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Sample records for glycera dibranchiata monomeric

  1. Possible physiological uptake mechanism of methylmercury by the marine bloodworm (Glycera dibranchiata)

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, D.M.; Cadwell, L.L.; Preston, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of methylmercury by fish has been studied extensively. There have been some studies on marine invertebrates. These studies have been concerned with either the effect of methylmercury on viability or methylmercury distribution among body parts. The physiological uptake mechanisms of methylmercury in aquatic organisms have not been studied. The objective of this paper is to examine the uptake mechanism of methylmercury from water in a lower-food-chain organism, the marine bloodworm (Glycera dibranchi-ata).

  2. Anomalously slow cyanide binding to Glycera dibranchiata monomer methemoglobin component II: Implication for the equilibrium constant

    SciTech Connect

    Mintorovitch, J.; Satterlee, J.D. )

    1988-10-18

    In comparison to sperm whale metmyoglobin, metleghemoglobin {alpha}, methemoglobins, and heme peroxidases, the purified Glycera dibranchiata monomer methemoglobin component II exhibits anomalously slow cyanide ligation kinetics. For the component II monomer methemoglobin this reaction has been studied under pseudo-first-order conditions at pH 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0, employing 100-250-fold mole excesses of potassium cyanide at each pH. The analysis shows that the concentration-independent bimolecular rate constant is small in comparison to those of the other heme proteins. Furthermore, the results show that the dissociation rate is extremely slow. Separation of the bimolecular rate constant into contributions from k{sub CN{sup {minus}}} (the rate constant for CN{sup {minus}} binding) and from k{sub HCN} (the rate constant for HCN binding) shows that the former is approximately 90 times greater. These results indicate that cyanide ligation reactions are not instantaneous for this protein, which is important for those attempting to study the ligand-binding equilibria. From the results presented here the authors estimate that the actual equilibrium dissociation constant (K{sub D}) for cyanide binding to this G. dibranchiata monomer methemoglobin has a numerical upper limit that is at least 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the value reported before the kinetic results were known.

  3. Assignment of selected hyperfine proton NMR resonances in the met forms of Glycera dibranchiata monomer hemoglobins and comparisons with sperm whale metmyoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinidis, I.; Satterlee, J.D.; Pandey, R.K.; Leung, H.K.; Smith, K.M.

    1988-04-19

    This work indicates a high degree of purity for our preparations of all three of the primary Glycera dibranchiata monomer hemoglobins and details assignments of the heme methyl and vinyl protons in the hyperfine shift region of the ferric (aquo.) protein forms. The assignments were carried out by reconstituting the apoproteins of each component with selectively deuteriated hemes. The results indicate that even though the individual component preparations consist of essentially a single protein, the proton NMR spectra indicate spectroscopic heterogeneity. Evidence is presented for identification and classification of major and minor protein forms that are present in solutions of each component. Finally, in contrast to previous results, a detailed analysis of the proton hyperfine shift patterns of the major and minor forms of each component, in comparison to the major and minor forms of metmyoglobin, leads to the conclusions that the corresponding forms of the proteins from each species have strikingly similar heme-globin contacts and display nearly identical heme electronic structures and coordination numbers.

  4. A Polychaete's powerful punch: venom gland transcriptomics of Glycera reveals a complex cocktail of toxin homologs.

    PubMed

    von Reumont, Björn M; Campbell, Lahcen I; Richter, Sandy; Hering, Lars; Sykes, Dan; Hetmank, Jörg; Jenner, Ronald A; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2014-09-01

    Glycerids are marine annelids commonly known as bloodworms. Bloodworms have an eversible proboscis adorned with jaws connected to venom glands. Bloodworms prey on invertebrates, and it is known that the venom glands produce compounds that can induce toxic effects in animals. Yet, none of these putative toxins has been characterized on a molecular basis. Here we present the transcriptomic profiles of the venom glands of three species of bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, Glycera fallax and Glycera tridactyla, as well as the body tissue of G. tridactyla. The venom glands express a complex mixture of transcripts coding for putative toxin precursors. These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins. The toxins represent five functional categories: Pore-forming and membrane-disrupting toxins, neurotoxins, protease inhibitors, other enzymes, and CAP domain toxins. Many of the transcripts coding for putative Glycera toxins belong to classes that have been widely recruited into venoms, but some are homologs of toxins previously only known from the venoms of scorpaeniform fish and monotremes (stonustoxin-like toxin), turrid gastropods (turripeptide-like peptides), and sea anemones (gigantoxin I-like neurotoxin). This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore. Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands. PMID:25193302

  5. A Polychaete’s Powerful Punch: Venom Gland Transcriptomics of Glycera Reveals a Complex Cocktail of Toxin Homologs

    PubMed Central

    von Reumont, Björn M.; Richter, Sandy; Hering, Lars; Sykes, Dan; Hetmank, Jörg; Jenner, Ronald A.; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Glycerids are marine annelids commonly known as bloodworms. Bloodworms have an eversible proboscis adorned with jaws connected to venom glands. Bloodworms prey on invertebrates, and it is known that the venom glands produce compounds that can induce toxic effects in animals. Yet, none of these putative toxins has been characterized on a molecular basis. Here we present the transcriptomic profiles of the venom glands of three species of bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, Glycera fallax and Glycera tridactyla, as well as the body tissue of G. tridactyla. The venom glands express a complex mixture of transcripts coding for putative toxin precursors. These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins. The toxins represent five functional categories: Pore-forming and membrane-disrupting toxins, neurotoxins, protease inhibitors, other enzymes, and CAP domain toxins. Many of the transcripts coding for putative Glycera toxins belong to classes that have been widely recruited into venoms, but some are homologs of toxins previously only known from the venoms of scorpaeniform fish and monotremes (stonustoxin-like toxin), turrid gastropods (turripeptide-like peptides), and sea anemones (gigantoxin I-like neurotoxin). This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore. Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands. PMID:25193302

  6. Distribution and role of trace transition metals in Glycera worm jaws studied with synchrotron microbeam techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenegger, Helga C.; Birkedal, Henrik; Casa, Deigo M.; Cross, Julie O.; Heald, Steve M.; Waite, J. Herbert; Stucky, Galen

    2005-05-31

    A combination of position-resolved synchrotron microbeam techniques was used to explore the distribution and role of trace transition metals in the jaws of Glycera dibranchiata. The mandibles of this marine sediment worm have recently been found to be reinforced by the copper-based biomineral atacamite [Cu2(OH)3Cl]. Here we show that the system is more complex, containing zinc and iron and unmineralized copper compounds as well. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that a fraction of copper is present in oxidation state, Cu(I), in contrast to the mineral that exclusively contains Cu(II). X-ray fluorescence imaging revealed traces of copper also in the jaw base devoid of mineral. Traces of iron were found as well, but occurred spatially correlated with the copper mineral, suggesting a substitution of copper atoms by iron in the atacamite mineral. Zinc was evenly dispersed throughout the jaw matrix, quite in analogy to zinc in Nereis jaw, a related worm species, where nonmineralized zinc serves to cross-link and harden the proteinaceous matrix.

  7. Monomeric Synucleins Generate Membrane Curvature*

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Christopher H.; Chandra, Sreeganga S.

    2013-01-01

    Synucleins are a family of presynaptic membrane binding proteins. α-Synuclein, the principal member of this family, is mutated in familial Parkinson disease. To gain insight into the molecular functions of synucleins, we performed an unbiased proteomic screen and identified synaptic protein changes in αβγ-synuclein knock-out brains. We observed increases in the levels of select membrane curvature sensing/generating proteins. One of the most prominent changes was for the N-BAR protein endophilin A1. Here we demonstrate that the levels of synucleins and endophilin A1 are reciprocally regulated and that they are functionally related. We show that all synucleins can robustly generate membrane curvature similar to endophilins. However, only monomeric but not tetrameric α-synuclein can bend membranes. Further, A30P α-synuclein, a Parkinson disease mutant that disrupts protein folding, is also deficient in this activity. This suggests that synucleins generate membrane curvature through the asymmetric insertion of their N-terminal amphipathic helix. Based on our findings, we propose to include synucleins in the class of amphipathic helix-containing proteins that sense and generate membrane curvature. These results advance our understanding of the physiological function of synucleins. PMID:23184946

  8. A biochemical approach to assessment of effects of organic pollution on the metabolism of the non-opportunistic polychaete, Glycera alba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackstock, J.

    1980-03-01

    Loch Creran and Loch Eil, sea lochs in the west of Scotland, both receive discharges of particulate organic effluent from industrial installations. Glycera alba (Müller) is widely distributed in the sediments of both lochs, and assays of activities of enzymes associated with energy-yielding metabolism have been done on crude extracts of specimens collected from variously affected areas. Mean phosphofructokinase activities were low in extracts of G. alba collected some 400 m from the source of effluent from a seaweed processing factory, increased to a maximum at 900 m and declined slightly at 1150 m where the sediment is little affected by the effluent. Pyruvate kinase activities exhibited qualitatively similar changes of lesser magnitude and no differences in a-glycerophosphate or malate dehydrogenase activities were observed. In G. alba from Loch Eil a relationship was established between phosphofructokinase activity and Eh at 4 cm in the sediment and the maximum change in phosphofructokinase was found at low Eh, below -50 mV. The data are interpreted with reference to results from biological and environmental monitoring in Lochs Eil and Creran. It is suggested that the low phosphofructokinase activities in G. alba from the most affected areas of each loch may constitute a consistent biochemical response to effects of the organic inputs.

  9. Size separation of analytes using monomeric surfactants

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Wei, Wei

    2005-04-12

    A sieving medium for use in the separation of analytes in a sample containing at least one such analyte comprises a monomeric non-ionic surfactant of the of the general formula, B-A, wherein A is a hydrophilic moiety and B is a hydrophobic moiety, present in a solvent at a concentration forming a self-assembled micelle configuration under selected conditions and having an aggregation number providing an equivalent weight capable of effecting the size separation of the sample solution so as to resolve a target analyte(s) in a solution containing the same, the size separation taking place in a chromatography or electrophoresis separation system.

  10. Soluble Monomeric IgG1 Fc*

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Tianlei; Chen, Weizao; Gong, Rui; Feng, Yang; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody fragments are emerging as promising biopharmaceuticals because of their relatively small size and other unique properties. However, compared with full-size antibodies, these antibody fragments lack the ability to bind the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and have reduced half-lives. Fc engineered to bind antigens but preserve interactions with FcRn and Fc fused with monomeric proteins currently are being developed as candidate therapeutics with prolonged half-lives; in these and other cases, Fc is a dimer of two CH2-CH3 chains. To further reduce the size of Fc but preserve FcRn binding, we generated three human soluble monomeric IgG1 Fcs (mFcs) by using a combination of structure-based rational protein design combined with multiple screening strategies. These mFcs were highly soluble and retained binding to human FcRn comparable with that of Fc. These results provide direct experimental evidence that efficient binding to human FcRn does not require human Fc dimerization. The newly identified mFcs are promising for the development of mFc fusion proteins and for novel types of mFc-based therapeutic antibodies of small size and long half-lives. PMID:22518843

  11. Characterization of A Myristoylated, Monomeric HIV Gag Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Jun; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Chen, Xuemin; Li, Hua; Ding, Lingmei; Spearman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The process of HIV assembly requires extensive homomultimerization of the Gag polyprotein on cellular membranes to generate the nascent particle bud. Here we generated a full-length, monomeric Gag polyprotein bearing mutations that eliminated multimerization in living cells as indicated by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Monomeric Gag resembled non-myristoylated Gag in its weak membrane binding characteristics and lack of association with detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs or lipid rafts). Monomeric Gag failed to assemble virus-like particles, but was inefficiently rescued into particles by wildtype Gag through the influence of the matrix domain. The subcellular distribution of monomeric Gag was remarkably different than either non-myristoylated Gag or wildtype Gag. Monomeric Gag was found on intracellular membranes and at the plasma membrane, where it induced the formation of plasma membrane extensions and ruffles. This study indicates that monomeric Gag can traffic to assembly sites in the cell, where it interacts weakly with membranes. PMID:19285328

  12. Sequestration and transport of lignin monomeric precursors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Jun; Miao, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Ke-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant terrestrial biopolymer after cellulose. It is essential for the viability of vascular plants. Lignin precursors, the monolignols, are synthesized within the cytosol of the cell. Thereafter, these monomeric precursors are exported into the cell wall, where they are polymerized and integrated into the wall matrix. Accordingly, transport of monolignols across cell membranes is a critical step affecting deposition of lignin in the secondarily thickened cell wall. While the biosynthesis of monolignols is relatively well understood, our knowledge of sequestration and transport of these monomers is sketchy. In this article, we review different hypotheses on monolignol transport and summarize the recent progresses toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying monolignol sequestration and transport across membranes. Deciphering molecular mechanisms for lignin precursor transport will support a better biotechnological solution to manipulate plant lignification for more efficient agricultural and industrial applications of cell wall biomass. PMID:21245806

  13. Sequestration and Transport of Lignin Monomeric Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.J.; Miao, Y.-C.; Zhang, K.-W.

    2011-01-18

    Lignin is the second most abundant terrestrial biopolymer after cellulose. It is essential for the viability of vascular plants. Lignin precursors, the monolignols, are synthesized within the cytosol of the cell. Thereafter, these monomeric precursors are exported into the cell wall, where they are polymerized and integrated into the wall matrix. Accordingly, transport of monolignols across cell membranes is a critical step affecting deposition of lignin in the secondarily thickened cell wall. While the biosynthesis of monolignols is relatively well understood, our knowledge of sequestration and transport of these monomers is sketchy. In this article, we review different hypotheses on monolignol transport and summarize the recent progresses toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying monolignol sequestration and transport across membranes. Deciphering molecular mechanisms for lignin precursor transport will support a better biotechnological solution to manipulate plant lignification for more efficient agricultural and industrial applications of cell wall biomass.

  14. The Oligomeric Nature of Triosephosphate Isomerase. Studies of Monomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zárate-Pérez, Francisco; Vázquez-Contreras, Edgar

    2008-02-01

    In this work, we report the implications of the monomerization of triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) from T. cruzi (TcTIM). A monomeric mutant (monoTcTIM) of this species was constructed by genetic engineering, shortening the main loop of interdigitation, which is fundamental for its dimerization. The properties of monoTcTIM were compared with those of the other TIM monomeric versions: genetically engineered mutants, or equilibrium intermediates obtained by chemical denaturation. The stability for almost all the monomeric variants so far reported appears in the same range, and also presents similar structural characteristics. Regarding the catalytic activity of monomeric mutants, when it is present is in several orders of magnitude lower than those observed in their respective wild-type enzyme. The change in the hydrophobic surface of TcTIM after and before monomerization was also studied and corresponds to an extensive area of the interface region, which becomes exposed when monomers are dissociated. This fact could be related with conformational changes in the local environment of the catalytic amino acids responsible for the isomerization of the substrate and consequently the inactivation of its catalytic properties. Comparison of the structural, folding and unfolding properties, as well as stability studies could give answers on why this enzyme is an obligate oligomer.

