Science.gov

Sample records for glycan microarray strategy

  1. Chemistry of Natural Glycan Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xuezheng; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Cummings, Richard D.; Smith, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Glycan microarrays have become indispensable tools for studying protein-glycan interactions. Along with chemo-enzymatic synthesis, glycans isolated from natural sources have played important roles in array development and will continue to be a major source of glycans. N- and O-glycans from glycoproteins, and glycans from glycosphingolipids can be released from corresponding glycoconjugates with relatively mature methods, although isolation of large numbers and quantities of glycans are still very challenging. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchors and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are less represented on current glycan microarrays. Glycan microarray development has been greatly facilitated by bifunctional fluorescent linkers, which can be applied in a “Shotgun Glycomics” approach to incorporate isolated natural glycans. Glycan presentation on microarrays may affect glycan binding by GBPs, often through multivalent recognition by the GBP. PMID:24487062

  2. Are glycan biosensors an alternative to glycan microarrays?

    PubMed Central

    Hushegyi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates (glycans) play an important role in nature and study of their interaction with proteins or intact cells can be useful for understanding many physiological and pathological processes. Such interactions have been successfully interrogated in a highly parallel way using glycan microarrays, but this technique has some limitations. Thus, in recent years glycan biosensors in numerous progressive configurations have been developed offering distinct advantages compared to glycan microarrays. Thus, in this review advances achieved in the field of label-free glycan biosensors are discussed.

  3. Glycan microarrays for decoding the glycome

    PubMed Central

    Rillahan, Cory D.; Paulson, James C.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade glycan microarrays have revolutionized the analysis of the specificity of glycan binding proteins, providing information that simultaneously illuminates the biology mediated by them and decodes the information content of the glycome. Numerous methods have emerged for arraying glycans in a ‘chip’ format, and glycan libraries have been assembled that address the diversity of the human glycome. Such arrays have been successfully used for analysis of glycan binding proteins that mediate mammalian biology, host-pathogen interactions, immune recognition of glycans relevant to vaccine production and cancer antigens. This review covers the development of glycan microarrays and applications that have provided insights into the roles of mammalian and microbial glycan binding proteins. PMID:21469953

  4. Identification of Antigenic Glycans from Schistosoma mansoni by Using a Shotgun Egg Glycan Microarray.

    PubMed

    Mickum, Megan L; Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Song, Xuezheng; Dorabawila, Nelum; Mandalasi, Msano; Lasanajak, Yi; Luyai, Anthony; Secor, W Evan; Wilkins, Patricia P; Van Die, Irma; Smith, David F; Nyame, A Kwame; Cummings, Richard D; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Infection of mammals by the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni induces antibodies to glycan antigens in worms and eggs, but the differential nature of the immune response among infected mammals is poorly understood. To better define these responses, we used a shotgun glycomics approach in which N-glycans from schistosome egg glycoproteins were prepared, derivatized, separated, and used to generate an egg shotgun glycan microarray. This array was interrogated with sera from infected mice, rhesus monkeys, and humans and with glycan-binding proteins and antibodies to gather information about the structures of antigenic glycans, which also were analyzed by mass spectrometry. A major glycan antigen targeted by IgG from different infected species is the FLDNF epitope [Fucα3GalNAcβ4(Fucα3)GlcNAc-R], which is also recognized by the IgG monoclonal antibody F2D2. The FLDNF antigen is expressed by all life stages of the parasite in mammalian hosts, and F2D2 can kill schistosomula in vitro in a complement-dependent manner. Different antisera also recognized other glycan determinants, including core β-xylose and highly fucosylated glycans. Thus, the natural shotgun glycan microarray of schistosome eggs is useful in identifying antigenic glycans and in developing new anti-glycan reagents that may have diagnostic applications and contribute to developing new vaccines against schistosomiasis. PMID:26883596

  5. Glycan specificity of neuraminidases determined in microarray format.

    PubMed

    McCombs, Janet E; Diaz, Jason P; Luebke, Kevin J; Kohler, Jennifer J

    2016-06-16

    Neuraminidases hydrolytically remove sialic acids from glycoconjugates. Neuraminidases are produced by both humans and their pathogens, and function in normal physiology and in pathological events. Identification of neuraminidase substrates is needed to reveal their mechanism of action, but high-throughput methods to determine glycan specificity of neuraminidases are limited. Here we use two glycan labeling reactions to monitor neuraminidase activity toward glycan substrates. While both periodate oxidation and aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation (PAL) and galactose oxidase and aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation (GAL) can be used to monitor neuraminidase activity toward glycans in microtiter plates, only GAL accurately measured neuraminidase activity toward glycans displayed on a commercial glass slide microarray. Using GAL, we confirm known linkage specificities of three pneumococcal neuraminidases and obtain new information about underlying glycan specificity. PMID:27131125

  6. Glycan Profiling of Plant Cell Wall Polymers using Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Isabel E.; Pettolino, Filomena A.; Hart, Charlie; Lampugnani, Edwin R.; Willats, William G.T.; Bacic, Antony

    2012-01-01

    to determine the relative abundance of glycans in a broad range of plant and tissue types simultaneously9,10,11. Here we present a microarray-based glycan screening method called Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) (Figures 1 & 2)10,11 that enables multiple samples (100 sec) to be screened using a miniaturised microarray platform with reduced reagent and sample volumes. The spot signals on the microarray can be formally quantified to give semi-quantitative data about glycan epitope occurrence. This approach is well suited to tracking glycan changes in complex biological systems12 and providing a global overview of cell wall composition particularly when prior knowledge of this is unavailable. PMID:23271573

  7. Derivatization of free natural glycans for incorporation onto glycan arrays: derivatizing glycans on the microscale for microarray and other applications (ms# CP-10-0194)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xuezheng; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Nature possesses an unlimited number and source of biologically-relevant natural glycans, many of which are too complicated to synthesize in the laboratory. To capitalize on the naturally-occurring plethora of glycans, we have developed a method to fluorescently tag the isolated free glycans, which maintains the closed-ring structure. After purification of the labeled glycans, they can be printed on a glass surface to create a natural glycan microarray, available for interrogation with potential glycan-binding proteins. The derivatization of these natural glycans has vastly expanded the number of glycans for functional studies. PMID:22022660

  8. Glycan profiling of endometrial cancers using lectin microarray.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Masashi; Yamazaki-Inoue, Mayu; Sugiyama, Taro; Miyazawa, Masaki; Muramatsu, Toshinari; Nakamura, Kyoko; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Mikami, Mikio

    2012-10-01

    Cell surface glycans change during the process of malignant transformation. To characterize and distinguish endometrial cancer and endometrium, we performed glycan profiling using an emerging modern technology, lectin microarray analysis. The three cell lines, two from endometrial cancers [well-differentiated type (G1) and poorly differentiated type (G3)] and one from normal endometrium, were successfully categorized into three independent groups by 45 lectins. Furthermore, in cancer cells, a clear difference between G1 and G3 type was observed for the glycans recognized with six lectins, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), Sambucus sieboldiana agglutinin (SSA), Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), Trichosanthes japonica agglutinin I (TJA-I), Amaranthus caudatus agglutinin (ACA), and Bauhinia purpurea lectin (BPL). The lectin microarray analysis using G3 type tissues demonstrated that stage I and stage III or IV were distinguished depending on signal pattern of three lectins, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), BPL, and ACA. In addition, the analysis of the glycans on the ovarian cancer cells showed that only anticancer drug-sensitive cell lines had almost no activities to specific three lectins. Glycan profiling by the lectin microarray may be used to assess the characteristics of tumors and potentially to predict the success of chemotherapy treatment. PMID:22957961

  9. Differential Anti-Glycan Antibody Responses in Schistosoma mansoni-Infected Children and Adults Studied by Shotgun Glycan Microarray

    PubMed Central

    van Diepen, Angela; Smit, Cornelis H.; van Egmond, Loes; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Pinot de Moira, Angela; Dunne, David W.; Hokke, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a chronic and potentially deadly parasitic disease that affects millions of people in (sub)tropical areas. An important partial immunity to Schistosoma infections does develop in disease endemic areas, but this takes many years of exposure and maturation of the immune system. Therefore, children are far more susceptible to re-infection after treatment than older children and adults. This age-dependent immunity or susceptibility to re-infection has been shown to be associated with specific antibody and T cell responses. Many antibodies generated during Schistosoma infection are directed against the numerous glycans expressed by Schistosoma. The nature of glycan epitopes recognized by antibodies in natural schistosomiasis infection serum is largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings The binding of serum antibodies to glycans can be analyzed efficiently and quantitatively using glycan microarray approaches. Very small amounts of a large number of glycans are presented on a solid surface allowing binding properties of various glycan binding proteins to be tested. We have generated a so-called shotgun glycan microarray containing natural N-glycan and lipid-glycan fractions derived from 4 different life stages of S. mansoni and applied this array to the analysis of IgG and IgM antibodies in sera from children and adults living in an endemic area. This resulted in the identification of differential glycan recognition profiles characteristic for the two different age groups, possibly reflecting differences in age or differences in length of exposure or infection. Conclusions/Significance Using the shotgun glycan microarray approach to study antibody response profiles against schistosome-derived glycan elements, we have defined groups of infected individuals as well as glycan element clusters to which antibody responses are directed in S. mansoni infections. These findings are significant for further exploration of Schistosoma

  10. Concept, strategy and realization of lectin-based glycan profiling.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Jun

    2008-08-01

    Lectins are a diverse group of carbohydrate-binding proteins. Each lectin has its own specificity profile. It is believed that lectins exist in all living organisms that produce glycans. From a practical viewpoint, lectins have been used extensively in biochemical fields including proteomics due to their usefulness as detection and enrichment tools for specific glycans. Nevertheless, they have often been underestimated as probes, especially compared with antibodies, because of their low affinity and broad specificity. However, together with the concept of glycomics, such properties of lectins are now considered to be suitable for the task of 'profiling' in order to cover a wider range of ligands. Recently there has been rapid movement in the field of proteomics aimed at the investigation of glycan-related biomarkers. This is partly because of limitations of the present approach of simply following changes in protein-level expression, without paying sufficient attention to the fact and effects of glycosylation. The trend is reflected in the frequent use of lectins in the contexts of glycoprotein enrichment and glycan profiling. However, there are many aspects to be considered in using lectins, which differ considerably from antibodies. In this article, the author, as a developer of two unique methodologies, frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) and the lectin microarray, describes critical points concerning the use of lectins, together with the concept, strategy and means to achieve advances in these emerging glycan profiling technologies. PMID:18390573

  11. Carbohydrate microarray for the detection of glycan-protein interactions using metal-enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Moraillon, Anne; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Boukherroub, Rabah; Ozanam, François; Gouget-Laemmel, Anne Chantal; Szunerits, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    Carbohydrate arrays are potentially one of the most attractive tools to study carbohydrate-based interactions. This paper describes a new analytical platform that exploits metal-enhanced fluorescence for the sensitive and selective screening of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. The chip consists of a glass slide covered with gold nanostructures, postcoated with a thin layer of amorphous silicon-carbon alloy (a-Si0.8C0.2:H). An immobilization strategy based on the formation of a covalent bond between propargyl-terminated glycans and surface-linked azide groups was used to attach various glycans at varying surface densities onto the interface and to fabricate a carbohydrate array via efficient local "click" chemistry strategy. The specific association of the new interface with fluorescently labeled lectins was assessed by fluorescence imaging and an excellent selectivity to specific proteins was achieved. Optimization of the surface architecture and the plasmonic transducer resulted in an enhancement of the fluorescence intensity by 1 order of magnitude, when compared to the corresponding substrate devoid of gold nanostructures. The limit of detection (LOD) of such microarrays is in the picomolar range, making it a promising system for development in pharmaceutical or biomedical applications. PMID:25729928

  12. Density variant glycan microarray for evaluating cross-linking of mucin-like glycoconjugates by lectins.

    PubMed

    Godula, Kamil; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2012-09-26

    Interactions of mucin glycoproteins with cognate receptors are dictated by the structures and spatial organization of glycans that decorate the mucin polypeptide backbone. The glycan-binding proteins, or lectins, that interact with mucins are often oligomeric receptors with multiple ligand binding domains. In this work, we employed a microarray platform comprising synthetic glycopolymers that emulate natural mucins arrayed at different surface densities to evaluate how glycan valency and spatial separation affect the preferential binding mode of a particular lectin. We evaluated a panel of four lectins (Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Wisteria floribunda lectin (WFL), Vicia villosa-B-4 agglutinin (VVA), and Helix pomatia agglutin (HPA)) with specificity for α-N-acetylgalactosamine (α-GalNAc), an epitope displayed on mucins overexpressed in many adenocarcinomas. While these lectins possess the ability to agglutinate A(1)-blood cells carrying the α-GalNAc epitope and cross-link low valency glycoconjugates, only SBA showed a tendency to form intermolecular cross-links among the arrayed polyvalent mucin mimetics. These results suggest that glycopolymer microarrays can reveal discrete higher-order binding preferences beyond the recognition of individual glycan epitopes. Our findings indicate that glycan valency can set thresholds for cross-linking by lectins. More broadly, well-defined synthetic glycopolymers enable the integration of glycoconjugate structural and spatial diversity in a single microarray screening platform. PMID:22967056

  13. Comprehensive profiling of accessible surface glycans of mammalian sperm using a lectin microarray

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that cell surface glycans or glycocalyx play important roles in sperm motility, maturation and fertilization. A comprehensive profile of the sperm surface glycans will greatly facilitate both basic research (sperm glycobiology) and clinical studies, such as diagnostics of infertility. As a group of natural glycan binders, lectin is an ideal tool for cell surface glycan profiling. However, because of the lack of effective technology, only a few lectins have been tested for lectin-sperm binding profiles. To address this challenge, we have developed a procedure for high-throughput probing of mammalian sperm with 91 lectins on lectin microarrays. Normal sperm from human, boar, bull, goat and rabbit were collected and analyzed on the lectin microarrays. Positive bindings of a set of ~50 lectins were observed for all the sperm of 5 species, which indicated a wide range of glycans are on the surface of mammalian sperm. Species specific lectin bindings were also observed. Clustering analysis revealed that the distances of the five species according to the lectin binding profiles are consistent with that of the genome sequence based phylogenetic tree except for rabbit. The procedure that we established in this study could be generally applicable for sperm from other species or defect sperm from the same species. We believe the lectin binding profiles of the mammalian sperm that we established in this study are valuable for both basic research and clinical studies. PMID:24629138

  14. Glycan labeling strategies and their use in identification and quantification

    PubMed Central

    Ruhaak, L. R.; Zauner, G.; Huhn, C.; Bruggink, C.; Deelder, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Most methods for the analysis of oligosaccharides from biological sources require a glycan derivatization step: glycans may be derivatized to introduce a chromophore or fluorophore, facilitating detection after chromatographic or electrophoretic separation. Derivatization can also be applied to link charged or hydrophobic groups at the reducing end to enhance glycan separation and mass-spectrometric detection. Moreover, derivatization steps such as permethylation aim at stabilizing sialic acid residues, enhancing mass-spectrometric sensitivity, and supporting detailed structural characterization by (tandem) mass spectrometry. Finally, many glycan labels serve as a linker for oligosaccharide attachment to surfaces or carrier proteins, thereby allowing interaction studies with carbohydrate-binding proteins. In this review, various aspects of glycan labeling, separation, and detection strategies are discussed. Figure MALDI-FTICR-MS of 2AA-labeled total plasma N-glycans PMID:20225063

  15. A Miniaturized Glycan Microarray Assay for Assessing Avidity and Specificity of Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinins.

    PubMed

    McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C; de Vries, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinins recognize sialic acids on the cell surface as functional receptors to gain entry into cells. Wild waterfowl are the natural reservoir for IAV, but IAV can cross the species barrier to poultry, swine, horses and humans. Avian viruses recognize sialic acid attached to a penultimate galactose by a α2-3 linkage (avian-type receptors) whereas human viruses preferentially recognize sialic acid with a α2-6 linkage (human-type receptors). To monitor if avian viruses are adapting to human type receptors, several methods can be used. Glycan microarrays with diverse libraries of synthetic sialosides are increasingly used to evaluate receptor specificity. However, this technique is not used for measuring avidities. Measurement of avidity is typically achieved by evaluating the binding of serially diluted hemagglutinin or virus to glycans adsorbed to conventional polypropylene 96-well plates. In this assay, glycans with α2-3 or α2-6 sialic acids are coupled to biotin and adsorbed to streptavidin plates, or are coupled to polyacrylamide (PAA) which directly adsorb to the plastic. We have significantly miniaturized this assay by directly printing PAA-linked sialosides and their non PAA-linked counterparts on micro-well glass slides. This set-up, with 48 arrays on a single slide, enables simultaneous assays of 6 glycan binding proteins at 8 dilutions, interrogating 6 different glycans, including two non-sialylated controls. This is equivalent to 18x 96-well plates in the traditional plate assay. The glycan array format decreases consumption of compounds and biologicals and thus greatly enhances efficiency. PMID:27284789

  16. A multivariate approach for high throughput pectin profiling by combining glycan microarrays with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sousa, António G; Ahl, Louise I; Pedersen, Henriette L; Fangel, Jonatan U; Sørensen, Susanne O; Willats, William G T

    2015-05-29

    Pectin-one of the most complex biomacromolecules in nature has been extensively studied using various techniques. This has been done so in an attempt to understand the chemical composition and conformation of pectin, whilst discovering and optimising new industrial applications of the polymer. For the last decade the emergence of glycan microarray technology has led to a growing capacity of acquiring simultaneous measurements related to various carbohydrate characteristics while generating large collections of data. Here we used a multivariate analysis approach in order to analyse a set of 359 pectin samples probed with 14 different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were utilised to obtain the most optimal qualitative and quantitative information from the spotted microarrays. The potential use of microarray technology combined with chemometrics for the accurate determination of degree of methyl-esterification (DM) and degree of blockiness (DB) was assessed. PMID:25950120

  17. Correlation Index-Based Responsible-Enzyme Gene Screening (CIRES), a Novel DNA Microarray-Based Method for Enzyme Gene Involved in Glycan Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Harumi; Takematsu, Hiromu; Fujinawa, Reiko; Naito, Yuko; Okuno, Yasushi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Suzuki, Akemi; Kozutsumi, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    Background Glycan biosynthesis occurs though a multi-step process that requires a variety of enzymes ranging from glycosyltransferases to those involved in cytosolic sugar metabolism. In many cases, glycan biosynthesis follows a glycan-specific, linear pathway. As glycosyltransferases are generally regulated at the level of transcription, assessing the overall transcriptional profile for glycan biosynthesis genes seems warranted. However, a systematic approach for assessing the correlation between glycan expression and glycan-related gene expression has not been reported previously. Methodology To facilitate genetic analysis of glycan biosynthesis, we sought to correlate the expression of genes involved in cell-surface glycan formation with the expression of the glycans, as detected by glycan-recognizing probes. We performed cross-sample comparisons of gene expression profiles using a newly developed, glycan-focused cDNA microarray. Cell-surface glycan expression profiles were obtained using flow cytometry of cells stained with plant lectins. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated for these profiles and were used to identify enzyme genes correlated with glycan biosynthesis. Conclusions This method, designated correlation index-based responsible-enzyme gene screening (CIRES), successfully identified genes already known to be involved in the biosynthesis of certain glycans. Our evaluation of CIRES indicates that it is useful for identifying genes involved in the biosynthesis of glycan chains that can be probed with lectins using flow cytometry. PMID:18043739

  18. Individuality Normalization when Labeling with Isotopic Glycan Hydrazide Tags (INLIGHT): A Novel Glycan-Relative Quantification Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S. Hunter; Taylor, Amber D.; Muddiman, David C.

    2013-09-01

    The Individuality Normalization when Labeling with Isotopic Glycan Hydrazide Tags (INLIGHT) strategy for the sample preparation, data analysis, and relative quantification of N-linked glycans is presented. Glycans are derivatized with either natural (L) or stable-isotope labeled (H) hydrazide reagents and analyzed using reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled online to a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. A simple glycan ladder, maltodextrin, is first used to demonstrate the relative quantification strategy in samples with negligible analytical and biological variability. It is shown that after a molecular weight correction attributable to isotopic overlap and a post-acquisition normalization of the data to account for any systematic bias, a plot of the experimental H:L ratio versus the calculated H:L ratio exhibits a correlation of unity for maltodextrin samples mixed in different ratios. We also demonstrate that the INLIGHT approach can quantify species over four orders of magnitude in ion abundance. The INLIGHT strategy is further demonstrated in pooled human plasma, where it is shown that the post-acquisition normalization is more effective than using a single spiked-in internal standard. Finally, changes in glycosylation are able to be detected in complex biological matrices, when spiked with a glycoprotein. The ability to spike in a glycoprotein and detect change at the glycan level validates both the sample preparation and data analysis strategy, making INLIGHT an invaluable relative quantification strategy for the field of glycomics.

  19. Association analyses of large-scale glycan microarray data reveal novel host-specific substructures in influenza A virus binding glycans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nan; Martin, Brigitte E.; Yang, Chun-Kai; Luo, Feng; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-10-01

    Influenza A viruses can infect a wide variety of animal species and, occasionally, humans. Infection occurs through the binding formed by viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and certain types of glycan receptors on host cell membranes. Studies have shown that the α2,3-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,3Gal) in avian, equine, and canine species; the α2,6-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,6Gal) in humans; and SA2,3Gal and SA2,6Gal in swine are responsible for the corresponding host tropisms. However, more detailed and refined substructures that determine host tropisms are still not clear. Thus, in this study, we applied association mining on a set of glycan microarray data for 211 influenza viruses from five host groups: humans, swine, canine, migratory waterfowl, and terrestrial birds. The results suggest that besides Neu5Acα2-6Galβ, human-origin viruses could bind glycans with Neu5Acα2-8Neu5Acα2-8Neu5Ac and Neu5Gcα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc substructures; Galβ and GlcNAcβ terminal substructures, without sialic acid branches, were associated with the binding of human-, swine-, and avian-origin viruses; sulfated Neu5Acα2-3 substructures were associated with the binding of human- and swine-origin viruses. Finally, through three-dimensional structure characterization, we revealed that the role of glycan chain shapes is more important than that of torsion angles or of overall structural similarities in virus host tropisms.

  20. Association analyses of large-scale glycan microarray data reveal novel host-specific substructures in influenza A virus binding glycans

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Martin, Brigitte E.; Yang, Chun-Kai; Luo, Feng; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses can infect a wide variety of animal species and, occasionally, humans. Infection occurs through the binding formed by viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and certain types of glycan receptors on host cell membranes. Studies have shown that the α2,3-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,3Gal) in avian, equine, and canine species; the α2,6-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,6Gal) in humans; and SA2,3Gal and SA2,6Gal in swine are responsible for the corresponding host tropisms. However, more detailed and refined substructures that determine host tropisms are still not clear. Thus, in this study, we applied association mining on a set of glycan microarray data for 211 influenza viruses from five host groups: humans, swine, canine, migratory waterfowl, and terrestrial birds. The results suggest that besides Neu5Acα2–6Galβ, human-origin viruses could bind glycans with Neu5Acα2–8Neu5Acα2–8Neu5Ac and Neu5Gcα2–6Galβ1–4GlcNAc substructures; Galβ and GlcNAcβ terminal substructures, without sialic acid branches, were associated with the binding of human-, swine-, and avian-origin viruses; sulfated Neu5Acα2–3 substructures were associated with the binding of human- and swine-origin viruses. Finally, through three-dimensional structure characterization, we revealed that the role of glycan chain shapes is more important than that of torsion angles or of overall structural similarities in virus host tropisms. PMID:26508590

  1. Association analyses of large-scale glycan microarray data reveal novel host-specific substructures in influenza A virus binding glycans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Martin, Brigitte E; Yang, Chun-Kai; Luo, Feng; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses can infect a wide variety of animal species and, occasionally, humans. Infection occurs through the binding formed by viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and certain types of glycan receptors on host cell membranes. Studies have shown that the α2,3-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,3Gal) in avian, equine, and canine species; the α2,6-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,6Gal) in humans; and SA2,3Gal and SA2,6Gal in swine are responsible for the corresponding host tropisms. However, more detailed and refined substructures that determine host tropisms are still not clear. Thus, in this study, we applied association mining on a set of glycan microarray data for 211 influenza viruses from five host groups: humans, swine, canine, migratory waterfowl, and terrestrial birds. The results suggest that besides Neu5Acα2-6Galβ, human-origin viruses could bind glycans with Neu5Acα2-8Neu5Acα2-8Neu5Ac and Neu5Gcα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc substructures; Galβ and GlcNAcβ terminal substructures, without sialic acid branches, were associated with the binding of human-, swine-, and avian-origin viruses; sulfated Neu5Acα2-3 substructures were associated with the binding of human- and swine-origin viruses. Finally, through three-dimensional structure characterization, we revealed that the role of glycan chain shapes is more important than that of torsion angles or of overall structural similarities in virus host tropisms. PMID:26508590

  2. Host Tissue and Glycan Binding Specificities of Avian Viral Attachment Proteins Using Novel Avian Tissue Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de Vries, Robert P.; Eggert, Amber M.; Wandee, Nantaporn; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, Monique H.

    2015-01-01

    The initial interaction between viral attachment proteins and the host cell is a critical determinant for the susceptibility of a host for a particular virus. To increase our understanding of avian pathogens and the susceptibility of poultry species, we developed novel avian tissue microarrays (TMAs). Tissue binding profiles of avian viral attachment proteins were studied by performing histochemistry on multi-species TMA, comprising of selected tissues from ten avian species, and single-species TMAs, grouping organ systems of each species together. The attachment pattern of the hemagglutinin protein was in line with the reported tropism of influenza virus H5N1, confirming the validity of TMAs in profiling the initial virus-host interaction. The previously believed chicken-specific coronavirus (CoV) M41 spike (S1) protein displayed a broad attachment pattern to respiratory tissues of various avian species, albeit with lower affinity than hemagglutinin, suggesting that other avian species might be susceptible for chicken CoV. When comparing tissue-specific binding patterns of various avian coronaviral S1 proteins on the single-species TMAs, chicken and partridge CoV S1 had predominant affinity for the trachea, while pigeon CoV S1 showed marked preference for lung of their respective hosts. Binding of all coronaviral S1 proteins was dependent on sialic acids; however, while chicken CoV S1 preferred sialic acids type I lactosamine (Gal(1-3)GlcNAc) over type II (Gal(1-4)GlcNAc), the fine glycan specificities of pigeon and partridge CoVs were different, as chicken CoV S1-specific sialylglycopolymers could not block their binding to tissues. Taken together, TMAs provide a novel platform in the field of infectious diseases to allow identification of binding specificities of viral attachment proteins and are helpful to gain insight into the susceptibility of host and organ for avian pathogens. PMID:26035584

  3. Data Analysis Strategies for Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Paula; Dasilva, Noelia; González-González, María; Matarraz, Sergio; Casado-Vela, Juan; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Microarrays constitute a new platform which allows the discovery and characterization of proteins. According to different features, such as content, surface or detection system, there are many types of protein microarrays which can be applied for the identification of disease biomarkers and the characterization of protein expression patterns. However, the analysis and interpretation of the amount of information generated by microarrays remain a challenge. Further data analysis strategies are essential to obtain representative and reproducible results. Therefore, the experimental design is key, since the number of samples and dyes, among others aspects, would define the appropriate analysis method to be used. In this sense, several algorithms have been proposed so far to overcome analytical difficulties derived from fluorescence overlapping and/or background noise. Each kind of microarray is developed to fulfill a specific purpose. Therefore, the selection of appropriate analytical and data analysis strategies is crucial to achieve successful biological conclusions. In the present review, we focus on current algorithms and main strategies for data interpretation.

  4. A general strategy for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of asymmetrically branched N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Chinoy, Zoeisha S; Ambre, Shailesh G; Peng, Wenjie; McBride, Ryan; de Vries, Robert P; Glushka, John; Paulson, James C; Boons, Geert-Jan

    2013-07-26

    A systematic, efficient means of producing diverse libraries of asymmetrically branched N-glycans is needed to investigate the specificities and biology of glycan-binding proteins. To that end, we describe a core pentasaccharide that at potential branching positions is modified by orthogonal protecting groups to allow selective attachment of specific saccharide moieties by chemical glycosylation. The appendages were selected so that the antenna of the resulting deprotected compounds could be selectively extended by glycosyltransferases to give libraries of asymmetrical multi-antennary glycans. The power of the methodology was demonstrated by the preparation of a series of complex oligosaccharides that were printed as microarrays and screened for binding to lectins and influenza-virus hemagglutinins, which showed that recognition is modulated by presentation of minimal epitopes in the context of complex N-glycans. PMID:23888036

  5. Glycan microarray analysis of the carbohydrate-recognition specificity of native and recombinant forms of the lectin ArtinM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Cecílio, N T; Carvalho, F C; Roque-Barreira, M C; Feizi, T

    2015-12-01

    This article contains data related to the researc.h article entitled "Yeast-derived ArtinM shares structure, carbohydrate recognition, and biological effects with native ArtinM" by Cecílio et al. (2015) [1]. ArtinM, a D-mannose-binding lectin isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus, exerts immunomodulatory and regenerative activities through its Carbohydrate Recognition Domain (CRD) (Souza et al., 2013; Mariano et al., 2014 [2], [3]). The limited availability of the native lectin (n-ArtinM) led us to characterize a recombinant form of the protein, obtained by expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (y-ArtinM). We compared the carbohydrate-binding specificities of y-ArtinM and n-ArtinM by analyzing the binding of biotinylated preparations of the two lectin forms using a neoglycolipid (NGL)-based glycan microarray. Data showed that y-ArtinM mirrored the specificity exhibited by n-ArtinM. PMID:26793748

  6. Glycan microarray analysis of the carbohydrate-recognition specificity of native and recombinant forms of the lectin ArtinM

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y.; Cecílio, N.T.; Carvalho, F.C.; Roque-Barreira, M.C.; Feizi, T.

    2015-01-01

    This article contains data related to the researc.h article entitled “Yeast-derived ArtinM shares structure, carbohydrate recognition, and biological effects with native ArtinM” by Cecílio et al. (2015) [1]. ArtinM, a D-mannose-binding lectin isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus, exerts immunomodulatory and regenerative activities through its Carbohydrate Recognition Domain (CRD) (Souza et al., 2013; Mariano et al., 2014 [2], [3]). The limited availability of the native lectin (n-ArtinM) led us to characterize a recombinant form of the protein, obtained by expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (y-ArtinM). We compared the carbohydrate-binding specificities of y-ArtinM and n-ArtinM by analyzing the binding of biotinylated preparations of the two lectin forms using a neoglycolipid (NGL)-based glycan microarray. Data showed that y-ArtinM mirrored the specificity exhibited by n-ArtinM. PMID:26793748

  7. Characterization of Receptor Binding Profiles of Influenza A Viruses Using An Ellipsometry-Based Label-Free Glycan Microarray Assay Platform

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Yiyan; Sun, Yung-Shin; Li, Yanhong; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Landry, James P.; Luo, Zeng; Baumgarth, Nicole; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    A key step leading to influenza viral infection is the highly specific binding of a viral spike protein, hemagglutinin (HA), with an extracellular glycan receptor of a host cell. Detailed and timely characterization of virus-receptor binding profiles may be used to evaluate and track the pandemic potential of an influenza virus strain. We demonstrate a label-free glycan microarray assay platform for acquiring influenza virus binding profiles against a wide variety of glycan receptors. By immobilizing biotinylated receptors on a streptavidin-functionalized solid surface, we measured binding curves of five influenza A virus strains with 24 glycans of diverse structures and used the apparent equilibrium dissociation constants (avidity constants, 10–100 pM) as characterizing parameters of viral receptor profiles. Furthermore by measuring binding kinetic constants of solution-phase glycans to immobilized viruses, we confirmed that the glycan-HA affinity constant is in the range of 10 mM and the reaction is enthalpy-driven. PMID:26193329

  8. Novel Strategy to Release and Tag N-Glycans for Functional Glycomics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Functional glycomics has been impeded by the lack of inexpensive enzymatic and mild chemical methods to acquire natural glycans in significant amounts. In this study, we have developed a new strategy we term “threshing and trimming” (TaT) to quickly obtain N-glycans from glycoproteins and animal tissues. TaT employs low-cost Pronase to degrade peptides and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to effect oxidative decarboxylation under very mild reaction conditions to generate homogeneous aglycon moieties as nitriles or aldehydes. These aglycons can be readily conjugated with fluorescent tags for profiling and functional study. TaT is an affordable alternative to expensive specialty enzymes and strong chemical treatment and unpleasant reagents, and should further drive the functional glycomics of N-glycans. PMID:25222505

  9. High-throughput screening of monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall glycans by hierarchical clustering of their carbohydrate microarray binding profiles

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Isabel; Marcus, Susan E.; Haeger, Ash; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Verhoef, Rene; Schols, Henk; Ulvskov, Peter; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Knox, J. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Antibody-producing hybridoma cell lines were created following immunisation with a crude extract of cell wall polymers from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to rapidly screen the specificities of individual monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), their binding to microarrays containing 50 cell wall glycans immobilized on nitrocellulose was assessed. Hierarchical clustering of microarray binding profiles from newly produced mAbs, together with the profiles for mAbs with previously defined specificities allowed the rapid assignments of mAb binding to antigen classes. mAb specificities were further investigated using subsequent immunochemical and biochemical analyses and two novel mAbs are described in detail. mAb LM13 binds to an arabinanase-sensitive pectic epitope and mAb LM14, binds to an epitope occurring on arabinogalactan-proteins. Both mAbs display novel patterns of recognition of cell walls in plant materials. PMID:17629746

  10. Glycan analysis of therapeutic glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are glycoproteins produced by living cell systems. The glycan moieties attached to the proteins can directly affect protein stability, bioactivity, and immunogenicity. Therefore, glycan variants of a glycoprotein product must be adequately analyzed and controlled to ensure product quality. However, the inherent complexity of protein glycosylation poses a daunting analytical challenge. This review provides an update of recent advances in glycan analysis, including the potential utility of lectin-based microarray for high throughput glycan profiling. Emphasis is placed on comparison of the major types of analytics for use in determining unique glycan features such as glycosylation site, glycan structure, and content. PMID:26599345

  11. Structural characterization by multistage mass spectrometry (MSn) of human milk glycans recognized by human rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Ashline, David J; Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Hu, Liya; Ramani, Sasirekha; Prasad, Venkataram; Estes, Mary K; Cummings, Richard D; Smith, David F; Reinhold, Vernon N

    2014-11-01

    We have shown that recombinant forms of VP8* domains of the human rotavirus outer capsid spike protein VP4 from human neonatal strains (N155(G10P[11]) and RV3(G3P[6]) and a bovine strain (B223) recognize unique glycans within the repertoire of human milk glycans. The accompanying study by Yu et al.(2), describes a human milk glycan shotgun glycan microarray that led to the identification of 32 specific glycans in the human milk tagged glycan library that were recognized by these human rotaviruses. These microarray analyses also provided a variety of metadata about the recognized glycan structures compiled from anti-glycan antibody and lectin binding before and after specific glycosidase digestions, along with compositional information from mass analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry. To deduce glycan sequence and utilize information predicted by analyses of metadata from each glycan, 28 of the glycan targets were retrieved from the tagged glycan library for detailed sequencing using sequential disassembly of glycans by ion-trap mass spectrometry. Our aim is to obtain a deeper structural understanding of these key glycans using an orthogonal approach for structural confirmation in a single ion trap mass spectrometer. This sequential ion disassembly strategy details the complexities of linkage and branching in multiple compositions, several of which contained isomeric mixtures including several novel structures. The application of this approach exploits both library matching with standard materials and de novo approaches. This combination together with the metadata generated from lectin and antibody-binding data before and after glycosidase digestions provide a heretofore-unavailable level of analytical detail to glycan structure analysis. The results of these studies showed that, among the 28 glycan targets analyzed, 27 unique structures were identified, and 23 of the human milk glycans recognized by human rotaviruses represent

  12. Microarrays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.

    2007-01-01

    Microarrays are revolutionizing genetics by making it possible to genotype hundreds of thousands of DNA markers and to assess the expression (RNA transcripts) of all of the genes in the genome. Microarrays are slides the size of a postage stamp that contain millions of DNA sequences to which single-stranded DNA or RNA can hybridize. This…

  13. Crystallographic and Glycan Microarray Analysis of Human Polyomavirus 9 VP1 Identifies N-Glycolyl Neuraminic Acid as a Receptor Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zaigham Mahmood; Liu, Yan; Neu, Ursula; Gilbert, Michel; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9) is a closely related homologue of simian B-lymphotropic polyomavirus (LPyV). In order to define the architecture and receptor binding properties of HPyV9, we solved high-resolution crystal structures of its major capsid protein, VP1, in complex with three putative oligosaccharide receptors identified by glycan microarray screening. Comparison of the properties of HPyV9 VP1 with the known structure and glycan-binding properties of LPyV VP1 revealed that both viruses engage short sialylated oligosaccharides, but small yet important differences in specificity were detected. Surprisingly, HPyV9 VP1 preferentially binds sialyllactosamine compounds terminating in 5-N-glycolyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) over those terminating in 5-N-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), whereas LPyV does not exhibit such a preference. The structural analysis demonstrated that HPyV9 makes specific contacts, via hydrogen bonds, with the extra hydroxyl group present in Neu5Gc. An equivalent hydrogen bond cannot be formed by LPyV VP1. IMPORTANCE The most common sialic acid in humans is 5-N-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), but various modifications give rise to more than 50 different sialic acid variants that decorate the cell surface. Unlike most mammals, humans cannot synthesize the sialic acid variant 5-N-glycolyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) due to a gene defect. Humans can, however, still acquire this compound from dietary sources. The role of Neu5Gc in receptor engagement and in defining viral tropism is only beginning to emerge, and structural analyses defining the differences in specificity for Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc are still rare. Using glycan microarray screening and high-resolution protein crystallography, we have examined the receptor specificity of a recently discovered human polyomavirus, HPyV9, and compared it to that of the closely related simian polyomavirus LPyV. Our study highlights critical differences in the specificities of both viruses

  14. Immobilization strategies for single-chain antibody microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Seurynck-Servoss, Shannon L.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Miller, Keith D.; Pefaur, Noah B.; Gonzalez, Rachel M.; Apiyo, David O.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Srinivastava, Sudhir; Kagan, Jacob; Rodland, Karin D.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2008-06-01

    Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarrays have great potential for validating biomarkers of disease. ELISA relies on robust affinity reagents that retain activity when immobilized or when labeled for detection. Single-chain antibodies (scFv) are affinity reagents that have greater potential for high-throughput production than traditional immunoglobin G (IgG). Unfortunately, scFv are typically less stabile than IgG and not always suitable for use in sandwich ELISAs. We therefore investigated different immobilization strategies and scFv structural modifications to see if we could develop a more robust scFv reagent. Two promising strategies that emerged from these studies: 1) the precapture of epitope-tagged scFv using an anti-epitope antibody and 2) the direct printing of a thioredoxin/scFv fusion protein on glass slides. The use of either strategy improved the stability of immobilized scFv and increased the sensitivity of the scFv ELISA microarray assays, although the anti-epitope precapture method had a risk of reagent transfer. Using the direct printing method, we show that anti-PSA scFv are highly specific when tested against 21 different IgG-based assays. Finally, the scFv microarray PSA assay gave comparable results (R2 = 0.95) to a commercial 96-well ELISA when tested using serum samples. Overall, these results suggest that minor modifications of the scFv protein structure are sufficiently to produce reagents that are suitable for use in multiplex assay systems.

