with hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis-Alepuz, Hèlios; Williams, Richard

    2015-10-01

    We present a unified picture of mesons and baryons in the Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter approach, wherein the quark-gluon and quark-(anti)quark interactions follow from a systematic truncation of the QCD effective action and include all its tensor structures. The masses of some of the ground-state mesons and baryons are found to be in reasonable agreement with the expectations of a 'quark-core calculation', suggesting a partial insensitivity to the details of the quark-gluon interaction. However, discrepancies remain in the meson sector, and for excited baryons, that suggest higher order corrections are relevant and should be investigated following the methods outlined herein.

  10. Effects of selected water treatments and cathodic protection on corrosion and embrittlement of condenser tubes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a three-year laboratory study investigating: (1) the interaction and effect of sulfide, dissolved oxygen, and temperature on the corrosion of copper alloy condenser tubes; (2) the effectiveness of selected cooling water treatments in mitigating sulfide-accelerated corrosion; (3) the effects of various parameters on the hydriding susceptibility of titanium tubing under cathodic protection conditions; and (4) the hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of ferritic stainless steels under cathodic protection conditions. The selected cooling water treatments included ferrous sulfate, benzotriazole, sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate, high molecular weight polyacrylamide, and Calgon CL-5. Much of the work was carried out utilizing seawater test loops designed to simulate condenser tube flow. The results of the study demonstrated that: (1) sulfide contamination of a copper alloy condenser tube can trigger rapid perforation of the tube; (2) ferrous sulfate treatement may be effective in mitigating sulfide-accelerated attack if initiated prior to and during any sulfide exposure; and (3) cathodic protection at high electronegative potentials will embrittle titanium and ferritic stainless steel condenser tubes. The report recommends further research directed at: (1) the long-term effectiveness of ferrous sulfate treatement in retarding sulfide-promoted pitting; (2) corrosion-accelerating mechanisms associated with chlorination and silt build-up; (3) an appropriate method for cleaning condenser tubes contaminated with a corrosion accelerant; (4) a more effective method of on-line monitoring of condenser tube corrosion; and (5) an update of recent electric utility experience concerning corrosion of copper alloy condenser tubes. 32 refs., 39 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Calcium chloride effects on the glass transition of condensed systems of potato starch.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Katopo, Lita; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

    2016-05-15

    The effect of calcium chloride on the structural properties of condensed potato starch undergoing a thermally induced glass transition has been studied using dynamic mechanical analysis and modulated differential scanning calorimetry. Extensive starch gelatinisation was obtained by hot pressing at 120°C for 7 min producing materials that covered a range of moisture contents from 3.7% w/w (11% relative humidity) to 18.8% w/w (75% relative humidity). FTIR, ESEM and WAXD were also performed in order to elucidate the manner by which salt addition affects the molecular interactions and morphology of condensed starch. Experimental protocol ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of calcium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Highly reactive calcium ions form a direct interaction with starch to alter considerably its structural properties via an anti-plasticizing effect, as compared to the polymer-water matrix. PMID:26776036

  12. Tunable dipolar resonances and Einstein-de Haas effect in a Rb87-atom condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świsłocki, Tomasz; Sowiński, Tomasz; Pietraszewicz, Joanna; Brewczyk, Mirosław; Lewenstein, Maciej; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Gajda, Mariusz

    2011-06-01

    We theoretically study a spinor condensate of Rb87 atoms in a F=1 hyperfine state confined in an optical dipole trap. Putting initially all atoms in an mF=1, component we observe a significant transfer of atoms to other, initially empty Zeeman states exclusively due to dipolar forces. Because of conservation of a total angular momentum the atoms going to other Zeeman components acquire an orbital angular momentum and circulate around the center of the trap. This is a realization of the Einstein-de Haas effect in a system of cold gases. We show that the transfer of atoms via dipolar interactions is possible only when the energies of the initial and the final sates are equal. This condition can be fulfilled utilizing a resonant external magnetic field, which tunes energies of involved states via the linear Zeeman effect. We found that there are many final states of different spatial density, which can be tuned selectively to the initial state. We show a simple model explaining high selectivity and controllability of weak dipolar interactions in the condensate of Rb87 atoms.

  13. Gluon Contribution To The Nucleon Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh; Shahveh, Abolfazl

    2011-07-01

    Gluon polarization in Nucleon is evaluated in the valon representation of hadrons. It is shown that although δg/g is small at the currently measured kinematics, it does not imply that the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin is small. In fact the first moment of gluon polarization in the nucleon, Δg(Q2), is sizable. We also notice that the majority of Δg is concentrated at around x = 0.08.

  14. Synchrotron contribution to photon emission from quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, B. G.

    2016-08-01

    We study the inuence of the magnetic field on the photon emission from the quark-gluon plasma created in AA collisions. We find that even for very optimistic assumption on the magnitude of the magnetic field for noncentral AA collisions the effect of magnetic field is very small.

  15. Effect of Condensed Tannins on Bacterial Diversity and Metabolic Activity in the Rat Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexandra H.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) on rat fecal bacterial populations was ascertained in order to determine whether the proportion on tannin-resistant bacteria increased and if there was a change in the predominant bacterial populations. After 3 weeks of tannin diets the proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria increased significantly (P < 0.05) from 0.3% ± 5.5% to 25.3% ± 8.3% with a 0.7% tannin diet and to 47.2% ± 5.1% with a 2% tannin diet. The proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria returned to preexposure levels in the absence of dietary tannins. A shift in bacterial populations was confirmed by molecular fingerprinting of fecal bacterial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Posttreatment samples were generally still distinguishable from controls after 3.5 weeks. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands and characterization of tannin-resistant isolates indicated that tannins selected for Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. Dot blot quantification confirmed that these gram-negative bacterial groups predominated in the presence of dietary tannins and that there was a corresponding decrease in the gram-positive Clostridium leptum group and other groups. Metabolic fingerprint patterns revealed that functional activities of culturable fecal bacteria were affected by the presence of tannins. Condensed tannins of Acacia angustissima altered fecal bacterial populations in the rat gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a shift in the predominant bacteria towards tannin-resistant gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. PMID:14766594

  16. Effect of condensed water on scanning near-field optical microscope measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douas, M.; Serena, P. A.; Marqués, M. I.

    2013-11-01

    The relevance of the scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM), for near-field characterization, is often shaded by the appearance of artifacts, especially when geometrical characterization is intended. Artifacts are related to many features such as the feedback system or the scanning mode. For non-vacuum environmental conditions, artifact sources may be related to tip geometry and the pollutants attached, either on the tip or on the studied surfaces, altering the optical image. As an environmental element, water vapor could be treated as a source for artifacts, but could also be used as a tool for chemical characterization of hydrophilic patches. Spontaneous meniscus formation between hydrophilic surfaces, such as the tip and the sample, may guide light from the tip to the sample, enhancing the transmitted signal. This study focuses on the effects that water condensation at the nanoscale has on the signals achieved by SNOM, combining two computational methods (Monte Carlo and finite difference time domain) in order to deal with light propagation through heterogeneous media and water condensation.

