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Sample records for glutamine binding protein

  1. Dual-emitting biosensors for glucose and glutamine from genertically engineered E. coli binding proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosa, Leah; Ge, Xudong; Kostov, Yordan; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Rao, Govind

    2003-07-01

    Glucose is the major source of carbon, and glutamine is the major source of nitrogen in cell culture media. Thus, glucose and glutamine monitoring are important in maintaining optimal conditions in industrial bioprocesses. Here we report reagentless glucose and glutamine sensors using the E. coli glucose binding protein (GBP) and the glutamine binding protein (GlnBP). Both of these proteins are derived from the permease system of the gram-negative bacteria. The Q26C variant of GBP was labeled at the 26-position with anilino-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS), while the S179C variant of GlnBP was labeled at the 179-position with acrylodan. The ANS and acrylodan emissions are quenched in the presence of glucose and glutamine, respectively. The acrylodan-labeled GlnBP was labeled at the N-terminal with ruthenium bis-(2,2"-bipyridyl)-1,10-phenanthroline-9-isothiocyanate. The ruthenium acts as a non-responsive long-lived reference. The apparent binding constant, Kd", of 8.0 μM glucose was obtained from the decrease in intensity of ANS in GBP. The reliability of the method in monitoring glucose during yeast fermentation was determined by comparison with the YSI Biochemistry Analyzer. The apparent binding constant, Kd", of 0.72 μM glutamine was calculated from the ratio of emission intensities of acrylodan and ruthenium (I515/I610) in GlnBP. The presence of the long-lived ruthenium allowed for modulation sensing at lower frequencies (1-10 MHz) approaching an accuracy of +/- 0.02 μM. The conversion of the GBP into a similar ratiometric sensor was described.

  2. Structural Studies of Glutamine-Binding Protein of Escherichia Coli Using Multinuclear and Multidimensional Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra Leksana, Nico

    1993-01-01

    Multinuclear and multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy along with molecular biology techniques were utilized in studying the structure of glutamine -binding protein (GlnBP). Uniform and specific labeling of the GlnBP with ^{15}N and ^{13}C provided filtering of the otherwise overlapping ^ 1H resonances and markers along the GlnBP primary sequence. These facts are important in creating a possibility of sequentially assigning the ^ 1H backbone resonances, which is the first step in elucidating a protein structure. In parallel with this effort, specific distance measurement were done using ^ 1H-^ 1H nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) measurement and solid-state rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) spectroscopy. These distances can be used as constraints in building all possible structures of GlnBP. The consequences of the structural features observed are noted and discussed in this thesis.

  3. Dissecting the Binding between Glutamine Synthetase and Its Two Natively Unfolded Protein Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Uceda, David; Neira, José L; Saelices, Lorena; Robles-Rengel, Rocío; Florencio, Francisco J; Muro-Pastor, M Isabel; Santoro, Jorge

    2016-06-21

    Ammonium is incorporated into carbon skeletons by the sequential action of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in cyanobacteria. The activity of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 GS type I is controlled by protein-protein interactions with two intrinsically disordered inactivating factors (IFs): the 65-residue (IF7) and the 149-residue one (IF17). In this work, we studied both IF7 and IF17 by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and we described their binding to GS by using NMR and biolayer interferometry. We assigned the backbone nuclei of all residues of IF7. Analyses of chemical shifts and the (15)N-{(1)H} NOEs at two field strengths suggest that IF7 region Thr3-Arg13 and a few residues around Ser27 and Phe41 populated helical conformations (although the percentage is smaller around Phe41). The two-dimensional (1)H-(15)N HSQC and CON experiments suggest that IF17 populated several conformations. We followed the binding between GS and IF7 by NMR at physiological pH, and the residues interacting first with IF7 were Gln6 and Ser27, belonging to those regions that appeared to be ordered in the isolated protein. We also determined the kon values and koff values for the binding of both IF7 and IF17 to GS, where the GS protein was bound to a biosensor. The measurements of the kinetic constants for the binding of IF7 to GS suggest that: (i) binding does not follow a kinetic two-state model ([Formula: see text]), (ii) there is a strong electrostatic component in the determined kon, and (iii) the binding is not diffusion-limited. PMID:27232663

  4. Crystal structure of glutamine receptor protein from Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 in complex with its effector l-glutamine: implications of effector binding in molecular association and DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Kumarevel, Thirumananseri; Nakano, Noboru; Ponnuraj, Karthe; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Sakamoto, Keiko; Shinkai, Akeo; Kumar, Penmetcha K. R.

    2008-01-01

    Genome analyses have revealed that members of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators are widely distributed among prokaryotes, including both bacteria and archaea. These regulatory proteins are involved in cellular metabolism in both global and specific manners, depending on the availability of the exogenous amino acid effectors. Here we report the first crystal structure of glutamine receptor protein (Grp) from Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7, in the ligand-free and glutamine-bound (Grp-Gln) forms. Although the overall structures of both molecules are similar, a significant conformational change was observed at the ligand [l-glutamine (Gln)] binding site in the effector domain, which may be essential for further stabilization of the octameric structure, and in turn for facilitating DNA binding. In addition, we predicted promoter for the grp gene, and these analyses suggested the importance of cooperative binding to the protein. To gain insights into the ligand-induced conformational changes, we mutated all of the ligand-binding residues in Grp, and revealed the importance of Gln binding by biochemical and structural analyses. Further structural analyses showed that Y77 is crucial for ligand binding, and that the residues T132 and T134, which are highly conserved among the Lrp family of proteins, fluctuates between the active and inactive conformations, thus affecting protein oligomerization for DNA binding. PMID:18653535

  5. Small glutamine-rich protein/viral protein U–binding protein is a novel cochaperone that affects heat shock protein 70 activity

    PubMed Central

    Angeletti, Peter C.; Walker, Doriann; Panganiban, Antonito T.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular chaperone complexes containing heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90 are regulated by cochaperones, including a subclass of regulators, such as Hsp70 interacting protein (Hip), C-terminus of Hsp70 interacting protein (CHIP), and Hsp70-Hsp90 organizing factor (Hop), that contain tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), where Hsp70 refers to Hsp70 and its nearly identical constitutive counterpart, Hsc70, together. These proteins interact with the Hsp70 to regulate adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and folding activities or to generate the chaperone complex. Here we provide evidence that small glutamine-rich protein/viral protein U–binding protein (SGT/UBP) is a cochaperone that negatively regulates Hsp70. By “Far-Western” and pull-down assays, SGT/UBP was shown to interact directly with Hsp70 and weakly with Hsp90. The interaction of SGT/UBP with both these protein chaperones was mapped to 3 TPRs in SGT/UBP (amino acids 95–195) that are flanked by charged residues. Moreover, SGT/UBP caused an approximately 30% reduction in both the intrinsic ATPase activity of Hsc70 and the ability of Hsc70 to refold denatured luciferase in vitro. This negative effect of SGT/UBP on Hsc70 is similar in magnitude to that observed for the cochaperone CHIP. A role for SGT/UBP in protein folding is also supported by evidence that a yeast strain containing a deletion in the yeast homolog to SGT/UBP (ΔSGT/UBP) displays a 50-fold reduction in recovery from heat shock compared with the wild type parent. Together, these results are consistent with a regulatory role for SGT/UBP in the chaperone complex. PMID:12482202

  6. Species-specific interaction of the glutamine-rich activation domains of Sp1 with the TATA box-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Emili, A; Greenblatt, J; Ingles, C J

    1994-01-01

    We have used protein-blotting and protein affinity chromatography to demonstrate that each of the two glutamine-rich activation domains of the human transcription factor Sp1 can bind specifically and directly to the C-terminal evolutionarily conserved domain of the human TATA box-binding protein (TBP). These activation domains of Sp1 also bind directly to Drosophila TBP but bind much less strongly to TBP from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The abilities of the Sp1 activation domains to interact directly with the TBPs of various species correlate well with their abilities to activate transcription in extracts derived from the same species. We also show that a glutamine-rich transcriptional activating region of the Drosophila protein Antennapedia binds directly to TBP in a species-specific manner that reflects its ability to activate transcription in vivo. These results support the notion that TBP is a direct and important target of glutamine-rich transcriptional activators. Images PMID:8114696

  7. Resolution of fluorescence intensity decays of the two tryptophan residues in glutamine-binding protein from Escherichia coli using single tryptophan mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Axelsen, P H; Bajzer, Z; Prendergast, F G; Cottam, P F; Ho, C

    1991-01-01

    Time correlated single photon counting measurements of tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence intensity decay and other spectroscopic studies were performed on glutamine-binding protein (GlnBP) from Escherichia coli. Using site-specifically mutated forms of the protein in which tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) substitute for the Trp residues at positions 32 and 220, we have examined whether wild-type (Wtyp) intensity decay components may be assigned to specific Trp residues. Results indicate that: (a) two exponential intensity decay components are recovered from the Wtyp protein (6.16 ns, 0.46 ns); (b) the long decay component arises from Trp-220 and comprises greater than 90% of the total fluorescence emission; (c) the short component arises from Trp-32 and is highly quenched; (d) all four single-Trp mutants exhibit multiexponential intensity decays, yet equimolar mixtures of two single-Trp mutants yield only two decay components which are virtually indistinguishable from the Wtyp protein; (e) the recovery of additional components in protein mixtures is obscured by statistical noise inherent in the technique of photon counting; (f) various spectroscopic measurements suggest that Trp-Trp interactions occur in the Wtyp protein, but the Wtyp intensity decay may be closely approximated by a linear combination of intensity decays from single-Trp mutants; and (g) inferences derived independently from fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy which pertain to the presence of Trp-Trp interactions and the relative solvent exposure of the two Trp residues are in agreement. PMID:1932553

  8. Replacement of histidine by glutamine at select residues in the chlorophyll-binding protein CP47 in photosystem II. [Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton-Rye, J.J.; Vermaas, W.F.J. )

    1991-05-01

    A mutant strain of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been developed in which psbB, the gene coding for the chlorophyll a-binding protein CP47 in photosystem II (PS II), has been deleted. This deletion mutant has been used for the reintroduction of modified psbB into the cyanobacterium. Histidine residues in hydrophobic regions of CP47 are potential ligands to chlorophyll molecules. Three histidine residues in the putative sixth membrane spanning helix of this protein have been replaced by glutamine, resulting in mutants H455Q, H466Q and H469Q (the number refers to the CP47 residue that was altered). Both H455Q and H466Q are able to grow photoautotrophically with a doubling time of 12 hours at a rate similar to wild type. H469Q, however, has a doubling time of 50 hours. The chlorophyll/PS II ratio in H469Q is also increased from 600 (as found in wild type, H455Q and H466Q) to 3,300. The 695 nm 77K fluorescence emission, emanating from PS II, is also greatly reduced in H469Q. They conclude that histidine 469 is required for the stable incorporation of CP47 into the thylakoid membrane and is therefore required for the stable assembly of the PS II reaction center.

  9. Glutamine metabolism in uricotelic species: variation in skeletal muscle glutamine synthetase, glutaminase, glutamine levels and rates of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Watford, Malcolm; Wu, Guoyao

    2005-04-01

    High intracellular glutamine levels have been implicated in promoting net protein synthesis and accretion in mammalian skeletal muscle. Little is known regarding glutamine metabolism in uricotelic species but chicken breast muscle exhibits high rates of protein accretion and would be predicted to maintain high glutamine levels. However, chicken breast muscle expresses high glutaminase activity and here we report that chicken breast muscle also expresses low glutamine synthetase activity (0.07+/-0.01 U/g) when compared to leg muscle (0.50+/-0.04 U/g). Free glutamine levels were 1.38+/-0.09 and 9.69+/-0.12 nmol/mg wet weight in breast and leg muscles of fed chickens, respectively. Glutamine levels were also lower in dove breast muscle (4.82+/-0.35 nmol/mg wet weight) when compared to leg muscle (16.2+/-1.0 nmol/mg wet weight) and much lower (1.80+/-0.46 nmol/mg wet weight) in lizard leg muscle. In fed chickens, rates of fractional protein synthesis were higher in leg than in breast muscle, and starvation (48 h) resulted in a decrease in both glutamine content and rate of protein synthesis in leg muscle. Thus, although tissue-specific glutamine metabolism in uricotelic species differs markedly from that in ureotelic animals, differences in rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis are associated with corresponding differences in intramuscular glutamine content. PMID:15763516

  10. Systematic Underutilization of Glutamine In Thermophile Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Shoudan; Weber, Arthur; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rapid racemization above 100 C of L-amino acids to Domino acids, as well as deamidation, is probably a hazard for high temperature life. For example, the half-life of some asparaginyl peptides can be as short as 10 minutes at 100 C. High temperature organisms could protect themselves by reducing usage of amino acids that are easily racemized/deamidazed, by having a rapid rate of protein turnover which requires energy, or by adapting special cis-peptide conformations. We have searched eight completely sequenced thermophile genomes, and compare them to mesophile genomes, in order to identify underutilized amino acids. To our surprise, asparagine, the most unstable amino acid to deamidation, is used at about the same level in thermophile proteins in comparison to mesophiles whereas it is the second most unstable amino acid, glutamine, that is underutilized in all of eight thermophile species. Glutamines are present at 2% level in a typical thermophile protein, instead of 4% in mesophile. We argue that it is easier to protect asparagines from deamidation by cis-peptide conformations. We discuss statistical as well as structural evidence in support of our conclusions.

  11. Glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wernerman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formulation of enteral nutrition contains some glutamine: 2-4 g/L. However, this dose is insufficient to normalize glutamine plasma concentration.Plasma concentration of glutamine is low in many patients with critical illness and a low level is an independent risk factor for mortality. A low plasma glutamine concentration is the best indicator of glutamine depletion. Data are emerging about how the endogenous production of glutamine is regulated. We know that skeletal muscle is the major producer of glutamine and that a part of the profound depletion of skeletal muscle seen in critical illness is a reflection of the need to produce glutamine.Glutamine is utilized in rapidly dividing cells in the splanchnic area. Quantitatively most glutamine is oxidized, but the availability of glutamine in surplus is important for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides and necessary for cell division and protein synthesis. More knowledge about the regulation of the endogenous production of glutamine is needed to outline better guidelines for glutamine supplementation in the future. PMID:21906372

  12. Ancestral Protein Reconstruction Yields Insights into Adaptive Evolution of Binding Specificity in Solute-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Ben E; Jackson, Colin J

    2016-02-18

    The promiscuous functions of proteins are an important reservoir of functional novelty in protein evolution, but the molecular basis for binding promiscuity remains elusive. We used ancestral protein reconstruction to experimentally characterize evolutionary intermediates in the functional expansion of the polar amino acid-binding protein family, which has evolved to bind a variety of amino acids with high affinity and specificity. High-resolution crystal structures of an ancestral arginine-binding protein in complex with l-arginine and l-glutamine show that the promiscuous binding of l-glutamine is enabled by multi-scale conformational plasticity, water-mediated interactions, and selection of an alternative conformational substate productive for l-glutamine binding. Evolution of specialized glutamine-binding proteins from this ancestral protein was achieved by displacement of water molecules from the protein-ligand interface, reducing the entropic penalty associated with the promiscuous interaction. These results provide a structural and thermodynamic basis for the co-option of a promiscuous interaction in the evolution of binding specificity. PMID:26853627

  13. Targeting glutamine metabolism in multiple myeloma enhances BIM binding to BCL-2 eliciting synthetic lethality to venetoclax.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, R; Matulis, S M; Wei, C; Nooka, A K; Von Hollen, H E; Lonial, S; Boise, L H; Shanmugam, M

    2016-07-28

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy that is largely incurable due to development of resistance to therapy-elicited cell death. Nutrients are intricately connected to maintenance of cellular viability in part by inhibition of apoptosis. We were interested to determine if examination of metabolic regulation of BCL-2 proteins may provide insight on alternative routes to engage apoptosis. MM cells are reliant on glucose and glutamine and withdrawal of either nutrient is associated with varying levels of apoptosis. We and others have demonstrated that glucose maintains levels of key resistance-promoting BCL-2 family member, myeloid cell leukemic factor 1 (MCL-1). Cells continuing to survive in the absence of glucose or glutamine were found to maintain expression of MCL-1 but importantly induce pro-apoptotic BIM expression. One potential mechanism for continued survival despite induction of BIM could be due to binding and sequestration of BIM to alternate pro-survival BCL-2 members. Our investigation revealed that cells surviving glutamine withdrawal in particular, enhance expression and binding of BIM to BCL-2, consequently sensitizing these cells to the BH3 mimetic venetoclax. Glutamine deprivation-driven sensitization to venetoclax can be reversed by metabolic supplementation with TCA cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate. Inhibition of glucose metabolism with the GLUT4 inhibitor ritonavir elicits variable cytotoxicity in MM that is marginally enhanced with venetoclax treatment, however, targeting glutamine metabolism with 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine uniformly sensitized MM cell lines and relapse/refractory patient samples to venetoclax. Our studies reveal a potent therapeutic strategy of metabolically driven synthetic lethality involving targeting glutamine metabolism for sensitization to venetoclax in MM. PMID:26640142

  14. Substrate Specificity of the HEMK2 Protein Glutamine Methyltransferase and Identification of Novel Substrates.

    PubMed

    Kusevic, Denis; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Jeltsch, Albert

    2016-03-18

    Bacterial HEMK2 homologs initially had been proposed to be involved in heme biogenesis or to function as adenine DNA methyltransferase. Later it was shown that this family of enzymes has protein glutamine methyltransferase activity, and they methylate the glutamine residue in the GGQ motif of ribosomal translation termination factors. The murine HEMK2 enzyme methylates Gln(185) of the eukaryotic translation termination factor eRF1. We have employed peptide array libraries to investigate the peptide sequence recognition specificity of murine HEMK2. Our data show that HEMK2 requires a GQX3R motif for methylation activity. In addition, amino acid preferences were observed between the -3 and +7 positions of the peptide substrate (considering the target glutamine as 0), including a preference for Ser, Arg, and Gly at the +1 and a preference for Arg at the +7 position. Based on our specificity profile, we identified several human proteins that contain putative HEMK2 methylation sites and show that HEMK2 methylates 58 novel peptide substrates. After cloning, expression, and purification of the corresponding protein domains, we confirmed methylation for 11 of them at the protein level. Transfected CHD5 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 5) and NUT (nuclear protein in testis) were also demonstrated to be methylated by HEMK2 in human HEK293 cells. Our data expand the range of proteins potentially subjected to glutamine methylation significantly, but further investigation will be required to understand the function of HEMK2-mediated methylation in proteins other than eRF1. PMID:26797129

  15. Structural and Functional Insights into Small, Glutamine-Rich, Tetratricopeptide Repeat Protein Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Joanna D.; Thapaliya, Arjun; Martínez-Lumbreras, Santiago; Krysztofinska, Ewelina M.; Isaacson, Rivka L.

    2015-01-01

    The small glutamine-rich, tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA) is an emerging player in the quality control of secretory and membrane proteins mislocalized to the cytosol, with established roles in tail-anchored (TA) membrane protein biogenesis. SGTA consists of three structural domains with individual functions, an N-terminal dimerization domain that assists protein sorting pathways, a central tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that mediates interactions with heat-shock proteins, proteasomal, and hormonal receptors, and viral proteins, and a C-terminal glutamine rich region that binds hydrophobic substrates. SGTA has been linked to viral lifecycles and hormone receptor signaling, with implications in the pathogenesis of various disease states. Thus far, a range of biophysical techniques have been employed to characterize SGTA structure in some detail, and to investigate its interactions with binding partners in different biological contexts. A complete description of SGTA structure, together with further investigation into its function as a co-chaperone involved quality control, could provide us with useful insights into its role in maintaining cellular proteostasis, and broaden our understanding of mechanisms underlying associated pathologies. This review describes how some structural features of SGTA have been elucidated, and what this has uncovered about its cellular functions. A brief background on the structure and function of SGTA is given, highlighting its importance to biomedicine and related fields. The current level of knowledge and what remains to be understood about the structure and function of SGTA is summarized, discussing the potential direction of future research. PMID:26734616

  16. Heat induction of heat shock protein 25 requires cellular glutamine in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Phanvijhitsiri, Kittiporn; Musch, Mark W; Ropeleski, Mark J; Chang, Eugene B

    2006-08-01

    Glutamine is considered a nonessential amino acid; however, it becomes conditionally essential during critical illness when consumption exceeds production. Glutamine may modulate the heat shock/stress response, an important adaptive cellular response for survival. Glutamine increases heat induction of heat shock protein (Hsp) 25 in both intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18) and mesenchymal NIH/3T3 cells, an effect that is neither glucose nor serum dependent. Neither arginine, histidine, proline, leucine, asparagine, nor tyrosine acts as physiological substitutes for glutamine for heat induction of Hsp25. The lack of effect of these amino acids was not caused by deficient transport, although some amino acids, including glutamate (a major direct metabolite of glutamine), were transported poorly by IEC-18 cells. Glutamate uptake could be augmented in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by increasing either media concentration and/or duration of exposure. Under these conditions, glutamate promoted heat induction of Hsp25, albeit not as efficiently as glutamine. Further evidence for the role of glutamine conversion to glutamate was obtained with the glutaminase inhibitor 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), which inhibited the effect of glutamine on heat-induced Hsp25. DON inhibited phosphate-dependent glutaminase by 75% after 3 h, decreasing cell glutamate. Increased glutamine/glutamate conversion to glutathione was not involved, since the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine, did not block glutamine's effect on heat induction of Hsp25. A large drop in ATP levels did not appear to account for the diminished Hsp25 induction during glutamine deficiency. In summary, glutamine is an important amino acid, and its requirement for heat-induced Hsp25 supports a role for glutamine supplementation to optimize cellular responses to pathophysiological stress. PMID:16554407

  17. Controlling the prion propensity of glutamine/asparagine-rich proteins

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Kacy R; Ross, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can harbor a number of distinct prions. Most of the yeast prion proteins contain a glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) rich region that drives prion formation. Prion-like domains, defined as regions with high compositional similarity to yeast prion domains, are common in eukaryotic proteomes, and mutations in various human proteins containing prion-like domains have been linked to degenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we discuss a recent study in which we utilized two strategies to generate prion activity in non-prion Q/N-rich domains. First, we made targeted mutations in four non-prion Q/N-rich domains, replacing predicted prion-inhibiting amino acids with prion-promoting amino acids. All four mutants formed foci when expressed in yeast, and two acquired bona fide prion activity. Prion activity could be generated with as few as two mutations, suggesting that many non-prion Q/N-rich proteins may be just a small number of mutations from acquiring aggregation or prion activity. Second, we created tandem repeats of short prion-prone segments, and observed length-dependent prion activity. These studies demonstrate the considerable progress that has been made in understanding the sequence basis for aggregation of prion and prion-like domains, and suggest possible mechanisms by which new prion domains could evolve. PMID:26555096

  18. Regulation of protein metabolism by glutamine: implications for nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Xi, Pengbin; Jiang, Zongyong; Zheng, Chuntian; Lin, Yingcai; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-01-01

    Glutamine is the most abundant free alpha-amino acid in plasma and skeletal muscle. This nutrient plays an important role in regulating gene expression, protein turnover, anti-oxidative function, nutrient metabolism, immunity, and acid-base balance. Interestingly, intracellular and extracellular concentrations of glutamine exhibit marked reductions in response to infection, sepsis, severe burn, cancer, and other pathological factors. This raised an important question of whether glutamine may be a key mediator of muscle loss and negative nitrogen balance in critically ill and injured patients. Therefore, since the initial reports in late 1980s that glutamine could stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit proteolysis in rat skeletal muscle, there has been growing interest in the use of this functional amino acid to improve protein balance under various physiological and disease conditions. Although inconsistent results have appeared in the literature regarding a therapeutic role of glutamine in clinical medicine, a majority of studies indicate that supplementing appropriate doses of glutamine to enteral diets or parenteral solutions is beneficial for improving nitrogen balance in animals or humans with glutamine deficiency. PMID:21196190

  19. Isolation of a Thiamine-binding Protein from Rice Germ and Distribution of Similar Proteins.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, M; Yoshida, T; Toda, T; Iwashima, A; Mitsunaga, T

    1996-01-01

    A thiamine-binding protein was purified from rice germ (Oryza sativa L.) by extraction, salting-out with ammonium sulfate, and column chromatography. From the results of molecular mass, Kd and Bmax values for thiamine-binding, binding specificity for thiamine phosphates and analog, the protein was suggested to be identical to the thiamine-binding protein in rice bran. The thiamine-binding protein w as more efficiently purified from rice germ than from rice bran. The protein was rich in glutamic acid (and/or glutamine) and glycine. The protein did not show immunological similarity to thiamine-binding proteins in buckwheat and sesame seeds. However proteins similar to the thiamine-binding protein from rice germ existed in gramineous seeds. They were suggested to have thiamine-binding activity and to be of the same molecular mass as the thiamine-binding protein. PMID:27299548

  20. Protein Binding Pocket Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Stank, Antonia; Kokh, Daria B; Fuller, Jonathan C; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-05-17

    The dynamics of protein binding pockets are crucial for their interaction specificity. Structural flexibility allows proteins to adapt to their individual molecular binding partners and facilitates the binding process. This implies the necessity to consider protein internal motion in determining and predicting binding properties and in designing new binders. Although accounting for protein dynamics presents a challenge for computational approaches, it expands the structural and physicochemical space for compound design and thus offers the prospect of improved binding specificity and selectivity. A cavity on the surface or in the interior of a protein that possesses suitable properties for binding a ligand is usually referred to as a binding pocket. The set of amino acid residues around a binding pocket determines its physicochemical characteristics and, together with its shape and location in a protein, defines its functionality. Residues outside the binding site can also have a long-range effect on the properties of the binding pocket. Cavities with similar functionalities are often conserved across protein families. For example, enzyme active sites are usually concave surfaces that present amino acid residues in a suitable configuration for binding low molecular weight compounds. Macromolecular binding pockets, on the other hand, are located on the protein surface and are often shallower. The mobility of proteins allows the opening, closing, and adaptation of binding pockets to regulate binding processes and specific protein functionalities. For example, channels and tunnels can exist permanently or transiently to transport compounds to and from a binding site. The influence of protein flexibility on binding pockets can vary from small changes to an already existent pocket to the formation of a completely new pocket. Here, we review recent developments in computational methods to detect and define binding pockets and to study pocket dynamics. We introduce five

  1. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  2. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  3. The freshwater Amazonian stingray, Potamotrygon motoro, up-regulates glutamine synthetase activity and protein abundance, and accumulates glutamine when exposed to brackish (15 per thousand) water.

    PubMed

    Ip, Y K; Loong, A M; Ching, B; Tham, G H Y; Wong, W P; Chew, S F

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to examine whether the stenohaline freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro, which lacks a functional ornithine-urea cycle, would up-regulate glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and protein abundance, and accumulate glutamine during a progressive transfer from freshwater to brackish (15 per thousand) water with daily feeding. Our results revealed that, similar to other freshwater teleosts, P. motoro performed hyperosmotic regulation, with very low urea concentrations in plasma and tissues, in freshwater. In 15 per thousand water, it was non-ureotelic and non-ureoosmotic, acting mainly as an osmoconformer with its plasma osmolality, [Na+] and [Cl-] comparable to those of the external medium. There were significant increases in the content of several free amino acids (FAAs), including glutamate, glutamine and glycine, in muscle and liver, but not in plasma, indicating that FAAs could contribute in part to cell volume regulation. Furthermore, exposure of P. motoro to 15 per thousand water led to up-regulation of GS activity and protein abundance in both liver and muscle. Thus, our results indicate for the first time that, despite the inability to synthesize urea and the lack of functional carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (CPS III) which uses glutamine as a substrate, P. motoro retained the capacity to up-regulate the activity and protein expression of GS in response to salinity stress. Potamotrygon motoro was not nitrogen (N) limited when exposed to 15 per thousand water with feeding, and there were no significant changes in the amination and deamination activities of hepatic glutamate dehydrogenase. In contrast, P. motoro became N limited when exposed to 10 per thousand water with fasting and could not survive well in 15 per thousand water without food. PMID:19915125

  4. Function of a Glutamine Synthetase-Like Protein in Bacterial Aniline Oxidation via γ-Glutamylanilide

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Akira; Sakae, Shinji; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Kato, Dai-ichiro; Negoro, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter sp. strain YAA has five genes (atdA1 to atdA5) involved in aniline oxidation as a part of the aniline degradation gene cluster. From sequence analysis, the five genes were expected to encode a glutamine synthetase (GS)-like protein (AtdA1), a glutamine amidotransferase-like protein (AtdA2), and an aromatic compound dioxygenase (AtdA3, AtdA4, and AtdA5) (M. Takeo, T. Fujii, and Y. Maeda, J. Ferment. Bioeng. 85:17-24, 1998). A recombinant Pseudomonas strain harboring these five genes quantitatively converted aniline into catechol, demonstrating that catechol is the major oxidation product from aniline. To elucidate the function of the GS-like protein AtdA1 in aniline oxidation, we purified it from recombinant Escherichia coli harboring atdA1. The purified AtdA1 protein produced gamma-glutamylanilide (γ-GA) quantitatively from aniline and l-glutamate in the presence of ATP and MgCl2. This reaction was identical to glutamine synthesis by GS, except for the use of aniline instead of ammonia as the substrate. Recombinant Pseudomonas strains harboring the dioxygenase genes (atdA3 to atdA5) were unable to degrade aniline but converted γ-GA into catechol, indicating that γ-GA is an intermediate to catechol and a direct substrate for the dioxygenase. Unexpectedly, a recombinant Pseudomonas strain harboring only atdA2 hydrolyzed γ-GA into aniline, reversing the γ-GA formation by AtdA1. Deletion of atdA2 from atdA1 to atdA5 caused γ-GA accumulation from aniline in recombinant Pseudomonas cells and inhibited the growth of a recombinant Acinetobacter strain on aniline, suggesting that AtdA2 prevents γ-GA accumulation that is harmful to the host cell. PMID:23893114

  5. Distribution of glutamine and asparagine residues and their near neighbors in peptides and proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A B; Robinson, L R

    1991-01-01

    In a statistical study of neighboring residues in 1465 peptides and proteins comprising 450,431 residues, it was found that the preferences for residues neighboring to glutamine and asparagine residues are consistent with the hypothesis that the rates of deamidation of these residues are of biological significance. Some dipeptide and tripeptide structures have special usefulness and some are especially undesirable. More such structures exist for amide residues than for other residues, and their specific types are those most relevant to the deamidation of amide residues under biological conditions. PMID:1924347

  6. DNA binding, BSA interaction and SOD activity of two new nickel(II) complexes with glutamine Schiff base ligands.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Dong, Jianfang; Zhao, Peiran; Li, Manman; Cheng, Fengling; Kong, Jinming; Li, Lianzhi

    2016-08-01

    Two hexacoordinated octahedral nickel(II) complexes, [Ni(o-van-gln)(phen)(H2O)](1) and [Ni(sal-gln)(phen)(H2O)](2) [o-van-gln=a Schiff base derived from o-vanillin and glutamine, sal-gln=a Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and glutamine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline], have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction. X-ray studies showed that nickel atoms of both 1 and 2 exhibit distorted NiN3O3 octahedral geometry. In each crystal, intermolecular hydrogen bonds form a two-dimensional network structure. DNA-binding properties of these two nickel(II) complexes were investigated by using UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies and viscosity measurements. Results indicated that the two complexes can bind to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) via an intercalative mode, and complex 1 exhibits higher interaction with CT-DNA than complex 2. Furthermore, the interactions between the nickel(II) complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been studied by spectroscopies. The results indicated that both complexes could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA in a static quenching process. The binding constants (Kb) and the numbers of binding sites (n) obtained are 1.10×10(5)M(-1) and 1.05 for complex 1 and 5.05×10(4)M(-1) and 0.997 for complex 2, respectively. Site-selective competitive binding investigation indicated that the binding sites of both the complexes are located in site I of sub-domains IIA of BSA. Assay of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the nickel(II) complexes revealed that they exhibit significant superoxide scavenging activity with IC50=3.4×10(-5)M for complex 1 and 4.3×10(-5)M for complex 2, respectively. PMID:27295415

  7. Effects of exercise on leukocyte death: prevention by hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide.

    PubMed

    Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Levada-Pires, Adriana C; Folador, Alessandra; Gorjão, Renata; Alba-Loureiro, Tatiana C; Hirabara, Sandro M; Peres, Fabiano P; Silva, Paulo R S; Curi, Rui; Pithon-Curi, Tania C