  15. Global Identification and Differential Distribution Analysis of Glycans in Subcellular Fractions of Bladder Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ganglong; Huang, Luyu; Zhang, Jiaxu; Yu, Hanjie; Li, Zheng; Guan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Compartmentalization of cellular components and their associated biological processes is crucial for cellular function. Protein glycosylation provides a basis for diversity of protein functions. Diversity of glycan composition in animal cells remains poorly understood. We used differential centrifugation techniques to isolate four subcellular protein fractions from homogenate of metastatic bladder YTS1 cells, low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer KK47 cells and normal bladder epithelia HCV29 cells: microsomal (Mic), mitochondrial (Mito), nuclear (Nuc), and cytosolic (Cyto). An integrated strategy combining lectin microarray and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was then applied to evaluate protein glycosylation of the four fractions. Lectin microarray analysis revealed significant differences among the four fractions in terms of glycan binding to the lectins LCA, AAL, MPL, WGA and PWM in YTS1 cell, STL, Jacalin, VVA, LCA and WGA in KK47, and ConA, GNA, VVA and ACA in HCV29 cell. Among a total of 40, 32 and 15 N-glycans in four fractions of three cells detected by MS analysis, high-mannose and fucosylated structures were predominant, 10 N-glycans in YTS1, 5 N-glycans in KK47 and 7 N-glycans in HCV29 were present in all four fractions; and 10 N-glycans in YTS1, 16 N-glycans in KK47, and 3 N-glycans in HCV29 were present in only one fraction. Glycans in the latter category are considered potential markers for the corresponding organelles. The integrated strategy described here allows detailed examination of glycomes subcellular fraction with high resolution and sensitivity, and will be useful for elucidation of the functional roles of glycans and corresponding glycosylated proteins in distinct organelles. PMID:27313494

  16. Global Identification and Differential Distribution Analysis of Glycans in Subcellular Fractions of Bladder Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ganglong; Huang, Luyu; Zhang, Jiaxu; Yu, Hanjie; Li, Zheng; Guan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Compartmentalization of cellular components and their associated biological processes is crucial for cellular function. Protein glycosylation provides a basis for diversity of protein functions. Diversity of glycan composition in animal cells remains poorly understood. We used differential centrifugation techniques to isolate four subcellular protein fractions from homogenate of metastatic bladder YTS1 cells, low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer KK47 cells and normal bladder epithelia HCV29 cells: microsomal (Mic), mitochondrial (Mito), nuclear (Nuc), and cytosolic (Cyto). An integrated strategy combining lectin microarray and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was then applied to evaluate protein glycosylation of the four fractions. Lectin microarray analysis revealed significant differences among the four fractions in terms of glycan binding to the lectins LCA, AAL, MPL, WGA and PWM in YTS1 cell, STL, Jacalin, VVA, LCA and WGA in KK47, and ConA, GNA, VVA and ACA in HCV29 cell. Among a total of 40, 32 and 15 N-glycans in four fractions of three cells detected by MS analysis, high-mannose and fucosylated structures were predominant, 10 N-glycans in YTS1, 5 N-glycans in KK47 and 7 N-glycans in HCV29 were present in all four fractions; and 10 N-glycans in YTS1, 16 N-glycans in KK47, and 3 N-glycans in HCV29 were present in only one fraction. Glycans in the latter category are considered potential markers for the corresponding organelles. The integrated strategy described here allows detailed examination of glycomes subcellular fraction with high resolution and sensitivity, and will be useful for elucidation of the functional roles of glycans and corresponding glycosylated proteins in distinct organelles. PMID:27313494

  17. PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR PROCESSING AND ANALYZING SPOTTED OLIGONUCLEOTIDE MICROARRAY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thoughtful data analysis is as important as experimental design, biological sample quality, and appropriate experimental procedures for making microarrays a useful supplement to traditional toxicology. In the present study, spotted oligonucleotide microarrays were used to profile...

  18. Automated Motif Discovery from Glycan Array Data

    PubMed Central

    Cholleti, Sharath R.; Agravat, Sanjay; Morris, Tim; Saltz, Joel H.; Song, Xuezheng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Assessing interactions of a glycan-binding protein (GBP) or lectin with glycans on a microarray generates large datasets, making it difficult to identify a glycan structural motif or determinant associated with the highest apparent binding strength of the GBP. We have developed a computational method, termed GlycanMotifMiner, that uses the relative binding of a GBP with glycans within a glycan microarray to automatically reveal the glycan structural motifs recognized by a GBP. We implemented the software with a web-based graphical interface for users to explore and visualize the discovered motifs. The utility of GlycanMotifMiner was determined using five plant lectins, SNA, HPA, PNA, Con A, and UEA-I. Data from the analyses of the lectins at different protein concentrations were processed to rank the glycans based on their relative binding strengths. The motifs, defined as glycan substructures that exist in a large number of the bound glycans and few non-bound glycans, were then discovered by our algorithm and displayed in a web-based graphical user interface (http://glycanmotifminer.emory.edu). The information is used in defining the glycan-binding specificity of GBPs. The results were compared to the known glycan specificities of these lectins generated by manual methods. A more complex analysis was also carried out using glycan microarray data obtained for a recombinant form of human galectin-8. Results for all of these lectins show that GlycanMotifMiner identified the major motifs known in the literature along with some unexpected novel binding motifs. PMID:22877213

  19. Automated motif discovery from glycan array data.

    PubMed

    Cholleti, Sharath R; Agravat, Sanjay; Morris, Tim; Saltz, Joel H; Song, Xuezheng; Cummings, Richard D; Smith, David F

    2012-10-01

    Assessing interactions of a glycan-binding protein (GBP) or lectin with glycans on a microarray generates large datasets, making it difficult to identify a glycan structural motif or determinant associated with the highest apparent binding strength of the GBP. We have developed a computational method, termed GlycanMotifMiner, that uses the relative binding of a GBP with glycans within a glycan microarray to automatically reveal the glycan structural motifs recognized by a GBP. We implemented the software with a web-based graphical interface for users to explore and visualize the discovered motifs. The utility of GlycanMotifMiner was determined using five plant lectins, SNA, HPA, PNA, Con A, and UEA-I. Data from the analyses of the lectins at different protein concentrations were processed to rank the glycans based on their relative binding strengths. The motifs, defined as glycan substructures that exist in a large number of the bound glycans and few non-bound glycans, were then discovered by our algorithm and displayed in a web-based graphical user interface ( http://glycanmotifminer.emory.edu ). The information is used in defining the glycan-binding specificity of GBPs. The results were compared to the known glycan specificities of these lectins generated by manual methods. A more complex analysis was also carried out using glycan microarray data obtained for a recombinant form of human galectin-8. Results for all of these lectins show that GlycanMotifMiner identified the major motifs known in the literature along with some unexpected novel binding motifs. PMID:22877213

  20. Development and Applications of the Lectin Microarray.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Jun; Kuno, Atsushi; Tateno, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    The lectin microarray is an emerging technology for glycomics. It has already found maximum use in diverse fields of glycobiology by providing simple procedures for differential glycan profiling in a rapid and high-throughput manner. Since its first appearance in the literature in 2005, many application methods have been developed essentially on the same platform, comprising a series of glycan-binding proteins immobilized on an appropriate substrate such as a glass slide. Because the lectin microarray strategy does not require prior liberation of glycans from the core protein in glycoprotein analysis, it should encourage researchers not familiar with glycotechnology to use glycan analysis in future work. This feasibility should provide a broader range of experimental scientists with good opportunities to investigate novel aspects of glycoscience. Applications of the technology include not only basic sciences but also the growing fields of bio-industry. This chapter describes first the essence of glycan profiling and the basic fabrication of the lectin microarray for this purpose. In the latter part the focus is on diverse applications to both structural and functional glycomics, with emphasis on the wide applicability now available with this new technology. Finally, the importance of developing advanced lectin engineering is discussed. PMID:25821171

  1. Glycan:glycan interactions: High affinity biomolecular interactions that can mediate binding of pathogenic bacteria to host cells

    PubMed Central

    Day, Christopher J.; Tran, Elizabeth N.; Semchenko, Evgeny A.; Tram, Greg; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E.; Ng, Preston S. K.; King, Rebecca M.; Ulanovsky, Rachel; McAtamney, Sarah; Apicella, Michael A.; Tiralongo, Joe; Morona, Renato; Korolik, Victoria; Jennings, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Cells from all domains of life express glycan structures attached to lipids and proteins on their surface, called glycoconjugates. Cell-to-cell contact mediated by glycan:glycan interactions have been considered to be low-affinity interactions that precede high-affinity protein–glycan or protein–protein interactions. In several pathogenic bacteria, truncation of surface glycans, lipooligosaccharide (LOS), or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been reported to significantly reduce bacterial adherence to host cells. Here, we show that the saccharide component of LOS/LPS have direct, high-affinity interactions with host glycans. Glycan microarrays reveal that LOS/LPS of four distinct bacterial pathogens bind to numerous host glycan structures. Surface plasmon resonance was used to determine the affinity of these interactions and revealed 66 high-affinity host–glycan:bacterial–glycan pairs with equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) ranging between 100 nM and 50 µM. These glycan:glycan affinity values are similar to those reported for lectins or antibodies with glycans. Cell assays demonstrated that glycan:glycan interaction-mediated bacterial adherence could be competitively inhibited by either host cell or bacterial glycans. This is the first report to our knowledge of high affinity glycan:glycan interactions between bacterial pathogens and the host. The discovery of large numbers of glycan:glycan interactions between a diverse range of structures suggests that these interactions may be important in all biological systems. PMID:26676578

  2. Glycan:glycan interactions: High affinity biomolecular interactions that can mediate binding of pathogenic bacteria to host cells.

    PubMed

    Day, Christopher J; Tran, Elizabeth N; Semchenko, Evgeny A; Tram, Greg; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E; Ng, Preston S K; King, Rebecca M; Ulanovsky, Rachel; McAtamney, Sarah; Apicella, Michael A; Tiralongo, Joe; Morona, Renato; Korolik, Victoria; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-12-29

    Cells from all domains of life express glycan structures attached to lipids and proteins on their surface, called glycoconjugates. Cell-to-cell contact mediated by glycan:glycan interactions have been considered to be low-affinity interactions that precede high-affinity protein-glycan or protein-protein interactions. In several pathogenic bacteria, truncation of surface glycans, lipooligosaccharide (LOS), or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been reported to significantly reduce bacterial adherence to host cells. Here, we show that the saccharide component of LOS/LPS have direct, high-affinity interactions with host glycans. Glycan microarrays reveal that LOS/LPS of four distinct bacterial pathogens bind to numerous host glycan structures. Surface plasmon resonance was used to determine the affinity of these interactions and revealed 66 high-affinity host-glycan:bacterial-glycan pairs with equilibrium dissociation constants (K(D)) ranging between 100 nM and 50 µM. These glycan:glycan affinity values are similar to those reported for lectins or antibodies with glycans. Cell assays demonstrated that glycan:glycan interaction-mediated bacterial adherence could be competitively inhibited by either host cell or bacterial glycans. This is the first report to our knowledge of high affinity glycan:glycan interactions between bacterial pathogens and the host. The discovery of large numbers of glycan:glycan interactions between a diverse range of structures suggests that these interactions may be important in all biological systems. PMID:26676578

  3. A strategy to reveal potential glycan markers from serum glycoproteins associated with breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Abd Hamid, Umi M; Royle, Louise; Saldova, Radka; Radcliffe, Catherine M; Harvey, David J; Storr, Sarah J; Pardo, Maria; Antrobus, Robin; Chapman, Caroline J; Zitzmann, Nicole; Robertson, John F; Dwek, Raymond A; Rudd, Pauline M

    2008-12-01

    Aberrant glycosylation on glycoproteins that are either presented on the surface or secreted by cancer cells is a potential source of disease biomarkers and provides insights into disease pathogenesis. N-Glycans of the total serum glycoproteins from advanced breast cancer patients and healthy individuals were sequenced by HPLC with fluorescence detection coupled with exoglycosidase digestions and mass spectrometry. We observed a significant increase in a trisialylated triantennary glycan containing alpha1,3-linked fucose which forms part of the sialyl Lewis x epitope. Following digestion of the total glycan pool with a combination of sialidase and beta-galactosidase, we segregated and quantified a digestion product, a monogalactosylated triantennary structure containing alpha1,3-linked fucose. We compared breast cancer patients and controls and detected a 2-fold increase in this glycan marker in patients. In 10 patients monitored longitudinally, we showed a positive correlation between this glycan marker and disease progression and also demonstrated its potential as a better indicator of metastasis compared to the currently used biomarkers, CA 15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). A pilot glycoproteomic study of advanced breast cancer serum highlighted acute-phase proteins alpha1-acid glycoprotein, alpha1-antichymotrypsin, and haptoglobin beta-chain as contributors to the increase in the glycan marker which, when quantified from each of these proteins, marked the onset of metastasis in advance of the CA 15-3 marker. These preliminary findings suggest that specific glycans and glycoforms of proteins may be candidates for improved markers in the monitoring of breast cancer progression. PMID:18818422

  4. Fluorescence assay for glycan expression on living cancer cells based on competitive strategy coupled with dual-functionalized nanobiocomposites.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Lu, Danqin; Lin, Bin; Sun, Qianqian; Liu, Kai; Xu, Lili; Zhang, Shengping; Hu, Chen; Wang, Chuangui; Xu, Zhiai; Zhang, Wen

    2013-11-21

    Cell surface glycans are a class of sophisticated biomolecules related to cancer development and progression, and their analysis is of great significance for early cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we proposed a fluorescence assay to evaluate glycan expression on living cancer cells based on a competitive strategy coupled with dual-functionalized nanobiocomposites. The competitive assay was conducted between living cancer cells and thiomannosyl derivatives using concanavalin A (Con A)-modified electrode as the interaction platform. To impart fluorescence signaling ability to competitive derivatives, quantum dots (QDs) were anchored on BSA-protected Au nanoparticles, and thiomannosyl derivatives were further immobilized on the nanoparticle surface through Au-S binding. Due to the spacing between QDs and Au nanoparticles by BSA, the {QDs-Au-BSA-mannose} nanobiocomposites maintained the fluorescence of QDs and showed binding ability with the Con A-modified electrode. Au nanorods (AuNRs)-modified electrode was used as an effective substrate to immobilize Con A. This assay was successfully applied to the analysis of two cancer cells lines (A549 and QGY-7701). The method is simple and shows promise for the study of glycan expression on living cancer cells. PMID:24098881

  5. Oxidative release of natural glycans for functional glycomics.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuezheng; Ju, Hong; Lasanajak, Yi; Kudelka, Matthew R; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D

    2016-06-01

    Glycans have essential roles in biology and the etiology of many diseases. A major hurdle in studying glycans through functional glycomics is the lack of methods to release glycans from diverse types of biological samples. Here we describe an oxidative strategy using household bleach to release all types of free reducing N-glycans and O-glycan-acids from glycoproteins, and glycan nitriles from glycosphingolipids. Released glycans are directly useful in glycomic analyses and can be derivatized fluorescently for functional glycomics. This chemical method overcomes the limitations in glycan generation and promotes archiving and characterization of human and animal glycomes and their functions. PMID:27135973

  6. CrossNorm: a novel normalization strategy for microarray data in cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lixin; Lo, Leung-Yau; Tang, Nelson L. S.; Wang, Dong; Leung, Kwong-Sak

    2016-01-01

    Normalization is essential to get rid of biases in microarray data for their accurate analysis. Existing normalization methods for microarray gene expression data commonly assume a similar global expression pattern among samples being studied. However, scenarios of global shifts in gene expressions are dominant in cancers, making the assumption invalid. To alleviate the problem, here we propose and develop a novel normalization strategy, Cross Normalization (CrossNorm), for microarray data with unbalanced transcript levels among samples. Conventional procedures, such as RMA and LOESS, arbitrarily flatten the difference between case and control groups leading to biased gene expression estimates. Noticeably, applying these methods under the strategy of CrossNorm, which makes use of the overall statistics of the original signals, the results showed significantly improved robustness and accuracy in estimating transcript level dynamics for a series of publicly available datasets, including titration experiment, simulated data, spike-in data and several real-life microarray datasets across various types of cancers. The results have important implications for the past and the future cancer studies based on microarray samples with non-negligible difference. Moreover, the strategy can also be applied to other sorts of high-throughput data as long as the experiments have global expression variations between conditions. PMID:26732145

  7. CrossNorm: a novel normalization strategy for microarray data in cancers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lixin; Lo, Leung-Yau; Tang, Nelson L S; Wang, Dong; Leung, Kwong-Sak

    2016-01-01

    Normalization is essential to get rid of biases in microarray data for their accurate analysis. Existing normalization methods for microarray gene expression data commonly assume a similar global expression pattern among samples being studied. However, scenarios of global shifts in gene expressions are dominant in cancers, making the assumption invalid. To alleviate the problem, here we propose and develop a novel normalization strategy, Cross Normalization (CrossNorm), for microarray data with unbalanced transcript levels among samples. Conventional procedures, such as RMA and LOESS, arbitrarily flatten the difference between case and control groups leading to biased gene expression estimates. Noticeably, applying these methods under the strategy of CrossNorm, which makes use of the overall statistics of the original signals, the results showed significantly improved robustness and accuracy in estimating transcript level dynamics for a series of publicly available datasets, including titration experiment, simulated data, spike-in data and several real-life microarray datasets across various types of cancers. The results have important implications for the past and the future cancer studies based on microarray samples with non-negligible difference. Moreover, the strategy can also be applied to other sorts of high-throughput data as long as the experiments have global expression variations between conditions. PMID:26732145

  8. Protein Microarrays-Based Strategies for Life Detection in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parro, Víctor; Rivas, Luis A.; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    2008-03-01

    The detection of organic molecules of unambiguous biological origin is fundamental for the confirmation of present or past life. Planetary exploration requires the development of miniaturized apparatus for in situ life detection. Analytical techniques based on mass spectrometry have been traditionally used in space science. Following the Viking landers, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for organic detection has gained general acceptance and has been used successfully in the Cassini-Huygens mission to Titan. Microfluidics allows the development of miniaturized capillary electrophoresis devices for the detection of important molecules for life, like amino acids or nucleobases. Recently, a new approach is gaining acceptance in the space science community: the application of the well-known, highly specific, antibody-antigen affinity interaction for the detection and identification of organics and biochemical compounds. Antibodies can specifically bind a plethora of structurally different compounds of a broad range of molecular sizes, from amino acids level to whole cells. Antibody microarray technology allows us to look for the presence of thousands of different compounds in a single assay and in just one square centimeter. Herein, we discuss several important issues—most of which are common with other instruments dealing with life signature detection in the solar system—that must be addressed in order to use antibody microarrays for life detection and planetary exploration. These issues include (1) preservation of biomarkers, (2) the extraction techniques for biomarkers, (3) terrestrial analogues, (4) the antibody stability under space environments, (5) the selection of unequivocal biomarkers for the antibody production, or (6) the instrument design and implementation.

  9. Protein Microarrays-Based Strategies for Life Detection in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parro, Víctor; Rivas, Luis A.; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    The detection of organic molecules of unambiguous biological origin is fundamental for the confirmation of present or past life. Planetary exploration requires the development of miniaturized apparatus for in situ life detection. Analytical techniques based on mass spectrometry have been traditionally used in space science. Following the Viking landers, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for organic detection has gained general acceptance and has been used successfully in the Cassini-Huygens mission to Titan. Microfluidics allows the development of miniaturized capillary electrophoresis devices for the detection of important molecules for life, like amino acids or nucleobases. Recently, a new approach is gaining acceptance in the space science community: the application of the well-known, highly specific, antibody-antigen affinity interaction for the detection and identification of organics and biochemical compounds. Antibodies can specifically bind a plethora of structurally different compounds of a broad range of molecular sizes, from amino acids level to whole cells. Antibody microarray technology allows us to look for the presence of thousands of different compounds in a single assay and in just one square centimeter. Herein, we discuss several important issues—most of which are common with other instruments dealing with life signature detection in the solar system—that must be addressed in order to use antibody microarrays for life detection and planetary exploration. These issues include (1) preservation of biomarkers, (2) the extraction techniques for biomarkers, (3) terrestrial analogues, (4) the antibody stability under space environments, (5) the selection of unequivocal biomarkers for the antibody production, or (6) the instrument design and implementation.

  10. Galectins are human milk glycan receptors.

    PubMed

    Noll, Alexander J; Gourdine, Jean-Philippe; Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D

    2016-06-01

    The biological recognition of human milk glycans (HMGs) is poorly understood. Because HMGs are rich in galactose we explored whether they might interact with human galectins, which bind galactose-containing glycans and are highly expressed in epithelial cells and other cell types. We screened a number of human galectins for their binding to HMGs on a shotgun glycan microarray consisting of 247 HMGs derived from human milk, as well as to a defined HMG microarray. Recombinant human galectins (hGal)-1, -3, -4, -7, -8 and -9 bound selectively to glycans, with each galectin recognizing a relatively unique binding motif; by contrast hGal-2 did not recognize HMGs, but did bind to the human blood group A Type 2 determinants on other microarrays. Unlike other galectins, hGal-7 preferentially bound to glycans expressing a terminal Type 1 (Galβ1-3GlcNAc) sequence, a motif that had eluded detection on non-HMG glycan microarrays. Interactions with HMGs were confirmed in a solution setting by isothermal titration microcalorimetry and hapten inhibition experiments. These results demonstrate that galectins selectively bind to HMGs and suggest the possibility that galectin-HMG interactions may play a role in infant immunity. PMID:26747425

  11. Recognition of Microbial Glycans by Human Intelectin

    PubMed Central

    Wesener, Darryl A.; Wangkanont, Kittikhun; McBride, Ryan; Song, Xuezheng; Kraft, Matthew B.; Hodges, Heather L.; Zarling, Lucas C.; Splain, Rebecca A.; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.; Paulson, James C.; Forest, Katrina T.; Kiessling, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    The glycans displayed on mammalian cells can differ markedly from those on microbes. Such differences could, in principle, be read by carbohydrate-binding proteins, or lectins. We used glycan microarrays to show that human intelectin-1 (hIntL-1) does not bind known human glycan epitopes but interacts with multiple glycan epitopes found exclusively on microbes: β-linked d-galactofuranose (β-Galf), d-phospho-glycerol-modified glycans, heptoses, d-glycero-d-talo-oct-2-ulosonic acid (KO) and 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct–2-ulosonic acid (KDO). The 1.6 Å resolution crystal structure of hIntL-1 bound to β-Galf revealed that hIntL-1 uses a bound calcium ion to coordinate terminal exocyclic 1,2-diols. N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a sialic acid widespread in human glycans, possesses an exocyclic 1,2-diol but does not bind hInt-1, likely due to unfavorable steric and electronic effects. Human IntL-1 marks only Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes that display surface glycans with terminal 1,2-diol groups. This ligand selectivity suggests hIntL-1 functions in microbial surveillance. PMID:26148048

  12. Strategy integrating stepped fragmentation and glycan diagnostic ion-based spectrum refinement for the identification of core fucosylated glycoproteome using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qichen; Zhao, Xinyuan; Zhao, Qing; Lv, Xiaodong; Ma, Cheng; Li, Xianyu; Zhao, Yan; Peng, Bo; Ying, Wantao; Qian, Xiaohong

    2014-07-15

    Core fucosylation (CF) is a special glycosylation pattern of proteins that has a strong relationship with cancer. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the core fucosylated α-fetoprotein as a biomarker for the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The technology for identifying core fucosylated proteins has significant practical value. The major method for core fucosylated glycoprotein/glycopeptide analysis is neutral loss-based MS(3) scanning under collision-induced dissociation (CID) by ion trap mass spectrometry. However, due to the limited speed and low resolution of the MS(3) scan mode, it is difficult to achieve high-throughput, with only dozens of core fucosylated proteins identified in a single run. In this work, we developed a novel strategy for the identification of CF glycopeptides at a large scale, integrating the stepped fragmentation function, one novel feature of quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry, with "glycan diagnostic ion"-based spectrum optimization. By using stepped fragmentation, we were able to obtain both highly accurate glycan and peptide information of a simplified CF glycopeptide in one spectrum. Moreover, the spectrum could be recorded with the same high speed as the conventional MS(2) scan. By using the "glycan diagnostic ion"-based spectrum refinement method, the efficiency of the CF glycopeptide discovery was significantly improved. We demonstrated the feasibility and reproducibility of our method by analyzing CF glycoproteomes of mouse liver tissue and HeLa cell samples spiked with standard CF glycoprotein. In total, 1364 and 856 CF glycopeptides belonging to 702 and 449 CF glycoproteins were identified, respectively, within a 78-min gradient analysis, which was approximately a 7-fold increase in the identification efficiency of CF glycopeptides compared to the currently used method. In this work, we took core fucosylated glycopeptides as a practical example to demonstrate the great potential of our

  13. Alteration and localization of glycan-binding proteins in human hepatic stellate cells during liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yaogang; Qin, Yannan; Dang, Liuyi; Jia, Liyuan; Zhang, Zhiwei; Wu, Haoxiang; Cui, Jihong; Bian, Huijie; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) play an important role in cell adhesion, bacterial/viral infection, and cellular signaling pathways. However, little is known about the precision alteration of GBPs referred to pathological changes in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) during liver fibrosis. Here, the carbohydrate microarrays were used to probe the alteration of GBPs in the activated HSCs and quiescent HSCs. As a result, 12 carbohydrates (e.g. Gal, GalNAc, and Man-9Glycan) showed increased signal, while seven carbohydrates (e.g. NeuAc, Lac, and GlcNAc-O-Ser) showed decreased signal in activated HSCs. Three carbohydrates (Gal, GalNAc, and NeuAc) were selected and subsequently used to validate the results of the carbohydrate microarrays as well as assess the distribution and localization of their binding proteins in HSCs and liver tissues by cy/histochemistry; the results showed that GBPs mainly distributed in the cytoplasma membrane and perinuclear region of cytoplasm. The immunocytochemistry was further used to verify some GBPs really exist in Golgi apparatus of the cells. The precision alteration and localization of GBPs referred to pathological changes in HSCs may provide pivotal information to help understand the biological functions of glycans how to exert through their recognition by a wide variety of GBPs. This study could lead to the development of new anti-fibrotic strategies. PMID:26058380

  14. Microarrays as a diagnostic tool in prenatal screening strategies: ethical reflection.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; Dondorp, Wybo J; Macville, Merryn V E; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; van Lith, Jan M M; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2014-02-01

    Genomic microarray analysis is increasingly being applied as a prenatal diagnostic tool. Microarrays enable searching the genome at a higher resolution and with higher sensitivity than conventional karyotyping for identifying clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities. As yet, no clear guidelines exist on whether microarrays should be applied prenatally for all indications or only in selected cases such as ultrasound abnormalities, whether a targeted or genome-wide array should be used, and what these should include exactly. In this paper, we present some ethical considerations on the prenatal use of microarrays. There is a strong consensus, at least in Western countries, that the aim of prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities should be understood as facilitating autonomous reproductive choice for prospective parents. The tests offered should be valid and useful to reach that purpose. Against this background, we address several ethical issues raised by the prenatal application of microarrays. First, we argue that the general distinction between a targeted and a genome-wide microarray needs to be scrutinised. Then we examine whether microarrays are 'suitable tests' to serve either a screening or a diagnostic purpose. Given the wide range of findings possibly generated by microarrays, the question arises whether microarrays actually promote or interfere with autonomous reproductive decision-making. Moreover, if variants of unknown clinical significance are identified, this adds to the burden and complexity of reproductive decision-making. We suggest a qualified use of microarrays in the prenatal context. PMID:24077959

  15. Glycan and lectin biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Belický, Štefan; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    A short description about the importance of glycan biorecognition in physiological (blood cell type) and pathological processes (infections by human and avian influenza viruses) is provided in this review. Glycans are described as much better information storage media, compared to proteins or DNA, due to the extensive variability of glycan structures. Techniques able to detect an exact glycan structure are briefly discussed with the main focus on the application of lectins (glycan-recognising proteins) in the specific analysis of glycans still attached to proteins or cells/viruses. Optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric and micromechanical biosensors with immobilised lectins or glycans able to detect a wide range of analytes including whole cells/viruses are also discussed. PMID:27365034

  16. Glycan and lectin biosensors.

    PubMed

    Belický, Štefan; Katrlík, Jaroslav; Tkáč, Ján

    2016-06-30

    A short description about the importance of glycan biorecognition in physiological (blood cell type) and pathological processes (infections by human and avian influenza viruses) is provided in this review. Glycans are described as much better information storage media, compared to proteins or DNA, due to the extensive variability of glycan structures. Techniques able to detect an exact glycan structure are briefly discussed with the main focus on the application of lectins (glycan-recognising proteins) in the specific analysis of glycans still attached to proteins or cells/viruses. Optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric and micromechanical biosensors with immobilised lectins or glycans able to detect a wide range of analytes including whole cells/viruses are also discussed. PMID:27365034

  17. Efficient Synthesis of the Disialylated Tetrasaccharide Motif in N-Glycans through an Amide-Protection Strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiazhou; Manabe, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Katsunori; Fukase, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    A disialylated tetrasaccharide, Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal(β1,3)[Neu5Ac(α2,6)]GlcNAc (1), which is found at the termini of some N-glycans, has been synthesized. Compound 1 was obtained through an α-sialylation reaction between a sialic acid donor and a trisaccharide that was synthesized from the glycosylation of a sialylated disaccharide with a glucosaminyl donor. This synthetic route enabled the synthesis of the as-described disialylated structure. A more-convergent route based on the glycosylation of two sialylated disaccharides was also established to scale up the synthesis. Protection of the amide groups in the sialic acid residues significantly increased the yield of the glycosylation reaction between the two sialylated disaccharides, thus suggesting that the presence of hydrogen bonds on the sialic acid residues diminished their reactivity. PMID:26929048

  18. Comparison of three microarray probe annotation pipelines: differences in strategies and their effect on downstream analysis

    PubMed Central

    Neerincx, Pieter BT; Casel, Pierrot; Prickett, Dennis; Nie, Haisheng; Watson, Michael; Leunissen, Jack AM; Groenen, Martien AM; Klopp, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Background Reliable annotation linking oligonucleotide probes to target genes is essential for functional biological analysis of microarray experiments. We used the IMAD, OligoRAP and sigReannot pipelines to update the annotation for the ARK-Genomics Chicken 20 K array as part of a joined EADGENE/SABRE workshop. In this manuscript we compare their annotation strategies and results. Furthermore, we analyse the effect of differences in updated annotation on functional analysis for an experiment involving Eimeria infected chickens and finally we propose guidelines for optimal annotation strategies. Results IMAD, OligoRAP and sigReannot update both annotation and estimated target specificity. The 3 pipelines can assign oligos to target specificity categories although with varying degrees of resolution. Target specificity is judged based on the amount and type of oligo versus target-gene alignments (hits), which are determined by filter thresholds that users can adjust based on their experimental conditions. Linking oligos to annotation on the other hand is based on rigid rules, which differ between pipelines. For 52.7% of the oligos from a subset selected for in depth comparison all pipelines linked to one or more Ensembl genes with consensus on 44.0%. In 31.0% of the cases none of the pipelines could assign an Ensembl gene to an oligo and for the remaining 16.3% the coverage differed between pipelines. Differences in updated annotation were mainly due to different thresholds for hybridisation potential filtering of oligo versus target-gene alignments and different policies for expanding annotation using indirect links. The differences in updated annotation packages had a significant effect on GO term enrichment analysis with consensus on only 67.2% of the enriched terms. Conclusion In addition to flexible thresholds to determine target specificity, annotation tools should provide metadata describing the relationships between oligos and the annotation assigned to them

  19. Assessing Bacterial Interactions Using Carbohydrate-Based Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Flannery, Andrea; Gerlach, Jared Q.; Joshi, Lokesh; Kilcoyne, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a crucial role in host-microorganism interactions and many host glycoconjugates are receptors or co-receptors for microbial binding. Host glycosylation varies with species and location in the body, and this contributes to species specificity and tropism of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, bacterial glycosylation is often the first bacterial molecular species encountered and responded to by the host system. Accordingly, characterising and identifying the exact structures involved in these critical interactions is an important priority in deciphering microbial pathogenesis. Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific carbohydrate structures, but they are growing in popularity in recent years. In this review, we discuss carbohydrate-based microarrays that have been profiled with whole bacteria, recombinantly expressed adhesins or serum antibodies. Three main types of carbohydrate-based microarray platform are considered; (i) conventional carbohydrate or glycan microarrays; (ii) whole mucin microarrays; and (iii) microarrays constructed from bacterial polysaccharides or their components. Determining the nature of the interactions between bacteria and host can help clarify the molecular mechanisms of carbohydrate-mediated interactions in microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease and host immune response and may lead to new strategies to boost therapeutic treatments. PMID:27600247

  20. Functional Glycomic Analysis of Human Milk Glycans Reveals the Presence of Virus Receptors and Embryonic Stem Cell Biomarkers*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Mishra, Shreya; Song, Xuezheng; Lasanajak, Yi; Bradley, Konrad C.; Tappert, Mary M.; Air, Gillian M.; Steinhauer, David A.; Halder, Sujata; Cotmore, Susan; Tattersall, Peter; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Cummings, Richard D.; Smith, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Human milk contains a large diversity of free glycans beyond lactose, but their functions are not well understood. To explore their functional recognition, here we describe a shotgun glycan microarray prepared from isolated human milk glycans (HMGs), and our studies on their recognition by viruses, antibodies, and glycan-binding proteins (GBPs), including lectins. The total neutral and sialylated HMGs were derivatized with a bifunctional fluorescent tag, separated by multidimensional HPLC, and archived in a tagged glycan library, which was then used to print a shotgun glycan microarray (SGM). This SGM was first interrogated with well defined GBPs and antibodies. These data demonstrated both the utility of the array and provided preliminary structural information (metadata) about this complex glycome. Anti-TRA-1 antibodies that recognize human pluripotent stem cells specifically recognized several HMGs that were then further structurally defined as novel epitopes for these antibodies. Human influenza viruses and Parvovirus Minute Viruses of Mice also specifically recognized several HMGs. For glycan sequencing, we used a novel approach termed metadata-assisted glycan sequencing (MAGS), in which we combine information from analyses of glycans by mass spectrometry with glycan interactions with defined GBPs and antibodies before and after exoglycosidase treatments on the microarray. Together, these results provide novel insights into diverse recognition functions of HMGs and show the utility of the SGM approach and MAGS as resources for defining novel glycan recognition by GBPs, antibodies, and pathogens. PMID:23115247

  1. Visualization and Curve-Parameter Estimation Strategies for Efficient Exploration of Phenotype Microarray Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Vaas, Lea A. I.; Sikorski, Johannes; Michael, Victoria; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background The Phenotype MicroArray (OmniLog® PM) system is able to simultaneously capture a large number of phenotypes by recording an organism's respiration over time on distinct substrates. This technique targets the object of natural selection itself, the phenotype, whereas previously addressed ‘-omics’ techniques merely study components that finally contribute to it. The recording of respiration over time, however, adds a longitudinal dimension to the data. To optimally exploit this information, it must be extracted from the shapes of the recorded curves and displayed in analogy to conventional growth curves. Methodology The free software environment R was explored for both visualizing and fitting of PM respiration curves. Approaches using either a model fit (and commonly applied growth models) or a smoothing spline were evaluated. Their reliability in inferring curve parameters and confidence intervals was compared to the native OmniLog® PM analysis software. We consider the post-processing of the estimated parameters, the optimal classification of curve shapes and the detection of significant differences between them, as well as practically relevant questions such as detecting the impact of cultivation times and the minimum required number of experimental repeats. Conclusions We provide a comprehensive framework for data visualization and parameter estimation according to user choices. A flexible graphical representation strategy for displaying the results is proposed, including 95% confidence intervals for the estimated parameters. The spline approach is less prone to irregular curve shapes than fitting any of the considered models or using the native PM software for calculating both point estimates and confidence intervals. These can serve as a starting point for the automated post-processing of PM data, providing much more information than the strict dichotomization into positive and negative reactions. Our results form the basis for a freely