  17. The effect of condensates and inner coatings on the performance of vacuum hohlraum targets

    SciTech Connect

    Boehly, T. R.; Seka, W.; Sangster, T. C.; Olson, R. E.; Celliers, P. M.; Munro, D. H.; Landen, O. L.; Collins, G. W.; Suter, L. J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2010-03-15

    Experiments on the OMEGA laser system [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using laser-driven vacuum hohlraum targets show distinct differences between cryogenic (<20 K) and warm targets. The cryogenic targets have 15% lower peak radiation temperatures, and the temporal profile of those temperatures is quite different than in warm targets. The cryogenic targets reflect significantly more (3%-7%) of the laser drive than the warm targets (<1%). The temporal and spectral features of the reflected light from the cryogenic targets show a significantly longer duration and more spectral features than the warm hohlraums. Warm hohlraum targets coated with 2 mum of CH replicate the behavior of cryogenic targets. This indicates that the cryogenic hohlraums are affected by the condensation of background gases on the cold hohlraum surface. The most important effect of low-Z material in the hohlraums is that they significantly reduce the x-ray conversion efficiency, resulting in lower hohlraum radiation temperature. The coatings (both CH and condensates) produce long-scale-length, low-Z plasmas that moderately reduce the absorption of laser light in the hohlraums. This causes higher reflectivity and produces hot electrons that generate hard x rays (hnu>20 keV), both of which are detrimental to the performance of hohlraum-driven inertial confinement fusion targets.

  18. Shadowing of gluons in perturbative QCD: A comparison of different models

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2001-05-01

    We investigate the different perturbative QCD-based models for nuclear shadowing of gluons. We show that, in the kinematic region appropriate to the BNL relativistic heavy ion collider experiment, all models give similar estimates for the magnitude of gluon shadowing. At scales relevant to CERN large hadron collider (LHC), there is a sizable difference between the predictions of the different models. However, the uncertainties in gluon shadowing coming from a different parametrization of the gluon distribution in nucleons, are larger than those due to different perturbative QCD models of gluon shadowing. We also investigate the effect of initial nonperturbative shadowing on the magnitude of perturbative shadowing and show that the magnitudes of perturbative and nonperturbative shadowing are comparable at RHIC but perturbative shadowing dominates over nonperturbative shadowing at smaller values of x reached at LHC.

  19. The gastroprotective effects of Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract: the possible role of condensed tannins.

    PubMed

    Prado, Ligia Carolina da Silva; Silva, Denise Brentan; de Oliveira-Silva, Grasielle Lopes; Hiraki, Karen Renata Nakamura; Canabrava, Hudson Armando Nunes; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz Borges

    2014-01-01

    We applied a taxonomic approach to select the Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract, known in Brazil as "cagaita," and evaluated its gastroprotective effect. The ability of the extract or carbenoxolone to protect the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced lesions was evaluated in mice. The contributions of nitric oxide (NO), endogenous sulfhydryl (SH) groups and alterations in HCl production to the extract's gastroprotective effect were investigated. We also determined the antioxidant activity of the extract and the possible contribution of tannins to the cytoprotective effect. The extract and carbenoxolone protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced ulcers, and the former also decreased HCl production. The blockage of SH groups but not the inhibition of NO synthesis abolished the gastroprotective action of the extract. Tannins are present in the extract, which was analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI); the tannins identified by fragmentation pattern (MS/MS) were condensed type-B, coupled up to eleven flavan-3-ol units and were predominantly procyanidin and prodelphinidin units. Partial removal of tannins from the extract abolished the cytoprotective actions of the extract. The extract exhibits free-radical-scavenging activity in vitro, and the extract/FeCl3 sequence stained gastric surface epithelial cells dark-gray. Therefore, E. dysenterica leaf extract has gastroprotective effects that appear to be linked to the inhibition of HCl production, the antioxidant activity and the endogenous SH-containing compounds. These pleiotropic actions appear to be dependent on the condensed tannins contained in the extract, which bind to mucins in the gastric mucosa forming a protective coating against damaging agents. Our study highlights the biopharmaceutical potential of E. dysenterica. PMID:24789995

  20. Ordering Multiple Soft Gluon Emissions.

    PubMed

    Ángeles Martínez, René; Forshaw, Jeffrey R; Seymour, Michael H

    2016-05-27

    We present an expression for the QCD amplitude for a general hard scattering process with any number of soft gluon emissions, to one-loop accuracy. The amplitude is written in two different but equivalent ways: as a product of operators ordered in dipole transverse momentum and as a product of loop-expanded currents. We hope that these results will help in the development of an all-orders algorithm for multiple emissions that includes the full color structure and both the real and imaginary contributions to the amplitude. PMID:27284651

  1. Antifungal Activity of Condensed Tannins from Stryphnodendron adstringens: Effect on Candida tropicalis Growth and Adhesion Properties.

    PubMed

    Morey, Alexandre T; de Souza, Felipe C; Santos, Jussevania P; Pereira, Caibe A; Cardoso, Juscelio D; de Almeida, Ricardo S C; Costa, Marco A; de Mello, João C P; Nakamura, Celso V; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Yamauchi, Lucy M; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are some of the most common causes of fungal infection worldwide. The limited efficacy of clinically available antifungals warrants the search for new compounds for treating candidiasis. This study evaluated the effect of condensed tannin-rich fraction (F2 fraction) of Stryphnodendron adstringens on in vitro and in vivo growth of Candida tropicalis, and on yeast adhesion properties. F2 exhibited a fungistatic effect with the minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.5 to 8.0 μg/mL. A significant reduction in biofilm mass was observed after either pretreatment of planktonic cells for 2 h (mean reduction of 46.31±8.17%) or incubation during biofilm formation (mean reduction of 28.44±13.38%) with 4x MIC of F2. Prior exposure of planktonic cells to this F2 concentration also significantly decreased yeast adherence on HEp-2 cells (mean reduction of 43.13±14.29%), cell surface hydrophobicity (mean reduction of 25.89±10.49%) and mRNA levels of the genes ALST1-3 (2.9-, 1.8- and 1.8-fold decrease, respectively). Tenebrio molitor larvae, which are susceptible to C. tropicalis infection, were used for in vivo testing. Treatment with 128 and 256 μg/mL F2 significantly increased the survival of infected larvae. These results indicate a combined effect of F2 on inhibition of yeast growth and interference in yeast adhesion, which may contribute to the suppression of infection caused by C. tropicalis, thus reinforcing the potential of the condensed tannins from S. adstringens for the development of novel antifungal agents. PMID:26696018

  2. Effect of capillary-condensed water on the dynamic friction force at nanoasperity contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirghi, L.

    2003-05-01

    A single nanoasperity contact in ambient air is usually wetted by capillary condensation of water vapor and is surrounded by a water meniscus. This phenomenon strongly affects the contact friction, not only by the effect of meniscus loading force (superficial tension and capillary forces), but also by a friction force that accounts for the energy loss in the meniscus movement along with the sliding contact. Occurrence of the water-meniscus-generated friction is experimentally proved by atomic force microscopy measurements of the tip-sample friction force at minimum possible external load (before pull-off). A qualitative explanation for the observed dependence of the friction force on air humidity and solid surface wettability is proposed.