  15. 50 CFR 648.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... affecting § 648.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...—Aequipecten irradians. Blood arc clam—Anadara ovalis. Blood worm—Glycera dibranchiata. Blue crab—Callinectes... with mesh size no smaller than 10-inches (25.4 cm) diamond mesh that is designed and used to fish...

  16. 50 CFR 648.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... affected states. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 648.2, see the List of CFR...—Aequipecten irradians. Blood arc clam—Anadara ovalis. Blood worm—Glycera dibranchiata. Blue crab—Callinectes.... Monkfish gillnets means gillnet gear with mesh size no smaller than 10-inches (25.4 cm) diamond mesh...

  17. 50 CFR 648.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affecting § 648.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...—Aequipecten irradians. Blood arc clam—Anadara ovalis. Blood worm—Glycera dibranchiata. Blue crab—Callinectes... americanus. Monkfish gillnets means gillnet gear with mesh size no smaller than 10-inches (25.4 cm)...

  18. 50 CFR 648.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...—Aequipecten irradians. Blood arc clam—Anadara ovalis. Blood worm—Glycera dibranchiata. Blue crab—Callinectes... with mesh size no smaller than 10-inches (25.4 cm) diamond mesh that is designed and used to fish for... strain the mesh remains open to a square-like shape. Square mesh can be formed by hanging diamond...

  19. Functional Monomerization of a ClC-Type Fluoride Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Last, Nicholas B.; Miller, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Anion channels and antiporters of the ClC superfamily have been found to be exclusively dimeric in nature, even though each individual monomer contains the complete transport pathway. Here, we describe the destabilization through mutagenesis of the dimer interface of a bacterial F−/H+ antiporter, ClCF-eca. Several mutations that produce monomer/dimer equilibrium of the normally dimeric transporter were found, simply by shortening a hydrophobic side chain in some cases. One mutation, L376W, leads to a wholly monomeric variant that shows full activity. Furthermore, we discovered a naturally destabilized homologue, ClCF-rla, which undergoes partial monomerization in detergent without additional mutations. These results, in combination with the previous functional monomerization of the distant relative ClC-ec1, demonstrate that the monomer alone is the functional unit for several clades of the ClC superfamily. PMID:26449639

  20. Functional Monomerization of a ClC-Type Fluoride Transporter.

    PubMed

    Last, Nicholas B; Miller, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Anion channels and antiporters of the ClC superfamily have been found to be exclusively dimeric in nature, even though each individual monomer contains the complete transport pathway. Here, we describe the destabilization through mutagenesis of the dimer interface of a bacterial F(-)/H(+) antiporter, ClC(F)-eca. Several mutations that produce monomer/dimer equilibrium of the normally dimeric transporter were found, simply by shortening a hydrophobic side chain in some cases. One mutation, L376W, leads to a wholly monomeric variant that shows full activity. Furthermore, we discovered a naturally destabilized homologue, ClC(F)-rla, which undergoes partial monomerization in detergent without additional mutations. These results, in combination with the previous functional monomerization of the distant relative ClC-ec1, demonstrate that the monomer alone is the functional unit for several clades of the ClC superfamily. PMID:26449639

  1. How acidic are monomeric structural units of heparin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remko, Milan; Broer, Ria; Van Duijnen, Piet Th.

    2013-12-01

    Density functional theory methods with the B3LYP functional have been used to letter the acidity of carboxyl, O-sulfo and N-sulfo groups in six basic monomeric structural units of heparin (1-OMe ΔUA-2S, 1-OMe GlcN-S6S, 1,4-DiOMe GlcA, 1,4-DiOMe GlcN-S3S6S, 1,4-DiOMe IdoA-2S, and 1,4-DiOMe GlcN-S6S). The predicted gas-phase acidity of the acidic functional groups in the monomeric structural units of heparin is: O-sulfo > N-sulfo > carboxyl. The computed pKa values provide the same order of acidity as was observed in water solution. This implies that hydration does not change ordering of acidity of major acidic groups of monomeric structural units of heparin.

  2. Homotropic cooperativity of monomeric cytochrome P450 3A4

    SciTech Connect

    Baas, Bradley J.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-11-16

    Mechanistic studies of mammalian cytochrome P450s are often obscured by the phase heterogeneity of solubilized preparations of membrane enzymes. The various protein-protein aggregation states of microsomes, detergent solubilized cytochrome or a family of aqueous multimeric complexes can effect measured substrate binding events as well as subsequent steps in the reaction cycle. In addition, these P450 monooxygenases are normally found in a membrane environment and the bilayer composition and dynamics can also effect these catalytic steps. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of a homogeneous monomeric population of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) in a soluble nanoscale membrane bilayer, or Nanodisc [Nano Lett. 2 (2002) 853]. Cytochrome P450 3A4:Nanodisc assemblies were formed and purified to yield a 1:1 ratio of CYP 3A4 to Nanodisc. Solution small angle X-ray scattering was used to structurally characterize this monomeric CYP 3A4 in the membrane bilayer. The purified CYP 3A4:Nanodiscs showed a heretofore undescribed high level of homotropic cooperativity in the binding of testosterone. Soluble CYP 3A4:Nanodisc retains its known function and shows prototypic hydroxylation of testosterone when driven by hydrogen peroxide. This represents the first functional characterization of a true monomeric preparation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in a phospholipid bilayer and elucidates new properties of the monomeric form.

  3. Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (monomeric MDI) and polymeric MDI (PMDI)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate ( monomeric MDI ) and polymeric MDI ( PMDI ) ; CASRN 101 - 68 - 8 , 9016 - 87 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment devel

  4. KIF 1A: A Processive Monomeric Brownian Kinesin Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirokawa, Nobutaka

    2000-03-01

    We have identified a new monomeric kinesin superfamily motor, KIF 1A, which moves processively on microtubule towards its plus end by the biased Brownian movement. In this symposium I will present our data on the motility assay of a single monomeric KIF 1A molecule, biochemical characterization, and cryo-electron microscopical analyses of KIF 1A-microtutubule complex. The key finding is the nucleotide-dependent binding between the lysine-rich, highly positively-charged loop 12 of the KIF 1A motor domain(K-loop) and the glutamate-rich highly negatively-charged C-terminal region of tubulin (E-hook). This binding did not contribute in the "strong binding state", but only in the "weak binding state" and was demonstrated to be essential for the single-headed processivity by functioning as the anchor for the one-dimensional simple Brownian movement in the weak binding state.

  5. Monomeric Yeast Frataxin is an Iron Binding Protein†

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jeremy D.; Bencze, Krisztina Z.; Jankovic, Ana D.; Crater, Anna K.; Busch, Courtney N.; Bradley, Patrick B.; Stemmler, Ann J.; Spaller, Mark R.; Stemmler, Timothy L.

    2008-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia, an autosomal cardio- and neurodegenerative disorder that affects 1 in 50,000 humans, is caused by decreased levels of the protein frataxin. Although nuclear encoded, frataxin is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix and necessary for proper regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. Frataxin is required for the cellular production of both heme and iron-sulfur clusters. Monomeric frataxin binds with high affinity to ferrochelatase, the enzyme involved in iron insertion into porphyrin during heme production. Monomeric frataxin also binds to Isu, the scaffold protein required for assembly of Fe-S cluster intermediates. These processes (heme and Fe-S cluster assembly) share requirements for iron, suggesting monomeric frataxin might function as the common iron donor. In order to provide a molecular basis to better understand frataxin's function, we have characterized the binding properties and metal site structure of ferrous iron bound to monomeric yeast frataxin. Yeast frataxin is stable as an iron loaded monomer and the protein can bind 2 ferrous iron atoms with micromolar binding affinity. Frataxin amino acids affected by the presence of iron are localized within conserved acidic patches located on the surfaces of both helix-1 and strand-1. Under anaerobic conditions, bound metal is stable in the high-spin ferrous state. The metal-ligand coordination geometry of both metal binding sites is consistent with a 6 coordinate iron-(oxygen and nitrogen) based ligand geometry, surely constructed in part from carboxylate and possibly imidazole side chains coming from residues within these conserved acidic patches on the protein. Based on our results, we have developed a model for how we believe yeast frataxin interacts with iron. PMID:16784228

  6. Monomeric site-specific nucleases for genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P.; Wolfs, Jason M.; Kolaczyk, Tomasz; Roberts, Alanna K.; Hu, Sherry X.; Edgell, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted manipulation of complex genomes often requires the introduction of a double-strand break at defined locations by site-specific DNA endonucleases. Here, we describe a monomeric nuclease domain derived from GIY-YIG homing endonucleases for genome-editing applications. Fusion of the GIY-YIG nuclease domain to three-member zinc-finger DNA binding domains generated chimeric GIY-zinc finger endonucleases (GIY-ZFEs). Significantly, the I-TevI-derived fusions (Tev-ZFEs) function in vitro as monomers to introduce a double-strand break, and discriminate in vitro and in bacterial and yeast assays against substrates lacking a preferred 5′-CNNNG-3′ cleavage motif. The Tev-ZFEs function to induce recombination in a yeast-based assay with activity on par with a homodimeric Zif268 zinc-finger nuclease. We also fused the I-TevI nuclease domain to a catalytically inactive LADGLIDADG homing endonuclease (LHE) scaffold. The monomeric Tev-LHEs are active in vivo and similarly discriminate against substrates lacking the 5′-CNNNG-3′ motif. The monomeric Tev-ZFEs and Tev-LHEs are distinct from the FokI-derived zinc-finger nuclease and TAL effector nuclease platforms as the GIY-YIG domain alleviates the requirement to design two nuclease fusions to target a given sequence, highlighting the diversity of nuclease domains with distinctive biochemical properties suitable for genome-editing applications. PMID:22566637

  7. Kinetics of synthesis of monomeric betaines in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantsev, O. A.; Baruta, D. S.; Kamorin, D. M.; Shirshin, K. V.; Shirshin, K. K.; Kolosov, E. S.

    2016-05-01

    In the nucleophilic addition of N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)methacrylamide to acrylic acid (1 : 1) in aqueous solutions, forming monomeric β-propiobetaine, the dependence of the initial rate on the starting reagent concentration was found to have a pronounced maximum (whose position does not depend on the temperature at 30-70°C). In the case of the addition of N, N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, the dependence was exponential. The dependences of equilibrium conversions on the starting reagent concentrations were of the same type and had a maximum for both systems. The detected concentration effects are related to the peculiarities of the pre-reaction association of the reagents.

  8. Addition-type polyimides from solutions of monomeric reactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, P.; Serafini, T. T.; Lightsey, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The monomeric reactants approach was used to fabricate addition-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites with improved mechanical properties and thermal stability characteristics over those of composites derived from addition-type amide acid prepolymers. A screening study of 24 different monomer combinations was performed. The results of a more extensive investigation of a selected number of monomer combinations showed that the combination providing the best thermomechanical properties was 5-norbornene-2.3-dicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester/4,4(')-methylenedianiline/3,3(')4,4(')-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid dimethyl ester at a molar ratio of 2/3.09/2.09.

  9. Addition-type polyimides from solutions of monomeric reactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, P.; Serafini, T. T.; Lightsey, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The monomeric reactants approach was used to fabricate addition-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites with improved mechanical properties and thermal stability characteristics over those of composites derived from addition-type amide acid prepolymers. A screening study of 24 different monomer combinations was performed. The results of a more extensive investigation of a selected number of monomer combinations showed that the combination providing the best thermomechanical properties was 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester/4,4'-methylenedianiline/3,3'4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dimethyl ester at a molar ratio of 2/3.09/2.09.

  10. A novel subfamily of monomeric inorganic pyrophosphatases in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-García, María R.; Losada, Manuel; Serrano, Aurelio

    2005-01-01

    Two sPPases (soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases, EC 3.6.1.1) have been isolated from the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Both are monomeric proteins of organellar localization, the chloroplastic sPPase I [Cr (Ch. reinhardtii)-sPPase I, 30 kDa] is a major isoform and slightly larger protein than the mitochondrial sPPase II (Cr-sPPase II, 24 kDa). They are members of sPPase family I and are encoded by two different cDNAs, as demonstrated by peptide mass fingerprint analysis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that Cr-sPPase I is closely related to other eukaryotic sPPases, whereas Cr-sPPase II resembles its prokaryotic counterparts. Chloroplastic sPPase I may have replaced a cyanobacterial ancestor very early during plastid evolution. Cr-sPPase II orthologues are found in members of the green photosynthetic lineage, but not in animals or fungi. These two sPPases from photosynthetic eukaryotes are novel monomeric family I sPPases with different molecular phylogenies and cellular localizations. PMID:16313235

  11. Formation of Amyloid Fibers by Monomeric Light Chain Variable Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Brumshtein, Boris; Esswein, Shannon R.; Landau, Meytal; Ryan, Christopher M.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Phillips, Martin L.; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberg, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic light chain amyloidosis is a lethal disease characterized by excess immunoglobulin light chains and light chain fragments composed of variable domains, which aggregate into amyloid fibers. These fibers accumulate and damage organs. Some light chains induce formation of amyloid fibers, whereas others do not, making it unclear what distinguishes amyloid formers from non-formers. One mechanism by which sequence variation may reduce propensity to form amyloid fibers is by shifting the equilibrium toward an amyloid-resistant quaternary structure. Here we identify the monomeric form of the Mcg immunoglobulin light chain variable domain as the quaternary unit required for amyloid fiber assembly. Dimers of Mcg variable domains remain stable and soluble, yet become prone to assemble into amyloid fibers upon disassociation into monomers. PMID:25138218

  12. Thiazine dyes: Evaluation of monomeric and aggregate forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vara, Jimena; Ortiz, Cristina S.

    2016-09-01

    The aggregation phenomenon of Azure B, monobrominated Azure B, Thionine and Methylene Blue was studied by UV-Visible spectrophotometry in different media as a function of dye concentration and temperature variations. The tests carried out in organic solvents allowed the identification of monomeric species of these compounds, which have not been reported in literature and have been wrongly assigned for years. The results obtained in water allowed demonstrating that different kinds of aggregates are present in this medium. In addition, the aggregation tendency of these dyes in organic solvent and aqueous media was established. Several parameters such as lipophilicity, effect of bulky substituents and interactions with media were considered to interpret the aggregation behavior of thiazine dyes.