    2008-06-01

    Lymphocyte and neutrophil death induced by exercise and the role of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide (Gln) supplementation was investigated. Nine triathletes performed two exhaustive exercise trials with a 1-week interval in a randomized, double blind, crossover protocol. Thirty minutes before treadmill exhaustive exercise at variable speeds in an inclination of 1% the subjects ingested 50 g of maltodextrin (placebo) or 50 g of maltodextrin plus 4 tablets of 700 mg of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with 175 mg of glutamine dipeptide dissolved in 250 mL water. Cell viability, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined in lymphocytes and neutrophils. Exhaustive exercise decreased viable lymphocytes but had no effect on neutrophils. A 2.2-fold increase in the proportion of lymphocytes and neutrophils with depolarized mitochondria was observed after exhaustive exercise. Supplementation of maltodextrin plus Gln (MGln) prevented the loss of lymphocyte membrane integrity and the mitochondrial membrane depolarization induced by exercise. Exercise caused an increase in ROS production by neutrophils, whereas supplementation of MGln had no additional effect. MGln supplementation partially prevented lymphocyte apoptosis induced by exhaustive exercise possibly by a protective effect on mitochondrial function. PMID:18320208

  8. A widespread glutamine-sensing mechanism in the plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Chellamuthu, Vasuki-Ranjani; Ermilova, Elena; Lapina, Tatjana; Lüddecke, Jan; Minaeva, Ekaterina; Herrmann, Christina; Hartmann, Marcus D; Forchhammer, Karl

    2014-11-20

    Glutamine is the primary metabolite of nitrogen assimilation from inorganic nitrogen sources in microorganisms and plants. The ability to monitor cellular nitrogen status is pivotal for maintaining metabolic homeostasis and sustaining growth. The present study identifies a glutamine-sensing mechanism common in the entire plant kingdom except Brassicaceae. The plastid-localized PII signaling protein controls, in a glutamine-dependent manner, the key enzyme of the ornithine synthesis pathway, N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase (NAGK), that leads to arginine and polyamine formation. Crystal structures reveal that the plant-specific C-terminal extension of PII, which we term the Q loop, forms a low-affinity glutamine-binding site. Glutamine binding alters PII conformation, promoting interaction and activation of NAGK. The binding motif is highly conserved in plants except Brassicaceae. A functional Q loop restores glutamine sensing in a recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana PII protein, demonstrating the modular concept of the glutamine-sensing mechanism adopted by PII proteins during the evolution of plant chloroplasts. PMID:25416954

  9. Cold Spots in Protein Binding.

    PubMed

    Shirian, Jason; Sharabi, Oz; Shifman, Julia M

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the energetics and architecture of protein-binding interfaces is important for basic research and could potentially facilitate the design of novel binding domains for biotechnological applications. It is well accepted that a few key residues at binding interfaces (binding hot spots) are responsible for contributing most to the free energy of binding. In this opinion article, we introduce a new concept of 'binding cold spots', or interface positions occupied by suboptimal amino acids. Such positions exhibit a potential for affinity enhancement through various mutations. We give several examples of cold spots from different protein-engineering studies and argue that identification of such positions is crucial for studies of protein evolution and protein design. PMID:27477052

  10. Glutamine Triggers Acetylation-Dependent Degradation of Glutamine Synthetase via the Thalidomide Receptor Cereblon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T Van; Lee, J Eugene; Sweredoski, Michael J; Yang, Seung-Joo; Jeon, Seung-Je; Harrison, Joseph S; Yim, Jung-Hyuk; Lee, Sang Ghil; Handa, Hiroshi; Kuhlman, Brian; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Reitsma, Justin M; Park, Chul-Seung; Hess, Sonja; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2016-03-17

    Cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor for the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase 4 (CRL4) complex, is a direct protein target for thalidomide teratogenicity and antitumor activity of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs). Here we report that glutamine synthetase (GS) is an endogenous substrate of CRL4(CRBN). Upon exposing cells to high glutamine concentration, GS is acetylated at lysines 11 and 14, yielding a degron that is necessary and sufficient for binding and ubiquitylation by CRL4(CRBN) and degradation by the proteasome. Binding of acetylated degron peptides to CRBN depends on an intact thalidomide-binding pocket but is not competitive with IMiDs. These findings reveal a feedback loop involving CRL4(CRBN) that adjusts GS protein levels in response to glutamine and uncover a new function for lysine acetylation. PMID:26990986

  11. Binding Efficiency of Protein-Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Day, Eric S.; Cote, Shaun M.; Whitty, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    We examine the relationship between binding affinity and interface size for reversible protein-protein interactions (PPI), using cytokines from the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and their receptors as a test case. Using surface plasmon resonance, we measured single-site binding affinities for the large receptor TNFR1 binding to its ligands TNFα (KD = 1.4 ± 0.4 nM) and lymphotoxin-α (KD = 50 ± 10 nM), and also for the small receptor Fn14 binding to TWEAK (KD = 70 ± 10 nM). We additionally assembled data for all other TNF/TNFR family complexes for which reliable single site binding affinities have been reported. We used these values to calculate the binding efficiency – defined as binding energy per Å2 of surface area buried at the contact interface – for the nine of these complexes for which co-crystal structures are available, and compared the results to those for a set of 144 protein-protein complexes with published affinity values. The results show that the most efficient PPI complexes generate ~20 cal.mol−1/Å2 of binding energy. A minimum contact area of ~500 Å2 is required for a stable complex, required to generate sufficient interaction energy to pay the entropic cost of co-localizing two proteins from 1 M solution. The most compact and efficient TNF/TNFR complex was BAFF/BR3, which achieved ~80% of the maximum achievable binding efficiency. Other small receptors also gave high binding efficiencies, while the larger receptors generated only 44-49% of this limit despite interacting primarily through just a single small domain. The results provide new insight into how much binding energy can be generated by a PPI interface of a given size, and establish a quantitative method to predict how large a natural or engineered contact interface must be to achieve a given level of binding affinity. PMID:23088250

  12. When is protein binding important?

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Jules; Schmidt, Stephan; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2013-09-01

    The present paper is an ode to a classic citation by Benet and Hoener (2002. Clin Pharm Ther 71(3):115-121). The now classic paper had a huge impact on drug development and the way the issue of protein binding is perceived and interpreted. Although the authors very clearly pointed out the limitations and underlying assumptions for their delineations, these are too often overlooked and the classic paper's message is misinterpreted by broadening to cases that were not intended. Some members of the scientific community concluded from the paper that protein binding is not important. This was clearly not intended by the authors, as they finished their paper with a paragraph entitled: "When is protein binding important?" Misinterpretation of the underlying assumptions in the classic work can result in major pitfalls in drug development. Therefore, we revisit the topic of protein binding with the intention of clarifying when clinically relevant changes should be considered during drug development. PMID:23650013

  13. Glucose and glutamine fuel protein O-GlcNAcylation to control T cell self-renewal and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Mahima; Pathak, Shalini; Grzes, Katarzyna M; Damerow, Sebastian; Sinclair, Linda V; van Aalten, Daan M F; Cantrell, Doreen A

    2016-06-01

    Sustained glucose and glutamine transport are essential for activated T lymphocytes to support ATP and macromolecule biosynthesis. We found that glutamine and glucose also fuel an indispensable dynamic regulation of intracellular protein O-GlcNAcylation at key stages of T cell development, transformation and differentiation. Glucose and glutamine are precursors of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), a substrate for cellular glycosyltransferases. Immune-activated T cells contained higher concentrations of UDP-GlcNAc and increased intracellular protein O-GlcNAcylation controlled by the enzyme O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosyltransferase as compared with naive cells. We identified Notch, the T cell antigen receptor and c-Myc as key controllers of T cell protein O-GlcNAcylation via regulation of glucose and glutamine transport. Loss of O-GlcNAc transferase blocked T cell progenitor renewal, malignant transformation and peripheral T cell clonal expansion. Nutrient-dependent signaling pathways regulated by O-GlcNAc glycosyltransferase are thus fundamental for T cell biology. PMID:27111141

  14. Incorporation of 15N-labeled ammonia into glutamine amide groups by protein-glutaminase and analysis of the reactivity for α-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Noriko; Shimba, Nobuhisa; Nakamura, Mina; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Nio, Noriki; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2011-12-28

    Protein-glutaminase (PG) is an enzyme that catalyzes the deamidation of protein-bound glutamine residues. We found that an enzyme labeling technique (ELT), which is a stable isotope labeling method based on transglutaminase (TGase) reaction, is applicable for PG. PG catalyzed incorporation of (15)N-labeled ammonium ions into reactive glutamine amide groups in α-lactalbumin similarly to TGase and deamidated the most reactive glutamine amide group once labeled with (15)N. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of ammonium ions on the PG activity by peptide mapping, and more reactive glutamine residues were detected than were detected by the ELT in the presence of ammonium ions. This is probably because ammonium ions are competitive inhibitors, causing decreased reactivity for glutamine residues. We propose the reaction scheme of PG in the presence of the (15)N-labeled ammonium ions and show that the ELT method with PG is useful for evaluating the activity of PG. PMID:22060122

  15. Poly-glutamine expanded huntingtin dramatically alters the genome wide binding of HSF1

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Laura; Koeva, Martina; Yildirim, Ferah; Pirhaji, Leila; Dinesh, Deepika; Mazor, Tali; Duennwald, Martin L.; Fraenkel, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    In Huntington’s disease (HD), polyglutamine expansions in the huntingtin (Htt) protein cause subtle changes in cellular functions that, over-time, lead to neurodegeneration and death. Studies have indicated that activation of the heat shock response can reduce many of the effects of mutant Htt in disease models, suggesting that the heat shock response is impaired in the disease. To understand the basis for this impairment, we have used genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to examine the effects of mutant Htt on the master regulator of the heat shock response, HSF1. We find that, under normal conditions, HSF1 function is highly similar in cells carrying either wild-type or mutant Htt. However, polyQ-expanded Htt severely blunts the HSF1-mediated stress response. Surprisingly, we find that the HSF1 targets most affected upon stress are not directly associated with proteostasis, but with cytoskeletal binding, focal adhesion and GTPase activity. Our data raise the intriguing hypothesis that the accumulated damage from life-long impairment in these stress responses may contribute significantly to the etiology of Huntington’s disease. PMID:23293686

  16. Amyloid Properties of Asparagine and Glutamine in Prion-like Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Man, Viet Hoang; Roland, Christopher; Sagui, Celeste

    2016-05-18

    Sequences rich in glutamine (Q) and asparagine (N) are intrinsically disordered in monomeric form, but can aggregate into highly ordered amyloids, as seen in Q/N-rich prion domains (PrDs). Amyloids are fibrillar protein aggregates rich in β-sheet structures that can self-propagate through protein-conformational chain reactions. Here, we present a comprehensive theoretical study of N/Q-rich peptides, including sequences found in the yeast Sup35 PrD, in parallel and antiparallel β-sheet aggregates, and probe via fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations all their possible steric-zipper interfaces in order to determine their protofibril structure and their relative stability. Our results show that polyglutamine aggregates are more stable than polyasparagine aggregates. Enthalpic contributions to the free energy favor the formation of polyQ protofibrils, while entropic contributions favor the formation of polyN protofibrils. The considerably larger phase space that disordered polyQ must sample on its way to aggregation probably is at the root of the associated slower kinetics observed experimentally. When other amino acids are present, such as in the Sup35 PrD, their shorter side chains favor steric-zipper formation for N but not Q, as they preclude the in-register association of the long Q side chains. PMID:26911543

  17. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes. PMID:27468287

  18. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L.; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q.; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes. PMID:27468287

  19. The prion protein binds thiamine.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Berjanskii, Mark V; Hau, David; Li, Li; Huang, Alan; Lee, Rose; Gibbs, Ebrima; Ladner, Carol; Dong, Ying Wei; Abera, Ashenafi; Cashman, Neil R; Wishart, David S

    2011-11-01

    Although highly conserved throughout evolution, the exact biological function of the prion protein is still unclear. In an effort to identify the potential biological functions of the prion protein we conducted a small-molecule screening assay using the Syrian hamster prion protein [shPrP(90-232)]. The screen was performed using a library of 149 water-soluble metabolites that are known to pass through the blood-brain barrier. Using a combination of 1D NMR, fluorescence quenching and surface plasmon resonance we identified thiamine (vitamin B1) as a specific prion ligand with a binding constant of ~60 μM. Subsequent studies showed that this interaction is evolutionarily conserved, with similar binding constants being seen for mouse, hamster and human prions. Various protein construct lengths, both with and without the unstructured N-terminal region in the presence and absence of copper, were examined. This indicates that the N-terminus has no influence on the protein's ability to interact with thiamine. In addition to thiamine, the more biologically abundant forms of vitamin B1 (thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate) were also found to bind the prion protein with similar affinity. Heteronuclear NMR experiments were used to determine thiamine's interaction site, which is located between helix 1 and the preceding loop. These data, in conjunction with computer-aided docking and molecular dynamics, were used to model the thiamine-binding pharmacophore and a comparison with other thiamine binding proteins was performed to reveal the common features of interaction. PMID:21848803

  20. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  1. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  2. Growth, productivity and protein glycosylation in a CHO EpoFc producer cell line adapted to glutamine-free growth.

    PubMed

    Taschwer, Michael; Hackl, Matthias; Hernández Bort, Juan A; Leitner, Christian; Kumar, Niraj; Puc, Urszula; Grass, Josephine; Papst, Martin; Kunert, Renate; Altmann, Friedrich; Borth, Nicole

    2012-01-20

    A primary objective of cell line development and process optimisation in animal cell culture is the improvement of culture performance as indicated by desirable properties such as high cell concentration, viability, productivity and product quality. The inefficient energy metabolism of mammalian cells in culture is still a major limiting factor for improvements in process performance. It results in high uptake rates of glucose and glutamine and the concomitant accumulation of waste products which in turn limits final cell concentrations and growth. To avoid these negative side effects, a CHO host cell line was established recently which is able to grow in completely glutamine free medium (Hernandez Bort et al., 2010). To determine the influence of this adaptation on productivity and product quality, the same procedure was repeated with a recombinant CHO cell line producing an erythropoietin-Fc fusion protein (CHO-EpoFc) for this publication. After adaptation to higher cell densities and glutamine free medium, culture performance was monitored in batch bioprocesses and revealed comparable growth properties and EpoFc product formation in both cell lines. The level of reactive oxygen species was elevated in the adapted cells, reflecting a higher level of oxidative stress, however, at the same time the level of the oxido-protective glutathione was also higher, so that cells seem adequately protected against cellular damage. Analysis of nucleotides and nucleotide sugars revealed elevated UDP-sugars in cells grown in the absence of glutamine. Furthermore, the antennarity of N-glycans was moderately higher on the Epo part of the protein produced by the adapted cell line compared to the parental cell line. Except for this, the glycosylation, with respect to site occupancy, degree of sialylation and glycoform structure, was highly comparable, both for the Epo and the Fc part of the protein. PMID:22178781

  3. The Crystalline Structure of Escherichia Coli Derived, - and Holo-Rat Cellular Retinol Binding Protein II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Nathan Shoup

    1993-01-01

    Crystal of apo- and holo-rat cellular retinol binding protein II from the recombinant protein isolated from E. coli were grown. X-ray data to about 2A resolution for both crystal forms were collected. The phases for both data sets were determined by the molecular replacement technique using cellular retinol binding protein. The structures were then refined. The electron density from bound retinol was observed in the holo-form. Other than the presence or absence of bound retinol, little difference was noted in the structures of the apo- and holo-protein. The retinol was bound in a interior cavity with the hydroxyl group in the center of the protein, and the ionone ring near the surface. The hydroxyl group of the retinol made a hydrogen bond to glutamine 108, and the amine group of lysine 40 came into Van der Waals contact with the isoprene chain. The structure of cellular retinol binding protein II was then compared with the structures of five other intracellular lipid binding proteins: adipocyte lipid binding protein, cellular retinol binding protein, intestinal fatty acid binding protein, p2 protein from myelin sheaths, and a midgut fatty acid binding protein.

  4. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 ..mu..g or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  5. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  6. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, Gisela K.

    1997-01-01

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described.

  7. The Cochaperone SGTA (Small Glutamine-rich Tetratricopeptide Repeat-containing Protein Alpha) Demonstrates Regulatory Specificity for the Androgen, Glucocorticoid, and Progesterone Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Atanu; Garcia, Yenni A.; Zierer, Bettina; Patwardhan, Chaitanya; Gutierrez, Omar; Hildenbrand, Zacariah; Harris, Diondra C.; Balsiger, Heather A.; Sivils, Jeffrey C.; Johnson, Jill L.; Buchner, Johannes; Chadli, Ahmed; Cox, Marc B.

    2014-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors that require the ordered assembly of multichaperone complexes for transcriptional activity. Although heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 and Hsp70 are key players in this process, multiple Hsp70- and Hsp90-associated cochaperones associate with receptor-chaperone complexes to regulate receptor folding and activation. Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA) was recently characterized as an Hsp70 and Hsp90-associated cochaperone that specifically regulates androgen receptor activity. However, the specificity of SGTA for additional members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily and the mechanism by which SGTA regulates receptor activity remain unclear. Here we report that SGTA associates with and specifically regulates the androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptors and has no effect on the mineralocorticoid and estrogen receptors in both yeast and mammalian cell-based reporter assays. In both systems, SGTA knockdown/deletion enhances receptor activity, whereas SGTA overexpression suppresses receptor activity. We demonstrate that SGTA binds directly to Hsp70 and Hsp90 in vitro with similar affinities yet predominately precipitates with Hsp70 from cell lysates, suggesting a role for SGTA in early, Hsp70-mediated folding. Furthermore, SGTA expression completely abrogates the regulation of receptor function by FKBP52 (52-kDa FK506-binding protein), which acts at a later stage of the chaperone cycle. Taken together, our data suggest a role for SGTA at distinct steps in the chaperone-dependent modulation of androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptor activity. PMID:24753260

  8. Why are proteins with glutamine- and asparagine-rich regions associated with protein misfolding diseases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzeiro, Leonor

    2005-12-01

    The possibility that vibrational excited states (VESs) are the drivers of protein folding and function (the VES hypothesis) is explored to explain the reason why Gln- and Asn-rich proteins are associated with degenerative diseases. The Davydov/Scott model is extended to describe energy transfer from the water solution to the protein and vice versa. Computer simulations show that, on average, Gln and Asn residues lead to an initial larger absorption of energy from the environment to the protein, something that can explain the greater structural instability of prions. The sporadic, inherited and infectious character of prion diseases is discussed in the light of the VES hypothesis. An alternative treatment for prion diseases is suggested.

  9. Effects of oral glutamine supplementation on exercise-induced gastrointestinal permeability and tight junction protein expression.

    PubMed

    Zuhl, Micah N; Lanphere, Kathryn R; Kravitz, Len; Mermier, Christine M; Schneider, Suzanne; Dokladny, Karol; Moseley, Pope L

    2014-01-15

    The objectives of this study are threefold: 1) to assess whether 7 days of oral glutamine (GLN) supplementation reduces exercise-induced intestinal permeability; 2) whether supplementation prevents the proinflammatory response; and 3) whether these changes are associated with upregulation of the heat shock response. On separate occasions, eight human subjects participated in baseline testing and in GLN and placebo (PLA) supplementation trials, followed by a 60-min treadmill run. Intestinal permeability was higher in the PLA trial compared with baseline and GLN trials (0.0604 ± 0.047 vs. 0.0218 ± 0.008 and 0.0272 ± 0.007, respectively; P < 0.05). IκBα expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was higher 240 min after exercise in the GLN trial compared with the PLA trial (1.411 ± 0.523 vs. 0.9839 ± 0.343, respectively; P < 0.05). In vitro using the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2, we measured effects of GLN supplementation (0, 4, and 6 mM) on heat-induced (37° or 41.8°C) heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), and occludin expression. HSF-1 and HSP70 levels increased in 6 mM supplementation at 41°C compared with 0 mM at 41°C (1.785 ± 0.495 vs. 0.6681 ± 0.290, and 1.973 ± 0.325 vs. 1.133 ± 0.129, respectively; P < 0.05). Occludin levels increased after 4 mM supplementation at 41°C and 6 mM at 41°C compared with 0 mM at 41°C (1.236 ± 0.219 and 1.849 ± 0.564 vs. 0.7434 ± 0.027, respectively; P < 0.001). GLN supplementation prevented exercise-induced permeability, possibly through HSF-1 activation. PMID:24285149

  10. Structural and functional similarities between the nucleotide-binding domains of CFTR and GTP-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, M R; Welsh, M J

    1995-01-01

    The opening and closing of the CFTR Cl- channel are regulated by ATP hydrolysis at its two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). However, the mechanism and functional significance of ATP hydrolysis are unknown. Sequence similarity between the NBDs of CFTR and GTP-binding proteins suggested the NBDs might have a structure and perhaps a function like that of GTP-binding proteins. Based on this similarity, we predicted that the terminal residue of the LSGGQ motif in the NBDs of CFTR corresponds to a highly conserved glutamine residue in GTP-binding proteins that directly catalyzes the GTPase reaction. Mutations of this residue in NBD1 or NBD2, which were predicted to increase or decrease the rate of hydrolysis, altered the duration of channel closed and open times in a specific manner without altering ion conduction properties or ADP-dependent inhibition. These results suggest that the NBDs of CFTR, and consequently other ABC transporters, may have a structure and a function analogous to those of GTP-binding proteins. We conclude that the rates of ATP hydrolysis at NBD1 and at NBD2 determine the duration of the two states of the channel, closed and open, much as the rate of GTP hydrolysis by GTP-binding proteins determines the duration of their active state. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:8599650

  11. Calcium-binding proteins and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckingham, K.; Lu, A. Q.; Andruss, B. F.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The known roles for calcium-binding proteins in developmental signaling pathways are reviewed. Current information on the calcium-binding characteristics of three classes of cell-surface developmental signaling proteins (EGF-domain proteins, cadherins and integrins) is presented together with an overview of the intracellular pathways downstream of these surface receptors. The developmental roles delineated to date for the universal intracellular calcium sensor, calmodulin, and its targets, and for calcium-binding regulators of the cytoskeleton are also reviewed.

  12. Backbone Dynamics Of Intracellular Lipid Binding Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-González, Luis H.

    2005-04-01

    The family of intracellular lipid binding proteins (iLBPs) comprises a group of homologous 14-15 kDa proteins that specifically bind and facilitate the transport of fatty acids, bile acids, retinoids or eicosanoids. Members of this family include several types of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs), ileal lipid binding protein, cellular retinoic acid binding proteins and cellular retinoid binding proteins. As a contribution to understanding the structure-function relationship in this protein family, the solution structure and backbone dynamics of human epidermal-type FABP (E-FABP) determined by NMR spectroscopy are reported. Moreover, hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments indicated a direct correlation between the stability of the hydrogen-bonding network in the β-sheet structure and the conformational exchange in the millisecond-to-microsecond time range. The features of E-FABP backbone dynamics discussed in the present study are compared with those obtained for other phylogenetically related proteins. A strong interdependence with the overall protein stability and possibly also with the ligand-binding affinity for members of the lipid-binding protein family is shown.

  13. The detection of DNA-binding proteins by protein blotting.

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, B; Steinberg, J; Laemmli, U K; Weintraub, H

    1980-01-01

    A method, called "protein blotting," for the detection of DNA-binding proteins is described. Proteins are separated on an SDA-polyacrylamide gel. The gel is sandwiched between 2 nitrocellulose filters and the proteins allowed to diffuse out of the gel and onto the filters. The proteins are tightly bound to each filter, producing a replica of the original gel pattern. The replica is used to detect DNA-binding proteins, RNA-binding proteins or histone-binding proteins by incubation of the filter with [32P]DNA, [125I]RNA, or [125I] histone. Evidence is also presented that specific protein-DNA interactions may be detected by this technique; under appropriate conditions, the lac repressor binds only to DNA containing the lac operator. Strategies for the detection of specific protein-DNA interactions are discussed. Images PMID:6243775

  14. Haptenation: Chemical Reactivity and Protein Binding

    PubMed Central

    Chipinda, Itai; Hettick, Justin M.; Siegel, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Low molecular weight chemical (LMW) allergens are commonly referred to as haptens. Haptens must complex with proteins to be recognized by the immune system. The majority of occupationally related haptens are reactive, electrophilic chemicals, or are metabolized to reactive metabolites that form covalent bonds with nucleophilic centers on proteins. Nonelectrophilic protein binding may occur through disulfide exchange, coordinate covalent binding onto metal ions on metalloproteins or of metal allergens, themselves, to the major histocompatibility complex. Recent chemical reactivity kinetic studies suggest that the rate of protein binding is a major determinant of allergenic potency; however, electrophilic strength does not seem to predict the ability of a hapten to skew the response between Th1 and Th2. Modern proteomic mass spectrometry methods that allow detailed delineation of potential differences in protein binding sites may be valuable in predicting if a chemical will stimulate an immediate or delayed hypersensitivity. Chemical aspects related to both reactivity and protein-specific binding are discussed. PMID:21785613

  15. Calmodulin Binding Proteins and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H; Eshak, Kristeen; Myre, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The small, calcium-sensor protein, calmodulin, is ubiquitously expressed and central to cell function in all cell types. Here the literature linking calmodulin to Alzheimer's disease is reviewed. Several experimentally-verified calmodulin-binding proteins are involved in the formation of amyloid-β plaques including amyloid-β protein precursor, β-secretase, presenilin-1, and ADAM10. Many others possess potential calmodulin-binding domains that remain to be verified. Three calmodulin binding proteins are associated with the formation of neurofibrillary tangles: two kinases (CaMKII, CDK5) and one protein phosphatase (PP2B or calcineurin). Many of the genes recently identified by genome wide association studies and other studies encode proteins that contain putative calmodulin-binding domains but only a couple (e.g., APOE, BIN1) have been experimentally confirmed as calmodulin binding proteins. At least two receptors involved in calcium metabolism and linked to Alzheimer's disease (mAchR; NMDAR) have also been identified as calmodulin-binding proteins. In addition to this, many proteins that are involved in other cellular events intimately associated with Alzheimer's disease including calcium channel function, cholesterol metabolism, neuroinflammation, endocytosis, cell cycle events, and apoptosis have been tentatively or experimentally verified as calmodulin binding proteins. The use of calmodulin as a potential biomarker and as a therapeutic target is discussed. PMID:25812852

  16. Partial characterization of a proacrosin binding protein.

    PubMed

    Yi, L S; Runion, C M; Willand, J L; Polakoski, K L

    1992-01-01

    All of the acid (pH 4.0) extracted proacrosin from porcine epididymal spermatozoa was found to be tightly associated with a specific protein referred to as the binding protein. A combination of gel filterations and gel electrophoresis revealed that the binding protein is composed of a major 28 kd and a minor 29 kd protein. Both of the proteins were shown to be nonproteolytic by gelatin SDS-PAGE analysis and the amino acid composition analysis of the purified 28 kd protein revealed that it is not related to the proteolytic component of the proacrosinacrosin system. PMID:1519775

  17. Mercury-binding proteins of Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Roesijadi, G.; Morris, J.E.; Calabrese, A.

    1981-11-01

    Mytilus edulis possesses low molecular weight, mercury-binding proteins. The predominant protein isolated from gill tissue is enriched in cysteinyl residues (8%) and possesses an amino acid composition similar to cadmium-binding proteins of mussels and oysters. Continuous exposure of mussels to 5 ..mu..g/l mercury results in spillover of mercury from these proteins to high molecular weight proteins. Antibodies to these proteins have been isolated, and development of immunoassays is presently underway. Preliminary studies to determine whether exposure of adult mussels to mercury will result in induction of mercury-binding proteins in offspring suggest that such proteins occur in larvae although additional studies are indicated for a conclusive demonstration.

  18. Computational Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins and Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jingna; Cui, Jing; Cheng, Jin; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and RNA interaction have vital roles in many cellular processes such as protein synthesis, sequence encoding, RNA transfer, and gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Approximately 6%–8% of all proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Distinguishing these RBPs or their binding residues is a major aim of structural biology. Previously, a number of experimental methods were developed for the determination of protein–RNA interactions. However, these experimental methods are expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Alternatively, researchers have developed many computational approaches to predict RBPs and protein–RNA binding sites, by combining various machine learning methods and abundant sequence and/or structural features. There are three kinds of computational approaches, which are prediction from protein sequence, prediction from protein structure, and protein-RNA docking. In this paper, we review all existing studies of predictions of RNA-binding sites and RBPs and complexes, including data sets used in different approaches, sequence and structural features used in several predictors, prediction method classifications, performance comparisons, evaluation methods, and future directions. PMID:26540053

  19. The molecular architecture of protein-protein binding sites.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Dana; Rahat, Ofer; Cohen, Mati; Neuvirth, Hani; Schreiber, Gideon

    2007-02-01

    The formation of specific protein interactions plays a crucial role in most, if not all, biological processes, including signal transduction, cell regulation, the immune response and others. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular architecture of protein-protein binding sites, which facilitates such diversity in binding affinity and specificity, are enabling us to address key questions. What is the amino acid composition of binding sites? What are interface hotspots? How are binding sites organized? What are the differences between tight and weak interacting complexes? How does water contribute to binding? Can the knowledge gained be translated into protein design? And does a universal code for binding exist, or is it the architecture and chemistry of the interface that enable diverse but specific binding solutions? PMID:17239579

  20. The human small glutamine-rich TPR-containing protein is required for progress through cell division.

    PubMed

    Winnefeld, Marc; Rommelaere, Jean; Cziepluch, Celina

    2004-02-01

    Eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human harbor genes encoding the small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing (SGT) protein. Work presented here demonstrated the presence of human SGT (hSGT) protein in a panel of human cell lines and throughout the cell cycle. To identify cellular processes in which hSGT is involved, knock down populations were analyzed which were generated through transfection of hsgt-specific small interfering RNA. Most strikingly, depletion of hSGT led to reduced proliferation of the affected cell populations while the mitotic index was increased. Time-lapse video microscopy revealed that cells from hSGT-depleted populations were unable to complete cell division due to mitotic arrest which was frequently followed by cell death. Further evidence for a role in cell division was given by the accumulation of hSGT in the midzone and the midbody, and by a mitosis-specific migration pattern of hSGT as detected by Western blotting after SDS-PAGE or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, results obtained in this study demonstrate that hSGT protein is a constitutive component of all human cell lines tested and that this protein is essential for successful completion of cell division. PMID:14729056

  1. PUB1: a major yeast poly(A)+ RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Matunis, M J; Matunis, E L; Dreyfuss, G

    1993-01-01

    The expression of RNA polymerase II transcripts can be regulated at the posttranscriptional level by RNA-binding proteins. Although extensively characterized in metazoans, relatively few RNA-binding proteins have been characterized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three major proteins are cross-linked by UV light to poly(A)+ RNA in living S. cerevisiae cells. These are the 72-kDa poly(A)-binding protein and proteins of 60 and 50 kDa (S.A. Adam, T.Y. Nakagawa, M.S. Swanson, T. Woodruff, and G. Dreyfuss, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:2932-2943, 1986). Here, we describe the 60-kDa protein, one of the major poly(A)+ RNA-binding proteins in S. cerevisiae. This protein, PUB1 [for poly(U)-binding protein 1], was purified by affinity chromatography on immobilized poly(rU), and specific monoclonal antibodies to it were produced. UV cross-linking demonstrated that PUB1 is bound to poly(A)+ RNA (mRNA or pre-mRNA) in living cells, and it was detected primarily in the cytoplasm by indirect immunofluorescence. The gene for PUB1 was cloned and sequenced, and the sequence was found to predict a 51-kDa protein with three ribonucleoprotein consensus RNA-binding domains and three glutamine- and asparagine-rich auxiliary domains. This overall structure is remarkably similar to the structures of the Drosophila melanogaster elav gene product, the human neuronal antigen HuD, and the cytolytic lymphocyte protein TIA-1. Each of these proteins has an important role in development and differentiation, potentially by affecting RNA processing. PUB1 was found to be nonessential in S. cerevisiae by gene replacement; however, further genetic analysis should reveal important features of this class of RNA-binding proteins. Images PMID:8413213

  2. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. PMID:25887396

  3. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Shah, Viral S.; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Welsh, Michael J.; Randak, Christoph O.