  3. Impurity in a Bose-Einstein Condensate and the Efimov Effect.

    PubMed

    Levinsen, Jesper; Parish, Meera M; Bruun, Georg M

    2015-09-18

    We investigate the zero-temperature properties of an impurity particle interacting with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), using a variational wave function that includes up to two Bogoliubov excitations of the BEC. This allows one to capture three-body Efimov physics, as well as to recover the first nontrivial terms in the weak-coupling expansion. We show that the energy and quasiparticle residue of the dressed impurity (polaron) are significantly lowered by three-body correlations, even for weak interactions where there is no Efimov trimer state in a vacuum. For increasing attraction between the impurity and the BEC, we observe a smooth crossover from atom to Efimov trimer, with a superposition of states near the Efimov resonance. We furthermore demonstrate that three-body loss does not prohibit the experimental observation of these effects. Our results thus suggest a route to realizing Efimov physics in a stable quantum many-body system for the first time. PMID:26430999

  4. Investigation of Condensation/Clustering Effects on Rayleigh Scattering Measurements in a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyler, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Rayleigh scattering, a nonintrusive measurement technique for the measurement of density in a hypersonic wind tunnel, is under investigation at Wright Laboratory's Mach 6 wind tunnel. Several adverse effects, i.e., extraneous scatter off walls and windows, hinder Rayleigh scattering measurements. Condensation and clustering of flow constituents also present formidable obstacles. Overcoming some of these difficulties, measurements have been achieved while the Mach 6 test section was pumped down to a vacuum, as well as for actual tunnel operation for various stagnation pressures at fixed stagnation temperatures. Stagnation pressures ranged from 0.69 MPa to 6.9 MPa at fixed stagnation temperatures of 511, 556, and 611 K. Rayleigh scatter results show signal levels much higher than expected for molecular scattering in the wind tunnel. Even with higher than expected signals, scattering measurements have been made in the flowfield of an 8-degree half-angle blunt nose cone with a nose radius of 1.5 cm.

  5. Effect of a condensation utilizer on the operation of steam and hot-water gas-fired boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Roslyakov, P. V.; Supranov, V. M.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Luning, B.

    2015-05-01

    Various designs for condensation utilizers of the low-grade heat of furnace gases that are constructed based on an open-type heat exchanger are considered. Computational investigations are carried out for the effect of the condensation utilizer with tempering and moistening of air on the operation of steam and hot-water boilers burning natural gas. The investigations are performed based on the predeveloped adequate calculating models of the steam and hot-water boilers in a Boiler Designer program complex. Investigation results for TGM-96B and PTVM-120 boilers are given. The enhancement of the operation efficiency of the condensation utilizer can be attained using a design with tempering and moistening of air supplied to combustion that results in an insignificant increase in the temperature of waste gases. This has no effect on the total operation efficiency of the boiler and the condenser unit, because additional losses with waste gases are compensated owing to the operation of the last. The tempering and moistening of air provide a substantial decrease in the temperature in the zone of active combustion and shortening the nitrogen oxide emission. The computational investigations show that the premoistening of air supplied to combustion makes the technical and economic efficiency of boilers operating with the Condensation Utilizer no worse.

  6. Effect of Fodder Tree Species with Condensed Tannin Contents on In vitro Methane Production.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Ernestina Gutiérrez; Medina, Leonardo Hernández; Benavides, Liliana Márquez; Caratachea, Aureliano Juárez; Razo, Guillermo Salas; Burgos, Armin Javier Ayala; Rodríguez, Ruy Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of fodder tree species (FTS) with condensed tannin contents: Cordia elaeagnoides, Platymiscium lasiocarpum, Vitex mollis, and Haematoxylon brasiletto, on in vitro methane (CH4) production at 24 h post incubation. The analysis was performed using the in vitro gas production technique, with three levels of inclusion/species: 600, 800, and 1,000 mg and with 4 replicates/species/level of inclusion. The substrate was incubated at 39°C, and the gas and CH4 production were recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post incubation. The data collected was analyzed through Pearson correlation, polinomial regression and fixed effects models. There were negative correlations between FTS-total gas volume (r = -0.40; p<0.001); FTS-volume of CH4 produced (r = -0.40; p<0.001) and between the inclusion level-volume of CH4 produced (r = -0.20; p<0.001). As well as a positive correlation between hours post incubation-total gas volume (r = 0.42; p<0.001) and between hours post incubation-volume of CH4 produced (r = 0.48; p<0.001). The FTS: C. elaeagnoides, V. mollis, and H. brasiletto have potential, in the three inclusion levels analyzed, to reduce CH4 emission on in vitro trials (>32.7%), taking into account the total CH4 production at 24 h of the forage used as reference (Avena sativa). It's suggested that C. elaeagnoides-according to its crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannins content- is the best alternative within the FTS analyzed, for feeding ruminants and for the control of CH4 emissions during the dry season. PMID:26732330

  7. Effect of Fodder Tree Species with Condensed Tannin Contents on In vitro Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Ernestina Gutiérrez; Medina, Leonardo Hernández; Benavides, Liliana Márquez; Caratachea, Aureliano Juárez; Razo, Guillermo Salas; Burgos, Armin Javier Ayala; Rodríguez, Ruy Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of fodder tree species (FTS) with condensed tannin contents: Cordia elaeagnoides, Platymiscium lasiocarpum, Vitex mollis, and Haematoxylon brasiletto, on in vitro methane (CH4) production at 24 h post incubation. The analysis was performed using the in vitro gas production technique, with three levels of inclusion/species: 600, 800, and 1,000 mg and with 4 replicates/species/level of inclusion. The substrate was incubated at 39°C, and the gas and CH4 production were recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post incubation. The data collected was analyzed through Pearson correlation, polinomial regression and fixed effects models. There were negative correlations between FTS-total gas volume (r = −0.40; p<0.001); FTS-volume of CH4 produced (r = −0.40; p<0.001) and between the inclusion level-volume of CH4 produced (r = −0.20; p<0.001). As well as a positive correlation between hours post incubation-total gas volume (r = 0.42; p<0.001) and between hours post incubation-volume of CH4 produced (r = 0.48; p<0.001). The FTS: C. elaeagnoides, V. mollis, and H. brasiletto have potential, in the three inclusion levels analyzed, to reduce CH4 emission on in vitro trials (>32.7%), taking into account the total CH4 production at 24 h of the forage used as reference (Avena sativa). It’s suggested that C. elaeagnoides-according to its crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannins content- is the best alternative within the FTS analyzed, for feeding ruminants and for the control of CH4 emissions during the dry season. PMID:26732330

  8. Gluon Spin Contribution to The Nucleon Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, Firooz; Shahveh, Abolfazl; Taghavi-Shahri, Fateme

    2010-10-01

    We have calculated δg/ g in the nucleon at all measured kinematics. The smallness of δg/ g in the measured kinematics should not be interpreted as the the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin is small. In fact the first moment of gluon polarization in the nucleon, Δ g( Q2) can be sizable.

  9. Cost-Effective Fabrication of Wettability Gradient Copper Surface by Screen Printing and its Application to Condensation Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Huang, Hung-Ming; Huang, Ding-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, wettability gradient pattern is applied to condensation heat transfer on a copper tube surface. For this application, the vital issue is how to fabricate gradient patterns on a curve tube surface to accelerate the droplet collection efficiently. For this purpose, novel fabrication processes are developed to form wettability gradient patterns on a curve copper tube surface by using roller screen printing surface modification techniques. The roller screen printing surface modification techniques can easily realize wettability gradient surfaces with superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity on a copper tube surface. Experimental results show the droplet nucleation sites, movement and coalescence toward the collection areas can be effectively controlled which can assist in removing the condensation water from the surface. The effectiveness of droplet collection is appropriate for being applied to condensation heat transfer in the foreseeable future.