  13. Thiazine dyes: Evaluation of monomeric and aggregate forms.

    PubMed

    Vara, Jimena; Ortiz, Cristina S

    2016-09-01

    The aggregation phenomenon of Azure B, monobrominated Azure B, Thionine and Methylene Blue was studied by UV-Visible spectrophotometry in different media as a function of dye concentration and temperature variations. The tests carried out in organic solvents allowed the identification of monomeric species of these compounds, which have not been reported in literature and have been wrongly assigned for years. The results obtained in water allowed demonstrating that different kinds of aggregates are present in this medium. In addition, the aggregation tendency of these dyes in organic solvent and aqueous media was established. Several parameters such as lipophilicity, effect of bulky substituents and interactions with media were considered to interpret the aggregation behavior of thiazine dyes. PMID:27219075

  14. mKikGR, a Monomeric Photoswitchable Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kochaniak, Anna B.; Miyawaki, Atsushi; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2008-01-01

    The recent demonstration and utilization of fluorescent proteins whose fluorescence can be switched on and off has greatly expanded the toolkit of molecular and cell biology. These photoswitchable proteins have facilitated the characterization of specifically tagged molecular species in the cell and have enabled fluorescence imaging of intracellular structures with a resolution far below the classical diffraction limit of light. Applications are limited, however, by the fast photobleaching, slow photoswitching, and oligomerization typical for photoswitchable proteins currently available. Here, we report the molecular cloning and spectroscopic characterization of mKikGR, a monomeric version of the previously reported KikGR that displays high photostability and switching rates. Furthermore, we present single-molecule imaging experiments that demonstrate that individual mKikGR proteins can be localized with a precision of better than 10 nanometers, suggesting their suitability for super-resolution imaging. PMID:19079591

  15. Dual allosteric activation mechanisms in monomeric human glucokinase

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, A. Carl; Larion, Mioara; Bowler, Joseph M.; Ramsey, Kristen M.; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Miller, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperativity in human glucokinase (GCK), the body’s primary glucose sensor and a major determinant of glucose homeostatic diseases, is fundamentally different from textbook models of allostery because GCK is monomeric and contains only one glucose-binding site. Prior work has demonstrated that millisecond timescale order-disorder transitions within the enzyme’s small domain govern cooperativity. Here, using limited proteolysis, we map the site of disorder in unliganded GCK to a 30-residue active-site loop that closes upon glucose binding. Positional randomization of the loop, coupled with genetic selection in a glucokinase-deficient bacterium, uncovers a hyperactive GCK variant with substantially reduced cooperativity. Biochemical and structural analysis of this loop variant and GCK variants associated with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia reveal two distinct mechanisms of enzyme activation. In α-type activation, glucose affinity is increased, the proteolytic susceptibility of the active site loop is suppressed and the 1H-13C heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) spectrum of 13C-Ile–labeled enzyme resembles the glucose-bound state. In β-type activation, glucose affinity is largely unchanged, proteolytic susceptibility of the loop is enhanced, and the 1H-13C HMQC spectrum reveals no perturbation in ensemble structure. Leveraging both activation mechanisms, we engineer a fully noncooperative GCK variant, whose functional properties are indistinguishable from other hexokinase isozymes, and which displays a 100-fold increase in catalytic efficiency over wild-type GCK. This work elucidates specific structural features responsible for generating allostery in a monomeric enzyme and suggests a general strategy for engineering cooperativity into proteins that lack the structural framework typical of traditional allosteric systems. PMID:26283387

  16. Holistic versus monomeric strategies for hydrological modelling of modified hydrosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbantis, I.; Efstratiadis, A.; Rozos, E.; Kopsiafti, M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2010-10-01

    The modelling of modified basins that are inadequately measured constitutes a challenge for hydrological science. Often, models for such systems are detailed and hydraulics-based for only one part of the system while for other parts oversimplified models or rough assumptions are used. This is typically a bottom-up approach, which seeks to exploit knowledge of hydrological processes at the micro-scale at some components of the system. Also, it is a monomeric approach in two ways: first, essential interactions among system components may be poorly represented or even omitted; second, differences in the level of detail of process representation can lead to uncontrolled errors. Additionally, the calibration procedure merely accounts for the reproduction of the observed responses using typical fitting criteria. The paper aims to raise some critical issues, regarding the entire modelling approach for such hydrosystems. For this, two alternative modelling strategies are examined that reflect two modelling approaches or philosophies: a dominant bottom-up approach, which is also monomeric and very often, based on output information and a top-down and holistic approach based on generalized information. Critical options are examined, which codify the differences between the two strategies: the representation of surface, groundwater and water management processes, the schematization and parameterization concepts and the parameter estimation methodology. The first strategy is based on stand-alone models for surface and groundwater processes and for water management, which are employed sequentially. For each model, a different (detailed or coarse) parameterization is used, which is dictated by the hydrosystem schematization. The second strategy involves model integration for all processes, parsimonious parameterization and hybrid manual-automatic parameter optimization based on multiple objectives. A test case is examined in a hydrosystem in Greece with high complexities, such

  17. Fundamental monomeric biomaterial diagnostics by radio frequency signal analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jae-Hoon; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Kang, Shinill; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kang, Ji Yoon; Kim, Sinyoung; Jun, Seong Chan

    2016-08-15

    We present a new diagnostic technique of fundamental monomeric biomaterials that do not rely on any enzyme or chemical reaction. Instead, it only uses radio frequency (RF) signal analysis. The detection and classification of basic biomaterials, such as glucose and albumin, were demonstrated. The device was designed to generate a strong resonance response with glucose solution and fabricated by simple photolithography with PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) well. It even was used to detect the level of glucose in mixtures of glucose and albumin and in human serum, and it operated properly and identified the glucose concentration precisely. It has a detection limit about 100μM (1.8mg/dl), and a sensitivity about 58MHz per 1mM of glucose and exhibited a good linearity in human blood glucose level. In addition, the intrinsic electrical properties of biomaterials can be investigated by a de-embedding technique and an equivalent circuit analysis. The capacitance of glucose containing samples exhibited bell-shaped Gaussian dispersion spectra around 2.4GHz. The Albumin solution did not represent a clear dispersion spectra compared to glucose, and the magnitude of resistance and inductance of albumin was higher than that of other samples. Other parameters also represented distinguishable patterns to classify those biomaterials. It leads us to expect future usage of our technique as a pattern-recognizing biosensor. PMID:27111728

  18. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Monomeric LHCII: Experiment and Theory.

    PubMed

    Malý, Pavel; Gruber, J Michael; van Grondelle, Rienk; Mančal, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    We derive approximate equations of motion for excited state dynamics of a multilevel open quantum system weakly interacting with light to describe fluorescence-detected single molecule spectra. Based on the Frenkel exciton theory, we construct a model for the chlorophyll part of the LHCII complex of higher plants and its interaction with previously proposed excitation quencher in the form of the lutein molecule Lut 1. The resulting description is valid over a broad range of timescales relevant for single molecule spectroscopy, i.e. from ps to minutes. Validity of these equations is demonstrated by comparing simulations of ensemble and single-molecule spectra of monomeric LHCII with experiments. Using a conformational change of the LHCII protein as a switching mechanism, the intensity and spectral time traces of individual LHCII complexes are simulated, and the experimental statistical distributions are reproduced. Based on our model, it is shown that with reasonable assumptions about its interaction with chlorophylls, Lut 1 can act as an efficient fluorescence quencher in LHCII. PMID:27189196

  19. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Monomeric LHCII: Experiment and Theory

    PubMed Central

    Malý, Pavel; Gruber, J. Michael; van Grondelle, Rienk; Mančal, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    We derive approximate equations of motion for excited state dynamics of a multilevel open quantum system weakly interacting with light to describe fluorescence-detected single molecule spectra. Based on the Frenkel exciton theory, we construct a model for the chlorophyll part of the LHCII complex of higher plants and its interaction with previously proposed excitation quencher in the form of the lutein molecule Lut 1. The resulting description is valid over a broad range of timescales relevant for single molecule spectroscopy, i.e. from ps to minutes. Validity of these equations is demonstrated by comparing simulations of ensemble and single-molecule spectra of monomeric LHCII with experiments. Using a conformational change of the LHCII protein as a switching mechanism, the intensity and spectral time traces of individual LHCII complexes are simulated, and the experimental statistical distributions are reproduced. Based on our model, it is shown that with reasonable assumptions about its interaction with chlorophylls, Lut 1 can act as an efficient fluorescence quencher in LHCII. PMID:27189196

  20. Substrate-Induced Dimerization of Engineered Monomeric Variants of Triosephosphate Isomerase from Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Gonzalez, Samuel; Estrella, Priscilla; Portillo, Carmen; Cruces, María E.; Jimenez-Sandoval, Pedro; Fattori, Juliana; Migliorini-Figueira, Ana C.; Lopez-Hidalgo, Marisol; Diaz-Quezada, Corina; Lopez-Castillo, Margarita; Trasviña-Arenas, Carlos H.; Sanchez-Sandoval, Eugenia; Gómez-Puyou, Armando; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia G.; Brieba, Luis G.

    2015-01-01

    The dimeric nature of triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs) is maintained by an extensive surface area interface of more than 1600 Å2. TIMs from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM) are held in their dimeric state by two mechanisms: a ball and socket interaction of residue 45 of one subunit that fits into the hydrophobic pocket of the complementary subunit and by swapping of loop 3 between subunits. TvTIMs differ from other TIMs in their unfolding energetics. In TvTIMs the energy necessary to unfold a monomer is greater than the energy necessary to dissociate the dimer. Herein we found that the character of residue I45 controls the dimer-monomer equilibrium in TvTIMs. Unfolding experiments employing monomeric and dimeric mutants led us to conclude that dimeric TvTIMs unfold following a four state model denaturation process whereas monomeric TvTIMs follow a three state model. In contrast to other monomeric TIMs, monomeric variants of TvTIM1 are stable and unexpectedly one of them (I45A) is only 29-fold less active than wild-type TvTIM1. The high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIMs contrast with the marginal catalytic activity of diverse monomeric TIMs variants. The stability of the monomeric variants of TvTIM1 and the use of cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments permit us to understand the differences between the catalytic activities of TvTIMs and other marginally active monomeric TIMs. As TvTIMs do not unfold upon dimer dissociation, herein we found that the high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIM variants is explained by the formation of catalytic dimeric competent species assisted by substrate binding. PMID:26618356

  1. Substrate-Induced Dimerization of Engineered Monomeric Variants of Triosephosphate Isomerase from Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Lara-Gonzalez, Samuel; Estrella, Priscilla; Portillo, Carmen; Cruces, María E; Jimenez-Sandoval, Pedro; Fattori, Juliana; Migliorini-Figueira, Ana C; Lopez-Hidalgo, Marisol; Diaz-Quezada, Corina; Lopez-Castillo, Margarita; Trasviña-Arenas, Carlos H; Sanchez-Sandoval, Eugenia; Gómez-Puyou, Armando; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia G; Brieba, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    The dimeric nature of triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs) is maintained by an extensive surface area interface of more than 1600 Å2. TIMs from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM) are held in their dimeric state by two mechanisms: a ball and socket interaction of residue 45 of one subunit that fits into the hydrophobic pocket of the complementary subunit and by swapping of loop 3 between subunits. TvTIMs differ from other TIMs in their unfolding energetics. In TvTIMs the energy necessary to unfold a monomer is greater than the energy necessary to dissociate the dimer. Herein we found that the character of residue I45 controls the dimer-monomer equilibrium in TvTIMs. Unfolding experiments employing monomeric and dimeric mutants led us to conclude that dimeric TvTIMs unfold following a four state model denaturation process whereas monomeric TvTIMs follow a three state model. In contrast to other monomeric TIMs, monomeric variants of TvTIM1 are stable and unexpectedly one of them (I45A) is only 29-fold less active than wild-type TvTIM1. The high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIMs contrast with the marginal catalytic activity of diverse monomeric TIMs variants. The stability of the monomeric variants of TvTIM1 and the use of cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments permit us to understand the differences between the catalytic activities of TvTIMs and other marginally active monomeric TIMs. As TvTIMs do not unfold upon dimer dissociation, herein we found that the high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIM variants is explained by the formation of catalytic dimeric competent species assisted by substrate binding. PMID:26618356

  2. A monomeric L-aspartase obtained by in vitro selection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangduo; Li, Zhengqiang; Gou, Xiaojun; Zhu, Shizhen; Zhang, Hongying; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jin

    2002-07-01

    By mimicking the partial spatial structure of the dimer of the l-aspartase subunit, the central ten-helix bundle, and an "active site" between the cleft of domain 1 (D1) and domain 3 (D3) from different subunits, we designed l-aspartase variants, in which D1D2 and D2D3 were ligated with a random hexapeptide loop. As expected, we obtained the variant with the highest activity (relative activity is 21.3% of the native enzyme, named as drAsp017) by in vitro selection. The molecular weight of this variant, obtained from size-exclusion column chromatography, is about 81 kDa, which indicates that it is indeed a monomer, whereas native l-aspartase is a tetramer. The activity-reversibility of drAsp017 (10(-7) m) was 80% after incubation for 30 min at 50 degrees C, while native enzyme only retained about 17% under the same conditions. Reactivation of drAsp017 denatured in 4 m guanidine HCl was independent of protein concentration at up to 20 x 10(-8) m at 25 degrees C, whereas the protein concentration of native enzyme strongly affected its reactivation under the above conditions. The sensitivity of drAsp017 (10(-7) m) to effective factors in the fumarate-amination reaction compared with native enzyme was also determined. Half-saturating concentrations of the activator l-aspartate and Mg2+ for drAsp017 (0.8 and 0.5 mm, respectively) are much higher than that of the native enzyme (0.10 and 0.15 mm, respectively). The data show that a monomeric l-aspartase is obtained by in vitro selection. Thus, the conversion of oligomeric proteins into their functional monomers could have important applications. PMID:11983692

  3. A naturally monomeric infrared fluorescent protein for protein labeling in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan; Baird, Michelle A; Allen, John R; Howe, Elizabeth S; Klassen, Matthew P; Reade, Anna; Makhijani, Kalpana; Song, Yuanquan; Liu, Songmei; Murthy, Zehra; Zhang, Shao-Qing; Weiner, Orion D; Kornberg, Thomas B; Jan, Yuh-Nung; Davidson, Michael W; Shu, Xiaokun

    2015-08-01

    Infrared fluorescent proteins (IFPs) provide an additional color to GFP and its homologs in protein labeling. Drawing on structural analysis of the dimer interface, we identified a bacteriophytochrome in the sequence database that is monomeric in truncated form and engineered it into a naturally monomeric IFP (mIFP). We demonstrate that mIFP correctly labels proteins in live cells, Drosophila and zebrafish. It should be useful in molecular, cell and developmental biology. PMID:26098020

  4. A naturally-monomeric infrared fluorescent protein for protein labeling in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dan; Baird, Michelle A.; Allen, John R.; Howe, Elizabeth S.; Klassen, Matthew P.; Reade, Anna; Makhijani, Kalpana; Song, Yuanquan; Liu, Songmei; Murthy, Zehra; Zhang, Shao-Qing; Weiner, Orion D.; Kornberg, Thomas B.; Jan, Yuh-Nung; Davidson, Michael W.; Shu, Xiaokun

    2015-01-01

    Infrared fluorescent proteins (IFPs) provide an additional color to GFP and its red homologs in protein labeling. Based on structural analysis of the dimer interface, a monomeric bateriophytochrome is identified from a sequence database, and is engineered into a naturally-monomeric IFP (mIFP). We demonstrate that mIFP correctly labels proteins in live Drosophila and zebrafish requiring no exogenous cofactor, and will thus be useful in molecular, cell and developmental biology. PMID:26098020

  5. Genome-wide characterization of monomeric transcriptional regulators in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lipeng; Chen, Zhenkang; Wang, Zhongwei; Hu, Yangbo; Chen, Shiyun

    2016-05-01

    Gene transcription catalysed by RNA polymerase is regulated by transcriptional regulators, which play central roles in the control of gene transcription in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In regulating gene transcription, many regulators form dimers that bind to DNA with repeated motifs. However, some regulators function as monomers, but their mechanisms of gene expression control are largely uncharacterized. Here we systematically characterized monomeric versus dimeric regulators in the tuberculosis causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Of the >160 transcriptional regulators annotated in M. tuberculosis, 154 transcriptional regulators were tested, 22 % probably act as monomers and most are annotated as hypothetical regulators. Notably, all members of the WhiB-like protein family are classified as monomers. To further investigate mechanisms of monomeric regulators, we analysed the actions of these WhiB proteins and found that the majority interact with the principal sigma factor σA, which is also a monomeric protein within the RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Taken together, our study for the first time globally classified monomeric regulators in M. tuberculosis and suggested a mechanism for monomeric regulators in controlling gene transcription through interacting with monomeric sigma factors. PMID:26887897

  6. [Cooperative mechanism of phosphorylation of the monomeric and dimeric forms of inorganic pyrophosphatase from baker's yeast].