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′) pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5′-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5′-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl− channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. PMID:25887396

  4. Lamin-Binding Proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dobrzynska, Agnieszka; Askjaer, Peter; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear lamina, composed of lamins and numerous lamin-associated proteins, is required for mechanical stability, mechanosensing, chromatin organization, developmental gene regulation, mRNA transcription, DNA replication, nuclear assembly, and nuclear positioning. Mutations in lamins or lamin-binding proteins cause at least 18 distinct human diseases that affect specific tissues such as muscle, adipose, bone, nerve, or skin, and range from muscular dystrophies to lipodystrophy, peripheral neuropathy, or accelerated aging. Caenorhabditis elegans has unique advantages in studying lamin-binding proteins. These advantages include the low complexity of genes encoding lamin and lamin-binding proteins, advanced transgenic techniques, simple application of RNA interference, sophisticated genetic strategies, and a large collection of mutant lines. This chapter provides detailed and comprehensive protocols for the genetic and phenotypic analysis of lamin-binding proteins in C. elegans. PMID:26778571

  5. Structure and Function of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Ralf R.; Leong, Steven R.; Flaggs, Gail W.; Gray, Patrick W.; Wright, Samuel D.; Mathison, John C.; Tobias, Peter S.; Ulevitch, Richard J.

    1990-09-01

    The primary structure of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), a trace plasma protein that binds to the lipid A moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), was deduced by sequencing cloned complementary DNA. LBP shares sequence identity with another LPS binding protein found in granulocytes, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, and with cholesterol ester transport protein of the plasma. LBP may control the response to LPS under physiologic conditions by forming high-affinity complexes with LPS that bind to monocytes and macrophages, which then secrete tumor necrosis factor. The identification of this pathway for LPS-induced monocyte stimulation may aid in the development of treatments for diseases in which Gram-negative sepsis or endotoxemia are involved.

  6. Evolution of Protein Binding Modes in Homooligomers

    PubMed Central

    Dayhoff, Judith E.; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Bryant, Stephen H.; Panchenko, Anna R.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of protein interactions cannot be deciphered without a detailed analysis of interaction interfaces and binding modes. We performed a large-scale study of protein homooligomers in terms of their symmetry, interface sizes, and conservation of binding modes. We also focused specifically on the evolution of protein binding modes from nine families of homooligomers and mapped 60 different binding modes and oligomerization states onto the phylogenetic trees of these families. We observed a significant tendency for the same binding modes to be clustered together and conserved within clades on phylogenetic trees; this trend is especially pronounced for close homologs with 70% sequence identity or higher. Some binding modes are conserved among very distant homologs, pointing to their ancient evolutionary origin, while others are very specific for a certain phylogenetic group. Moreover, we found that the most ancient binding modes have a tendency to involve symmetrical (isologous) homodimer binding arrangements with larger interfaces, while recently evolved binding modes more often exhibit asymmetrical arrangements and smaller interfaces. PMID:19879880

  7. Small Glutamine-Rich Tetratricopeptide Repeat-Containing Protein Alpha (SGTA) Ablation Limits Offspring Viability and Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Philp, Lisa K.; Day, Tanya K.; Butler, Miriam S.; Laven-Law, Geraldine; Jindal, Shalini; Hickey, Theresa E.; Scher, Howard I.; Butler, Lisa M.; Tilley, Wayne D.

    2016-01-01

    Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA) has been implicated as a co-chaperone and regulator of androgen and growth hormone receptor (AR, GHR) signalling. We investigated the functional consequences of partial and full Sgta ablation in vivo using Cre-lox Sgta-null mice. Sgta+/− breeders generated viable Sgta−/− offspring, but at less than Mendelian expectancy. Sgta−/− breeders were subfertile with small litters and higher neonatal death (P < 0.02). Body size was significantly and proportionately smaller in male and female Sgta−/− (vs WT, Sgta+/− P < 0.001) from d19. Serum IGF-1 levels were genotype- and sex-dependent. Food intake, muscle and bone mass and adiposity were unchanged in Sgta−/−. Vital and sex organs had normal relative weight, morphology and histology, although certain androgen-sensitive measures such as penis and preputial size, and testis descent, were greater in Sgta−/−. Expression of AR and its targets remained largely unchanged, although AR localisation was genotype- and tissue-dependent. Generally expression of other TPR-containing proteins was unchanged. In conclusion, this thorough investigation of SGTA-null mutation reports a mild phenotype of reduced body size. The model’s full potential likely will be realised by genetic crosses with other models to interrogate the role of SGTA in the many diseases in which it has been implicated. PMID:27358191

  8. Small Glutamine-Rich Tetratricopeptide Repeat-Containing Protein Alpha (SGTA) Ablation Limits Offspring Viability and Growth in Mice.

    PubMed

    Philp, Lisa K; Day, Tanya K; Butler, Miriam S; Laven-Law, Geraldine; Jindal, Shalini; Hickey, Theresa E; Scher, Howard I; Butler, Lisa M; Tilley, Wayne D

    2016-01-01

    Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA) has been implicated as a co-chaperone and regulator of androgen and growth hormone receptor (AR, GHR) signalling. We investigated the functional consequences of partial and full Sgta ablation in vivo using Cre-lox Sgta-null mice. Sgta(+/-) breeders generated viable Sgta(-/-) offspring, but at less than Mendelian expectancy. Sgta(-/-) breeders were subfertile with small litters and higher neonatal death (P < 0.02). Body size was significantly and proportionately smaller in male and female Sgta(-/-) (vs WT, Sgta(+/-) P < 0.001) from d19. Serum IGF-1 levels were genotype- and sex-dependent. Food intake, muscle and bone mass and adiposity were unchanged in Sgta(-/-). Vital and sex organs had normal relative weight, morphology and histology, although certain androgen-sensitive measures such as penis and preputial size, and testis descent, were greater in Sgta(-/-). Expression of AR and its targets remained largely unchanged, although AR localisation was genotype- and tissue-dependent. Generally expression of other TPR-containing proteins was unchanged. In conclusion, this thorough investigation of SGTA-null mutation reports a mild phenotype of reduced body size. The model's full potential likely will be realised by genetic crosses with other models to interrogate the role of SGTA in the many diseases in which it has been implicated. PMID:27358191

  9. Affinity purification of proteins binding to GST fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Swaffield, J C; Johnston, S A

    2001-05-01

    This unit describes the use of proteins fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST fusion proteins) to affinity purify other proteins, a technique also known as GST pulldown purification. The describes a strategy in which a GST fusion protein is bound to agarose affinity beads and the complex is then used to assay the binding of a specific test protein that has been labeled with [35S]methionine by in vitro translation. However, this method can be adapted for use with other types of fusion proteins; for example, His6, biotin tags, or maltose-binding protein fusions (MBP), and these may offer particular advantages. A describes preparation of an E. coli extract that is added to the reaction mixture with purified test protein to reduce nonspecific binding. PMID:18265191

  10. Copper binding in the prion protein.

    PubMed

    Millhauser, Glenn L

    2004-02-01

    A conformational change of the prion protein is responsible for a class of neurodegenerative diseases called the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies that include mad cow disease and the human afflictions kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Despite the attention given to these diseases, the normal function of the prion protein in healthy tissue is unknown. Research over the past few years, however, demonstrates that the prion protein is a copper binding protein with high selectivity for Cu(2+). The structural features of the Cu(2+) binding sites have now been characterized and are providing important clues about the normal function of the prion protein and perhaps how metals or loss of protein function play a role in disease. The link between prion protein and copper may provide insight into the general, and recently appreciated, role of metals in neurodegenerative disease. PMID:14967054

  11. Characteristics of glutamine transport in dog jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bulus, N M; Abumrad, N N; Ghishan, F K

    1989-07-01

    The present study characterizes glutamine transport across brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) prepared from dog jejunum. The purity of these vesicles was demonstrated by a 20-fold enrichment of leucine aminopeptidase, a marker for BBM. Glutamine uptake was found to occur into an osmotically active space with no membrane binding and to exhibit temperature and pH dependence (optimal uptake at pH 7-7.5). Glutamine uptake was driven by an inwardly directed Na+ gradient with a distinct overshoot not observed under K+ gradient. Lithium could not substitute for Na+ as a stimulator of glutamine uptake. Na+-dependent glutamine uptake was not inhibited by methylaminoisobutyric acid, a typical substrate for system A, and was found to be electrogenic and saturable with a Km of 0.97 +/- 0.58 mM and a Vmax of 3.93 +/- 0.99 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1. A Na+-glutamine coupling ratio of 1:1 could be demonstrated by a plot of Hill transformation. Na+-independent glutamine uptake was found to be electroneutral and saturable with a Km of 3.70 +/- 0.66 mM and a Vmax of 2.70 +/- 1.55 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1. Inhibition studies confirmed the presence of a Na+-dependent as well as a Na+-independent carrier for glutamine uptake. We conclude that glutamine uptake across dog BBMV occurs via two transport systems: a Na+-dependent high-affinity system similar to the neutral brush-border system and a Na+-independent lower-affinity system similar to system L. PMID:2750912

  12. Mutagenesis of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli: targeting positions 72 and 82 of the cyclic nucleotide binding pocket.

    PubMed Central

    Belduz, A O; Lee, E J; Harman, J G

    1993-01-01

    The 3', 5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binding pocket of the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) of Escherichia coli was mutagenized to substitute leucine, glutamine, or aspartate for glutamate 72; and lysine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, or glutamine for arginine 82. Substitutions were made in wild-type CRP and in a CRP*, or cAMP-independent, form of the protein to assess the effects of the amino acid substitutions on CRP structure. Cells containing the binding pocket residue-substituted forms of CRP were characterized through beta-galactosidase activity and by measurement of cAMP binding activity. This study confirms a role for both glutamate 72 and arginine 82 in cAMP binding and activation of CRP. Glutamine or leucine substitution of glutamate 72 produced forms of CRP having low affinity for the cAMP and unresponsive to the nucleotide. Aspartate substituted for glutamate 72 produced a low affinity cAMP-responsive form of CRP. CRP has a stringent requirement for the positioning of the position 72 glutamate carboxyl group within the cyclic nucleotide binding pocket. Results of this study also indicate that there are differences in the binding requirements of cAMP and cGMP, a competitive inhibitor of cAMP binding to CRP. PMID:8388097

  13. Folding funnels, binding funnels, and protein function.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C. J.; Kumar, S.; Ma, B.; Nussinov, R.

    1999-01-01

    Folding funnels have been the focus of considerable attention during the last few years. These have mostly been discussed in the general context of the theory of protein folding. Here we extend the utility of the concept of folding funnels, relating them to biological mechanisms and function. In particular, here we describe the shape of the funnels in light of protein synthesis and folding; flexibility, conformational diversity, and binding mechanisms; and the associated binding funnels, illustrating the multiple routes and the range of complexed conformers. Specifically, the walls of the folding funnels, their crevices, and bumps are related to the complexity of protein folding, and hence to sequential vs. nonsequential folding. Whereas the former is more frequently observed in eukaryotic proteins, where the rate of protein synthesis is slower, the latter is more frequent in prokaryotes, with faster translation rates. The bottoms of the funnels reflect the extent of the flexibility of the proteins. Rugged floors imply a range of conformational isomers, which may be close on the energy landscape. Rather than undergoing an induced fit binding mechanism, the conformational ensembles around the rugged bottoms argue that the conformers, which are most complementary to the ligand, will bind to it with the equilibrium shifting in their favor. Furthermore, depending on the extent of the ruggedness, or of the smoothness with only a few minima, we may infer nonspecific, broad range vs. specific binding. In particular, folding and binding are similar processes, with similar underlying principles. Hence, the shape of the folding funnel of the monomer enables making reasonable guesses regarding the shape of the corresponding binding funnel. Proteins having a broad range of binding, such as proteolytic enzymes or relatively nonspecific endonucleases, may be expected to have not only rugged floors in their folding funnels, but their binding funnels will also behave similarly

  14. PROTEIN AND OIL CONCENTRATION RESPONSE TO GLUTAMINE IN SOYBEAN SEEDS CULTURED IN VITRO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil and protein are the most valuable components of soybean seed. To examine whether oil and protein concentration are affected by the supply of nitrogen to the seed, immature soybean seeds [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Williams 82] were grown in vitro in nutrient solutions containing 20, 40, 60, or 8...

  15. Astaxanthin binding protein in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Sarah J; Ross, Neil W; Lall, Santosh P; Gill, Tom A

    2006-06-01

    The rubicund pigmentation in salmon and trout flesh is unique and is due to the deposition of dietary carotenoids, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in the muscle. The present study was undertaken to determine which protein was responsible for pigment binding. Salmon muscle proteins were solubilized by sequential extractions with non-denaturing, low ionic strength aqueous solutions and segregated as such into six different fractions. Approximately 91% of the salmon myofibrillar proteins were solubilized under non-denaturing conditions using a protocol modified from a method described by Krishnamurthy et al. [Krishnamurthy, G., Chang, H.S., Hultin, H.O., Feng, Y., Srinivasan, S., Kelleher. S.D., 1996. Solubility of chicken breast muscle proteins in solutions of low ionic strength. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44: 408-415.] for the dissolution of avian muscle. To our knowledge, this is the first time this solubilization approach has been applied to the study of molecular interactions in myofibrillar proteins. Astaxanthin binding in each fraction was determined using an in vitro binding assay. In addition, SDS-PAGE and quantitative densitometry were used to separate and determine the relative amounts of each of the proteins in the six fractions. The results showed that alpha-actinin was the only myofibrillar protein correlating significantly (P<0.05) with astaxanthin binding. Alpha-actinin was positively identified using electrophoretic techniques and confirmed by tandem mass spectroscopy. Purified salmon alpha-actinin bound synthetic astaxanthin in a molar ratio of 1.11:1.00. The study was repeated using halibut alpha-actinin, which was found to have a molar binding ratio of astaxanthin to alpha-actinin of 0.893:1. These results suggest that the difference in pigmentation between white fish and Atlantic salmon is not due to binding capacity in the muscle, but rather differences in the metabolism or transport of pigment. PMID:16644255

  16. Determining the Structure of a Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding Protein via AMBER9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Alison

    2010-03-01

    The neurons of Aplysia californica contain cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB). CPEB shows prion-like properties when expressed in yeast cells. Because prions have misfolded and normally folded forms, prions can code in neurons like binary codes in computers, with ``present'' and ``not present'' signals available. CPEB thus provides a candidate protein for the molecular basis of memory. I attempt to determine CPEB's structure, by first threading the known protein sequence around a β-helical structure. Threading is preformed by hand, and by a program written to minimize the energy cost of building the structure. I then analyze the stability of the thread using the molecular dynamics program AMBER9. I also analyze a protein of only glutamine (PolyQ) in a β-helical structure to substantiate my use of a β-helix with the glutamine-rich CPEB. I found PolyQ to be stable in a left-handed β-helical structure with eighteen residues per turn. A candidate structure for CPEB was located with the same β-helical structure.

  17. Aspects of Protein, Chemistry, Part II: Oxygen-Binding Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Compares differences in function and behavior of two oxygen-binding proteins, myoglobin found in muscle and hemoglobin found in blood. Describes the mechanism of oxygen-binding and allosteric effect in hemoglobin; also describes the effect of pH on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (CS)

  18. Predicting Ca(2+)-binding sites in proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Nayal, M; Di Cera, E

    1994-01-01

    The coordination shell of Ca2+ ions in proteins contains almost exclusively oxygen atoms supported by an outer shell of carbon atoms. The bond-strength contribution of each ligating oxygen in the inner shell can be evaluated by using an empirical expression successfully applied in the analysis of crystals of metal oxides. The sum of such contributions closely approximates the valence of the bound cation. When a protein is embedded in a very fine grid of points and an algorithm is used to calculate the valence of each point representing a potential Ca(2+)-binding site, a typical distribution of valence values peaked around 0.4 is obtained. In 32 documented Ca(2+)-binding proteins, containing a total of 62 Ca(2+)-binding sites, a very small fraction of points in the distribution has a valence close to that of Ca2+. Only 0.06% of the points have a valence > or = 1.4. These points share the remarkable tendency to cluster around documented Ca2+ ions. A high enough value of the valence is both necessary (58 out of 62 Ca(2+)-binding sites have a valence > or = 1.4) and sufficient (87% of the grid points with a valence > or = 1.4 are within 1.0 A from a documented Ca2+ ion) to predict the location of bound Ca2+ ions. The algorithm can also be used for the analysis of other cations and predicts the location of Mg(2+)- and Na(+)-binding sites in a number of proteins. The valence is, therefore, a tool of pinpoint accuracy for locating cation-binding sites, which can also be exploited in engineering high-affinity binding sites and characterizing the linkage between structural components and functional energetics for molecular recognition of metal ions by proteins. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8290605

  19. Ice-Binding Proteins and Their Function.

    PubMed

    Bar Dolev, Maya; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) are a diverse class of proteins that assist organism survival in the presence of ice in cold climates. They have different origins in many organisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, diatoms, plants, insects, and fish. This review covers the gamut of IBP structures and functions and the common features they use to bind ice. We discuss mechanisms by which IBPs adsorb to ice and interfere with its growth, evidence for their irreversible association with ice, and methods for enhancing the activity of IBPs. The applications of IBPs in the food industry, in cryopreservation, and in other technologies are vast, and we chart out some possibilities. PMID:27145844

  20. Glutamine and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Souba, W W

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This overview on glutamine and cancer discusses the importance of glutamine for tumor growth, summarizes the alterations in interorgan glutamine metabolism that develop in the tumor-bearing host, and reviews the potential benefits of glutamine nutrition in the patient with cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood and tissues. It is essential for tumor growth and marked changes in organ glutamine metabolism are characteristic of the host with cancer. Because host glutamine depletion has adverse effects, it is important to study the regulation of glutamine metabolism in cancer and to evaluate the impact of glutamine nutrition in the tumor-bearing state. METHODS: Data from a variety of investigations on glutamine metabolism and nutrition related to the host with cancer were compiled and summarized. RESULTS: Numerous studies on glutamine metabolism in cancer indicate that many tumors are avid glutamine consumers in vivo and in vitro. As a consequence of progressive tumor growth, host glutamine depletion develops and becomes a hallmark. This glutamine depletion occurs in part because the tumor behaves as a "glutamine trap" but also because of cytokine-mediated alterations in glutamine metabolism in host tissues. Animal and human studies that have investigated the use of glutamine-supplemented nutrition in the host with cancer suggest that pharmacologic doses of dietary glutamine may be beneficial. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the control of glutamine metabolism in the tumor-bearing host not only improves the knowledge of metabolic regulation in the patient with cancer but also will lead to improved nutritional support regimens targeted to benefit the host. PMID:8257221

  1. Mass Spectrometric Identification of the Arginine and Lysine deficient Proline Rich Glutamine Rich Wheat Storage Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of enzymatic digest has made possible identification of a wide variety of proteins and complex samples prepared by such techniques as RP-HPLC or 2-D gel electrophoresis. Success requires peptide fragmentation to be indicative of the peptide amino acid sequence. The f...

  2. Stretching DNA to quantify nonspecific protein binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Sachin; Fountain, Chandler; Dunlap, David; Family, Fereydoon; Finzi, Laura

    2012-07-01

    Nonspecific binding of regulatory proteins to DNA can be an important mechanism for target search and storage. This seems to be the case for the lambda repressor protein (CI), which maintains lysogeny after infection of E. coli. CI binds specifically at two distant regions along the viral genome and induces the formation of a repressive DNA loop. However, single-molecule imaging as well as thermodynamic and kinetic measurements of CI-mediated looping show that CI also binds to DNA nonspecifically and that this mode of binding may play an important role in maintaining lysogeny. This paper presents a robust phenomenological approach using a recently developed method based on the partition function, which allows calculation of the number of proteins bound nonspecific to DNA from measurements of the DNA extension as a function of applied force. This approach was used to analyze several cycles of extension and relaxation of λ DNA performed at several CI concentrations to measure the dissociation constant for nonspecific binding of CI (˜100 nM), and to obtain a measurement of the induced DNA compaction (˜10%) by CI.

  3. Signal transduction by guanine nucleotide binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, A M

    1987-01-01

    High affinity binding of guanine nucleotides and the ability to hydrolyze bound GTP to GDP are characteristics of an extended family of intracellular proteins. Subsets of this family include cytosolic initiation and elongation factors involved in protein synthesis, and cytoskeletal proteins such as tubulin (Hughes, S.M. (1983) FEBS Lett. 164, 1-8). A distinct subset of guanine nucleotide binding proteins is membrane-associated; members of this subset include the ras gene products (Ellis, R.W. et al. (1981) Nature 292, 506-511) and the heterotrimeric G-proteins (also termed N-proteins) (Gilman, A.G. (1984) Cell 36, 577-579). Substantial evidence indicates that G-proteins act as signal transducers by coupling receptors (R) to effectors (E). A similar function has been suggested but not proven for the ras gene products. Known G-proteins include Gs and Gi, the G-proteins associated with stimulation and inhibition, respectively, of adenylate cyclase; transducin (TD), the G-protein coupling rhodopsin to cGMP phosphodiesterase in rod photoreceptors (Bitensky, M.W. et al. (1981) Curr. Top. Membr. Transp. 15, 237-271; Stryer, L. (1986) Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 9, 87-119), and Go, a G-protein of unknown function that is highly abundant in brain (Sternweis, P.C. and Robishaw, J.D. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 13806-13813; Neer, E.J. et al. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 14222-14229). G-proteins also participate in other signal transduction pathways, notably that involving phosphoinositide breakdown. In this review, I highlight recent progress in our understanding of the structure, function, and diversity of G-proteins. PMID:2435586

  4. Bovine proteins containing poly-glutamine repeats are often polymorphic and enriched for components of transcriptional regulatory complexes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background About forty human diseases are caused by repeat instability mutations. A distinct subset of these diseases is the result of extreme expansions of polymorphic trinucleotide repeats; typically CAG repeats encoding poly-glutamine (poly-Q) tracts in proteins. Polymorphic repeat length variation is also apparent in human poly-Q encoding genes from normal individuals. As these coding sequence repeats are subject to selection in mammals, it has been suggested that normal variations in some of these typically highly conserved genes are implicated in morphological differences between species and phenotypic variations within species. At present, poly-Q encoding genes in non-human mammalian species are poorly documented, as are their functions and propensities for polymorphic variation. Results The current investigation identified 178 bovine poly-Q encoding genes (Q ≥ 5) and within this group, 26 genes with orthologs in both human and mouse that did not contain poly-Q repeats. The bovine poly-Q encoding genes typically had ubiquitous expression patterns although there was bias towards expression in epithelia, brain and testes. They were also characterised by unusually large sizes. Analysis of gene ontology terms revealed that the encoded proteins were strongly enriched for functions associated with transcriptional regulation and many contributed to physical interaction networks in the nucleus where they presumably act cooperatively in transcriptional regulatory complexes. In addition, the coding sequence CAG repeats in some bovine genes impacted mRNA splicing thereby generating unusual transcriptional diversity, which in at least one instance was tissue-specific. The poly-Q encoding genes were prioritised using multiple criteria for their likelihood of being polymorphic and then the highest ranking group was experimentally tested for polymorphic variation within a cattle diversity panel. Extensive and meiotically stable variation was identified. Conclusions

  5. [Carbohydrate-binding proteins of marine invertebrates].

    PubMed

    Luk'ianov, P A; Chernikov, O V; Kobelev, S S; Chikalovets, I V; Molchanova, V I; Li, W

    2007-01-01

    The information on the carbohydrate specificity and molecular organization of some carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) of marine invertebrates is reported. Antiviral activity of some of the lectins against human immunodeficiency virus has been studied. Lectins of marine invertebrates are promising tools for studying natural glycoconjugates and cell effectors in vitro. PMID:17375673

  6. Evolution of Protein-binding DNA Sequences through Competitive Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weiqun; Gerland, Ulrich; Hwa, Terence; Levine, Herbert

    2002-03-01

    The dynamics of in vitro DNA evolution controlled via competitive binding of DNA sequences to proteins has been explored in a recent serial transfer experiment footnote B. Dubertret, S.Liu, Q. Ouyang, A. Libchaber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 6022 (2001).. Motivated by the experiment, we investigate a continuum model for this evolution process in various parameter regimes. We establish a self-consistent mean-field evolution equation, determine its dynamical properties and finite population size corrections. In addition, we discuss the experimental implications of our results.

  7. Quantifying drug-protein binding in vivo.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B; Bench, G; Keating III, G; Palmblad, M; Vogel, J; Grant, P G; Hillegonds, D

    2004-02-17

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides precise quantitation of isotope labeled compounds that are bound to biological macromolecules such as DNA or proteins. The sensitivity is high enough to allow for sub-pharmacological (''micro-'') dosing to determine macromolecular targets without inducing toxicities or altering the system under study, whether it is healthy or diseased. We demonstrated an application of AMS in quantifying the physiologic effects of one dosed chemical compound upon the binding level of another compound in vivo at sub-toxic doses [4].We are using tissues left from this study to develop protocols for quantifying specific binding to isolated and identified proteins. We also developed a new technique to quantify nanogram to milligram amounts of isolated protein at precisions that are comparable to those for quantifying the bound compound by AMS.

  8. Odorant-binding proteins in insects.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects has been greatly improved after the discovery of olfactory and taste receptor proteins. However, after 50 years of the discovery of first insect sex pheromone from the silkmoth Bombyx mori, it is still unclear how hydrophobic compounds reach the dendrites of sensory neurons in vivo across aqueous space and interact with the sensory receptors. The presence of soluble polypeptides in high concentration in the lymph of chemosensilla still poses unanswered questions. More than two decades after their discovery and despite the wealth of structural and biochemical information available, the physiological function of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) is not well understood. Here, I review the structural properties of different subclasses of insect OBPs and their binding to pheromones and other small ligands. Finally, I discuss current ideas and models on the role of such proteins in insect chemoreception. PMID:20831949

  9. Topographical analysis of regulatory and metal ion binding sites on glutamine synthetase from Escherichia coli: 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence energy transfer study

    PubMed Central

    Villafranca, J. J.; Rhee, S. G.; Chock, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    The paramagnetic effect of Mn(II) on 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance signals from the [2-13C]ATP adenylylated glutamine synthetase [L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming); EC 6.3.1.2] from Escherichia coli was measured. This effect permitted the determination of distances from the 2-C position and the phosphorus of covalently bound AMP to the two Mn(II) binding sites, n1 and n2. Binding of Mn(II) to the n1 site converts an inactive apo-enzyme to its active form, while the metal ion bound at n2 occupies the metal-nucleotide substrate site. The distances from Mn(II) at the n1 and n2 sites to phosphorus are ∼10 and ∼7 Å and to the 2-C position of the adenine ring are ∼12 and ∼11 Å, respectively. The fluorescence energy transfer method was used to determine distances between Co(II) at n1 and n2 and the adenylyl site. For this experiment the enzyme was adenylylated with ε-ATP. The distances between ε-adenine and Co(II) at n1 and n2 are ∼13 and ∼11 Å, respectively. Quantitation of the paramagnetic effect due to Co(II) on the 31P nuclear magnetic resonance signal yielded values of 8 and 6 Å for the distances between the phosphorus of the covalently bound AMP and the n1 and n2 sites, respectively. The results reveal that the covalent modification site is very close to the catalytic center of the enzyme. In this study both nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence energy transfer techniques have been used to determine distances between the same set of sites on an enzyme surface. PMID:26053

  10. Nitrogen source activates TOR (target of rapamycin) complex 1 via glutamine and independently of Gtr/Rag proteins.

    PubMed

    Stracka, Daniele; Jozefczuk, Szymon; Rudroff, Florian; Sauer, Uwe; Hall, Michael N

    2014-09-01

    The evolutionary conserved TOR complex 1 (TORC1) activates cell growth in response to nutrients. In yeast, TORC1 responds to the nitrogen source via a poorly understood mechanism. Leucine, and perhaps other amino acids, activates TORC1 via the small GTPases Gtr1 and Gtr2, orthologs of the mammalian Rag GTPases. Here we investigate the activation of TORC1 by the nitrogen source and how this might be related to TORC1 activation by Gtr/Rag. The quality of the nitrogen source, as defined by its ability to promote growth and glutamine accumulation, directly correlates with its ability to activate TORC1 as measured by Sch9 phosphorylation. Preferred nitrogen sources stimulate rapid, sustained Sch9 phosphorylation and glutamine accumulation. Inhibition of glutamine synthesis reduces TORC1 activity and growth. Poor nitrogen sources stimulate rapid but transient Sch9 phosphorylation. A Gtr1 deficiency prevents the transient stimulation of TORC1 but does not affect the sustained TORC1 activity in response to good nitrogen sources. These findings suggest that the nitrogen source must be converted to glutamine, the preferred nitrogen source in yeast, to sustain TORC1 activity. Furthermore, sustained TORC1 activity is independent of Gtr/Rag. Thus, the nitrogen source and Gtr/Rag activate TORC1 via different mechanisms. PMID:25063813

  11. HIV-1 protein gp120 rapidly impairs memory in chicks by interrupting the glutamate-glutamine cycle.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, S P; Edwards, T M; Ng, K T; Robinson, S R

    2007-01-01

    Learning and memory impairments are frequently observed in patients suffering from AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC). These effects have been linked to the presence of gp120, an HIV viral coat glycoprotein. The present study investigated the possibility that gp120 prevents the uptake of extracellular glutamate by astrocytes, leading to an interruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle and a subsequent impairment of memory. Ten microliters of 10nM gp120 was bilaterally injected into the region of the intermediate medial mesopallium of day-old chicks at various times before, or after, training using a single-trial passive avoidance task. Gp120 was found to significantly impair memory retention when injected 10-40 min after training. Memory impairments were evident within 5 min of gp120 administration and remained evident 24h later. Further, the amnestic effect of gp120 could be overcome with glutamine or with precursors of glutamate synthesis, but only weakly by glutamate. These results support the conclusion that the amnestic effect of gp120 is due to an impaired uptake of glutamate by astrocytes and a subsequent interruption of glutamine supply to neurones. The data indicate that the glutamate-glutamine cycle may be a useful therapeutic target in the treatment of ADC. PMID:16714124

  12. Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp.

    PubMed Central

    Kito, H; Ose, Y; Sato, T

    1986-01-01

    When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with the duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl2), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. In the nontreated group, metallothionein was present in the acinar cells of hepatopancreas and renal convoluted tubules. In the Cd-treated group (2 mg/kg IP daily for 3 days), metallothionein was present in the nuclei, sinusoids, and extracellular space of hepatopancreas, in addition to the acinar cells. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups. The metallothionein contents increased in hepatopancreas and kidney in the order: Zn greater than Cd greater than control group. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. PMID:3519201

  13. Crystal Structure of Escherichia coli Cytidine Triphosphate Synthetase, a Nucleotide-Regulated Glutamine Amidotransferase/ATP-Dependent Amidoligase Fusion Protein and Homologue of Anticancer and Antiparasitic Drug Targets†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Endrizzi, James A.; Kim, Hanseong; Anderson, Paul M.; Baldwin, Enoch P.