  2. Evaluation of a Field-Portable DNA Microarray Platform and Nucleic Acid Amplification Strategies for the Detection of Arboviruses, Arthropods, and Bloodmeals

    PubMed Central

    Grubaugh, Nathan D.; Petz, Lawrence N.; Melanson, Vanessa R.; McMenamy, Scott S.; Turell, Michael J.; Long, Lewis S.; Pisarcik, Sarah E.; Kengluecha, Ampornpan; Jaichapor, Boonsong; O'Guinn, Monica L.; Lee, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Highly multiplexed assays, such as microarrays, can benefit arbovirus surveillance by allowing researchers to screen for hundreds of targets at once. We evaluated amplification strategies and the practicality of a portable DNA microarray platform to analyze virus-infected mosquitoes. The prototype microarray design used here targeted the non-structural protein 5, ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome b genes for the detection of flaviviruses, mosquitoes, and bloodmeals, respectively. We identified 13 of 14 flaviviruses from virus inoculated mosquitoes and cultured cells. Additionally, we differentiated between four mosquito genera and eight whole blood samples. The microarray platform was field evaluated in Thailand and successfully identified flaviviruses (Culex flavivirus, dengue-3, and Japanese encephalitis viruses), differentiated between mosquito genera (Aedes, Armigeres, Culex, and Mansonia), and detected mammalian bloodmeals (human and dog). We showed that the microarray platform and amplification strategies described here can be used to discern specific information on a wide variety of viruses and their vectors. PMID:23249687

  3. Preparation of Glycan Arrays Using Pyridylaminated Glycans.

    PubMed

    Nakakita, Shin-Ichi; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We describe the method to prepare neoglycoproteins from the conjugation of bovine serum albumin and pyridylaminated glycans. Large quantities of glycans (>1 mg) can be pyridylaminated and then converted to their 1-amino-1-deoxy derivatives by reaction with hydrogen followed by hydrazine. These pyridylaminated glycans can then be conjugated to bovine serum albumin via esterification with N-( m-maleimidobenzoyloxy)succinimide to form a neoglycoprotein, e.g., glycosylated bovine serum albumin. As a demonstration, we prepared High-mannose bovine serum albumin, which was immobilized on an activated glass slide. Then, we showed that the neoglycoprotein bind to Cy3-labeled Lens culinaris agglutinin, a mannose-specific plant lectin, as detected using an evanescent-field-activated fluorescence scanner system. PMID:26614079

  4. Human DC-SIGN Binds Specific Human Milk Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Alexander J.; Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Duska-McEwen, Geralyn; Buck, Rachael H.; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Human milk glycans (HMGs) are prebiotics, pathogen receptor decoys, and regulators of host physiology and immune responses. Mechanistically, human lectins (glycan-binding proteins, hGBPs) expressed by dendritic cells (DC) are of major interest, as these cells directly contact HMGs. To explore such interactions, we screened many C-type lectins and Siglecs expressed by DC for glycan binding on microarrays presenting over 200 HMGs. Unexpectedly, DC-SIGN showed robust binding to many HMGs, whereas other C-type lectins failed to bind, and Siglecs-5 and -9 showed weak binding to a few glycans. By contrast, most hGBPs bound to multiple glycans on other microarrays lacking HMGs. An α-linked fucose residue was characteristic of HMGs bound by DC-SIGN. Binding of DC-SIGN to the simple HMGs 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) and 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL) was confirmed by flow cytometry to beads conjugated with 2′-FL or 3-FL, as well as the ability of the free glycans to inhibit DC-SIGN binding. 2′-FL had an IC50 of ~1 mM for DC-SIGN, which is within the physiological concentration of 2′-FL in human milk. These results demonstrate that DC-SIGN among the many hGBPs expressed by DC binds to α-fucosylated HMGs, and suggest that such interactions may be important in influencing immune responses in the developing infant. PMID:26976925

  5. Pre-embedding Method of Electron Microscopy for Glycan Localization in Mammalian Tissues and Cells Using Lectin Probes.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Takata, Kuniaki; Kawakami, Hayato

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the study of glycans is progressing remarkably by the development of glycan analysis systems using mass spectrometry, glycan profiling systems using lectin microarrays, and glycoprotein analysis by the isotope-coded glycosylation site-specific tagging method. With these methodologies, glycan structures and biological functions are being elucidated. In the study of glycan function as well as disease diagnosis, it is important to examine the localization of glycans in tissues and cells. Histochemical methods using lectin probes can localize glycans in the tissues and cells. This chapter describes a pre-embedding electron microscopic method for glycan localization in which tissue sections and cells are incubated with lectin prior to embedding in resin. PMID:27515086

  6. Differential expression of anti-glycan antibodies in schistosome-infected humans, rhesus monkeys and mice

    PubMed Central

    Luyai, Anthony E; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Mickum, Megan L; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Nyame, A Kwame; Wilkins, Patricia; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos A; Smith, David F; Van Die, Irma; Secor, W Evan; Cummings, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease of humans, endemic in tropical areas, for which no vaccine is available. Evidence points to glycan antigens as being important in immune responses to infection. Here we describe our studies on the comparative humoral immune responses to defined schistosome-type glycan epitopes in Schistosoma mansoni-infected humans, rhesus monkeys and mice. Rhesus anti-glycan responses over the course of infection were screened on a defined glycan microarray comprising semi-synthetic glycopeptides terminating with schistosome-associated or control mammalian-type glycan epitopes, as well as a defined glycan microarray of mammalian-type glycans representing over 400 glycan structures. Infected rhesus monkeys generated a high immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to the core xylose/core α3 fucose epitope of N-glycans, which peaked at 8–11 weeks post infection, coinciding with maximal ability to kill schistosomula in vitro. By contrast, infected humans generated low antibody levels to this epitope. At 18 months following praziquantel therapy to eliminate the parasite, antibody levels were negligible. Mice chronically infected with S. mansoni generated high levels of anti-fucosylated LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1, 4(Fucα1, 3)GlcNAc) IgM antibodies, but lacked a robust response to the core xylose/core α3 fucose N-glycan antigens compared with other species studied, and their sera demonstrated an intermediate level of schistosomula killing in vitro. These differential responses to parasite glycan antigens may be related to the ability of rhesus monkeys to self-cure in contrast to the chronic infection seen in humans and mice. Our results validate defined glycan microarrays as a useful technology to evaluate diagnostic and vaccine antigens for schistosomiasis and perhaps other infections. PMID:24727442

  7. Recognition of microbial glycans by human intelectin-1.

    PubMed

    Wesener, Darryl A; Wangkanont, Kittikhun; McBride, Ryan; Song, Xuezheng; Kraft, Matthew B; Hodges, Heather L; Zarling, Lucas C; Splain, Rebecca A; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D; Paulson, James C; Forest, Katrina T; Kiessling, Laura L

    2015-08-01

    The glycans displayed on mammalian cells can differ markedly from those on microbes. Such differences could, in principle, be 'read' by carbohydrate-binding proteins, or lectins. We used glycan microarrays to show that human intelectin-1 (hIntL-1) does not bind known human glycan epitopes but does interact with multiple glycan epitopes found exclusively on microbes: β-linked D-galactofuranose (β-Galf), D-phosphoglycerol-modified glycans, heptoses, D-glycero-D-talo-oct-2-ulosonic acid (KO) and 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (KDO). The 1.6-Å-resolution crystal structure of hIntL-1 complexed with β-Galf revealed that hIntL-1 uses a bound calcium ion to coordinate terminal exocyclic 1,2-diols. N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a sialic acid widespread in human glycans, has an exocyclic 1,2-diol but does not bind hIntL-1, probably owing to unfavorable steric and electronic effects. hIntL-1 marks only Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes that display surface glycans with terminal 1,2-diol groups. This ligand selectivity suggests that hIntL-1 functions in microbial surveillance. PMID:26148048

  8. RECOVERING FILTER-BASED MICROARRAY DATA FOR PATHWAYS ANALYSIS USING A MULTIPOINT ALIGNMENT STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of commercial microarrays are rapidly becoming the method of choice for profiling gene expression and assessing various disease states. Research Genetics has provided a series of well defined biological and software tools to the research community for these analyses. Th...

  9. Microarray analysis reveals strategies of Tribolium castaneum larvae to compensate for cysteine and serine protease inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microarrays containing Tribolium castaneum whole-genome sequences were developed to study the transcriptome response of T. castaneum larvae to dietary protease inhibitors. In larvae fed diets containing 0.1% of the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 alone or in combination with 5.0% of the serine pro...

  10. Gene Expression Profiling and Identification of Resistance Genes to Aspergillus flavus Infection in Peanut through EST and Microarray Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baozhu; Fedorova, Natalie D.; Chen, Xiaoping; Wan, Chun-Hua; Wang, Wei; Nierman, William C.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus infect peanut seeds and produce aflatoxins, which are associated with various diseases in domestic animals and humans throughout the world. The most cost-effective strategy to minimize aflatoxin contamination involves the development of peanut cultivars that are resistant to fungal infection and/or aflatoxin production. To identify peanut Aspergillus-interactive and peanut Aspergillus-resistance genes, we carried out a large scale peanut Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) project which we used to construct a peanut glass slide oligonucleotide microarray. The fabricated microarray represents over 40% of the protein coding genes in the peanut genome. For expression profiling, resistant and susceptible peanut cultivars were infected with a mixture of Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus spores. The subsequent microarray analysis identified 62 genes in resistant cultivars that were up-expressed in response to Aspergillus infection. In addition, we identified 22 putative Aspergillus-resistance genes that were constitutively up-expressed in the resistant cultivar in comparison to the susceptible cultivar. Some of these genes were homologous to peanut, corn, and soybean genes that were previously shown to confer resistance to fungal infection. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive genome-scale platform for developing Aspergillus-resistant peanut cultivars through targeted marker-assisted breeding and genetic engineering. PMID:22069737

  11. Dynamics of dendritic cell maturation are identified through a novel filtering strategy applied to biological time-course microarray replicates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DC) play a central role in primary immune responses and become potent stimulators of the adaptive immune response after undergoing the critical process of maturation. Understanding the dynamics of DC maturation would provide key insights into this important process. Time course microarray experiments can provide unique insights into DC maturation dynamics. Replicate experiments are necessary to address the issues of experimental and biological variability. Statistical methods and averaging are often used to identify significant signals. Here a novel strategy for filtering of replicate time course microarray data, which identifies consistent signals between the replicates, is presented and applied to a DC time course microarray experiment. Results The temporal dynamics of DC maturation were studied by stimulating DC with poly(I:C) and following gene expression at 5 time points from 1 to 24 hours. The novel filtering strategy uses standard statistical and fold change techniques, along with the consistency of replicate temporal profiles, to identify those differentially expressed genes that were consistent in two biological replicate experiments. To address the issue of cluster reproducibility a consensus clustering method, which identifies clusters of genes whose expression varies consistently between replicates, was also developed and applied. Analysis of the resulting clusters revealed many known and novel characteristics of DC maturation, such as the up-regulation of specific immune response pathways. Intriguingly, more genes were down-regulated than up-regulated. Results identify a more comprehensive program of down-regulation, including many genes involved in protein synthesis, metabolism, and housekeeping needed for maintenance of cellular integrity and metabolism. Conclusions The new filtering strategy emphasizes the importance of consistent and reproducible results when analyzing microarray data and utilizes consistency between

  12. Developing an Efficient and General Strategy for Immobilization of Small Molecules onto Microarrays Using Isocyanate Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chenggang; Zhu, Xiangdong; Landry, James P.; Cui, Zhaomeng; Li, Quanfu; Dang, Yongjun; Mi, Lan; Zheng, Fengyun; Fei, Yiyan

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule microarray (SMM) is an effective platform for identifying lead compounds from large collections of small molecules in drug discovery, and efficient immobilization of molecular compounds is a pre-requisite for the success of such a platform. On an isocyanate functionalized surface, we studied the dependence of immobilization efficiency on chemical residues on molecular compounds, terminal residues on isocyanate functionalized surface, lengths of spacer molecules, and post-printing treatment conditions, and we identified a set of optimized conditions that enable us to immobilize small molecules with significantly improved efficiencies, particularly for those molecules with carboxylic acid residues that are known to have low isocyanate reactivity. We fabricated microarrays of 3375 bioactive compounds on isocyanate functionalized glass slides under these optimized conditions and confirmed that immobilization percentage is over 73%. PMID:26999137

  13. Assessment of a direct hybridization microarray strategy for comprehensive monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    PubMed

    Turkec, Aydin; Lucas, Stuart J; Karacanli, Burçin; Baykut, Aykut; Yuksel, Hakki

    2016-03-01

    Detection of GMO material in crop and food samples is the primary step in GMO monitoring and regulation, with the increasing number of GM events in the world market requiring detection solutions with high multiplexing capacity. In this study, we test the suitability of a high-density oligonucleotide microarray platform for direct, quantitative detection of GMOs found in the Turkish feed market. We tested 1830 different 60nt probes designed to cover the GM cassettes from 12 different GM cultivars (3 soya, 9 maize), as well as plant species-specific and contamination controls, and developed a data analysis method aiming to provide maximum throughput and sensitivity. The system was able specifically to identify each cultivar, and in 10/12 cases was sensitive enough to detect GMO DNA at concentrations of ⩽1%. These GMOs could also be quantified using the microarray, as their fluorescence signals increased linearly with GMO concentration. PMID:26471572

  14. Developing an Efficient and General Strategy for Immobilization of Small Molecules onto Microarrays Using Isocyanate Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenggang; Zhu, Xiangdong; Landry, James P; Cui, Zhaomeng; Li, Quanfu; Dang, Yongjun; Mi, Lan; Zheng, Fengyun; Fei, Yiyan

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule microarray (SMM) is an effective platform for identifying lead compounds from large collections of small molecules in drug discovery, and efficient immobilization of molecular compounds is a pre-requisite for the success of such a platform. On an isocyanate functionalized surface, we studied the dependence of immobilization efficiency on chemical residues on molecular compounds, terminal residues on isocyanate functionalized surface, lengths of spacer molecules, and post-printing treatment conditions, and we identified a set of optimized conditions that enable us to immobilize small molecules with significantly improved efficiencies, particularly for those molecules with carboxylic acid residues that are known to have low isocyanate reactivity. We fabricated microarrays of 3375 bioactive compounds on isocyanate functionalized glass slides under these optimized conditions and confirmed that immobilization percentage is over 73%. PMID:26999137

  15. The use of lectin microarray for assessing glycosylation of therapeutic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycans or carbohydrates attached to therapeutic glycoproteins can directly affect product quality, safety and efficacy, and therefore must be adequately analyzed and controlled throughout product life cycles. However, the complexity of protein glycosylation poses a daunting analytical challenge. In this study, we evaluated the utility of a lectin microarray for assessing protein glycans. Using commercial lectin chips, which contain 45 lectins toward distinct glycan structures, we were able to determine the lectin binding patterns of a panel of 15 therapeutic proteins, including 8 monoclonal antibodies. Lectin binding signals were analyzed to generate glycan profiles that were generally consistent with the known glycan patterns for these glycoproteins. In particular, the lectin-based microarray was found to be highly sensitive to variations in the terminal carbohydrate structures such as galactose versus sialic acid epitopes. These data suggest that lectin microarray could be used for screening glycan patterns of therapeutic glycoproteins. PMID:26918373

  16. Comparison of printed glycan array, suspension array and ELISA in the detection of human anti-glycan antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pochechueva, Tatiana; Jacob, Francis; Goldstein, Darlene R; Huflejt, Margaret E; Chinarev, Alexander; Caduff, Rosemarie; Fink, Daniel; Hacker, Neville; Bovin, Nicolai V; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola

    2011-12-01

    Anti-glycan antibodies represent a vast and yet insufficiently investigated subpopulation of naturally occurring and adaptive antibodies in humans. Recently, a variety of glycan-based microarrays emerged, allowing high-throughput profiling of a large repertoire of antibodies. As there are no direct approaches for comparison and evaluation of multi-glycan assays we compared three glycan-based immunoassays, namely printed glycan array (PGA), fluorescent microsphere-based suspension array (SA) and ELISA for their efficacy and selectivity in profiling anti-glycan antibodies in a cohort of 48 patients with and without ovarian cancer. The ABO blood group glycan antigens were selected as well recognized ligands for sensitivity and specificity assessments. As another ligand we selected P(1), a member of the P blood group system recently identified by PGA as a potential ovarian cancer biomarker. All three glyco-immunoassays reflected the known ABO blood groups with high performance. In contrast, anti-P(1) antibody binding profiles displayed much lower concordance. Whilst anti-P(1) antibody levels between benign controls and ovarian cancer patients were significantly discriminated using PGA (p=0.004), we got only similar results using SA (p=0.03) but not for ELISA. Our findings demonstrate that whilst assays were largely positively correlated, each presents unique characteristic features and should be validated by an independent patient cohort rather than another array technique. The variety between methods presumably reflects the differences in glycan presentation and the antigen/antibody ratio, assay conditions and detection technique. This indicates that the glycan-antibody interaction of interest has to guide the assay selection. PMID:21948103

  17. Immune-Signatures for Lung Cancer Diagnostics: Evaluation of Protein Microarray Data Normalization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Brezina, Stefanie; Soldo, Regina; Kreuzhuber, Roman; Hofer, Philipp; Gsur, Andrea; Weinhaeusel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    New minimal invasive diagnostic methods for early detection of lung cancer are urgently needed. It is known that the immune system responds to tumors with production of tumor-autoantibodies. Protein microarrays are a suitable highly multiplexed platform for identification of autoantibody signatures against tumor-associated antigens (TAA). These microarrays can be probed using 0.1 mg immunoglobulin G (IgG), purified from 10 µL of plasma. We used a microarray comprising recombinant proteins derived from 15,417 cDNA clones for the screening of 100 lung cancer samples, including 25 samples of each main histological entity of lung cancer, and 100 controls. Since this number of samples cannot be processed at once, the resulting data showed non-biological variances due to “batch effects”. Our aim was to evaluate quantile normalization, “distance-weighted discrimination” (DWD), and “ComBat” for their effectiveness in data pre-processing for elucidating diagnostic immune-signatures. “ComBat” data adjustment outperformed the other methods and allowed us to identify classifiers for all lung cancer cases versus controls and small-cell, squamous cell, large-cell, and adenocarcinoma of the lung with an accuracy of 85%, 94%, 96%, 92%, and 83% (sensitivity of 0.85, 0.92, 0.96, 0.88, 0.83; specificity of 0.85, 0.96, 0.96, 0.96, 0.83), respectively. These promising data would be the basis for further validation using targeted autoantibody tests.

  18. Human Milk Contains Novel Glycans That Are Potential Decoy Receptors for Neonatal Rotaviruses*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Hu, Liya; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mickum, Megan L.; Ashline, David J.; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Estes, Mary K.; Reinhold, Vernon N.; Cummings, Richard D.; Smith, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Human milk contains a rich set of soluble, reducing glycans whose functions and bioactivities are not well understood. Because human milk glycans (HMGs) have been implicated as receptors for various pathogens, we explored the functional glycome of human milk using shotgun glycomics. The free glycans from pooled milk samples of donors with mixed Lewis and Secretor phenotypes were labeled with a fluorescent tag and separated via multidimensional HPLC to generate a tagged glycan library containing 247 HMG targets that were printed to generate the HMG shotgun glycan microarray (SGM). To investigate the potential role of HMGs as decoy receptors for rotavirus (RV), a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children, we interrogated the HMG SGM with recombinant forms of VP8* domains of the RV outer capsid spike protein VP4 from human neonatal strains N155(G10P[11]) and RV3(G3P[6]) and a bovine strain, B223(G10P[11]). Glycans that were bound by RV attachment proteins were selected for detailed structural analyses using metadata-assisted glycan sequencing, which compiles data on each glycan based on its binding by antibodies and lectins before and after exo- and endo-glycosidase digestion of the SGM, coupled with independent MSn analyses. These complementary structural approaches resulted in the identification of 32 glycans based on RV VP8* binding, many of which are novel HMGs, whose detailed structural assignments by MSn are described in a companion report. Although sialic acid has been thought to be important as a surface receptor for RVs, our studies indicated that sialic acid is not required for binding of glycans to individual VP8* domains. Remarkably, each VP8* recognized specific glycan determinants within a unique subset of related glycan structures where specificity differences arise from subtle differences in glycan structures. PMID:25048705

  19. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis and Lectin Array Characterization of a Class of N-Glycan Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Wang, Denong; Yamada, Masao; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2009-01-01

    N-glycans are major components of many glycoproteins. These sugar moieties are frequently involved in important physiological and disease processes via their interactions with a variety of glycan-binding proteins (GBP). Clustering effect is an important feature in many glycan-lectin interactions. We describe in this paper a chemoenzymatic synthesis of novel N-glycan clusters using a tandem endoglycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation. It was found that the internal β-1,2-linked GlcNAc moieties in the N-glycan core, once exposed in the non-reducing terminus, was able to serve as acceptors for transglycosylation catalyzed by Endo-A and EndoM-N175A. This efficient chemoenzymatic method allows a quick extension of the sugar chains to form a class of glycan clusters in which sugar residues are all connected by native glycosidic linkages found in natural N-glycans. In addition, a discriminative enzymatic reaction at the two GlcNAc residues could be fulfilled to afford novel hybrid clusters. Lectin microarray studies revealed unusual properties in glyco-epitope expression by this panel of structurally well-defined synthetic N-glycans. These new compounds are likely valuable for functional glycomics studies to unveil new functions of both glycans and carbohydrate-binding proteins. PMID:19916512

  20. Immunogenicity and diagnostic potential of synthetic antigenic cell surface glycans of Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Anish, Chakkumkal; Martin, Christopher E; Wahlbrink, Annette; Bogdan, Christian; Ntais, Pantelis; Antoniou, Maria; Seeberger, Peter H

    2013-11-15

    Detection and quantification of pathogen-derived antigenic structures is a key method for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of various infectious diseases. Complex parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis require highly sensitive and specific tests prior to treatment with potentially toxic drugs. To investigate the diagnostic potential of cell surface glycans found on Leishmania parasites, we identified diagnostically relevant glycan epitopes and used synthetic glycan microarrays to screen sera from infected humans and dogs. On the basis of the screening results, we selected a tetrasaccharide to generate anti-glycan antibodies. The corresponding tetrasaccharide-carrier protein conjugate was immunogenic in mice, and sera obtained from immunized mice specifically detected the Leishmania parasite. These results demonstrate how synthetic glycan arrays, in combination with immunological methods, help to identify promising carbohydrate antigens for pathogen detection. PMID:24004239

  1. Human DC-SIGN binds specific human milk glycans.

    PubMed

    Noll, Alexander J; Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Duska-McEwen, Geralyn; Buck, Rachael H; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D

    2016-05-15

    Human milk glycans (HMGs) are prebiotics, pathogen receptor decoys and regulators of host physiology and immune responses. Mechanistically, human lectins (glycan-binding proteins, hGBP) expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) are of major interest, as these cells directly contact HMGs. To explore such interactions, we screened many C-type lectins and sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) expressed by DCs for glycan binding on microarrays presenting over 200 HMGs. Unexpectedly, DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) showed robust binding to many HMGs, whereas other C-type lectins failed to bind, and Siglec-5 and Siglec-9 showed weak binding to a few glycans. By contrast, most hGBP bound to multiple glycans on other microarrays lacking HMGs. An α-linked fucose residue was characteristic of HMGs bound by DC-SIGN. Binding of DC-SIGN to the simple HMGs 2'-fucosyl-lactose (2'-FL) and 3-fucosyl-lactose (3-FL) was confirmed by flow cytometry to beads conjugated with 2'-FL or 3-FL, as well as the ability of the free glycans to inhibit DC-SIGN binding. 2'-FL had an IC50 of ∼1 mM for DC-SIGN, which is within the physiological concentration of 2'-FL in human milk. These results demonstrate that DC-SIGN among the many hGBP expressed by DCs binds to α-fucosylated HMGs, and suggest that such interactions may be important in influencing immune responses in the developing infant. PMID:26976925

  2. Glycan-based high-affinity ligands for toxins and pathogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ashish A; Weiss, Alison A; Iyer, Suri S

    2010-03-01

    Glycans decorate over 95% of the mammalian cell surface in the form of glycolipids and glycoproteins. Several toxins and pathogens bind to these glycans to enter the cells. Understanding the fundamentals of the complex interplay between microbial pathogens and their glycan receptors at the molecular level could lead to the development of novel therapeutics and diagnostics. Using Shiga toxin and influenza virus as examples, we describe the complex biological interface between host glycans and these infectious agents, and recent strategies to develop glycan-based high-affinity ligands. These molecules are expected to ultimately be incorporated into diagnostics and therapeutics, and can be used as probes to study important biological processes. Additionally, by focusing on the specific glycans that microbial pathogens target, we can begin to decipher the "glycocode" and how these glycans participate in normal and aberrant cellular communication. PMID:20135686

  3. Modular synthesis of N-glycans and arrays for the hetero-ligand binding analysis of HIV antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivatare, Sachin S.; Chang, Shih-Huang; Tsai, Tsung-I.; Tseng, Susan Yu; Shivatare, Vidya S.; Lin, Yih-Shyan; Cheng, Yang-Yu; Ren, Chien-Tai; Lee, Chang-Chun David; Pawar, Sujeet; Tsai, Charng-Sheng; Shih, Hao-Wei; Zeng, Yi-Fang; Liang, Chi-Hui; Kwong, Peter D.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wu, Chung-Yi; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2016-04-01

    A new class of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) from HIV donors has been reported to target the glycans on gp120—a glycoprotein found on the surface of the virus envelope—thus renewing hope of developing carbohydrate-based HIV vaccines. However, the version of gp120 used in previous studies was not from human T cells and so the glycosylation pattern could be somewhat different to that found in the native system. Moreover, some antibodies recognized two different glycans simultaneously and this cannot be detected with the commonly used glycan microarrays on glass slides. Here, we have developed a glycan microarray on an aluminium-oxide-coated glass slide containing a diverse set of glycans, including homo- and mixed N-glycans (high-mannose, hybrid and complex types) that were prepared by modular chemo-enzymatic methods to detect the presence of hetero-glycan binding behaviours. This new approach allows rapid screening and identification of optimal glycans recognized by neutralizing antibodies, and could speed up the development of HIV-1 vaccines targeting cell surface glycans.

  4. Microarrays: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lee, Norman H; Saeed, Alexander I

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression microarrays are being used widely to address a myriad of complex biological questions. To gather meaningful expression data, it is crucial to have a firm understanding of the steps involved in the application of microarrays. The available microarray platforms are discussed along with their advantages and disadvantages. Additional considerations include study design, quality control and systematic assessment of microarray performance, RNA-labeling strategies, sample allocation, signal amplification schemes, defining the number of appropriate biological replicates, data normalization, statistical approaches to identify differentially regulated genes, and clustering algorithms for data visualization. In this chapter, the underlying principles regarding microarrays are reviewed, to serve as a guide when navigating through this powerful technology. PMID:17332646

  5. Surface expression patterns of defined glycan antigens change during Schistosoma mansoni cercarial transformation and development of schistosomula.

    PubMed

    Smit, Cornelis H; Homann, Arne; van Hensbergen, Vincent P; Schramm, Gabriele; Haas, Helmut; van Diepen, Angela; Hokke, Cornelis H

    2015-12-01

    During the complex lifecycle of Schistosoma mansoni, a large variety of glycans is expressed. To many of these glycans, antibodies are induced by the infected host and some might be targets for vaccines or diagnostic tests. Spatial changes in glycan expression during schistosome development are largely unexplored. To study the surface-exposed glycans during the important initial stages of infection, we analyzed the binding of a panel of anti-glycan monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to cercariae and schistosomula up to 72 h after transformation by immunofluorescence microscopy. The mAb specificity toward their natural targets was studied using a microarray containing a wide range of schistosomal N-glycans, O-glycans and glycosphingolipid glycans. With the exception of GalNAcβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LDN-F), mono- and multifucosylated GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc (LDN)-motifs were exposed at the surface of all developmental stages studied. Multifucosylated LDN-motifs were present on cercarial glycocalyx-derived O-glycans as well as cercarial glycolipids. In contrast, the Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (Lewis X) and LDN-F-motifs, also expressed on cercarial glycolipids, and in addition on a range of cercarial N- and O-glycans, became surface expressed only after transformation of cercariae to schistosomula. In line with the documented shedding of the O-glycan-rich cercarial glycocalyx after transformation these observations suggest that surface accessible multifucosylated LDN-motifs are mostly expressed by O-glycans in cercariae, but principally by glycosphingolipids in schistosomula. We hypothesize that these temporal changes in surface exposure of glycan antigens are relevant to the interaction with the host during the initial stages of infection with schistosomes and discuss the potential of these glycan antigens as intervention targets. PMID:26347524

  6. Microarray Analysis in Glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Bhawe, Kaumudi M; Aghi, Manish K

    2016-01-01

    Microarray analysis in glioblastomas is done using either cell lines or patient samples as starting material. A survey of the current literature points to transcript-based microarrays and immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based tissue microarrays as being the preferred methods of choice in cancers of neurological origin. Microarray analysis may be carried out for various purposes including the following: i. To correlate gene expression signatures of glioblastoma cell lines or tumors with response to chemotherapy (DeLay et al., Clin Cancer Res 18(10):2930-2942, 2012). ii. To correlate gene expression patterns with biological features like proliferation or invasiveness of the glioblastoma cells (Jiang et al., PLoS One 8(6):e66008, 2013). iii. To discover new tumor classificatory systems based on gene expression signature, and to correlate therapeutic response and prognosis with these signatures (Huse et al., Annu Rev Med 64(1):59-70, 2013; Verhaak et al., Cancer Cell 17(1):98-110, 2010). While investigators can sometimes use archived tumor gene expression data available from repositories such as the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus to answer their questions, new arrays must often be run to adequately answer specific questions. Here, we provide a detailed description of microarray methodologies, how to select the appropriate methodology for a given question, and analytical strategies that can be used. Experimental methodology for protein microarrays is outside the scope of this chapter, but basic sample preparation techniques for transcript-based microarrays are included here. PMID:26113463

  7. N-glycans of growth factor receptors: their role in receptor function and disease implications.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Motoko; Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Gao, Congxiao; Kuroki, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2016-10-01

    Numerous signal-transduction-related molecules are secreted proteins or membrane proteins, and the mechanism by which these molecules are regulated by glycan chains is a very important issue for developing an understanding of the cellular events that transpire. This review covers the functional regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ErbB3 and the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor by N-glycans. This review shows that the N-glycans play important roles in regulating protein conformation and interactions with carbohydrate recognition molecules. These results point to the possibility of a novel strategy for controlling cell signalling and developing novel glycan-based therapeutics. PMID:27612953

  8. Dual and antagonic therapeutic effects of sulfated glycans.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2016-09-15

    Sulfated glycans currently explored in medicine like glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or those of potential medical application like algal sulfated galactans (SGs) and fucoidans exhibit significant effects in numerous pathophysiological systems. According to the structure of these sulfated glycans, sample concentration and the method utilized in the approach opposite effects can be achieved. The effects aimed at down-regulating the events usually dominate. These effects are expected in most clinical endeavors. However, the effects capable of accelerating the events can be also beneficial in certain circumstances. Besides discoursing about the paradoxical effects of sulfated glycans in coagulation/thrombosis, angiogenesis, inflammation and microbial infections; this report aims primarily at highlighting the possible contribution of the neglected activities of some well-known sulfated glycans in up-regulating the events of these pathophysiological systems. The representative sulfated glycans taken here are the mammalian-derived GAGs, the unique holothurian GAG, the red algal SGs and the brown algal fucoidans. The current discussion is highly relevant in light of the future strategies for developing novel sulfated glycan-based therapies. PMID:27480032

  9. Modulation of glycan detection on specific glycoproteins by lectin multimerization

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zheng; Partyka, Katie; McDonald, Mitchell; Brouhard, Elizabeth; Hincapie, Marina; Brand, Randall E.; Hancock, William S.; Haab, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods for studying glycans could spur significant advances in the understanding and application of glycobiology. The use of affinity reagents such as lectins and glycan-binding antibodies is a valuable complement to methods involving mass spectrometry and chromatography. Many lectins, however, are not useful as analytic tools due to low affinity in vitro. As an approach to increasing lectin avidity to targeted glycans, we tested the use of lectin multimerization. Several biotinylated lectins were linked together through streptavidin interactions. The binding of certain lectins for purified glycoproteins and glycoproteins captured directly out of biological solutions was increased using multimerization, resulting in the detection of lower concentrations of glycoprotein than possible using monomeric detection. The analysis of glycoproteins in plasma samples showed that the level of binding enhancement through multimerization was not equivalent across patient samples. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reactive glycans on fibronectin and thrombospondin-5 were preferentially bound by multimers in pancreatic cancer patient samples relative to control samples, suggesting a cancer-associated change in glycan density that could be detected only through lectin multimerization. This strategy could lead to the more sensitive and informative detection of glycans in biological samples and a broader spectrum of lectins that are useful as analytical reagents. PMID:23286506

  10. Modulation of glycan detection on specific glycoproteins by lectin multimerization.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zheng; Partyka, Katie; McDonald, Mitchell; Brouhard, Elizabeth; Hincapie, Marina; Brand, Randall E; Hancock, William S; Haab, Brian B

    2013-02-01

    Improved methods for studying glycans could spur significant advances in the understanding and application of glycobiology. The use of affinity reagents such as lectins and glycan-binding antibodies is a valuable complement to methods involving mass spectrometry and chromatography. Many lectins, however, are not useful as analytic tools due to low affinity in vitro. As an approach to increasing lectin avidity to targeted glycans, we tested the use of lectin multimerization. Several biotinylated lectins were linked together through streptavidin interactions. The binding of certain lectins for purified glycoproteins and glycoproteins captured directly out of biological solutions was increased using multimerization, resulting in the detection of lower concentrations of glycoprotein than possible using monomeric detection. The analysis of glycoproteins in plasma samples showed that the level of binding enhancement through multimerization was not equivalent across patient samples. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reactive glycans on fibronectin and thrombospondin-5 were preferentially bound by multimers in pancreatic cancer patient samples relative to control samples, suggesting a cancer-associated change in glycan density that could be detected only through lectin multimerization. This strategy could lead to the more sensitive and informative detection of glycans in biological samples and a broader spectrum of lectins that are useful as analytical reagents. PMID:23286506

  11. Cell surface lectin array: parameters affecting cell glycan signature.

    PubMed

    Landemarre, Ludovic; Cancellieri, Perrine; Duverger, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Among the "omics", glycomics is one of the most complex fields and needs complementary strategies of analysis to decipher the "glycan dictionary". As an alternative method, which has developed since the beginning of the 21st century, lectin array technology could generate relevant information related to glycan motifs, accessibility and a number of other valuable insights from molecules (purified and non-purified) or cells. Based on a cell line model, this study deals with the key parameters that influence the whole cell surface glycan interaction with lectin arrays and the consequences on the interpretation and reliability of the results. The comparison between the adherent and suspension forms of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, showed respective glycan signatures, which could be inhibited specifically by neoglycoproteins. The modifications of the respective glycan signatures were also revealed according to the detachment modes and cell growth conditions. Finally the power of lectin array technology was highlighted by the possibility of selecting and characterizing a specific clone from the mother cell line, based on the slight difference determination in the respective glycan signatures. PMID:22899543

  12. Substrate specificity of FUT8 and chemoenzymatic synthesis of core-fucosylated asymmetric N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Angie D; Liu, Yunpeng; Li, Xu; Wang, Xuan; Chen, Xi; Li, Lei; Wang, Peng G

    2016-04-26

    Substrate specificity studies of human FUT8 using 77 structurally-defined N-glycans as acceptors showed a strict requirement towards the α1,3-mannose branch, but a great promiscuity towards the α1,6-mannose branch. Accordingly, a chemoenzymatic strategy was developed for the efficient synthesis of core-fucosylated asymmetric N-glycans. PMID:27080952

  13. Automated Solution-Phase Synthesis of Insect Glycans to Probe the Binding Affinity of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shu-Lun; Linz, Lucas B; Bonning, Bryony C; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2015-11-01

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV)--a plant RNA virus transmitted exclusively by aphids--causes disease in multiple food crops. However, the aphid-virus interactions required for disease transmission are poorly understood. For virus transmission, PEMV binds to a heavily glycosylated receptor aminopeptidase N in the pea aphid gut and is transcytosed across the gut epithelium into the aphid body cavity prior to release in saliva as the aphid feeds. To investigate the role of glycans in PEMV-aphid interactions and explore the possibility of viral control through blocking a glycan interaction, we synthesized insect N-glycan terminal trimannosides by automated solution-phase synthesis. The route features a mannose building block with C-5 ester enforcing a β-linkage, which also provides a site for subsequent chain extension. The resulting insect N-glycan terminal trimannosides with fluorous tags were used in a fluorous microarray to analyze binding with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled PEMV; however, no specific binding between the insect glycan and PEMV was detected. To confirm these microarray results, we removed the fluorous tag from the trimannosides for isothermal titration calorimetry studies with unlabeled PEMV. The ITC studies confirmed the microarray results and suggested that this particular glycan-PEMV interaction is not involved in virus uptake and transport through the aphid. PMID:26457763

  14. Two-Dimensional N-Glycan Distribution Mapping of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Tissues by MALDI-Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Powers, Thomas W; Holst, Stephanie; Wuhrer, Manfred; Mehta, Anand S; Drake, Richard R