    PubMed

    Bakulevá, N P; Kasho, V N; Baĭkov, A A; Nazarova, T I; Avaeva, S M

    1982-07-01

    A comparative study of phosphorylation of native dimeric and artificial monomeric forms of inorganic pyrophosphatase and its fluoride-stabilized complex with PPi has been carried out. The maximal incorporation of Pi for the dimeric and monomeric proteins is 0.5 and 1 mole per mole of subunit, respectively. The saturation kinetic curves are suggestive of strong positive cooperative interactions. The value of the Hill coefficient (5.5) for the free dimeric enzyme drastically changes upon the active center blockage and/or transition to the monomeric enzyme. Acceleration of dephosphorylation induced by Pi in the presence of Mg2+ is observed only in the case of the dimeric protein. The data obtained indicate that phosphorylation of native dimeric pyrophosphatase occurs according to a "flip-flop" mechanism; the Pi binding in the active center exerts a strong influence on individual steps of the reaction. PMID:6126224

  7. Construction of Functional Monomeric Type 2 Isopentenyl Diphosphate:Dimethylallyl Diphosphate Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Neti, Syam Sundar; Eckert, Debra M; Poulter, C Dale

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 isopentenyl diphosphate:dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI-2) catalyzes the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme from Streptomyces pneumoniae (spIDI-2) is a homotetramer in solution with behavior, including a substantial increase in the rate of FMN reduction by NADPH in the presence of IPP, suggesting that substrate binding at one subunit alters the kinetic and binding properties of another. We now report the construction of catalytically active monomeric spIDI-2. The monomeric enzyme contains a single-point mutation (N37A) and a six-residue C-terminal deletion that preserves the secondary structure of the subunits in the wild-type (wt) homotetramer. UV-vis spectra of the enzyme-bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor in FMNox, FMNred, and FMNred·IPP/DMAPP states are the same for monomeric and wt homotetrameric spIDI-2. The mutations in monomeric IDI-2 lower the melting temperature of the protein by 20 °C and reduce the binding affinities of FMN and IDI by 40-fold but have a minimal effect on kcat. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of monomeric spIDI-2 showed that the rate of reduction of FMN by NADH (k = 1.64 × 10(-3) s(-1)) is substantially faster when IPP is added to the monomeric enzyme (k = 0.57 s(-1)), similar to behavior seen for wt-spIDI-2. Our results indicate that cooperative interactions among subunits in the wt homotetramer are not responsible for the increased rate of reduction of spIDI-2·FMN by NADH, and two possible scenarios for the enhancement are suggested. PMID:27379573

  8. Enhancing fluorescence by using pluronic block copolymers as carriers of monomeric porphycenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiera, Natalia; Buczyńska, Joanna; Orzanowska, Grażyna; Piwoński, Hubert; Waluk, Jacek

    2014-06-01

    Porphycenes, structural isomers of porphyrins, usually exhibit strong fluorescence in organic solvents. However, in water they are practically insoluble or form only weakly emitting aggregates. We show that embedding porphycenes inside pluronic micelles in water solutions leads to the recovery of strong monomeric fluorescence, of which the decay times and quantum yields are similar to those observed for homogeneous solvents. One of the investigated porphycenes serves as a fluorescence sensor of the microenvironment viscosity, revealing that the viscosity inside pluronic micelles is quite high. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we obtained images of single pluronic micelles containing monomeric porphycene chromophores.

  9. The magnitude of growth hormone elevation is related with the proportion of monomeric form in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, R; Fonseca, E; Mercado, M; Galván, R E; Hernández, M; Zárate, A

    1995-01-01

    In acromegalic patients monomeric GH form constitutes the larger proportion of circulating GH; however, no data are available concerning the relation between total GH elevation and the predominance of GH forms. Therefore, we studied the relationship between the degree of GH elevation and the proportion of GH isoforms. Sera from 11 patients with active acromegaly were subjected to gel chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column and fractions were collected for RIA to measure GH. The monomeric form of GH was predominant and exhibited a lineal correlation (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) with the circulating GH, thus the higher elevation of GH, the major proportion of monomeric GH. IGF-1 changes correlate with changes in monomeric GH but no better than for total GH. There was a correlation observed (r = 0.65) between the proportion of low GH forms and the presence of hyperglycemia, although the physiological role of the lower molecular GH forms is still unknown. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the relative proportion of GH molecular forms changes according to the magnitude of the elevation of total GH. PMID:8845645

  10. Structure-specific reactivity of alumina supported monomeric vanadium oxide species.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.; Ferguson, G. A.; Chang, L.; Zygmunt, S. A.; Stair, P. C.; Curtiss, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) catalysts based on vanadium oxide are active for the production of alkenes, chemicals of great commercial importance. The current industrial practice for alkene production is based on energy-intensive, dehydrogenation reactions. UV resonance and visible Raman measurements, combined with density functional studies, are used to study for the first time the structure-reactivity relationships for alumina-supported monomeric vanadium oxide species. The relationship between the structure of three vanadium oxide monomeric surface species on a {theta}-alumina surface, and their reducibility by H{sub 2} was determined by following changes in the vanadia's UV Raman and resonance Raman spectra after reaction with H{sub 2} at temperatures from 450 to 650 C. The H{sub 2} reducibility sequence for the three monomeric species is bidentate > 'molecular' > tridentate. The reaction pathways for H{sub 2} reduction on the three vanadium oxide monomeric structures on a {theta}-alumina surface were investigated using density functional theory. Reduction by H{sub 2} begins with reaction at the V=O bond in all three species. However, the activation energy, Gibbs free energy change under reaction conditions, and the final V oxidation state are species-dependent. The calculated ordering of reactivity is consistent with the observed experimental ordering and provides an explanation for the ordering. The results suggest that synthesis strategies can be devised to obtain vanadium oxide structures with greatly enhanced activity for ODH resulting in more efficient catalysts.

  11. Pharmacokinetic model for the absorption of subcutaneously injected soluble insulin and monomeric insulin analogues.

    PubMed

    Trajanoski, Z; Wach, P; Kotanko, P; Ott, A; Skraba, F

    1993-09-01

    A subcutaneous insulin absorption model is presented for parameter estimation from the time course of plasma insulin. Modifications of a published model were made for the absorption of soluble insulin and monomeric insulin analogues in the range of therapeutic concentrations and volumes. The modified diffusion-dissociation model with distributed parameters was approximated by a multiple-compartment model. Subcutaneous absorption of soluble insulin and monomeric insulin analogues with various volumes, concentrations, and injection depths was simulated. The model for soluble insulin exhibits volume, concentration, and injection depth dependent absorption, as experimentally observed. It was found that binding of soluble insulin in the subcutaneous tissue is negligible for U-40 and U-100 strengths. The absorption of identical doses (10 U) of soluble U-40 insulin was markedly faster (T-50% = 159.4 min) than the absorption of U-100 (T-50% = 196.2 min). According to the simulation results, the absorption rate of monomeric analogues is not dependent on concentration. No significant chances of the absorption rate could also be observed by varying volume and injection depth of the monomeric analogues. PMID:8218870

  12. Bright monomeric near-infrared fluorescent proteins as tags and biosensors for multiscale imaging.

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, Daria M; Baloban, Mikhail; Emelyanov, Alexander V; Brenowitz, Michael; Guo, Peng; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2016-01-01

    Monomeric near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent proteins (FPs) are in high demand as protein tags and components of biosensors for deep-tissue imaging and multicolour microscopy. We report three bright and spectrally distinct monomeric NIR FPs, termed miRFPs, engineered from bacterial phytochrome, which can be used as easily as GFP-like FPs. miRFPs are 2-5-fold brighter in mammalian cells than other monomeric NIR FPs and perform well in protein fusions, allowing multicolour structured illumination microscopy. miRFPs enable development of several types of NIR biosensors, such as for protein-protein interactions, RNA detection, signalling cascades and cell fate. We demonstrate this by engineering the monomeric fluorescence complementation reporters, the IκBα reporter for NF-κB pathway and the cell cycle biosensor for detection of proliferation status of cells in culture and in animals. miRFPs allow non-invasive visualization and detection of biological processes at different scales, from super-resolution microscopy to in vivo imaging, using the same probes. PMID:27539380

  13. Delivery of oligonucleotides into mammalian cells by anionic peptides: comparison between monomeric and dimeric peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Freulon, I; Roche, A C; Monsigny, M; Mayer, R

    2001-01-01

    The use of antisense oligonucleotides as putative therapeutic agents is limited by their poor delivery into the cytosol and/or the nucleus because they are not able to efficiently cross lipid bilayers. To circumvent this pitfall, anionic amphipathic peptides derived from the influenza virus fusogenic peptide have been used to destabilize membranes in an acidic environment. In this paper, we compare the ability of a monomeric and a dimeric peptide to introduce oligonucleotides into the cytosol and nuclei of several types of cultured cells. Cells incubated at pH 6.2 or at a slightly lower pH in the presence of the monomeric peptide but not the dimeric peptide were efficiently permeabilized. The location of fluorescent derivatives of peptides and of oligonucleotides was assessed by confocal microscopy. Both the peptides and oligonucleotides remained entrapped in vesicular compartments at neutral pH; at acidic pH, oligonucleotides in the presence of the monomeric peptide were mainly in the nucleus, while in the presence of the dimeric peptide they co-localized with the peptide into vesicles. The data are interpreted on the basis of the spectroscopic behaviour of monomeric and dimeric peptides in relation to the environmental pH. PMID:11237872

  14. Zinc inhibition of monomeric and dimeric proton channels suggests cooperative gating

    PubMed Central

    Musset, Boris; Smith, Susan M E; Rajan, Sindhu; Cherny, Vladimir V; Sujai, Sukrutha; Morgan, Deri; DeCoursey, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels are strongly inhibited by Zn2+, which binds to His residues. However, in a molecular model, the two externally accessible His are too far apart to coordinate Zn2+. We hypothesize that high-affinity Zn2+ binding occurs at the dimer interface between pairs of His residues from both monomers. Consistent with this idea, Zn2+ effects were weaker in monomeric channels. Mutation of His193 and His140 in various combinations and in tandem dimers revealed that channel opening was slowed by Zn2+ only when at least one His was present in each monomer, suggesting that in wild-type (WT) HV1, Zn2+ binding between His of both monomers inhibits channel opening. In addition, monomeric channels opened exponentially, and dimeric channels opened sigmoidally. Monomeric channel gating had weaker temperature dependence than dimeric channels. Finally, monomeric channels opened 6.6 times faster than dimeric channels. Together, these observations suggest that in the proton channel dimer, the two monomers are closely apposed and interact during a cooperative gating process. Zn2+ appears to slow opening by preventing movement of the monomers relative to each other that is prerequisite to opening. These data also suggest that the association of the monomers is tenuous and allows substantial freedom of movement. The data support the idea that native proton channels are dimeric. Finally, the idea that monomer–dimer interconversion occurs during activation of phagocytes appears to be ruled out. PMID:20231140

  15. Bright monomeric near-infrared fluorescent proteins as tags and biosensors for multiscale imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Baloban, Mikhail; Emelyanov, Alexander V.; Brenowitz, Michael; Guo, Peng; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2016-01-01

    Monomeric near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent proteins (FPs) are in high demand as protein tags and components of biosensors for deep-tissue imaging and multicolour microscopy. We report three bright and spectrally distinct monomeric NIR FPs, termed miRFPs, engineered from bacterial phytochrome, which can be used as easily as GFP-like FPs. miRFPs are 2–5-fold brighter in mammalian cells than other monomeric NIR FPs and perform well in protein fusions, allowing multicolour structured illumination microscopy. miRFPs enable development of several types of NIR biosensors, such as for protein–protein interactions, RNA detection, signalling cascades and cell fate. We demonstrate this by engineering the monomeric fluorescence complementation reporters, the IκBα reporter for NF-κB pathway and the cell cycle biosensor for detection of proliferation status of cells in culture and in animals. miRFPs allow non-invasive visualization and detection of biological processes at different scales, from super-resolution microscopy to in vivo imaging, using the same probes. PMID:27539380

  16. Reactive oxygen species-mediated DJ-1 monomerization modulates intracellular trafficking involving karyopherin β2.

    PubMed

    Björkblom, Benny; Maple-Grødem, Jodi; Puno, Marc Rhyan; Odell, Mark; Larsen, Jan Petter; Møller, Simon Geir

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in DJ-1 are a cause of recessive, early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Although oxidative stress and mitochondrial integrity have been implicated in PD, it is largely unknown why neurons degenerate. DJ-1 is involved in oxidative stress-mediated responses and in mitochondrial maintenance; however, its specific function remains vague. Here we show that DJ-1 exhibits neuronal dynamic intracellular trafficking, with dimeric/monomeric cycling modulated by the oxidative environment. We demonstrate that oxidative stress enhances monomerization of wild-type cytosolic DJ-1, leading to nuclear recruitment. The pathogenic DJ-1/E163K variant is unable to homodimerize but is retained in the cytosol upon wild-type DJ-1 heterodimerization. We found that this wild-type/pathogenic heterodimer is disrupted by oxidative stress, leading to DJ-1/E163K mitochondrial translocation. We further demonstrated that endogenously expressed wild-type DJ-1 is imported into neuronal nuclei as a monomer and that nucleo-cytoplasmic transport is oxidative stress mediated. We identified a novel proline-tyrosine nuclear localization signal (PY-NLS) in DJ-1, and we found that nuclear monomeric DJ-1 import is mediated by an oxidative stress-dependent interaction with karyopherin β2. Our study provides evidence that oxidative stress-mediated intracellular trafficking of DJ-1, mediated by dynamic DJ-1 dimeric/monomeric cycling, is implicated in PD pathogenesis. PMID:24912681

  17. Generation and Characterization of an IgG4 Monomeric Fc Platform

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Lu; Colazet, Magali; Rosenthal, Kim L.; Yu, Xiang-Qing; Bee, Jared S.; Ferguson, Andrew; Damschroder, Melissa M.; Wu, Herren; Dall’Acqua, William F.; Tsui, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The immunoglobulin Fc region is a homodimer consisted of two sets of CH2 and CH3 domains and has been exploited to generate two-arm protein fusions with high expression yields, simplified purification processes and extended serum half-life. However, attempts to generate one-arm fusion proteins with monomeric Fc, with one set of CH2 and CH3 domains, are often plagued with challenges such as weakened binding to FcRn or partial monomer formation. Here, we demonstrate the generation of a stable IgG4 Fc monomer with a unique combination of mutations at the CH3-CH3 interface using rational design combined with in vitro evolution methodologies. In addition to size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation, we used multi-angle light scattering (MALS) to show that the engineered Fc monomer exhibits excellent monodispersity. Furthermore, crystal structure analysis (PDB ID: 5HVW) reveals monomeric properties supported by disrupted interactions at the CH3-CH3 interface. Monomeric Fc fusions with Fab or scFv achieved FcRn binding and serum half-life comparable to wildtype IgG. These results demonstrate that this monomeric IgG4 Fc is a promising therapeutic platform to extend the serum half-life of proteins in a monovalent format. PMID:27479095

  18. Method of analysis of polymerizable monomeric species in a complex mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, Robert E

    2014-03-18

    Method of selective quantitation of a polymerizable monomeric species in a well spacer fluid, said method comprising the steps of adding at least one solvent having a refractive index of less than about 1.33 to a sample of the complex mixture to produce a solvent phase, and measuring the refractive index of the solvent phase.