    2010-01-01

    Cytidine triphosphate synthetases (CTPSs) produce CTP from UTP and glutamine, and regulate intracellular CTP levels through interactions with the four ribonucleotide triphosphates. We solved the 2.3-Å resolution crystal structure of Escherichia coli CTPS using Hg-MAD phasing. The structure reveals a nearly symmetric 222 tetramer, in which each bifunctional monomer contains a dethiobiotin synthetase-like amidoligase N-terminal domain and a Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase C-terminal domain. For each amidoligase active site, essential ATP- and UTP-binding surfaces are contributed by three monomers, suggesting that activity requires tetramer formation, and that a nucleotide-dependent dimer–tetramer equilibrium contributes to the observed positive cooperativity. A gated channel that spans 25 Å between the glutamine hydrolysis and amidoligase active sites provides a path for ammonia diffusion. The channel is accessible to solvent at the base of a cleft adjoining the glutamine hydrolysis active site, providing an entry point for exogenous ammonia. Guanine nucleotide binding sites of structurally related GTPases superimpose on this cleft, providing insights into allosteric regulation by GTP. Mutations that confer nucleoside drug resistance and release CTP inhibition map to a pocket that neighbors the UTP-binding site and can accommodate a pyrimidine ring. Its location suggests that competitive feedback inhibition is affected via a distinct product/drug binding site that overlaps the substrate triphosphate binding site. Overall, the E. coli structure provides a framework for homology modeling of other CTPSs and structure-based design of anti-CTPS therapeutics. PMID:15157079

  14. Suppressor mutations in the Glutamine Dumper1 protein dissociate disturbance in amino acid transport from other characteristics of the Gdu1D phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi; Pratelli, Réjane; Denbow, Cynthia; Pilot, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular amino acid transport across plant membranes is critical for metabolic pathways which are often split between different organelles. In addition, transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane enables the distribution of organic nitrogen through the saps between leaves and developing organs. Amino acid importers have been studied for more than two decades, and their role in this process is well-documented. While equally important, amino acid exporters are not well-characterized. The over-expression of GDU1, encoding a small membrane protein with one transmembrane domain, leads to enhancement of amino acid export by Arabidopsis cells, glutamine secretion at the leaf margin, early senescence and size reduction of the plant, possibly caused by the stimulation of amino acid exporter(s). Previous work reported the identification of suppressor mutations of the GDU1 over-expression phenotype, which affected the GDU1 and LOG2 genes, the latter encoding a membrane-bound ubiquitin ligase interacting with GDU1. The present study focuses on the characterization of three additional suppressor mutations affecting GDU1. Size, phenotype, glutamine transport and amino acid tolerance were recorded for recapitulation plants and over-expressors of mutagenized GDU1 proteins. Unexpectedly, the over-expression of most mutated GDU1 led to plants with enhanced amino acid export, but failing to display secretion of glutamine and size reduction. The results show that the various effects triggered by GDU1 over-expression can be dissociated from one another by mutagenizing specific residues. The fact that these residues are not necessarily conserved suggests that the diverse biochemical properties of the GDU1 protein are not only born by the characterized transmembrane and VIMAG domains. These data provide a better understanding of the structure/function relationships of GDU1 and may enable modifying amino acid export in plants without detrimental effects on plant fitness

  15. Nucleolin is a calcium-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, James S C; Abrenica, Bernard; DiMario, Patrick J; Czubryt, Michael P; Pierce, Grant N

    2002-01-01

    We have purified a prominent 110-kDa protein (p110) from 1.6 M NaCl extracts of rat liver nuclei that appears to bind Ca2+. p110 was originally identified by prominent blue staining with 'Stains-All' in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and was observed to specifically bind ruthenium red and 45Ca2+ in nitrocellulose blot overlays. In spin-dialysis studies, purified p110 saturably bound approximately 75 nmol Ca2+/mg protein at a concentration of 1 mM total Ca2+ with half-maximal binding observed at 105 microM Ca2+. With purification, p110 became increasingly susceptible to proteolytic (likely autolytic) fragmentation, although most intermediary peptides between 40 and 90 kDa retained "Stains-All", ruthenium red, and 45Ca2+ binding. N-terminal sequencing of intact p110 and a 70-kDa autolytic peptide fragment revealed a strong homology to nucleolin. Two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)/IEF revealed autolysis produced increasingly acidic peptide fragments ranging in apparent pI's from 5.5 for intact p110 to 3.5 for a 40 kDa peptide fragment. Intact p110 and several peptide fragments were immunostained with a highly specific anti-nucleolin antibody, R2D2, thus confirming the identity of this protein with nucleolin. These annexin-like Ca2+-binding characteristics of nucleolin are likely contributed by its highly acidic argyrophilic N-terminus with autolysis apparently resulting in largely selective removal of its basic C-terminal domain. Although the Ca2+-dependent functions of nucleolin are unknown, we discuss the possibility that like the structurally analogous HMG-1, its Ca2+-dependent actions may regulate chromatin structure, possibly during apoptosis. PMID:11948683

  16. Sterol Carrier Protein-2: Binding Protein for Endocannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Liedhegner, Elizabeth Sabens; Vogt, Caleb D.; Sem, Daniel S.; Cunningham, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, consisting of eCB ligands and the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R), subserves retrograde, activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the brain. eCB signaling occurs “on-demand,” thus the processes regulating synthesis, mobilization and degradation of eCBs are also primary mechanisms for the regulation of CB1R activity. The eCBs, N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are poorly soluble in water. We hypothesize that their aqueous solubility, and, therefore, their intracellular and transcellular distribution, are facilitated by protein binding. Using in silico docking studies, we have identified the nonspecific lipid binding protein, sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP-2), as a potential AEA binding protein. The docking studies predict that AEA and AM404 associate with SCP-2 at a putative cholesterol binding pocket with ΔG values of −3.6 and −4.6 kcal/mol, respectively. These values are considerably higher than cholesterol (−6.62 kcal/mol) but consistent with a favorable binding interaction. In support of the docking studies, SCP-2-mediated transfer of cholesterol in vitro is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of AEA; and heterologous expression of SCP-2 in HEK 293 cells increases time-related accumulation of AEA in a temperature-dependent fashion. These results suggest that SCP-2 facilitates cellular uptake of AEA. However, there is no effect of SCP-2 transfection on the cellular accumulation of AEA determined at equilibrium or the IC50 values for AEA, AM404 or 2-AG to inhibit steady state accumulation of radiolabelled AEA. We conclude that SCP-2 is a low affinity binding protein for AEA that can facilitate its cellular uptake but does not contribute significantly to intracellular sequestration of AEA. PMID:24510313

  17. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.D.; Scott-Craig, J.S.

    1999-10-26

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is presented. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with vectors and seeds from the plants.

  18. Polynucleotides encoding TRF1 binding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Kim, Sahn-Ho

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel telomere associated protein (Trf1-interacting nuclear protein 2 "Tin2") that hinders the binding of Trf1 to its specific telomere repeat sequence and mediates the formation of a Tin2-Trf1-telomeric DNA complex that limits telomerase access to the telomere. Also included are the corresponding nucleic acids that encode the Tin2 of the present invention, as well as mutants of Tin2. Methods of making, purifying and using Tin2 of the present invention are described. In addition, drug screening assays to identify drugs that mimic and/or complement the effect of Tin2 are presented.

  19. Binding of transition metals to S100 proteins.

    PubMed

    Gilston, Benjamin A; Skaar, Eric P; Chazin, Walter J

    2016-08-01

    The S100 proteins are a unique class of EF-hand Ca(2+) binding proteins distributed in a cell-specific, tissue-specific, and cell cycle-specific manner in humans and other vertebrates. These proteins are distinguished by their distinctive homodimeric structure, both intracellular and extracellular functions, and the ability to bind transition metals at the dimer interface. Here we summarize current knowledge of S100 protein binding of Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) ions, focusing on binding affinities, conformational changes that arise from metal binding, and the roles of transition metal binding in S100 protein function. PMID:27430886

  20. Systematic discovery of Xist RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ci; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Flynn, Ryan A; Bharadwaj, Maheetha; Calabrese, J Mauro; Magnuson, Terry; Heard, Edith; Chang, Howard Y

    2015-04-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function with associated proteins to effect complex structural and regulatory outcomes. To reveal the composition and dynamics of specific noncoding RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) in vivo, we developed comprehensive identification of RNA binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS). ChIRP-MS analysis of four ncRNAs captures key protein interactors, including a U1-specific link to the 3' RNA processing machinery. Xist, an essential lncRNA for X chromosome inactivation (XCI), interacts with 81 proteins from chromatin modification, nuclear matrix, and RNA remodeling pathways. The Xist RNA-protein particle assembles in two steps coupled with the transition from pluripotency to differentiation. Specific interactors include HnrnpK, which participates in Xist-mediated gene silencing and histone modifications but not Xist localization, and Drosophila Split ends homolog Spen, which interacts via the A-repeat domain of Xist and is required for gene silencing. Thus, Xist lncRNA engages with proteins in a modular and developmentally controlled manner to coordinate chromatin spreading and silencing. PMID:25843628

  1. Systematic discovery of Xist RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ci; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Flynn, Ryan A.; Bharadwaj, Maheetha; Calabrese, J. Mauro; Magnuson, Terry; Heard, Edith; Chang, Howard Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function with associated proteins to effect complex structural and regulatory outcomes. To reveal the composition and dynamics of specific noncoding RNA- protein complexes (RNPs) in vivo, we developed comprehensive identification of RNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS). ChIRP-MS analysis of four ncRNAs captures key protein interactors, including a U1-specific link to the 3′ RNA processing machinery. Xist, an essential lncRNA for X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), interacts with 81 proteins from chromatin modification, nuclear matrix, and RNA remodeling pathways. The Xist RNA-protein particle assembles in two steps coupled with the transition from pluripotency to differentiation. Specific interactors include HnrnpK that participates in Xist-mediated gene silencing and histone modifications, but not Xist localization and Drosophila Split ends homolog Spen that interacts via the A-repeat domain of Xist and is required for gene silencing. Thus, Xist lncRNA engages with proteins in a modular and developmentally controlled manner to coordinate chromatin spreading and silencing. PMID:25843628

  2. Copper-binding protein in Mimulus guttatus

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, N.J.; Thurman, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    A Cu-binding protein has been purified from the roots of Mimulus guttatus using gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75 and anion exchange chromatography on DEAE Biogel A. The protein has similar properties to putative metallothioneins (MTS) purified from other angiosperms. Putative MT was estimated by measuring the relative percentage incorporation of (/sup 35/S) into fractions containing the protein after HPLC on SW 3000-gel. In the roots of both Cu-tolerant and non tolerant plants synthesis of putative MT is induced by increased Cu concentration in the nutrient solution. The relative percentage incorporation of (/sup 35/S) into putative MT is significantly higher in extracts from the roots of Cu-tolerant than non tolerant M. guttatus after growth in 1 ..mu..M Cu suggesting involvement in the mechanism of tolerance. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cation specific binding with protein surface charges.

    PubMed

    Hess, Berk; van der Vegt, Nico F A

    2009-08-11

    Biological organization depends on a sensitive balance of noncovalent interactions, in particular also those involving interactions between ions. Ion-pairing is qualitatively described by the law of "matching water affinities." This law predicts that cations and anions (with equal valence) form stable contact ion pairs if their sizes match. We show that this simple physical model fails to describe the interaction of cations with (molecular) anions of weak carboxylic acids, which are present on the surfaces of many intra- and extracellular proteins. We performed molecular simulations with quantitatively accurate models and observed that the order K(+) < Na(+) < Li(+) of increasing binding affinity with carboxylate ions is caused by a stronger preference for forming weak solvent-shared ion pairs. The relative insignificance of contact pair interactions with protein surfaces indicates that thermodynamic stability and interactions between proteins in alkali salt solutions is governed by interactions mediated through hydration water molecules. PMID:19666545

  4. A Crayfish Insulin-like-binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Ohad; Weil, Simy; Manor, Rivka; Roth, Ziv; Khalaila, Isam; Sagi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Across the animal kingdom, the involvement of insulin-like peptide (ILP) signaling in sex-related differentiation processes is attracting increasing attention. Recently, a gender-specific ILP was identified as the androgenic sex hormone in Crustacea. However, moieties modulating the actions of this androgenic insulin-like growth factor were yet to be revealed. Through molecular screening of an androgenic gland (AG) cDNA library prepared from the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, we have identified a novel insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) termed Cq-IGFBP. Based on bioinformatics analyses, the deduced Cq-IGFBP was shown to share high sequence homology with IGFBP family members from both invertebrates and vertebrates. The protein also includes a sequence determinant proven crucial for ligand binding, which according to three-dimensional modeling is assigned to the exposed outer surface of the protein. Recombinant Cq-IGFBP (rCq-IGFBP) protein was produced and, using a “pulldown” methodology, was shown to specifically interact with the insulin-like AG hormone of the crayfish (Cq-IAG). Particularly, using both mass spectral analysis and an immunological tool, rCq-IGFBP was shown to bind the Cq-IAG prohormone. Furthermore, a peptide corresponding to residues 23–38 of the Cq-IAG A-chain was found sufficient for in vitro recognition by rCq-IGFBP. Cq-IGFBP is the first IGFBP family member shown to specifically interact with a gender-specific ILP. Unlike their ILP ligands, IGFBPs are highly conserved across evolution, from ancient arthropods, like crustaceans, to humans. Such conservation places ILP signaling at the center of sex-related phenomena in early animal development. PMID:23775079

  5. DNA and RNA Quadruplex-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brázda, Václav; Hároníková, Lucia; Liao, Jack C. C.; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Four-stranded DNA structures were structurally characterized in vitro by NMR, X-ray and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy in detail. Among the different types of quadruplexes (i-Motifs, minor groove quadruplexes, G-quadruplexes, etc.), the best described are G-quadruplexes which are featured by Hoogsteen base-paring. Sequences with the potential to form quadruplexes are widely present in genome of all organisms. They are found often in repetitive sequences such as telomeric ones, and also in promoter regions and 5' non-coding sequences. Recently, many proteins with binding affinity to G-quadruplexes have been identified. One of the initially portrayed G-rich regions, the human telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)n, is recognized by many proteins which can modulate telomerase activity. Sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplexes are often located in promoter regions of various oncogenes. The NHE III1 region of the c-MYC promoter has been shown to interact with nucleolin protein as well as other G-quadruplex-binding proteins. A number of G-rich sequences are also present in promoter region of estrogen receptor alpha. In addition to DNA quadruplexes, RNA quadruplexes, which are critical in translational regulation, have also been predicted and observed. For example, the RNA quadruplex formation in telomere-repeat-containing RNA is involved in interaction with TRF2 (telomere repeat binding factor 2) and plays key role in telomere regulation. All these fundamental examples suggest the importance of quadruplex structures in cell processes and their understanding may provide better insight into aging and disease development. PMID:25268620

  6. DNA and RNA quadruplex-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Brázda, Václav; Hároníková, Lucia; Liao, Jack C C; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Four-stranded DNA structures were structurally characterized in vitro by NMR, X-ray and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy in detail. Among the different types of quadruplexes (i-Motifs, minor groove quadruplexes, G-quadruplexes, etc.), the best described are G-quadruplexes which are featured by Hoogsteen base-paring. Sequences with the potential to form quadruplexes are widely present in genome of all organisms. They are found often in repetitive sequences such as telomeric ones, and also in promoter regions and 5' non-coding sequences. Recently, many proteins with binding affinity to G-quadruplexes have been identified. One of the initially portrayed G-rich regions, the human telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)n, is recognized by many proteins which can modulate telomerase activity. Sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplexes are often located in promoter regions of various oncogenes. The NHE III1 region of the c-MYC promoter has been shown to interact with nucleolin protein as well as other G-quadruplex-binding proteins. A number of G-rich sequences are also present in promoter region of estrogen receptor alpha. In addition to DNA quadruplexes, RNA quadruplexes, which are critical in translational regulation, have also been predicted and observed. For example, the RNA quadruplex formation in telomere-repeat-containing RNA is involved in interaction with TRF2 (telomere repeat binding factor 2) and plays key role in telomere regulation. All these fundamental examples suggest the importance of quadruplex structures in cell processes and their understanding may provide better insight into aging and disease development. PMID:25268620

  7. Identification of DNA-binding and protein-binding proteins using enhanced graph wavelet features.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan; Zhou, Weiqiang; Dai, Dao-Qing; Yan, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between biomolecules play an essential role in various biological processes. For predicting DNA-binding or protein-binding proteins, many machine-learning-based techniques have used various types of features to represent the interface of the complexes, but they only deal with the properties of a single atom in the interface and do not take into account the information of neighborhood atoms directly. This paper proposes a new feature representation method for biomolecular interfaces based on the theory of graph wavelet. The enhanced graph wavelet features (EGWF) provides an effective way to characterize interface feature through adding physicochemical features and exploiting a graph wavelet formulation. Particularly, graph wavelet condenses the information around the center atom, and thus enhances the discrimination of features of biomolecule binding proteins in the feature space. Experiment results show that EGWF performs effectively for predicting DNA-binding and protein-binding proteins in terms of Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) score and the area value under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). PMID:24334394

  8. Competitive protein binding assay for piritrexim

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, J.L. Jr.; Ringstad, J.L.; Sigel, C.W. )

    1989-09-01

    A competitive protein binding assay for piritrexim (PTX, 1) that makes use of a commercially available radioassay kit for methotrexate has been developed. After it is selectively extracted from plasma, PTX competes with ({sup 125}I)methotrexate for binding to dihydrofolate reductase isolated from Lactobacillus casei. Free drug is separated from bound drug by adsorption to dextran-coated charcoal. Piritrexim is measurable over a range of 0.01 to 10.0 micrograms/mL in plasma with a coefficient of variation less than 15%. The limit of sensitivity of the assay is approximately 2 ng/mL. An excellent correlation between this assay and a previously published HPLC method was found.

  9. Landscape of protein-small ligand binding modes.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Kota; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-09-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms of specific small-molecule (ligand) recognition by proteins is a long-standing conundrum. While the structures of these molecules, proteins and ligands, have been extensively studied, protein-ligand interactions, or binding modes, have not been comprehensively analyzed. Although methods for assessing similarities of binding site structures have been extensively developed, the methods for the computational treatment of binding modes have not been well established. Here, we developed a computational method for encoding the information about binding modes as graphs, and assessing their similarities. An all-against-all comparison of 20,040 protein-ligand complexes provided the landscape of the protein-ligand binding modes and its relationships with protein- and chemical spaces. While similar proteins in the same SCOP Family tend to bind relatively similar ligands with similar binding modes, the correlation between ligand and binding similarities was not very high (R(2)  = 0.443). We found many pairs with novel relationships, in which two evolutionally distant proteins recognize dissimilar ligands by similar binding modes (757,474 pairs out of 200,790,780 pairs were categorized into this relationship, in our dataset). In addition, there were an abundance of pairs of homologous proteins binding to similar ligands with different binding modes (68,217 pairs). Our results showed that many interesting relationships between protein-ligand complexes are still hidden in the structure database, and our new method for assessing binding mode similarities is effective to find them. PMID:27327045

  10. Regulation of Pluripotency by RNA Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Julia; Blelloch, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Establishment, maintenance, and exit from pluripotency require precise coordination of a cell’s molecular machinery. Substantial headway has been made in deciphering many aspects of this elaborate system, particularly with respect to epigenetics, transcription, and noncoding RNAs. Less attention has been paid to posttranscriptional regulatory processes such as alternative splicing, RNA processing and modification, nuclear export, regulation of transcript stability, and translation. Here, we introduce the RNA binding proteins that enable the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, summarizing current and ongoing research on their roles at different regulatory points and discussing how they help script the fate of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25192462

  11. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Scott-Craig, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is set forth in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 1. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 2. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with said vectors and seeds from said plants.

  12. Computational Design of DNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Thyme, Summer; Song, Yifan

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of engineered and naturally occurring sequence perturbations to protein-DNA interfaces requires accurate computational modeling technologies. It has been well established that computational design to accommodate small numbers of DNA target site substitutions is possible. This chapter details the basic method of design used in the Rosetta macromolecular modeling program that has been successfully used to modulate the specificity of DNA-binding proteins. More recently, combining computational design and directed evolution has become a common approach for increasing the success rate of protein engineering projects. The power of such high-throughput screening depends on computational methods producing multiple potential solutions. Therefore, this chapter describes several protocols for increasing the diversity of designed output. Lastly, we describe an approach for building comparative models of protein-DNA complexes in order to utilize information from homologous sequences. These models can be used to explore how nature modulates specificity of protein-DNA interfaces and potentially can even be used as starting templates for further engineering. PMID:27094297

  13. Measuring Binding Affinity of Protein-Ligand Interaction Using Spectrophotometry: Binding of Neutral Red to Riboflavin-Binding Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation constant, K[subscript d], of the binding of riboflavin-binding protein (RP) with neutral red (NR) can be determined by titrating RP to a fixed concentration of NR. Upon adding RP to the NR solution, the maximum absorption peak of NR shifts to 545 nm from 450 nm for the free NR. The change of the absorption can be used to determine…

  14. The effects of acute oral glutamine supplementation on exercise-induced gastrointestinal permeability and heat shock protein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Zuhl, Micah; Dokladny, Karol; Mermier, Christine; Schneider, Suzanne; Salgado, Roy; Moseley, Pope

    2015-01-01

    Chronic glutamine supplementation reduces exercise-induced intestinal permeability and inhibits the NF-κB pro-inflammatory pathway in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These effects were correlated with activation of HSP70. The purpose of this paper is to test if an acute dose of oral glutamine prior to exercise reduces intestinal permeability along with activation of the heat shock response leading to inhibition of pro-inflammatory markers. Physically active subjects (N = 7) completed baseline and exercise intestinal permeability tests, determined by the percent ratio of urinary lactulose (5 g) to rhamnose (2 g). Exercise included two 60-min treadmill runs at 70 % of VO2max at 30 °C after ingestion of glutamine (Gln) or placebo (Pla). Plasma levels of endotoxin and TNF-α, along with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) protein expression of HSP70 and IκBα, were measured pre- and post-exercise and 2 and 4 h post-exercise. Permeability increased in the Pla trial compared to that at rest (0.06 ± 0.01 vs. 0.02 ± 0.018) and did not increase in the Gln trial. Plasma endotoxin was lower at the 4-h time point in the Gln vs. 4 h in the Pla (6.715 ± 0.046 pg/ml vs. 7.952 ± 1.11 pg/ml). TNF-α was lower 4 h post-exercise in the Gln vs. Pla (1.64 ± 0.09 pg/ml vs. 1.87 ± 0.12 pg/ml). PBMC expression of IkBα was higher 4 h post-exercise in the Gln vs. 4 h in the Pla (1.29 ± 0.43 vs. 0.8892 ± 0.040). HSP70 was higher pre-exercise and 2 h post-exercise in the Gln vs. Pla (1.35 ± 0.21 vs. 1.000 ± 0.000 and 1.65 ± 0.21 vs. 1.27 ± 0.40). Acute oral glutamine supplementation prevents an exercise-induced rise in intestinal permeability and suppresses NF-κB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25062931

  15. Ligand configurational entropy and protein binding

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-en A.; Chen, Wei; Gilson, Michael K.

    2007-01-01

    The restriction of a small molecule's motion on binding to a protein causes a loss of configurational entropy, and thus a penalty in binding affinity. Some energy models used in computer-aided ligand design neglect this entropic penalty, whereas others account for it based on an expected drop in the number of accessible rotamers upon binding. However, the validity of the physical assumptions underlying the various approaches is largely unexamined. The present study addresses this issue by using Mining Minima calculations to analyze the association of amprenavir with HIV protease. The computed loss in ligand configurational entropy is large, contributing ∼25 kcal/mol (4.184 kJ/kcal) to ΔG°. Most of this loss results from narrower energy wells in the bound state, rather than a drop in the number of accessible rotamers. Coupling among rotation/translation and internal degrees of freedom complicates the decomposition of the entropy change into additive terms. The results highlight the potential to gain affinity by designing conformationally restricted ligands and have implications for the formulation of energy models for ligand scoring. PMID:17242351

  16. Alternative polyadenylation and RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Erson-Bensan, Ayse Elif

    2016-08-01

    Our understanding of the extent of microRNA-based gene regulation has expanded in an impressive pace over the past decade. Now, we are beginning to better appreciate the role of 3'-UTR (untranslated region) cis-elements which harbor not only microRNA but also RNA-binding protein (RBP) binding sites that have significant effect on the stability and translational rate of mRNAs. To add further complexity, alternative polyadenylation (APA) emerges as a widespread mechanism to regulate gene expression by producing shorter or longer mRNA isoforms that differ in the length of their 3'-UTRs or even coding sequences. Resulting shorter mRNA isoforms generally lack cis-elements where trans-acting factors bind, and hence are differentially regulated compared with the longer isoforms. This review focuses on the RBPs involved in APA regulation and their action mechanisms on APA-generated isoforms. A better understanding of the complex interactions between APA and RBPs is promising for mechanistic and clinical implications including biomarker discovery and new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27208003

  17. Ligand configurational entropy and protein binding.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-en A; Chen, Wei; Gilson, Michael K

    2007-01-30

    The restriction of a small molecule's motion on binding to a protein causes a loss of configurational entropy, and thus a penalty in binding affinity. Some energy models used in computer-aided ligand design neglect this entropic penalty, whereas others account for it based on an expected drop in the number of accessible rotamers upon binding. However, the validity of the physical assumptions underlying the various approaches is largely unexamined. The present study addresses this issue by using Mining Minima calculations to analyze the association of amprenavir with HIV protease. The computed loss in ligand configurational entropy is large, contributing approximately 25 kcal/mol (4.184 kJ/kcal) to DeltaG degrees. Most of this loss results from narrower energy wells in the bound state, rather than a drop in the number of accessible rotamers. Coupling among rotation/translation and internal degrees of freedom complicates the decomposition of the entropy change into additive terms. The results highlight the potential to gain affinity by designing conformationally restricted ligands and have implications for the formulation of energy models for ligand scoring. PMID:17242351

  18. The modular architecture of protein-protein binding interfaces.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, D; Rahat, O; Albeck, S; Meged, R; Dym, O; Schreiber, G

    2005-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are essential for life. Yet, our understanding of the general principles governing binding is not complete. In the present study, we show that the interface between proteins is built in a modular fashion; each module is comprised of a number of closely interacting residues, with few interactions between the modules. The boundaries between modules are defined by clustering the contact map of the interface. We show that mutations in one module do not affect residues located in a neighboring module. As a result, the structural and energetic consequences of the deletion of entire modules are surprisingly small. To the contrary, within their module, mutations cause complex energetic and structural consequences. Experimentally, this phenomenon is shown on the interaction between TEM1-beta-lactamase and beta-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP) by using multiple-mutant analysis and x-ray crystallography. Replacing an entire module of five interface residues with Ala created a large cavity in the interface, with no effect on the detailed structure of the remaining interface. The modular architecture of binding sites, which resembles human engineering design, greatly simplifies the design of new protein interactions and provides a feasible view of how these interactions evolved. PMID:15618400

  19. Comparison of the Folding Mechanism of Highly Homologous Proteins in the Lipid-binding Protein Family

    EPA Science Inventory

    The folding mechanism of two closely related proteins in the intracellular lipid binding protein family, human bile acid binding protein (hBABP) and rat bile acid binding protein (rBABP) were examined. These proteins are 77% identical (93% similar) in sequence Both of these singl...

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of GatD, a glutamine amidotransferase-like protein from Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Diana; Figueiredo, Teresa A.; Verma, Anil; Sobral, Rita G.; Ludovice, Ana M.; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Trincao, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Amidation of peptidoglycan is an essential feature in Staphylococcus aureus that is necessary for resistance to β-lactams and lysozyme. GatD, a 27 kDa type I glutamine amidotransferase-like protein, together with MurT ligase, catalyses the amidation reaction of the glutamic acid residues of the peptidoglycan of S. aureus. The native and the selenomethionine-derivative proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol, sodium acetate and calcium acetate. The crystals obtained diffracted beyond 1.85 and 2.25 Å, respectively, and belonged to space group P212121. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected at Diamond Light Source (on beamlines I02 and I04) and were used to obtain initial phases. PMID:24817726

  1. Prednisolone protein binding in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed Central

    Reece, P A; Disney, A P; Stafford, I; Shastry, J C

    1985-01-01

    Prednisolone pharmacokinetics and protein binding characteristics were studied in 10 renal transplant patients with various degrees of renal function (serum creatinine: 80-380 mumol/l) who received their usual oral maintenance dose of prednisolone (0.18 +/- 0.04 mg/kg). Plasma was assayed for prednisolone and hydrocortisone by h.p.l.c. and free prednisolone concentrations were determined in each sample by a rapid ultrafiltration technique. Free prednisolone area under curve (AUCu) ranged from 101 to 436 ng ml-1 h and was 6.3 to 15.0% of total prednisolone AUC. The fraction AUCu/AUC was closely related to serum albumin and creatinine concentrations determined at the time of study (multilinear regression correlation coefficient r2 = 0.830, P less than 0.0001); elevated serum creatinine and low albumin concentrations were associated with a higher % free. These results suggest that much of the variability in prednisolone protein binding could be attributed to inter-patient variability in serum albumin and creatinine concentrations. Total prednisolone concentrations would be potentially misleading in any comparisons made between patient groups with different renal function. PMID:3899153

  2. Effect of hydrophobic residue substitutions with glutamine on Ca(2+) binding and exchange with the N-domain of troponin C.

    PubMed

    Tikunova, Svetlana B; Rall, Jack A; Davis, Jonathan P

    2002-05-28

    Troponin C (TnC) is an EF-hand Ca(2+) binding protein that regulates skeletal muscle contraction. The mechanisms that control the Ca(2+) binding properties of TnC and other EF-hand proteins are not completely understood. We individually substituted 27 Phe, Ile, Leu, Val, and Met residues with polar Gln to examine the role of hydrophobic residues in Ca(2+) binding and exchange with the N-domain of a fluorescent TnC(F29W). The global N-terminal Ca(2+) affinities of the TnC(F29W) mutants varied approximately 2340-fold, while Ca(2+) association and dissociation rates varied less than 70-fold and more than 45-fold, respectively. Greater than 2-fold increases in Ca(2+) affinities were obtained primarily by slowing of Ca(2+) dissociation rates, while greater than 2-fold decreases in Ca(2+) affinities were obtained by slowing of Ca(2+) association rates and speeding of Ca(2+) dissociation rates. No correlation was found between the Ca(2+) binding properties of the TnC(F29W) mutants and the solvent accessibility of the hydrophobic amino acids in the apo state, Ca(2+) bound state, or the difference between the two states. However, the effects of these hydrophobic mutations on Ca(2+) binding were contextual possibly because of side chain interactions within the apo and Ca(2+) bound states of the N-domain. These results demonstrate that a single hydrophobic residue, which does not directly ligate Ca(2+), can play a crucial role in controlling Ca(2+) binding and exchange within a coupled and functional EF-hand system. PMID:12022873

  3. Polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein: a multifunctional RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Kirsty; Bushell, Martin; Spriggs, Keith A; Willis, Anne E

    2008-08-01

    PTB (polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein) is a ubiquitous RNA-binding protein. It was originally identified as a protein with a role in splicing but it is now known to function in a large number of diverse cellular processes including polyadenylation, mRNA stability and translation initiation. Specificity of PTB function is achieved by a combination of changes in the cellular localization of this protein (its ability to shuttle from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is tightly controlled) and its interaction with additional proteins. These differences in location and trans-acting factor requirements account for the fact that PTB acts both as a suppressor of splicing and an activator of translation. In the latter case, the role of PTB in translation has been studied extensively and it appears that this protein is required for an alternative form of translation initiation that is mediated by a large RNA structural element termed an IRES (internal ribosome entry site) that allows the synthesis of picornaviral proteins and cellular proteins that function to control cell growth and cell death. In the present review, we discuss how PTB regulates these disparate processes. PMID:18631133

  4. Structural neighboring property for identifying protein-protein binding sites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The protein-protein interaction plays a key role in the control of many biological functions, such as drug design and functional analysis. Determination of binding sites is widely applied in molecular biology research. Therefore, many efficient methods have been developed for identifying binding sites. In this paper, we calculate structural neighboring property through Voronoi diagram. Using 6,438 complexes, we study local biases of structural neighboring property on interface. Results We propose a novel statistical method to extract interacting residues, and interacting patches can be clustered as predicted interface residues. In addition, structural neighboring property can be adopted to construct a new energy function, for evaluating docking solutions. It includes new statistical property as well as existing energy items. Comparing to existing methods, our approach improves overall Fnat value by at least 3%. On Benchmark v4.0, our method has average Irmsd value of 3.31Å and overall Fnat value of 63%, which improves upon Irmsd of 3.89 Å and Fnat of 49% for ZRANK, and Irmsd of 3.99Å and Fnat of 46% for ClusPro. On the CAPRI targets, our method has average Irmsd value of 3.46 Å and overall Fnat value of 45%, which improves upon Irmsd of 4.18 Å and Fnat of 40% for ZRANK, and Irmsd of 5.12 Å and Fnat of 32% for ClusPro. Conclusions Experiments show that our method achieves better results than some state-of-the-art methods for identifying protein-protein binding sites, with the prediction quality improved in terms of CAPRI evaluation criteria. PMID:26356630

  5. RNA Bind-n-Seq: Measuring the Binding Affinity Landscape of RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Nicole J; Robertson, Alex D; Burge, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) coordinate post-transcriptional control of gene expression, often through sequence-specific recognition of primary transcripts or mature messenger RNAs. Hundreds of RBPs are encoded in the human genome, most with undefined or incompletely defined biological roles. Understanding the function of these factors will require the identification of each RBP's distinct RNA binding specificity. RNA Bind-n-Seq (RBNS) is a high-throughput, cost-effective in vitro method capable of resolving sequence and secondary structure preferences of RBPs. Dissociation constants can also be inferred from RBNS data when provided with additional experimental information. Here, we describe the experimental procedures to perform RBNS and discuss important parameters of the method and ways that the experiment can be tailored to the specific RBP under study. Additionally, we present the conceptual framework and execution of the freely available RBNS computational pipeline and describe the outputs of the pipeline. Different approaches to quantify binding specificity, quality control metrics, and estimation of binding constants are also covered. PMID:26068750

  6. Zinc Finger Independent Genome-Wide Binding of Sp2 Potentiates Recruitment of Histone-Fold Protein Nf-y Distinguishing It from Sp1 and Sp3