    2015-01-01

    A new mass spectrometry imaging approach to simultaneously map the two-dimensional distribution of N-glycans in tissues has been recently developed. The method uses Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) to spatially profile the location and distribution of multiple N-linked glycan species released by peptide N-glycosidase F in frozen or formalin-fixed tissues. Multiple formalin-fixed human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues were evaluated with this method, resulting in a panel of over 30 N-glycans detected. An ethylation reaction of extracted N-glycans released from adjacent slides was done to stabilize sialic acid containing glycans, and these structures were compared to N-glycans detected directly from tissue profiling. In addition, the distribution of singly fucosylated N-glycans detected in tumor tissue microarray cores were compared to the histochemistry staining pattern of a core fucose binding lectin. As this MALDI-IMS workflow has the potential to be applied to any formalin-fixed tissue block or tissue microarray, the advantages and limitations of the technique in context with other glycomic methods are also summarized. PMID:26501333

  15. High-temperature LC-MS/MS of permethylated glycans derived from glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiyue; Hu, Yunli; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Various glycomic analysis methods have been developed due to the essential roles of glycans in biological processes as well as the potential application of glycomics in biomarker discovery in many diseases. Permethylation is currently considered to be one of the most common derivatization methods in MS-based glycomic analysis. Permethylation not only improves ionization efficiency and stability of sialylated glycans in positive mode but also allows for enhanced separation performance on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). Recently, RPLC-MS analysis of permethylated glycans exhibited excellent performance in sensitivity and reproducibility and became a widely-applied comprehensive strategy in glycomics. However, separating permethylated glycans by RPLC always suffers from peak broadening for high-molecular-weight branched glycans, which probably due to the low exchange rate between the stationary phase and mobile phase limited by intermolecular interactions of the methyl groups associated with the branching of the glycan structures. In this study, we employed high separation temperature conditions for RPLC of permethylated glycans, thus achieving enhanced peak capacity, improving peak shape, and enhancing separation efficiency. Additionally, partial isomeric separation were observed in RPLC of permethylated glycans at high-temperature. Mathematical processing of the correlation between retention time and molecular weight also revealed the advantage of high-temperature LC method for both manual and automatic glycan identification. PMID:26914157

  16. Approaches toward High-Mannose-Type Glycan Libraries.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Kohki; Seko, Akira; Takeda, Yoichi; Ito, Yukishige

    2016-02-01

    Asparagine-linked (N-linked) sugar chains are widely found in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which has attracted renewed attention because of its participation in the glycoprotein quality control process. In the ER, newly formed glycoproteins are properly folded to higher-order structures by the action of a variety of lectin chaperones and processing enzymes and are transported into the Golgi, while terminally misfolded glycoproteins are carried into the cytosol for degradation. A group of proteins related to this system are known to recognize subtle differences in the high-mannose-type oligosaccharide structures of glycoproteins; however, their molecular foundations are still unclear. In order to gain a more precise understanding, our group has established a strategy for the systematic synthesis of high-mannose-type glycans. More recently, we have developed "top-down" chemoenzymatic approaches that allow expeditious access to theoretically all types of high-mannose glycans. This strategy comprehensively delivered 37 high-mannose-type glycans, including G1M9-M3 glycans, and opened up the possibility of the elucidation of structure-function relationships with a series of high-mannose-type glycans. PMID:26493153

  17. Characterization of N-Glycan Structures on the Surface of Mature Dengue 2 Virus Derived from Insect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J; Ye, W; Wang, Y; Chen, W; Jia, Z; Xu, Z; Li, Z; Zhang, F

    2015-01-01

    DENV envelope glycoprotein (E) is responsible for interacting with host cell receptors and is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine based on an induction of neutralizing antibodies. It is well known that DENV E glycoprotein has two potential N-linked glycosylation sites at Asn67 and Asn153. The N-glycans of E glycoprotein have been shown to influence the proper folding of the protein, its cellular localization, its interactions with receptors and its immunogenicity. However, the precise structures of the N-glycans that are attached to E glycoprotein remain elusive, although the crystal structure of DENV E has been determined. This study characterized the structures of envelope protein N-linked glycans on mature DENV-2 particles derived from insect cells via an integrated method that used both lectin microarray and MALDI-TOF-MS. By combining these methods, a high heterogeneity of DENV N-glycans was found. Five types of N-glycan were identified on DENV-2, including mannose, GalNAc, GlcNAc, fucose and sialic acid; high mannose-type N-linked oligosaccharides and the galactosylation of N-glycans were the major structures that were found. Furthermore, a complex between a glycan on DENV and the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of DC-SIGN was mimicked with computational docking experiments. For the first time, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the N-linked glycan profile of whole DENV-2 particles derived from insect cells. PMID:26208004

  18. A Novel Strategy for Gene Selection of Microarray Data Based on Gene-to-Class Sensitivity Information

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fei; Sun, Wei; Ling, Qing-Hua

    2014-01-01

    To obtain predictive genes with lower redundancy and better interpretability, a hybrid gene selection method encoding prior information is proposed in this paper. To begin with, the prior information referred to as gene-to-class sensitivity (GCS) of all genes from microarray data is exploited by a single hidden layered feedforward neural network (SLFN). Then, to select more representative and lower redundant genes, all genes are grouped into some clusters by K-means method, and some low sensitive genes are filtered out according to their GCS values. Finally, a modified binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) encoding the GCS information is proposed to perform further gene selection from the remainder genes. For considering the GCS information, the proposed method selects those genes highly correlated to sample classes. Thus, the low redundant gene subsets obtained by the proposed method also contribute to improve classification accuracy on microarray data. The experiments results on some open microarray data verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. PMID:24844313

  19. Protein Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard-Blum, S.

    Proteins are key actors in the life of the cell, involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Since variations in the expression of messenger RNA are not systematically correlated with variations in the protein levels, the latter better reflect the way a cell functions. Protein microarrays thus supply complementary information to DNA chips. They are used in particular to analyse protein expression profiles, to detect proteins within complex biological media, and to study protein-protein interactions, which give information about the functions of those proteins [3-9]. They have the same advantages as DNA microarrays for high-throughput analysis, miniaturisation, and the possibility of automation. Section 18.1 gives a brief overview of proteins. Following this, Sect. 18.2 describes how protein microarrays can be made on flat supports, explaining how proteins can be produced and immobilised on a solid support, and discussing the different kinds of substrate and detection method. Section 18.3 discusses the particular format of protein microarrays in suspension. The diversity of protein microarrays and their applications are then reported in Sect. 18.4, with applications to therapeutics (protein-drug interactions) and diagnostics. The prospects for future developments of protein microarrays are then outlined in the conclusion. The bibliography provides an extensive list of reviews and detailed references for those readers who wish to go further in this area. Indeed, the aim of the present chapter is not to give an exhaustive or detailed analysis of the state of the art, but rather to provide the reader with the basic elements needed to understand how proteins are designed and used.

  20. The construction and use of bacterial DNA microarrays based on an optimized two-stage PCR strategy

    PubMed Central

    Postier, Bradley L; Wang, Hong-Liang; Singh, Abhay; Impson, Lori; Andrews, Heather L; Klahn, Jessica; Li, Hong; Risinger, George; Pesta, David; Deyholos, Michael; Galbraith, David W; Sherman, Louis A; Burnap, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Background DNA microarrays are a powerful tool with important applications such as global gene expression profiling. Construction of bacterial DNA microarrays from genomic sequence data using a two-stage PCR amplification approach for the production of arrayed DNA is attractive because it allows, in principal, the continued re-amplification of DNA fragments and facilitates further utilization of the DNA fragments for additional uses (e.g. over-expression of protein). We describe the successful construction and use of DNA microarrays by the two-stage amplification approach and discuss the technical challenges that were met and resolved during the project. Results Chimeric primers that contained both gene-specific and shared, universal sequence allowed the two-stage amplification of the 3,168 genes identified on the genome of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, an important prokaryotic model organism for the study of oxygenic photosynthesis. The gene-specific component of the primer was of variable length to maintain uniform annealing temperatures during the 1st round of PCR synthesis, and situated to preserve full-length ORFs. Genes were truncated at 2 kb for efficient amplification, so that about 92% of the PCR fragments were full-length genes. The two-stage amplification had the additional advantage of normalizing the yield of PCR products and this improved the uniformity of DNA features robotically deposited onto the microarray surface. We also describe the techniques utilized to optimize hybridization conditions and signal-to-noise ratio of the transcription profile. The inter-lab transportability was demonstrated by the virtual error-free amplification of the entire genome complement of 3,168 genes using the universal primers in partner labs. The printed slides have been successfully used to identify differentially expressed genes in response to a number of environmental conditions, including salt stress. Conclusions The technique detailed here minimizes the cost and

  1. DNA microarray-based experimental strategy for trustworthy expression profiling of the hippocampal genes by astaxanthin supplementation in adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Yook, Jang Soo; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Soya, Hideaki

    2016-03-01

    Naturally occurring astaxantin (ASX) is one of the noticeable carotenoid and dietary supplement, which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and neuroprotective effects in the brain through crossing the blood-brain barrier. Specially, we are interested in the role of ASX as a brain food. Although ASX has been suggested to have potential benefit to the brain function, the underlying molecular mechanisms and events mediating such effect remain unknown. Here we examined molecular factors in the hippocampus of adult mouse fed ASX diets (0.1% and 0.5% doses) using DNA microarray (Agilent 4 × 44 K whole mouse genome chip) analysis. In this study, we described in detail our experimental workflow and protocol, and validated quality controls with the housekeeping gene expression (Gapdh and Beta-actin) on the dye-swap based approach to advocate our microarray data, which have been uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE62197) as a gene resource for the scientific community. This data will also form an important basis for further detailed experiments and bioinformatics analysis with an aim to unravel the potential molecular pathways or mechanisms underlying the positive effects of ASX supplementation on the brain, in particular the hippocampus. PMID:26981356

  2. DNA microarray-based experimental strategy for trustworthy expression profiling of the hippocampal genes by astaxanthin supplementation in adult mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yook, Jang Soo; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Soya, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring astaxantin (ASX) is one of the noticeable carotenoid and dietary supplement, which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and neuroprotective effects in the brain through crossing the blood–brain barrier. Specially, we are interested in the role of ASX as a brain food. Although ASX has been suggested to have potential benefit to the brain function, the underlying molecular mechanisms and events mediating such effect remain unknown. Here we examined molecular factors in the hippocampus of adult mouse fed ASX diets (0.1% and 0.5% doses) using DNA microarray (Agilent 4 × 44 K whole mouse genome chip) analysis. In this study, we described in detail our experimental workflow and protocol, and validated quality controls with the housekeeping gene expression (Gapdh and Beta-actin) on the dye-swap based approach to advocate our microarray data, which have been uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE62197) as a gene resource for the scientific community. This data will also form an important basis for further detailed experiments and bioinformatics analysis with an aim to unravel the potential molecular pathways or mechanisms underlying the positive effects of ASX supplementation on the brain, in particular the hippocampus. PMID:26981356

  3. Biophysical characterization of lectin-glycan interactions for therapeutics, vaccines and targeted drug-delivery.

    PubMed

    Christie, Michelle P; Toth, Istvan; Simerská, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Lectin-glycan interactions play a role in biological processes, host-pathogen interactions and in disease. A more detailed understanding of these interactions is not only useful for the elucidation of their biological function but can also be applied in immunology, drug development and delivery and diagnostics. We review some commonly used biophysical techniques for studying lectin-glycan interactions; namely: frontal affinity chromatography, glycan/lectin microarray, surface plasmon resonance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescent assays, enzyme linked lectin sorbent assay and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Each method is evaluated on efficiency, cost and throughput. We also consider the advantages and limitations of each technique and provide examples of their application in biology, drug discovery and delivery, immunology, glycoprofiling and biosensing. PMID:25531972

  4. The Glycans of Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lanctot, Pascal M.; Gage, Fred H.; Varki, Ajit P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Glycans cover all cellular surfaces and, not surprisingly, are involved in many facets of stem cell biology and technology. For instance, coaxing stem cells to either proliferate or differentiate into the specific cell types needed for transplantation requires intricate glycan-dependent modulation of signalling molecules such as FGF-2, Wnt and Notch. Moreover, due to their prominent cell-surface localization and lineage-specific signatures, glycan epitopes such as the stage-specific embryonic antigens (Lewis X/SSEA-1, SSEA3–4) and tumor-rejection antigens (TRA1–60, 1–81) are ideally suited for identifying and isolating specific cell types from heterogeneous populations. Finally, the non-human sialic acid Neu5Gc has been detected on the surface of human embryonic stem cells due to metabolic incorporation from animal products used for their culture. Transplantation of Neu5Gc-contaminated cells poses immunological risks due to the presence, in humans, of circulating antibodies recognizing this glycan epitope. PMID:17681848

  5. Chromosome Microarray.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Over the last half century, knowledge about genetics, genetic testing, and its complexity has flourished. Completion of the Human Genome Project provided a foundation upon which the accuracy of genetics, genomics, and integration of bioinformatics knowledge and testing has grown exponentially. What is lagging, however, are efforts to reach and engage nurses about this rapidly changing field. The purpose of this article is to familiarize nurses with several frequently ordered genetic tests including chromosomes and fluorescence in situ hybridization followed by a comprehensive review of chromosome microarray. It shares the complexity of microarray including how testing is performed and results analyzed. A case report demonstrates how this technology is applied in clinical practice and reveals benefits and limitations of this scientific and bioinformatics genetic technology. Clinical implications for maternal-child nurses across practice levels are discussed. PMID:27276104

  6. Glycoarrays with engineered phages displaying structurally diverse oligosaccharides enable high-throughput detection of glycan-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Eda; Ollis, Anne A.; Lasanajak, Yi; Fisher, Adam C.; Gür, Göksu; Smith, David F.; DeLisa, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Glycan microarrays have become a powerful platform to investigate the interactions of carbohydrates with a variety of biomolecules. However, the number and diversity of glycans available for use in such arrays represents a key bottleneck in glycan array fabrication. To address this challenge, we describe a novel glycan array platform based on surface patterning of engineered glycophages that display unique carbohydrate epitopes. Specifically, we show that glycophages are compatible with surface immobilization procedures and that phage-displayed oligosaccharides retain the ability to be recognized by different glycan-binding proteins (e.g., antibodies, lectins) after immobilization. A key advantage of glycophage arrays is that large quantities of glycophages can be produced biosynthetically from recombinant bacteria and isolated directly from bacterial supernatants without laborious purification steps. Taken together, the glycophage array technology described here should help to expand the diversity of glycan libraries and provide a complement to the existing toolkit for high-throughput analysis of glycan-protein interactions. PMID:25263089

  7. Cell Surface Glycan Alterations in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Process of Huh7 Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xiaonan; Sun, Chun; Jiang, Kai; Huang, Li; Lu, Yu; Sui, Jingzhe; Qin, Xue; Liu, Yinkun

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Due to recurrence and metastasis, the mortality of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is high. It is well known that the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and glycan of cell surface glycoproteins play pivotal roles in tumor metastasis. The goal of this study was to identify HCC metastasis related differential glycan pattern and their enzymatic basis using a HGF induced EMT model. Methodology HGF was used to induce HCC EMT model. Lectin microarray was used to detect the expression of cell surface glycan and the difference was validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. The mRNA expression levels of glycotransferases were determined by qRT-PCR. Results After HGF treatment, the Huh7 cell lost epithelial characteristics and obtained mesenchymal markers. These changes demonstrated that HGF could induce a typical cell model of EMT. Lectin microarray analysis identified a decreased affinity in seven lectins ACL, BPL, JAC, MPL, PHA-E, SNA, and SBA to the glycan of cell surface glycoproteins. This implied that glycan containing T/Tn-antigen, NA2 and bisecting GlcNAc, Siaα2-6Gal/GalNAc, terminal α or βGalNAc structures were reduced. The binding ability of thirteen lectins, AAL, LCA, LTL, ConA, NML, NPL, DBA, HAL, PTL II, WFL, ECL, GSL II and PHA-L to glycan were elevated, and a definite indication that glycan containing terminal αFuc and ± Sia-Le, core fucose, α-man, gal-β(α) GalNAc, β1,6 GlcNAc branching and tetraantennary complex oligosaccharides structures were increased. These results were further validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of Mgat3 decreased while that of Mgat5, FucT8 and β3GalT5 increased. Therefore, cell surface glycan alterations in the EMT process may coincide with the expression of glycosyltransferase. Conclusions The findings of this study systematically clarify the alterations of cell surface glycan in cancer EMT, and

  8. The detection and discovery of glycan motifs in biological samples using lectins and antibodies: new methods and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Huiyuan; Hsueh, Peter; Kletter, Doron; Bern, Marshall; Haab, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Recent research is uncovering unexpected ways that glycans contribute to biology, as well as new strategies for combatting disease using approaches involving glycans. To make full use of glycans for clinical applications, we need more detailed information on the location, nature, and dynamics of glycan expression in vivo. Such studies require the use of specimens acquired directly from patients. Effective studies of clinical specimens require low-volume assays, high precision measurements, and the ability to process many samples. Assays using affinity reagents—lectins and glycan-binding antibodies—can meet these requirements, but further developments are needed to make the methods routine and effective. Recent advances in the use of glycan-binding proteins could meet that need. The advances involve improved determination of specificity using glycan arrays; the availability of databases for mining and analyzing glycan array data; lectin engineering methods; and the ability to quantitatively interpret lectin measurements. Here we describe many of the challenges and opportunities involved in the application of these new approaches to the study of biological samples. The new tools hold promise for developing methods to improve the outcomes of patients afflicted with diseases characterized by aberrant glycan expression. PMID:25727148

  9. Plasmon waveguide resonance for sensing glycan-lectin interactions.

    PubMed

    Alves, Isabel; Kurylo, Ievgen; Coffinier, Yannick; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Zaitsev, Vladimir; Harté, Etienne; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2015-05-11

    Carbohydrate-modified interfaces have been shown to be valuable tools for the study of protein-glycan recognition events. Label-free approache such as plasmonic based techniques are particularly attractive. This paper describes a new analytical platform for the sensitive and selective screening of carbohydrate-lectin interactions using plasmon waveguide resonance. Planar optical waveguides (POW), consisting of glass prisms coated with silver (50 nm) and silica (460 nm) layers were derivatized with mannose or lactose moieties. The specific association of the resulting interface with selected lectins was assessed by following the changes in its plasmonic response. The immobilization strategy investigated in this work is based on the formation of a covalent bond between propargyl-functionalized glycans and surface-linked azide groups via a Cu(I) "click" chemistry. Optimization of the surface architecture through the introduction of an oligo(ethylene glycol) spacer between the plasmonic surface and the glycan ligands provided an interface which allowed screening of glycan-lectin interactions in a highly selective manner. The limit of detection (LOD) of this method for this particular application was found to be in the subnanomolar range (0.5 nM), showing it to constitute a promising analytical platform for future development and use in a pharmaceutical or biomedical setting. PMID:25911432

  10. Immune response to Thomsen-Friedenreich disaccharide and glycan engineering.

    PubMed

    Irazoqui, Fernando J; Sendra, Victor G; Lardone, Ricardo D; Nores, Gustavo A

    2005-08-01

    Cancer-associated mucins show frequent alterations of their oligosaccharide chain profile, with a switch to unmask normally cryptic O-glycan backbone and core regions. Epithelial tumour cells typically show overexpression of the uncovered Gal(beta)1-3GalNAc(alpha)-O-Ser/Thr (Core 1) structure, known as the T antigen or the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen, the oligosaccharide chain of which is called the Thomsen-Friedenreich disaccharide (TFD). T antigen expression has been associated with immunosuppression, metastasis dissemination, and the proliferation of cancer cells. Several different strategies have been used to trigger a specific immune response to TFD. Natural T antigen and synthetic TFD residues have low immunodominance. In the T antigen, flexibility of the glycosidic bond reduces the immunogenicity of the sugar residue. Enhanced rigidity should favour certain glycan conformations and thereby improve TFD immunotargeting. We propose the term 'glycan engineering' for this approach. Such engineering of TFD should reduce the flexibility of its glycan moiety and thereby enhance its stability, rigidity and immunogenicity. PMID:16033536

  11. Glycan bioengineering in immunogen design for tumor T antigen immunotargeting.

    PubMed

    Sendra, Victor G; Zlocowski, Natacha; Ditamo, Yanina; Copioli, Silvina; Tarp, Mads P; Bennett, Eric P; Clausen, Henrik; Roth, German A; Nores, Gustavo A; Irazoqui, Fernando J

    2009-10-01

    Bioengineering of Galbeta3GalNAcalpha, known as Thomsen-Friedenreich disaccharide (TFD), is studied to promote glycan immunogenicity and immunotargeting to tumor T antigen (Galbeta3GalNAcalpha-O-Ser/Thr). Theoretical studies on disaccharide conformations by energy minimization of structures using MM2 energy function showed that pentalysine (Lys5) linker and benzyl (Bzl) residue enhance TFD rigidity of the glycosidic bond. Antibodies raised against BzlalphaTFD-Lys5 immunogen recognize tumor T antigen. Competitive assays confirm that TFD-related structures are the main glycan epitope. Antibodies produced by glycan bioengineering recognize HT29, T47D, MCF7, and CT26 epithelial tumor cells. Epithelial tumor cell adhesion to T antigen-binding lectins and endothelial cells was lower in the presence of antibodies raised against the engineered immunogen. The immune response directed to the bioengineered glycoconjugate inhibited CT26 tumor cell proliferation and reduced tumor growth in an in vivo mouse model. These results show that TFD bioengineering is a useful immunogenic strategy with potential application in cancer therapy. The same approach can be extended to other glycan immunogens for immunotargeting purposes. PMID:19726087

  12. Highly efficient one-pot multienzyme (OPME) synthesis of glycans with fluorous-tag assisted purification.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joel; Yu, Hai; Malekan, Hamed; Sugiarto, Go; Li, Yanhong; Qu, Jingyao; Nguyen, Van; Wu, Dongyuan; Chen, Xi

    2014-03-25

    Oligo(ethylene glycol)-linked light fluorous tags have been found to be optimal for conjugating to glycans for both high-yield enzymatic glycosylation reactions using one-pot multienzyme (OPME) systems and quick product purification using fluorous solid-phase extraction (FSPE) cartridges. The combination of OPME glycosylation systems and the FSPE cartridge purification scheme provides a highly effective strategy for facile synthesis and purification of glycans. PMID:24473465

  13. Characterization of the N-glycans of female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms.

    PubMed

    Veríssimo, Carolina M; Morassutti, Alessandra L; von Itzstein, Mark; Sutov, Grigorij; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; McAtamney, Sarah; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Glycoconjugates play a crucial role in the host-parasite relationships of helminthic infections, including angiostrongyliasis. It has previously been shown that the antigenicity of proteins from female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms may depend on their associated glycan moieties. Here, an N-glycan profile of A. cantonensis is reported. A total soluble extract (TE) was prepared from female A. cantonensis worms and was tested by western blot before and after glycan oxidation or N- and O-glycosidase treatment. The importance of N-glycans for the immunogenicity of A. cantonensis was demonstrated when deglycosylation of the TE with PNGase F completely abrogated IgG recognition. The TE was also fractionated using various lectin columns [Ulex europaeus (UEA), concanavalin A (Con A), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA)], and then each fraction was digested with PNGase F. Released N-glycans were analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. Complex-type, high mannose, and truncated glycan structures were identified in all five fractions. Sequential MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis of the major MS peaks identified complex-type structures, with a α1-6 fucosylated core and truncated antennas. Glycoproteins in the TE were labeled with BodipyAF558-SE dye for a lectin microarray analysis. Fluorescent images were analyzed with ProScanArray imaging software followed by statistical analysis. A total of 29 lectins showed positive binding to the TE. Of these, Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-I), PNA, and Wisteria floribunda (WFA), which recognize galactose (Gal) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), exhibited high affinity binding. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that female A. cantonensis worms have characteristic helminth N-glycans. PMID:27107931

  14. Mucosal Glycan Foraging Enhances Fitness and Transmission of a Saccharolytic Human Gut Bacterial Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Eric C.; Chiang, Herbert C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The distal human gut is a microbial bioreactor that digests complex carbohydrates. The strategies evolved by gut microbes to sense and process diverse glycans have important implications for the assembly and operations of this ecosystem. The human gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron forages on host and dietary glycans. Its ability to target these substrates resides in 88 polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs), encompassing 18% of its genome. In this report, whole-genome transcriptional profiling and genetic tests are used to define the mechanisms underlying host glycan foraging in vivo and in vitro. PULs that target all major classes of host glycans were identified. Mucin O-glycans are the principal substrate foraged in vivo. Simultaneous deletion of five ECF-σ transcription factors that activate mucin O-glycan utilization produces defects in bacterial persistence in the gut and in mother-to-offspring transmission. Thus, PUL-mediated glycan catabolism is an important factor in gut colonization and likely impacts gut ecology. PMID:18996345

  15. Competition between Serum IgG, IgM, and IgA Anti-Glycan Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Muthana, Saddam M.; Xia, Li; Campbell, Christopher T.; Zhang, Yalong; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-glycan antibodies are an abundant subpopulation of serum antibodies with critical functions in many immune processes. Changes in the levels of these antibodies can occur with the onset of disease, exposure to pathogens, or vaccination. As a result, there has been significant interest in exploiting anti-glycan antibodies as biomarkers for many diseases. Serum contains a mixture of anti-glycan antibodies that can recognize the same antigen, and competition for binding can potentially influence the detection of antibody subpopulations that are more relevant to disease processes. The most abundant antibody isotypes in serum are IgG, IgM, and IgA, but little is known regarding how these different isotypes compete for the same glycan antigen. In this study, we developed a multiplexed glycan microarray assay and applied it to evaluate how different isotypes of anti-glycan antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgM) compete for printed glycan antigens. While IgG and IgA antibodies typically outcompete IgM for peptide or protein antigens, we found that IgM outcompete IgG and IgA for many glycan antigens. To illustrate the importance of this effect, we provide evidence that IgM competition can account for the unexpected observation that IgG of certain antigen specificities appear to be preferentially transported from mothers to fetuses. We demonstrate that IgM in maternal sera compete with IgG resulting in lower than expected IgG signals. Since cord blood contains very low levels of IgM, competition only affects maternal IgG signals, making it appear as though certain IgG antibodies are higher in cord blood than matched maternal blood. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of competition for studies involving anti-glycan antibodies. PMID:25807519

  16. Microarray platform for omics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, Michael; Xie, Bin

    2001-09-01

    Microarray technology has revolutionized genetic analysis. However, limitations in genome analysis has lead to renewed interest in establishing 'omic' strategies. As we enter the post-genomic era, new microarray technologies are needed to address these new classes of 'omic' targets, such as proteins, as well as lipids and carbohydrates. We have developed a microarray platform that combines self- assembling monolayers with the biotin-streptavidin system to provide a robust, versatile immobilization scheme. A hydrophobic film is patterned on the surface creating an array of tension wells that eliminates evaporation effects thereby reducing the shear stress to which biomolecules are exposed to during immobilization. The streptavidin linker layer makes it possible to adapt and/or develop microarray based assays using virtually any class of biomolecules including: carbohydrates, peptides, antibodies, receptors, as well as them ore traditional DNA based arrays. Our microarray technology is designed to furnish seamless compatibility across the various 'omic' platforms by providing a common blueprint for fabricating and analyzing arrays. The prototype microarray uses a microscope slide footprint patterned with 2 by 96 flat wells. Data on the microarray platform will be presented.

  17. Microarrays under the microscope.

    PubMed

    Wildsmith, S E; Elcock, F J

    2001-02-01

    Microarray technology is a rapidly advancing area, which is gaining popularity in many biological disciplines from drug target identification to predictive toxicology. Over the past few years, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of methods and techniques available for carrying out this form of gene expression analysis. The techniques and associated peripherals, such as slide types, deposition methods, robotics, and scanning equipment, are undergoing constant improvement, helping to drive the technology forward in terms of robustness and ease of use. These rapid developments, combined with the number of options available and the associated hyperbole, can prove daunting for the new user. This review aims to guide the researcher through the various steps of conducting microarray experiments, from initial strategy to analysing the data, with critical examination of the benefits and disadvantages along the way. PMID:11212888

  18. Mucin glycan foraging in the human gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Tailford, Louise E; Crost, Emmanuelle H; Kavanaugh, Devon; Juge, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The availability of host and dietary carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a key role in shaping the structure-function of the microbiota. In particular, some gut bacteria have the ability to forage on glycans provided by the mucus layer covering the GI tract. The O-glycan structures present in mucin are diverse and complex, consisting predominantly of core 1-4 mucin-type O-glycans containing α- and β- linked N-acetyl-galactosamine, galactose and N-acetyl-glucosamine. These core structures are further elongated and frequently modified by fucose and sialic acid sugar residues via α1,2/3/4 and α2,3/6 linkages, respectively. The ability to metabolize these mucin O-linked oligosaccharides is likely to be a key factor in determining which bacterial species colonize the mucosal surface. Due to their proximity to the immune system, mucin-degrading bacteria are in a prime location to influence the host response. However, despite the growing number of bacterial genome sequences available from mucin degraders, our knowledge on the structural requirements for mucin degradation by gut bacteria remains fragmented. This is largely due to the limited number of functionally characterized enzymes and the lack of studies correlating the specificity of these enzymes with the ability of the strain to degrade and utilize mucin and mucin glycans. This review focuses on recent findings unraveling the molecular strategies used by mucin-degrading bacteria to utilize host glycans, adapt to the mucosal environment, and influence human health. PMID:25852737

  19. Mucin glycan foraging in the human gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Tailford, Louise E.; Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Kavanaugh, Devon; Juge, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The availability of host and dietary carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a key role in shaping the structure-function of the microbiota. In particular, some gut bacteria have the ability to forage on glycans provided by the mucus layer covering the GI tract. The O-glycan structures present in mucin are diverse and complex, consisting predominantly of core 1-4 mucin-type O-glycans containing α- and β- linked N-acetyl-galactosamine, galactose and N-acetyl-glucosamine. These core structures are further elongated and frequently modified by fucose and sialic acid sugar residues via α1,2/3/4 and α2,3/6 linkages, respectively. The ability to metabolize these mucin O-linked oligosaccharides is likely to be a key factor in determining which bacterial species colonize the mucosal surface. Due to their proximity to the immune system, mucin-degrading bacteria are in a prime location to influence the host response. However, despite the growing number of bacterial genome sequences available from mucin degraders, our knowledge on the structural requirements for mucin degradation by gut bacteria remains fragmented. This is largely due to the limited number of functionally characterized enzymes and the lack of studies correlating the specificity of these enzymes with the ability of the strain to degrade and utilize mucin and mucin glycans. This review focuses on recent findings unraveling the molecular strategies used by mucin-degrading bacteria to utilize host glycans, adapt to the mucosal environment, and influence human health. PMID:25852737

  20. Glycan Engineering for Cell and Developmental Biology

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Matthew E.; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-surface glycans are a diverse class of macromolecules that participate in many key biological processes, including cell-cell communication, development, and disease progression. Thus, the ability to modulate the structures of glycans on cell surfaces provides a powerful means not only to understand fundamental processes but also to direct activity and elicit desired cellular responses. Here, we describe methods to sculpt glycans on cell surfaces and highlight recent successes in which artificially engineered glycans have been employed to control biological outcomes such as the immune response and stem cell fate. PMID:26933739

  1. Chemical Synthesis of Human Syndecan-3 Glycopeptides Bearing Two Heparan Sulfate Glycan Chains

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Yang, Bo; Yang, Weizhun; Zhang, Zeren; Zhang, Jicheng

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous presence of proteoglycans in mammalian systems, methodologies to synthesize this class of glycopeptides with homogeneous glycans are not well developed. Herein, we report the first synthesis of glycosaminoglycan family glycopeptides containing two different heparan sulfate chains from human syndecan-3. With the large sizes and tremendous structural complexities, multiple unexpected obstacles were encountered in synthesis, which include the high sensitivity to base treatment and the instability of glycopeptides with two glycan chains towards catalytic hydrogenation conditions. To overcome these challenges, after many trials, a successful strategy was established by constructing the partially deprotected single glycan chain containing glycopeptides first followed by union of the glycan bearing fragments and cleavage of ester type protecting groups. This work has laid the foundation to prepare other members of this important class of molecules. PMID:24981920

  2. The Current Status of DNA Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Leming; Perkins, Roger G.; Tong, Weida

    DNA microarray technology that allows simultaneous assay of thousands of genes in a single experiment has steadily advanced to become a mainstream method used in research, and has reached a stage that envisions its use in medical applications and personalized medicine. Many different strategies have been developed for manufacturing DNA microarrays. In this chapter, we discuss the manufacturing characteristics of seven microarray platforms that were used in a recently completed large study by the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) consortium, which evaluated the concordance of results across these platforms. The platforms can be grouped into three categories: (1) in situ synthesis of oligonucleotide probes on microarrays (Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays based on photolithography synthesis and Agilent's arrays based on inkjet synthesis); (2) spotting of presynthesized oligonucleotide probes on microarrays (GE Healthcare's CodeLink system, Applied Biosystems' Genome Survey Microarrays, and the custom microarrays printed with Operon's oligonucleotide set); and (3) deposition of presynthesized oligonucleotide probes on bead-based microarrays (Illumina's BeadChip microarrays). We conclude this chapter with our views on the challenges and opportunities toward acceptance of DNA microarray data in clinical and regulatory settings.

  3. The Current Status of DNA Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Leming; Perkins, Roger G.; Tong, Weida

    DNA microarray technology that allows simultaneous assay of thousands of genes in a single experiment has steadily advanced to become a mainstream method used in research, and has reached a stage that envisions its use in medical applications and personalized medicine. Many different strategies have been developed for manufacturing DNA microarrays. In this chapter, we discuss the manu facturing characteristics of seven microarray platforms that were used in a recently completed large study by the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) consortium, which evaluated the concordance of results across these platforms. The platforms can be grouped into three categories: (1) in situ synthesis of oligonucleotide probes on microarrays (Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays based on photolithography synthesis and Agilent's arrays based on inkjet synthesis); (2) spotting of presynthe-sized oligonucleotide probes on microarrays (GE Healthcare's CodeLink system, Applied Biosystems' Genome Survey Microarrays, and the custom microarrays printed with Operon's oligonucleotide set); and (3) deposition of presynthesized oligonucleotide probes on bead-based microarrays (Illumina's BeadChip microar-rays). We conclude this chapter with our views on the challenges and opportunities toward acceptance of DNA microarray data in clinical and regulatory settings.

  4. DNA Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, C.; Gidrol, X.

    Genomics has revolutionised biological and biomedical research. This revolution was predictable on the basis of its two driving forces: the ever increasing availability of genome sequences and the development of new technology able to exploit them. Up until now, technical limitations meant that molecular biology could only analyse one or two parameters per experiment, providing relatively little information compared with the great complexity of the systems under investigation. This gene by gene approach is inadequate to understand biological systems containing several thousand genes. It is essential to have an overall view of the DNA, RNA, and relevant proteins. A simple inventory of the genome is not sufficient to understand the functions of the genes, or indeed the way that cells and organisms work. For this purpose, functional studies based on whole genomes are needed. Among these new large-scale methods of molecular analysis, DNA microarrays provide a way of studying the genome and the transcriptome. The idea of integrating a large amount of data derived from a support with very small area has led biologists to call these chips, borrowing the term from the microelectronics industry. At the beginning of the 1990s, the development of DNA chips on nylon membranes [1, 2], then on glass [3] and silicon [4] supports, made it possible for the first time to carry out simultaneous measurements of the equilibrium concentration of all the messenger RNA (mRNA) or transcribed RNA in a cell. These microarrays offer a wide range of applications, in both fundamental and clinical research, providing a method for genome-wide characterisation of changes occurring within a cell or tissue, as for example in polymorphism studies, detection of mutations, and quantitative assays of gene copies. With regard to the transcriptome, it provides a way of characterising differentially expressed genes, profiling given biological states, and identifying regulatory channels.

  5. Glycans and glycan binding proteins in immune regulation: A concise introduction to glycobiology for the allergist

    PubMed Central

    Schnaar, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    Cells are endowed with a rich surface coat of glycans carried as glycoproteins and glycolipids on the outer leaflet of their plasma membranes and constituting a major molecular interface between cells and their environment. Each cell’s glycome, the sum of its diverse glycan structures, comprises a distinct cellular signature that is defined by the expression levels of the enzymes responsible for glycan biosynthesis. This signature can be read by complementary glycan binding proteins that translate glycan recognition into function. Nowhere is this more evident than in the immune system, where glycans and glycan binding proteins are integral to pathogen recognition and the control of inflammatory responses. Glycobiology – the study of glycan structures and their functions – is increasingly providing insights into immune regulatory mechanisms and thereby providing opportunities for therapeutic intervention. To promote wider appreciation of this rapidly expanding area of research, this review briefly examines the makeup of the human glycome, the glycan binding proteins that translate glycan recognition into function, and provides examples of glycan recognition events that are responsible for immune system regulation. PMID:25649080

  6. Glycan Moieties as Bait to Fish Plasma Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fei; Zhao, Qun; Sui, Zhigang; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Hao; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-05-17

    Plasma membrane proteome analysis is of significance for screening candidate biomarkers and drug targets. However, due to their low abundance and lack of specific groups that can enable their capture, the plasma membrane proteins (PMPs) are under-represented. On the basis of the fact that PMPs are embedded in or anchored to the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and the glycan moieties of proteins and lipids located on the plasma membrane are exposed outside of the cell surface, we proposed a strategy to capture PMPs, termed as glycan moieties-directed PMPs enrichment (GMDPE). With the glycan moieties exposed outside of the cells as bait to ensure the selectivity and the phospholipid bilayer as raft to provide the sensitivity, we applied this strategy into the plasma membrane proteome analysis of HeLa cells, and in total, 772 PMPs were identified, increased by 4.5 times compared to those identified by the reported cell surface biotinylation method. Notably, among them, 86 CD antigens and 16 ion channel proteins were confidently identified. All these results demonstrated that our proposed approach has great potential in the large scale plasma membrane proteome profiling. PMID:27088673

  7. Aptamer Microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Angel-Syrett, Heather; Collett, Jim; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2009-01-02

    In vitro selection can yield specific, high-affinity aptamers. We and others have devised methods for the automated selection of aptamers, and have begun to use these reagents for the construction of arrays. Arrayed aptamers have proven to be almost as sensitive as their solution phase counterparts, and when ganged together can provide both specific and general diagnostic signals for proteins and other analytes. We describe here technical details regarding the production and processing of aptamer microarrays, including blocking, washing, drying, and scanning. We will also discuss the challenges involved in developing standardized and reproducible methods for binding and quantitating protein targets. While signals from fluorescent analytes or sandwiches are typically captured, it has proven possible for immobilized aptamers to be uniquely coupled to amplification methods not available to protein reagents, thus allowing for protein-binding signals to be greatly amplified. Into the future, many of the biosensor methods described in this book can potentially be adapted to array formats, thus further expanding the utility of and applications for aptamer arrays.