  19. Differential Stability of Dimeric and Monomeric Cytochrome c Oxidase Exposed to Elevated Hydrostatic Pressure†

    PubMed Central

    Staničová, Jana; Sedlák, Erik; Musatov, Andrej; Robinson, Neal C.

    2007-01-01

    Detergent-solubilized dimeric and monomeric cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) have significantly different quaternary stability when exposed to 2−3 kbar of hydrostatic pressure. Dimeric, dodecyl maltoside-solubilized cytochrome c oxidase is very resistant to elevated hydrostatic pressure with almost no perturbation of its quaternary structure or functional activity after release of pressure. In contrast to the stability of dimeric CcO, 3 kbar of hydrostatic pressure triggers multiple structural and functional alterations within monomeric cytochrome c oxidase. The perturbations are either irreversible or slowly reversible since they persist after the release of high pressure. Therefore, standard biochemical analytical procedures could be used to quantify the pressure-induced changes after the release of hydrostatic pressure. The electron transport activity of monomeric cytochrome c oxidase decreases by as much as 60% after exposure to 3 kbar of hydrostatic pressure. The irreversible loss of activity occurs in a time- and pressure-dependent manner. Coincident with the activity loss is a sequential dissociation of four subunits as detected by sedimentation velocity, high-performance ion-exchange chromatography, and reversed-phase and SDS–PAGE subunit analysis. Subunits VIa and VIb are the first to dissociate followed by subunits III and VIIa. Removal of subunits VIa and VIb prior to pressurization makes the resulting 11-subunit form of CcO even more sensitive to elevated hydrostatic pressure than monomeric CcO containing all 13 subunits. However, dimeric CcO, in which the association of VIa and VIb is stabilized, is not susceptible to pressure-induced inactivation. We conclude that dissociation of subunit III and/or VIIa must be responsible for pressure-induced inactivation of CcO since VIa and VIb can be removed from monomeric CcO without significant activity loss. These results are the first to clearly demonstrate an important structural role for the dimeric form of

  20. Blue Light-induced Dimerization of Monomeric Aureochrome-1 Enhances Its Affinity for the Target Sequence*

    PubMed Central

    Hisatomi, Osamu; Nakatani, Yoichi; Takeuchi, Ken; Takahashi, Fumio; Kataoka, Hironao

    2014-01-01

    Aureochrome-1 (AUREO1) is a blue light (BL) receptor that mediates the branching response in stramenopile alga, Vaucheria frigida. AUREO1 contains a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain in the central region and a light-oxygen-voltage sensing (LOV) domain at the C terminus, and has been suggested to function as a light-regulated transcription factor. We have previously reported that preparations of recombinant AUREO1 contained the complete coding sequence (full-length, FL) and N-terminal truncated protein (ZL) containing bZIP and LOV domains, and suggested that wild-type ZL (ZLwt2) was in a dimer form with intermolecular disulfide linkages at Cys162 and Cys182 (Hisatomi, O., Takeuchi, K., Zikihara, K., Ookubo, Y., Nakatani, Y., Takahashi, F., Tokutomi, S., and Kataoka, H. (2013) Plant Cell Physiol. 54, 93–106). In the present study, we report the photoreactions, oligomeric structures, and DNA binding of monomeric cysteine to serine-mutated ZL (ZLC2S), DTT-treated ZL (DTT-ZL), and FL (DTT-FL). Recombinant AUREO1 showed similar spectral properties and dark regeneration kinetics to those of dimeric ZLwt2. Dynamic light scattering and size exclusion chromatography revealed that ZLC2S and DTT-ZL were monomeric in the dark state. Dissociation of intermolecular disulfide bonds of ZLwt2 was in equilibrium with a midpoint oxidation-redox potential of approximately −245 ± 15 mV. BL induced the dimerization of monomeric ZL, which subsequently increased its affinity for the target sequence. Also, DTT-FL was monomeric in the dark state and underwent BL-induced dimerization, which led to formation of the FL2·DNA complex. Taken together, our results suggest that monomeric AUREO1 is present in vivo, with dimerization playing a key role in its role as a BL-regulated transcription factor. PMID:24790107

  1. Quantitative separation of monomeric U(IV) from UO2 in products of U(VI) reduction

    PubMed Central

    Alessi, Daniel S.; Uster, Benjamin; Veeramani, Harish; Suvorova, Elena I.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Bargar, John R.; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of soluble hexavalent uranium to tetravalent uranium can be catalyzed by bacteria and minerals. The end-product of this reduction is often the mineral uraninite, which was long assumed to be the only product of U(VI) reduction. However, recent studies report the formation of other species including an adsorbed U(IV) species, operationally referred to as monomeric U(IV). The discovery of monomeric U(IV) is important because the species is likely to be more labile and more susceptible to reoxidation than uraninite. Because there is a need to distinguish between these two U(IV) species, we propose here a wet chemical method of differentiating monomeric U(IV) from uraninite in environmental samples. To calibrate the method, U(IV) was extracted from known mixtures of uraninite and monomeric U(IV) and testted using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Monomeric U(IV) was efficiently removed from biomass and Fe(II)-bearing phases by bicarbonate extraction, without affecting uraninite stability. After confirming that the method effectively separates monomeric U(IV) and uraninite, it is further evaluated for a system containing those reduced U species and adsorbed U(VI). The method provides a rapid complement, and in some cases alternative, to XAS analyses for quantifying monomeric U(IV), uraninite, and adsorbed U(VI) species in environmental samples. PMID:22540966

  2. Beam-induced oxidation of monomeric U(IV) species.

    PubMed

    Alessi, Daniel S; Uster, Benjamin; Borca, Camelia N; Grolimund, Daniel; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2013-01-01

    Uranium L(III)-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy is often used to probe the oxidation state and coordination of uranium in environmental samples, and micrometre-sized beams can be used to spatially map the distribution of uranium relative to other elements. Here a variety of uranium-containing environmental samples are analyzed at both microbeam and larger beam sizes to determine whether reoxidation of U(IV) occurred. Monomeric U(IV), a recently discovered product of U(VI) reduction by microbes and certain iron-bearing minerals at uranium-contaminated field sites, was found to be reoxidized during microbeam (3 µm × 2 µm) analysis of biomass and sediments containing the species but not at larger beam sizes. Thus, care must be taken when using X-ray microprobes to analyze samples containing monomeric U(IV). PMID:23254675

  3. Monomeric carbohydrates production from olive tree pruning biomass: modeling of dilute acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Juan G; Mateo, Soledad; Fonseca, Bruno G; Roberto, Inês C; Sánchez, Sebastián; Moya, Alberto J

    2013-12-01

    Statistical modeling and optimization of dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of olive tree pruning biomass has been performed using response surface methodology. Central composite rotatable design was applied to assess the effect of acid concentration, reaction time and temperature on efficiency and selectivity of hemicellulosic monomeric carbohydrates to d-xylose. Second-order polynomial model was fitted to experimental data to find the optimum reaction conditions by multiple regression analysis. The monomeric d-xylose recovery 85% (as predicted by the model) was achieved under optimized hydrolysis conditions (1.27% acid concentration, 96.5°C and 138 min), confirming the high validity of the developed model. The content of d-glucose (8.3%) and monosaccharide degradation products (0.1% furfural and 0.04% 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) provided a high quality subtract, ready for subsequent biochemical conversion to value-added products. PMID:24096282

  4. Resorufin butyrate as a soluble and monomeric high-throughput substrate for a triglyceride lipase.

    PubMed

    Lam, Vincent; Henault, Martin; Khougaz, Karine; Fortin, Louis-Jacques; Ouellet, Marc; Melnyk, Roman; Partridge, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    Triglyceride lipases such as lipoprotein lipase, endothelial lipase, and hepatic lipase play key roles in controlling the levels of plasma lipoprotein. Accordingly, small-molecule modulation of these species could alter patient lipid profiles with corresponding health effects. Screening of these enzymes for small-molecule therapeutics has historically involved the use of lipid-based particles to mimic native substrates. However, particle-based artifacts can complicate the discovery of therapeutic molecules. As a simplifying solution, the authors sought to develop an approach involving a soluble and monomeric lipase substrate. Using purified bovine lipoprotein lipase as a model system, they show that the hydrolysis of resorufin butyrate can be fluorescently monitored to give a robust assay (Z' > 0.8). Critically, using parallel approaches, they show that resorufin butyrate is soluble and monomeric under assay conditions. The presented assay should be useful as a simple and inexpensive primary or secondary screen for the discovery of therapeutic lipase modulators. PMID:21956174

  5. Design of a monomeric human glutathione transferase GSTP1, a structurally stable but catalytically inactive protein.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Bruns, Christopher M; Tainer, John A; Mannervik, Bengt; Stenberg, Gun

    2002-10-01

    By the introduction of 10 site-specific mutations in the dimer interface of human glutathione transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1), a stable monomeric protein variant, GSTP1, was obtained. The monomer had lost the catalytic activity but retained the affinity for a number of electrophilic compounds normally serving as substrates for GSTP1-1. Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra of the monomer and wild-type proteins were similar, indicating that there are no large structural differences between the subunits of the respective proteins. The GSTs have potential as targets for in vitro evolution and redesign with the aim of developing proteins with novel properties. To this end, a monomeric GST variant may have distinct advantages. PMID:12468717

  6. A monomeric form of pyruvate kinase in human pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, K; Ghory, P K; Asakura, T; Schwartz, E

    1977-01-01

    A mutant pyruvate kinase (ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.40) from human erythrocytes which is easily separated into monomers and dimers by gel chromatography is described. Tht mutant enzyme shows almost the same pH optimum and thermostability as normal enzyme, but has a decreased stability on shaking with air, a decreased Km for phosphoenolpyruvate and a loss of allosteric properties. The apparent Km values for phosphoenolpyruvate of tetramers and monomers were the same. The tetrameric enzyme was slightly activated by fructose-1,6-diphosphate but the monomeric form was not. The tetrameric enzyme was found to dissociate spontaneously to dimeric and monomeric forms. PMID:15247

  7. Kinetic and structural relationships of transition monomeric and oligomeric carboxyl- and choline-esterases.

    PubMed

    Main, A R

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic and structural relationships of eight electrophoretically pure mammalian serum and liver serine carboxylesterases (CE) and cholinesterases (ChE) have been studied. Eight CE's and ChE's, which were fully resolved but only partially purified, provided additional information. Five of the electrophoretically pure esterases were monomeric, and of these, four belonged to a new and widely distributed class. These four monomeric esterases hydrolyzed choline esters, but at widely differing rates. Thus two were termed monomeric butyrylcholinesterases, mBuChE I and II, and two were monomeric CE's (mCE). The rabbit liver mCE was not a subunit of the oligomeric CE (oCE), although the oCE also hydrolyzed choline esters at a very low rate. The complex kinetics of the mCE's, mBuChE's, oCE's, and of the oligomeric BuChE's of horse and human serum could be interpreted according to a single reaction scheme involving an allosteric site and the equation derived from it. Thus activation and inhibition at high substrate concentrations, together with sigmoidal activity versus substrate concentration plots, all of which characterize the reactions of these esterases, could be interpreted by a single scheme and equation. Structural and kinetic comparisons showed a progressive transition of properties from the oCE's through the mCE's to the oBuChE's. One of the purified mCE's was from horse serum, and it exhibited physical and kinetic properties unlike those of the liver mCE's or oCE's. PMID:6339600

  8. Transdermal iontophoretic delivery of bovine insulin and monomeric human insulin analogue.

    PubMed

    Kanikkannan, N; Singh, J; Ramarao, P

    1999-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possibility of delivering bovine insulin in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by iontophoresis. Further, the effect of iontophoresis of monomeric human insulin analogue (r-DNA origin) on the plasma glucose level (PGL) of diabetic rats was studied. Iontophoresis of bovine insulin (10-200 IU/ml) was not effective in decreasing the PGL in untreated diabetic rats. Pretreatment of skin with oleic acid or menthol for 3 h followed by iontophoresis of bovine insulin also failed to produce a fall in PGL. Application of a depilatory cream for hair removal (24 h before the experiment), followed by iontophoresis of bovine insulin (10, 30 and 100 IU/ml) produced a concentration-dependent fall in PGL. Further, application of depilatory cream immediately before the experiment produced a substantial fall in PGL both by passive diffusion and iontophoresis. Depilatory cream might have drastically reduced the barrier function of skin such that conventional bovine insulin (dimer and hexamer) penetrates through the intact skin by iontophoresis and even by passive diffusion. Depilatory cream or the active components of depilatory cream may be useful as penetration enhancers for transdermal delivery of drugs especially macromolecules such as insulin. Iontophoresis of monomeric human insulin analogue (B9 Asp, B27 Glu) through intact skin (untreated) produced a significant fall in PGL in diabetic rats. Monomeric human insulin analogues which have low tendency to self aggregation may be promising candidates for the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of insulin. PMID:10210726

  9. Structure and stability of recombinant bovine odorant-binding protein: II. Unfolding of the monomeric forms.

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, Olga V; Roginskii, Denis O; Stepanenko, Olesya V; Kuznetsova, Irina M; Uversky, Vladimir N; Turoverov, Konstantin K

    2016-01-01

    In a family of monomeric odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), bovine OBP (bOBP), that lacks conserved disulfide bond found in other OBPs, occupies unique niche because of its ability to form domain-swapped dimers. In this study, we analyzed conformational stabilities of the recombinant bOBP and its monomeric variants, the bOBP-Gly121+ mutant containing an additional glycine residue after the residue 121 of the bOBP, and the GCC-bOBP mutant obtained from the bOBP-Gly121+ form by introduction of the Trp64Cys/His155Cys double mutation to restore the canonical disulfide bond. We also analyzed the effect of the natural ligand binding on the conformational stabilities of these bOBP variants. Our data are consistent with the conclusion that the unfolding-refolding pathways of the recombinant bOBP and its mutant monomeric forms bOBP-Gly121+ and GCC-bOBP are similar and do not depend on the oligomeric status of the protein. This clearly shows that the information on the unfolding-refolding mechanism is encoded in the structure of the bOBP monomers. However, the process of the bOBP unfolding is significantly complicated by the formation of the domain-swapped dimer, and the rates of the unfolding-refolding reactions essentially depend on the conditions in which the protein is located. PMID:27114857

  10. EphA2 Receptor Activation by Monomeric Ephrin-A1 on Supported Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Lin, Wan-Chen; Petit, Rebecca S.; Groves, Jay T.