    PubMed Central

    Finkernagel, Florian; Stiewe, Thorsten; Nist, Andrea; Suske, Guntram

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors are grouped into families based on sequence similarity within functional domains, particularly DNA-binding domains. The Specificity proteins Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 are paradigmatic of closely related transcription factors. They share amino-terminal glutamine-rich regions and a conserved carboxy-terminal zinc finger domain that can bind to GC rich motifs in vitro. All three Sp proteins are ubiquitously expressed; yet they carry out unique functions in vivo raising the question of how specificity is achieved. Crucially, it is unknown whether they bind to distinct genomic sites and, if so, how binding site selection is accomplished. In this study, we have examined the genomic binding patterns of Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts by ChIP-seq. Sp1 and Sp3 essentially occupy the same promoters and localize to GC boxes. The genomic binding pattern of Sp2 is different; Sp2 primarily localizes at CCAAT motifs. Consistently, re-expression of Sp2 and Sp3 mutants in corresponding knockout MEFs revealed strikingly different modes of genomic binding site selection. Most significantly, while the zinc fingers dictate genomic binding of Sp3, they are completely dispensable for binding of Sp2. Instead, the glutamine-rich amino-terminal region is sufficient for recruitment of Sp2 to its target promoters in vivo. We have identified the trimeric histone-fold CCAAT box binding transcription factor Nf-y as the major partner for Sp2-chromatin interaction. Nf-y is critical for recruitment of Sp2 to co-occupied regulatory elements. Equally, Sp2 potentiates binding of Nf-y to shared sites indicating the existence of an extensive Sp2-Nf-y interaction network. Our results unveil strikingly different recruitment mechanisms of Sp1/Sp2/Sp3 transcription factor members uncovering an unexpected layer of complexity in their binding to chromatin in vivo. PMID:25793500

  7. Calcyclin Binding Protein/Siah-1 Interacting Protein Is a Hsp90 Binding Chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Agnieszka; Bieganowski, Paweł; Prus, Wiktor; Krzemień-Ojak, Łucja; Kądziołka, Beata; Fabczak, Hanna; Filipek, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone activity is tightly regulated by interaction with many co-chaperones. Since CacyBP/SIP shares some sequence homology with a known Hsp90 co-chaperone, Sgt1, in this work we performed a set of experiments in order to verify whether CacyBP/SIP can interact with Hsp90. By applying the immunoprecipitation assay we have found that CacyBP/SIP binds to Hsp90 and that the middle (M) domain of Hsp90 is responsible for this binding. Furthermore, the proximity ligation assay (PLA) performed on HEp-2 cells has shown that the CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 complexes are mainly localized in the cytoplasm of these cells. Using purified proteins and applying an ELISA we have shown that Hsp90 interacts directly with CacyBP/SIP and that the latter protein does not compete with Sgt1 for the binding to Hsp90. Moreover, inhibitors of Hsp90 do not perturb CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 binding. Luciferase renaturation assay and citrate synthase aggregation assay with the use of recombinant proteins have revealed that CacyBP/SIP exhibits chaperone properties. Also, CacyBP/SIP-3xFLAG expression in HEp-2 cells results in the appearance of more basic Hsp90 forms in 2D electrophoresis, which may indicate that CacyBP/SIP dephosphorylates Hsp90. Altogether, the obtained results suggest that CacyBP/SIP is involved in regulation of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery. PMID:27249023

  8. Glycan Masking of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein for Probing Protein Binding Function and Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Joel; Gurumoorthy, Sairam; Gibson, Claire; Melcher, Martin; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Wang, Ruobing; Schief, William R.; Smith, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Glycan masking is an emerging vaccine design strategy to focus antibody responses to specific epitopes, but it has mostly been evaluated on the already heavily glycosylated HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Here this approach was used to investigate the binding interaction of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) and the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) and to evaluate if glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens would focus the antibody response on key interaction surfaces. Four variants of PVDBPII were generated and probed for function and immunogenicity. Whereas two PvDBPII glycosylation variants with increased glycan surface coverage distant from predicted interaction sites had equivalent binding activity to wild-type protein, one of them elicited slightly better DARC-binding-inhibitory activity than wild-type immunogen. Conversely, the addition of an N-glycosylation site adjacent to a predicted PvDBP interaction site both abolished its interaction with DARC and resulted in weaker inhibitory antibody responses. PvDBP is composed of three subdomains and is thought to function as a dimer; a meta-analysis of published PvDBP mutants and the new DBPII glycosylation variants indicates that critical DARC binding residues are concentrated at the dimer interface and along a relatively flat surface spanning portions of two subdomains. Our findings suggest that DARC-binding-inhibitory antibody epitope(s) lie close to the predicted DARC interaction site, and that addition of N-glycan sites distant from this site may augment inhibitory antibodies. Thus, glycan resurfacing is an attractive and feasible tool to investigate protein structure-function, and glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens might contribute to P. vivax vaccine development. PMID:23853575

  9. Identification and isoprenylation of plant GTP-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Biermann, B; Randall, S K; Crowell, D N

    1996-08-01

    To identify isoprenylated plant GTP-binding proteins, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum cDNA expression libraries were screened for cDNA-encoded proteins capable of binding [32P]GTP in vitro. ATGB2, an Arabidopsis homologue of the GTP-binding protein Rab2, was found to bind GTP in vitro and to be a substrate for a geranylgeranyl:protein transferase (GGTase) present in plant extracts. The carboxyl terminus of this protein contains a -GCCG sequence, which has not previously been shown to be recognized by any prenyl:protein transferase (PTase), but which most closely resembles that isoprenylated by the type II GGTase (-XXCC, -XCXC, or -CCXX). In vitro geranylgeranylation of an Arabidopsis Rab1 protein containing a carboxyl-terminal-CCGQ sequence confirmed the presence of a type II GGTase-like activity in plant extracts. Several other proteins were also identified by in vitro GTP binding, including Arabidopsis and tobacco homologues of Rab11, ARF (ADP-ribosylation factor) and Sar proteins, as well as a novel 22 kDa Arabidopsis protein (ATG81). This 22 kDa protein had consensus GTP-binding motifs and bound GTP with high specificity, but its structure was not closely related to that of any known GTP-binding protein (it most resembled proteins within the ARF/Sar and G protein alpha-subunit superfamilies). PMID:8843944

  10. Protein Function Annotation By Local Binding Site Surface Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E.; Varela, Rocco; Jain, Ajay N.

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of protein crystal structures exist for proteins whose function cannot be confidently determined from sequence similarity. Surflex-PSIM, a previously reported surface-based protein similarity algorithm, provides an alternative method for hypothesizing function for such proteins. The method now supports fully automatic binding site detection and is fast enough to screen comprehensive databases of protein binding sites. The binding site detection methodology was validated on apo/holo cognate protein pairs, correctly identifying 91% of ligand binding sites in holo structures and 88% in apo structures where corresponding sites existed. For correctly detected apo binding sites, the cognate holo site was the most similar binding site 87% of the time. PSIM was used to screen a set of proteins that had poorly characterized functions at the time of crystallization, but were later biochemically annotated. Using a fully automated protocol, this set of 8 proteins was screened against approximately 60,000 ligand binding sites from the PDB. PSIM correctly identified functional matches that pre-dated query protein biochemical annotation for five out of the eight query proteins. A panel of twelve currently unannotated proteins was also screened, resulting in a large number of statistically significant binding site matches, some of which suggest likely functions for the poorly characterized proteins. PMID:24166661

  11. Characterizing the morphology of protein binding patches.

    PubMed

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Bansal, Achin; Cazals, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Let the patch of a partner in a protein complex be the collection of atoms accounting for the interaction. To improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship, we present a patch model decoupling the topological and geometric properties. While the geometry is classically encoded by the atomic positions, the topology is recorded in a graph encoding the relative position of concentric shells partitioning the interface atoms. The topological-geometric duality provides the basis of a generic dynamic programming-based algorithm comparing patches at the shell level, which may favor topological or geometric features. On the biological side, we address four questions, using 249 cocrystallized heterodimers organized in biological families. First, we dissect the morphology of binding patches and show that Nature enjoyed the topological and geometric degrees of freedom independently while retaining a finite set of qualitatively distinct topological signatures. Second, we argue that our shell-based comparison is effective to perform atomic-level comparisons and show that topological similarity is a less stringent than geometric similarity. We also use the topological versus geometric duality to exhibit topo-rigid patches, whose topology (but not geometry) remains stable upon docking. Third, we use our comparison algorithms to infer specificity-related information amidst a database of complexes. Finally, we exhibit a descriptor outperforming its contenders to predict the binding affinities of the affinity benchmark. The softwares developed with this article are availablefrom http://team.inria.fr/abs/vorpatch_compatch/. PMID:22806945

  12. RNA-binding protein nucleolin in disease.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Gorospe, Myriam

    2012-06-01

    Nucleolin is a multifunctional protein localized primarily in the nucleolus, but also found in the nucleoplasm, cytoplasm and cell membrane. It is involved in several aspects of DNA metabolism, and participates extensively in RNA regulatory mechanisms, including transcription, ribosome assembly, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing. Nucleolin's implication in disease is linked to its ability to associate with target RNAs via its four RNA-binding domains and its arginine/glycin-rich domain. By modulating the post-transcriptional fate of target mRNAs, which typically bear AU-rich and/or G-rich elements, nucleolin has been linked to cellular events that influence disease, notably cell proliferation and protection against apoptotic death. Through its diverse RNA functions, nucleolin is increasingly implicated in pathological processes, particularly cancer and viral infection. Here, we review the RNA-binding activities of nucleolin, its influence on gene expression patterns, and its impact upon diseases. We also discuss the rising interest in targeting nucleolin therapeutically. PMID:22617883

  13. RNA-binding protein nucleolin in disease

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Gorospe, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Nucleolin is a multifunctional protein localized primarily in the nucleolus, but also found in the nucleoplasm, cytoplasm and cell membrane. It is involved in several aspects of DNA metabolism, and participates extensively in RNA regulatory mechanisms, including transcription, ribosome assembly, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing. Nucleolin’s implication in disease is linked to its ability to associate with target RNAs via its four RNA-binding domains and its arginine/glycin-rich domain. By modulating the post-transcriptional fate of target mRNAs, which typically bear AU-rich and/or G-rich elements, nucleolin has been linked to cellular events that influence disease, notably cell proliferation and protection against apoptotic death. Through its diverse RNA functions, nucleolin is increasingly implicated in pathological processes, particularly cancer and viral infection. Here, we review the RNA-binding activities of nucleolin, its influence on gene expression patterns, and its impact upon diseases. We also discuss the rising interest in targeting nucleolin therapeutically. PMID:22617883

  14. Latent TGF-β-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Ian B.; Horiguchi, Masahito; Zilberberg, Lior; Dabovic, Branka; Hadjiolova, Krassimira; Rifkin, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The LTBPs (or latent transforming growth factor β binding proteins) are important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that interact with fibrillin microfibrils and have a number of different roles in microfibril biology. There are four LTBPs isoforms in the human genome (LTBP-1, -2, -3, and -4), all of which appear to associate with fibrillin and the biology of each isoform is reviewed here. The LTBPs were first identified as forming latent complexes with TGFβ by covalently binding the TGFβ propeptide (LAP) via disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum. LAP in turn is cleaved from the mature TGFβ precursor in the trans golgi network but LAP and TGFβ remain strongly bound through non-covalent interactions. LAP, TGFβ, and LTBP together form the large latent complex (LLC). LTBPs were originally thought to primarily play a role in maintaining TGFβ latency and targeting the latent growth factor to the extracellular matrix (ECM), but it has also been shown that LTBP-1 participates in TGFβ activation by integrins and may also regulate activation by proteases and other factors. LTBP-3 appears to have a role in skeletal formation including tooth development. As well as having important functions in TGFβ regulation, TGFβ-independent activities have recently been identified for LTBP-2 and LTBP-4 in stabilizing microfibril bundles and regulating elastic fiber assembly. PMID:25960419

  15. Cellular retinol-binding protein and retinoic acid-binding protein in rat testes: effect of retinol depletion.

    PubMed

    Ong, D E; Tsai, C H; Chytil, F

    1976-02-01

    Testes of rats contain two cellular binding proteins of interest in vitamin A metabolism. One protein binds retinoic acid with high specificity; the other binds retinol with high specificity. When the cellular retinol-binding protein was partially purified from rat testes, it exhibited fluorescence excitation and emission spectra similar to that of all-trans-retinol in hexane. Exposure of this preparation to UV light destroyed this fluorescence but spectra identical to the original were obtained after addition of retinol. Hexane extracts of the binding protein had fluorescence spectra identical to all-trans-retinol, suggesting that this compound is bound to the protein in vivo. Extracts of testes from retinol depleted rats were submitted to gel filtration but failed to show a retinol-like fluorescence at the elution position of retinol binding protein. This fluorescence was observed in the preparations from pair fed control animals. However, after addition of all-trans-retinol to the extracts from the depleted rats, fluorescence at that elution position was observed. This indicates that in testes of retinol depleted rats the cellular retinol binding protein is present but without bound retinol, in contrast to the non-depleted rats where 30-43% of the binding protein had bound retinol. The amounts of cellular retinol binding protein and retinoic acid binding protein in testes, as determined by sucrose gradient centrifugation, were found to be similar for retinol depleted and pair fed control rats. PMID:942996

  16. How Does Confinement Change Ligand-Receptor Binding Equilibrium? Protein Binding in Nanopores and Nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Tagliazucchi, Mario; Szleifer, Igal

    2015-10-01

    We present systematic studies for the binding of small model proteins to ligands attached to the inner walls of long nanochannels and short nanopores by polymeric tethers. Binding of proteins to specific ligands inside nanometric channels and pores leads to changes in their ionic conductance, which have been exploited in sensors that quantify the concentration of the proteins in solution. The theoretical predictions presented in this work are aimed to provide a fundamental understanding of protein binding under geometrically confined environments and to guide the design of this kind of nanochannel-based sensors. The theory predicts that the fraction of the channel volume filled by bound proteins is a nonmonotonic function of the channel radius, the length of the tethers, the surface density of the ligands and the size of the proteins. Notably, increasing the density of ligands, decreasing the size of the channel or increasing the size of the protein may lead to a decrease of the fraction of the channel volume filled by bound proteins. These results are explained from the incomplete binding of proteins to the ligands due to repulsive protein-protein and protein-ligand steric interactions. Our work suggests strategies to optimize the change in conductance due to protein binding, for example: (i) proteins much smaller than the radius of the channel may effectively block the channel if tethers of appropriate length are used, and (ii) a large decrease in conductance upon protein binding can be achieved if the channel and the protein are oppositely charged. PMID:26368839

  17. Detection of secondary binding sites in proteins using fragment screening

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, R. Frederick; Verdonk, Marcel L.; Saini, Harpreet K.; Tickle, Ian J.; Jhoti, Harren

    2015-01-01

    Proteins need to be tightly regulated as they control biological processes in most normal cellular functions. The precise mechanisms of regulation are rarely completely understood but can involve binding of endogenous ligands and/or partner proteins at specific locations on a protein that can modulate function. Often, these additional secondary binding sites appear separate to the primary binding site, which, for example for an enzyme, may bind a substrate. In previous work, we have uncovered several examples in which secondary binding sites were discovered on proteins using fragment screening approaches. In each case, we were able to establish that the newly identified secondary binding site was biologically relevant as it was able to modulate function by the binding of a small molecule. In this study, we investigate how often secondary binding sites are located on proteins by analyzing 24 protein targets for which we have performed a fragment screen using X-ray crystallography. Our analysis shows that, surprisingly, the majority of proteins contain secondary binding sites based on their ability to bind fragments. Furthermore, sequence analysis of these previously unknown sites indicate high conservation, which suggests that they may have a biological function, perhaps via an allosteric mechanism. Comparing the physicochemical properties of the secondary sites with known primary ligand binding sites also shows broad similarities indicating that many of the secondary sites may be druggable in nature with small molecules that could provide new opportunities to modulate potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26655740

  18. Improving Binding Affinity and Selectivity of Computationally Designed Ligand-Binding Proteins Using Experiments.

    PubMed

    Tinberg, Christine E; Khare, Sagar D

    2016-01-01

    The ability to de novo design proteins that can bind small molecules has wide implications for synthetic biology and medicine. Combining computational protein design with the high-throughput screening of mutagenic libraries of computationally designed proteins is emerging as a general approach for creating binding proteins with programmable binding modes, affinities, and selectivities. The computational step enables the creation of a binding site in a protein that otherwise does not (measurably) bind the intended ligand, and targeted mutagenic screening allows for validation and refinement of the computational model as well as provides orders-of-magnitude increases in the binding affinity. Deep sequencing of mutagenic libraries can provide insights into the mutagenic binding landscape and enable further affinity improvements. Moreover, in such a combined computational-experimental approach where the binding mode is preprogrammed and iteratively refined, selectivity can be achieved (and modulated) by the placement of specified amino acid side chain groups around the ligand in defined orientations. Here, we describe the experimental aspects of a combined computational-experimental approach for designing-using the software suite Rosetta-proteins that bind a small molecule of choice and engineering, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and high-throughput yeast surface display, high affinity and ligand selectivity. We illustrated the utility of this approach by performing the design of a selective digoxigenin (DIG)-binding protein that, after affinity maturation, binds DIG with picomolar affinity and high selectivity over structurally related steroids. PMID:27094290

  19. Minimalistic predictor of protein binding energy: contribution of solvation factor to protein binding.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Mo; Serohijos, Adrian W R; Murphy, Sean; Lucarelli, Dennis; Lofranco, Leo L; Feldman, Andrew; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2015-02-17

    It has long been known that solvation plays an important role in protein-protein interactions. Here, we use a minimalistic solvation-based model for predicting protein binding energy to estimate quantitatively the contribution of the solvation factor in protein binding. The factor is described by a simple linear combination of buried surface areas according to amino-acid types. Even without structural optimization, our minimalistic model demonstrates a predictive power comparable to more complex methods, making the proposed approach the basis for high throughput applications. Application of the model to a proteomic database shows that receptor-substrate complexes involved in signaling have lower affinities than enzyme-inhibitor and antibody-antigen complexes, and they differ by chemical compositions on interfaces. Also, we found that protein complexes with components that come from the same genes generally have lower affinities than complexes formed by proteins from different genes, but in this case the difference originates from different interface areas. The model was implemented in the software PYTHON, and the source code can be found on the Shakhnovich group webpage: http://faculty.chemistry.harvard.edu/shakhnovich/software. PMID:25692584

  20. Photoaffinity labeling of retinoic acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, P S; Choi, S Y; Ho, Y C; Rando, R R

    1995-01-01

    Retinoid-binding proteins are essential mediators of vitamin A function in vertebrate organisms. They solubilize and stabilize retinoids, and they direct the intercellular and intracellular trafficking, transport, and metabolic function of vitamin A compounds in vision and in growth and development. Although many soluble retinoid-binding proteins and receptors have been purified and extensively characterized, relatively few membrane-associated enzymes and other proteins that interact with retinoids have been isolated and studied, due primarily to their inherent instabilities during purification. In an effort to identify and purify previously uncharacterized retinoid-binding proteins, it is shown that radioactively labeled all-trans-retinoic acid can be used as a photoaffinity labeling reagent to specifically tag two known retinoic acid-binding proteins, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein and albumin, in complex mixtures of cytosolic proteins. Additionally, a number of other soluble and membrane-associated proteins that bind all-trans-[11,12-3H]retinoic acid with high specificity are labeled utilizing the same photoaffinity techniques. Most of these labeled proteins have molecular weights that do not correspond to any known retinoid-binding proteins. Thus, photoaffinity labeling with all-trans-retinoic acid and related photoactivatable retinoids is a method that should prove extremely useful in the identification and purification of novel soluble and membrane-associated retinoid-binding proteins from ocular and nonocular tissues. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7846032

  1. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis. PMID:26703754

  2. DNA Shape versus Sequence Variations in the Protein Binding Process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanying; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2016-02-01

    The binding process of a protein with a DNA involves three stages: approach, encounter, and association. It has been known that the complexation of protein and DNA involves mutual conformational changes, especially for a specific sequence association. However, it is still unclear how the conformation and the information in the DNA sequences affects the binding process. What is the extent to which the DNA structure adopted in the complex is induced by protein binding, or is instead intrinsic to the DNA sequence? In this study, we used the multiscale simulation method to explore the binding process of a protein with DNA in terms of DNA sequence, conformation, and interactions. We found that in the approach stage the protein can bind both the major and minor groove of the DNA, but uses different features to locate the binding site. The intrinsic conformational properties of the DNA play a significant role in this binding stage. By comparing the specific DNA with the nonspecific in unbound, intermediate, and associated states, we found that for a specific DNA sequence, ∼40% of the bending in the association forms is intrinsic and that ∼60% is induced by the protein. The protein does not induce appreciable bending of nonspecific DNA. In addition, we proposed that the DNA shape variations induced by protein binding are required in the early stage of the binding process, so that the protein is able to approach, encounter, and form an intermediate at the correct site on DNA. PMID:26840719

  3. Dot-blot assay for heparin-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, N.; Krivanek, M.; Jackson, R.L.; Cardin, A.D.

    1986-08-01

    A method for the detection and quantitation of picomole amounts of heparin-binding proteins is described. Proteins are first spotted on nitrocellulose and then incubated with /sup 125/I-heparin. Binding of heparin to the proteins is detected by radioautography and quantitated by scanning densitometry; proteins are quantitated by densitometric analysis of the amido black stained nitrocellulose. Heparin-binding was time-dependent and sensitive to the presence of metal ions, urea, and detergents (anionic, nonionic, and zwitterionic). The divalent cations Ca/sup 2 +/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ and the zwitterionic detergent 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate increased heparin binding whereas NaCl, urea, sodium dodecylsulfate, and La3+ decreased binding. This assay is applicable to the identification and characterization of a variety of heparin-binding proteins.

  4. Partial characterization of GTP-binding proteins in Neurospora

    SciTech Connect

    Hasunuma, K.; Miyamoto-Shinohara, Y.; Furukawa, K.

    1987-08-14

    Six fractions of GTP-binding proteins separated by gel filtration of a mycelial extract containing membrane components of Neurospora crassa were partially characterized. (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S bound to GTP-binding protein was assayed by repeated treatments with a Norit solution and centrifugation. The binding of (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S to GTP-binding proteins was competitively prevented in the presence of 0.1 to 1 mM GTP but not in the presence of ATP. These GTP-binding proteins fractionated by the gel column had Km values of 20, 7, 4, 4, 80 and 2 nM. All six fractions of these GTP-binding proteins showed the capacity to be ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin.

  5. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  6. Convergent evolution among immunoglobulin G-binding bacterial proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Frick, I M; Wikström, M; Forsén, S; Drakenberg, T; Gomi, H; Sjöbring, U; Björck, L

    1992-01-01

    Protein G, a bacterial cell-wall protein with high affinity for the constant region of IgG (IgGFc) antibodies, contains homologous repeats responsible for the interaction with IgGFc. A synthetic peptide corresponding to an 11-amino acid-long sequence in the COOH-terminal region of the repeats was found to bind to IgGFc and block the interaction with protein G. Moreover, two other IgGFc-binding bacterial proteins (proteins A and H), which do not contain any sequences homologous to the peptide, were also inhibited in their interactions with IgGFc by the peptide. Finally, a decapeptide based on a sequence in IgGFc blocked the binding of all three proteins to IgGFc. This unusually clear example of convergent evolution emphasizes the complexity of protein-protein interactions and suggests that bacterial surface-protein interaction with host protein adds selective advantages to the microorganism. Images PMID:1528858

  7. Poly-A binding protein-1 localization to a subset of TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis occurs more frequently in patients harboring an expansion in C9orf72

    PubMed Central

    McGurk, Leeanne; Lee, Virginia, M.; Trojanowksi, John Q.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Lee, Edward B.; Bonini, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset motor neuron disease in which the loss of spinal cord motor neurons leads to paralysis and death within a few years of clinical disease onset. In almost all cases of ALS, TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) forms cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions. A second causative gene for a subset of ALS is fused in sarcoma (FUS), an RNA binding protein that also forms cytoplasmic inclusions in spinal cord motor neurons. Poly A binding protein 1 (PABP-1) is a marker of stress granules, i.e. accumulations of proteins and RNA indicative of translational arrest in cells under stress. We report on the colocalization PABP-1 to both TDP-43 and FUS inclusions in 4 patient cohorts: ALS without a mutation, ALS with an intermediate poly glutamine repeat expansion in ATXN2, ALS with a GGGGCC-hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72, and ALS with basophilic inclusion body disease. Notably, PABP-1 colocalization to TDP-43 was twice as frequent in ALS with C9orf72 expansions compared to ALS with no mutation. This study highlights PABP-1 as a protein important to the pathology of ALS and indicates that the proteomic profile of TDP-43 inclusions in ALS may be different depending on the causative genetic mutation. PMID:25111021

  8. Role of GlnR in Acid-Mediated Repression of Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Glutamine and Glutamate Metabolism in Streptococcus mutans▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Chen , Pei-Min; Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Yu, Sung-Liang; Sher, Singh; Lai, Chern-Hsiung; Chia, Jean-San

    2010-01-01

    The acid tolerance response (ATR) is one of the major virulence traits of Streptococcus mutans. In this study, the role of GlnR in acid-mediated gene repression that affects the adaptive ATR in S. mutans was investigated. Using a whole-genome microarray and in silico analyses, we demonstrated that GlnR and the GlnR box (ATGTNAN7TNACAT) were involved in the transcriptional repression of clusters of genes encoding proteins involved in glutamine and glutamate metabolism under acidic challenge. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that the coordinated regulation of the GlnR regulon occurred 5 min after acid treatment and that prolonged acid exposure (30 min) resulted in further reduction in expression. A lower level but consistent reduction in response to acidic pH was also observed in chemostat-grown cells, confirming the negative regulation of GlnR. The repression by GlnR through the GlnR box in response to acidic pH was further confirmed in the citBZC operon, containing genes encoding the first three enzymes in the glutamine/glutamate biosynthesis pathway. The survival rate of the GlnR-deficient mutant at pH 2.8 was more than 10-fold lower than that in the wild-type strain 45 min after acid treatment, suggesting that the GlnR regulon participates in S. mutans ATR. It is hypothesized that downregulation of the synthesis of the amino acid precursors in response to acid challenge would promote citrate metabolism to pyruvate, with the consumption of H+ and potential ATP synthesis. Such regulation will ensure an optimal acid adaption in S. mutans. PMID:20173059

  9. Fused protein domains inhibit DNA binding by LexA.

    PubMed Central

    Golemis, E A; Brent, R

    1992-01-01

    Many studies of transcription activation employ fusions of activation domains to DNA binding domains derived from the bacterial repressor LexA and the yeast activator GAL4. Such studies often implicitly assume that DNA binding by the chimeric proteins is equivalent to that of the protein donating the DNA binding moiety. To directly investigate this issue, we compared operator binding by a series of LexA-derivative proteins to operator binding by native LexA, by using both in vivo and in vitro assays. We show that operator binding by many proteins such as LexA-Myc, LexA-Fos, and LexA-Bicoid is severely impaired, while binding of other LexA-derivative proteins, such as those that carry bacterially encoded acidic sequences ("acid blobs"), is not. Our results also show that DNA binding by LexA derivatives that contain the LexA carboxy-terminal dimerization domain (amino acids 88 to 202) is considerably stronger than binding by fusions that lack it and that heterologous dimerization motifs cannot substitute for the LexA88-202 function. These results suggest the need to reevaluate some previous studies of activation that employed LexA derivatives and modifications to recent experimental approaches that use LexA and GAL4 derivatives to detect and study protein-protein interactions. Images PMID:1620111

  10. Odorant binding proteins: a biotechnological tool for odour control.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla; Matamá, Teresa; Azoia, Nuno G; Mansilha, Catarina; Casal, Margarida; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2014-04-01

    The application of an odorant binding protein for odour control and fragrance delayed release from a textile surface was first explored in this work. Pig OBP-1 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified protein was biochemically characterized. The IC₅₀ values (concentrations of competitor that caused a decay of fluorescence to half-maximal intensity) were determined for four distinct fragrances, namely, citronellol, benzyl benzoate, citronellyl valerate and ethyl valerate. The results showed a strong binding of citronellyl valerate, citronellol and benzyl benzoate to the recombinant protein, while ethyl valerate displayed weaker binding. Cationized cotton substrates were coated with porcine odorant binding protein and tested for their capacity to retain citronellol and to mask the smell of cigarette smoke. The immobilized protein delayed the release of citronellol when compared to the untreated cotton. According to a blind evaluation of 30 assessors, the smell of cigarette smoke, trapped onto the fabrics' surface, was successfully attenuated by porcine odorant binding protein (more than 60 % identified the weakest smell intensity after protein exposure compared to β-cyclodextrin-treated and untreated cotton fabrics). This work demonstrated that porcine odorant binding protein can be an efficient solution to prevent and/or remove unpleasant odours trapped on the large surface of textiles. Its intrinsic properties make odorant binding proteins excellent candidates for controlled release systems which constitute a new application for this class of proteins. PMID:24092006

  11. Protein Binding: Do We Ever Learn?▿

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlinger, Markus A.; Derendorf, Hartmut; Mouton, Johan W.; Cars, Otto; Craig, William A.; Andes, David; Theuretzbacher, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Although the influence of protein binding (PB) on antibacterial activity has been reported for many antibiotics and over many years, there is currently no standardization for pharmacodynamic models that account for the impact of protein binding of antimicrobial agents in vitro. This might explain the somewhat contradictory results obtained from different studies. Simple in vitro models which compare the MIC obtained in protein-free standard medium versus a protein-rich medium are prone to methodological pitfalls and may lead to flawed conclusions. Within in vitro test systems, a range of test conditions, including source of protein, concentration of the tested antibiotic, temperature, pH, electrolytes, and supplements may influence the impact of protein binding. As new antibiotics with a high degree of protein binding are in clinical development, attention and action directed toward the optimization and standardization of testing the impact of protein binding on the activity of antibiotics in vitro become even more urgent. In addition, the quantitative relationship between the effects of protein binding in vitro and in vivo needs to be established, since the physiological conditions differ. General recommendations for testing the impact of protein binding in vitro are suggested. PMID:21537013

  12. Calmodulin Binding Proteins and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    O’Day, Danton H.; Eshak, Kristeen; Myre, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The small, calcium-sensor protein, calmodulin, is ubiquitously expressed and central to cell function in all cell types. Here the literature linking calmodulin to Alzheimer’s disease is reviewed. Several experimentally-verified calmodulin-binding proteins are involved in the formation of amyloid-β plaques including amyloid-β protein precursor, β-secretase, presenilin-1, and ADAM10. Many others possess potential calmodulin-binding domains that remain to be verified. Three calmodulin binding proteins are associated with the formation of neurofibrillary tangles: two kinases (CaMKII, CDK5) and one protein phosphatase (PP2B or calcineurin). Many of the genes recently identified by genome wide association studies and other studies encode proteins that contain putative calmodulin-binding domains but only a couple (e.g., APOE, BIN1) have been experimentally confirmed as calmodulin binding proteins. At least two receptors involved in calcium metabolism and linked to Alzheimer’s disease (mAchR; NMDAR) have also been identified as calmodulin-binding proteins. In addition to this, many proteins that are involved in other cellular events intimately associated with Alzheimer’s disease including calcium channel function, cholesterol metabolism, neuroinflammation, endocytosis, cell cycle events, and apoptosis have been tentatively or experimentally verified as calmodulin binding proteins. The use of calmodulin as a potential biomarker and as a therapeutic target is discussed. PMID:25812852

  13. Therapeutic and analytical applications of arsenic binding to proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Beibei; Liu, Qingqing; Popowich, Aleksandra; Shen, Shengwen; Yan, Xiaowen; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xing-Fang; Weinfeld, Michael; Cullen, William R; Le, X Chris

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic binding to proteins plays a pivotal role in the health effects of arsenic. Further knowledge of arsenic binding to proteins will advance the development of bioanalytical techniques and therapeutic drugs. This review summarizes recent work on arsenic-based drugs, imaging of cellular events, capture and purification of arsenic-binding proteins, and biosensing of arsenic. Binding of arsenic to the promyelocytic leukemia fusion oncoprotein (PML-RARα) is a plausible mode of action leading to the successful treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Identification of other oncoproteins critical to other cancers and the development of various arsenicals and targeted delivery systems are promising approaches to the treatment of other types of cancers. Techniques for capture, purification, and identification of arsenic-binding proteins make use of specific binding between trivalent arsenicals and the thiols in proteins. Biarsenical probes, such as FlAsH-EDT2 and ReAsH-EDT2, coupled with tetracysteine tags that are genetically incorporated into the target proteins, are used for site-specific fluorescence labelling and imaging of the target proteins in living cells. These allow protein dynamics and protein-protein interactions to be studied. Arsenic affinity chromatography is useful for purification of thiol-containing proteins, and its combination with mass spectrometry provides a targeted proteomic approach for studying the interactions between arsenicals and proteins in cells. Arsenic biosensors evolved from the knowledge of arsenic resistance and arsenic binding to proteins in bacteria, and have now been developed into analytical techniques that are suitable for the detection of arsenic in the field. Examples in the four areas, arsenic-based drugs, imaging of cellular events, purification of specific proteins, and arsenic biosensors, demonstrate important therapeutic and analytical applications of arsenic protein binding. PMID:25356501

  14. Odorant-Binding Protein: Localization to Nasal Glands and Secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Sklar, Pamela B.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1986-07-01

    An odorant-binding protein (OBP) was isolated from bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa. We have produced polyclonal antisera to this protein and report its immunohistochemical localization to mucus-secreting glands of the olfactory and respiratory mucosa. Although OBP was originally isolated as a pyrazine binding protein, both rat and bovine OBP also bind the odorants [3H]methyldihydrojasmonate and 3,7-dimethyl-octan-1-ol as well as 2-isobutyl-3-[3H]methoxypyrazine. We detect substantial odorant-binding activity attributable to OBP in secreted rat nasal mucus and tears but not in saliva, suggesting a role for OBP in transporting or concentrating odorants.