  8. Analysis of zwitterionic and anionic N-linked glycans from invertebrates and protists by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Glycomic analyses over the years have revealed that non-vertebrate eukaryotes express oligosaccharides with in-organic and zwitterionic modifications which are either occurring in different contexts as compared to, or are absent from, mammals. Examples of anionic N-glycans (carrying sulphate or phosphate) are known from amoebae, fungi, molluscs and insects, while zwitterionic modifications by phosphorylcholine, phosphoethanolamine and aminoethylphosphonate occur on N-, O- and lipid-linked glycans from trichomonads, annelids, fungi, molluscs, insects, cestodes and nematodes. For detection of zwitterionic and anionic glycans, mass spectrometry has been a key method, but their ionic character affects the preparation and purification; therefore, as part of a glycomic strategy, the possibility of their presence must be considered in advance. On the other hand, their ionisation and fragmentation in positive and negative ion mode mass spectrometry as well as specific chemical or enzymatic treatments can prove diagnostic to their analysis. In our laboratory, we combine solid-phase extraction, reversed and normal phase HPLC, MALDI-TOF MS, exoglycosidase digests and hydrofluoric acid treatment to reveal N-glycans modified with anionic and zwitterionic moieties in a wide range of organisms. It is to be anticipated that, as more species are glycomically analysed, zwitterionic and anionic modifications of N-glycans will prove rather widespread. This knowledge is - in the longer term - then the basis for understanding the function of this cornucopia of glycan modifications. PMID:26899268

  9. Analysis of zwitterionic and anionic N-linked glycans from invertebrates and protists by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B H

    2016-06-01

    Glycomic analyses over the years have revealed that non-vertebrate eukaryotes express oligosaccharides with inorganic and zwitterionic modifications which are either occurring in different contexts as compared to, or are absent from, mammals. Examples of anionic N-glycans (carrying sulphate or phosphate) are known from amoebae, fungi, molluscs and insects, while zwitterionic modifications by phosphorylcholine, phosphoethanolamine and aminoethylphosphonate occur on N-, O- and lipid-linked glycans from trichomonads, annelids, fungi, molluscs, insects, cestodes and nematodes. For detection of zwitterionic and anionic glycans, mass spectrometry has been a key method, but their ionic character affects the preparation and purification; therefore, as part of a glycomic strategy, the possibility of their presence must be considered in advance. On the other hand, their ionisation and fragmentation in positive and negative ion mode mass spectrometry as well as specific chemical or enzymatic treatments can prove diagnostic to their analysis. In our laboratory, we combine solid-phase extraction, reversed and normal phase HPLC, MALDI-TOF MS, exoglycosidase digests and hydrofluoric acid treatment to reveal N-glycans modified with anionic and zwitterionic moieties in a wide range of organisms. It is to be anticipated that, as more species are glycomically analysed, zwitterionic and anionic modifications of N-glycans will prove rather widespread. This knowledge is - in the longer term - then the basis for understanding the function of this cornucopia of glycan modifications. PMID:26899268

  10. Therapeutic Targeting of Siglecs using Antibody- and Glycan-Based Approaches.

    PubMed

    Angata, Takashi; Nycholat, Corwin M; Macauley, Matthew S

    2015-10-01

    The sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are a family of immunomodulatory receptors whose functions are regulated by their glycan ligands. Siglecs are attractive therapeutic targets because of their cell type-specific expression pattern, endocytic properties, high expression on certain lymphomas/leukemias, and ability to modulate receptor signaling. Siglec-targeting approaches with therapeutic potential encompass antibody- and glycan-based strategies. Several antibody-based therapies are in clinical trials and continue to be developed for the treatment of lymphoma/leukemia and autoimmune disease, while the therapeutic potential of glycan-based strategies for cargo delivery and immunomodulation is a promising new approach. Here we review these strategies with special emphasis on emerging approaches and disease areas that may benefit from targeting the Siglec family. PMID:26435210

  11. Glycans in the immune system and The Altered Glycan Theory of Autoimmunity: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Maverakis, Emanual; Kim, Kyoungmi; Shimoda, Michiko; Gershwin, M Eric; Patel, Forum; Wilken, Reason; Raychaudhuri, Siba; Ruhaak, L Renee; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2015-02-01

    Herein we will review the role of glycans in the immune system. Specific topics covered include: the glycosylation sites of IgE, IgM, IgD, IgE, IgA, and IgG; how glycans can encode "self" identity by functioning as either danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or self-associated molecular patterns (SAMPs); the role of glycans as markers of protein integrity and age; how the glycocalyx can dictate the migration pattern of immune cells; and how the combination of Fc N-glycans and Ig isotype dictate the effector function of immunoglobulins. We speculate that the latter may be responsible for the well-documented association between alterations of the serum glycome and autoimmunity. Due to technological limitations, the extent of these autoimmune-associated glycan alterations and their role in disease pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. Thus, we also review the current technologies available for glycan analysis, placing an emphasis on Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM), a rapid high-throughput technology that has great potential for glycan biomarker research. Finally, we put forth The Altered Glycan Theory of Autoimmunity, which states that each autoimmune disease will have a unique glycan signature characterized by the site-specific relative abundances of individual glycan structures on immune cells and extracellular proteins, especially the site-specific glycosylation patterns of the different immunoglobulin(Ig) classes and subclasses. PMID:25578468

  12. Improved Method for Drawing of a Glycan Map, and the First Page of Glycan Atlas, Which Is a Compilation of Glycan Maps for a Whole Organism

    PubMed Central

    Natsuka, Shunji; Masuda, Mayumi; Sumiyoshi, Wataru; Nakakita, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Glycan Atlas is a set of glycan maps over the whole body of an organism. The glycan map that includes data of glycan structure and quantity displays micro-heterogeneity of the glycans in a tissue, an organ, or cells. The two-dimensional glycan mapping is widely used for structure analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. In this study we developed a comprehensive method for the mapping of both N- and O-glycans with and without sialic acid. The mapping data of 150 standard pyridylaminated glycans were collected. The empirical additivity rule which was proposed in former reports was able to adapt for this extended glycan map. The adapted rule is that the elution time of pyridylamino glycans on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is expected to be the simple sum of the partial elution times assigned to each monosaccharide residue. The comprehensive mapping method developed in this study is a powerful tool for describing the micro-heterogeneity of the glycans. Furthermore, we prepared 42 pyridylamino (PA-) glycans from human serum and were able to draw the map of human serum N- and O-glycans as an initial step of Glycan Atlas editing. PMID:25006806

  13. Statistical analysis of the Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Data Base (BCSDB): Characteristics and diversity of bacterial carbohydrates in comparison with mammalian glycans

    PubMed Central

    Herget, Stephan; Toukach, Philip V; Ranzinger, René; Hull, William E; Knirel, Yuriy A; von der Lieth, Claus-Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Background There are considerable differences between bacterial and mammalian glycans. In contrast to most eukaryotic carbohydrates, bacterial glycans are often composed of repeating units with diverse functions ranging from structural reinforcement to adhesion, colonization and camouflage. Since bacterial glycans are typically displayed at the cell surface, they can interact with the environment and, therefore, have significant biomedical importance. Results The sequence characteristics of glycans (monosaccharide composition, modifications, and linkage patterns) for the higher bacterial taxonomic classes have been examined and compared with the data for mammals, with both similarities and unique features becoming evident. Compared to mammalian glycans, the bacterial glycans deposited in the current databases have a more than ten-fold greater diversity at the monosaccharide level, and the disaccharide pattern space is approximately nine times larger. Specific bacterial subclasses exhibit characteristic glycans which can be distinguished on the basis of distinctive structural features or sequence properties. Conclusion For the first time a systematic database analysis of the bacterial glycome has been performed. This study summarizes the current knowledge of bacterial glycan architecture and diversity and reveals putative targets for the rational design and development of therapeutic intervention strategies by comparing bacterial and mammalian glycans. PMID:18694500

  14. Structural Feature Ions for Distinguishing N- and O-Linked Glycan Isomers by LC-ESI-IT MS/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everest-Dass, Arun V.; Abrahams, Jodie L.; Kolarich, Daniel; Packer, Nicolle H.; Campbell, Matthew P.

    2013-06-01

    Glycomics is the comprehensive study of glycan expression in an organism, cell, or tissue that relies on effective analytical technologies to understand glycan structure-function relationships. Owing to the macro- and micro-heterogeneity of oligosaccharides, detailed structure characterization has required an orthogonal approach, such as a combination of specific exoglycosidase digestions, LC-MS/MS, and the development of bioinformatic resources to comprehensively profile a complex biological sample. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has emerged as a key tool in the structural analysis of oligosaccharides because of its high sensitivity, resolution, and robustness. Here, we present a strategy that uses LC-ESI-MS/MS to characterize over 200 N- and O-glycans from human saliva glycoproteins, complemented by sequential exoglycosidase treatment, to further verify the annotated glycan structures. Fragment-specific substructure diagnostic ions were collated from an extensive screen of the literature available on the detailed structural characterization of oligosaccharides and, together with other specific glycan structure feature ions derived from cross-ring and glycosidic-linkage fragmentation, were used to characterize the glycans and differentiate isomers. The availability of such annotated mass spectrometric fragmentation spectral libraries of glycan structures, together with such substructure diagnostic ions, will be key inputs for the future development of the automated elucidation of oligosaccharide structures from MS/MS data.

  15. Computational glycoscience: characterizing the spatial and temporal properties of glycans and glycan-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Woods, Robert J; Tessier, Matthew B

    2010-10-01

    Modern computational methods offer the tools to provide insight into the structural and dynamic properties of carbohydrate-protein complexes, beyond that provided by experimental structural biology. Dynamic properties such as the fluctuation of inter-molecular hydrogen bonds, the residency times of bound water molecules, side chain motions and ligand flexibility may be readily determined computationally. When taken with respect to the unliganded states, these calculations can also provide insight into the entropic and enthalpic changes in free energy associated with glycan binding. In addition, virtual ligand screening may be employed to predict the three dimensional (3D) structures of carbohydrate-protein complexes, given 3D structures for the components. In principle, the 3D structure of the protein may itself be derived by modeling, leading to the exciting--albeit high risk--realm of virtual structure prediction. This latter approach is appealing, given the difficulties associated with generating experimental 3D structures for some classes of glycan binding proteins; however, it is also the least robust. An unexpected outcome of the development of algorithms for modeling carbohydrate-protein interactions has been the discovery of errors in reported experimental 3D structures and a heightened awareness of the need for carbohydrate-specific computational tools for assisting in the refinement and curation of carbohydrate-containing crystal structures. Here we present a summary of the basic strategies associated with employing classical force field based modeling approaches to problems in glycoscience, with a focus on identifying typical pitfalls and limitations. This is not an exhaustive review of the current literature, but hopefully will provide a guide for the glycoscientist interested in modeling carbohydrates and carbohydrate-protein complexes, as well as the computational chemist contemplating such tasks. PMID:20708922

  16. Solid-phase glycan isolation for glycomics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most significant protein PTMs. The biological activities of proteins are dramatically changed by the glycans associated with them. Thus, structural analysis of the glycans of glycoproteins in complex biological or clinical samples is critical in correlation with the functions of glycans with diseases. Profiling of glycans by HPLC-MS is a commonly used technique in analyzing glycan structures and quantifying their relative abundance in different biological systems. Methods relied on MS require isolation of glycans from negligible salts and other contaminant ions since salts and ions may interfere with the glycans, resulting in poor glycan ionization. To accomplish those objectives, glycan isolation and clean-up methods including SPE, liquid-phase extraction, chromatography, and electrophoresis have been developed. Traditionally, glycans are isolated from proteins or peptides using a combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic columns: proteins and peptides remain on hydrophobic absorbent while glycans, salts, and other hydrophilic reagents are collected as flowthrough. The glycans in the flowthrough are then purified through graphite-activated carbon column by hydrophilic interaction LC. Yet, the drawback in these affinity-based approaches is nonspecific binding. As a result, chemical methods by hydrazide or oxime have been developed for solid-phase isolation of glycans with high specificity and yield. Combined with high-resolution MS, specific glycan isolation techniques provide tremendous potentials as useful tools for glycomics analysis. PMID:23090885

  17. Microarrays, Integrated Analytical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combinatorial chemistry is used to find materials that form sensor microarrays. This book discusses the fundamentals, and then proceeds to the many applications of microarrays, from measuring gene expression (DNA microarrays) to protein-protein interactions, peptide chemistry, carbodhydrate chemistry, electrochemical detection, and microfluidics.

  18. Novel 3-Dimensional Dendrimer Platform for Glycolipid Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Xichun

    2011-01-01

    Glycolipids are important biological molecules that modulate cellular recognitions and pathogen adhesions. In this paper, we report a sensitive glycolipid microarray for non-covalently immobilizing glycolipids on a microarray substrate and we perform a set of immunoassays to explore glycolipid-protein interactions. This substrate utilizes a three-dimensional hydrazide-functionalized dendrimer monolayer attached onto a microscopic glass surface, which possesses the characteristics to adsorb glycoliplids non-covalently and facilitates multivalent attributes on the substrate surface. In the proof-of-concept experiments, gangliosides such as GM1, FucGM1, GM3, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and a lipoarabinomannan were tested on the substrate and interrogated with toxins and antibodies. The resulting glycolipid microarrays exhibited hypersensitivity and specificity for detection of glycolipid-protein interactions. In particular, a robust and specific binding of a pentameric cholera toxin B subunit to the GM1 glycolipid spotted on the array has demonstrated its superiority in sensitivity and specificity. In addition, this glycolipid microarray substrate was used to detect lipoarabinomannan in buffer within a limit-of-detection of 125 ng/mL. Furthermore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Lipoarabinomannan was tested in human urine specimens on this platform, which can effectively identify urine samples either infected or not infected with Mtb. The results of this work suggest the possibility of using this glycolipid microarray platform to fabricate glycoconjugate microarrays, which includes free glycans and glycolipids and potential application in detection of pathogen and toxin. PMID:21820887

  19. Glycans in pathogenic bacteria – potential for targeted covalent therapeutics and imaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Tra, Van N.; Dube, Danielle H.

    2014-01-01

    A substantial obstacle to the existing treatment of bacterial diseases is the lack of specific probes that can be used to diagnose and treat pathogenic bacteria in a selective manner while leaving the microbiome largely intact. To tackle this problem, there is an urgent need to develop pathogen-specific therapeutics and diagnostics. Here, we describe recent evidence that indicates distinctive glycans found exclusively on pathogenic bacteria could form the basis of targeted therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. In particular, we highlight the use of metabolic oligosaccharide engineering to covalently deliver therapeutics and imaging agents to bacterial glycans. PMID:24647371

  20. Nonreductive chemical release of intact N-glycans for subsequent labeling and analysis by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiangbei; Wang, Chengjian; Sun, Yujiao; Huang, Linjuan; Wang, Zhongfu

    2014-10-01

    A novel strategy is proposed, using cost-saving chemical reactions to generate intact free reducing N-glycans and their fluorescent derivatives from glycoproteins for subsequent analysis. N-Glycans without core α-1,3-linked fucose are released in reducing form by selective hydrolysis of the N-type carbohydrate-peptide bond of glycoproteins under a set of optimized mild alkaline conditions and are comparable to those released by commonly used peptide-N-glycosidase (PNGase) F in terms of yield without any detectable side reaction (peeling or deacetylation). The obtained reducing glycans can be routinely derivatized with 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA), 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), and potentially some other fluorescent reagents for comprehensive analysis. Alternatively, the core α-1,3-fucosylated N-glycans are released in mild alkaline medium and derivatized with PMP in situ, and their yields are comparable to those obtained using commonly used PNGase A without conspicuous peeling reaction or any detectable deacetylation. Using this new technique, the N-glycans of a series of purified glycoproteins and complex biological samples were successfully released and analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), demonstrating its general applicability to glycomic studies. PMID:24912132

  1. The Sweet Side of Immune Evasion: Role of Glycans in the Mechanisms of Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Nardy, Ana Flávia Fernandes Ribas; Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Freire-de-Lima, Célio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Glycans are part of the essential components of a cell. These compounds play a fundamental role in several physiopathological processes, including cell differentiation, adhesion, motility, signal transduction, host–pathogen interactions, tumor cell invasion, and metastasis development. Glycans are also able to exert control over the changes in tumor immunogenecity, interfering with tumor editing events and leading to immune-resistant cancer cells. The involvement of glycans in cancer progression is related to glycosylation alterations. Understanding such changes is, therefore, extremely useful to set the stage for their use as biomarkers, improving the diagnostics and therapeutic strategies. Herein, we discuss the basis of how modifications in glycosylation patterns may contribute to cancer genesis and progression as well as their importance in oncology field. PMID:27014629

  2. The neoglycolipid (NGL)-based oligosaccharide microarray system poised to decipher the meta-glycome

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Angelina S.; Feizi, Ten; Childs, Robert A.; Chai, Wengang; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The neoglycolipid (NGL) technology is the basis of a state-of-the-art oligosaccharide microarray system. The NGL-based microarray system in the Glycosciences Laboratory Imperial College London (http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/glycosciences), is one of the two leading platforms for glycan microarrays, being offered for screening analyses to the broad biomedical community. Highlighted in this review are the sensitivity of the analysis system and, coupled with mass spectrometry, the provision for generating ‘designer’ microarrays from glycomes to identify novel ligands of biological relevance. Among recent applications are: assignments of ligands for apicomplexan parasites, pandemic 2009 influenza virus, polyoma and reoviruses, an innate immune receptor against fungal pathogens, Dectin-1, and a novel protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, malectin; also the characterization of an elusive cancer-associated antigen. Some other contemporary advances in glycolipid-containing arrays and microarrays are also discussed. PMID:24508828

  3. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  4. Fluorinated carbon tag derivatization combined with fluorous solid-phase extraction: a new method for the highly sensitive and selective mass spectrometric analysis of glycans.

    PubMed

    Li, Lulu; Jiao, Jing; Cai, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    The sensitive and specific detection of glycans via mass spectrometry (MS) remains a significant challenge due to their low abundance in complex biological mixtures, inherent lack of hydrophobicity, and suppression by other, more abundant biological molecules (proteins/peptides) or contaminants. A new strategy for the sensitive and selective MS analysis of glycans based on fluorous chemistry is reported. Glycan reducing ends were derivatized with a hydrophobic fluorinated carbon tag, increasing glycan ionization efficiency during MS by more than an order of magnitude. More importantly, the fluorinated carbon tag enabled efficient fluorous solid-phase extraction (FSPE) to specifically enrich the glycans from contaminated solutions and protein mixtures. Finally, we successfully analyzed the N-glycome in human serum using this new method. PMID:25884104

  5. Notable Aspects of Glycan-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    This mini review highlights several interesting aspects of glycan-mediated interactions that are common between cells, bacteria, and viruses. Glycans are ubiquitously found on all living cells, and in the extracellular milieu of multicellular organisms. They are known to mediate initial binding and recognition events of both immune cells and pathogens with their target cells or tissues. The host target tissues are hidden under a layer of secreted glycosylated decoy targets. In addition, pathogens can utilize and display host glycans to prevent identification as foreign by the host's immune system (molecular mimicry). Both the host and pathogens continually evolve. The host evolves to prevent infection and the pathogens evolve to evade host defenses. Many pathogens express both glycan-binding proteins and glycosidases. Interestingly, these proteins are often located at the tip of elongated protrusions in bacteria, or in the leading edge of the cell. Glycan-protein interactions have low affinity and, as a result, multivalent interactions are often required to achieve biologically relevant binding. These enable dynamic forms of adhesion mechanisms, reviewed here, and include rolling (cells), stick and roll (bacteria) or surfacing (viruses). PMID:26340640

  6. Notable Aspects of Glycan-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    This mini review highlights several interesting aspects of glycan-mediated interactions that are common between cells, bacteria, and viruses. Glycans are ubiquitously found on all living cells, and in the extracellular milieu of multicellular organisms. They are known to mediate initial binding and recognition events of both immune cells and pathogens with their target cells or tissues. The host target tissues are hidden under a layer of secreted glycosylated decoy targets. In addition, pathogens can utilize and display host glycans to prevent identification as foreign by the host’s immune system (molecular mimicry). Both the host and pathogens continually evolve. The host evolves to prevent infection and the pathogens evolve to evade host defenses. Many pathogens express both glycan-binding proteins and glycosidases. Interestingly, these proteins are often located at the tip of elongated protrusions in bacteria, or in the leading edge of the cell. Glycan-protein interactions have low affinity and, as a result, multivalent interactions are often required to achieve biologically relevant binding. These enable dynamic forms of adhesion mechanisms, reviewed here, and include rolling (cells), stick and roll (bacteria) or surfacing (viruses). PMID:26340640

  7. Relative Quantification and Higher-Order Modeling of the Plasma Glycan Cancer Burden Ratio in Ovarian Cancer Case-Control Samples

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Elizabeth S.; Scholl, Elizabeth H.; Walker, S. Hunter; Taylor, Amber D.; Cliby, William A.; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A.; Muddiman, David C.

    2016-01-01

    An early-stage, population-wide biomarker for ovarian cancer (OVC) is essential to reverse its high mortality rate. Aberrant glycosylation by OVC has been reported, but studies have yet to identify an N-glycan with sufficiently high specificity. We curated a human biorepository of 82 case-control plasma samples, with 27%, 12%, 46%, and 15% falling across stages I–IV, respectively. For relatve quantitation, glycans were analyzed by the individuality normalization when labeling with glycan hydrazide tags (INLIGHT) strategy for enhanced electrospray ionization, MS/MS analysis. Sixty-three glycan cancer burden ratios (GBRs), defined as the log10 ratio of the case-control extracted ion chromatogram abundances, were calculated above the limit of detection. The final GBR models, built using stepwise forward regression, included three significant terms: OVC stage, normalized mean GBR, and tag chemical purity; glycan class, fucosylation, or sialylation were not significant variables. After Bonferroni correction, seven N-glycans were identified as significant (p < 0.05), and after false discovery rate correction, an additional four glycans were determined to be significant (p < 0.05), with one borderline (p = 0.05). For all N-glycans, the vectors of the effects from stages II–IV were sequentially reversed, suggesting potential biological changes in OVC morphology or in host response. PMID:26347193

  8. Exploring the specificities of glycan-binding proteins using glycan array data and the GlycoSearch software

    PubMed Central

    Kletter, Doron; Curnutte, Bryan; Maupin, Kevin; Bern, Marshall; Haab, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The glycan array is a powerful tool for investigating the specificities of glycan-binding proteins. By incubating a glycan-binding protein on a glycan array, the relative binding to hundreds of different oligosaccharides can be quantified in parallel. Based on these data, much information can be obtained about the preference of a glycan-binding protein for specific subcomponents of oligosaccharides, or motifs. In many cases the analysis and interpretation of glycan array data can be time consuming and imprecise if done manually. Recently we developed software, called GlycoSearch, to facilitate the analysis and interpretation of glycan array data based on the previously developed methods called Motif Segregation and Outlier Motif Analysis. Here we describe the principles behind the software, the use of the software, and an example application. The automated, objective, and precise analysis of glycan array data should enhance the value of the data for a broad range of research applications. PMID:25753713

  9. Glycobiology simplified: diverse roles of glycan recognition in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schnaar, Ronald L

    2016-06-01

    Glycans and complementary glycan-binding proteins are essential components in the language of cell-cell interactions in immunity. The study of glycan function is the purview of glycobiology, which has often been presented as an unusually complex discipline. In fact, the human glycome, composed of all of its glycans, is built primarily from only 9 building blocks that are combined by enzymes (writers) with specific and limited biosynthetic capabilities into a tractable and increasingly accessible number of potential glycan patterns that are functionally read by several dozen human glycan-binding proteins (readers). Nowhere is the importance of glycan recognition better understood than in infection and immunity, and knowledge in this area has already led to glycan mimetic anti-infective and anti-inflammatory drugs. This review includes a brief tutorial on human glycobiology and a limited number of specific examples of glycan-binding protein-glycan interactions that initiate and regulate inflammation. Examples include representatives from different glycan-binding protein families, including the C-type lectins (E-selectin, P-selectin, dectin-1, and dectin-2), sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins 8 and 9), galectins (galectin-1, galectin-3, and galectin-9), as well as hyaluronic acid-binding proteins. As glycoscience technologies advance, opportunities for enhanced understanding of glycans and their roles in leukocyte cell biology provide increasing opportunities for discovery and therapeutic intervention. PMID:27004978

  10. Microarrays in hematology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Josef; Flower, Darren; Rigley, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Microarrays are fast becoming routine tools for the high-throughput analysis of gene expression in a wide range of biologic systems, including hematology. Although a number of approaches can be taken when implementing microarray-based studies, all are capable of providing important insights into biologic function. Although some technical issues have not been resolved, microarrays will continue to make a significant impact on hematologically important research. PMID:11753074

  11. Phylogeographic genomics of mitochondrial DNA: Highly-resolved patterns of intraspecific evolution and a multi-species, microarray-based DNA sequencing strategy for biodiversity studies.

    PubMed

    Carr, Steven M; Marshall, H Dawn; Duggan, Ana T; Flynn, Sarah M C; Johnstone, Kimberley A; Pope, Angela M; Wilkerson, Corinne D

    2008-03-01

    Phylogeographic genomics, based on multiple complete mtDNA genome sequences from within individual vertebrate species, provides highly-resolved intraspecific trees for the detailed study of evolutionary biology. We describe new biogeographic and historical insights from our studies of the genomes of codfish, wolffish, and harp seal populations in the Northwest Atlantic, and from the descendants of the founding human population of Newfoundland. Population genomics by conventional sequencing methods remains laborious. A new biotechnology, iterative DNA "re-sequencing", uses a DNA microarray to recover 30-300 kb of contiguous DNA sequence in a single experiment. Experiments with a single-species mtDNA microarray show that the method is accurate and efficient, and sufficiently species-specific to discriminate mtDNA genomes of moderately-divergent taxa. Experiments with a multi-species DNA microarray (the "ArkChip") show that simultaneous sequencing of species in different orders and classes detects SNPs within each taxon with equal accuracy as single-species-specific experiments. Iterative DNA sequencing offers a practical method for high-throughput biodiversity genomics that will enable standardized, coordinated investigation of multiple species of interest to Species at Risk and conservation biologists. PMID:20483203

  12. Proximal glycans outside of the epitopes regulate the presentation of HIV-1 envelope gp120 helper epitopes1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hualin; Xu, Chong-Feng; Blais, Steven; Wan, Qi; Zhang, Hui-Tang; Landry, Samuel J.; Hioe, Catarina E.

    2010-01-01

    Glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope gp120 determines not only the proper structure, but also the immune responses against this antigen. While glycans may be part of specific epitopes or shield other epitopes from T cells and antibodies, this study provides evidence for a different immunomodulatory function of glycans associated with gp120 residues N230 and N448. These glycans are required for efficient MHC class II-restricted presentation of nearby CD4 T-cell epitopes, even though they are not part of the epitopes. The glycans do not affect CD4 T cell recognition of more distant epitopes, and are not essential for the proper folding and function of gp120. Data on CD4 T-cell recognition of N448 mutants combined with proteolysis analyses and surface electrostatic potential calculation around residue N448 support the notion that N448-glycan near the epitope's C-terminus renders the site to be surface accessible and allows its efficient processing. In contrast, the N230-glycan contributes to the nearby epitope presentation at a step other than the proteolytic processing of the epitope. Hence, N-glycans can determine CD4 T-cell recognition of nearby gp120 epitopes by regulating the different steps in the MHC class II processing and presentation pathway after APCs acquire the intact gp120 antigen exogenously. Modifications of amino acids bearing glycans at the C termini of gp120 helper epitopes may prove to be a useful strategy for enhancing the immunogenicity of HIV-1 envelope gp120. PMID:19414790

  13. Characterizing the release of bioactive N-glycans from dairy products by a novel endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Karav, Sercan; Bell, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega De Moura; Le Parc, Annabelle; Liu, Yan; Mills, David A; Block, David E; Barile, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase isolated from B. infantis ATCC 15697 (EndoBI-1) is a novel enzyme that cleaves N-N'-diacetyl chitobiose moieties found in the N-glycan core of high mannose, hybrid, and complex N-glycans. These conjugated N-glycans are recently shown as a new prebiotic source that stimulates the growth of a key infant gut microbe, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Infantis. The effects of pH (4.45-8.45), temperature (27.5-77.5°C), reaction time (15-475 min), and enzyme/protein ratio (1:3,000-1:333) were evaluated on the release of N-glycans from bovine colostrum whey by EndoBI-1. A central composite design was used, including a two-level factorial design (2(4)) with four center points and eight axial points. In general, low pH values, longer reaction times, higher enzyme/protein ratio, and temperatures around 52°C resulted in the highest yield. The results demonstrated that bovine colostrum whey, considered to be a by/waste product, can be used as a glycan source with a yield of 20 mg N-glycan/g total protein under optimal conditions for the ranges investigated. Importantly, these processing conditions are suitable to be incorporated into routine dairy processing activities, opening the door for an entirely new class of products (released bioactive glycans and glycan-free milk). The new enzyme's activity was also compared with a commercially available enzyme, showing that EndoBI-1 is more active on native proteins than PNGase F and can be efficiently used during pasteurization, streamlining its integration into existing processing strategies. PMID:26097235

  14. Glycan Masking of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein for Probing Protein Binding Function and Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Joel; Gurumoorthy, Sairam; Gibson, Claire; Melcher, Martin; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Wang, Ruobing; Schief, William R.; Smith, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Glycan masking is an emerging vaccine design strategy to focus antibody responses to specific epitopes, but it has mostly been evaluated on the already heavily glycosylated HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Here this approach was used to investigate the binding interaction of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) and the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) and to evaluate if glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens would focus the antibody response on key interaction surfaces. Four variants of PVDBPII were generated and probed for function and immunogenicity. Whereas two PvDBPII glycosylation variants with increased glycan surface coverage distant from predicted interaction sites had equivalent binding activity to wild-type protein, one of them elicited slightly better DARC-binding-inhibitory activity than wild-type immunogen. Conversely, the addition of an N-glycosylation site adjacent to a predicted PvDBP interaction site both abolished its interaction with DARC and resulted in weaker inhibitory antibody responses. PvDBP is composed of three subdomains and is thought to function as a dimer; a meta-analysis of published PvDBP mutants and the new DBPII glycosylation variants indicates that critical DARC binding residues are concentrated at the dimer interface and along a relatively flat surface spanning portions of two subdomains. Our findings suggest that DARC-binding-inhibitory antibody epitope(s) lie close to the predicted DARC interaction site, and that addition of N-glycan sites distant from this site may augment inhibitory antibodies. Thus, glycan resurfacing is an attractive and feasible tool to investigate protein structure-function, and glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens might contribute to P. vivax vaccine development. PMID:23853575

  15. Twenty Years of Mycobacterial Glycans: Furanosides and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Lowary, Todd L

    2016-07-19

    galactofuranose residues. These molecules have now found application in biochemical, immunological, and structural biology investigations, which have shed light on their biosynthesis and how these motifs are recognized by both the innate and adaptive immune systems. More recently, attention has been directed toward the synthesis of another class of immunologically active mycobacterial cell wall glycans, the extractable glycolipids. In this case, efforts have been primarily on phenolic glycolipids, and the compounds synthesized have been used to evaluate their ability to modulate cytokine release. Over the past 20 years, the use of chemical synthesis to provide increasingly complex glycan structures has provided significant benefit to the burgeoning field of mycobacterial glycobiology. Through the efforts of groups from around the globe, access to these compounds is now possible via relatively straightforward methods. As the pool of mycobacterial glycans continues to grow, so too will our understanding of their role in disease, which will undoubtedly lead to new strategies to prevent or treat mycobacterial infections. PMID:27294709

  16. Nanoengineered glycan sensors enabling native glycoprofiling for medicinal applications: towards profiling glycoproteins without labeling or liberation steps.