    2011-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 interacts with its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked ephrin-A1 ligand in a juxtacrine configuration. The soluble ephrin-A1 protein, without its GPI membrane linker, fails to activate EphA2. However, preclustered ephrin-A1 protein is active in solution and has been frequently used to trigger the EphA2 receptor. Although this approach has yielded insights into EphA2 signaling, preclustered ligands bypass natural receptor clustering processes and thus mask any role of clustering as a signal regulatory mechanism. Here, we present EphA2-expressing cells with a fusion protein of monomeric ephrin-A1 (mEA1) and enhanced monomeric yellow fluorescent protein that is linked to a supported lipid bilayer via a nickel-decahistidine anchor. The mEA1 is homogeneously dispersed, laterally mobile, and monomeric as measured by fluorescence imaging, correlation spectroscopy, and photon counting histogram analysis, respectively. Ephrin-A1 presented in this manner activates EphA2 on the surface of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, as measured by EphA2 phosphorylation and degradation. Spatial mutation experiments in which nanopatterns on the underlying substrate restrict mEA1 movement in the supported lipid bilayer reveal spatio-mechanical regulation of this signaling pathway, consistent with recently reported observations using a synthetically cross-linked ephrin-A1 dimer. PMID:22261062

  11. Functional equivalence of monomeric (shark) and dimeric (bovine) cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Bickar, D; Lehninger, A; Brunori, M; Bonaventura, J; Bonaventura, C

    1985-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase isolated from hammerhead shark red muscle is monomeric in relation to the dimeric form of isolated bovine cytochrome c oxidase but in other ways bears a close resemblance to the enzyme isolated from mammalian tissue [1, 2]. Comparative studies of shark and bovine cytochrome c oxidase were extended to address the degree of functional similarity between the monomeric (shark) and dimeric (bovine) enzymes in the kinetics of peroxide binding and in the extent to which the catalytic action of the enzymes in vesicles can establish a proton gradient. Although the kinetics of peroxide binding and the proton pumping processes are complex, the dimeric and monomeric forms are quite similar with respect to these functional attributes. The kinetic heterogeneity of the process of peroxide binding is expressed in the shark enzyme as well as in the bovine enzyme, and both types of enzymes in vesicles can generate transmembrane proton gradients. On this basis we conclude that the dimeric state of isolated cytochrome c oxidase from mammalian sources is not essential for its function in vitro. PMID:2410569

  12. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Hebert, Vincent R; Zhang, Jinwen; Wolcott, Michael P; Quintero, Melissa; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-25

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated. PMID:27373451

  13. Structure and stability of recombinant bovine odorant-binding protein: II. Unfolding of the monomeric forms

    PubMed Central

    Stepanenko, Olga V.; Roginskii, Denis O.; Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.

    2016-01-01

    In a family of monomeric odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), bovine OBP (bOBP), that lacks conserved disulfide bond found in other OBPs, occupies unique niche because of its ability to form domain-swapped dimers. In this study, we analyzed conformational stabilities of the recombinant bOBP and its monomeric variants, the bOBP-Gly121+ mutant containing an additional glycine residue after the residue 121 of the bOBP, and the GCC-bOBP mutant obtained from the bOBP-Gly121+ form by introduction of the Trp64Cys/His155Cys double mutation to restore the canonical disulfide bond. We also analyzed the effect of the natural ligand binding on the conformational stabilities of these bOBP variants. Our data are consistent with the conclusion that the unfolding-refolding pathways of the recombinant bOBP and its mutant monomeric forms bOBP-Gly121+ and GCC-bOBP are similar and do not depend on the oligomeric status of the protein. This clearly shows that the information on the unfolding-refolding mechanism is encoded in the structure of the bOBP monomers. However, the process of the bOBP unfolding is significantly complicated by the formation of the domain-swapped dimer, and the rates of the unfolding-refolding reactions essentially depend on the conditions in which the protein is located. PMID:27114857

  14. The peroxisomal protein import machinery displays a preference for monomeric substrates

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Marta O.; Francisco, Tânia; Rodrigues, Tony A.; Lismont, Celien; Domingues, Pedro; Pinto, Manuel P.; Grou, Cláudia P.; Fransen, Marc; Azevedo, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and transported by the shuttling receptor PEX5 to the peroxisomal membrane docking/translocation machinery, where they are translocated into the organelle matrix. Under certain experimental conditions this protein import machinery has the remarkable capacity to accept already oligomerized proteins, a property that has heavily influenced current models on the mechanism of peroxisomal protein import. However, whether or not oligomeric proteins are really the best and most frequent clients of this machinery remain unclear. In this work, we present three lines of evidence suggesting that the peroxisomal import machinery displays a preference for monomeric proteins. First, in agreement with previous findings on catalase, we show that PEX5 binds newly synthesized (monomeric) acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and urate oxidase (UOX), potently inhibiting their oligomerization. Second, in vitro import experiments suggest that monomeric ACOX1 and UOX are better peroxisomal import substrates than the corresponding oligomeric forms. Finally, we provide data strongly suggesting that although ACOX1 lacking a peroxisomal targeting signal can be imported into peroxisomes when co-expressed with ACOX1 containing its targeting signal, this import pathway is inefficient. PMID:25854684

  15. NMR structure and dynamics of monomeric neutrophil-activating peptide 2.

    PubMed Central

    Young, H; Roongta, V; Daly, T J; Mayo, K H

    1999-01-01

    Neutrophil-activating peptide 2 (NAP-2), which demonstrates a range of proinflammatory activities, is a 72-residue protein belonging to the alpha-chemokine family. Although NAP-2, like other alpha-chemokines, is known to self-associate into dimers and tetramers, it has been shown that the monomeric form is physiologically active. Here we investigate the solution structure of monomeric NAP-2 by multi-dimensional 1H-NMR and 15N-NMR spectroscopy and computational modelling. The NAP-2 monomer consists of an amphipathic, triple-stranded, anti-parallel beta-sheet on which is folded a C-terminal alpha-helix and an aperiodic N-terminal segment. The backbone fold is essentially the same as that found in other alpha-chemokines. 15N T1, T2 and nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) have been measured for backbone NH groups and used in a model free approach to calculate order parameters and conformational exchange terms that map out motions of the backbone. N-terminal residues 1 to 17 and the C-terminus are relatively highly flexible, whereas the beta-sheet domain forms the most motionally restricted part of the fold. Conformational exchange occurring on the millisecond time scale is noted at the top of the C-terminal helix and at proximal residues from beta-strands 1 and 2 and the connecting loop. Dissociation to the monomeric state is apparently responsible for increased internal mobility in NAP-2 compared with dimeric and tetrameric states in other alpha-chemokines. PMID:10051427

  16. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate, DHAP, in the crystalline state: monomeric and dimeric forms.

    PubMed

    Slepokura, Katarzyna; Lis, Tadeusz

    2010-02-26

    It was shown that dihydroxyacetone phosphate may exist in both monomeric DHAP (C(3)H(7)O(6)P) and dimeric DHAP-dimer (C(6)H(14)O(12)P(2)) form. Monomeric DHAP was obtained in the form of four crystalline salts: CaCl(DHAP) x 2.9H(2)O (7a), Ca(2)Cl(3)(DHAP) x 5H(2)O (7b), CaCl(DHAP) x 2H(2)O (7c), and CaBr(DHAP) x 5H(2)O (7d) by crystallization from aqueous solutions containing DHAP acid and CaCl(2) or CaBr(2), or by direct crystallization from a solution containing DHAP precursor and CaCl(2). At least one of the salts is stable and may be stored in the crystalline state at room temperature for several months. The dimeric form was obtained by slow saturation of free DHAP syrup with ammonia at -18 degrees C and isolated in the form of its hydrated diammonium salt (NH(4))(2)(DHAP-dimer) x 4H(2)O (8). The synthesis of the compounds, their crystallization, and crystal structures determined by X-ray crystallography are described. In all 7a-d monomeric DHAP exists in the monoanionic form in an extended (in-plane) cisoid conformation, with both hydroxyl and ester oxygen atoms being synperiplanar to the carbonyl O atom. The crucial structural feature is the coordination manner, in which the terminal phosphate oxygen atoms act as chelating as well as bridging atoms for the calcium cations. Additionally, the DHAP monoanions chelate another Ca(2+) by the alpha-hydroxycarbonyl moiety, in a manner observed previously in dihydroxyacetone (DHA) calcium chloride complexes. In dimeric 8 the anion is a trans isomer with the dioxane ring in a chair conformation with the hydroxyl groups in axial positions and the phosphomethyl group in an equatorial position. PMID:20092811

  17. Novel Type II and Monomeric NAD+ Specific Isocitrate Dehydrogenases: Phylogenetic Affinity, Enzymatic Characterization, and Evolutionary Implication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Lv, Changqi; Zhu, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    NAD+ use is an ancestral trait of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and the NADP+ phenotype arose through evolution as an ancient adaptation event. However, no NAD+-specific IDHs have been found among type II IDHs and monomeric IDHs. In this study, novel type II homodimeric NAD-IDHs from Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901 IDH (OlIDH) and Micromonas sp. RCC299 (MiIDH), and novel monomeric NAD-IDHs from Campylobacter sp. FOBRC14 IDH (CaIDH) and Campylobacter curvus (CcIDH) were reported for the first time. The homodimeric OlIDH and monomeric CaIDH were determined by size exclusion chromatography and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. All the four IDHs were demonstrated to be NAD+-specific, since OlIDH, MiIDH, CaIDH and CcIDH displayed 99-fold, 224-fold, 61-fold and 37-fold preferences for NAD+ over NADP+, respectively. The putative coenzyme discriminating amino acids (Asp326/Met327 in OlIDH, Leu584/Asp595 in CaIDH) were evaluated, and the coenzyme specificities of the two mutants, OlIDH R326H327 and CaIDH H584R595, were completely reversed from NAD+ to NADP+. The detailed biochemical properties, including optimal reaction pH and temperature, thermostability, and metal ion effects, of OlIDH and CaIDH were further investigated. The evolutionary connections among OlIDH, CaIDH, and all the other forms of IDHs were described and discussed thoroughly. PMID:25775177

  18. Probing Kinase Activation and Substrate Specificity with an Engineered Monomeric IKK2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic subunits of the IκB kinase (IKK), IKK1/IKKα, and IKK2/IKKβ function in vivo as dimers in association with the necessary scaffolding subunit NEMO/IKKγ. Recent X-ray crystal structures of IKK2 suggested that dimerization might be mediated by a smaller protein–protein interaction than previously thought. Here, we report that removal of a portion of the scaffold dimerization domain (SDD) of human IKK2 yields a kinase subunit that remains monomeric in solution. Expression in baculovirus-infected Sf9 insect cells and purification of this engineered monomeric human IKK2 enzyme allows for in vitro analysis of its substrate specificity and mechanism of activation. We find that the monomeric enzyme, which contains all of the amino-terminal kinase and ubiquitin-like domains as well as the more proximal portions of the SDD, functions in vitro to direct phosphorylation exclusively to residues S32 and S36 of its IκBα substrate. Thus, the NF-κB-inducing potential of IKK2 is preserved in the engineered monomer. Furthermore, we observe that our engineered IKK2 monomer readily autophosphorylates activation loop serines 177 and 181 in trans. However, when residues that were previously observed to interfere with IKK2 trans autophosphorylation in transfected cells are mutated within the context of the monomer, the resulting Sf9 cell expressed and purified proteins were significantly impaired in their trans autophosphorylation activity in vitro. This study further defines the determinants of substrate specificity and provides additional evidence in support of a model in which activation via trans autophosphorylation of activation loop serines in IKK2 requires transient assembly of higher-order oligomers. PMID:24611898

  19. Field comparison of air sampling methods for monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Thomasen, Jennifer M; Fent, Kenneth W; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-03-01

    This study was to critically compared 13 different air samplers for their ability to monitor air exposures to monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in the automotive refinishing industry. Using both fast- and slow-drying clearcoat, we tested the following types of samplers: single- and dual-stage 37-mm polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) samplers (open- and closed-face), IOM (with plastic and stainless steel inserts), OSHA42, IsoChek, and WA-DOSH samplers. Midget impingers with frit were used as reference samplers. We observed the PP, PS, and IOM samplers to measure greater levels of HDI monomer and biuret when a fast-drying clearcoat was applied compared with a slow-drying clearcoat. When a slow-drying clearcoat was applied, the open-face PP and PS samplers measured significantly more monomeric and polymeric HDI (2-fold; p < 0.003) than the closed-face PP and PS samplers. We determined that significantly more monomeric and polymeric HDI were measured by impingers (1.3-1.9-fold) compared with single-stage PP/PS (N = 59), dual-stage PP/PS (N = 59), or IOM (N = 24) samplers. However, when stratified by cassette characteristics, the open-face single-stage PP and PS samplers performed equally to the impingers for HDI monomer when a fast-drying clearcoat was applied, and for all analytes when a slow-drying clearcoat was applied. Significantly higher HDI monomer concentrations (1.2-3.1-fold; p = 0.001) were measured with OSHA42 compared with the impinger. The IsoChek did not detect HDI monomer, and of the three samplers analyzed by laboratories other than UNC (i.e., OSHA42, IsoChek, and WA-DOSH), the WA-DOSH was in the best agreement with the impingers. The influence of clearcoat drying time on the sampler's ability to measure monomeric and polymeric HDI emphasizes the importance of the speciation of diisocyanates in chemical analysis and the careful consideration for the selection of the air sampler to be used when measuring exposures during

  20. Monomeric CH3: A Small, Stable Antibody Domain with Therapeutic Promise | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Antibody domains are emerging as promising biopharmaceuticals because of their relatively small size compared to full-sized antibodies, which are too large to effectively penetrate tumors and bind to sterically restricted therapeutic targets. In an article published in The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Tianlei Ying, Ph.D., Dimiter Dimitrov, Ph.D., and their colleagues in the Protein Interactions Group, Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, reported their design of a novel antibody domain, monomeric CH3 (mCH3).