  15. Actin binding proteins, spermatid transport and spermiation*

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaojing; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, Yan-Ho; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Han, Daishu; Lee, Will M.; Wong, Elissa W. P.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    The transport of germ cells across the seminiferous epithelium is composed of a series of cellular events during the epithelial cycle essential to the completion of spermatogenesis. Without the timely transport of spermatids during spermiogenesis, spermatozoa that are transformed from step 19 spermatids in the rat testis fail to reach the luminal edge of the apical compartment and enter the tubule lumen at spermiation, thereby entering the epididymis for further maturation. Step 19 spermatids and/or sperms that remain in the epithelium will be removed by the Sertoli cell via phagocytosis to form phagosomes and be degraded by lysosomes, leading to subfertility and/or infertility. However, the biology of spermatid transport, in particular the final events that lead to spermiation remain elusive. Based on recent data in the field, we critically evaluate the biology of spermiation herein by focusing on the actin binding proteins (ABPs) that regulate the organization of actin microfilaments at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, which is crucial for spermatid transport during this event. The hypothesis we put forth herein also highlights some specific areas of research that can be pursued by investigators in the years to come. PMID:24735648

  16. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  17. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2006-10-17

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  18. Selective polyamine-binding proteins. Spermine binding by an androgen-sensitive phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Liang, T; Mezzetti, G; Chen, C; Liao, S

    1978-09-01

    Rat ventral prostate contains an acidic protein which can bind spermine selectively. The relative binding affinities of various aliphatic amines for the protein are, in decreasing order, spermine greater than thermine greater than greater than putrecine greater than 1,10-diaminodecane, cadaverine and 1,12-diaminododecane. The binding protein has an isoelectric point at pH 4.3 and a sedimentation coefficient of 3 S. Its molecular weight is approx. 30 000. Histones and nuclear chromatin preparations of the prostate can interact with the binding protein. The spermine-binding activity of the purified prostate protein can be inactivated by treatment with intestinal alkaline phosphatases. The phosphatase treated preparation can then be reactivated by beef heart protein kinase in the presence of cyclic AMP and ATP. The spermine-binding activity of the prostate cytosol protein fraction decreases after castration, but increases very rapidly after the castrated rats are injected with 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. This finding raises the possibility that, in the postate, certain androgen actions may be dependent on the androgen-induced increase in the acidic protein binding of polyamines and their translocation to a functional cellular site such as nuclear chromatin. In the prostate cytosol, spermine also binds to 4-S tRNAs and to a unique RNA which has a sedimentation coefficient of 1.5 S. PMID:28786

  19. Clinical relevance of drug binding to plasma proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Fanali, Gabriella; Fasano, Mauro; Pallottini, Valentina; Trezza, Viviana

    2014-12-01

    Binding to plasma proteins highly influences drug efficacy, distribution, and disposition. Serum albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, is a monomeric multi-domain macromolecule that displays an extraordinary ligand binding capacity, providing a depot and carrier for many endogenous and exogenous compounds, such as fatty acids and most acidic drugs. α-1-Acid glycoprotein, the second main plasma protein, is a glycoprotein physiologically involved in the acute phase reaction and is the main carrier for basic and neutral drugs. High- and low-density lipoproteins play a limited role in drug binding and are natural drug delivery system only for few lipophilic drugs or lipid-based formulations. Several factors influence drug binding to plasma proteins, such as pathological conditions, concurrent administration of drugs, sex, and age. Any of these factors, in turn, influences drug efficacy and toxicity. Here, biochemical, biomedical, and biotechnological aspects of drug binding to plasma proteins are reviewed.

  20. Characterization of the DNA binding properties of polyomavirus capsid protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The DNA binding properties of the polyomavirus structural proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were studied by Southwestern analysis. The major viral structural protein VP1 and host-contributed histone proteins of polyomavirus virions were shown to exhibit DNA binding activity, but the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 failed to bind DNA. The N-terminal first five amino acids (Ala-1 to Lys-5) were identified as the VP1 DNA binding domain by genetic and biochemical approaches. Wild-type VP1 expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448) exhibited DNA binding activity, but the N-terminal truncated VP1 mutants (lacking Ala-1 to Lys-5 and Ala-1 to Cys-11) failed to bind DNA. The synthetic peptide (Ala-1 to Cys-11) was also shown to have an affinity for DNA binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP1 gene showed that the point mutations at Pro-2, Lys-3, and Arg-4 on the VP1 molecule did not affect DNA binding properties but that the point mutation at Lys-5 drastically reduced DNA binding affinity. The N-terminal (Ala-1 to Lys-5) region of VP1 was found to be essential and specific for DNA binding, while the DNA appears to be non-sequence specific. The DNA binding domain and the nuclear localization signal are located in the same N-terminal region.

  1. AU-rich RNA binding proteins in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baou, Maria; Norton, John D; Murphy, John J

    2011-11-24

    Posttranscriptional mechanisms are now widely acknowledged to play a central role in orchestrating gene-regulatory networks in hematopoietic cell growth, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. Although much attention has focused on microRNAs as regulators of mRNA stability/translation, recent data have highlighted the role of several diverse classes of AU-rich RNA-binding protein in the regulation of mRNA decay/stabilization. AU-rich elements are found in the 3'-untranslated region of many mRNAs that encode regulators of cell growth and survival, such as cytokines and onco/tumor-suppressor proteins. These are targeted by a burgeoning number of different RNA-binding proteins. Three distinct types of AU-rich RNA binding protein (ARE poly-U-binding degradation factor-1/AUF1, Hu antigen/HuR/HuA/ELAVL1, and the tristetraprolin/ZFP36 family of proteins) are essential for normal hematopoiesis. Together with 2 further AU-rich RNA-binding proteins, nucleolin and KHSRP/KSRP, the functions of these proteins are intimately associated with pathways that are dysregulated in various hematopoietic malignancies. Significantly, all of these AU-rich RNA-binding proteins function via an interconnected network that is integrated with microRNA functions. Studies of these diverse types of RNA binding protein are providing novel insight into gene-regulatory mechanisms in hematopoiesis in addition to offering new opportunities for developing mechanism-based targeted therapeutics in leukemia and lymphoma. PMID:21917750

  2. PrionW: a server to identify proteins containing glutamine/asparagine rich prion-like domains and their amyloid cores

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Rafael; Conchillo-Sole, Oscar; Iglesias, Valentin; Illa, Ricard; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; Sabate, Raimon; Daura, Xavier; Ventura, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Prions are a particular type of amyloids with the ability to self-perpetuate and propagate in vivo. Prion-like conversion underlies important biological processes but is also connected to human disease. Yeast prions are the best understood transmissible amyloids. In these proteins, prion formation from an initially soluble state involves a structural conversion, driven, in many cases, by specific domains enriched in glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) residues. Importantly, domains sharing this compositional bias are also present in the proteomes of higher organisms, thus suggesting that prion-like conversion might be an evolutionary conserved mechanism. We have recently shown that the identification and evaluation of the potency of amyloid nucleating sequences in putative prion domains allows discrimination of genuine prions. PrionW is a web application that exploits this principle to scan sequences in order to identify proteins containing Q/N enriched prion-like domains (PrLDs) in large datasets. When used to scan the complete yeast proteome, PrionW identifies previously experimentally validated prions with high accuracy. Users can analyze up to 10 000 sequences at a time, PrLD-containing proteins are identified and their putative PrLDs and amyloid nucleating cores visualized and scored. The output files can be downloaded for further analysis. PrionW server can be accessed at http://bioinf.uab.cat/prionw/. PMID:25977297

  3. Global discovery of protein kinases and other nucleotide-binding proteins by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongsheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2016-09-01

    Nucleotide-binding proteins, such as protein kinases, ATPases and GTP-binding proteins, are among the most important families of proteins that are involved in a number of pivotal cellular processes. However, global study of the structure, function, and expression level of nucleotide-binding proteins as well as protein-nucleotide interactions can hardly be achieved with the use of conventional approaches owing to enormous diversity of the nucleotide-binding protein family. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, coupled with a variety of nucleotide-binding protein enrichment methods, rendered MS-based proteomics a powerful tool for the comprehensive characterizations of the nucleotide-binding proteome, especially the kinome. Here, we review the recent developments in the use of mass spectrometry, together with general and widely used affinity enrichment approaches, for the proteome-wide capture, identification and quantification of nucleotide-binding proteins, including protein kinases, ATPases, GTPases, and other nucleotide-binding proteins. The working principles, advantages, and limitations of each enrichment platform in identifying nucleotide-binding proteins as well as profiling protein-nucleotide interactions are summarized. The perspectives in developing novel MS-based nucleotide-binding protein detection platform are also discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 35:601-619, 2016. PMID:25376990

  4. In Situ Quantification of Protein Binding to the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elizabeth M.; Hennen, Jared; Chen, Yan; Mueller, Joachim D.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a fluorescence-based assay that allows for direct measurement of protein binding to the plasma membrane inside living cells. An axial scan through the cell generates a fluorescence intensity profile that is analyzed to determine the membrane-bound and cytoplasmic concentrations of a peripheral membrane protein labeled by the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The membrane binding curve is constructed by mapping those concentrations for a population of cells with a wide range of protein expression levels, and a fit of the binding curve determines the number of binding sites and the dissociation coefficient. We experimentally verified the technique, using myosin-1C-EGFP as a model system and fit its binding curve. Furthermore, we studied the protein-lipid interactions of the membrane binding domains from lactadherin and phospholipase C-δ1 to evaluate the feasibility of using competition binding experiments to identify specific lipid-protein interactions in living cells. Finally, we applied the technique to determine the lipid specificity, the number of binding sites, and the dissociation coefficient of membrane binding for the Gag matrix domain of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, which provides insight into early assembly steps of the retrovirus. PMID:26039166

  5. Protein-protein binding affinities by pulse proteolysis: application to TEM-1/BLIP protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Melinda S; Ratcliff, Kathleen; Marqusee, Susan; Handel, Tracy M

    2010-10-01

    Efficient methods for quantifying dissociation constants have become increasingly important for high-throughput mutagenesis studies in the postgenomic era. However, experimentally determining binding affinity is often laborious, requires large amounts of purified protein, and utilizes specialized equipment. Recently, pulse proteolysis has been shown to be a robust and simple method to determine the dissociation constants for a protein-ligand pair based on the increase in thermodynamic stability upon ligand binding. Here, we extend this technique to determine binding affinities for a protein-protein complex involving the β-lactamase TEM-1 and various β-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP) mutants. Interaction with BLIP results in an increase in the denaturation curve midpoint, C(m), of TEM-1, which correlates with the rank order of binding affinities for several BLIP mutants. Hence, pulse proteolysis is a simple, effective method to assay for mutations that modulate binding affinity in protein-protein complexes. From a small set (n = 4) of TEM-1/BLIP mutant complexes, a linear relationship between energy of stabilization (dissociation constant) and ΔC(m) was observed. From this "calibration curve," accurate dissociation constants for two additional BLIP mutants were calculated directly from proteolysis-derived ΔC(m) values. Therefore, in addition to qualitative information, armed with knowledge of the dissociation constants from the WT protein and a limited number of mutants, accurate quantitation of binding affinities can be determined for additional mutants from pulse proteolysis. Minimal sample requirements and the suitability of impure protein preparations are important advantages that make pulse proteolysis a powerful tool for high-throughput mutagenesis binding studies. PMID:20669180

  6. Odorant-binding proteins from a primitive termite.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuko; Chiang, Vicky P; Haverty, Michael I; Leal, Walter S

    2002-09-01

    Hitherto, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have been identified from insects belonging to more highly evolved insect orders (Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Hemiptera), whereas only chemosensory proteins have been identified from more primitive species, such as orthopteran and phasmid species. Here, we report for the first time the isolation and cloning of odorant-binding proteins from a primitive termite species, the dampwood termite. Zootermopsis nevadensis nevadensis (Isoptera: Termopsidae). A major antennae-specific protein was detected by native PAGE along with four other minor proteins, which were also absent in the extract from control tissues (hindlegs). Multiple cDNA cloning led to the full characterization of the major antennae-specific protein (ZnevOBP1) and to the identification of two other antennae-specific cDNAs, encoding putative odorant-binding proteins (ZnevOBP2 and ZnevOBP3). N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the minor antennal bands and cDNA cloning showed that olfaction in Z. n. nevadensis may involve multiple odorant-binding proteins. Database searches suggest that the OBPs from this primitive termite are homologues of the pheromone-binding proteins from scarab beetles and antennal-binding proteins from moths. PMID:12449514

  7. Search for Amyloid-Binding Proteins by Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Miguel; Rostagno, Agueda; Ghiso, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    ‘Amyloid binging proteins’ is a generic term used to designate proteins that interact with different forms of amyloidogenic peptides or proteins and that, as a result, may modulate their physiological and pathological functions by altering solubility, transport, clearance, degradation, and fibril formation. We describe a simple affinity chromatography protocol to isolate and characterize amyloid-binding proteins based on the use of sequential elution steps that may provide further information on the type of binding interaction. As an example, we depict the application of this protocol to the study of Alzheimer’s amyloid β (Aβ) peptide-binding proteins derived from human plasma. Biochemical analysis of the proteins eluted under different conditions identified serum amyloid P component (SAP) and apolipoprotein J (clusterin) as the main plasma Aβ-binding proteins while various apolipoproteins (apoA-IV, apoE, and apoA-I), as well as albumin (HSA) and fibulin were identified as minor contributors. PMID:22528093

  8. DNA sequence analysis of a 10 624 bp fragment of the left arm of chromosome XV from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a RNA binding protein, a mitochondrial protein, two ribosomal proteins and two new open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, M J; Gamo, F J; Gancedo, C

    1996-09-01

    We have determined the sequence of a 10624 bp DNA segment located in the left arm of chromosome XV of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sequence contains eight open reading frames (ORFs) longer than 100 amino acids. Two of them do not present significant homology with sequences found in the databases. The product of ORF o0553 is identical to the protein encoded by the gene SMF1. Internal to it there is another ORF, o0555 that is apparently expressed. The proteins encoded by ORFs o0559 and o0565 are identical to ribosomal proteins S19.e and L18 respectively. ORF o0550 encodes a protein with an RNA binding signature including RNP motifs and stretches rich in asparagine, glutamine and arginine. PMID:8896268

  9. Glutamine Modulates Macrophage Lipotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    He, Li; Weber, Kassandra J.; Schilling, Joel D.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with excessive inflammation and impaired wound healing. Increasing evidence suggests that macrophage dysfunction is responsible for these inflammatory defects. In the setting of excess nutrients, particularly dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs), activated macrophages develop lysosome dysfunction, which triggers activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and cell death. The molecular pathways that connect lipid stress to lysosome pathology are not well understood, but may represent a viable target for therapy. Glutamine uptake is increased in activated macrophages leading us to hypothesize that in the context of excess lipids glutamine metabolism could overwhelm the mitochondria and promote the accumulation of toxic metabolites. To investigate this question we assessed macrophage lipotoxicity in the absence of glutamine using LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages exposed to the SFA palmitate. We found that glutamine deficiency reduced lipid induced lysosome dysfunction, inflammasome activation, and cell death. Under glutamine deficient conditions mTOR activation was decreased and autophagy was enhanced; however, autophagy was dispensable for the rescue phenotype. Rather, glutamine deficiency prevented the suppressive effect of the SFA palmitate on mitochondrial respiration and this phenotype was associated with protection from macrophage cell death. Together, these findings reveal that crosstalk between activation-induced metabolic reprogramming and the nutrient microenvironment can dramatically alter macrophage responses to inflammatory stimuli. PMID:27077881

  10. Concentration-dependent Cu(II) binding to prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2008-03-01

    The prion protein plays a causative role in several neurodegenerative diseases, including mad cow disease in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The normal function of the prion protein is unknown, but it has been linked to its ability to bind copper ions. Experimental evidence suggests that copper can be bound in three distinct modes depending on its concentration, but only one of those binding modes has been fully characterized experimentally. Using a newly developed hybrid DFT/DFT method [1], which combines Kohn-Sham DFT with orbital-free DFT, we have examined all the binding modes and obtained their detailed binding geometries and copper ion binding energies. Our results also provide explanation for experiments, which have found that when the copper concentration increases the copper binding mode changes, surprisingly, from a stronger to a weaker one. Overall, our results indicate that prion protein can function as a copper buffer. 1. Hodak, Lu, Bernholc, JCP, in press.

  11. The actin binding protein adseverin regulates osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hassanpour, Siavash; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W P; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG). Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL) stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW) macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion. PMID:25275604

  12. The Actin Binding Protein Adseverin Regulates Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W. P.; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG). Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL) stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW) macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion. PMID:25275604

  13. The RNA-binding protein SFPQ orchestrates an RNA regulon to promote axon viability.

    PubMed

    Cosker, Katharina E; Fenstermacher, Sara J; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Elliott, Hunter L; Segal, Rosalind A

    2016-05-01

    To achieve accurate spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) guide nuclear processing, intracellular trafficking and local translation of target mRNAs. In neurons, RBPs direct transport of target mRNAs to sites of translation in remote axons and dendrites. However, it is not known whether an individual RBP coordinately regulates multiple mRNAs within these morphologically complex cells. Here we identify SFPQ (splicing factor, poly-glutamine rich) as an RBP that binds and regulates multiple mRNAs in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and thereby promotes neurotrophin-dependent axonal viability. SFPQ acts in nuclei, cytoplasm and axons to regulate functionally related mRNAs essential for axon survival. Notably, SFPQ is required for coassembly of LaminB2 (Lmnb2) and Bclw (Bcl2l2) mRNAs in RNA granules and for axonal trafficking of these mRNAs. Together these data demonstrate that SFPQ orchestrates spatial gene expression of a newly identified RNA regulon essential for axonal viability. PMID:27019013

  14. Cooperative binding modes of Cu(II) in prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Chisnell, Robin; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2007-03-01

    The misfolding of the prion protein, PrP, is responsible for a group of neurodegenerative diseases including mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is known that the PrP can efficiently bind copper ions; four high-affinity binding sites located in the octarepeat region of PrP are now well known. Recent experiments suggest that at low copper concentrations new binding modes, in which one copper ion is shared between two or more binding sites, are possible. Using our hybrid Thomas-Fermi/DFT computational scheme, which is well suited for simulations of biomolecules in solution, we investigate the geometries and energetics of two, three and four binding sites cooperatively binding one copper ion. These geometries are then used as inputs for classical molecular dynamics simulations. We find that copper binding affects the secondary structure of the PrP and that it stabilizes the unstructured (unfolded) part of the protein.

  15. Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein (TXNIP) Suppresses Expression of Glutamine Synthetase by Inducing Oxidative Stress in Retinal Muller Glia Under Diabetic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jia; Shen, Xi; Lu, Qiong; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with early-stage symptoms such as dysfunction of Muller cells, which leads to ganglion cell death. Its pathogenesis is probably associated with oxidative stress and a recently discovered protein, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Material/Methods To explore the role of TXNIP in DR, we cultured Muller cells under diabetic conditions, and then used immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and RT-PCR to detect the expression level of TXNIP under diabetic conditions. We demonstrated the expression level of glutamine synthetase (GS) when TXNIP was inhibited. To explore the potential pathway of TXNIP-induced cell damage in DR, we confirmed the role of IL-1β under diabetic conditions. Results Diabetes induces TXNIP expressions at mRNA levels, but shows the opposite effect on GS. IL-1β plays an important role in this pathway. Azaserine effectively increased the expression of GS via attenuating the expression of TXNIP. Conclusions This study demonstrates the role of TXNIP and its mechanism in DR, provides a possible treatment for DR, and lays a new theoretical foundation for the clinical treatment of DR and other diabetic microvascular changes. PMID:27131835

  16. Activities of the Sex-lethal protein in RNA binding and protein:protein interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, M; Deshpande, G; Schedl, P

    1998-01-01

    The Drosophila sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) controls its own expression, and the expression of downstream target genes such as transformer , by regulating pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. Sxl codes an RNA-binding protein that consists of an N-terminus of approximately 100 amino acids, two 90 amino acid RRM domains, R1 and R2, and an 80 amino acid C-terminus. In the studies reported here we have examined the functional properties of the different Sxl protein domains in RNA binding and in protein:protein interactions. The two RRM domains are responsible for RNA binding. Specificity in the recognition of target RNAs requires both RRM domains, and proteins which consist of the single domains or duplicated domains have anomalous RNA recognition properties. Moreover, the length of the linker between domains can affect RNA recognition properties. Our results indicate that the two RRM domains mediate Sxl:Sxl protein interactions, and that these interactions probably occur both in cis and trans. We speculate that cis interactions between R1 and R2 play a role in RNA recognition by the Sxl protein, while trans interactions stabilize complex formation on target RNAs that contain two or more closely spaced binding sites. Finally, we show that the interaction of Sxl with the snRNP protein Snf is mediated by the R1 RRM domain. PMID:9592147

  17. Salt modulates the stability and lipid binding affinity of the adipocyte lipid-binding proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, Allyn J.; Ruiz, Carmen R.; Joubert, Allison M.; Yang, Xuemei; LiCata, Vince J.

    2003-01-01

    Adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP or aP2) is an intracellular fatty acid-binding protein that is found in adipocytes and macrophages and binds a large variety of intracellular lipids with high affinity. Although intracellular lipids are frequently charged, biochemical studies of lipid-binding proteins and their interactions often focus most heavily on the hydrophobic aspects of these proteins and their interactions. In this study, we have characterized the effects of KCl on the stability and lipid binding properties of ALBP. We find that added salt dramatically stabilizes ALBP, increasing its Delta G of unfolding by 3-5 kcal/mol. At 37 degrees C salt can more than double the stability of the protein. At the same time, salt inhibits the binding of the fluorescent lipid 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) to the protein and induces direct displacement of the lipid from the protein. Thermodynamic linkage analysis of the salt inhibition of ANS binding shows a nearly 1:1 reciprocal linkage: i.e. one ion is released from ALBP when ANS binds, and vice versa. Kinetic experiments show that salt reduces the rate of association between ANS and ALBP while simultaneously increasing the dissociation rate of ANS from the protein. We depict and discuss the thermodynamic linkages among stability, lipid binding, and salt effects for ALBP, including the use of these linkages to calculate the affinity of ANS for the denatured state of ALBP and its dependence on salt concentration. We also discuss the potential molecular origins and potential intracellular consequences of the demonstrated salt linkages to stability and lipid binding in ALBP.

  18. EMSA Analysis of DNA Binding By Rgg Proteins

    PubMed Central

    LaSarre, Breah; Federle, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, interaction of various proteins with DNA is essential for the regulation of specific target gene expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) is an in vitro approach allowing for the visualization of these protein-DNA interactions. Rgg proteins comprise a family of transcriptional regulators widespread among the Firmicutes. Some of these proteins function independently to regulate target gene expression, while others have now been demonstrated to function as effectors of cell-to-cell communication, having regulatory activities that are modulated via direct interaction with small signaling peptides. EMSA analysis can be used to assess DNA binding of either type of Rgg protein. EMSA analysis of Rgg protein activity has facilitated in vitro confirmation of regulatory targets, identification of precise DNA binding sites via DNA probe mutagenesis, and characterization of the mechanism by which some cognate signaling peptides modulate Rgg protein function (e.g. interruption of DNA-binding in some cases).

  19. Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-01-01

    RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins. PMID:26751491

  20. Purification of a Zn-binding phloem protein with sequence identity to chitin-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, K C; Albrigo, L G; Chase, C D

    1996-01-01

    In citrus blight, a decline disorder of unknown etiology, the tree canopy exhibits symptoms of Zn deficiency while Zn accumulates in the trunk phloem. We have purified a Zn-binding protein (ZBP) from phloem tissue of healthy and blight-affected citrus (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck on Citrus jambhiri [L.]). The molecular weight of the ZBP was estimated to be 5000 by size-exclusion chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Ion-exchange chromatography at pH 8.0 demonstrated the 5-kD ZBP to be anionic. A partial N-terminal amino acid sequence revealed a cysteine-, glycine-rich domain with 45 to 80% identity with the chitin-binding domain of hevein, wheat germ agglutinin, and several class I chitinases. That the abundance of this protein increased 2.5-fold in association with Zn accumulation in the phloem is characteristic of citrus blight. Tissue mass changes of the phloem suggests that altered tissue structure accompanies blight. Phloem accumulation of the 5-kD ZBP may be in response to wounding or other stress of blight-affected citrus. PMID:8742339

  1. Predicting binding within disordered protein regions to structurally characterised peptide-binding domains.

    PubMed

    Khan, Waqasuddin; Duffy, Fergal; Pollastri, Gianluca; Shields, Denis C; Mooney, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Disordered regions of proteins often bind to structured domains, mediating interactions within and between proteins. However, it is difficult to identify a priori the short disordered regions involved in binding. We set out to determine if docking such peptide regions to peptide binding domains would assist in these predictions.We assembled a redundancy reduced dataset of SLiM (Short Linear Motif) containing proteins from the ELM database. We selected 84 sequences which had an associated PDB structures showing the SLiM bound to a protein receptor, where the SLiM was found within a 50 residue region of the protein sequence which was predicted to be disordered. First, we investigated the Vina docking scores of overlapping tripeptides from the 50 residue SLiM containing disordered regions of the protein sequence to the corresponding PDB domain. We found only weak discrimination of docking scores between peptides involved in binding and adjacent non-binding peptides in this context (AUC 0.58).Next, we trained a bidirectional recurrent neural network (BRNN) using as input the protein sequence, predicted secondary structure, Vina docking score and predicted disorder score. The results were very promising (AUC 0.72) showing that multiple sources of information can be combined to produce results which are clearly superior to any single source.We conclude that the Vina docking score alone has only modest power to define the location of a peptide within a larger protein region known to contain it. However, combining this information with other knowledge (using machine learning methods) clearly improves the identification of peptide binding regions within a protein sequence. This approach combining docking with machine learning is primarily a predictor of binding to peptide-binding sites, and is not intended as a predictor of specificity of binding to particular receptors. PMID:24019881

  2. The basic domain/leucine zipper protein hXBP-1 preferentially binds to and transactivates CRE-like sequences containing an ACGT core.

    PubMed Central

    Clauss, I M; Chu, M; Zhao, J L; Glimcher, L H

    1996-01-01

    The transcription factor hXBP-1 belongs to the family of basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins and interacts with the cAMP responsive element (CRE) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II A alpha, DR alpha and DP beta genes. However, the developmental expression of hXBP-1 as revealed by in situ hybridization in mouse embryos, has suggested that it interacts with the promoter of additional genes. To identify other potential target genes of this factor, we performed binding site selection experiments with recombinant hXBP-1 protein. The results indicated that hXBP-1 binds preferably to the CRE-like element GAT-GACGTG(T/G)NNN(A/T)T, wherein the core sequence ACGT is highly conserved, and that it also binds to some TPA response elements (TRE). hXBP-1 can transactivate multimers of the target sequences to which it binds in COS cells, and the level of transactivation directly correlates with the extent of binding as observed in gel retardation experiments. One target sequence that is strongly bound by hXBP-1 is the 21 bp repeat in the HTLV-1 LTR, and we demonstrate here that hXBP-1 can transactivate the HTLV-1 LTR. Further, the transactivation domain of hXBP-1 encompasses a large C-terminal region of the protein, containing domains rich in glutamine, serine and threonine, and proline and glutamine residues, as shown in transient transfection experiments using hXBP-1-GAL4 fusion proteins and a reporter gene under the control of GAL4-binding sites. PMID:8657566

  3. Identification of AOSC-binding proteins in neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Nie, Qin; Xin, Xianliang; Geng, Meiyu

    2008-11-01

    Acidic oligosaccharide sugar chain (AOSC), a D-mannuronic acid oligosaccharide, derived from brown algae polysaccharide, has been completed Phase I clinical trial in China as an anti-Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) drug candidate. The identification of AOSC-binding protein(s) in neurons is very important for understanding its action mechanism. To determine the binding protein(s) of AOSC in neurons mediating its anti-AD activities, confocal microscopy, affinity chromatography, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis were used. Confocal microscopy analysis shows that AOSC binds to SH-SY5Y cells in concentration-, time-, and temperature-dependent fashions. The AOSC binding proteins were purified by affinity chromatography and identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. The results showed that there are 349 proteins binding AOSC, including clathrin, adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) and amyloid precursor protein (APP). These results suggest that the binding/entrance of AOSC to neurons is probably responsible for anti-AD activities.