    PubMed

    Reuel, Nigel F; Mu, Bin; Zhang, Jingqing; Hinckley, Allison; Strano, Michael S

    2012-09-01

    Nanoengineered glycan sensors may help realize the long-held goal of accurate and rapid glycoprotein profiling without labeling or glycan liberation steps. Current methods of profiling oligosaccharides displayed on protein surfaces, such as liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis, and microarray methods, are limited by sample pretreatment and quantitative accuracy. Microarrayed platforms can be improved with methods that better estimate kinetic parameters rather than simply reporting relative binding information. These quantitative glycan sensors are enabled by an emerging class of nanoengineered materials that differ in their mode of signal transduction from traditional methods. Platforms that respond to mass changes include a quartz crystal microbalance and cantilever sensors. Electronic response can be detected from electrochemical, field effect transistor, and pore impedance sensors. Optical methods include fluorescent frontal affinity chromatography, surface plasmon resonance methods, and fluorescent carbon nanotubes. After a very brief primer on glycobiology and its connection to medicine, these emerging systems are critically reviewed for their potential use as core sensors in future glycoprofiling tools. PMID:22868627

  17. Glycans – the third revolution in evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lauc, Gordan; Krištić, Jasminka; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2014-01-01

    The development and maintenance of a complex organism composed of trillions of cells is an extremely complex task. At the molecular level every process requires a specific molecular structures to perform it, thus it is difficult to imagine how less than tenfold increase in the number of genes between simple bacteria and higher eukaryotes enabled this quantum leap in complexity. In this perspective article we present the hypothesis that the invention of glycans was the third revolution in evolution (the appearance of nucleic acids and proteins being the first two), which enabled the creation of novel molecular entities that do not require a direct genetic template. Contrary to proteins and nucleic acids, which are made from a direct DNA template, glycans are product of a complex biosynthetic pathway affected by hundreds of genetic and environmental factors. Therefore glycans enable adaptive response to environmental changes and, unlike other epiproteomic modifications, which act as off/on switches, glycosylation significantly contributes to protein structure and enables novel functions. The importance of glycosylation is evident from the fact that nearly all proteins invented after the appearance of multicellular life are composed of both polypeptide and glycan parts. PMID:24904645

  18. Glycotherapy: New Advances Inspire a Reemergence of Glycans in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hudak, Jason E.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the 20th century marked the dawn of modern medicine with glycan-based therapies at the forefront. However, glycans quickly became overshadowed as DNA- and protein-focused treatments became readily accessible. The recent development of new tools and techniques to study and produce structurally defined carbohydrates has spurred renewed interest in the therapeutic applications of glycans. This review focuses on advances within the past decade that are bringing glycan-based treatments back to the forefront of medicine and the technologies that are driving these efforts. These include the use of glycans themselves as therapeutic molecules as well as engineering protein and cell surface glycans to suit clinical applications. Glycan therapeutics offer a rich and promising frontier for developments in the academic, biopharmaceutical, and medical fields. PMID:24269151

  19. How glycan metabolism shapes the human gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Cameron, Elizabeth A.; Martens, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Preface Symbiotic microorganisms that reside in the human intestine are adept at foraging glycans and polysaccharides, including those in dietary plants (starch, hemicellulose, pectin), animal-derived cartilage and tissue (glycosaminoglycans and N-linked glycans), and endogenous glycans from host mucus (O-linked glycans). Fluctuations in the abundance of dietary and endogenous glycans, combined with the immense chemical variation among these molecules, create a dynamic and heterogeneous environment in which gut microorganisms proliferate. In this review, we describe how glycans shape the composition of the gut microbiota over various lengths of time, the mechanisms by which individual microorganisms degrade these glycans, and potential opportunities to intentionally influence this ecosystem for better health and nutrition. PMID:22491358

  20. Microarrays--status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2004-12-01

    Microarrays have become an extremely important research tool for life science researchers and are also beginning to be used in diagnostic, treatment and monitoring applications. This article provides a detailed description of microarrays prepared by in situ synthesis, deposition using microspotting methods, nonplanar bead arrays, flow-through microarrays, optical fiber bundle arrays and nanobarcodes. The problems and challenges in the development of microarrays, development of standards and diagnostic microarrays are described. Tables summarizing the vendor list of various derivatized microarray surfaces, commercially sold premade microarrays, bead arrays and unique microarray products in development are also included. PMID:15542153

  1. Qrator: A web-based curation tool for glycan structures

    PubMed Central

    Eavenson, Matthew; Kochut, Krys J; Miller, John A; Ranzinger, René; Tiemeyer, Michael; Aoki, Kazuhiro; York, William S

    2015-01-01

    Most currently available glycan structure databases use their own proprietary structure representation schema and contain numerous annotation errors. These cause problems when glycan databases are used for the annotation or mining of data generated in the laboratory. Due to the complexity of glycan structures, curating these databases is often a tedious and labor-intensive process. However, rigorously validating glycan structures can be made easier with a curation workflow that incorporates a structure-matching algorithm that compares candidate glycans to a canonical tree that embodies structural features consistent with established mechanisms for the biosynthesis of a particular class of glycans. To this end, we have implemented Qrator, a web-based application that uses a combination of external literature and database references, user annotations and canonical trees to assist and guide researchers in making informed decisions while curating glycans. Using this application, we have started the curation of large numbers of N-glycans, O-glycans and glycosphingolipids. Our curation workflow allows creating and extending canonical trees for these classes of glycans, which have subsequently been used to improve the curation workflow. PMID:25165068

  2. Qrator: a web-based curation tool for glycan structures.

    PubMed

    Eavenson, Matthew; Kochut, Krys J; Miller, John A; Ranzinger, René; Tiemeyer, Michael; Aoki, Kazuhiro; York, William S

    2015-01-01

    Most currently available glycan structure databases use their own proprietary structure representation schema and contain numerous annotation errors. These cause problems when glycan databases are used for the annotation or mining of data generated in the laboratory. Due to the complexity of glycan structures, curating these databases is often a tedious and labor-intensive process. However, rigorously validating glycan structures can be made easier with a curation workflow that incorporates a structure-matching algorithm that compares candidate glycans to a canonical tree that embodies structural features consistent with established mechanisms for the biosynthesis of a particular class of glycans. To this end, we have implemented Qrator, a web-based application that uses a combination of external literature and database references, user annotations and canonical trees to assist and guide researchers in making informed decisions while curating glycans. Using this application, we have started the curation of large numbers of N-glycans, O-glycans and glycosphingolipids. Our curation workflow allows creating and extending canonical trees for these classes of glycans, which have subsequently been used to improve the curation workflow. PMID:25165068

  3. Versatile High Resolution Oligosaccharide Microarrays for Plant Glycobiology and Cell Wall Research*

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Henriette L.; Fangel, Jonatan U.; McCleary, Barry; Ruzanski, Christian; Rydahl, Maja G.; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Farkas, Vladimir; von Schantz, Laura; Marcus, Susan E.; Andersen, Mathias C. F.; Field, Rob; Ohlin, Mats; Knox, J. Paul; Clausen, Mads H.; Willats, William G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes. PMID:22988248

  4. Site occupancy and glycan compositional analysis of two soluble recombinant forms of the attachment glycoprotein of Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Snelling, Hayley J; Shiell, Brian J; Feng, Yan-Ru; Chan, Yee-Peng; Bossart, Katharine N; Xu, Kai; Nikolov, Dimitar B; Broder, Christopher C; Michalski, Wojtek P

    2012-04-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) continues to cause morbidity and mortality in both humans and horses with a number of sporadic outbreaks. HeV has two structural membrane glycoproteins that mediate the infection of host cells: the attachment (G) and the fusion (F) glycoproteins that are essential for receptor binding and virion-host cell membrane fusion, respectively. N-linked glycosylation of viral envelope proteins are critical post-translation modifications that have been implicated in roles of structural integrity, virus replication and evasion of the host immune response. Deciphering the glycan composition and structure on these glycoproteins may assist in the development of glycan-targeted therapeutic intervention strategies. We examined the site occupancy and glycan composition of recombinant soluble G (sG) glycoproteins expressed in two different mammalian cell systems, transient human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and vaccinia virus (VV)-HeLa cells, using a suite of biochemical and biophysical tools: electrophoresis, lectin binding and tandem mass spectrometry. The N-linked glycans of both VV and HEK293-derived sG glycoproteins carried predominantly mono- and disialylated complex-type N-glycans and a smaller population of high mannose-type glycans. All seven consensus sequences for N-linked glycosylation were definitively found to be occupied in the VV-derived protein, whereas only four sites were found and characterized in the HEK293-derived protein. We also report, for the first time, the existence of O-linked glycosylation sites in both proteins. The striking characteristic of both proteins was glycan heterogeneity in both N- and O-linked sites. The structural features of G protein glycosylation were also determined by X-ray crystallography and interactions with the ephrin-B2 receptor are discussed. PMID:22171062

  5. Turning-Off Signaling by Siglecs, Selectins, and Galectins: Chemical Inhibition of Glycan-Dependent Interactions in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cagnoni, Alejandro J.; Pérez Sáez, Juan M.; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Mariño, Karina V.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation, a common feature associated with malignancy, has been implicated in important events during cancer progression. Our understanding of the role of glycans in cancer has grown exponentially in the last few years, concurrent with important advances in glycomics and glycoproteomic technologies, paving the way for the validation of a number of glycan structures as potential glycobiomarkers. However, the molecular bases underlying cancer-associated glycan modifications are still far from understood. Glycans exhibit a natural heterogeneity, crucial for their diverse functional roles as specific carriers of biologically relevant information. This information is decoded by families of proteins named lectins, including sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins (siglecs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and galectins. Siglecs are primarily expressed on the surface of immune cells and differentially control innate and adaptive immune responses. Among CLRs, selectins are a family of cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between cancer cells and platelets, leukocytes, and endothelial cells, thus facilitating tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Galectins, a family of soluble proteins that bind β-galactoside-containing glycans, have been implicated in diverse events associated with cancer biology such as apoptosis, homotypic cell aggregation, angiogenesis, cell migration, and tumor-immune escape. Consequently, individual members of these lectin families have become promising targets for the design of novel anticancer therapies. During the past decade, a number of inhibitors of lectin–glycan interactions have been developed including small-molecule inhibitors, multivalent saccharide ligands, and more recently peptides and peptidomimetics have offered alternatives for tackling tumor progression. In this article, we review the current status of the discovery and development of chemical lectin inhibitors and discuss novel strategies to

  6. Turning-Off Signaling by Siglecs, Selectins, and Galectins: Chemical Inhibition of Glycan-Dependent Interactions in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cagnoni, Alejandro J; Pérez Sáez, Juan M; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Mariño, Karina V

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation, a common feature associated with malignancy, has been implicated in important events during cancer progression. Our understanding of the role of glycans in cancer has grown exponentially in the last few years, concurrent with important advances in glycomics and glycoproteomic technologies, paving the way for the validation of a number of glycan structures as potential glycobiomarkers. However, the molecular bases underlying cancer-associated glycan modifications are still far from understood. Glycans exhibit a natural heterogeneity, crucial for their diverse functional roles as specific carriers of biologically relevant information. This information is decoded by families of proteins named lectins, including sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins (siglecs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and galectins. Siglecs are primarily expressed on the surface of immune cells and differentially control innate and adaptive immune responses. Among CLRs, selectins are a family of cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between cancer cells and platelets, leukocytes, and endothelial cells, thus facilitating tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Galectins, a family of soluble proteins that bind β-galactoside-containing glycans, have been implicated in diverse events associated with cancer biology such as apoptosis, homotypic cell aggregation, angiogenesis, cell migration, and tumor-immune escape. Consequently, individual members of these lectin families have become promising targets for the design of novel anticancer therapies. During the past decade, a number of inhibitors of lectin-glycan interactions have been developed including small-molecule inhibitors, multivalent saccharide ligands, and more recently peptides and peptidomimetics have offered alternatives for tackling tumor progression. In this article, we review the current status of the discovery and development of chemical lectin inhibitors and discuss novel strategies to

  7. N-Glycan structures of an osteopontin from human bone.

    PubMed

    Masuda, K; Takahashi, N; Tsukamoto, Y; Honma, H; Kohri, K

    2000-02-24

    N-Glycan structures of osteopontin (a bone matrix protein) from human bone (lumbar vertabrate) are reported in detail. Asn-linked glycan portion was released from 100 microg of osteopontin by digestion with glycoamidase A (from sweet almond), and the reducing ends of the N-glycans were reductively aminated with 2-aminopyridine. The derivatized N-glycans were separated and structurally identified by a multidimensional mapping technique on HPLC columns. Two major N-glycan structures were also confirmed by mass spectrometry. The proposed structures are shown below. The result should permit future comparison with the N-glycan structures of osteopontins obtained from other sources (kidney tissues, macrophages, urinary stones, human milk, etc.). PMID:10679288

  8. Enhanced Aromatic Sequons Increase Oligosaccharyltransferase Glycosylation Efficiency and Glycan Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Murray, Amber N; Chen, Wentao; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Hanson, Sarah R; Wiseman, R Luke; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M; Powers, David L; Powers, Evan T; Kelly, Jeffery W

    2015-08-20

    N-Glycosylation plays an important role in protein folding and function. Previous studies demonstrate that a phenylalanine residue introduced at the n-2 position relative to an Asn-Xxx-Thr/Ser N-glycosylation sequon increases the glycan occupancy of the sequon in insect cells. Here, we show that any aromatic residue at n-2 increases glycan occupancy in human cells and that this effect is dependent upon oligosaccharyltransferase substrate preferences rather than differences in other cellular processing events such as degradation or trafficking. Moreover, aromatic residues at n-2 alter glycan processing in the Golgi, producing proteins with less complex N-glycan structures. These results demonstrate that manipulating the sequence space surrounding N-glycosylation sequons is useful both for controlling glycosylation efficiency, thus enhancing glycan occupancy, and for influencing the N-glycan structures produced. PMID:26190824

  9. Glycan Evolution in Response to Collaboration, Conflict, and Constraint*

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Stevan A.; Gagneux, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Glycans, oligo- and polysaccharides secreted or attached to proteins and lipids, cover the surfaces of all cells and have a regulatory capacity and structural diversity beyond any other class of biological molecule. Glycans may have evolved these properties because they mediate cellular interactions and often face pressure to evolve new functions rapidly. We approach this idea two ways. First, we discuss evolutionary innovation. Glycan synthesis, regulation, and mode of chemical interaction influence the spectrum of new forms presented to evolution. Second, we describe the evolutionary conflicts that arise when alleles and individuals interact. Glycan regulation and diversity are integral to these biological negotiations. Glycans are tasked with such an amazing diversity of functions that no study of cellular interaction can begin without considering them. We propose that glycans predominate the cell surface because their physical and chemical properties allow the rapid innovation required of molecules on the frontlines of evolutionary conflict. PMID:23329843

  10. Regulation of Glycan Structures in Murine Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nairn, Alison V.; Aoki, Kazuhiro; dela Rosa, Mitche; Porterfield, Mindy; Lim, Jae-Min; Kulik, Michael; Pierce, J. Michael; Wells, Lance; Dalton, Stephen; Tiemeyer, Michael; Moremen, Kelley W.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance and structural diversity of glycans on glycoproteins and glycolipids are highly regulated and play important roles during vertebrate development. Because of the challenges associated with studying glycan regulation in vertebrate embryos, we have chosen to study mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells as they differentiate into embryoid bodies (EBs) or into extraembryonic endodermal (ExE) cells as a model for cellular differentiation. We profiled N- and O-glycan structures isolated from these cell populations and examined transcripts encoding the corresponding enzymatic machinery for glycan biosynthesis in an effort to probe the mechanisms that drive the regulation of glycan diversity. During differentiation from mouse ES cells to either EBs or ExE cells, general trends were detected. The predominance of high mannose N-glycans in ES cells shifted to an equal abundance of complex and high mannose structures, increased sialylation, and increased α-Gal termination in the differentiated cell populations. Whereas core 1 O-glycan structures predominated in all three cell populations, increased sialylation and increased core diversity characterized the O-glycans of both differentiated cell types. Increased polysialylation was also found in both differentiated cell types. Differences between the two differentiated cell types included greater sialylation of N-glycans in EBs, whereas α-Gal-capped structures were more prevalent in ExE cells. Changes in glycan structures generally, but not uniformly, correlated with alterations in transcript abundance for the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes, suggesting that transcriptional regulation contributes significantly to the regulation of glycan expression. Knowledge of glycan structural diversity and transcript regulation should provide greater understanding of the roles of protein glycosylation in vertebrate development. PMID:22988249

  11. Production of active human glucocerebrosidase in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana complex-glycan-deficient (cgl) plants

    PubMed Central

    He, Xu; Galpin, Jason D; Tropak, Michael B; Mahuran, Don; Haselhorst, Thomas; von Itzstein, Mark; Kolarich, Daniel; Packer, Nicolle H; Miao, Yansong; Jiang, Liwen; Grabowski, Gregory A; Clarke, Lorne A; Kermode, Allison R

    2012-01-01

    There is a clear need for efficient methods to produce protein therapeutics requiring mannose-termination for therapeutic efficacy. Here we report on a unique system for production of active human lysosomal acid β-glucosidase (glucocerebrosidase, GCase, EC 3.2.1.45) using seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana complex-glycan-deficient (cgl) mutant, which are deficient in the activity of N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase I (EC 2.4.1.101). Gaucher disease is a prevalent lysosomal storage disease in which affected individuals inherit mutations in the gene (GBA1) encoding GCase. A gene cassette optimized for seed expression was used to generate the human enzyme in seeds of the cgl (C5) mutant, and the recombinant GCase was mainly accumulated in the apoplast. Importantly, the enzymatic properties including kinetic parameters, half-maximal inhibitory concentration of isofagomine and thermal stability of the cgl-derived GCase were comparable with those of imiglucerase, a commercially available recombinant human GCase used for enzyme replacement therapy in Gaucher patients. N-glycan structural analyses of recombinant cgl-GCase showed that the majority of the N-glycans (97%) were mannose terminated. Additional purification was required to remove ~15% of the plant-derived recombinant GCase that possessed potentially immunogenic (xylose-and/or fucose-containing) N-glycans. Uptake of cgl-derived GCase by mouse macrophages was similar to that of imiglucerase. The cgl seed system requires no addition of foreign (non-native) amino acids to the mature recombinant GCase protein, and the dry transgenic seeds represent a stable repository of the therapeutic protein. Other strategies that may completely prevent plant-like complex N-glycans are discussed, including the use of a null cgl mutant. PMID:22061999

  12. Chemical Probing of Glycans in Cells and Organisms†

    PubMed Central

    Rouhanifard, Sara H.; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik; Zheng, Tianqing; Wu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Among the four major building blocks of life, glycans play essential roles in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Due to their non-templated biosynthesis, advances towards elucidating the molecular details of glycan functions are relatively slow compared with the pace of protein and nucleic acid research. Over the past 30 years, chemical tools have emerged as powerful allies to genetics and molecular biology in the study of glycans in their native environment. This tutorial review will provide an overview of the recent technological developments in the field, as well as the progress in the application of these techniques to probe glycans in cells and organisms. PMID:23257905

  13. Filter-Aided N-Glycan Separation (FANGS): A Convenient Sample Preparation Method for Mass Spectrometric N-Glycan Profiling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a simple method for the release and isolation of glycoprotein N-glycans from whole-cell lysates using less than a million cells, for subsequent implementation with mass spectrometric analysis. Cellular protein extracts prepared using SDS solubilization were sequentially treated in a membrane filter device to ultimately release glycans enzymatically using PNGase F in the volatile buffer ammonium bicarbonate. The released glycans are recovered in the filtrate following centrifugation and typically permethylated prior to mass spectrometric analysis. We call our method “filter-aided N-glycan separation” and have successfully applied it to investigate N-glycan profiles of wild-type and mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells. This method is readily multiplexed and, because of the small numbers of cells needed, is compatible with the analysis of replicate samples to assess the true nature of glycan variability in tissue culture samples. PMID:24450425

  14. Lectin-Glycan Interaction Network-Based Identification of Host Receptors of Microbial Pathogenic Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Ielasi, Francesco S.; Alioscha-Perez, Mitchel; Donohue, Dagmara; Claes, Sandra; Sahli, Hichem; Schols, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The first step in the infection of humans by microbial pathogens is their adherence to host tissue cells, which is frequently based on the binding of carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectin-like adhesins) to human cell receptors that expose glycans. In only a few cases have the human receptors of pathogenic adhesins been described. A novel strategy—based on the construction of a lectin-glycan interaction (LGI) network—to identify the potential human binding receptors for pathogenic adhesins with lectin activity was developed. The new approach is based on linking glycan array screening results of these adhesins to a human glycoprotein database via the construction of an LGI network. This strategy was used to detect human receptors for virulent Escherichia coli (FimH adhesin), and the fungal pathogens Candida albicans (Als1p and Als3p adhesins) and C. glabrata (Epa1, Epa6, and Epa7 adhesins), which cause candidiasis. This LGI network strategy allows the profiling of potential adhesin binding receptors in the host with prioritization, based on experimental binding data, of the most relevant interactions. New potential targets for the selected adhesins were predicted and experimentally confirmed. This methodology was also used to predict lectin interactions with envelope glycoproteins of human-pathogenic viruses. It was shown that this strategy was successful in revealing that the FimH adhesin has anti-HIV activity. PMID:27406561

  15. Transduction of Glycan-Lectin Binding using Near Infrared Fluorescent Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Glycan Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuel, Nigel; Ahn, Jin-Ho; Kim, Jong-Ho; Zhang, Jingqing; Boghossian, Ardemis; Mahal, Lara; Strano, Michael

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a sensor array employing recombinant lectins as glycan recognition sites tethered via Histidine tags to Ni2+ complexes that act as fluorescent quenchers for semi-conducting single walled carbon nanotubes embedded in a chitosan to measure binding kinetics of model glycans. Two higher-affined glycan-lectin pairs are explored: fucose (Fuc) to PA-IIL and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to GafD. The dissociation constants (KD) for these pairs as free glycans (106 and 19 μM respectively) and streptavidin-tethered (142 and 50 μM respectively) were found. The absolute detection limit for the current platform was found to be 2 μg of glycosylated protein or 100 ng of free glycan to 20 μg of lectin. Glycan detection is demonstrated at the single nanotube level (GlcNAc to GafD). Over a population of 1000 nanotubes, 289 of the SWNT sensors had signals strong enough to yield kinetic information (KD of 250 ± 10 μM). We are also able to identify the locations of ``strong-transducers'' on the basis of dissociation constant (4 sensors with KD < 10 μM) or overall signal modulation (8 sensors with > 5% quench response). The ability to pinpoint strong-binding, single sensors is promising to build a nanoarray of glycan-lectin transducers as a method to profile glycans without protein labeling or glycan liberation pretreatment steps.

  16. Exploring site-specific N-glycosylation microheterogeneity of haptoglobin using glycopeptide CID tandem mass spectra and glycan database search.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Kevin Brown; Pompach, Petr; Goldman, Radoslav; Edwards, Nathan

    2013-08-01

    Glycosylation is a common protein modification with a significant role in many vital cellular processes and human diseases, making the characterization of protein-attached glycan structures important for understanding cell biology and disease processes. Direct analysis of protein N-glycosylation by tandem mass spectrometry of glycopeptides promises site-specific elucidation of N-glycan microheterogeneity, something that detached N-glycan and deglycosylated peptide analyses cannot provide. However, successful implementation of direct N-glycopeptide analysis by tandem mass spectrometry remains a challenge. In this work, we consider algorithmic techniques for the analysis of LC-MS/MS data acquired from glycopeptide-enriched fractions of enzymatic digests of purified proteins. We implement a computational strategy that takes advantage of the properties of CID fragmentation spectra of N-glycopeptides, matching the MS/MS spectra to peptide-glycan pairs from protein sequences and glycan structure databases. Significantly, we also propose a novel false discovery rate estimation technique to estimate and manage the number of false identifications. We use a human glycoprotein standard, haptoglobin, digested with trypsin and GluC, enriched for glycopeptides using HILIC chromatography, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS to demonstrate our algorithmic strategy and evaluate its performance. Our software, GlycoPeptideSearch (GPS), assigned glycopeptide identifications to 246 of the spectra at a false discovery rate of 5.58%, identifying 42 distinct haptoglobin peptide-glycan pairs at each of the four haptoglobin N-linked glycosylation sites. We further demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by analyzing plasma-derived haptoglobin, identifying 136 N-linked glycopeptide spectra at a false discovery rate of 0.4%, representing 15 distinct glycopeptides on at least three of the four N-linked glycosylation sites. The software, GlycoPeptideSearch, is available for download from http

  17. Exploring Site-Specific N-Glycosylation Microheterogeneity of Haptoglobin using Glycopeptide CID Tandem Mass Spectra and Glycan Database Search

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Kevin Brown; Pompach, Petr; Goldman, Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation is a common protein modification with a significant role in many vital cellular processes and human diseases, making the characterization of protein-attached glycan structures important for understanding cell biology and disease processes. Direct analysis of protein N-glycosylation by tandem mass spectrometry of glycopeptides promises site-specific elucidation of N-glycan microheterogeneity, something which detached N-glycan and de-glycosylated peptide analyses cannot provide. However, successful implementation of direct N-glycopeptide analysis by tandem mass spectrometry remains a challenge. In this work, we consider algorithmic techniques for the analysis of LC-MS/MS data acquired from glycopeptide-enriched fractions of enzymatic digests of purified proteins. We implement a computational strategy which takes advantage of the properties of CID fragmentation spectra of N-glycopeptides, matching the MS/MS spectra to peptide-glycan pairs from protein sequences and glycan structure databases. Significantly, we also propose a novel false-discovery-rate estimation technique to estimate and manage the number of false identifications. We use a human glycoprotein standard, haptoglobin, digested with trypsin and GluC, enriched for glycopeptides using HILIC chromatography, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS to demonstrate our algorithmic strategy and evaluate its performance. Our software, GlycoPeptideSearch (GPS), assigned glycopeptide identifications to 246 of the spectra at false-discovery-rate 5.58%, identifying 42 distinct haptoglobin peptide-glycan pairs at each of the four haptoglobin N-linked glycosylation sites. We further demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by analyzing plasma-derived haptoglobin, identifying 136 N-linked glycopeptide spectra at false-discovery-rate 0.4%, representing 15 distinct glycopeptides on at least three of the four N-linked glycosylation sites. The software, GlycoPeptideSearch, is available for download from http

  18. Raman-based microarray readout: a review.

    PubMed

    Haisch, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    For a quarter of a century, microarrays have been part of the routine analytical toolbox. Label-based fluorescence detection is still the commonest optical readout strategy. Since the 1990s, a continuously increasing number of label-based as well as label-free experiments on Raman-based microarray readout concepts have been reported. This review summarizes the possible concepts and methods and their advantages and challenges. A common label-based strategy is based on the binding of selective receptors as well as Raman reporter molecules to plasmonic nanoparticles in a sandwich immunoassay, which results in surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals of the reporter molecule. Alternatively, capture of the analytes can be performed by receptors on a microarray surface. Addition of plasmonic nanoparticles again leads to a surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal, not of a label but directly of the analyte. This approach is mostly proposed for bacteria and cell detection. However, although many promising readout strategies have been discussed in numerous publications, rarely have any of them made the step from proof of concept to a practical application, let alone routine use. Graphical Abstract Possible realization of a SERS (Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering) system for microarray readout. PMID:26973235

  19. Glycan Sulfation Modulates Dendritic Cell Biology and Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    El Ghazal, Roland; Yin, Xin; Johns, Scott C; Swanson, Lee; Macal, Monica; Ghosh, Pradipta; Zuniga, Elina I; Fuster, Mark M

    2016-05-01

    In cancer, proteoglycans have been found to play roles in facilitating the actions of growth factors, and effecting matrix invasion and remodeling. However, little is known regarding the genetic and functional importance of glycan chains displayed by proteoglycans on dendritic cells (DCs) in cancer immunity. In lung carcinoma, among other solid tumors, tumor-associated DCs play largely subversive/suppressive roles, promoting tumor growth and progression. Herein, we show that targeting of DC glycan sulfation through mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1) in mice increased DC maturation and inhibited trafficking of DCs to draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic-driven DC migration and chemokine (CCL21)-dependent activation of a major signaling pathway required for DC migration (as measured by phospho-Akt) were sensitive to Ndst1 mutation in DCs. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice deficient in Ndst1 were reduced in size. Purified CD11c+ cells from the tumors, which contain the tumor-infiltrating DC population, showed a similar phenotype in mutant cells. These features were replicated in mice deficient in syndecan-4, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the DC surface: Tumors were growth-impaired in syndecan-4-deficient mice and were characterized by increased infiltration by mature DCs. Tumors on the mutant background also showed greater infiltration by NK cells and NKT cells. These findings indicate the genetic importance of DC heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor growth and may guide therapeutic development of novel strategies to target syndecan-4 and heparan sulfate in cancer. PMID:27237321

  20. Enhanced immune recognition of cryptic glycan markers in human tumours

    PubMed Central

    Newsom-Davis, Thomas E; Wang, Denong; Steinman, Lawrence; Chen, Paul F-T; Wang, Lai-Xi; Simon, A Katharina; Screaton, Gavin R

    2009-01-01

    Abnormal glycosylation is one of the hallmarks of the cancer cell and is associated with tumour invasion and metastasis. The development of tumour associated carbohydrate antigen (TACA) vaccines has been problematic due to poor immunogenicity. However when appropriate targets can be identified, passive immunisation with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against TACAs have been shown to have anti-tumour activity. Fas ligand (FasL) is a transmembrane protein which induces apoptosis in cells expressing its receptor, Fas. When grafted into mice, FasL-expressing tumour cells break immunological tolerance to self-antigens and induce antibody mediated tumour immunity. Here, five IgM mAbs were produced from mice vaccinated with FasL-expressing B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. They recognise various syngeneic and allogeneic murine tumour cell lines. One mAb, TM10, recognises a range of human tumour cell lines including melanoma, prostate and ovarian cancer. It does not bind to untransformed cells. The epitopes recognised by all the mAbs were carbohydrates expressed on proteins. Using carbohydrate microarrays, the antigenic targets of TM10 were found to be high-mannose core structures of N-linked glycans. In normal cells high mannose clusters are hidden by extensive saccharide branching but they become exposed in cancer cells as a result of abnormal glycosylation pathways. Vaccination with FasL-expressing tumours therefore enables the immune system to break tolerance to self-antigens, allowing identification of novel TACAs that can form the basis of future humoral anti-cancer therapy. PMID:19223535

  1. Advances in lectin microarray technology: Optimized protocols for piezoelectric print conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pilobello, Kanoelani T.; Agrawal, Praveen; Rouse, Richard; Mahal, Lara K.

    2015-01-01

    Lectin microarray technology has been used to profile the glycosylation of a multitude of biological and clinical samples, leading to new clinical biomarkers and advances in glycobiology. Lectin microarrays, which include over 90 plant lectins, recombinant lectins, and selected antibodies, are used to profile N-linked, O-linked, and glycolipid glycans. The specificity and depth of glycan profiling depends upon the carbohydrate-binding proteins arrayed. Our current set targets mammalian carbohydrates including fucose, high mannose, branched and complex N-linked, α- and β- Galactose and GalNAc, α-2,3- and α-2,6- sialic acid, LacNAc and Lewis X epitopes. In previous protocols, we have described the use of a contact microarray printer for lectin microarray manufacture. Herein, we present an updated protocol using a non-contact, piezoelectric printer, which leads to increased lectin activity on the array. We describe optimization of print conditions and sample hybridization, and methods of analysis. PMID:23788322

  2. Conserved Role of an N-Linked Glycan on the Surface Antigen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Modulating Virus Sensitivity to Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies against the Receptor and Coreceptor Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Townsley, Samantha; Li, Yun; Kozyrev, Yury; Cleveland, Brad

    2015-01-01

    unique and conserved role among conserved glycans on HIV-1 gp120 in modulating the exposure or the stability of the receptor and coreceptor binding site without affecting the integrity of the Env in mediating viral infection or the ability of the mutant gp120 to bind to CD4. The observation that the antigenicity of the receptor and coreceptor binding sites can be modulated by a single glycan indicates that select glycan modification offers a potential strategy for the design of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. PMID:26512079

  3. Nanotechnologies in protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Krizkova, Sona; Heger, Zbynek; Zalewska, Marta; Moulick, Amitava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology became an important research tool for study and detection of proteins, protein-protein interactions and a number of other applications. The utilization of nanoparticle-based materials and nanotechnology-based techniques for immobilization allows us not only to extend the surface for biomolecule immobilization resulting in enhanced substrate binding properties, decreased background signals and enhanced reporter systems for more sensitive assays. Generally in contemporarily developed microarray systems, multiple nanotechnology-based techniques are combined. In this review, applications of nanoparticles and nanotechnologies in creating protein microarrays, proteins immobilization and detection are summarized. We anticipate that advanced nanotechnologies can be exploited to expand promising fields of proteins identification, monitoring of protein-protein or drug-protein interactions, or proteins structures. PMID:26039143

  4. Multivalent display of minimal Clostridium difficile glycan epitopes mimics antigenic properties of larger glycans

    PubMed Central

    Broecker, Felix; Hanske, Jonas; Martin, Christopher E.; Baek, Ju Yuel; Wahlbrink, Annette; Wojcik, Felix; Hartmann, Laura; Rademacher, Christoph; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic cell-surface glycans are promising vaccine candidates against Clostridium difficile. The complexity of large, highly antigenic and immunogenic glycans is a synthetic challenge. Less complex antigens providing similar immune responses are desirable for vaccine development. Based on molecular-level glycan–antibody interaction analyses, we here demonstrate that the C. difficile surface polysaccharide-I (PS-I) can be resembled by multivalent display of minimal disaccharide epitopes on a synthetic scaffold that does not participate in binding. We show that antibody avidity as a measure of antigenicity increases by about five orders of magnitude when disaccharides are compared with constructs containing five disaccharides. The synthetic, pentavalent vaccine candidate containing a peptide T-cell epitope elicits weak but highly specific antibody responses to larger PS-I glycans in mice. This study highlights the potential of multivalently displaying small oligosaccharides to achieve antigenicity characteristic of larger glycans. The approach may result in more cost-efficient carbohydrate vaccines with reduced synthetic effort. PMID:27091615

  5. Predominant Expression of Hybrid N-Glycans Has Distinct Cellular Roles Relative to Complex and Oligomannose N-Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Hall, M. Kristen; Weidner, Douglas A.; Zhu, Yong; Dayal, Sahil; Whitman, Austin A.; Schwalbe, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation modulates growth, maintenance, and stress signaling processes. Consequently, altered N-glycosylation is associated with reduced fitness and disease. Therefore, expanding our understanding of N-glycans in altering biological processes is of utmost interest. Herein, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/caspase9 (CRISPR/Cas9) technology was employed to engineer a glycosylation mutant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line, K16, which expresses predominantly hybrid type N-glycans. This newly engineered cell line enabled us to compare N-glycan effects on cellular properties of hybrid type N-glycans, to the well-established Pro−5 and Lec1 cell lines, which express complex and oligomannose types of N-glycans, respectively. Lectin binding studies revealed the predominant N-glycan expressed in K16 is hybrid type. Cell dissociation and migration assays demonstrated the greatest strength of cell–cell adhesion and fastest migratory rates for oligomannose N-glycans, and these properties decreased as oligomannose type were converted to hybrid type, and further decreased upon conversion to complex type. Next, we examined the roles of three general types of N-glycans on ectopic expression of E-cadherin, a cell–cell adhesion protein. Microscopy revealed more functional E-cadherin at the cell–cell border when N-glycans were oligomannose and these levels decreased as the oligomannose N-glycans were processed to hybrid and then to complex. Thus, we provide evidence that all three general types of N-glycans impact plasma membrane architecture and cellular properties. PMID:27304954

  6. Predominant Expression of Hybrid N-Glycans Has Distinct Cellular Roles Relative to Complex and Oligomannose N-Glycans.

    PubMed

    Hall, M Kristen; Weidner, Douglas A; Zhu, Yong; Dayal, Sahil; Whitman, Austin A; Schwalbe, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation modulates growth, maintenance, and stress signaling processes. Consequently, altered N-glycosylation is associated with reduced fitness and disease. Therefore, expanding our understanding of N-glycans in altering biological processes is of utmost interest. Herein, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/caspase9 (CRISPR/Cas9) technology was employed to engineer a glycosylation mutant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line, K16, which expresses predominantly hybrid type N-glycans. This newly engineered cell line enabled us to compare N-glycan effects on cellular properties of hybrid type N-glycans, to the well-established Pro(-)5 and Lec1 cell lines, which express complex and oligomannose types of N-glycans, respectively. Lectin binding studies revealed the predominant N-glycan expressed in K16 is hybrid type. Cell dissociation and migration assays demonstrated the greatest strength of cell-cell adhesion and fastest migratory rates for oligomannose N-glycans, and these properties decreased as oligomannose type were converted to hybrid type, and further decreased upon conversion to complex type. Next, we examined the roles of three general types of N-glycans on ectopic expression of E-cadherin, a cell-cell adhesion protein. Microscopy revealed more functional E-cadherin at the cell-cell border when N-glycans were oligomannose and these levels decreased as the oligomannose N-glycans were processed to hybrid and then to complex. Thus, we provide evidence that all three general types of N-glycans impact plasma membrane architecture and cellular properties. PMID:27304954

  7. Comprehensive N-Glycan Profiling of Avian Immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Gilgunn, Sarah; Millán Martín, Silvia; Wormald, Mark R; Zapatero-Rodríguez, Julia; Conroy, Paul J; O'Kennedy, Richard J; Rudd, Pauline M; Saldova, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has highlighted its suitability for the generation of high-quality, high-affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. The glycosylation profile of potential immunoglobulin therapeutics is species specific and is heavily influenced by the cell-line/culture conditions used for production. Hence, knowledge of the carbohydrate moieties present on immunoglobulins is essential as certain glycan structures can adversely impact their physicochemical and biological properties. This study describes the detailed N-glycan profile of IgY polyclonal antibodies from the serum of leghorn chickens using a fully quantitative high-throughput N-glycan analysis approach, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation of released glycans. Structural assignments revealed serum IgY to contain complex bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with or without core fucose and bisects, hybrid and high mannose glycans. High sialic acid content was also observed, with the presence of rare sialic acid structures, likely polysialic acids. It is concluded that IgY is heavily decorated with complex glycans; however, no known non-human or immunogenic glycans were identified. Thus, IgY is a potentially promising candidate for immunoglobulin-based therapies for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:27459092

  8. Protein-Linked Glycan Degradation in Infants Fed Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; Sela, David; Underwood, Mark A.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito

    2014-01-01

    Many human milk proteins are glycosylated. Glycosylation is important in protecting bioactive proteins and peptide fragments from digestion. Protein-linked glycans have a variety of functions; however, there is a paucity of information on protein-linked glycan degradation in either the infant or the adult digestive system. Human digestive enzymes can break down dietary disaccharides and starches, but most of the digestive enzymes required for complex protein-linked glycan degradation are absent from both human digestive secretions and the external brush border membrane of the intestinal lining. Indeed, complex carbohydrates remain intact throughout their transit through the stomach and small intestine, and are undegraded by in vitro incubation with either adult pancreatic secretions or intact intestinal brush border membranes. Human gastrointestinal bacteria, however, produce a wide variety of glycosidases with regio- and anomeric specificities matching those of protein-linked glycan structures. These bacteria degrade a wide array of complex carbohydrates including various protein-linked glycans. That bacteria possess glycan degradation capabilities, whereas the human digestive system, perse, does not, suggests that most dietary protein-linked glycan breakdown will be of bacterial origin. In addition to providing a food source for specific bacteria in the colon, protein-linked glycans from human milk may act as decoys for pathogenic bacteria to prevent invasion and infection of the host. The composition of the intestinal microbiome may be particularly important in the most vulnerable humans-the elderly, the immunocompromised, and infants (particularly premature infants). PMID:24533224

  9. Comprehensive N-Glycan Profiling of Avian Immunoglobulin Y

    PubMed Central

    Millán Martín, Silvia; Wormald, Mark R.; Zapatero-Rodríguez, Julia; Conroy, Paul J.; O’Kennedy, Richard J.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Saldova, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has highlighted its suitability for the generation of high-quality, high-affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. The glycosylation profile of potential immunoglobulin therapeutics is species specific and is heavily influenced by the cell-line/culture conditions used for production. Hence, knowledge of the carbohydrate moieties present on immunoglobulins is essential as certain glycan structures can adversely impact their physicochemical and biological properties. This study describes the detailed N-glycan profile of IgY polyclonal antibodies from the serum of leghorn chickens using a fully quantitative high-throughput N-glycan analysis approach, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation of released glycans. Structural assignments revealed serum IgY to contain complex bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with or without core fucose and bisects, hybrid and high mannose glycans. High sialic acid content was also observed, with the presence of rare sialic acid structures, likely polysialic acids. It is concluded that IgY is heavily decorated with complex glycans; however, no known non-human or immunogenic glycans were identified. Thus, IgY is a potentially promising candidate for immunoglobulin-based therapies for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:27459092

  10. Antigenic glycans in parasitic infections: implications for vaccines and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Nyame, A Kwame; Kawar, Ziad S; Cummings, Richard D

    2004-06-15

    Infections by parasitic protozoans and helminths are a major world-wide health concern, but no vaccines exist to the major human parasitic diseases, such as malaria, African trypanosomiasis, amebiasis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, and lymphatic filariasis. Recent studies on a number of parasites indicate that immune responses to parasites in infected animals and humans are directed to glycan determinants within cell surface and secreted glycoconjugates and that glycoconjugates are important in host-parasite interactions. Because of the tremendous success achieved recently in generating carbohydrate-protein conjugate vaccines toward microbial infections, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b, there is renewed interest in defining parasite-derived glycans in the prospect of developing conjugate vaccines and new diagnostics for parasitic infections. Parasite-derived glycans are compelling vaccine targets because they have structural features that distinguish them from mammalian glycans. There have been exciting new developments in techniques for glycan analysis and the methods for synthesizing oligosaccharides by chemical or combined chemo-enzymatic approaches that now make it feasible to generate parasite glycans to test as vaccine candidates. Here, we highlight recent progress made in elucidating the immunogenicity of glycans from some of the major human and animal parasites, the potential for developing conjugate vaccines for parasitic infections, and the possible utilization of these novel glycans in diagnostics. PMID:15158669

  11. Targeting N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties for broad-spectrum virus neutralization: progress in identifying conserved molecular targets in viruses of distinct phylogenetic origins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Denong; Tang, Jin; Tang, Jiulai; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Identifying molecular targets for eliciting broadly virus-neutralizing antibodies is one of the key steps toward development of vaccines against emerging viral pathogens. Owing to genomic and somatic diversities among viral species, identifying protein targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization is highly challenging even for the same virus, such as HIV-1. However, viruses rely on host glycosylation machineries to synthesize and express glycans and, thereby, may display common carbohydrate moieties. Thus, exploring glycan-binding profiles of broad-spectrum virus-neutralizing agents may provide key information to uncover the carbohydrate-based virus-neutralizing epitopes. In this study, we characterized two broadly HIV-neutralizing agents, human monoclonal antibody 2G12 and Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNA), for their viral targeting activities. Although these agents were known to be specific for oligomannosyl antigens, they differ strikingly in virus-binding activities. The former is HIV-1 specific; the latter is broadly reactive and is able to neutralize viruses of distinct phylogenetic origins, such as HIV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In carbohydrate microarray analyses, we explored the molecular basis underlying the striking differences in the spectrum of anti-virus activities of the two probes. Unlike 2G12, which is strictly specific for the high-density Man9GlcNAc2Asn (Man9)-clusters, GNA recognizes a number of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties. These include not only the known oligomannosyl antigens but also previously unrecognized tri-antennary or multi-valent GlcNAc-terminating N-glycan epitopes (Tri/m-Gn). These findings highlight the potential of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties as conserved targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization and suggest the GNA-model of glycan-binding warrants focused investigation. PMID:25774492

  12. Harnessing glycomics technologies: integrating structure with function for glycan characterization

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Luke N.; Artpradit, Charlermchai; Raman, Rahul; Shriver, Zachary H.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2013-01-01

    Glycans, or complex carbohydrates, are a ubiquitous class of biological molecules which impinge on a variety of physiological processes ranging from signal transduction to tissue development and microbial pathogenesis. In comparison to DNA and proteins, glycans present unique challenges to the study of their structure and function owing to their complex and heterogeneous structures and the dominant role played by multivalency in their sequence-specific biological interactions. Arising from these challenges, there is a need to integrate information from multiple complementary methods to decode structure-function relationships. Focusing on acidic glycans, we describe here key glycomics technologies for characterizing their structural attributes, including linkage, modifications, and topology, as well as for elucidating their role in biological processes. Two cases studies, one involving sialylated branched glycans and the other sulfated glycosaminoglycans, are used to highlight how integration of orthogonal information from diverse datasets enables rapid convergence of glycan characterization for development of robust structure-function relationships. PMID:22522536

  13. O-Glycan analysis of cellobiohydrolase I from Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shu-Lun; Bubner, Patricia; Bauer, Stefan; Somerville, Chris R

    2016-06-01

    We describe here the composition of the O-linked glycans on the Neurospora crassa cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI), which accounts for approximately 40% of the protein secreted by cells growing in the presence of cellulose. CBHI is O-glycosylated with six types of linear, and three types of branched, O-glycans containing approximately equal amounts of mannose and galactose. In addition to the classic fungal O-glycans with reducing end mannoses, we also identified reducing end galactoses which suggest the existence of a protein-O-galactosyltransferase in N. crassa Because of the excellent genetic resources available for N. crassa, the knowledge of the CBHI O-glycans may enable the future evaluation of the role of O-glycosylation on cellulase function and the development of directed O-glycan/cellulase engineering. PMID:26762173

  14. Microarrays for Undergraduate Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dale; Nguyen, Lisa L.; Denyer, Gareth S.; Johnston, Jill M.