  1. Rapid monomerization of poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate) by Leptothrix sp.

    PubMed

    Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Toyoshima, Kieko; Saito, Chika; Takaguchi, Hitoshi; Akutsu-Shigeno, Yukie; Sato, Megumi; Miyama, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Uchiyama, Hiroo

    2009-12-01

    For rapid monomerization of biodegradable plastics, various microorganisms were screened and TB-71 was selected as the best strain. TB-71 degraded solid poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate) (PBSA), poly(ethylene succinate), and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) but not poly(butylene succinate), poly(2-hydroxybutylate-co-valerate) or poly(lactic acid). Esterase activity was observed in the culture broth during PBSA degradation, which was specifically induced by PBSA. Analysis of the degradation products revealed that PBSA was degraded to monomers. PMID:19914585

  2. New monomeric and dimeric uridinyl derivatives as inhibitors of chitin synthase.

    PubMed

    Kral, Katarzyna; Bieg, Tadeusz; Nawrot, Urszula; Włodarczyk, Katarzyna; Lalik, Anna; Hahn, Przemysław; Wandzik, Ilona

    2015-08-01

    This study described the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of eight new derivatives of uridine as antifungal agents and inhibitors of chitin synthase. Dimeric uridinyl derivatives synthesized by us did not exhibit significant activity. One of the studied monomeric derivative, 5'-(N-succinyl)-5'-amino-5'-deoxyuridine methyl ester (compound 7) showed activities against several fungal strains (MIC range 0.06-1.00 mg/mL) and inhibited chitin synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (IC50=0.8mM). Moreover compound 7 exhibited synergistic interaction with caspofungin against Candida albicans (FIC index=0.28). PMID:26051755

  3. Non-covalent and covalent modifications modulate the reactivity of monomeric mammalian globins.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Marino, Maria; Polticelli, Fabio; Coletta, Massimo; Gioia, Magda; Marini, Stefano; Pesce, Alessandra; Nardini, Marco; Bolognesi, Martino; Reeder, Brandon J; Wilson, Michael T

    2013-09-01

    Multimeric globins (e.g., hemoglobin) are considered to be the prototypes of allosteric enzymes, whereas monomeric globins (e.g., myoglobin; Mb) usually are assumed to be non-allosteric. However, the modulation of the functional properties of monomeric globins by non-covalent (or allosteric) and covalent modifications casts doubts on this general assumption. Here, we report examples referable to these two extreme mechanisms modulating the reactivity of three mammalian monomeric globins. Sperm whale Mb, which acts as a reserve supply of O2 and facilitates the O2 flux within a myocyte, displays the allosteric modulation of the O2 affinity on lactate, an obligatory product of glycolysis under anaerobic conditions, thus facilitating O2 diffusion to the mitochondria in supporting oxidative phosphorylation. Human neuroglobin (NGB), which appears to protect neurons from hypoxia in vitro and in vivo, undergoes hypoxia-dependent phosphorylation (i.e., covalent modulation) affecting the coordination equilibrium of the heme-Fe atom and, in turn, the heme-protein reactivity. This facilitates heme-Fe-ligand binding and enhances the rate of anaerobic nitrite reduction to form NO, thus contributing to cellular adaptation to hypoxia. The reactivity of human cytoglobin (CYGB), which has been postulated to protect cells against oxidative stress, depends on both non-covalent and covalent mechanisms. In fact, the heme reactivity of CYGB depends on the lipid, such as oleate, binding which stabilizes the penta-coordination geometry of the heme-Fe atom. Lastly, the reactivity of NGB and CYGB is modulated by the redox state of the intramolecular CysCD7/CysD5 and CysB2/CysE9 residue pairs, respectively, affecting the heme-Fe atom coordination state. In conclusion, the modulation of monomeric globins reactivity by non-covalent and covalent modifications appears a very widespread phenomenon, opening new perspectives in cell survival and protection. This article is part of a Special Issue

  4. Allosteric Partial Inhibition of Monomeric Proteases. Sulfated Coumarins Induce Regulation, not just Inhibition, of Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Verespy III, Stephen; Mehta, Akul Y.; Afosah, Daniel; Al-Horani, Rami A.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Allosteric partial inhibition of soluble, monomeric proteases can offer major regulatory advantages, but remains a concept on paper to date; although it has been routinely documented for receptors and oligomeric proteins. Thrombin, a key protease of the coagulation cascade, displays significant conformational plasticity, which presents an attractive opportunity to discover small molecule probes that induce sub-maximal allosteric inhibition. We synthesized a focused library of some 36 sulfated coumarins to discover two agents that display sub-maximal efficacy (~50%), high potency (<500 nM) and high selectivity for thrombin (>150-fold). Michaelis-Menten, competitive inhibition, and site-directed mutagenesis studies identified exosite 2 as the site of binding for the most potent sulfated coumarin. Stern-Volmer quenching of active site-labeled fluorophore suggested that the allosteric regulators induce intermediate structural changes in the active site as compared to those that display ~80–100% efficacy. Antithrombin inactivation of thrombin was impaired in the presence of the sulfated coumarins suggesting that allosteric partial inhibition arises from catalytic dysfunction of the active site. Overall, sulfated coumarins represent first-in-class, sub-maximal inhibitors of thrombin. The probes establish the concept of allosteric partial inhibition of soluble, monomeric proteins. This concept may lead to a new class of anticoagulants that are completely devoid of bleeding. PMID:27053426

  5. Rouse-Bueche Theory and The Calculation of The Monomeric Friction Coefficient in a Filled System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinetti, Luca; Macosko, Christopher; Bates, Frank

    According to flexible chain theories of viscoelasticity, all relaxation and retardation times of a polymer melt (hence, any dynamic property such as the diffusion coefficient) depend on the monomeric friction coefficient, ζ0, i.e. the average drag force per monomer per unit velocity encountered by a Gaussian submolecule moving through its free-draining surroundings. Direct experimental access to ζ0 relies on the availability of a suitable polymer dynamics model. Thus far, no method has been suggested that is applicable to filled systems, such as filled rubbers or microphase-segregated A-B-A thermoplastic elastomers at temperatures where one of the blocks is glassy. Building upon the procedure proposed by Ferry for entangled and unfilled polymer melts, the Rouse-Bueche theory is applied to an undiluted triblock copolymer to extract ζ0 from the linear viscoelastic behavior in the rubber-glass transition region, and to estimate the size of Gaussian submolecules. At iso-free volume conditions, the so-obtained matrix monomeric friction factor is consistent with the corresponding value for the homopolymer melt. In addition, the characteristic Rouse dimensions are in good agreement with independent estimates based on the Kratky-Porod worm-like chain model. These results seem to validate the proposed approach for estimating ζ0 in a filled system. Although preliminary tested on a thermoplastic elastomer of the A-B-A type, the method may be extended and applied to filled homopolymers as well.

  6. Selective defunctionalization by TiO2 of monomeric phenolics from lignin pyrolysis into simple phenols.

    PubMed

    Mante, Ofei D; Rodriguez, Jose A; Babu, Suresh P

    2013-11-01

    This study is focused on defunctionalizing monomeric phenolics from lignin into simple phenols for applications such as phenol/formaldehyde resins, epoxidized novolacs, adhesives and binders. Towards this goal, Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was used to selectively remove hydroxyl, methoxy, carbonyl and carboxyl functionalities from the monomeric phenolic compounds from lignin to produce mainly phenol, cresols and xylenols. The results showed that anatase TiO2 was more selective and active compared to rutile TiO2. Catechols were found to be the most reactive phenolics and 4-ethylguaiacol the least reactive with anatase TiO2. An overall conversion of about 87% of the phenolics was achieved at 550°C with a catalyst-to-feed ratio of 5 w/w. Over 97% conversion of phenolics is achievable at moderate temperatures (550°C or ≤ 600°C) and a moderate catalyst-to-feed ratio of 6.5:1. The reactivity of catechols on TiO2 suggests that titania is a promising catalyst in the removal of hydroxyl moiety. PMID:24080289

  7. Thr-161 phosphorylation of monomeric Cdc2. Regulation by protein phosphatase 2C in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Veronique; Poulhe, Robert; Cayla, Xavier; Dessauge, Frederic; Karaiskou, Anthi; Jessus, Catherine; Ozon, Rene

    2002-08-01

    Fully grown Xenopus oocyte is arrested at prophase I of meiosis. Re-entry into meiosis depends on the activation of MPF (M-phase promoting factor or cyclin B.Cdc2 complex), triggered by progesterone. The prophase-arrested oocyte contains a store of Cdc2. Most of the protein is present as a monomer whereas a minor fraction, called pre-MPF, is found to be associated with cyclin B. Activation of Cdc2 depends on two key events: cyclin binding and an activating phosphorylation on Thr-161 residue located in the T-loop. To get new insights into the regulation of Thr-161 phosphorylation of Cdc2, monomeric Cdc2 was isolated from prophase oocytes. Based on its activation upon cyclin addition and detection by an antibody directed specifically against Cdc2 phosphorylated on Thr-161, we show for the first time that the prophase oocyte contains a significant amount of monomeric Cdc2 phosphorylated on Thr-161. PP2C, a Mg2+-dependent phosphatase, negatively controls Thr-161 phosphorylation of Cdc2. The unexpected presence of a population of free Cdc2 already phosphorylated on Thr-161 could contribute to the generation of the Cdc2 kinase activity threshold required to initiate MPF amplification. PMID:12036957

  8. The evolutionary transition from monomeric to oligomeric proteins: tools, the environment, hypotheses.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, G

    1999-01-01

    Recently, renewed interest in the evolution of oligomeric proteins has seen new approaches explored and new hypotheses proposed. The model systems chosen are generally made up of pairs of homologous proteins, each composed of a monomer and a dimeric counterpart, but the question has been also approached by comparing statistically significant structural patterns in sets of monomeric and oligomeric proteins. Here the tools of genetics and chemistry potentially available to the evolution of oligomeric proteins are discussed, as well as the possible effects of environments on the early attempts to oligomerization. Traces of an ancestral monomeric status of oligomers may be detected in the significant presence of polar and charged residues at intersubunit interfaces, and by the recognition that, besides the hydrophobic effect, a 'hydrophilic' effect has also had a role in the construction of these interfaces. The traditional 'mutation' model is described and found to be based on a hierarchy of mutations, crowned by a 'primary' mutation, one that could prime oligomerization by irreversibly altering the structure of an ancestral monomer. The mechanism of oligomerization based on the exchange or 'swap' of structural elements between monomers is discussed. The possibility is also discussed that the main steps in the folding pathway of an oligomeric protein reiterate the main steps in its evolution. PMID:10581971

  9. Enzymic cross-linkage of monomeric extensin precursors in vitro. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Everdeen, D.S.; Kiefer, S.; Willard, J.J.; Muldoon, E.P.; Dey, P.M.; Li, Xiongbiao; Lamport, D.T.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Rapidly growing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cell suspension cultures contain transiently high levels of cell surface, salt-elutable, monomeric precursors to the covalently cross-linked extensin network of the primary cell wall. Thus, the authors purified a highly soluble monomeric extensin substrate from rapidly growing cells, and devised a soluble in vitro cross-linking assay based on Superose-6 fast protein liquid chromatography separation, which resolved extensin monomers from the newly formed oligomers within 25 minutes. Salt elution of slowly growing (early stationary phase) cells yielded little or no extensin monomers but did give a highly active enzymic preparation that specifically cross-linked extensin monomers in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, judging from: (a) a decrease in the extensin monomer peak on fast protein liquid chromatography gel filtration, (b) appearance of oligomeric peaks, and (c) direct electron microscopical observation of the cross-linked oligomers. The cross-linking reaction had a broad pH optimum between 5.5 and 6.5. An approach to substrate saturation of the enzyme required extensin monomer concentrations of 20 to 40 milligrams per milliliter. Preincubation with catalase completely inhibited the cross-linking reaction, which was highly dependent on hydrogen peroxide and optimal at 15 to 50 micromolar. They therefore identified the cross-linking activity as extensin peroxidase.

  10. Biochemical features and antiviral activity of a monomeric catalytic antibody light-chain 23D4 against influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Hifumi, Emi; Arakawa, Mitsue; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Katayama, Yoshiki; Uda, Taizo

    2015-06-01

    Catalytic antibodies have exhibited interesting functions against some infectious viruses such as HIV, rabies virus, and influenza virus in vitro as well as in vivo. In some cases, a catalytic antibody light chain takes on several structures from the standpoint of molecular size (monomer, dimer, etc.) and/or isoelectronic point. In this study, we prepared a monomeric 23D4 light chain by mutating the C-terminal Cys to Ala of the wild-type. The mutated 23D4 molecule took a simple monomeric form, which could hydrolyze synthetic 4-methyl-coumaryl-7-amide substrates and a plasmid DNA. Because the monomeric 23D4 light chain suppressed the infection of influenza virus A/Hiroshima/37/2001 in an in vitro assay, the corresponding experiments were conducted in vivo, after the virus strain (which was taken from a human patient) was successfully adapted into BALB/cN Sea mice. In the experiments, a mixture of the monomeric 23D4 and the virus was nasally administered 1) with preincubation and 2) without preincubation. As a result, the monomeric 23D4 clearly exhibited the ability to suppress the influenza virus infection in both cases, indicating a potential drug for preventing infection of the influenza A virus. PMID:25713031

  11. Identification of Phe187 as a crucial dimerization determinant facilitates crystallization of a monomeric retroviral integrase core domain.

    PubMed

    Galilee, Meytal; Alian, Akram

    2014-10-01

    Retroviral DNA integration into the host genome is mediated by nucleoprotein assemblies containing tetramers of viral integrase (IN). Whereas the fully active form of IN comprises a dimer of dimers, the molecular basis of IN multimerization has not been fully characterized. IN has consistently been crystallized in an analogous dimeric form in all crystallographic structures and experimental evidence as to the level of similarity between IN monomeric and dimeric conformations is missing because of the lack of IN monomeric structures. Here we identify Phe187 as a critical dimerization determinant of IN from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a nonprimate lentivirus that causes AIDS in the natural host, and report, in addition to a canonical dimeric structure of the FIV IN core-domain, a monomeric structure revealing the preservation of the backbone structure between the two multimeric forms and suggest a role for Phe187 in "hinging" the flexible IN dimer. PMID:25199694

  12. Structure and stability of recombinant bovine odorant-binding protein: I. Design and analysis of monomeric mutants

    PubMed Central

    Stepanenko, Olga V.; Roginskii, Denis O.; Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine odorant-binding protein (bOBP) differs from other lipocalins by lacking the conserved disulfide bond and for being able to form the domain-swapped dimers. To identify structural features responsible for the formation of the bOBP unique dimeric structure and to understand the role of the domain swapping on maintaining the native structure of the protein, structural properties of the recombinant wild type bOBP and its mutant that cannot dimerize via the domain swapping were analyzed. We also looked at the effect of the disulfide bond by designing a monomeric bOBPs with restored disulfide bond which is conserved in other lipocalins. Finally, to understand which features in the microenvironment of the bOBP tryptophan residues play a role in the defining peculiarities of the intrinsic fluorescence of this protein we designed and investigated single-tryptophan mutants of the monomeric bOBP. Our analysis revealed that the insertion of the glycine after the residue 121 of the bOBP prevents domain swapping and generates a stable monomeric protein bOBP-Gly121+. We also show that the restored disulfide bond in the GCC-bOBP mutant leads to the noticeable stabilization of the monomeric structure. Structural and functional analysis revealed that none of the amino acid substitutions introduced to the bOBP affected functional activity of the protein and that the ligand binding leads to the formation of a more compact and stable state of the recombinant bOBP and its mutant monomeric forms. Finally, analysis of the single-tryptophan mutants of the monomeric bOBP gave us a unique possibility to find peculiarities of the microenvironment of tryptophan residues which were not previously described. PMID:27114880

  13. Cloning of monomeric human papillomavirus type 16 DNA integrated within cell DNA from a cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsukura, T.; Kanda, T.; Furuno, A.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kawana, T.; Yoshiike, K.