  10. CONDENSATION CAN

    DOEpatents

    Booth, E.T. Jr.; Pontius, R.B.; Jacobsohn, B.A.; Slade, C.B.

    1962-03-01

    An apparatus is designed for condensing a vapor to a solid at relatively low back pressures. The apparatus comprises a closed condensing chamber, a vapor inlet tube extending to the central region of the chamber, a co-axial tubular shield surrounding the inlet tube, means for heating the inlet tube at a point outside the condensing chamber, and means for refrigeratirg the said chamber. (AEC)

  11. On The Quark-Gluon Vertex

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E

    2008-07-02

    There has been growing evidence that the infra-red enhancement of the form factors defining the quark-gluon vertex plays an important role both in dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and confinement, thus providing an intrinsic link between the the two inherently non-perturbative phenomena. Both lattice and Schwinger-Dyson equation studies have begun to calculate these form factors in various kinematical regimes of momenta involved. A natural consistency check for these studies is that they should match onto the perturbative predictions for large momenta where non-perturbative effects mellow down. In this article, we study this matching by carrying out a numerical analysis of the one loop result for the central Ball-Chiu form factor.

  12. Weak quark couplings induced by gluon corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavela, M. B.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Oliver, L.; Pène, O.; Raynal, J. C.

    1980-12-01

    We compute the quark couplings in flavor-changing semileptonic transitions induced by lowest-order gluon corrections. We investigate the consequences of these radiative corrections for the quark axial-vector coupling, the deviations from Cabibbo universality for the axial-vector relative to the vector current, and the induced couplings (first-class pseudoscalar and anomalous magnetic moment, and second-class scalar and pseudotensor). The correction lowers the axial-vector coupling and increases the magnetic moment. We study the dependence of the couplings on the quark mass difference. Some of these results, true to all orders in αs, generalize the theorem of Ademollo and Gatto. The effective current is pure V-A to a very good approximation for transitions of heavy quarks (m>~5 GeV).

  13. HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.

    SciTech Connect

    LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.

    2005-04-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear matter at extremely high

  14. Transverse spin and classical gluon fields: Combining two perspectives on hadronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievert, Matthew D.

    In recent decades, the spin and transverse momentum of quarks and gluons were found to play integral roles in the structure of the nucleon. Simultaneously, the onset of gluon saturation in hadrons and nuclei at high energies was predicted to result in a new state of matter dominated by classical gluon fields. Understanding both of these contributions to hadronic structure is essential for current and future collider phenomenology. In this Dissertation, we study the combined effects of transverse spin and gluon saturation using the Glauber-Gribov-Mueller / McLerran-Venugopalan model of a heavy nucleus in the quasi-classical approximation. We investigate the use of a transversely-polarized projectile as a probe of the saturated gluon fields in the nucleus, finding that the transverse spin asymmetry of produced particles couples to the component of the gluon fields which is antisymmetric under both time reversal and charge conjugation. We also analyze the effects of saturation on the transverse spin asymmetry (Sivers function) of quarks within the wave function of the nucleus, finding that gluon saturation preferentially generates the asymmetry through the orbital angular momentum of the nucleons, together with nuclear shadowing.

  15. Quantum ratchets, the orbital Josephson effect, and chaos in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Heimsoth, Martin; Creffield, Charles E.; Sols, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    In a system of ac-driven condensed bosons we study a new type of Josephson effect occurring between states sharing the same region of space and the same internal atom structure. We first develop a technique to calculate the long-time dynamics of a driven interacting many-body system. For resonant frequencies, this dynamics can be shown to derive from an effective time-independent Hamiltonian which is expressed in terms of standard creation and annihilation operators. Within the subspace of resonant states, and if the undriven states are plane waves, a locally repulsive interaction between bosons translates into an effective attraction. We apply the method to study the effect of interactions on the coherent ratchet current of an asymmetrically driven boson system. We find a wealth of dynamical regimes which includes Rabi oscillations, self-trapping and chaotic behavior. In the latter case, a full quantum many-body calculation deviates from the mean-field results by predicting large quantum fluctuations of the relative particle number. Moreover, we find that chaos and entanglement, as defined by a variety of widely used and accepted measures, are overlapping but distinct notions. Funded by Spanish MINECO, the Ramon y Cajal program (CEC), the Comunidad de Madrid through Grant Microseres, the Heidelberg Center for Quantum Dynamics, and the NSF.

  16. Parton Saturation and the Color Glass Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2007-03-01

    We review recent developments in the field of parton saturation and the Color Glass Condensate. We discuss the classical gluon fields of McLerran-Venugopalan model. We explain how small- x non-linear quantum evolution corrections can be included into the total cross section for deep inelastic scattering. We proceed by reviewing saturation physics predictions for the particle production in p( d) A collisions and conclude by demonstrating how such predictions were confirmed by the RHIC experiments.

  17. Differential discriminative-stimulus effects of cigarette smoke condensate and nicotine in nicotine-discriminating rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Mee Jung; Choe, Eun Sang; Lee, Young-Ju; Seo, Joung-Wook; Yoon, Seong Shoon

    2016-06-01

    Although it is widely accepted that nicotine plays a key role in tobacco dependence, nicotine alone cannot account for all of the pharmacological effects associated with cigarette smoke found in preclinical models. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the differential effects of the interoceptive cues of nicotine alone versus those of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in nicotine-trained rats. First, the rats were trained to discriminate nicotine (0.4mg/kg, subcutaneous [s.c.]) from saline in a two-lever drug discrimination paradigm. Then, to clarify the different neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying the discriminative-stimulus effects in the nicotine and CSC in nicotine-trained rats, either the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE; 0.3-1.0mg/kg, s.c.) or the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine citrate (MLA; 5-10mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) was administered prior to the injection of either nicotine or CSC. Separate set of experiments was performed to compare the duration of action of the discriminative-stimulus effects of CSC and nicotine. CSC exhibited a dose-dependent nicotine generalization, and interestingly, 1.0mg/kg of DHβE antagonized the discriminative effects of nicotine (0.4mg/kg) but not CSC (0.4mg/kg nicotine content). However, pretreatment with MLA had no effect. In the time-course study, CSC had a relatively longer half-life in terms of the discriminative-stimulus effects compared with nicotine alone. Taken together, the present findings indicate that CSC has a distinct influence on interoceptive effects relative to nicotine alone and that these differential effects might be mediated, at least in part, by the α4β2, but not the α7, nAChR. PMID:26996314

  18. Effect of condensed tannin extract supplementation of performance, nitrogen, balance, gas emissions, and energetic losses of beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations are of increasing concern to regulatory agencies and consumers. We evaluated the effect of top-dressing a finishing diet (14.4% crude protein) for beef steers with a commercially-available condensed tannin extract (CT) at three levels (0...

  19. Cronin effect and high-pT suppression in pA collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharzeev, Dmitri; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Tuchin, Kirill

    2003-11-01

    We review the predictions of the theory of a color glass condensate for a gluon production cross section in p(d)A collisions. We demonstrate that, at moderate energies, when the gluon production cross section can be calculated in the framework of the McLerran-Venugopalan model, it has only a partonic level Cronin effect in it. At higher energies or rapidities corresponding to smaller values of the Bjorken x, quantum evolution becomes important. The effect of quantum evolution at higher energies or rapidities is to introduce the suppression of high-pT gluons slightly decreasing the Cronin enhancement. At still higher energies or rapidities quantum evolution leads to the suppression of produced gluons at all values of pT.