  4. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes. PMID:26873273

  5. The human "magnesome": detecting magnesium binding sites on human proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnesium research is increasing in molecular medicine due to the relevance of this ion in several important biological processes and associated molecular pathogeneses. It is still difficult to predict from the protein covalent structure whether a human chain is or not involved in magnesium binding. This is mainly due to little information on the structural characteristics of magnesium binding sites in proteins and protein complexes. Magnesium binding features, differently from those of other divalent cations such as calcium and zinc, are elusive. Here we address a question that is relevant in protein annotation: how many human proteins can bind Mg2+? Our analysis is performed taking advantage of the recently implemented Bologna Annotation Resource (BAR-PLUS), a non hierarchical clustering method that relies on the pair wise sequence comparison of about 14 millions proteins from over 300.000 species and their grouping into clusters where annotation can safely be inherited after statistical validation. Results After cluster assignment of the latest version of the human proteome, the total number of human proteins for which we can assign putative Mg binding sites is 3,751. Among these proteins, 2,688 inherit annotation directly from human templates and 1,063 inherit annotation from templates of other organisms. Protein structures are highly conserved inside a given cluster. Transfer of structural properties is possible after alignment of a given sequence with the protein structures that characterise a given cluster as obtained with a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based procedure. Interestingly a set of 370 human sequences inherit Mg2+ binding sites from templates sharing less than 30% sequence identity with the template. Conclusion We describe and deliver the "human magnesome", a set of proteins of the human proteome that inherit putative binding of magnesium ions. With our BAR-hMG, 251 clusters including 1,341 magnesium binding protein structures

  6. Niobium Uptake and Release by Bacterial Ferric Ion Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanbo; Harvey, Ian; Campopiano, Dominic; Sadler, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Ferric ion binding proteins (Fbps) transport FeIII across the periplasm and are vital for the virulence of many Gram negative bacteria. Iron(III) is tightly bound in a hinged binding cleft with octahedral coordination geometry involving binding to protein side chains (including tyrosinate residues) together with a synergistic anion such as phosphate. Niobium compounds are of interest for their potential biological activity, which has been little explored. We have studied the binding of cyclopentadienyl and nitrilotriacetato NbV complexes to the Fbp from Neisseria gonorrhoeae by UV-vis spectroscopy, chromatography, ICP-OES, mass spectrometry, and Nb K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These data suggest that NbV binds strongly to Fbp and that a dinuclear NbV centre can be readily accommodated in the interdomain binding cleft. The possibility of designing niobium-based antibiotics which block iron uptake by pathogenic bacteria is discussed. PMID:20445753

  7. Paramagnetic Ligand Tagging To Identify Protein Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transient biomolecular interactions are the cornerstones of the cellular machinery. The identification of the binding sites for low affinity molecular encounters is essential for the development of high affinity pharmaceuticals from weakly binding leads but is hindered by the lack of robust methodologies for characterization of weakly binding complexes. We introduce a paramagnetic ligand tagging approach that enables localization of low affinity protein–ligand binding clefts by detection and analysis of intermolecular protein NMR pseudocontact shifts, which are invoked by the covalent attachment of a paramagnetic lanthanoid chelating tag to the ligand of interest. The methodology is corroborated by identification of the low millimolar volatile anesthetic interaction site of the calcium sensor protein calmodulin. It presents an efficient route to binding site localization for low affinity complexes and is applicable to rapid screening of protein–ligand systems with varying binding affinity. PMID:26289584

  8. The Potassium Binding Protein Kbp Is a Cytoplasmic Potassium Sensor.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Khuram U; Josts, Inokentijs; Mosbahi, Khedidja; Kelly, Sharon M; Byron, Olwyn; Smith, Brian O; Walker, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Escherichia coli possesses a number of specific K(+) influx and efflux systems that maintain an appropriate intracellular K(+) concentration. Although regulatory mechanisms have been identified for a number of these transport systems, the exact mechanism through which K(+) concentration is sensed in the cell remains unknown. In this work we show that Kbp (K(+) binding protein, formerly YgaU), a soluble 16-kDa cytoplasmic protein from Escherichia coli, is a highly specific K(+) binding protein and is required for normal growth in the presence of high levels of external K(+). Kbp binds a single potassium ion with high specificity over Na(+) and other metal ions found in biological systems, although, in common with K(+) transporters, it also binds Rb(+) and Cs(+). Dissection of the K(+) binding determinants of Kbp suggests a mechanism through which Kbp is able to sense changes in K(+) concentration over the relevant range of intracellular K(+) concentrations. PMID:27112601

  9. The RNA binding site of bacteriophage MS2 coat protein.

    PubMed Central

    Peabody, D S

    1993-01-01

    The coat protein of the RNA bacteriophage MS2 binds a specific stem-loop structure in viral RNA to accomplish encapsidation of the genome and translational repression of replicase synthesis. In order to identify the structural components of coat protein required for its RNA binding function, a series of repressor-defective mutants has been isolated. To ensure that the repressor defects were due to substitution of binding site residues, the mutant coat proteins were screened for retention of the ability to form virus-like particles. Since virus assembly presumably requires native structure, this approach eliminated mutants whose repressor defects were secondary consequences of protein folding or stability defects. Each of the variant coat proteins was purified and its ability to bind operator RNA in vitro was measured. DNA sequence analysis identified the nucleotide and amino acid substitutions responsible for reduced RNA binding affinity. Localization of the substituted sites in the three-dimensional structure of coat protein reveals that amino acid residues on three adjacent strands of the coat protein beta-sheet are required for translational repression and RNA binding. The sidechains of the affected residues form a contiguous patch on the interior surface of the viral coat. Images PMID:8440248

  10. Exchange Kinetics of a Hydrophobic Ligand Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Jeff; Stone, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Conformational fluctuations of proteins are thought to be important for determining the functional roles in biological activity. In some cases, the rates of these conformational changes may be directly correlated to, for example, the rates of catalysis or ligand binding. We are studying the role of conformational fluctuations in the binding of small volatile hydrophobic pheromones by the mouse major urinary proteins (MUPs). Communication among mice occurs, in part, with the MUP-1 protein. This urinary protein binds pheromones as a way to increase the longevity of the pheromone in an extracellular environment. Of interest is that the crystal structure of MUP-1 with a pheromone ligand shows the ligand to be completely occluded from the solvent with no obvious pathway to enter or exit. This suggests that conformational exchange of the protein may be required for ligand binding and release to occur. We hypothesize that the rate of conformational exchange may be a limiting factor determining the rate of ligand association and dissociation. By careful measurement of the on- and off-rates of ligand binding and the rates of conformational changes of the protein, a more defined picture of the interplay between protein structure and function can be obtained. To this end, heteronuclear saturation transfer, ^15N-exchange and ^15N dynamics experiments have been employed to probe the kinetics of ligand binding to MUP-1.

  11. General RNA binding proteins render translation cap dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Svitkin, Y V; Ovchinnikov, L P; Dreyfuss, G; Sonenberg, N

    1996-01-01

    Translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysate is relatively independent of the presence of the mRNA m7G cap structure and the cap binding protein, eIF-4E. In addition, initiation occurs frequently at spurious internal sites. Here we show that a critical parameter which contributes to cap-dependent translation is the amount of general RNA binding proteins in the extract. Addition of several general RNA binding proteins, such as hnRNP A1, La autoantigen, pyrimidine tract binding protein (hnRNP I/PTB) and the major core protein of cytoplasmic mRNP (p50), rendered translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate cap dependent. These proteins drastically inhibited the translation of an uncapped mRNA, but had no effect on translation of a capped mRNA. Based on these and other results, we suggest that one function of general mRNA binding proteins in the cytoplasm is to promote ribosome binding by a 5' end, cap-mediated mechanism, and prevent spurious initiations at aberrant translation start sites. Images PMID:9003790

  12. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms. PMID:26055114

  13. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shan-Ho; Galperin, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms. PMID:26055114

  14. Granzyme A binding to target cell proteins. Granzyme A binds to and cleaves nucleolin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pasternack, M S; Bleier, K J; McInerney, T N

    1991-08-01

    The physiologic substrates of cytotoxic T lymphocyte granule-associated serine esterases (referred to hereafter as proteases or "granzymes"), and the role of these enzymes in cell-mediated activity remain unclear. We have developed an assay for possible ligands of the trypsin-like dimeric serine protease granzyme A based on Western immunoblotting techniques. This protein-binding assay demonstrates the selective binding of granzyme A to several proteins present in the target cell P815. The binding specificity is preserved when enzyme binding is performed in the presence of excess competing proteins, including such cationic species as lysozyme and RNase. Enzyme binding is inhibited, however, by heat or detergent inactivation of granzyme A. Subcellular fractionation of target cells shows that the nuclear fraction contains most granzyme A binding reactivity, which is recovered in the nuclear salt wash fraction. A protein with Mr = 100,000 and two closely migrating proteins with Mr = 35,000 and 38,000 are the predominant reactive moieties, and the N-terminal sequence of the 100-kDa protein confirmed that this protein was murine nucleolin. Incubation of granzyme A with nucleolin generates a discrete proteolytic cleavage product of Mr = 88,000. Since nucleolin is known to shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm, the interaction of granzyme A and nucleolin may be important in the process of apoptosis which accompanies cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated lysis of target cells. PMID:1860869

  15. Cell-Binding Assays for Determining the Affinity of Protein-Protein Interactions: Technologies and Considerations.

    PubMed

    Hunter, S A; Cochran, J R

    2016-01-01

    Determining the equilibrium-binding affinity (Kd) of two interacting proteins is essential not only for the biochemical study of protein signaling and function but also for the engineering of improved protein and enzyme variants. One common technique for measuring protein-binding affinities uses flow cytometry to analyze ligand binding to proteins presented on the surface of a cell. However, cell-binding assays require specific considerations to accurately quantify the binding affinity of a protein-protein interaction. Here we will cover the basic assumptions in designing a cell-based binding assay, including the relevant equations and theory behind determining binding affinities. Further, two major considerations in measuring binding affinities-time to equilibrium and ligand depletion-will be discussed. As these conditions have the potential to greatly alter the Kd, methods through which to avoid or minimize them will be provided. We then outline detailed protocols for performing direct- and competitive-binding assays against proteins displayed on the surface of yeast or mammalian cells that can be used to derive accurate Kd values. Finally, a comparison of cell-based binding assays to other types of binding assays will be presented. PMID:27586327

  16. Ice-shell purification of ice-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Craig J; Basu, Koli; Davies, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    Ice-affinity purification is a simple and efficient method of purifying to homogeneity both natural and recombinant ice-binding proteins. The purification involves the incorporation of ice-binding proteins into slowly-growing ice and the exclusion of other proteins and solutes. In previous approaches, the ice was grown around a hollow brass finger through which coolant was circulated. We describe here an easily-constructed apparatus that employs ice affinity purification that not only shortens the time for purification from 1-2 days to 1-2 h, but also enhances yield and purity. In this apparatus, the surface area for the separation was increased by extracting the ice-binding proteins into an ice-shell formed inside a rotating round-bottom flask partially submerged in a sub-zero bath. In principle, any ice-binding compound can be recovered from liquid solution, and the method is readily scalable. PMID:27025155

  17. Erythrocyte Protein 4.1 Binds and Regulates Myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, Gary R.; Racusen, Richard H.

    1989-12-01

    Myosin was recently identified in erythrocytes and was shown to partition both with membrane and cytosolic fractions, suggesting that it may be loosely bound to membranes [Fowler, V. M., Davis, J. Q. & Bennett, V. (1985) J. Cell Biol. 100, 47-55, and Wong, A. J., Kiehart, D. P. & Pollard, T. D. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 46-49]; however, the molecular basis for this binding was unclear. The present studies employed immobilized monomeric myosin to examine the interaction of myosin with erythrocyte protein 4.1. In human erythrocytes, protein 4.1 binds to integral membrane proteins and mediates spectrin-actin assembly. Protein 4.1 binds to rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with a Kd = 140 nM and a stoichiometry consistent with 1:1 binding. Heavy meromyosin competes for protein 4.1 binding with Ki = 36-54 nM; however, the S1 fragment (the myosin head) competes less efficiently. Affinity chromatography of partial chymotryptic digests of protein 4.1 on immobilized myosin identified a 10-kDa domain of protein 4.1 as the myosin-binding site. In functional studies, protein 4.1 partially inhibited the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with Ki = 51 nM. Liver cytosolic and erythrocyte myosins preactivated with myosin light-chain kinase were similarly inhibited by protein 4.1. These studies show that protein 4.1 binds, modulates, and thus may regulate myosin. This interaction might serve to generate the contractile forces involved in Mg2+-ATP-dependent shape changes in erythrocytes and may additionally serve as a model for myosin organization and regulation in non-muscle cells.

  18. Theoretical studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA binding rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsallaq, Ramzi A.

    Proteins are folded chains of amino acids. Some of the amino acids (e.g. Lys, Arg, His, Asp, and Glu) carry charges under physiological conditions. Proteins almost always function through binding to other proteins or ligands, for example barnase is a ribonuclease protein, found in the bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaceus. Barnase degrades RNA by hydrolysis. For the bacterium to inhibit the potentially lethal action of Barnase within its own cell it co-produces another protein called barstar which binds quickly, and tightly, to barnase. The biological function of this binding is to block the active site of barnase. The speeds (rates) at which proteins associate are vital to many biological processes. They span a wide range (from less than 103 to 108 M-1s-1 ). Rates greater than ˜ 106 M -1s-1 are typically found to be manifestations of enhancements by long-range electrostatic interactions between the associating proteins. A different paradigm appears in the case of protein binding to DNA. The rate in this case is enhanced through attractive surface potential that effectively reduces the dimensionality of the available search space for the diffusing protein. This thesis presents computational and theoretical models on the rate of association of ligands/proteins to other proteins or DNA. For protein-protein association we present a general strategy for computing protein-protein rates of association. The main achievements of this strategy is the ability to obtain a stringent reaction criteria based on the landscape of short-range interactions between the associating proteins, and the ability to compute the effect of the electrostatic interactions on the rates of association accurately using the best known solvers for Poisson-Boltzmann equation presently available. For protein-DNA association we present a mathematical model for proteins targeting specific sites on a circular DNA topology. The main achievements are the realization that a linear DNA with reflecting ends

  19. Natural ligand binding and transfer from liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) to membranes.

    PubMed

    De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Hagan, Robert M; Wilton, David C; Córsico, Betina

    2010-09-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) is distinctive among fatty acid-binding proteins because it binds more than one molecule of long-chain fatty acid and a variety of diverse ligands. Also, the transfer of fluorescent fatty acid analogues to model membranes under physiological ionic strength follows a different mechanism compared to most of the members of this family of intracellular lipid binding proteins. Tryptophan insertion mutants sensitive to ligand binding have allowed us to directly measure the binding affinity, ligand partitioning and transfer to model membranes of natural ligands. Binding of fatty acids shows a cooperative mechanism, while acyl-CoAs binding presents a hyperbolic behavior. Saturated fatty acids seem to have a stronger partition to protein vs. membranes, compared to unsaturated fatty acids. Natural ligand transfer rates are more than 200-fold higher compared to fluorescently-labeled analogues. Interestingly, oleoyl-CoA presents a markedly different transfer behavior compared to the rest of the ligands tested, probably indicating the possibility of specific targeting of ligands to different metabolic fates. PMID:20541621

  20. Light aerobic physical exercise in combination with leucine and/or glutamine-rich diet can improve the body composition and muscle protein metabolism in young tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Salomão, Emilianne Miguel; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2012-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation with some amino acids may influence host's responses and also certain mechanism involved in tumor progression. It is known that exercise influences body weight and muscle composition. Previous findings from our group have shown that leucine has beneficial effects on protein composition in cachectic rat model as the Walker 256 tumor. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of light exercise and leucine and/or glutamine-rich diet in body composition and skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation in young tumor-bearing rats. Walker tumor-bearing rats were subjected to light aerobic exercise (swimming 30 min/day) and fed a leucine-rich (3%) and/or glutamine-rich (4%) diet for 10 days and compared to healthy young rats. The carcasses were analyzed as total water and fat body content and lean body mass. The gastrocnemious muscles were isolated and used for determination of total protein synthesis and degradation. The chemical body composition changed with tumor growth, increasing body water and reducing body fat content and total body nitrogen. After tumor growth, the muscle protein metabolism was impaired, showing that the muscle protein synthesis was also reduced and the protein degradation process was increased in the gastrocnemius muscle of exercised rats. Although short-term exercise (10 days) alone did not produce beneficial effects that would reduce tumor damage, host protein metabolism was improved when exercise was combined with a leucine-rich diet. Only total carcass nitrogen and protein were recovered by a glutamine-rich diet. Exercise, in combination with an amino acid-rich diet, in particular, leucine, had effects beyond reducing tumoral weight such as improving protein turnover and carcass nitrogen content in the tumor-bearing host. PMID:22460363

  1. Leukocyte Protease Binding to Nucleic Acids Promotes Nuclear Localization and Cleavage of Nucleic Acid Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Marshall P.; Whangbo, Jennifer; McCrossan, Geoffrey; Deutsch, Aaron; Martinod, Kimberly; Walch, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Killer lymphocyte granzyme (Gzm) serine proteases induce apoptosis of pathogen-infected cells and tumor cells. Many known Gzm substrates are nucleic acid binding proteins, and the Gzms accumulate in the target cell nucleus by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that human Gzms bind to DNA and RNA with nanomolar affinity. Gzms cleave their substrates most efficiently when both are bound to nucleic acids. RNase treatment of cell lysates reduces Gzm cleavage of RNA binding protein (RBP) targets, while adding RNA to recombinant RBP substrates increases in vitro cleavage. Binding to nucleic acids also influences Gzm trafficking within target cells. Pre-incubation with competitor DNA and DNase treatment both reduce Gzm nuclear localization. The Gzms are closely related to neutrophil proteases, including neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G (CATG). During neutrophil activation, NE translocates to the nucleus to initiate DNA extrusion into neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which bind NE and CATG. These myeloid cell proteases, but not digestive serine proteases, also bind DNA strongly and localize to nuclei and NETs in a DNA-dependent manner. Thus, high affinity nucleic acid binding is a conserved and functionally important property specific to leukocyte serine proteases. Furthermore, nucleic acid binding provides an elegant and simple mechanism to confer specificity of these proteases for cleavage of nucleic acid binding protein substrates that play essential roles in cellular gene expression and cell proliferation. PMID:24771851

  2. Plasma protein binding of nitroxynil in several species.

    PubMed

    Alvinerie, M; Floc'h, R; Galtier, P

    1991-06-01

    The binding of nitroxynil to total plasma proteins of cows, sheep and rabbits was characterized using equilibrium dialysis. The data indicate clearly that nitroxynil was highly (97-98%) bound to plasma protein of each animal. This linear binding would be due to the particular power exerted by serum albumin. The results are in good agreement with known pharmacokinetic properties of nitroxynil in domestic species. PMID:1920604

  3. Therapeutic potential of vitamin D-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Gomme, Peter T; Bertolini, Joseph

    2004-07-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) is a multi-functional plasma protein with many important functions. These include transport of vitamin D metabolites, control of bone development, binding of fatty acids, sequestration of actin and a range of less-defined roles in modulating immune and inflammatory responses. Exploitation of the unique properties of DBP could enable the development of important therapeutic agents for the treatment of a variety of diseases. PMID:15245906

  4. Subcellular distribution of small GTP binding proteins in pancreas: Identification of small GTP binding proteins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, S.K. )

    1990-02-01

    Subfractionation of a canine pancreatic homogenate was performed by several differential centrifugation steps, which gave rise to fractions with distinct marker profiles. Specific binding of guanosine 5{prime}-({gamma}-({sup 35}S)thio)triphosphate (GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S)) was assayed in each fraction. Enrichment of GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding was greatest in the interfacial smooth microsomal fraction, expected to contain Golgi and other smooth vesicles. There was also marked enrichment in the rough microsomal fraction. Electron microscopy and marker protein analysis revealed the rough microsomes (RMs) to be highly purified rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The distribution of small (low molecular weight) GTP binding proteins was examined by a ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP blot-overlay assay. Several apparent GTP binding proteins of molecular masses 22-25 kDa were detected in various subcellular fractions. In particular, at least two such proteins were found in the Golgi-enriched and RM fractions, suggesting that these small GTP binding proteins were localized to the Golgi and RER. To more precisely localize these proteins to the RER, native RMs and RMs stripped of ribosomes by puromycin/high salt were subjected to isopycnic centrifugation. The total GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding, as well as the small GTP binding proteins detected by the ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP blot overlay, distributed into fractions of high sucrose density, as did the RER marker ribophorin I. Consistent with a RER localization, when the RMS were stripped of ribosomes and subjected to isopycnic centrifugation, the total GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding and the small GTP binding proteins detected in the blot-overlay assay shifted to fractions of lighter sucrose density along with the RER marker.

  5. Binding of fluorescent lanthanides to rat liver mitochondrial membranes and calcium ion-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, R B; Wallach, D F

    1976-05-21

    (1) Tb3+ binding to mitochondrial membranes can be monitored by enhanced ion fluorescence at 545 nm with excitation at 285 nm. At low protein concentrations (less than 30 mug/ml) no inner filter effects are observed. (2) This binding is localized at the external surface of the inner membrane and is unaffected by inhibitors of respiration or oxidative phosphorylation. (3) A soluble Ca2+ binding protein isolated according to Lehninger, A.L. ((1971) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 42, 312-317) also binds Tb3+ with enhanced ion fluorescence upon excitation at 285 nm. The excitation spectrum of the isolated protein and of the intact mitochondria are indicative of an aromatic amino acid at the cation binding site. (4) Further characterization of the Tb3+-protein interaction revealed that there is more than one binding site per protein molecule and that these sites are clustered (less than 20 A). Neuraminidase treatment or organic solvent extraction of the protein did not affect fluorescent Tb3+ binding. (5) pH dependency studies of Tb3+ binding to the isolated protein or intact mitochondria demonstrated the importance of an ionizable group of pK greater than 6. At pH less than 7.5 the amount of Tb3+ bound to the isolated protein decreased with increase in pH as monitored by Tb3+ fluorescence. With intact mitochondria the opposite occurred with a large increase in Tb3+ fluorescence at higher pH. This increase was not observed when the mitochondria were preincubated with antimycin A and rotenone. PMID:6061

  6. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  11. Helicobacter pylori Glutamine Synthetase Lacks Features Associated with Transcriptional and Posttranslational Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Rachel M.; Fulkerson, John; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori urease, produced in abundance, is indispensable for the survival of H. pylori in animal hosts. Urea is hydrolyzed by the enzyme, resulting in the liberation of excess ammonia, some of which neutralizes gastric acid. The remaining ammonia is assimilated into protein by glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2), which catalyzes the reaction: NH3 + glutamate + ATP→glutamine + ADP + Pi. We hypothesized that glutamine synthetase plays an unusually critical role in nitrogen assimilation by H. pylori. We developed a phenotypic screen to isolate genes that contribute to the synthesis of a catalytically active urease. Escherichia coli SE5000 transformed with plasmid pHP808 containing the entire H. pylori urease gene cluster was cotransformed with a pBluescript plasmid library of the H. pylori ATCC 43504 genome. A weakly urease-positive 9.4-kb clone, pUEF728, was subjected to nucleotide sequencing. Among other genes, the gene for glutamine synthetase was identified. The complete 1,443-bp glnA gene predicts a polypeptide of 481 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 54,317; this was supported by maxicell analysis of cloned glnA expressed in E. coli. The top 10 homologs were all bacterial glutamine synthetases, including Salmonella typhimurium glnA. The ATP-binding motif GDNGSG (residues 272 to 277) of H. pylori GlnA exactly matched and aligned with the sequence in 8 of the 10 homologs. The adenylation site found in the top 10 homologs (consensus sequence, NLYDLP) is replaced in H. pylori by NLFKLT (residues 405 to 410). Since the Tyr (Y) residue is the target of adenylation and since the H. pylori glutamine synthetase lacks that residue in four strains examined, we conclude that no adenylation occurs within this motif. Cloned H. pylori glnA complemented a glnA mutation in E. coli, and GlnA enzyme activity could be measured spectrophotometrically. In an attempt to produce a GlnA-deficient mutant of H. pylori, a kanamycin resistance cassette was cloned

  12. Being a binding site: characterizing residue composition of binding sites on proteins.

    PubMed

    Iván, Gábor; Szabadka, Zoltán; Grolmusz, Vince

    2007-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank contains the description of more than 45,000 three-dimensional protein and nucleic-acid structures today. Started to exist as the computer-readable depository of crystallographic data complementing printed articles, the proper interpretation of the content of the individual files in the PDB still frequently needs the detailed information found in the citing publication. This fact implies that the fully automatic processing of the whole PDB is a very hard task. We first cleaned and re-structured the PDB data, then analyzed the residue composition of the binding sites in the whole PDB for frequency and for hidden association rules. Main results of the paper: (i) the cleaning and repairing algorithm (ii) redundancy elimination from the data (iii) application of association rule mining to the cleaned non-redundant data set. We have found numerous significant relations of the residue-composition of the ligand binding sites on protein surfaces, summarized in two figures. One of the classical data-mining methods for exploring implication-rules, the association-rule mining, is capable to find previously unknown residue-set preferences of bind ligands on protein surfaces. Since protein-ligand binding is a key step in enzymatic mechanisms and in drug discovery, these uncovered preferences in the study of more than 19,500 binding sites may help in identifying new binding protein-ligand pairs. PMID:18305831

  13. Protein-DNA binding in high-resolution

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Shaun; Pugh, B. Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental and computational methodologies are enabling ultra-high resolution genome-wide profiles of protein-DNA binding events. For example, the ChIP-exo protocol precisely characterizes protein-DNA crosslinking patterns by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with 5′ → 3′ exonuclease digestion. Similarly, deeply sequenced chromatin accessibility assays (e.g. DNase-seq and ATACseq) enable the detection of protected footprints at protein-DNA binding sites. With these techniques and others, we have the potential to characterize the individual nucleotides that interact with transcription factors, nucleosomes, RNA polymerases, and other regulatory proteins in a particular cellular context. In this review, we explain the experimental assays and computational analysis methods that enable high-resolution profiling of protein-DNA binding events. We discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with such approaches. PMID:26038153

  14. Binding of CCAAT displacement protein CDP to adenovirus packaging sequences.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Ece; Ostapchuk, Philomena; Wells, Susanne I; Yang, Jihong; Gregg, Keqin; Nepveu, Alain; Dudley, Jaquelin P; Hearing, Patrick

    2003-06-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) type 5 DNA packaging is initiated in a polar fashion from the left end of the genome. The packaging process is dependent upon the cis-acting packaging domain located between nucleotides 194 and 380. Seven A/T-rich repeats have been identified within this domain that direct packaging. A1, A2, A5, and A6 are the most important repeats functionally and share a bipartite sequence motif. Several lines of evidence suggest that there is a limiting trans-acting factor(s) that plays a role in packaging. Two cellular activities that bind to minimal packaging domains in vitro have been previously identified. These binding activities are P complex, an uncharacterized protein(s), and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF). In this work, we report that a third cellular protein, octamer-1 protein (Oct-1), binds to minimal packaging domains. In vitro binding analyses and in vivo packaging assays were used to examine the relevance of these DNA binding activities to Ad DNA packaging. The results of these experiments reveal that COUP-TF and Oct-1 binding does not play a functional role in Ad packaging, whereas P-complex binding directly correlates with packaging function. We demonstrate that P complex contains the cellular protein CCAAT displacement protein (CDP) and that full-length CDP is found in purified virus particles. In addition to cellular factors, previous evidence indicates that viral factors play a role in the initiation of viral DNA packaging. We propose that CDP, in conjunction with one or more viral proteins, binds to the packaging sequences of Ad to initiate the encapsidation process. PMID:12743282

  15. High-throughput analysis of protein-DNA binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Franco-Zorrilla, José M; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Sequence-specific protein-DNA interactions mediate most regulatory processes underlying gene expression, such as transcriptional regulation by transcription factors (TFs) or chromatin organization. Current knowledge about DNA-binding specificities of TFs is based mostly on low- to medium-throughput methodologies that are time-consuming and often fail to identify DNA motifs recognized by a TF with lower affinity but retaining biological relevance. The use of protein-binding microarrays (PBMs) offers a high-throughput alternative for the identification of protein-DNA specificities. PBM consists in an array of pseudorandomized DNA sequences that are optimized to include all the possible 10- or 11-mer DNA sequences, allowing the determination of binding specificities of most eukaryotic TFs. PBMs that can be synthesized by several manufacturing companies as single-stranded DNA are converted into double-stranded in a simple primer extension reaction. The protein of interest fused to an epitope tag is then incubated onto the PBM, and specific DNA-protein complexes are revealed in a series of immunological reactions coupled to a fluorophore. After scanning and quantifying PBMs, specific DNA motifs recognized by the protein are identified with ready-to-use scripts, generating comprehensive but accessible information about the DNA-binding specificity of the protein. This chapter describes detailed procedures for preparation of double-stranded PBMs, incubation with recombinant protein, and detection of protein-DNA complexes. Finally, we outline some cues for evaluating the biological role of DNA motifs obtained in vitro. PMID:24057393

  16. Computational evaluation of protein – small molecule binding

    PubMed Central

    Guvench, Olgun; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2009-01-01

    Determining protein – small molecule binding affinity is a key component of present-day rational drug discovery. To circumvent the time, labor, and materials costs associated with experimental protein – small molecule binding assays, a variety of structure-based computational methods have been developed for determining protein – small molecule binding affinities. These methods can be placed in one of two classes: accurate but slow (Class 1), and fast but approximate (Class 2). Class 1 methods, which explicitly take into account protein flexibility and include an atomic-level description of solvation, are capable of quantitatively reproducing experimental protein – small molecule absolute binding free energies. However, Class 1 computational requirements make screening thousands to millions of small molecules against a protein, as required for rational drug design, infeasible for the foreseeable future. Class 2 methods, on the other hand, are sufficiently fast to perform such inhibitor screening, yet they suffer from limited descriptions of protein flexibility and solvation, which in turn limit their ability to select and rank-order small molecules by computed binding affinities. This review presents an overview of Class 1 and Class 2 methods, avenues of research in Class 2 methods aimed at bringing them closer to Class 1 accuracy, and intermediate approaches that incorporate features of both Class 1 and Class 2 methods. PMID:19162472

  17. Lipid A binding proteins in macrophages detected by ligand blotting

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, R.Y.; Golenbock, D.T.; Raetz, C.R.H.

    1987-05-01

    Endotoxin (LPS) stimulates a variety of eukaryotic cells. These actions are involved in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative septicemia. The site of action of the LPS toxic moiety, lipid A (LA), is unclear. Their laboratory has previously identified a bioactive LA precursor lipid IV/sub A/, which can be enzymatically labeled with /sup 32/P/sub i/ (10/sup 9/ dpm/nmole) and purified (99%). They now show that this ligand binds to specific proteins immobilized on nitrocellulose (NC) from LPS-sensitive RAW 264.7 cultured macrophages. NC blots were incubated with (/sup 32/P)-IV/sub A/ in a buffer containing BSA, NaCl, polyethylene glycol, and azide. Binding was assessed using autoradiography or scintillation counting. Dot blot binding of the radioligand was inhibited by excess cold IV/sub A/, LA, or ReLPS but not by phosphatidylcholine, cardiolipin, phosphatidylinositol, or phosphatidic acid. Binding was trypsin-sensitive and dependent on protein concentration. Particulate macrophage proteins were subjected to SDS-PAGE and then electroblotted onto NC. Several discrete binding proteins were observed. Identical treatment of fetal bovine serum or molecular weight standards revealed no detectable binding. By avoiding high nonspecific binding of intact membranes, this ligand blotting assay may be useful in elucidating the molecular actions of LPS.

  18. Metal-binding proteins as metal pollution indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, H.F.

    1986-03-01

    The fact that metal-binding proteins are a consequence of elevated metal concentration in organisms is well known. What has been overlooked is that the presence of these proteins provides a unique opportunity to reformulate the criteria of metal pollution. The detoxification effect of metal-binding proteins in animals from polluted areas has been cited, but there have been only very few studies relating metal-binding proteins to pollution. This lack is due partly to the design of most experiments, which were aimed at isolation of metal-binding proteins and hence were of too short duration to allow for correlation to adverse physiological effects on the organism. In this study metal-binding proteins were isolated and characterized from five different marine animals (rock lobster, Jasus lalandii; hermit crab, Diogenes brevirostris; sandshrimp, Palaemon pacificus; black mussel, Choromytilus meridionalis; and limpet, Patella granularis). These animals were kept under identical metal-enriched conditions, hence eliminating differences in method and seasons. The study animals belonged to different phyla; varied in size, mass, age, behavior, food requirements and life stages; and accumulated metals at different rates. It is possible to link unseasonal moulting in crustacea, a known physiological effect due to a metal-enriched environment, to the production of the metal-binding protein without evidence of obvious metal body burden. Thus a new concept of pollution is defined: the presence of metal-binding proteins confirms toxic metal pollution. This concept was then tested under field conditions in the whelk Bullia digitalis and in metal-enriched grass.

  19. A Correlation between Protein Function and Ligand Binding Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Shortridge, Matthew D.; Bokemper, Michael; Copeland, Jennifer C.; Stark, Jaime L.; Powers, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We report that proteins with the same function bind the same set of small molecules from a standardized chemical library. This observation led to a quantifiable and rapidly adaptable method for protein functional analysis using experimentally-derived ligand binding profiles. Ligand binding is measured using a high-throughput NMR ligand affinity screen with a structurally diverse chemical library. The method was demonstrated using a set of 19 proteins with a range of functions. A statistically significant similarity in ligand binding profiles was only observed between the two functionally identical albumins and between the five functionally similar amylases. This new approach is independent of sequence, structure or evolutionary information, and therefore, extends our ability to analyze and functionally annotate novel genes. PMID:21366353

  20. Binding profile of spiramycin to oviducal proteins of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N

    2000-12-01

    In vitro protein binding of spiramycin (SP) in the plasma and oviducts of laying hens was studied. The data for SP were compared with those for oxytetracycline (OTC), sulphadimidine (SDD), sulphamonomethoxine (SMM) and sulphaquinoxaline (SQ). The two oviduct segments, magnum (M) and isthmus plus shell gland (IS), were collected. The soluble (cell sap) fractions from the magnum (M-S9) and the isthmus plus shell gland (IS-S9) were used as samples. Plasma protein binding was highest for SQ (81.4%) (P < 0.01), and lowest for SDD (30.9%) (P < 0.01). No M-S9 protein binding of OTC was found. The IS-S9 protein binding of SP (60.4%) was very much higher than those of OTC (0.8%), SDD (4.1%), SMM (4.0%) and SQ (12.3%) (P < 0.01). Biological half-lives of these drugs in egg albumen were directly correlated to the extent of their binding to IS proteins. Of plasma, M-S9 and IS-S9, variation in SP concentration in the ranges from 1 to 20 micrograms/ml did not alter the binding properties of the drug. PMID:11199206

  1. Detecting O2 binding sites in protein cavities

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Ryo; Yoshimura, Yuichi; Xue, Mengjun; Kameda, Tomoshi; Mulder, Frans A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Internal cavities are important elements in protein structure, dynamics, stability and function. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate the binding of molecular oxygen (O2) to cavities in a well-studied model for ligand binding, the L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme. On increasing the O2 concentration to 8.9 mM, changes in 1H, 15N, and 13C chemical shifts and signal broadening were observed specifically for backbone amide and side chain methyl groups located around the two hydrophobic cavities of the protein. O2-induced longitudinal relaxation enhancements for amide and methyl protons could be adequately accounted for by paramagnetic dipolar relaxation. These data provide the first experimental demonstration that O2 binds specifically to the hydrophobic, and not the hydrophilic cavities, in a protein. Molecular dynamics simulations visualized the rotational and translational motions of O2 in the cavities, as well as the binding and egress of O2, suggesting that the channel consisting of helices D, E, G, H, and J could be the potential gateway for ligand binding to the protein. Due to strong paramagnetic relaxation effects, O2 gas-pressure NMR measurements can detect hydrophobic cavities when populated to as little as 1%, and thereby provide a general and highly sensitive method for detecting oxygen binding in proteins. PMID:26830762

  2. Assessing Energetic Contributions to Binding from a Disordered Region in a Protein-Protein Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    S Cho; C Swaminathan; D Bonsor; M Kerzic; R Guan; J Yang; C Kieke; P Anderson; D Kranz; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Many functional proteins are at least partially disordered prior to binding. Although the structural transitions upon binding of disordered protein regions can influence the affinity and specificity of protein complexes, their precise energetic contributions to binding are unknown. Here, we use a model protein-protein interaction system in which a locally disordered region has been modified by directed evolution to quantitatively assess the thermodynamic and structural contributions to binding of disorder-to-order transitions. Through X-ray structure determination of the protein binding partners before and after complex formation and isothermal titration calorimetry of the interactions, we observe a correlation between protein ordering and binding affinity for complexes along this affinity maturation pathway. Additionally, we show that discrepancies between observed and calculated heat capacities based on buried surface area changes in the protein complexes can be explained largely by heat capacity changes that would result solely from folding the locally disordered region. Previously developed algorithms for predicting binding energies of protein-protein interactions, however, are unable to correctly model the energetic contributions of the structural transitions in our model system. While this highlights the shortcomings of current computational methods in modeling conformational flexibility, it suggests that the experimental methods used here could provide training sets of molecular interactions for improving these algorithms and further rationalizing molecular recognition in protein-protein interactions.