    2006-01-01

    A microarray experiment is presented that, in six laboratory sessions, takes undergraduate students from the tissue sample right through to data analysis. The model chosen, the murine erythroleukemia cell line, can be easily cultured in sufficient quantities for class use. Large changes in gene expression can be induced in these cells by…

  15. Loss of intestinal O-glycans promotes spontaneous duodenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Nan; Bergstrom, Kirk; Fu, Jianxin; Xie, Biao; Chen, Weichang; Xia, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    Mucin-type O-glycans, primarily core 1- and core 3-derived O-glycans, are the major mucus barrier components throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Previous reports identified the biological role of O-glycans in the stomach and colon. However, the biological function of O-glycans in the small intestine remains unknown. Using mice lacking intestinal core 1- and core 3-derived O-glycans [intestinal epithelial cell C1galt1(-/-);C3GnT(-/-) or double knockout (DKO)], we found that loss of O-glycans predisposes DKO mice to spontaneous duodenal tumorigenesis by ∼1 yr of age. Tumor incidence did not increase with age; however, tumors advanced in aggressiveness by 20 mo. O-glycan deficiency was associated with reduced luminal mucus in DKO mice before tumor development. Altered intestinal epithelial homeostasis with enhanced baseline crypt proliferation characterizes these phenotypes as assayed by Ki67 staining. In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis reveals a significantly lower bacterial burden in the duodenum compared with the large intestine. This phenotype is not reduced with antibiotic treatment, implying O-glycosylation defects, rather than bacterial-induced inflammation, which causes spontaneous duodenal tumorigenesis. Moreover, inflammatory responses in DKO duodenal mucosa are mild as assayed with histology, quantitative PCR for inflammation-associated cytokines, and immunostaining for immune cells. Importantly, inducible deletion of intestinal O-glycans in adult mice leads to analogous spontaneous duodenal tumors, although with higher incidence and heightened severity compared with mice with O-glycans constitutive deletion. In conclusion, these studies reveal O-glycans within the small intestine are critical determinants of duodenal cancer risk. Future studies will provide insights into the pathogenesis in the general population and those at risk for this rare but deadly cancer. PMID:27229122

  16. Highly specific purification of N-glycans using phosphate-based derivatization as an affinity tag in combination with Ti(4+)-SPE enrichment for mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Peng, Ye; Bin, Zhichao; Wang, Huijie; Lu, Haojie

    2016-08-31

    N-linked protein glycosylation is involved in regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes and associated with numerous diseases. Highly specific identification of N-glycome remains a challenge while its biological significance is acknowledged. The relatively low abundance of glycan in complex biological mixtures, lack of basic sites for protonation, and suppression by other highly abundant proteins/peptides lead to the particularly poor detection sensitivity of N-glycans in the MS analysis. Therefore, the highly specific purification procedure becomes a crucial step prior to MS analysis of the N-glycome. Herein, a novel N-glycans enrichment approach based on phosphate derivatization combined with Ti(4+)-SPE (solid phase extraction) was developed. Briefly, in this strategy, N-glycans were chemically labeled with a phospho-group at their reducing ends, such that the Ti(4+)-SPE microspheres were able to capture the phospho-containing glycans. The enrichment method was developed and optimized using model oligosaccharides (maltoheptaose DP7 and sialylated glycan A1) and also glycans from a standard glycoprotein (asialofetuin, ASF). This method experimentally showed high derivatization efficiency (almost 100%), excellent selectivity (analyzing DP7 in the digests of bovine serum albumin at a mass ratio of 1:100), high enriching recovery (90%), good reproducibility (CV<15%) as well as high sensitivity (LOD at fmol level). At last, the proposed method was successfully applied in the profiling of N-glycome in human serum, in which a total of 31 N-glycan masses were identified. PMID:27506354

  17. Concurrent automated sequencing of the glycan and peptide portions of O-linked glycopeptide anions by ultraviolet photodissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Madsen, James A; Ko, Byoung Joon; Xu, Hua; Iwashkiw, Jeremy A; Robotham, Scott A; Shaw, Jared B; Feldman, Mario F; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2013-10-01

    O-Glycopeptides are often acidic owing to the frequent occurrence of acidic saccharides in the glycan, rendering traditional proteomic workflows that rely on positive mode tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) less effective. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of negative mode ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) MS for the characterization of acidic O-linked glycopeptide anions. This method was evaluated for a series of singly and multiply deprotonated glycopeptides from the model glycoprotein kappa casein, resulting in production of both peptide and glycan product ions that afforded 100% sequence coverage of the peptide and glycan moieties from a single MS/MS event. The most abundant and frequent peptide sequence ions were a/x-type products which, importantly, were found to retain the labile glycan modifications. The glycan-specific ions mainly arose from glycosidic bond cleavages (B, Y, C, and Z ions) in addition to some less common cross-ring cleavages. On the basis of the UVPD fragmentation patterns, an automated database searching strategy (based on the MassMatrix algorithm) was designed that is specific for the analysis of glycopeptide anions by UVPD. This algorithm was used to identify glycopeptides from mixtures of glycosylated and nonglycosylated peptides, sequence both glycan and peptide moieties simultaneously, and pinpoint the correct site(s) of glycosylation. This methodology was applied to uncover novel site-specificity of the O-linked glycosylated OmpA/MotB from the "superbug" A. baumannii to help aid in the elucidation of the functional role that protein glycosylation plays in pathogenesis. PMID:24006841

  18. Glycan characterization of biopharmaceuticals: Updates and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Planinc, Ana; Bones, Jonathan; Dejaegher, Bieke; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Delporte, Cédric

    2016-05-19

    Therapeutic proteins are rapidly becoming the most promising class of pharmaceuticals on the market due to their successful treatment of a vast array of serious diseases, such as cancers and immune disorders. Therapeutic proteins are produced using recombinant DNA technology. More than 60% of therapeutic proteins are posttranslationally modified following biosynthesis by the addition of N- or O-linked glycans. Glycosylation is the most common posttranslational modifications of proteins. However, it is also the most demanding and complex posttranslational modification from the analytical point of view. Moreover, research has shown that glycosylation significantly impacts stability, half-life, mechanism of action and safety of a therapeutic protein. Considering the exponential growth of biotherapeutics, this present review of the literature (2009-2015) focuses on the characterization of protein glycosylation, which has witnessed an improvement in methodology. Furthermore, it discusses current issues in the fields of production and characterization of therapeutic proteins. This review also highlights the problem of non-standard requirements for the approval of biosimilars with regard to their glycosylation and discusses recent developments and perspectives for improved glycan characterization. PMID:27126786

  19. Structural Analysis of N- and O-glycans Using ZIC-HILIC/Dialysis Coupled to NMR Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Yi; Feng, Ju; Deng, Shuang; Cao, Li; Zhang, Qibin; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Zhaorui; Jiang, Yuxuan; Zink, Erika M.; Baker, Scott E.; Lipton, Mary S.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Hu, Jian Z.; Wu, Si

    2014-11-19

    Protein glycosylation, an important and complex post-translational modification (PTM), is involved in various biological processes including the receptor-ligand and cell-cell interaction, and plays a crucial role in many biological functions. However, little is known about the glycan structures of important biological complex samples, and the conventional glycan enrichment strategy (i.e., size-exclusion column [SEC] separation,) prior to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detection is time-consuming and tedious. In this study, we employed SEC, Zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (ZIC-HILIC), and ZIC-HILIC coupled with dialysis strategies to enrich the glycopeptides from the pronase E digests of RNase B, followed by NMR analysis of the glycoconjugate. Our results suggest that the ZIC-HILIC enrichment coupled with dialysis is the most efficient, which was thus applied to the analysis of biological complex sample, the pronase E digest of the secreted proteins from the fungi Aspergillus niger. The NMR spectra revealed that the secreted proteins from A. niger contain both N-linked glycans with a high-mannose core and O-linked glycans bearing mannose and glucose with 1->3 and 1->6 linkages. In all, our study provides compelling evidence that ZIC-HILIC separation coupled to dialysis is superior to the commonly used SEC separation to prepare glycopeptides for the downstream NMR analysis, which could greatly facilitate the future NMR-based glycoproteomics research.

  20. Immunization with recombinantly expressed glycan antigens from Schistosoma mansoni induces glycan-specific antibodies against the parasite

    PubMed Central

    Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Luyai, Anthony E; Song, Xuezheng; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Mandalasi, Msano; Mickum, Megan; Smith, David F; Nyame, A Kwame; Cummings, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis caused by infection with parasitic helminths of Schistosoma spp. is a major global health problem due to inadequate treatment and lack of a vaccine. The immune response to schistosomes includes glycan antigens, which could be valuable diagnostic markers and vaccine targets. However, no precedent exists for how to design vaccines targeting eukaryotic glycoconjugates. The di- and tri-saccharide motifs LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1,4GlcNAc; LDN) and fucosylated LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1,4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc; LDNF) are the basis for several important schistosome glycan antigens. They occur in monomeric form or as repeating units (poly-LDNF) and as part of a variety of different glycoconjugates. Because chemical synthesis and conjugation of such antigens is exceedingly difficult, we sought to develop a recombinant expression system for parasite glycans. We hypothesized that presentation of parasite glycans on the cell surface would induce glycan-specific antibodies. We generated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) Lec8 cell lines expressing poly-LDN (L8-GT) and poly-LDNF (L8-GTFT) abundantly on their membrane glycoproteins. Sera from Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice were highly cross-reactive with the cells and with cell-surface N-glycans. Immunizing mice with L8-GT and L8-GTFT cells induced glycan-specific antibodies. The L8-GTFT cells induced a sustained booster response, with antibodies that bound to S. mansoni lysates and recapitulated the exquisite specificity of the anti-parasite response for particular presentations of LDNF antigen. In summary, this recombinant expression system promotes successful generation of antibodies to the glycans of S. mansoni, and it can be adapted to study the role of glycan antigens and anti-glycan immune responses in many other infections and pathologies. PMID:24727440

  1. The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins pneumolysin and streptolysin O require binding to red blood cell glycans for hemolytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Shewell, Lucy K.; Harvey, Richard M.; Higgins, Melanie A.; Day, Christopher J.; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E.; Chen, Austen Y.; Gillen, Christine M.; James, David B. A.; Alonzo, Francis; Torres, Victor J.; Walker, Mark J.; Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    The cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) pneumolysin (Ply) is a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Membrane cholesterol is required for the cytolytic activity of this toxin, but it is not clear whether cholesterol is the only cellular receptor. Analysis of Ply binding to a glycan microarray revealed that Ply has lectin activity and binds glycans, including the Lewis histo-blood group antigens. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that Ply has the highest affinity for the sialyl LewisX (sLeX) structure, with a Kd of 1.88 × 10−5 M. Ply hemolytic activity against human RBCs showed dose-dependent inhibition by sLeX. Flow cytometric analysis and Western blots showed that blocking binding of Ply to the sLeX glycolipid on RBCs prevents deposition of the toxin in the membrane. The lectin domain responsible for sLeX binding is in domain 4 of Ply, which contains candidate carbohydrate-binding sites. Mutagenesis of these predicted carbohydrate-binding residues of Ply resulted in a decrease in hemolytic activity and a reduced affinity for sLeX. This study reveals that this archetypal CDC requires interaction with the sLeX glycolipid cellular receptor as an essential step before membrane insertion. A similar analysis conducted on streptolysin O from Streptococcus pyogenes revealed that this CDC also has glycan-binding properties and that hemolytic activity against RBCs can be blocked with the glycan lacto-N-neotetraose by inhibiting binding to the cell surface. Together, these data support the emerging paradigm shift that pore-forming toxins, including CDCs, have cellular receptors other than cholesterol that define target cell tropism. PMID:25422425

  2. Navigating Public Microarray Databases

    PubMed Central

    Bähler, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    With the ever-escalating amount of data being produced by genome-wide microarray studies, it is of increasing importance that these data are captured in public databases so that researchers can use this information to complement and enhance their own studies. Many groups have set up databases of expression data, ranging from large repositories, which are designed to comprehensively capture all published data, through to more specialized databases. The public repositories, such as ArrayExpress at the European Bioinformatics Institute contain complete datasets in raw format in addition to processed data, whilst the specialist databases tend to provide downstream analysis of normalized data from more focused studies and data sources. Here we provide a guide to the use of these public microarray resources. PMID:18629145

  3. Navigating public microarray databases.

    PubMed

    Penkett, Christopher J; Bähler, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    With the ever-escalating amount of data being produced by genome-wide microarray studies, it is of increasing importance that these data are captured in public databases so that researchers can use this information to complement and enhance their own studies. Many groups have set up databases of expression data, ranging from large repositories, which are designed to comprehensively capture all published data, through to more specialized databases. The public repositories, such as ArrayExpress at the European Bioinformatics Institute contain complete datasets in raw format in addition to processed data, whilst the specialist databases tend to provide downstream analysis of normalized data from more focused studies and data sources. Here we provide a guide to the use of these public microarray resources. PMID:18629145

  4. Modifications of Glycans: Biological Significance and Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Muthana, Saddam M.; Campbell, Christopher; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a central role in a wide range of biological processes. As with nucleic acids and proteins, modifications of specific sites within the glycan chain can modulate a carbohydrate’s overall biological function. For example, acylation, methylation, sulfation, epimerization, and phosphorylation can occur at various positions within a carbohydrate to modulate bioactivity. Therefore, there is significant interest in identifying discrete carbohydrate modifications and understanding their biological effects. Additionally, enzymes that catalyze those modifications and proteins that bind modified glycans provide numerous targets for therapeutic intervention. This review will focus on modifications of glycans that occur after the oligomer/polymer has been assembled, generally referred to as postglycosylational modifications. PMID:22195988

  5. Membrane Environment Can Enhance the Interaction of Glycan Binding Protein to Cell Surface Glycan Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The binding of lectins to glycan receptors on the host cell surface is a key step contributing to the virulence and species specificity of most viruses. This is exemplified by the viral protein hemagglutinin (HA) of the influenza A virus, whose binding specificity is modulated by the linkage pattern of terminal sialic acids on glycan receptors of host epithelial cells. Such specificity dictates whether transmission is confined to a particular animal species or jumps between species. Here, we show, using H5N1 avian influenza as a model, that the specific binding of recombinant HA to α2-3 linked sialic acids can be enhanced dramatically by interaction with the surface of the lipid membrane. This effect can be quantitatively accounted for by a two-stage process in which weak association of HA with the membrane surface precedes more specific and tighter binding to the glycan receptor. The weak protein–membrane interaction discovered here in the model system may play an important secondary role in the infection and pathogenesis of the influenza A virus. PMID:24949798

  6. Multiple Novel Functions of Henipavirus O-glycans: The First O-glycan Functions Identified in the Paramyxovirus Family.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jacquelyn A; Nicola, Anthony V; Baum, Linda G; Aguilar, Hector C

    2016-02-01

    O-linked glycosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification in organisms belonging to several kingdoms. Both microbial and host protein glycans are used by many pathogens for host invasion and immune evasion, yet little is known about the roles of O-glycans in viral pathogenesis. Reportedly, there is no single function attributed to O-glycans for the significant paramyxovirus family. The paramyxovirus family includes many important pathogens, such as measles, mumps, parainfluenza, metapneumo- and the deadly Henipaviruses Nipah (NiV) and Hendra (HeV) viruses. Paramyxoviral cell entry requires the coordinated actions of two viral membrane glycoproteins: the attachment (HN/H/G) and fusion (F) glycoproteins. O-glycan sites in HeV G were recently identified, facilitating use of the attachment protein of this deadly paramyxovirus as a model to study O-glycan functions. We mutated the identified HeV G O-glycosylation sites and found mutants with altered cell-cell fusion, G conformation, G/F association, viral entry in a pseudotyped viral system, and, quite unexpectedly, pseudotyped viral F protein incorporation and processing phenotypes. These are all important functions of viral glycoproteins. These phenotypes were broadly conserved for equivalent NiV mutants. Thus our results identify multiple novel and pathologically important functions of paramyxoviral O-glycans, paving the way to study O-glycan functions in other paramyxoviruses and enveloped viruses. PMID:26867212

  7. Multiple Novel Functions of Henipavirus O-glycans: The First O-glycan Functions Identified in the Paramyxovirus Family

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jacquelyn A.; Nicola, Anthony V.; Baum, Linda G.; Aguilar, Hector C.

    2016-01-01

    O-linked glycosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification in organisms belonging to several kingdoms. Both microbial and host protein glycans are used by many pathogens for host invasion and immune evasion, yet little is known about the roles of O-glycans in viral pathogenesis. Reportedly, there is no single function attributed to O-glycans for the significant paramyxovirus family. The paramyxovirus family includes many important pathogens, such as measles, mumps, parainfluenza, metapneumo- and the deadly Henipaviruses Nipah (NiV) and Hendra (HeV) viruses. Paramyxoviral cell entry requires the coordinated actions of two viral membrane glycoproteins: the attachment (HN/H/G) and fusion (F) glycoproteins. O-glycan sites in HeV G were recently identified, facilitating use of the attachment protein of this deadly paramyxovirus as a model to study O-glycan functions. We mutated the identified HeV G O-glycosylation sites and found mutants with altered cell-cell fusion, G conformation, G/F association, viral entry in a pseudotyped viral system, and, quite unexpectedly, pseudotyped viral F protein incorporation and processing phenotypes. These are all important functions of viral glycoproteins. These phenotypes were broadly conserved for equivalent NiV mutants. Thus our results identify multiple novel and pathologically important functions of paramyxoviral O-glycans, paving the way to study O-glycan functions in other paramyxoviruses and enveloped viruses. PMID:26867212

  8. The Glycolyzer: Automated Glycan Annotation Software for High Performance Mass Spectrometry and Its Application to Ovarian Cancer Glycan Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kronewitter, Scott R.; De Leoz, Maria Lorna A.; Strum, John S.; An, Hyun Joo; Dimapasoc, Lauren M.; Guerrero, Andrés; Miyamoto, Suzanne; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Leiserowitz, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Human serum glycomics is a promising method for finding cancer biomarkers but often lacks the tools for streamlined data analysis. The Glycolyzer software incorporates a suite of analytic tools capable of identifying informative glycan peaks out of raw mass spectrometry data. As a demonstration of its utility, the program was used to identify putative biomarkers for epithelial ovarian cancer from a human serum sample set. A randomized, blocked and blinded experimental design was used on a discovery set consisting of 46 cases and 48 controls. Retrosynthetic glycan libraries were used for data analysis and several significant candidate glycan biomarkers were discovered via hypothesis testing. The significant glycans were attributed to a glycan family based on glycan composition relationships and incorporated into a linear classifier motif test. The motif test was then applied to the discovery set to evaluate the disease state discrimination performance. The test provided strongly predictive results based on receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.93. Using the Glycolyzer software, we were able to identify a set of glycan biomarkers that highly discriminate between cases and controls, and are ready to be formally validated in subsequent studies. PMID:22903841

  9. Complex N-Glycans Are Essential, but Core 1 and 2 Mucin O-Glycans, O-Fucose Glycans, and NOTCH1 Are Dispensable, for Mammalian Spermatogenesis1

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Frank; Lu, Linchao; Williams, Suzannah A.; Stanley, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT To identify roles in spermatogenesis for major subclasses of N- and O-glycans and Notch signaling, male mice carrying floxed C1galt1, Pofut1, Notch1 or Mgat1 alleles and a testis-specific Cre recombinase transgene were generated. T-synthase (C1GALT1) transfers Gal to generate core 1 and core 2 mucin O-glycans; POFUT1 transfers O-fucose to particular epidermal growth factor-like repeats and is essential for canonical Notch signaling; and MGAT1 (GlcNAcT-I) transfers GlcNAc to initiate hybrid and complex N-glycan synthesis. Cre recombinase transgenes driven by various promoters were investigated, including Stra8-iCre expressed in spermatogonia, Sycp1-Cre expressed in spermatocytes, Prm1-Cre expressed in spermatids, and AMH-Cre expressed in Sertoli cells. All Cre transgenes deleted floxed alleles, but efficiencies varied widely. Stra8-iCre was the most effective, deleting floxed Notch1 and Mgat1 alleles with 100% efficiency and floxed C1galt1 and Pofut1 alleles with ∼80% efficiency, based on transmission of deleted alleles. Removal of C1galt1, Pofut1, or Notch1 in spermatogonia had no effect on testicular weight, histology, or fertility. However, males in which the synthesis of complex N-glycans was blocked by deletion of Mgat1 in spermatogonia did not produce sperm. Spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids were generated, but most spermatids formed giant multinucleated cells or symplasts, and apoptosis was increased. Therefore, although core 1 and 2 mucin O-glycans, NOTCH1, POFUT1, O-fucose glycans, and Notch signaling are dispensable, MGAT1 and complex N-glycans are essential for spermatogenesis. PMID:22492969

  10. Chemically-blocked Antibody Microarray for Multiplexed High-throughput Profiling of Specific Protein Glycosylation in Complex Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chen; Wonsidler, Joshua L.; Li, Jianwei; Du, Yanming; Block, Timothy; Haab, Brian; Chen, Songming

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we describe an effective protocol for use in a multiplexed high-throughput antibody microarray with glycan binding protein detection that allows for the glycosylation profiling of specific proteins. Glycosylation of proteins is the most prevalent post-translational modification found on proteins, and leads diversified modifications of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of proteins. Because the glycosylation machinery is particularly susceptible to disease progression and malignant transformation, aberrant glycosylation has been recognized as early detection biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. However, current methods to study protein glycosylation typically are too complicated or expensive for use in most normal laboratory or clinical settings and a more practical method to study protein glycosylation is needed. The new protocol described in this study makes use of a chemically blocked antibody microarray with glycan-binding protein (GBP) detection and significantly reduces the time, cost, and lab equipment requirements needed to study protein glycosylation. In this method, multiple immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are printed directly onto the microarray slides and the N-glycans on the antibodies are blocked. The blocked, immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are able to capture and isolate glycoproteins from a complex sample that is applied directly onto the microarray slides. Glycan detection then can be performed by the application of biotinylated lectins and other GBPs to the microarray slide, while binding levels can be determined using Dylight 549-Streptavidin. Through the use of an antibody panel and probing with multiple biotinylated lectins, this method allows for an effective glycosylation profile of the different proteins found in a given human or animal sample to be developed. Introduction Glycosylation of protein, which is the most ubiquitous post-translational modification on proteins, modifies

  11. Fc glycans of therapeutic antibodies as critical quality attributes

    PubMed Central

    Reusch, Dietmar; Tejada, Max L

    2015-01-01

    Critical quality attributes (CQA) are physical, chemical, biological or microbiological properties or characteristics that must be within an appropriate limit, range or distribution to ensure the desired product quality, safety and efficacy. For monoclonal antibody therapeutics that rely on fraction crystalizable (Fc)-mediated effector function for their clinical activity, the terminal sugars of Fc glycans have been shown to be critical for safety or efficacy. Different glycosylation variants have also been shown to influence the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic behavior while other Fc glycan structural elements may be involved in adverse immune reactions. This review focuses on the role of Fc glycans as CQAs. Fc glycan information from the published literature is summarized and evaluated for impact on patient safety, immunogenicity, bioactivity and pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetics. PMID:26263923

  12. Toolboxes for a standardised and systematic study of glycans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent progress in method development for characterising the branched structures of complex carbohydrates has now enabled higher throughput technology. Automation of structure analysis then calls for software development since adding meaning to large data collections in reasonable time requires corresponding bioinformatics methods and tools. Current glycobioinformatics resources do cover information on the structure and function of glycans, their interaction with proteins or their enzymatic synthesis. However, this information is partial, scattered and often difficult to find to for non-glycobiologists. Methods Following our diagnosis of the causes of the slow development of glycobioinformatics, we review the "objective" difficulties encountered in defining adequate formats for representing complex entities and developing efficient analysis software. Results Various solutions already implemented and strategies defined to bridge glycobiology with different fields and integrate the heterogeneous glyco-related information are presented. Conclusions Despite the initial stage of our integrative efforts, this paper highlights the rapid expansion of glycomics, the validity of existing resources and the bright future of glycobioinformatics. PMID:24564482

  13. ABO blood group glycans modulate sialic acid recognition on erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Miriam; Hurtado-Ziola, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    ABH(O) blood group polymorphisms are based on well-known intraspecies variations in structures of neutral blood cell surface glycans in humans and other primates. Whereas natural antibodies against these glycans can act as barriers to blood transfusion and transplantation, the normal functions of this long-standing evolutionary polymorphism remain largely unknown. Although microbial interactions have been suggested as a selective force, direct binding of lethal pathogens to ABH antigens has not been reported. We show in this study that ABH antigens found on human erythrocytes modulate the specific interactions of 3 sialic acid-recognizing proteins (human Siglec-2, 1918SC influenza hemagglutinin, and Sambucus nigra agglutinin) with sialylated glycans on the same cell surface. Using specific glycosidases that convert A and B glycans to the underlying H(O) structure, we show ABH antigens stabilize sialylated glycan clusters on erythrocyte membranes uniquely for each blood type, generating differential interactions of the 3 sialic acid-binding proteins with erythrocytes from each blood type. We further show that by stabilizing such structures ABH antigens can also modulate sialic acid-mediated interaction of pathogens such as Plasmodium falciparum malarial parasite. Thus, ABH antigens can noncovalently alter the presentation of other cell surface glycans to cognate-binding proteins, without themselves being a direct ligand. PMID:19704115

  14. Neutral glycans from sandfish skin can reduce friction of polymers.

    PubMed

    Vihar, Boštjan; Hanisch, Franz Georg; Baumgartner, Werner

    2016-03-01

    The lizardScincus scincus, also known as sandfish, can move through aeolian desert sand in a swimming-like manner. A prerequisite for this ability is a special integument, i.e. scales with a very low friction for sand and a high abrasion resistance. Glycans in the scales are causally related to the low friction. Here, we analysed the glycans and found that neutral glycans with five to nine mannose residues are important. If these glycans were covalently bound to acrylic polymers like poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylic car coatings at a density of approximately one molecule per 4 nm², friction for and adhesion of sand particles could be reduced to levels close to those observed with sandfish scales. This was also found true, if the glycans were isolated from sources other than sandfish scales like plants such as almonds or mistletoe. We speculate that these neutral glycans act as low density spacers separating sand particles from the dense scales thereby reducing van der Waals forces. PMID:27030038

  15. Sugars Communicate through Water: Oriented Glycans Induce Water Structuring

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M.; Fontani, Giacomo; Reusch, Frieder B.; Roba, Marcella; Spencer, Nicholas D.; Crockett, Rowena

    2013-01-01

    Cells are coated with a glycocalyx—a layer of carbohydrate-containing biomolecules, such as glycoproteins. Although the structure and orientation of the cell-surface glycans are frequently regarded as being random, we have found, using α-1-acid glycoprotein and antitrypsin as model systems for surface glycans, that this is not the case. A glycoprotein monolayer was adsorbed onto hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. Surface-force measurements revealed that the orientation of the glycans with respect to the aqueous solution has a profound effect on the structure of vicinal water. The glycan antennae of the surface-adsorbed glycoproteins apparently impose an ordering on the water, resulting in a strong repulsive force over some tens of nanometers with superposed film-thickness transitions ranging from ≈0.7 to 1.8 nm. When the glycan orientation is modified by chemical means, this long-range repulsion disappears. These results may provide an explanation as to why the multiantennary structure is ubiquitous in glycoproteins. Although direct, specific interactions between glycans and other biomolecules are essential for their functionality, these results indicate that glycans’ long-range structuring of water may also influence their ability to interact with biomolecules in their vicinity. PMID:23790377

  16. Neutral glycans from sandfish skin can reduce friction of polymers

    PubMed Central

    Vihar, Boštjan; Hanisch, Franz Georg; Baumgartner, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The lizard Scincus scincus, also known as sandfish, can move through aeolian desert sand in a swimming-like manner. A prerequisite for this ability is a special integument, i.e. scales with a very low friction for sand and a high abrasion resistance. Glycans in the scales are causally related to the low friction. Here, we analysed the glycans and found that neutral glycans with five to nine mannose residues are important. If these glycans were covalently bound to acrylic polymers like poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylic car coatings at a density of approximately one molecule per 4 nm², friction for and adhesion of sand particles could be reduced to levels close to those observed with sandfish scales. This was also found true, if the glycans were isolated from sources other than sandfish scales like plants such as almonds or mistletoe. We speculate that these neutral glycans act as low density spacers separating sand particles from the dense scales thereby reducing van der Waals forces. PMID:27030038

  17. Tiling Microarray Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, Davis Austin

    2005-05-04

    TiMAT is a package of 23 command line Java applications for use in the analysis of Affymetrix tiled genomic microarray data. TiMAT enables: 1) Rebuilding the genome annotation for entire tiled arrays (repeat filtering, chromosomal coordinate assignment). 2) Post processing of oligo intensity values (quantile normalization, median scaling, PMMM transformation), 3) Significance testing (Wilcoxon rank sum and signed rank tests, intensity difference and ratio tests) and Interval refinement (filtering based on multiple statistics, overlap comparisons), 4) Data visualization (detailed thumbnail/zoomed view with Interval Plots and data export to Affymetrix's Integrated Genome Browser) and Data reports (spreadsheet summaries and detailed profiles)

  18. The Analysis of Sialylation, N-Glycan Branching, and Expression of O-Glycans in Seminal Plasma of Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Ewa M.; Kałuża, Anna; Zimmer, Mariusz; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Mirosława

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates are known to mediate some events involved in successful fertilization. Although some studies on the glycosylation of seminal plasma proteins are available, the total glycan profile was rarely analyzed as a feature influencing fertilization potential. In this work we aimed to compare some glycosylation traits in seminal plasma glycoproteins of fertile and infertile men. The following findings emerge from our studies: (1) in human seminal plasma the presence and alterations of O-linked glycans were observed; (2) the expression of SNA-reactive sialic acid significantly differs between asthenozoospermia and both normozoospermic (fertile and infertile) groups; (3) the expression of PHA-L-reactive highly branched N-glycans was significantly lower in oligozoospermic patients than in both normozoospermic groups. Indication of the appropriate lectins that would enable the possibly precise determination of the glycan profile seems to be a good supplement to mass spectrum analysis. Extension of the lectin panel is useful for the further research. PMID:25892842

  19. Polysaccharide mimicry of the epitope of the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibody, 2G12, induces enhanced antibody responses to self oligomannose glycans

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, D Cameron; Bonomelli, Camille; Mansab, Fatma; Vasiljevic, Snezana; Doores, Katie J; Wormald, Mark R; Palma, Angelina S; Feizi, Ten; Harvey, David J; Dwek, Raymond A; Crispin, Max; Scanlan, Christopher N

    2010-01-01

    Immunologically, “self” carbohydrates protect the HIV-1 surface glycoprotein, gp120, from antibody recognition. However, one broadly neutralizing antibody, 2G12, neutralizes primary viral isolates by direct recognition of Manα1→2Man motifs formed by the host-derived oligomannose glycans of the viral envelope. Immunogens, capable of eliciting antibodies of similar specificity to 2G12, are therefore candidates for HIV/AIDS vaccine development. In this context, it is known that the yeast mannan polysaccharides exhibit significant antigenic mimicry with the glycans of HIV-1. Here, we report that modulation of yeast polysaccharide biosynthesis directly controls the molecular specificity of cross-reactive antibodies to self oligomannose glycans. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannans are typically terminated by α1→3-linked mannoses that cap a Manα1→2Man motif that otherwise closely resembles the part of the oligomannose epitope recognized by 2G12. Immunization with S. cerevisiae deficient for the α1→3 mannosyltransferase gene (ΔMnn1), but not with wild-type S. cerevisiae, reproducibly elicited antibodies to the self oligomannose glycans. Carbohydrate microarray analysis of ΔMnn1 immune sera revealed fine carbohydrate specificity to Manα1→2Man units, closely matching that of 2G12. These specificities were further corroborated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with chemically defined glycoforms of gp120. These antibodies exhibited remarkable similarity in the carbohydrate specificity to 2G12 and displayed statistically significant, albeit extremely weak, neutralization of HIV-1 compared to control immune sera. These data confirm the Manα1→2Man motif as the primary carbohydrate neutralization determinant of HIV-1 and show that the genetic modulation of microbial polysaccharides is a route towards immunogens capable of eliciting antibody responses to the glycans of HIV-1. PMID:20181792

  20. Galatrox is a C-type lectin in Bothrops atrox snake venom that selectively binds LacNAc-terminated glycans and can induce acute inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sartim, Marco A; Riul, Thalita B; Del Cistia-Andrade, Camillo; Stowell, Sean R; Arthur, Connie M; Sorgi, Carlos A; Faccioli, Lucia H; Cummings, Richard D; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Sampaio, Suely V

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that snake venom contains glycan-binding proteins (GBPs), although the binding specificity and biological activities of many of these GBPs is unclear. Here we report our studies on the glycan binding specificity and activities of galatrox, a Bothrops atrox snake venom-derived GBP. Glycan microarray analysis indicates that galatrox binds most strongly to glycans expressing N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc), with a significant preference for Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ over Galβ1-3GlcNAcβ compounds. Galatrox also bound immobilized laminin, a LacNAc-dense extracellular matrix component, suggesting that this GBP can bind LacNAc-bearing glycoproteins. As several endogenous mammalian GBPs utilize a similar binding LacNAc binding preference to regulate neutrophil and monocyte activity, we hypothesized that galatrox may mediate B. atrox toxicity through regulation of leukocyte activity. Indeed, galatrox bound neutrophils and promoted leukocyte chemotaxis in a carbohydrate-dependent manner. Similarly, galatrox administration into the mouse peritoneal cavity induced significant neutrophil migration and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6. Exposure of bone marrow-derived macrophages to galatrox induced generation of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-6, TNF-α, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. This signaling by galatrox was mediated via its carbohydrate recognition domain by activation of the TLR4-mediated MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. These results indicate that galatrox has pro-inflammatory activity through its interaction with LacNAc-bearing glycans on neutrophils, macrophages and extracellular matrix proteins and induce the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. PMID:24973254

  1. Compressive Sensing DNA Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Compressive sensing microarrays (CSMs) are DNA-based sensors that operate using group testing and compressive sensing (CS) principles. In contrast to conventional DNA microarrays, in which each genetic sensor is designed to respond to a single target, in a CSM, each sensor responds to a set of targets. We study the problem of designing CSMs that simultaneously account for both the constraints from CS theory and the biochemistry of probe-target DNA hybridization. An appropriate cross-hybridization model is proposed for CSMs, and several methods are developed for probe design and CS signal recovery based on the new model. Lab experiments suggest that in order to achieve accurate hybridization profiling, consensus probe sequences are required to have sequence homology of at least 80% with all targets to be detected. Furthermore, out-of-equilibrium datasets are usually as accurate as those obtained from equilibrium conditions. Consequently, one can use CSMs in applications in which only short hybridization times are allowed. PMID:19158952