  20. Quantum Effects in Condensed Matter Systems in Three, Two, and One Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeshan, Sriram

    The quantum nature of matter not only results in exotic properties of strongly correlated condensed matter systems, but is also responsible for remarkable properties of ubiquitous systems like water. In this thesis, we study the role of quantum effects in diverse condensed matter systems. In the first part of the thesis, we develop a computationally inexpensive alternative method to the path integral (PI) formalism that is capable of including vibrational zero-point quantum effects in classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our idea is based on the concept of thermostats, used for temperature control in MD. We combine Nose-Hoover (NH) and Generalized Langevin thermostats (GLE) to equilibrate different dynamical modes to their zero point temperature. We applied our thermostat (NGLE) to a flexible liquid water force field, and structural properties are in good agreement with PIMD with fraction of its computation time. Our NGLE is simple and involves much less parameters to optimize than in standard GLE without NH. We also used NGLE to gain deeper insight into the structure of water by probing how different modes are correlated to one another. In the second part of the thesis, we study how quantum interference affects transport in vortex state of d-wave superconductors. The order parameter (gap) in high-Tc cuprate superconductors exhibits d-wave symmetry. Near each of four gap nodes, quasiparticles behave like massless relativistic particles. In this work, we consider low-temperature thermal transport in the 2D cuprate plane, and we study the scattering of these quasiparticles from magnetic vortices. We calculate the exact differential scattering cross section of massless Dirac quasiparticles scattered due to the regularized Berry phase effect of vortices, and we show that it is the dominant scattering contribution in the longitudinal transport. Next, we considered quantum interferometers made of 1D edge states of Fractional Quantum Hall (FQH) System. FQH

  1. Geothermal steam condensate reinjection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chasteen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Geothermal electric generating plants which use condensing turbines and generate and excess of condensed steam which must be disposed of are discussed. At the Geysers, California, the largest geothermal development in the world, this steam condensate has been reinjected into the steam reservoir since 1968. A total of 3,150,000,000 gallons of steam condensate has been reinjected since that time with no noticeable effect on the adjacent producing wells. Currently, 3,700,000 gallons/day from 412 MW of installed capacity are being injected into 5 wells. Reinjection has also proven to be a satisfactory method of disposing of geothermal condensate a Imperial Valley, California, and at the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

  2. Numerical simulation of cavitating channel flows including non-condensable gases effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, Michele; Som, Sibendu; Longman, Douglas E.

    2013-11-01

    Fuel injectors often feature cavitation because of large pressure gradients which in some regions lead to extremely low pressure levels. Numerical results are assessed against quantitative high resolution experimental data collected at Argonne National Laboratory using synchrotron x-ray radiography on real-size fuel nozzles. Simulation are performed on structured embedded grids using finite volume method and second-order discretization schemes in space and time. A single fluid homogeneous mixture model is compared to a multi-fluid non-homogeneous model. Two mass transfer models for predicting cavitation are also studied. RANS and LES cases are presented. The presence of dissolved gases in the multi-phase flow is addressed and their effect has been accounted for by running compressible three-phase flow simulations. The study highlights the importance of accounting for dissolved gases in the liquid, since some void formations, which could be attributed to cavitation, are actually due to non-condensable gas expansion. A discussion about the effect of turbulent pressure fluctuations on cavitation inception is also presented. Visiting Scholar at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago IL; Assistant Professor at University of Perugia, Italy.

  3. Effects of the surroundings and conformerisation of n-dodecane molecules on evaporation/condensation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Gun’ko, Vladimir M.; Nasiri, Rasoul; Sazhin, Sergei S.

    2015-01-21

    The evaporation/condensation coefficient (β) and the evaporation rate (γ) for n-dodecane vs. temperature, gas pressure, gas and liquid density, and solvation effects at a droplet surface are analysed using quantum chemical density functional theory calculations of several ensembles of conformers of n-dodecane molecules in the gas phase (hybrid functional ωB97X-D with the cc-pVTZ and cc-pVDZ basis sets) and in liquid phase (solvation method: SMD/ωB97X-D). It is shown that β depends more strongly on a number of neighbouring molecules interacting with an evaporating molecule at a droplet surface (this number is estimated through changes in the surface Gibbs free energy of solvation) than on pressure in the gas phase or conformerisation and cross-conformerisation of molecules in both phases. Thus, temperature and the surrounding effects at droplet surfaces are the dominant factors affecting the values of β for n-dodecane molecules. These values are shown to be similar (at reduced temperatures T/T{sub c} < 0.8) or slightly larger (at T/T{sub c} > 0.8) than the values of β calculated by the molecular dynamics force fields (MD FF) methods. This endorses the reliability of the previously developed classical approach to estimation of β by the MD FF methods, except at temperatures close to the critical temperature.

  4. Effects of the surroundings and conformerisation of n-dodecane molecules on evaporation/condensation processes.

    PubMed

    Gun'ko, Vladimir M; Nasiri, Rasoul; Sazhin, Sergei S

    2015-01-21

    The evaporation/condensation coefficient (β) and the evaporation rate (γ) for n-dodecane vs. temperature, gas pressure, gas and liquid density, and solvation effects at a droplet surface are analysed using quantum chemical density functional theory calculations of several ensembles of conformers of n-dodecane molecules in the gas phase (hybrid functional ωB97X-D with the cc-pVTZ and cc-pVDZ basis sets) and in liquid phase (solvation method: SMD/ωB97X-D). It is shown that β depends more strongly on a number of neighbouring molecules interacting with an evaporating molecule at a droplet surface (this number is estimated through changes in the surface Gibbs free energy of solvation) than on pressure in the gas phase or conformerisation and cross-conformerisation of molecules in both phases. Thus, temperature and the surrounding effects at droplet surfaces are the dominant factors affecting the values of β for n-dodecane molecules. These values are shown to be similar (at reduced temperatures T/Tc < 0.8) or slightly larger (at T/Tc > 0.8) than the values of β calculated by the molecular dynamics force fields (MD FF) methods. This endorses the reliability of the previously developed classical approach to estimation of β by the MD FF methods, except at temperatures close to the critical temperature. PMID:25612715

  5. Temperature effects on the antimicrobial efficacy of condensed smoke and lauric arginate against Listeria and Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    Condensed smoke or liquid smoke (LS) and lauric arginate (LAE) are antimicrobials used in food preservation. They have demonstrated abilities to reduce or inhibit pathogenic and spoilage organisms. Few studies, however, have reported on the effectiveness of LS or LAE over the range of temperatures typically encountered in food marketing channels. Therefore, the effects of temperature on the antimicrobial properties of two commercial LS fractions, an LS derived from pecan shells, and LAE against two common foodborne pathogens, Listeria and Salmonella, were investigated. The MICs of the three LS samples and LAE were measured at 4, 10, and 37°C for Listeria monocytogenes strains 2045 (Scott A, serotype 4b) and 10403S (serotype 1/2a) and two strains of Listeria innocua, a well-established surrogate, and at 10, 25, and 37°C for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg. The MICs for LS against Listeria ranged from 3 to 48% (vol/vol), with higher MICs seen with lower temperatures. The MICs for LS on Salmonella ranged from 3 to 24%. Values for LAE ranged between 0.004 and 0.07% for both pathogens, and like LS, higher MICs were always associated with lower incubation temperatures. Understanding how storage temperature affects the efficacy of antimicrobials is an important factor that can contribute to lowering the hurdles of use levels and costs of antimicrobials and ultimately improve food safety for the consumer. PMID:24853515