  3. Recent improvements to Binding MOAD: a resource for protein-ligand binding affinities and structures.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aqeel; Smith, Richard D; Clark, Jordan J; Dunbar, James B; Carlson, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    For over 10 years, Binding MOAD (Mother of All Databases; http://www.BindingMOAD.org) has been one of the largest resources for high-quality protein-ligand complexes and associated binding affinity data. Binding MOAD has grown at the rate of 1994 complexes per year, on average. Currently, it contains 23,269 complexes and 8156 binding affinities. Our annual updates curate the data using a semi-automated literature search of the references cited within the PDB file, and we have recently upgraded our website and added new features and functionalities to better serve Binding MOAD users. In order to eliminate the legacy application server of the old platform and to accommodate new changes, the website has been completely rewritten in the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP) environment. The improved user interface incorporates current third-party plugins for better visualization of protein and ligand molecules, and it provides features like sorting, filtering and filtered downloads. In addition to the field-based searching, Binding MOAD now can be searched by structural queries based on the ligand. In order to remove redundancy, Binding MOAD records are clustered in different families based on 90% sequence identity. The new Binding MOAD, with the upgraded platform, features and functionalities, is now equipped to better serve its users. PMID:25378330

  4. Mapping the Ligand-Binding Region of Borrelia hermsii Fibronectin-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Christiane; Bomans, Katharina; Habicht, Jüri; Simon, Markus M.; Wallich, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Many pathogenic microorganisms express fibronectin-binding molecules that facilitate their adherence to the extracellular matrix and/or entry into mammalian cells. We have previously described a Borrelia recurrentis gene, cihC that encodes a 40-kDa surface receptor for both, fibronectin and the complement inhibitors C4bp and C1-Inh. We now provide evidence for the expression of a group of highly homologues surface proteins, termed FbpA, in three B. hermsii isolates and two tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes, B. parkeri and B. turicatae. When expressed in Escherichia coli or B. burgdorferi, four out of five proteins were shown to selectively bind fibronectin, whereas none of five proteins were able to bind the human complement regulators, C4bp and C1-Inh. By applying deletion mutants of the B. hermsii fibronectin-binding proteins a putative high-affinity binding site for fibronectin was mapped to its central region. In addition, the fibronectin-binding proteins of B. hermsii were found to share sequence homology with BBK32 of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi with similar function suggesting its involvement in persistence and/or virulence of relapsing fever spirochetes. PMID:23658828

  5. Perturbation Approaches for Exploring Protein Binding Site Flexibility to Predict Transient Binding Pockets.

    PubMed

    Kokh, Daria B; Czodrowski, Paul; Rippmann, Friedrich; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    Simulations of the long-time scale motions of a ligand binding pocket in a protein may open up new perspectives for the design of compounds with steric or chemical properties differing from those of known binders. However, slow motions of proteins are difficult to access using standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and are thus usually neglected in computational drug design. Here, we introduce two nonequilibrium MD approaches to identify conformational changes of a binding site and detect transient pockets associated with these motions. The methods proposed are based on the rotamerically induced perturbation (RIP) MD approach, which employs perturbation of side-chain torsional motion for initiating large-scale protein movement. The first approach, Langevin-RIP (L-RIP), entails a series of short Langevin MD simulations, each starting with perturbation of one of the side-chains lining the binding site of interest. L-RIP provides extensive sampling of conformational changes of the binding site. In less than 1 ns of MD simulation with L-RIP, we observed distortions of the α-helix in the ATP binding site of HSP90 and flipping of the DFG loop in Src kinase. In the second approach, RIPlig, a perturbation is applied to a pseudoligand placed in different parts of a binding pocket, which enables flexible regions of the binding site to be identified in a small number of 10 ps MD simulations. The methods were evaluated for four test proteins displaying different types and degrees of binding site flexibility. Both methods reveal all transient pocket regions in less than a total of 10 ns of simulations, even though many of these regions remained closed in 100 ns conventional MD. The proposed methods provide computationally efficient tools to explore binding site flexibility and can aid in the functional characterization of protein pockets, and the identification of transient pockets for ligand design. PMID:27399277

  6. Detergent binding as a sensor of hydrophobicity and polar interactions in the binding cavities of proteins.

    PubMed

    Peyre, Véronique; Lair, Virginie; André, Virginie; le Maire, Guerric; Kragh-Hansen, Ulrich; le Maire, Marc; Møller, Jesper V

    2005-09-13

    To evaluate the role of hydrophobic and electrostatic or other polar interactions for protein-ligand binding, we studied the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) and beta-lactoglobulin with various aliphatic (C10-C14) cationic and zwitterionic detergents. We find that cationic detergents, at levels that do not cause unfolding, interact with a single site on beta-lactoglobulin and with two primary and five to six secondary sites on HSA with an affinity that is approximately the same as that with which zwitterionic (dimethylamineoxide) detergents interact, suggesting the absence of significant electrostatic interactions in the high-affinity binding of these compounds. The binding affinity for all of the groups of compounds was dependent upon hydrocarbon chain length, suggesting the predominant role of hydrophobic forces, supported by polar interactions at the protein surface. A distinct correlation between the binding energy and the propensity for micelle formation within the group of cationic or noncharged (nonionic and zwitterionic) detergents indicated that the critical micellar concentration (CMC) for each of these detergent groups, rather than the absolute length of the hydrocarbon chain, can be used to compare their hydrophobicities during their interaction with protein. Intrinsic fluorescence data suggest that the two primary binding sites on serum albumin for the zwitterionic and cationic compounds are located in the C-terminal part of the albumin molecule, possibly in the Sudlow II binding region. Comparisons with previous binding data on anionic amphiphiles emphasize the important contribution of ion bond formation and other polar interactions in the binding of fatty acids and dodecyl sulfate (SDS) by HSA but not by beta-lactoglobulin. Electrostatic interactions by cationic detergents played a significant role in destabilizing the protein structure at high binding levels, with beta-lactoglobulin being more susceptible to unfolding than HSA. Zwitterionic

  7. Studies on the spermatogenic sulfogalactolipid binding protein SLIP 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lingwood, C.; Nutikka, A. )

    1991-02-01

    We have purified the testicular sulfogalactolipid binding protein SLIP 1 and shown by photoaffinity labeling that it contains an ATP binding site. Purified SLIP 1 was fluorescently labeled and shown to retain specific sulfogalactolipid binding function. This probe was used to investigate the topology of SLIP 1 binding sites on testicular germ cells. The binding pattern precisely coincided with the previously demonstrated asymmetric surface domains of sulfogalactoglycerolipid (SGG). Occasionally these SGG-containing, SLIP 1-binding cell surface domains exactly coincided with structural features on the cell surface as detected by differential interference contrast microscopy. These results demonstrate that SLIP 1/SGG interactions could provide an effective intercellular communication network between testicular germ cells within the seminiferous tubule.

  8. Solid-binding Proteins for Modification of Inorganic Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Brandon Laurence

    Robust and simple strategies to directly functionalize graphene- and diamond-based nanostructures with proteins are of considerable interest for biologically driven manufacturing, biosensing and bioimaging. In this work, we identify a new set of carbon binding peptides that vary in overall hydrophobicity and charge, and engineer two of these sequences (Car9 and Car15) within the framework of various proteins to exploit their binding ability. In addition, we conducted a detailed analysis of the mechanisms that underpin the interaction of the fusion proteins with carbon and silicon surfaces. Through these insights, we were able to develop proteins suitable for dispersing graphene flakes and carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions, while retaining protein activity. Additionally, our investigation into the mechanisms of adhesion for our carbon binding peptides inspired a cheap, disposable protein purification system that is more than 10x cheaper than commonly used His-tag protein purification. Our results emphasize the importance of understanding both bulk and molecular recognition events when exploiting the adhesive properties of solid-binding peptides and proteins in technological applications.

  9. A Simple Method for Discovering Druggable, Specific Glycosaminoglycan-Protein Systems. Elucidation of Key Principles from Heparin/Heparan Sulfate-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Aurijit; Desai, Umesh R.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) affect human physiology and pathology by modulating more than 500 proteins. GAG-protein interactions are generally assumed to be ionic and nonspecific, but specific interactions do exist. Here, we present a simple method to identify the GAG-binding site (GBS) on proteins that in turn helps predict high specific GAG–protein systems. Contrary to contemporary thinking, we found that the electrostatic potential at basic arginine and lysine residues neither identifies the GBS consistently, nor its specificity. GBSs are better identified by considering the potential at neutral hydrogen bond donors such as asparagine or glutamine sidechains. Our studies also reveal that an unusual constellation of ionic and non-ionic residues in the binding site leads to specificity. Nature engineers the local environment of Asn45 of antithrombin, Gln255 of 3-O-sulfotransferase 3, Gln163 and Asn167 of 3-O-sulfotransferase 1 and Asn27 of basic fibroblast growth factor in the respective GBSs to induce specificity. Such residues are distinct from other uncharged residues on the same protein structure in possessing a significantly higher electrostatic potential, resultant from the local topology. In contrast, uncharged residues on nonspecific GBSs such as thrombin and serum albumin possess a diffuse spread of electrostatic potential. Our findings also contradict the paradigm that GAG-binding sites are simply a collection of contiguous Arg/Lys residues. Our work demonstrates the basis for discovering specifically interacting and druggable GAG-protein systems based on the structure of protein alone, without requiring access to any structure-function relationship data. PMID:26488293

  10. Theoretical studies of binding of mannose-binding protein to monosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aida-Hyugaji, Sachiko; Takano, Keiko; Takada, Toshikazu; Hosoya, Haruo; Kojima, Naoya; Mizuochi, Tsuguo; Inoue, Yasushi

    2004-11-01

    Binding properties of mannose-binding protein (MBP) to monosaccharides are discussed based on ab initio molecular orbital calculations for cluster models constructed. The calculated binding energies indicate that MBP has an affinity for N-acetyl- D-glucosamine, D-mannose, L-fucose, and D-glucose rather than D-galactose and N-acetyl- D-galactosamine, which is consistent with the biochemical experimental results. Electrostatic potential surfaces at the binding site of four monosaccharides having binding properties matched well with that of MBP. A vacant frontier orbital was found to be localized around the binding site of MBP, suggesting that MBP-monosaccharide interaction may occur through electrostatic and orbital interactions.

  11. Glutamine deprivation initiates reversible assembly of mammalian rods and rings.

    PubMed

    Calise, S John; Carcamo, Wendy C; Krueger, Claire; Yin, Joyce D; Purich, Daniel L; Chan, Edward K L

    2014-08-01

    Rods and rings (RR) are protein assemblies composed of cytidine triphosphate synthetase type 1 (CTPS1) and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase type 2 (IMPDH2), key enzymes in CTP and GTP biosynthesis. Small-molecule inhibitors of CTPS1 or IMPDH2 induce RR assembly in various cancer cell lines within 15 min to hours. Since glutamine is an essential amide nitrogen donor in these nucleotide biosynthetic pathways, glutamine deprivation was examined to determine whether it leads to RR formation. HeLa cells cultured in normal conditions did not show RR, but after culturing in media lacking glutamine, short rods (<2 μm) assembled after 24 h, and longer rods (>5 μm) formed after 48 h. Upon supplementation with glutamine or guanosine, these RR underwent almost complete disassembly within 15 min. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase with methionine sulfoximine also increased RR assembly in cells deprived of glutamine. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that CTP/GTP biosynthetic enzymes polymerize to form RR in response to a decreased intracellular level of glutamine. We speculate that rod and ring formation is an adaptive metabolic response linked to disruption of glutamine homeostasis. PMID:24477477

  12. Cholesterol-binding viral proteins in virus entry and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    Up to now less than a handful of viral cholesterol-binding proteins have been characterized, in HIV, influenza virus and Semliki Forest virus. These are proteins with roles in virus entry or morphogenesis. In the case of the HIV fusion protein gp41 cholesterol binding is attributed to a cholesterol recognition consensus (CRAC) motif in a flexible domain of the ectodomain preceding the trans-membrane segment. This specific CRAC sequence mediates gp41 binding to a cholesterol affinity column. Mutations in this motif arrest virus fusion at the hemifusion stage and modify the ability of the isolated CRAC peptide to induce segregation of cholesterol in artificial membranes.Influenza A virus M2 protein co-purifies with cholesterol. Its proton translocation activity, responsible for virus uncoating, is not cholesterol-dependent, and the transmembrane channel appears too short for integral raft insertion. Cholesterol binding may be mediated by CRAC motifs in the flexible post-TM domain, which harbours three determinants of binding to membrane rafts. Mutation of the CRAC motif of the WSN strain attenuates virulence for mice. Its affinity to the raft-non-raft interface is predicted to target M2 protein to the periphery of lipid raft microdomains, the sites of virus assembly. Its influence on the morphology of budding virus implicates M2 as factor in virus fission at the raft boundary. Moreover, M2 is an essential factor in sorting the segmented genome into virus particles, indicating that M2 also has a role in priming the outgrowth of virus buds.SFV E1 protein is the first viral type-II fusion protein demonstrated to directly bind cholesterol when the fusion peptide loop locks into the target membrane. Cholesterol binding is modulated by another, proximal loop, which is also important during virus budding and as a host range determinant, as shown by mutational studies. PMID:20213541

  13. Detergent activation of the binding protein in the folate radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Lyngbye, J.

    1982-01-01

    A minor cow's whey protein associated with ..beta..-lactoglobulin is used as binding protein in the competitive radioassay for serum and erythrocyte folate. Seeking to optimize the assay, we tested the performance of binder solutions of increasing purity. The folate binding protein was isolated from cow's whey by means of CM-Sepharose CL-6B cation-exchange chromatography, and further purified on a methotrexate-AH-Sepharose 4B affinity matrix. In contrast to ..beta..-lactoglobulin, the purified protein did not bind folate unless the detergents cetyltrimethylammonium (10 mmol/Ll) or Triton X-100 (1 g/L) were present. Such detergent activation was not needed in the presence of serum. There seems to be a striking analogy between these phenomena and the well-known reactivation of certain purified membrane-derived enzymes by surfactants (lipids/detergents).

  14. DNA-binding proteins in plant mitochondria: implications for transcription.

    PubMed

    Gualberto, José M; Kühn, Kristina

    2014-11-01

    The structural complexity of plant mitochondrial genomes correlates with the variety of single-strand DNA-binding proteins found in plant mitochondria. Most of these are plant-specific and have roles in homologous recombination and genome maintenance. Mitochondrial nucleoids thus differ fundamentally between plants and yeast or animals, where the principal nucleoid protein is a DNA-packaging protein that binds double-stranded DNA. Major transcriptional cofactors identified in mitochondria of non-plant species are also seemingly absent from plants. This article reviews current knowledge on plant mitochondrial DNA-binding proteins and discusses that those may affect the accessibility and conformation of transcription start sites, thus functioning as transcriptional modulators without being dedicated transcription factors. PMID:24561574

  15. Liver takes up retinol-binding protein from plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gjoen, T.; Bjerkelund, T.; Blomhoff, H.K.; Norum, K.R.; Berg, T.; Blomhoff, R.

    1987-08-15

    Retinol is transported in plasma bound to a specific transport protein, retinol-binding protein. We prepared /sup 125/I-tyramine cellobiose-labeled rat retinol-binding protein and studied its tissue uptake 1, 5, and 24 h after intravenous injection into rats. The liver was the organ containing most radioactivity at all time points studied. After 5 and 24 h, 30 and 22% of the injected dose were recovered in liver, respectively. After separating the liver into parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells in the 5-h group, we found that both cell fractions contained approximately the same amount of radioactivity (per gram of liver). Most of the retinol-binding protein radioactivity in the nonparenchymal cell fraction was in the stellate cells. The implication of these results for a possible transfer mechanism for retinol between parenchymal and stellate cells is discussed.

  16. Dosing and efficacy of glutamine supplementation in human exercise and sport training.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael

    2008-10-01

    Some athletes can have high intakes of l-glutamine because of their high energy and protein intakes and also because they consume protein supplements, protein hydrolysates, and free amino acids. Prolonged exercise and periods of heavy training are associated with a decrease in the plasma glutamine concentration and this has been suggested to be a potential cause of the exercise-induced immune impairment and increased susceptibility to infection in athletes. However, several recent glutamine feeding intervention studies indicate that although the plasma glutamine concentration can be kept constant during and after prolonged strenuous exercise, the glutamine supplementation does not prevent the postexercise changes in several aspects of immune function. Although glutamine is essential for lymphocyte proliferation, the plasma glutamine concentration does not fall sufficiently low after exercise to compromise the rate of proliferation. Acute intakes of glutamine of approximately 20-30 g seem to be without ill effect in healthy adult humans and no harm was reported in 1 study in which athletes consumed 28 g glutamine every day for 14 d. Doses of up to 0.65 g/kg body mass of glutamine (in solution or as a suspension) have been reported to be tolerated by patients and did not result in abnormal plasma ammonia levels. However, the suggested reasons for taking glutamine supplements (support for immune system, increased glycogen synthesis, anticatabolic effect) have received little support from well-controlled scientific studies in healthy, well-nourished humans. PMID:18806122

  17. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements. PMID:21087992

  18. PRBP: Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins Using a Random Forest Algorithm Combined with an RNA-Binding Residue Predictor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Guo, Jing; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is an incredibly challenging problem in computational biology. Although great progress has been made using various machine learning approaches with numerous features, the problem is still far from being solved. In this study, we attempt to predict RNA-binding proteins directly from amino acid sequences. A novel approach, PRBP predicts RNA-binding proteins using the information of predicted RNA-binding residues in conjunction with a random forest based method. For a given protein, we first predict its RNA-binding residues and then judge whether the protein binds RNA or not based on information from that prediction. If the protein cannot be identified by the information associated with its predicted RNA-binding residues, then a novel random forest predictor is used to determine if the query protein is a RNA-binding protein. We incorporated features of evolutionary information combined with physicochemical features (EIPP) and amino acid composition feature to establish the random forest predictor. Feature analysis showed that EIPP contributed the most to the prediction of RNA-binding proteins. The results also showed that the information from the RNA-binding residue prediction improved the overall performance of our RNA-binding protein prediction. It is anticipated that the PRBP method will become a useful tool for identifying RNA-binding proteins. A PRBP Web server implementation is freely available at http://www.cbi.seu.edu.cn/PRBP/. PMID:26671809

  19. The RNA-binding protein repertoire of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Marondedze, Claudius; Thomas, Ludivine; Serrano, Natalia L; Lilley, Kathryn S; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in determining the fate of RNA from synthesis to decay and have been studied on a protein-by-protein basis, or computationally based on a number of well-characterised RNA-binding domains. Recently, high-throughput methods enabled the capture of mammalian RNA-binding proteomes. To gain insight into the role of Arabidopsis thaliana RBPs at the systems level, we have employed interactome capture techniques using cells from different ecotypes grown in cultures and leaves. In vivo UV-crosslinking of RNA to RBPs, oligo(dT) capture and mass spectrometry yielded 1,145 different proteins including 550 RBPs that either belong to the functional category 'RNA-binding', have known RNA-binding domains or have orthologs identified in mammals, C. elegans, or S. cerevisiae in addition to 595 novel candidate RBPs. We noted specific subsets of RBPs in cultured cells and leaves and a comparison of Arabidopsis, mammalian, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae RBPs reveals a common set of proteins with a role in intermediate metabolism, as well as distinct differences suggesting that RBPs are also species and tissue specific. This study provides a foundation for studies that will advance our understanding of the biological significance of RBPs in plant developmental and stimulus specific responses. PMID:27405932

  20. Mercury-binding proteins from the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Roesijadi, G.

    1986-03-01

    The marine mussel, Mytilus edulis, possesses low molecular weight, metal-binding proteins which can be induced by and, in turn, bind mercury when individuals are exposed to low, but elevated concentrations of mercury as HgCl/sub 2/. Induction of the proteins by exposure of mussels to copper, cadmium, or mercury is associated with enhanced tolerance to mercury toxicity. Mercury-binding proteins isolated from gills of mussels occur as two molecular weight variants of about 20-25 and 10-12 kdaltons, respectively, on Sephadex G-75. These have been designated as HgBP/sub 20/ and HgBP/sub 10/ following the nomenclature used for cadmium-binding proteins. HgBP/sub 20/ represents the primary mercury-binding species. Separation of HgBP/sub 20/ by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography resulted in the resolution of six peaks, indicating a more complex situation than was evident from DEAE-cellulose separations. Although not completely purified, these also contain cysteine- and glycine-rich proteins.

  1. Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Anholt, R.R.H.; Mumby, S.M.; Stoffers, D.A.; Girard, P.R.; Kuo, J.F.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-02-10

    The authors have analyzed guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) in the olfactory epithelium of Rana catesbeiana using subunit-specific antisera. The olfactory epithelium contained the ..cap alpha.. subunits of three G-proteins, migrating on polyacrylamide gels in SDS with apparent molecular weights of 45,000, 42,000, and 40,000, corresponding to G/sub s/, G/sub i/, and G/sub o/, respectively. A single ..beta.. subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was detected. An antiserum against the ..cap alpha.. subunit of retinal transducin failed to detect immunoreactive proteins in olfactory cilia detached from the epithelium. The olfactory cilia appeared to be enriched in immunoreactive G/sub s..cap alpha../ relative to G/sub ichemically bond/ and G/sub ochemically bond/ when compared to membranes prepared from the olfactory epithelium after detachment of the cilia. Bound antibody was detected by autoradiography after incubation with (/sup 125/I)protein. Immunohistochemical studies using an antiserum against the ..beta.. subunit of G-proteins revealed intense staining of the ciliary surface of the olfactory epithelium and of the axon bundles in the lamina propria. In contrast, an antiserum against a common sequence of the ..cap alpha.. subunits preferentially stained the cell membranes of the olfactory receptor cells and the acinar cells of Bowman's glands and the deep submucosal glands. In addition to G-proteins, they have identified protein kinase C in olfactory cilia via a protein kinase C specific antiserum and via phorbol ester binding. However, in contrast to the G-proteins, protein kinase C occurred also in cilia isolated from respiratory epithelium.

  2. Tetrapyrrole binding affinity of the murine and human p22HBP heme-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Micaelo, Nuno M; Macedo, Anjos L; Goodfellow, Brian J; Félix, Vítor

    2010-11-01

    We present the first systematic molecular modeling study of the binding properties of murine (mHBP) and human (hHBP) p22HBP protein (heme-binding protein) with four tetrapyrrole ring systems belonging to the heme biosynthetic pathway: iron protoporphyrin IX (HEMIN), protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), coproporphyrin III (CPIII), coproporphyrin I (CPI). The relative binding affinities predicted by our computational study were found to be similar to those observed experimentally, providing a first rational structural analysis of the molecular recognition mechanism, by p22HBP, toward a number of different tetrapyrrole ligands. To probe the structure of these p22HBP protein complexes, docking, molecular dynamics and MM-PBSA methodologies supported by experimental NMR ring current shift data have been employed. The tetrapyrroles studied were found to bind murine p22HBP with the following binding affinity order: HEMIN> PPIX> CPIII> CPI, which ranged from -22.2 to -6.1 kcal/mol. In general, the protein-tetrapyrrole complexes are stabilized by non-bonded interactions between the tetrapyrrole propionate groups and basic residues of the protein, and by the preferential solvation of the complex compared to the unbound components. PMID:20800521

  3. Concerted influence of key amino acids on the lipid binding properties of a single-spanning membrane protein: NMR and mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Mousson, F; Beswick, V; Coïc, Y M; Baleux, F; Huynh-Dinh, T; Sanson, A; Neumann, J M

    2001-08-21

    Finding the combinations of key amino acids involved in the interaction network underlying the interfacial features of membrane proteins would contribute to a better understanding of their sequence-structure-function relationships and the role of anionic phospholipids. To further address these questions, we performed mutational analysis associated with NMR experiments on synthetic fragments of the single-spanning membrane protein PMP1 that exhibit binding specificity for phosphatidylserine (PS). The aromatic and glutamine residues of the helix part of the PMP1 cytoplasmic domain were mutated. (1)H NMR experiments were carried out using perdeuterated DPC micelles as a membrane-like environment, in the absence and presence of small amounts of either POPC or POPS lipids. From intermolecular NOEs and chemical shift data, specific and nonspecific aspects of peptide-phospholipid interactions were distinguished. The major finding of our study is to reveal the concerted influence of a tryptophan and a glutamine residue on the interfacial conformation and lipid binding specificity of the PMP1 cytoplasmic domain. PMID:11502196

  4. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle binding to major human blood proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Katsutomo; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    Nanomaterials are used for various biomedical applications because they are often more effective than conventional materials. Recently, however, it has become clear that the protein corona that forms on the surface of nanomaterials when they make contact with biological fluids, such as blood, influences the pharmacokinetics and biological responses induced by the nanomaterials. Therefore, when evaluating nanomaterial safety and efficacy, it is important to analyze the interaction between nanomaterials and proteins in biological fluids and to evaluate the effects of the protein corona. Here, we evaluated the interaction of silica nanoparticles, a commonly used nanomaterial, with the human blood proteins albumin, transferrin, fibrinogen, and IgG. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to the silica particles increased as the particle size decreased under conditions where the silica particle mass remained the same. However, under conditions in which the specific surface area remained constant, there were no differences in the binding of human plasma proteins to the silica particles tested, suggesting that the binding of silica particles with human plasma proteins is dependent on the specific surface area of the silica particles. Furthermore, the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 70 nm (nSP70) and a functional amino group was lower than that with unmodified nSP70, although there was no difference in the binding between nSP70 with the surface modification of a carboxyl functional group and nSP70. These results suggest that the characteristics of nanomaterials are important for binding with human blood proteins; this information may contribute to the development of safe and effective nanomaterials.

  5. Protein D of Haemophilus influenzae is not a universal immunoglobulin D-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, K; Munson, R S

    1993-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b and nontypeable H. influenzae have been reported to bind human immunoglobulin D (IgD). IgD myeloma sera from five patients were tested for the ability of IgD to bind to H. influenzae. Serotype b strains bound human IgD in four of the five sera tested. IgD in the fifth serum bound strongly to type b strain MinnA but poorly to other type b strains. Additionally, IgD binding was not observed when nontypeable strains were tested. The gene for protein D, the putative IgD-binding protein, was cloned from the IgD-binding H. influenzae type b strain MinnA and expressed in Escherichia coli. IgD binding to E. coli expressing protein D was not demonstrable. Recombinant protein D was purified, and antisera were generated in rabbits. Using these rabbit sera, we detected protein D in nontypeable as well as serotype b strains by Western blotting (immunoblotting). In contrast, IgD myeloma protein 4490, which was previously reported to bind to protein D by Ruan and coworkers (M. Ruan, M. Akkoyunlu, A. Grubb, and A. Forsgren, J. Immunol. 145:3379-3384), bound strongly to both type b and nontypeable H. influenzae as well as to E. coli expressing protein D. Thus, IgD binding is a general property of H. influenzae type b strains but not a general property of nontypeable strains, although both type b and nontypeable strains produce protein D. With the exception of IgD myeloma protein 4490 binding, we have no evidence for a role of protein D in IgD binding to H. influenzae. Images PMID:8514409

  6. RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

    2014-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80 % of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. PMID:24878641

  7. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  8. Lactation-induced cadmium-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Solaiman, D.; Garvey, J.S.; Miyazaki, W.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated an increase during midlactation in /sup 109/Cd adsorption and increased retention by the duodenum, kidney, and mammary tissue of mouse dams receiving environmental levels of cadmium//sup 109/Cd via drinking water, with little change in /sup 109/Cd retention in liver and jejunum compared to nonpregnant controls. Results are reported here of a study of cadmium deposition during midlactation as associated with induction of metallothionein (MT). A cadmium/hemoglobin (Cd/Hb) assay and radioimmunoassay for MT which measures heat-stable cadmium binding capacity in tissues was used to determine MT concentrations in fractions of kidney, liver, duodenum, and jejunum from female mice. Both assays demonstrated clear lactation-induced increases in MT concentrations in liver, kidney, and duodenum, with MT concentrations falling rapidly to control levels after weaning. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  9. A Glutamine/Asparagine-Rich Fragment of Gln3, but not the Full-Length Protein, Aggregates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Antonets, K S; Sargsyan, H M; Nizhnikov, A A

    2016-04-01

    The amino acid sequence of protein Gln3 in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a region enriched with Gln (Q) and Asn (N) residues. In this study, we analyzed the effects of overexpression of Gln3 and its Q/N-rich fragment fused with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Being overexpressed, full-length Gln3-YFP does not form aggregates, inhibits vegetative growth, and demonstrates nuclear localization, while the Q/N-rich fragment (Gln3QN) fused with YFP forms aggregates that do not colocalize with the nucleus and do not affect growth of the cells. Although detergent-resistant aggregates of Gln3QN are formed in the absence of yeast prions, the aggregation of Gln3QN significantly increases in the presence of [PIN(+)] prion, while in the presence of two prions, [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)], the percentage of cells with Gln3QN aggregates is significantly lower than in the strain bearing only [PIN(+)]. Data on colocalization demonstrate that this effect is mediated by interaction between Gln3QN aggregates and [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] prions. PMID:27293098

  10. Quantifying Aptamer-Protein Binding via Thermofluorimetric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Juan; Kim, Joonyul; Easley, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Effective aptamer-based protein assays require coupling to a quantitative reporter of aptamer-protein binding. Typically, this involves a direct optical or electrochemical readout of DNA hybridization or an amplification step coupled to the readout. However, method development is often hampered by the multiplicity of aptamer-target binding mechanisms, which can interfere with the hybridization step. As a simpler and more generalizable readout of aptamer-protein binding, we report that thermofluorimetric analysis (TFA) can be used to quantitatively assay protein levels. Sub-nanomolar detection (0.74 nM) of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) with its corresponding aptamer is shown as a test case. In the presence of various DNA intercalating dyes, protein-bound aptamers exhibit a change in fluorescence intensity compared to the intercalated, unbound aptamer. This allows thermal resolution of bound and unbound aptamers using fluorescence melting analysis (−dF/dT curves). Remarkably, the homogeneous optical method allows subtraction of autofluorescence in human serum, giving PDGF detection limits of 1.8 and 10.7 nM in serum diluted 1:7 and 1:3, respectively. We have thus demonstrated that bound and unbound aptamers can be thermally resolved in a homogeneous format using a simple qPCR instrument—even in human serum. The simplicity of this approach provides an important step toward a robust, generalizable readout of aptamer-protein binding. PMID:26366207