  2. Use of microarray technologies in toxicology research.

    PubMed

    Vrana, Kent E; Freeman, Willard M; Aschner, Michael

    2003-06-01

    Microarray technology provides a unique tool for the determination of gene expression at the level of messenger RNA (mRNA). The simultaneous measurement of the entire human genome (thousands of genes) will facilitate the uncovering of specific gene expression patterns that are associated with disease. One important application of microarray technology, within the context of neurotoxicological studies, is its use as a screening tool for the identification of molecular mechanisms of toxicity. Such approaches enable researchers to identify those genes and their products (either single or whole pathways) that are involved in conferring resistance or sensitivity to toxic substances. This review addresses: (1) the potential uses of array data; (2) the various array platforms, highlighting both their advantages and disadvantages; (3) insights into data analysis and presentation strategies; and (4) concrete examples of DNA array studies in neurotoxicological research. PMID:12782098

  3. N-glycosylation engineering of plants for the biosynthesis of glycoproteins with bisected and branched complex N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Alexandra; Gattinger, Pia; Grass, Josephine; Jez, Jakub; Pabst, Martin; Altmann, Friedrich; Gorfer, Markus; Strasser, Richard; Steinkellner, Herta

    2011-06-01

    Glycoengineering is increasingly being recognized as a powerful tool to generate recombinant glycoproteins with a customized N-glycosylation pattern. Here, we demonstrate the modulation of the plant glycosylation pathway toward the formation of human-type bisected and branched complex N-glycans. Glycoengineered Nicotiana benthamiana lacking plant-specific N-glycosylation (i.e. β1,2-xylose and core α1,3-fucose) was used to transiently express human erythropoietin (hEPO) and human transferrin (hTF) together with modified versions of human β1,4-mannosyl-β1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnTIII), α1,3-mannosyl-β1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnTIV) and α1,6-mannosyl-β1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnTV). hEPO was expressed as a fusion to the IgG-Fc domain (EPO-Fc) and purified via protein A affinity chromatography. Recombinant hTF was isolated from the intracellular fluid of infiltrated plant leaves. Mass spectrometry-based N-glycan analysis of hEPO and hTF revealed the quantitative formation of bisected (GnGnbi) and tri- as well as tetraantennary complex N-glycans (Gn[GnGn], [GnGn]Gn and [GnGn][GnGn]). Co-expression of GnTIII together with GnTIV and GnTV resulted in the efficient generation of bisected tetraantennary complex N-glycans. Our results show the generation of recombinant proteins with human-type N-glycosylation at great uniformity. The strategy described here provides a robust and straightforward method for producing mammalian-type N-linked glycans of defined structures on recombinant glycoproteins, which can advance glycoprotein research and accelerate the development of protein-based therapeutics. PMID:21317243

  4. Evidence for a Lectin Specific for Sulfated Glycans in the Salivary Gland of the Malaria Vector, Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Ma, Dongying; Andersen, John F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland homogenate (SGH) from the female mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae, An. stephensi, An. freeborni, An. dirus and An. albimanus were found to exhibit hemagglutinating (lectin) activity. Lectin activity was not found for male An. gambiae, or female Ae aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Phlebotomus duboscqi, and Lutzomyia longipalpis. With respect to species-specificity, An. gambiae SGH agglutinates red blood cells (RBC) from humans, horse, sheep, goat, pig, and cow; it is less active for rats RBC, and not detectable for guinea-pigs or chicken RBC. Notably, lectin activity was inhibited by low concentrations of dextran sulfate 50–500 K, fucoidan, heparin, laminin, heparin sulfate proteoglycan, sialyl-containing glycans (e.g. 3′-sialyl Lewis X, and 6′-sialyl lactose), and gangliosides (e.g. GM3, GD1, GD1b, GTB1, GM1, GQ1B), but not by simple sugars. These results imply that molecule(s) in the salivary gland target sulfated glycans. SGH from An. gambiae was also found to promote agglutination of HL-60 cells which are rich in sialyl Lewis X, a glycan that decorates PSGL-1, the neutrophils receptor that interacts with endothelial cell P-selectin. Accordingly, SGH interferes with HL-60 cells adhesion to immobilized P-selectin. Because An. gambiae SGH expresses galectins, one member of this family (herein named Agalectin) was expressed in E. coli. Recombinant Agalectin behaves as a non-covalent homodimer. It does not display lectin activity, and does not interact with 500 candidates tested in a Glycan microarray. Gel-filtration chromatography of the SGH of An. gambiae identified a fraction with hemagglutinating activity, which was analyzed by 1D PAGE followed by in-gel tryptic digestion, and nano-LC MS/MS. This approach identified several genes which emerge as candidates for a lectin targeting sulfated glycans, the first with this selectivity to be reported in the SGH of a blood-sucking arthropod. The role of salivary molecules (sialogenins) with lectin

  5. Fluorous modified magnetic mesoporous silica composites-incorporated fluorous solid-phase extraction for the specific enrichment of N-linked glycans with simultaneous exclusion of proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Man; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-10-01

    Taking advantage of fluorine-fluorine interactions, fluorous solid-phase extraction (FSPE) is emerging as a novel approach in proteomics research. Notably, silica gel bound with perfluoroalkyl groups was applied to the FSPE of N-linked glycans. Based on previous studies, mesoporous silica coated magnetic nanoparticles bound with perfluoroalkyl groups were synthesized for the specific enrichment of N-linked glycans in this study. The magnetic nanoparticles-incorporated FSPE strategy successfully identified 22 N-linked glycans from the OVA digest with a concentration of 0.5μg/μL, and achieved a detection limit of 5ng/μL (with 16 N-linked glycans identified). It also showed good day-to-day reproducibility. Its selectivity towards BSA protein is 1:200 (molar ratio), showing excellent size-exclusion effect. In addition, the present method proved to be effective for the analysis of the human serum digest, opening up new prospect for the identification of glycans and proteins with other post-translational modifications in biological environment. PMID:27474286

  6. Envelope glycans of immunodeficiency virions are almost entirely oligomannose antigens

    PubMed Central

    Doores, Katie J.; Bonomelli, Camille; Harvey, David J.; Vasiljevic, Snezana; Dwek, Raymond A.; Burton, Dennis R.; Crispin, Max; Scanlan, Christopher N.

    2010-01-01

    The envelope spike of HIV is one of the most highly N-glycosylated structures found in nature. However, despite extensive research revealing essential functional roles in infection and immune evasion, the chemical structures of the glycans on the native viral envelope glycoprotein gp120—as opposed to recombinantly generated gp120—have not been described. Here, we report on the identity of the N-linked glycans from primary isolates of HIV-1 (clades A, B, and C) and from the simian immunodeficiency virus. MS analysis reveals a remarkably simple and highly conserved virus-specific glycan profile almost entirely devoid of medial Golgi-mediated processing. In stark contrast to recombinant gp120, which shows extensive exposure to cellular glycosylation enzymes (>70% complex type glycans), the native envelope shows barely detectable processing beyond the biosynthetic intermediate Man5GlcNAc2 (<2% complex type glycans). This oligomannose (Man5–9GlcNAc2) profile is conserved across primary isolates and geographically divergent clades but is not reflected in the current generation of gp120 antigens used for vaccine trials. In the context of vaccine design, we also note that Manα1→2Man-terminating glycans (Man6–9GlcNAc2) of the type recognized by the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibody 2G12 are 3-fold more abundant on the native envelope than on the recombinant monomer and are also found on isolates not neutralized by 2G12. The Manα1→2Man residues of gp120 therefore provide a vaccine target that is physically larger and antigenically more conserved than the 2G12 epitope itself. This study revises and extends our understanding of the glycan shield of HIV with implications for AIDS vaccine design. PMID:20643940

  7. Glycans Are a Novel Biomarker of Chronological and Biological Ages

    PubMed Central

    Krištić, Jasminka; Vučković, Frano; Menni, Cristina; Klarić, Lucija; Keser, Toma; Beceheli, Ivona; Pučić-Baković, Maja; Novokmet, Mislav; Mangino, Massimo; Thaqi, Kujtim; Rudan, Pavao; Novokmet, Natalija; Šarac, Jelena; Missoni, Saša; Kolčić, Ivana; Polašek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Hayward, Caroline; Aulchenko, Yurii; Valdes, Ana; Wilson, James F.; Gornik, Olga; Primorac, Dragan; Zoldoš, Vlatka; Spector, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Fine structural details of glycans attached to the conserved N-glycosylation site significantly not only affect function of individual immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules but also mediate inflammation at the systemic level. By analyzing IgG glycosylation in 5,117 individuals from four European populations, we have revealed very complex patterns of changes in IgG glycosylation with age. Several IgG glycans (including FA2B, FA2G2, and FA2BG2) changed considerably with age and the combination of these three glycans can explain up to 58% of variance in chronological age, significantly more than other markers of biological age like telomere lengths. The remaining variance in these glycans strongly correlated with physiological parameters associated with biological age. Thus, IgG glycosylation appears to be closely linked with both chronological and biological ages. Considering the important role of IgG glycans in inflammation, and because the observed changes with age promote inflammation, changes in IgG glycosylation also seem to represent a factor contributing to aging. Significance Statement Glycosylation is the key posttranslational mechanism that regulates function of immunoglobulins, with multiple systemic repercussions to the immune system. Our study of IgG glycosylation in 5,117 individuals from four European populations has revealed very extensive and complex changes in IgG glycosylation with age. The combined index composed of only three glycans explained up to 58% of variance in age, considerably more than other biomarkers of age like telomere lengths. The remaining variance in these glycans strongly correlated with physiological parameters associated with biological age; thus, IgG glycosylation appears to be closely linked with both chronological and biological ages. The ability to measure human biological aging using molecular profiling has practical applications for diverse fields such as disease prevention and treatment, or forensics. PMID:24325898

  8. The Genopolis Microarray Database

    PubMed Central

    Splendiani, Andrea; Brandizi, Marco; Even, Gael; Beretta, Ottavio; Pavelka, Norman; Pelizzola, Mattia; Mayhaus, Manuel; Foti, Maria; Mauri, Giancarlo; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola

    2007-01-01

    Background Gene expression databases are key resources for microarray data management and analysis and the importance of a proper annotation of their content is well understood. Public repositories as well as microarray database systems that can be implemented by single laboratories exist. However, there is not yet a tool that can easily support a collaborative environment where different users with different rights of access to data can interact to define a common highly coherent content. The scope of the Genopolis database is to provide a resource that allows different groups performing microarray experiments related to a common subject to create a common coherent knowledge base and to analyse it. The Genopolis database has been implemented as a dedicated system for the scientific community studying dendritic and macrophage cells functions and host-parasite interactions. Results The Genopolis Database system allows the community to build an object based MIAME compliant annotation of their experiments and to store images, raw and processed data from the Affymetrix GeneChip® platform. It supports dynamical definition of controlled vocabularies and provides automated and supervised steps to control the coherence of data and annotations. It allows a precise control of the visibility of the database content to different sub groups in the community and facilitates exports of its content to public repositories. It provides an interactive users interface for data analysis: this allows users to visualize data matrices based on functional lists and sample characterization, and to navigate to other data matrices defined by similarity of expression values as well as functional characterizations of genes involved. A collaborative environment is also provided for the definition and sharing of functional annotation by users. Conclusion The Genopolis Database supports a community in building a common coherent knowledge base and analyse it. This fills a gap between a local

  9. Structural features of N-glycans of seaweed glycoproteins: predominant occurrence of high-mannose type N-glycans in marine plants.

    PubMed

    Yoshiie, Takeo; Maeda, Megumi; Kimura, Mariko; Hama, Yoichiro; Uchida, Motoharu; Kimura, Yoshinobu

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed structural features of N-glycans linked to glycoproteins expressed in various seaweeds to identify new sources of biologically-important N-glycans or N-glycopeptides. Structural analysis of the N-glycans of glycopeptides prepared from pepsin digests of 15 species of seaweed revealed that only high-mannose type N-glycans occur in seaweed glycoproteins, and the Man₉GlcNAc₂ structure predominates in Sargassum fulvellum and Zostera marina, while no typical plant complex type N-glycans bearing β1-2 xylosyl and α1-3 fucosyl residues present in either algae or seagrass. These results indicate that seaweeds lack the activities of several of the glycosyltransferases required for the biosynthesis of the complex type N-glycans found in terrestrial plants, and that the context of N-glycan processing in seaweeds is different from that in terrestrial plant cells. PMID:23047116

  10. DNA Microarray-Based Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Marzancola, Mahsa Gharibi; Sedighi, Abootaleb; Li, Paul C H

    2016-01-01

    The DNA microarray technology is currently a useful biomedical tool which has been developed for a variety of diagnostic applications. However, the development pathway has not been smooth and the technology has faced some challenges. The reliability of the microarray data and also the clinical utility of the results in the early days were criticized. These criticisms added to the severe competition from other techniques, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), impacting the growth of microarray-based tests in the molecular diagnostic market.Thanks to the advances in the underlying technologies as well as the tremendous effort offered by the research community and commercial vendors, these challenges have mostly been addressed. Nowadays, the microarray platform has achieved sufficient standardization and method validation as well as efficient probe printing, liquid handling and signal visualization. Integration of various steps of the microarray assay into a harmonized and miniaturized handheld lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device has been a goal for the microarray community. In this respect, notable progress has been achieved in coupling the DNA microarray with the liquid manipulation microsystem as well as the supporting subsystem that will generate the stand-alone LOC device.In this chapter, we discuss the major challenges that microarray technology has faced in its almost two decades of development and also describe the solutions to overcome the challenges. In addition, we review the advancements of the technology, especially the progress toward developing the LOC devices for DNA diagnostic applications. PMID:26614075

  11. Tiling Microarray Analysis Tools

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-05-04

    TiMAT is a package of 23 command line Java applications for use in the analysis of Affymetrix tiled genomic microarray data. TiMAT enables: 1) Rebuilding the genome annotation for entire tiled arrays (repeat filtering, chromosomal coordinate assignment). 2) Post processing of oligo intensity values (quantile normalization, median scaling, PMMM transformation), 3) Significance testing (Wilcoxon rank sum and signed rank tests, intensity difference and ratio tests) and Interval refinement (filtering based on multiple statistics, overlap comparisons),more » 4) Data visualization (detailed thumbnail/zoomed view with Interval Plots and data export to Affymetrix's Integrated Genome Browser) and Data reports (spreadsheet summaries and detailed profiles)« less

  12. Living-Cell Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Yarmush, Martin L.; King, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Living cells are remarkably complex. To unravel this complexity, living-cell assays have been developed that allow delivery of experimental stimuli and measurement of the resulting cellular responses. High-throughput adaptations of these assays, known as living-cell microarrays, which are based on microtiter plates, high-density spotting, microfabrication, and microfluidics technologies, are being developed for two general applications: (a) to screen large-scale chemical and genomic libraries and (b) to systematically investigate the local cellular microenvironment. These emerging experimental platforms offer exciting opportunities to rapidly identify genetic determinants of disease, to discover modulators of cellular function, and to probe the complex and dynamic relationships between cells and their local environment. PMID:19413510

  13. Bisected, complex N-glycans and galectins in mouse mammary tumor progression and human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Hazuki E; Koba, Wade R; Fine, Eugene J; Giricz, Orsi; Kenny, Paraic A; Stanley, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Bisected, complex N-glycans on glycoproteins are generated by the glycosyltransferase MGAT3 and cause reduced cell surface binding of galectins. Previously, we showed that MGAT3 reduces growth factor signaling and retards mammary tumor progression driven by the Polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) expressed in mammary epithelium under the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. However, the penetrance of the tumor phenotype became variable in mixed FVB/N and C57BL/6 female mice and we therefore investigated a congenic C57BL/6 Mgat3−/−/MMTV-PyMT model. In the absence of MGAT3, C57BL/6 Mgat3−/−/MMTV-PyMT females exhibited accelerated tumor appearance and increased tumor burden, glucose uptake in tumors and lung metastasis. Nevertheless, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 or protein kinase B (AKT) was reduced in ∼20-week C57BL/6 MMTV-PyMT tumors lacking MGAT3. Activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), protein tyrosine kinase Src, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were similar to that of controls. All the eight mouse galectin genes were expressed in mammary tumors and tumor epithelial cells (TECs), but galectin-2 and -12 were not detected by western analysis in tumors, and galectin-7 was not detected in 60% of the TEC lines. From microarray data reported for human breast cancers, at least 10 galectin and 7 N-glycan N-acetylglucosaminyl (GlcNAc)-transferase (MGAT) genes are expressed in tumor tissue, and expression often varies significantly between different breast cancer subtypes. Thus, in summary, while MGAT3 and bisected complex N-glycans retard mouse mammary tumor progression, genetic background may modify this effect; identification of key galectins that promote mammary tumor progression in mice is not straightforward because all the eight galectin genes are expressed; and high levels of MGAT3, galectin-4, -8, -10, -13 and -14 transcripts correlate with better relapse-free survival in human breast cancer. PMID:24037315

  14. Arenavirus Glycan Shield Promotes Neutralizing Antibody Evasion and Protracted Infection.

    PubMed

    Sommerstein, Rami; Flatz, Lukas; Remy, Melissa M; Malinge, Pauline; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Fischer, Nicolas; Sahin, Mehmet; Bergthaler, Andreas; Igonet, Sebastien; Ter Meulen, Jan; Rigo, Dorothée; Meda, Paolo; Rabah, Nadia; Coutard, Bruno; Bowden, Thomas A; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Pinschewer, Daniel D

    2015-11-01

    Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV) can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. As a major impediment to vaccine development, delayed and weak neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses represent a unifying characteristic of both natural infection and all vaccine candidates tested to date. To investigate the mechanisms underlying arenavirus nAb evasion we engineered several arenavirus envelope-chimeric viruses and glycan-deficient variants thereof. We performed neutralization tests with sera from experimentally infected mice and from LASV-convalescent human patients. NAb response kinetics in mice correlated inversely with the N-linked glycan density in the arenavirus envelope protein's globular head. Additionally and most intriguingly, infection with fully glycosylated viruses elicited antibodies, which neutralized predominantly their glycan-deficient variants, both in mice and humans. Binding studies with monoclonal antibodies indicated that envelope glycans reduced nAb on-rate, occupancy and thereby counteracted virus neutralization. In infected mice, the envelope glycan shield promoted protracted viral infection by preventing its timely elimination by the ensuing antibody response. Thus, arenavirus envelope glycosylation impairs the protective efficacy rather than the induction of nAbs, and thereby prevents efficient antibody-mediated virus control. This immune evasion mechanism imposes limitations on antibody-based vaccination and convalescent serum therapy. PMID:26587982

  15. Arenavirus Glycan Shield Promotes Neutralizing Antibody Evasion and Protracted Infection

    PubMed Central

    Malinge, Pauline; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Fischer, Nicolas; Sahin, Mehmet; Bergthaler, Andreas; Igonet, Sebastien; ter Meulen, Jan; Rigo, Dorothée; Meda, Paolo; Rabah, Nadia; Coutard, Bruno; Bowden, Thomas A.; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Pinschewer, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV) can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. As a major impediment to vaccine development, delayed and weak neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses represent a unifying characteristic of both natural infection and all vaccine candidates tested to date. To investigate the mechanisms underlying arenavirus nAb evasion we engineered several arenavirus envelope-chimeric viruses and glycan-deficient variants thereof. We performed neutralization tests with sera from experimentally infected mice and from LASV-convalescent human patients. NAb response kinetics in mice correlated inversely with the N-linked glycan density in the arenavirus envelope protein’s globular head. Additionally and most intriguingly, infection with fully glycosylated viruses elicited antibodies, which neutralized predominantly their glycan-deficient variants, both in mice and humans. Binding studies with monoclonal antibodies indicated that envelope glycans reduced nAb on-rate, occupancy and thereby counteracted virus neutralization. In infected mice, the envelope glycan shield promoted protracted viral infection by preventing its timely elimination by the ensuing antibody response. Thus, arenavirus envelope glycosylation impairs the protective efficacy rather than the induction of nAbs, and thereby prevents efficient antibody-mediated virus control. This immune evasion mechanism imposes limitations on antibody-based vaccination and convalescent serum therapy. PMID:26587982

  16. Detailed glycan structural characterization by electronic excitation dissociation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Jiang, Yan; Chen, Yajie; Huang, Yiqun; Costello, Catherine E; Lin, Cheng

    2013-11-01

    The structural complexity and diversity of glycans parallel their multilateral functions in living systems. To better understand the vital roles glycans play in biological processes, it is imperative to develop analytical tools that can provide detailed glycan structural information. This was conventionally achieved by multistage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) analysis using collision-induced dissociation (CID) as the fragmentation method. However, the MS(n) approach lacks the sensitivity and throughput needed to analyze complex glycan mixtures from biological sources, often available in limited quantities. We define herein the critical parameters for a recently developed fragmentation technique, electronic excitation dissociation (EED), which can yield rich structurally informative fragment ions during liquid chromatographic (LC)-MS/MS analysis of glycans. We further demonstrate that permethylation, reducing end labeling and judicious selection of the metal charge carrier, can greatly facilitate spectral interpretation. With its high sensitivity, throughput, and compatibility with online chromatographic separation techniques, EED appears to hold great promise for large-scale glycomics studies. PMID:24080071

  17. Structural evolution of glycan recognition by a family of potent HIV antibodies.

    PubMed

    Garces, Fernando; Sok, Devin; Kong, Leopold; McBride, Ryan; Kim, Helen J; Saye-Francisco, Karen F; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Hua, Yuanzi; Cupo, Albert; Moore, John P; Paulson, James C; Ward, Andrew B; Burton, Dennis R; Wilson, Ian A

    2014-09-25

    The HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) is densely covered with self-glycans that should help shield it from recognition by the human immune system. Here, we examine how a particularly potent family of broadly neutralizing antibodies (Abs) has evolved common and distinct structural features to counter the glycan shield and interact with both glycan and protein components of HIV Env. The inferred germline antibody already harbors potential binding pockets for a glycan and a short protein segment. Affinity maturation then leads to divergent evolutionary branches that either focus on a single glycan and protein segment (e.g., Ab PGT124) or engage multiple glycans (e.g., Abs PGT121-123). Furthermore, other surrounding glycans are avoided by selecting an appropriate initial antibody shape that prevents steric hindrance. Such molecular recognition lessons are important for engineering proteins that can recognize or accommodate glycans. PMID:25259921

  18. Improving N-Glycan Coverage using HPLC-MS with Electrospray Ionization at Subambient Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Marginean, Ioan; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Moore, Ronald J.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-10-01

    Human serum glycan profiling with mass spectrometry (MS) has been employed to study several disease conditions and is demonstrating promise for e.g. clinical biomarker discovery. However, the poor glycan ionization efficiency and the large dynamic range of glycan concentrations in human sera hinder comprehensive profiling. In particular, large glycans are problematic because they are present at low concentrations and prone to fragmentation. Here we show that the sub-ambient pressure ionization with nanoelectrospray (SPIN)-MS can expand the serum glycome profile when compared with the conventional atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS with a heated capillary inlet. Notably, the ions generated by the SPIN interface were observed at higher charge states for 50% of the annotated glycans. Out of a total of 130 detected glycans, 34 were only detected with the SPIN-MS, resulting in improved coverage of glycan families as well as of glycans with larger numbers of labile monosaccharides.

  19. Structural evolution of glycan recognition by a family of potent HIV antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Garces, Fernando; Sok, Devin; Kong, Leopold; McBride, Ryan; Kim, Helen J.; Saye-Francisco, Karen F.; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Hua, Yuanzi; Cupo, Albert; Moore, John P.; Paulson, James C.; Ward, Andrew B.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) is densely covered with self-glycans that should help shield it from recognition by the human immune system. Here we examine how a particularly potent family of broadly neutralizing antibodies (Abs) has evolved common and distinct structural features to counter the glycan shield and interact with both glycan and protein components of HIV Env. The inferred germline antibody already harbors potential binding pockets for a glycan and a short protein segment. Affinity maturation then leads to divergent evolutionary branches that either focus on a single glycan and protein segment (e.g. Ab PGT124) or engage multiple glycans (e.g. Abs PGT121-123). Furthermore, other surrounding glycans are avoided by selecting an appropriate initial antibody shape that prevents steric hindrance. Such molecular recognition lessons are important for engineering proteins that can recognize or accommodate glycans. PMID:25259921

  20. Protecting group-free immobilization of glycans for affinity chromatography using glycosylsulfonohydrazide donors.

    PubMed

    Hernandez Armada, Daniel; Santos, Jobette T; Richards, Michele R; Cairo, Christopher W

    2015-11-19

    A variety of applications in glycobiology exploit affinity chromatography through the immobilization of glycans to a solid support. Although several strategies are known, they may provide certain advantages or disadvantages in how the sugar is attached to the affinity matrix. Additionally, the products of some methods may be hard to characterize chemically due to non-specific reactions. The lack of specificity in standard immobilization reactions makes affinity chromatography with expensive oligosaccharides challenging. As a result, methods for specific and efficient immobilization of oligosaccharides remain of interest. Herein, we present a method for the immobilization of saccharides using N'-glycosylsulfonohydrazide (GSH) carbohydrate donors. We have compared GSH immobilization to known strategies, including the use of divinyl sulfone (DVS) and cyanuric chloride (CC), for the generation of affinity matrices. We compared immobilization methods by determining their immobilization efficiency, based on a comparison of the mass of immobilized carbohydrate and the concentration of active binding sites (determined using lectins). Our results indicate that immobilization using GSH donors can provide comparable amounts of carbohydrate epitopes on solid support while consuming almost half of the material required for DVS immobilization. The lectin binding capacity observed for these two methods suggests that GSH immobilization is more efficient. We propose that this method of oligosaccharide immobilization will be an important tool for glycobiologists working with precious glycan samples purified from biological sources. PMID:26454791

  1. Glycobiology of cell death: when glycans and lectins govern cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, R G; Rabinovich, G A

    2013-01-01

    Although one typically thinks of carbohydrates as associated with cell growth and viability, glycosylation also has an integral role in many processes leading to cell death. Glycans, either alone or complexed with glycan-binding proteins, can deliver intracellular signals or control extracellular processes that promote initiation, execution and resolution of cell death programs. Herein, we review the role of glycans and glycan-binding proteins as essential components of the cell death machinery during physiologic and pathologic settings. PMID:23703323

  2. Glycan involvement in the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to tears.

    PubMed

    Kautto, Liisa; Nguyen-Khuong, Terry; Everest-Dass, Arun; Leong, Andrea; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark D P; Packer, Nicolle H; Peterson, Robyn

    2016-04-01

    The human eye is constantly bathed by tears, which protect the ocular surface via a variety of mechanisms. The O-linked glycans of tear mucins have long been considered to play a role in binding to pathogens and facilitating their removal in the tear flow. Other conjugated glycans in tears could similarly contribute to pathogen binding and removal but have received less attention. In the work presented here we assessed the contribution of glycan moieties, in particular the protein attached N-glycans, presented by the broad complement of tear proteins to the adhesion of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of microbial keratitis and ulceration of the cornea. Our adhesion assay involved immobilising the macromolecular components of tears into the wells of a polyvinyl difluoride (PVDF) microtitre filter plate and probing the binding of fluorescently labelled bacteria. Three P. aeruginosa strains were studied: a cytotoxic strain (6206) and an invasive strain (6294) from eye infections, and an invasive strain (320) from a urinary tract infection (UTI). The ocular isolates adhered two to three times more to human tears than to human saliva or porcine gastric mucin, suggesting ocular niche-specific adaptation. Support for the role of the N-glycans carried by human tear proteins in the binding and removal of P. aeruginosa from the eye was shown by: 1) pre-incubation of the bacteria with free component sugars, galactose, mannose, fucose and sialyl lactose (or combination thereof) inhibiting adhesion of all the P. aeruginosa strains to the immobilised tear proteins, with the greatest inhibition of binding of the ocular cytotoxic 6206 and least for the invasive 6294 strain; 2) pre-incubation of the bacteria with N-glycans released from the commercially available human milk lactoferrin, an abundant protein that carries N-linked glycans in tears, inhibiting the adhesion to tears of the ocular bacteria by up to 70%, which was significantly more

  3. Complicated N-linked glycans in simple organisms

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Birgit; Hykollari, Alba; Yan, Shi; Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2013-01-01

    Although countless genomes have now been sequenced, the glycomes of the vast majority of eukaryotes still present a series of unmapped frontiers. However, strides are being made in a few groups of invertebrate and unicellular organisms as regards their N-glycans and N-glycosylation pathways. Thereby, the traditional classification of glycan structures inevitably approaches its boundaries. Indeed, the glycomes of these organisms are rich in surprises including a multitude of modifications of the core regions of N-glycans and unusual antennae. From the actually rather limited glycomic information we have, it is nevertheless obvious that the biotechnological, developmental and immunological relevance of these modifications, especially in insect cell lines, model organisms and parasites means that deciphering unusual glycomes is of more than just academic interest. PMID:22944671

  4. Bridging Innate and Adaptive Antitumor Immunity Targeting Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Pashov, Anastas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Bejatolah; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Effective immunotherapy for cancer depends on cellular responses to tumor antigens. The role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in T-cell recognition and T-cell receptor repertoire selection has become a central tenet in immunology. Structurally, this does not contradict earlier findings that T-cells can differentiate between small hapten structures like simple glycans. Understanding T-cell recognition of antigens as defined genetically by MHC and combinatorially by T cell receptors led to the “altered self” hypothesis. This notion reflects a more fundamental principle underlying immune surveillance and integrating evolutionarily and mechanistically diverse elements of the immune system. Danger associated molecular patterns, including those generated by glycan remodeling, represent an instance of altered self. A prominent example is the modification of the tumor-associated antigen MUC1. Similar examples emphasize glycan reactivity patterns of antigen receptors as a phenomenon bridging innate and adaptive but also humoral and cellular immunity and providing templates for immunotherapies. PMID:20617150

  5. Using CRISPR-Cas9 to quantify the contributions of O-glycans, N-glycans and Glycosphingolipids to human leukocyte-endothelium adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Stolfa, Gino; Mondal, Nandini; Zhu, Yuqi; Yu, Xinheng; Buffone, Alexander; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2016-01-01

    There is often interest in dissecting the relative contributions of the N-glycans, O-glycans and glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in regulating complex biological traits like cell signaling, adhesion, development and metastasis. To address this, we developed a CRISPR-Cas9 toolkit to selectively truncate each of these commonly expressed glycan-types. Here, O-glycan biosynthesis was truncated by knocking-out Core 1 β3Gal-T Specific Molecular Chaperone (COSMC), N-glycans by targeting the β1,2 GlcNAc-transferase (MGAT1) and GSLs by deleting UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG). These reagents were applied to reveal the glycoconjugates regulating human myeloid cell adhesion to selectins under physiological shear-flow observed during inflammation. These functional studies show that leukocyte rolling on P- and L-selectin is ablated in cells lacking O-glycans, with N-glycan truncation also increasing cell rolling velocity on L-selectin. All three glycan families contributed to E-selectin dependent cell adhesion with N-glycans contributing to all aspects of the leukocyte adhesion cascade, O-glycans only being important during initial recruitment, and GSLs stabilizing slow cell rolling and the transition to firm arrest. Overall, the genome editing tools developed here may be broadly applied in studies of cellular glycosylation. PMID:27458028

  6. Glycan analysis by reversible reaction to hydrazide beads and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuang J; Zhang, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Investigation into glycoproteins and their associated glycans is the key to understanding the function of glycoproteins in biological pathways and disease development. Current methods for glycan analysis are generally based on multiple preparation processes to separate glycans from proteins and other molecules prior to analysis. During the multistep purification processes, glycans are continuously lost and the procedure increases the difficulty for accurate quantitative analysis of glycans. Here we describe the development of a novel technique, which uses hydrazide beads to capture glycans. It is based on the conjugation of glycans to hydrazide beads through the formation of reversible hydrazone, washing out unbound nonglycans, then releasing captured glycans by acids. The results showed that the glycans were able to be isolated from concatenate peptides by using hydrazide beads. This technique was also applied to the analysis of glycans from sera sample. The integrated capture-release on the solid-phase simplifies the procedure for glycan preparation from a complex mixture and can be a powerful tool for glycan analysis. PMID:22304307

  7. Glycan Analysis by Reversible Reaction to Hydrazide Beads and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuang J.; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Investigation into glycoproteins and their associated glycans is the key to understanding the function of glycoproteins in biological pathways and disease development. Current methods for glycan analysis are generally based on multiple preparation processes to separate glycans from proteins and other molecules prior to analysis. During the multistep purification processes, glycans are continuously lost and the procedure increases the difficulty for accurate quantitative analysis of glycans. Here we describe the development of a novel technique, which uses hydrazide beads to capture glycans. It is based on the conjugation of glycans to hydrazide beads through the formation of reversible hydrazone, washing out unbound nonglycans, then releasing captured glycans by acids. The results showed that the glycans were able to be isolated from concatenate peptides by using hydrazide beads. This technique was also applied to the analysis of glycans from sera sample. The integrated capture-release on the solid-phase simplifies the procedure for glycan preparation from a complex mixture and can be a powerful tool for glycan analysis. PMID:22304307

  8. Salmonella Degrades the Host Glycocalyx Leading to Altered Infection and Glycan Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Arabyan, Narine; Park, Dayoung; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weis, Allison M.; Huang, Bihua C.; Williams, Cynthia C.; Desai, Prerak; Shah, Jigna; Jeannotte, Richard; Kong, Nguyet; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Weimer, Bart C.

    2016-01-01

    Complex glycans cover the gut epithelial surface to protect the cell from the environment. Invasive pathogens must breach the glycan layer before initiating infection. While glycan degradation is crucial for infection, this process is inadequately understood. Salmonella contains 47 glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) that may degrade the glycan. We hypothesized that keystone genes from the entire GH complement of Salmonella are required to degrade glycans to change infection. This study determined that GHs recognize the terminal monosaccharides (N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), galactose, mannose, and fucose) and significantly (p < 0.05) alter infection. During infection, Salmonella used its two GHs sialidase nanH and amylase malS for internalization by targeting different glycan structures. The host glycans were altered during Salmonella association via the induction of N-glycan biosynthesis pathways leading to modification of host glycans by increasing fucosylation and mannose content, while decreasing sialylation. Gene expression analysis indicated that the host cell responded by regulating more than 50 genes resulting in remodeled glycans in response to Salmonella treatment. This study established the glycan structures on colonic epithelial cells, determined that Salmonella required two keystone GHs for internalization, and left remodeled host glycans as a result of infection. These data indicate that microbial GHs are undiscovered virulence factors. PMID:27389966

  9. Salmonella Degrades the Host Glycocalyx Leading to Altered Infection and Glycan Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Arabyan, Narine; Park, Dayoung; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weis, Allison M; Huang, Bihua C; Williams, Cynthia C; Desai, Prerak; Shah, Jigna; Jeannotte, Richard; Kong, Nguyet; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Weimer, Bart C

    2016-01-01

    Complex glycans cover the gut epithelial surface to protect the cell from the environment. Invasive pathogens must breach the glycan layer before initiating infection. While glycan degradation is crucial for infection, this process is inadequately understood. Salmonella contains 47 glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) that may degrade the glycan. We hypothesized that keystone genes from the entire GH complement of Salmonella are required to degrade glycans to change infection. This study determined that GHs recognize the terminal monosaccharides (N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), galactose, mannose, and fucose) and significantly (p < 0.05) alter infection. During infection, Salmonella used its two GHs sialidase nanH and amylase malS for internalization by targeting different glycan structures. The host glycans were altered during Salmonella association via the induction of N-glycan biosynthesis pathways leading to modification of host glycans by increasing fucosylation and mannose content, while decreasing sialylation. Gene expression analysis indicated that the host cell responded by regulating more than 50 genes resulting in remodeled glycans in response to Salmonella treatment. This study established the glycan structures on colonic epithelial cells, determined that Salmonella required two keystone GHs for internalization, and left remodeled host glycans as a result of infection. These data indicate that microbial GHs are undiscovered virulence factors. PMID:27389966

  10. Glycan Node Analysis: A Bottom-up Approach to Glycomics.

    PubMed

    Zaare, Sahba; Aguilar, Jesús S; Hu, Yueming; Ferdosi, Shadi; Borges, Chad R

    2016-01-01

    Synthesized in a non-template-driven process by enzymes called glycosyltransferases, glycans are key players in various significant intra- and extracellular events. Many pathological conditions, notably cancer, affect gene expression, which can in turn deregulate the relative abundance and activity levels of glycoside hydrolase and glycosyltransferase enzymes. Unique aberrant whole glycans resulting from deregulated glycosyltransferase(s) are often present in trace quantities within complex biofluids, making their detection difficult and sometimes stochastic. However, with proper sample preparation, one of the oldest forms of mass spectrometry (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS) can routinely detect the collection of branch-point and linkage-specific monosaccharides ("glycan nodes") present in complex biofluids. Complementary to traditional top-down glycomics techniques, the approach discussed herein involves the collection and condensation of each constituent glycan node in a sample into a single independent analytical signal, which provides detailed structural and quantitative information about changes to the glycome as a whole and reveals potentially deregulated glycosyltransferases. Improvements to the permethylation and subsequent liquid/liquid extraction stages provided herein enhance reproducibility and overall yield by facilitating minimal exposure of permethylated glycans to alkaline aqueous conditions. Modifications to the acetylation stage further increase the extent of reaction and overall yield. Despite their reproducibility, the overall yields of N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc) partially permethylated alditol acetates (PMAAs) are shown to be inherently lower than their expected theoretical value relative to hexose PMAAs. Calculating the ratio of the area under the extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) for each individual hexose PMAA (or HexNAc PMAA) to the sum of such XIC areas for all hexoses (or HexNAcs) provides a new normalization method that