  6. Spin Hall effect in a spinor dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, T.; Kawaguchi, Y.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically show that the spin Hall effect arises in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of neutral atoms interacting via the magnetic dipole-dipole interactions (MDDIs). Since the MDDI couples the total spin angular momentum and the relative orbital angular momentum of two colliding atoms, it works as a spin-orbit coupling. Thus, when we prepare a BEC in a magnetic sublevel m =0 , thermally and quantum-mechanically excited atoms in the m =1 and -1 states feel the Lorentz-like forces in the opposite directions. This is the origin for the emergence of the spin Hall effect. We define the mass-current and spin-current operators from the equations of continuity and calculate the spin Hall conductivity from the off-diagonal current-current correlation function within the Bogoliubov approximation. We find that the correction of the current operators due to the MDDI significantly contributes to the spin Hall conductivity. A possible experimental situation is also discussed.

  7. The effect of condensed tannins from seven herbages on Trichostrongylus colubriformis larval migration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Molan, A L; Waghorn, G C; Min, B R; McNabb, W C

    2000-01-01

    The effects of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from seven forages on the motility of the economically important nematode, Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Giles, 1892), were evaluated by using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. The assay involved incubation of third stage (L3) exsheathed T. colubriformis larvae with CT extracted from Lotus pedunculatus, Lotus corniculatus, sulla (Hedysarum coronarium), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), Dorycnium rectum, Dorycnium pentaphyllum and dock (Rumex obtusifolius) and measurement of larval migration through nylon mesh with a 20 microm pore size. At 100 microg ml(-1), CT from L. pedunculatus, L. corniculatus, sulla, sainfoin, D. rectum, D. pentaphyllum and dock inhibited 20%, 10%, 15%, 25%, 28%, 32% and 27% of the larvae, respectively from passing through the sieves compared to controls (no CT added). At 1000 microg CT ml(-1), CT purified from D. pentaphyllum had the highest inhibitory activity (63%) against 1-month old larvae followed by sainfoin (59%), L. pedunculatus (57%), D. rectum (53%), dock (50%), sulla (40%) and L. corniculatus (37%). Seven-month old larvae were more sensitive to the action of CT than 1-month old larvae (P < 0.001). Addition of 2 microg polyethylene glycol ([PEG] per microg CT; to remove the effect of CT) eliminated 81-93% of the CT activity (P < 0.001) compared to incubations without PEG. The impact of CT on larval migration suggests a possible role for these plants in ruminant diets as a means to reduce dependence upon proprietary anthelmintics. PMID:10833014

  8. The effect of imidazole, cyanamide, and polyornithine on the condensation of nucleotides in aqueous systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibanez, J.; Kimball, A. P.; Oro, J.

    1971-01-01

    Development of two models for the condensation of nucleotides under possibly prebiotic conditions. In the first of these models this type of reaction is promoted by the presence of imidazole and substituted imidazole compounds. The second model involves the condensation of mononucleotides with cyanamide in the presence and absence of a prototemplate such as polyornithine. A tentative mechanism for the role of imidazole catalysis in phosphodiester bond formation between adjacent TMP molecules is suggested.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of C-C bond scission in polyethylene and linear alkanes: effects of the condensed phase.

    PubMed

    Popov, Konstantin V; Knyazev, Vadim D

    2014-03-27

    The reaction of C-C bond scission in polyethylene chains of various lengths was studied using molecular dynamics under the conditions of vacuum and condensed phase (polymer melt). A method of assigning meaningful rate constant values to condensed-phase bond scission reactions based on a kinetic mechanism accounting for dissociation, reverse recombination, and diffusional separation of fragments was developed. The developed method accounts for such condensed-phase phenomena as cage effects and diffusion of the decay products away from the reaction site. The results of C-C scission simulations indicate that per-bond rate constants decrease by an order of magnitude as the density of the system increases from vacuum to the normal density of a polyethylene melt. Additional calculations were performed to study the dependence of the rate constant on the length of the polymer chain under the conditions of the condensed phase. The calculations demonstrate that the rate constant is independent of the degree of polymerization if polyethylene samples of different lengths are kept at the same pressure. However, if instead molecular systems of different polyethylene chain lengths decompose under the conditions of the same density, shorter chains result in higher pressures and lower rate constants. The observed effect is attributed to a higher degree of molecular crowding (lower fraction of free intermolecular space available for molecular motion) in the case of shorter molecules. PMID:24571517

  10. Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robin C; Vodovnik, Maša; Min, Byeng R; Pinchak, William E; Krueger, Nathan A; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J

    2012-07-01

    Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonisation of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry and chestnut tannin extracts and condensed tannin-rich mimosa, quebracho and sorghum tannins (each at 100 mg/mL) against C. jejuni via disc diffusion assay in the presence of supplemental casamino acids. We found that when compared to non-tannin-treated controls, all tested tannins inhibited the growth of C. jejuni and that inhibition by the condensed tannin-rich mimosa and quebracho extracts was mitigated in nutrient-limited medium supplemented with casamino acids. When tested in broth culture, both chestnut and mimosa extracts inhibited growth of C. jejuni and this inhibition was much greater in nutrient-limited than in full-strength medium. Consistent with observations from the disc diffusion assay, the inhibitory activity of the condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts but not the hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut extracts was mitigated by casamino acid supplementation to the nutrient-limited medium, likely because the added amino acids saturated the binding potential of the condensed tannins. These results demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of various hydrolysable and condensed tannin-rich extracts against C. jejuni and reveal that condensed tannins may be less efficient than hydrolysable tannins in controlling C. jejuni in gut environments containing high concentrations of amino acids and soluble proteins. PMID:22528299

  11. Freeze-Tolerant Condensers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouhk, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Two condensers designed for use in dissipating heat carried by working fluids feature two-phase, self-adjusting configurations such that their working lengths automatically vary to suit their input power levels and/or heat-sink temperatures. A key advantage of these condensers is that they can function even if the temperatures of their heat sinks fall below the freezing temperatures of their working fluids and the fluids freeze. The condensers can even be restarted from the frozen condition. The top part of the figure depicts the layout of the first condenser. A two-phase (liquid and vapor) condenser/vapor tube is thermally connected to a heat sink typically, a radiatively or convectively cooled metal panel. A single-phase (liquid) condensate-return tube (return artery) is also thermally connected to the heat sink. At intervals along their lengths, the condenser/vapor tube and the return artery are interconnected through porous plugs. This condenser configuration affords tolerance of freezing, variable effective thermal conductance (such that the return temperature remains nearly constant, independently of the ultimate sink temperature), and overall pressure drop smaller than it would be without the porous interconnections. An additional benefit of this configuration is that the condenser can be made to recover from the completely frozen condition either without using heaters, or else with the help of heaters much smaller than would otherwise be needed. The second condenser affords the same advantages and is based on a similar principle, but it has a different configuration that affords improved flow of working fluid, simplified construction, reduced weight, and faster recovery from a frozen condition.

  12. Quantum Hall effect with small numbers of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, Tim; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2015-08-01

    When vortices are displaced in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), the Magnus force gives the system a momentum transverse in the direction to the displacement. We show that BECs in long channels with vortices exhibit a quantization of the current response with respect to the spatial vortex distribution. The quantization originates from the well-known topological property of the phase around a vortex; it is an integer multiple of 2 π . In a way similar to that of the integer quantum Hall effect, the current along the channel is related to this topological phase and can be extracted from two experimentally measurable quantities: the total momentum of the BEC and the spatial distribution. The quantization is in units of m /2 h , where m is the mass of the atoms and h is Planck's constant. We derive an exact vortex momentum-displacement relation for BECs in long channels under general circumstances. Our results present the possibility that the configuration described here can be used as a novel way of measuring the mass of the atoms in the BEC using a topological invariant of the system. If an accurate determination of the plateaus are experimentally possible, this gives the possibility of a topological quantum mass standard and precise determination of the fine structure constant.

  13. Electrical Monitoring Cytotoxic Effect of Cigarette Smoke Condensate on Transendothelial Invasion of Ovarian Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opp, Daniel; Lo, Chun-Min

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on barrier function and cellular migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and on the invasive activities of ovarian carcinoma cells through HUVEC monolayers as well. Central to this work was the use of electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS), a cell-based biosensor that monitors motility and other morphology changes of cells adherent on small gold electrodes. Upon addition of different concentrations of CSC, the junctional resistance and the wound healing rate of the HUVEC layers decrease as CSC concentration increases from 0.01 to 0.25 mg/ml, whereas the average cell-substrate separation increases with CSC concentration. Following the addition of OVCA429 ovarian cancer cells to HUVEC layers with the presence of different CSC concentrations, dose-dependent changes of the transcellular resistance drop were observed. Our results suggest that CSC is detrimental to normal endothelial cell function in maintaining vascular integrity. In addition, the chemicals present in CSC may increase transendothelial invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

  14. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Prediction Error from Application of Kohler Theory: Importance for the Aerosol Indirect Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P.; Nenes, Athanasios; Adams, Peter J.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-01-01

    In situ observations of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and the GISS GCM Model II' with an online aerosol simulation and explicit aerosol-cloud interactions are used to quantify the uncertainty in radiative forcing and autoconversion rate from application of Kohler theory. Simulations suggest that application of Koehler theory introduces a 10-20% uncertainty in global average indirect forcing and 2-11% uncertainty in autoconversion. Regionally, the uncertainty in indirect forcing ranges between 10-20%, and 5-50% for autoconversion. These results are insensitive to the range of updraft velocity and water vapor uptake coefficient considered. This study suggests that Koehler theory (as implemented in climate models) is not a significant source of uncertainty for aerosol indirect forcing but can be substantial for assessments of aerosol effects on the hydrological cycle in climatically sensitive regions of the globe. This implies that improvements in the representation of GCM subgrid processes and aerosol size distribution will mostly benefit indirect forcing assessments. Predictions of autoconversion, by nature, will be subject to considerable uncertainty; its reduction may require explicit representation of size-resolved aerosol composition and mixing state.

  15. The effect of 3d paramagnetic impurities on superconductivity in quench-condensed amorphous Pb films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Read, Dan E.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Gardner, H. Jeffrey; Xiong, Peng

    2006-03-01

    A modified dilution refrigerator equipped with Sb, Pb and NiCr sources is used to carry out an in situ study of the effect of magnetic impurities (MI) on the same quench-condensed Pb films. Si substrate with pre-deposited Au contacts is mounted in dilution unit and cool down to 5K. To ensure the electrical and possibly structural homogeneity down to monolayer thickness, we deposit a thin layer of Sb prior to the Pb evaporation. At a thickness above 8 ? the film exhibits superconductivity with well-defined resistive transition and Tc controlled by the film thickness. When a film of desired Tc is obtained we incrementally evaporate MI onto the film by heating a NiCr wire at constant current and perform in situ measurements. We observe that Tc is continuously suppressed with increasing MI density while the resistive transitions remain sharp, although the MI induces significant filling of states inside the gap. The Tc as a function of MI density is well described by the Abrikosov-Gorkov theory regardless of the starting Tc and the pair-breaking strength of the MI appears to be independent of the degree of disorder.

  16. Effect of condensed tannin ingestion in sheep and goat parotid saliva proteome.

    PubMed

    Lamy, E; da Costa, G; Santos, R; Capela e Silva, F; Potes, J; Pereira, A; Coelho, A V; Baptista, E Sales

    2011-06-01

    Saliva appears as a defence mechanism, against potential negative effects of tannins, in some species of animals which have to deal with these plant secondary metabolites in their regular diets. This study was carried out to investigate changes in parotid saliva protein profiles of sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus), induced by condensed tannin ingestion. Five Merino sheep and five Serpentina goats were maintained on a quebracho tannin enriched diet for 10 days. Saliva was collected through catheters inserted on parotid ducts and salivary proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Matrix-assisted Laser desorption ionization - time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to identify the proteins whose expression levels changed after tannin consumption. Although no new proteins appeared, quebracho tannin consumption increased saliva total protein concentration and produced changes in the proteome of both species. While some proteins were similarly altered in both species parotid salivary protein profile, sheep and goats also presented species-specific differences in response to tannin consumption. PMID:20880287

  17. Gluon saturation in a saturated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-07-15

    A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the saturation scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q{sub sA}{sup 2}, in AA compared with pA collisions.

  18. Gluon saturation in a saturated environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-07-01

    A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the saturation scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of QsA2, in AA compared with pA collisions.

  19. Effects of transverse trapping on the ground state of a cigar-shaped two-component Bose—Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Guo-Dong; Sun, Jian-Fang; Jiang, Bo-Nan; Qian, Jun; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2013-09-01

    We derive the coupled nonpolynomial nonlinear Schrödinger equations for a two-component Bose—Einstein condensate in a quasi-one-dimension geometry and investigate the effects of a tightly transverse trapping on the ground state and the miscibility—immiscibility threshold. We find that the density profile of the matter wavepacket is remarkably dependent on the transverse width and the effective one-dimension nonlinear coupling strengths in miscible and immiscible regimes.

  20. The gluon Sivers distribution: Status and future prospects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Boer, Daniël; Lorcé, Cédric; Pisano, Cristian; Zhou, Jian

    2015-06-28

    In this study, we review what is currently known about the gluon Sivers distribution and what are the opportunities to learn more about it. Because single transverse spin asymmetries in p↑p → πX provide only indirect information about the gluon Sivers function through the relation with the quark-gluon and tri-gluon Qiu-Sterman functions, current data from hadronic collisions at RHIC have not yet been translated into a solid constraint on the gluon Sivers function.

  1. Pore diameter effects on phase behavior of a gas condensate in graphitic one-and two-dimensional nanopores.

    PubMed

    Welch, William R W; Piri, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on a hydrocarbon mixture representing a typical gas condensate composed mostly of methane and other small molecules with small fractions of heavier hydrocarbons, representative of mixtures found in tight shale reservoirs. The fluid was examined both in bulk and confined to graphitic nano-scale slits and pores. Numerous widths and diameters of slits and pores respectively were examined under variable pressures at 300 K in order to find conditions in which the fluid at the center of the apertures would not be affected by capillary condensation due to the oil-wet walls. For the bulk fluid, retrograde phase behavior was verified by liquid volumes obtained from Voronoi tessellations. In cases of both one and two-dimensional confinement, for the smallest apertures, heavy molecules aggregated inside the pore space and compression of the gas outside the solid structure lead to decreases in density of the confined fluid. Normal density/pressure relationships were observed for slits having gaps of above 3 nm and pores having diameters above 6 nm. At 70 bar, the minimum gap width at which the fluid could pass through the center of slits without condensation effects was predicted to be 6 nm and the corresponding diameter in pores was predicted to be 8 nm. The models suggest that in nanoscale networks involving pores smaller than these limiting dimensions, capillary condensation should significantly impede transmission of natural gases with similar composition. PMID:26733485

  2. J/{Psi} suppression as an evidence for quark gluon matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kharzeev, D.

    1998-08-10

    The J/{psi} suppression was originally proposed as a signature of the quark-gluon plasma. Strong suppression of J/{psi} production was indeed observed recently by the NA50 Collaboration at CERN SPS. Is it the first signature of a long-awaited quark-gluon matter, or just a peculiar combination of ''conventional'' effects acting together to produce the puzzling pattern observed experimentally? In this lecture, I am trying to summarize the existing theoretical explanations.

  3. Role of monopoles in a gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ratti, Claudia; Shuryak, Edward

    2009-08-01

    We study the role of magnetic monopoles at high enough temperature T>2T{sub c}, when they can be considered heavy, rare objects embedded into matter consisting mostly of the usual 'electric' quasiparticles, quarks, and gluons. We review available lattice results on monopoles at finite temperatures. Then we proceed to classical and quantum charge-monopole scattering, solving the problem of gluon-monopole scattering for the first time. The explicit calculations are performed in the framework of the Georgi-Glashow model; the results that we obtain are nevertheless quite general. Connections to QCD are carefully discussed. We find that, while the gluon-monopole scattering hardly influences thermodynamic quantities, it does produce a large transport cross section, significantly exceeding that for pQCD gluon-gluon scattering up to quite high T. Thus, in spite of their relatively small density at high T, monopoles are extremely important for quark-gluon plasma transport properties, keeping viscosity small enough for hydrodynamics to work at the LHC.

  4. From quarks and gluons to baryon form factors

    PubMed Central

    Eichmann, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    I briefly summarize recent results for nucleon and Δ(1232) electromagnetic, axial and transition form factors in the Dyson–Schwinger approach. The calculation of the current diagrams from the quark–gluon level enables a transparent discussion of common features such as: the implications of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark orbital angular momentum, the timelike structure of the form factors, and their interpretation in terms of missing pion-cloud effects. PMID:26766879

  5. Analytic structure of Landau gauge ghost and gluon propagators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Stefan; Fischer, Christian S.; Kellermann, Christian

    2012-04-01

    We summarize first explicit results for the analytic structure of the ghost and gluon propagators in the complex momentum plane. To this end we work in Landau gauge and use a truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for the propagators which is close to lattice results at real spacelike Euclidean momenta. Our results indicate the absence of singularities in the complex part of the momentum plane contrary to expectations from Gribov-Zwanziger-like effective theories.

  6. Angular correlations in gluon production at high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2011-02-01

    We present a general, model independent argument demonstrating that gluons produced in high energy hadronic collision are necessarily correlated in rapidity and also in the emission angle. The strength of the correlation depends on the process and on the structure/model of the colliding particles. In particular we argue that it is strongly affected (and underestimated) by factorized approximations frequently used to quantify the effect.

  7. Effects of large mammalian herbivores and ant symbionts on condensed tannins of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ward, David; Young, Truman P

    2002-05-01

    Condensed tannins have been considered to be important inducible defenses against mammalian herbivory. We tested for differences in condensed tannin defenses in Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya over two years among different large mammalian herbivore treatments [total exclusion, antelope only, and megaherbivore (elephants and giraffes) + antelope] and with four different ant symbiont species on the trees. We predicted that (1) condensed tannin concentrations would be lowest in the mammal treatment with the lowest level of herbivory (total exclusion), (2) trees occupied by mutualist ants that protect the trees most aggressively would have lower levels of tannins, and (3) if chemical defense production is costly, there would be a trade-off between tannin concentrations, growth, and mechanical defenses. Mean tannin concentrations increased from total exclusion treatments to wildlife-only treatments to megaherbivore + antelope treatments. In 1997, condensed tannin concentrations were significantly lower in trees occupied by the ant Crematogaster nigriceps, the only ant species that actively removed axillary buds. Contrary to our prediction, trees occupied by ant species that protect the trees more aggressively against mammalian herbivores did not have lower overall levels of condensed tannins. There was no consistent evidence of a trade-off between tannin concentrations and growth rate, but there was a positive correlation between mean thorn length and mean tannin concentrations across species of ant inhabitants and across herbivore treatments in 1997. Contrary to our expectation, trees had higher tannin concentrations in the upper parts of the canopy where there is little herbivory by mammals. PMID:12049231

  8. On inclusive gluon jet production off the nucleus in perturbative QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, M. A.

    2005-07-01

    In the perturbative QCD approach single and double inclusive cross-sections for gluon production off the nucleus are studied by the relevant reggeized gluon diagrams. Various terms corresponding to emission of gluons from the triple pomeron vertex are found. Among them the term derived by Kovchegov and Tuchin emerges as a result of the transition from the diffractive to effective high-energy vertex. However it does not exhaust all the vertex contributions to the inclusive cross-section. In the double inclusive cross-section a contribution violating the naive AGK rules is found in which one gluon is emitted from the vertex and the other from one of the two pomerons below the vertex. But then this contribution is subdominant at high energies and taking it into account seems to be questionable.

  9. D-meson enhancement in pp collisions at the LHC due to nonlinear gluon evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Dainese, A.; Vogt, R.; Bondila, M.; Eskola, K.J.; Kolhinen, V.J.

    2004-08-22

    When nonlinear effects on the gluon evolution are included with constraints from HERA, the gluon distribution in the free proton is enhanced at low momentum fractions, x {approx}< 0.01, and low scales, Q{sup 2} {approx}< 10 GeV{sup 2}, relative to standard, DGLAP-evolved, gluon distributions. Consequently, such gluon distributions can enhance charm production in pp collisions at center of mass energy 14 TeV by up to a factor of five at midrapidity, y {approx} 0, and transverse momentum p{sub T} {yields} 0 in the most optimistic case. We show that most of this enhancement survives hadronization into D mesons. Assuming the same enhancement at leading and next-to-leading order, we show that the D enhancement may be measured by D{sup 0} reconstruction in the K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decay channel with the ALICE detector.

  10. Effect of weak interaction on kaon condensation and cooling of neutron stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, H.; Muto, T.; Tatsumi, T.; Tamagaki, R.

    1994-05-01

    Kaon condensation and its implication in the cooling mechanism in neutron stars are investigated within a framework of current algebra and PCAC. The weak interaction, nýp+K-, is shown to play a significant role in determining not only the critical density but also the equation of state of the K- condensed phase. The chemical equilibrium for the weak interaction leads to large proton-admixture. In connection with this result, the possibility of the direct URCA process, n→p+e-+ν¯e, p+e-→n+νe, is investigted. It is shown that, within a simple treatment without the nuclear interactions such as the symmetry energy, the kinematical condition for the direct URCA process is not satified despite the large proton-mixing, due to the resulting small electron Fermi momentum. The physical content of the K- condensation from a viewpoint of strangeness degrees of freedom is also discussed.