    1986-06-01

    The authors have molecularly cloned and characterized monomeric human papillomavirus type 16 DNA with flanking cell DNA sequences from a cervical carcinoma. Determination of nucleotide sequence around the junctions of human papillomavirus and cell DNAs revealed that at the site of integration within cell DNA the cloned viral DNA had a deletion between nucleotides 1284 and 4471 (numbering system from K. Seedorf, G. Kraemmer, M. Duerst, S. Suhai, and W.G. Roewkamp), which includes the greater part of E1 gene and the entire E2 gene. In the remaining part of the E1 gene, three guanines were found at the location where two guanines at nucleotides 1137 and 1138 have been recorded. This additional guanine shifted the reading frame and erased an interruption in the E1 gene. The data strongly suggest that, like other papillomaviruses, human papillomavirus type 16 has an uninterrupted E1 gene.

  14. Molecular Titration Promotes Oscillations and Bistability in Minimal Network Models with Monomeric Regulators.

    PubMed

    Cuba Samaniego, Christian; Giordano, Giulia; Kim, Jongmin; Blanchini, Franco; Franco, Elisa

    2016-04-15

    Molecular titration is emerging as an important biochemical interaction mechanism within synthetic devices built with nucleic acids and the CRISPR/Cas system. We show that molecular titration in the context of feedback circuits is a suitable mechanism to enhance the emergence of oscillations and bistable behaviors. We consider biomolecular modules that can be inhibited or activated by input monomeric regulators; the regulators compete with constitutive titrating species to determine the activity of their target. By tuning the titration rate and the concentration of titrating species, it is possible to modulate the delay and convergence speed of the transient response, and the steepness and dead zone of the stationary response of the modules. These phenomena favor the occurrence of oscillations when modules are interconnected to create a negative feedback loop; bistability is favored in a positive feedback interconnection. Numerical simulations are supported by mathematical analysis showing that the capacity of the closed loop systems to exhibit oscillations or bistability is structural. PMID:26797494

  15. Monomeric Chini-Type Triplatinum Clusters Featuring Dianionic and Radical-Anionic π*-Systems.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Brandon R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Figueroa, Joshua S

    2016-08-01

    Owing to their unique topologies and abilities to self-assemble into a variety of extended and aggregated structures, the binary platinum carbonyl clusters [Pt3 (CO)6 ]n (2-) ("Chini clusters") continue to draw significant interest. Herein, we report the isolation and structural characterization of the trinuclear electron-transfer series [Pt3 (μ-CO)3 (CNAr(Dipp2) )3 ](n-) (n=0, 1, 2), which represents a unique set of monomeric Pt3 clusters supported by π-acidic ligands. Spectroscopic, computational, and synthetic investigations demonstrate that the highest-occupied molecular orbitals of the mono- and dianionic clusters consist of a combined π*-framework of the CO and CNAr(Dipp2) ligands, with negligible Pt character. Accordingly, this study provides precedent for an ensemble of carbonyl and isocyanide ligands to function in a redox non-innocent manner. PMID:27346691

  16. Polyhydroxylated [60]fullerene binds specifically to functional recognition sites on a monomeric and a dimeric ubiquitin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanzoni, Serena; Ceccon, Alberto; Assfalg, Michael; Singh, Rajesh K.; Fushman, David; D'Onofrio, Mariapina

    2015-04-01

    The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in biomedical applications requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms by which NPs interact with biomolecules. NPs associating with proteins may interfere with protein-protein interactions and affect cellular communication pathways, however the impact of NPs on biomolecular recognition remains poorly characterized. In this respect, particularly relevant is the study of NP-induced functional perturbations of proteins implicated in the regulation of key biochemical pathways. Ubiquitin (Ub) is a prototypical protein post-translational modifier playing a central role in numerous essential biological processes. To contribute to the understanding of the interactions between this universally distributed biomacromolecule and NPs, we investigated the adsorption of polyhydroxylated [60]fullerene on monomeric Ub and on a minimal polyubiquitin chain in vitro at atomic resolution. Site-resolved chemical shift and intensity perturbations of Ub's NMR signals, together with 15N spin relaxation rate changes, exchange saturation transfer effects, and fluorescence quenching data were consistent with the reversible formation of soluble aggregates incorporating fullerenol clusters. The specific interaction epitopes were identified, coincident with functional recognition sites in a monomeric and lysine48-linked dimeric Ub. Fullerenol appeared to target the open state of the dynamic structure of a dimeric Ub according to a conformational selection mechanism. Importantly, the protein-NP association prevented the enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of polyubiquitin chains. Our findings provide an experiment-based insight into protein/fullerenol recognition, with implications in functional biomolecular communication, including regulatory protein turnover, and for the opportunity of therapeutic intervention in Ub-dependent cellular pathways.The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in biomedical applications requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms by which

  17. Spectral properties of bacteriochlorophyll c in nematic liquid crystal. Part 1. Monomeric forms of dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkowiak, A.; Francke, C.; Amesz, J.; Planner, A.; Hanyz, I.; Fraçkowiak, D.

    1996-02-01

    The spectroscopic features of bacteriochlorophyll c and bacteriopheophytin c in a nematic liquid crystal matrix have been investigated. Absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence and time resolved delayed luminescence spectra have been measured. The pigment is introduced to the liquid crystal from a dry and from a hydrated chloroform solution. In both cases the pigment is in the monomeric form. Hydration of the solvent and the presence or absence of the central Mg atom affect the interaction of the pigment molecules with the liquid crystal matrix, changing the fluorescence anisotropy. A model for the bacteriochlorophyll c orientation in the liquid crystal is proposed and the averaged angles between the transition moments and the liquid crystal orientation axis are determined. A slow process (in the microsecond range) of radiative deactivation of energy absorbed by the pigments is observed. This delayed emission could be due to pigment ionization and delayed charge recombination and/or thermal activation from the triplet to the excited singlet state.

  18. Understanding the dynamics of monomeric, dimeric, and tetrameric α-synuclein structures in water.

    PubMed

    Mane, Jonathan Y; Stepanova, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Human α-synuclein (αS) is an intrinsically disordered protein associated with Parkinson's disease. Molecular mechanisms of corruptive misfolding and aggregation of αS resulting in the disease, as well as the structure and other properties of the corresponding oligomers are not entirely understood yet, preventing the development of efficient therapies. In this study, we investigate the folding dynamics of initially unfolded hypothetical αS constructs in water using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We also employ the novel essential collective dynamics method to analyze the results obtained from the simulations. Our comparative analysis of monomeric, dimeric, and tetrameric αS models reveals pronounced differences in their structure and stability, emphasizing the importance of small oligomers, particularly dimers, in the process of misfolding. PMID:27398307

  19. The effect of mouse twinfilin-1 on the structure and dynamics of monomeric actin.

    PubMed

    Takács-Kollár, Veronika; Nyitrai, Miklós; Hild, Gábor

    2016-07-01

    The effect of twinfilin-1 on the structure and dynamics of monomeric actin was investigated with fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry experiments. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements proved that G-actin and twinfilin-1 could form a complex. Due to the formation of the complexes the dissociation of the nucleotide slowed down from the nucleotide-binding pocket of actin. Fluorescence quenching experiments showed that the accessibility of the actin bound ε-ATP decreased in the presence of twinfilin-1. Temperature dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer and differential scanning calorimetry experiments revealed that the protein matrix of actin becomes more rigid and more heat resistant in the presence of twinfilin-1. The results suggest that the nucleotide binding cleft shifted into a more closed and stable conformational state of actin in the presence of twinfilin-1. PMID:27079635

  20. Submit and disulfide structure of monomeric and dimeric forms of detergent-soluble HLA antigens.

    PubMed

    Springer, T A; Robb, R J; Terhorst, C; Strominger, J L

    1977-07-10

    The structure of monomeric and disulfide-bonded dimeric forms of HLA antigens has been studied. Detergent-soluble HLA antigen heavy chains contain one or two easily reduced sulfhydryl groups not found in papain-solubilized HLA antigens, as demonstrated by amino acid analysis (Springer, T. A., and Strominger, J.L. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73, 2481-2485, and Terhorst, C., Parham, P., Mann, D.L., and Strominger, J.L. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73, 910-914) and by labeling with iodo[3H]acetate. Dimer formation occurred during purification, since it was prevented by pretreatment of membranes containing HLA antigen with iodoacetamide. Cross-linking studies showed that the non-disulfide-bonded form of HLA antigens contains one subunit each of the Mr = 44,000 heavy chain and the Mr = 12,000 light chain (beta2-microglobulin). PMID:873911

  1. Hydro- and solvothermolysis of kraft lignin for maximizing production of monomeric aromatic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-shik; Jae, Jungho; Ha, Jeong-Myeong; Suh, Dong Jin

    2016-03-01

    The hydro-/solvothermolysis of kraft lignin using water and ethanol as a solvent were investigated in this study. The effect of the water-to-ethanol ratio on the yields of monomeric aromatic chemicals (MACs) and the kinetic behavior of MACs was studied in a series of batch experiments. The yields of MACs other than catechol increased as the ratio of ethanol increased, and the content of the total MACs in bio-crude oil (BCO) reached 35% when the ratio of ethanol was 100% at a reaction temperature of 300 °C. The formation of phenol, guaiacol, and alkylguaiacols was enhanced in ethanol, while the formation of catechol was dominant in water. The formation of more substituted MACs such as vanillin, acetoguaiacone, and homovanillic acid was not affected by the solvent. The role of reaction parameters on the yields of MACs was elucidated, and the main reaction pathways in water and in ethanol were proposed. PMID:26722814

  2. [Isolation and catalytic properties of the soluble monomeric form of inorganic pyrophosphatase from baker's yeast].

    PubMed

    Kasho, V N; Bakuleva, N P; Baĭkov, A A; Avaeva, S M

    1982-06-01

    Data from sedimentation analysis suggest that modification of about 40% of free amino groups of inorganic pyrophosphatase by maleic anhydride, pH 10.5, results in a loss of the enzyme ability to form dimers at neutral values of pH. The specific activity of monomeric pyrophosphatase is 50-80% of that of the dimeric form. The monomer has a pH optimum of about 7, requires metal ions for activation of both enzyme and substrate and is capable of exergonic synthesis of PPi in the active center. The enzyme binding to PPi is strongly stabilized by fluoride. The experimental data indicate that the individual subunit of inorganic pyrophosphatase possesses all the main catalytic properties of native dimeric molecule. PMID:6126223

  3. Extracellular Monomeric Tau Protein Is Sufficient to Initiate the Spread of Tau Protein Pathology*

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Claire H.; Kumar, Satish; Pinotsi, Dorothea; Tunnacliffe, Alan; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria; Kaminski, Clemens F.; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the formation and propagation of aggregates of the Alzheimer disease-associated Tau protein in vivo is vital for the development of therapeutics for this devastating disorder. Using our recently developed live-cell aggregation sensor in neuron-like cells, we demonstrate that different variants of exogenous monomeric Tau, namely full-length Tau (hTau40) and the Tau-derived construct K18 comprising the repeat domain, initially accumulate in endosomal compartments, where they form fibrillar seeds that subsequently induce the aggregation of endogenous Tau. Using superresolution imaging, we confirm that fibrils consisting of endogenous and exogenous Tau are released from cells and demonstrate their potential to spread Tau pathology. Our data indicate a greater pathological risk and potential toxicity than hitherto suspected for extracellular soluble Tau. PMID:24235150

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of functionalized dimeric aluminophosphonates and a monomeric gallophosphonate anion.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, D; Horchler, S; Krätzner, R; Varkey, S P; Pinkas, J; Roesky, H W; Usón, I; Noltemeyer, M; Schmidt, H G

    2001-05-21

    Reaction of t-BuP(O)(OSiMe(3))(OH) with Me(3)Al leads to the formation of [Me(2)Al(mu-O)(2)P(OSiMe(3))(t-Bu)](2) (1) whereas Me(2)AlCl reacts with Ph(2)P(O)(OH) to yield [(Cl)(Me)Al(mu-O)(2)PPh(2)](2) (2). These compounds represent the first examples of functionalized dimeric four-ring type aluminophosphonate systems. The double four-ring type gallophosphonate, namely, [t-BuPO(3)GaMe](4), reacts with n-Bu(4)NHF(2) under ambient conditions, resulting in the formation of a monomeric gallophosphonate [n-Bu(4)N][MeGa[t-BuPO(2)(OH)](3)] (3). These derivatives have been adequately characterized using various spectroscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction studies. PMID:11350243

  5. Effect of the distal histidine on the peroxidatic activity of monomeric cytoglobin.

    PubMed

    Beckerson, Penny; Svistunenko, Dimitri; Reeder, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferric human cytoglobin and a number of distal histidine variants were studied. The peroxidase activity of the monomeric wildtype protein with an internal disulfide bond, likely to be the form of the protein in vivo, exhibits a high peroxidase-like activity above that of other globins such as myoglobin. Furthermore, the peroxidatic activity of wildtype cytoglobin shows increased resistance to radical-based degradation compared to myoglobin. The ferryl form of wildtype cytoglobin is unstable, but is able to readily oxidize substrates such as guaiacol. In contrast distal histidine mutants of cytoglobin (H81Y and H81V) show very low peroxidase activity but enhanced radical-induced degradation. Therefore, the weakly bound distal histidine appears to modulate ferryl stability and limit haem degradation. These data are consistent with a role of a peroxidase activity of cytoglobin in cell stress response mechanisms. PMID:26069730

  6. The Use of Low Molecular Weight Protamine Chemical Chimera to Enhance Monomeric Insulin Intestinal Absorption

    PubMed Central

    He, Huining; Sheng, Jianyong; David, Allan E.; Kwon, Young Min; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Yongzhuo; Wang, Jianxin; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Although oral delivery of insulin offers a number of unmatched advantages, it nevertheless is beset by the poor permeability of insulin molecules through the epithelial cell membranes of the intestinal mucosal layer. We previously reported the development of low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) as a nontoxic yet potent cell penetrating peptide, of which via covalent linkage was capable of translocating protein cargos through the membranes of almost all cell types. It is therefore hypothesized that LMWP could be practically employed as a safe and effective tool to deliver insulin across the intestinal mucosal membrane, thereby augmenting its absorption through the GI tract. However, formulating 1:1 monomeric insulin/LMWP conjugate presents a tall order of challenge, as the acidic insulin and basic LMWP would automatically form tight aggregates through electrostatic interactions. In this paper, we developed an innovative conjugation strategy to solve this problem, by using succinimidyl-[(N-maleimidopropionamido)-polyethyleneglycol] ester (NHS-PEG-MAL) as an intermediate cross-linker during the coupling process. Both SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy confirmed the formation of a homogeneous, monomeric (1:1 ratio) insulin/LMWP conjugate without encountering the conventional problem of substrate aggregation. Cell culture studies demonstrated that transport of the Insulin-PEG-LMWP conjugate across the intestinal mucosal monolayer was augmented by almost five folds compared to native insulin. Furthermore, results from the in situ loop absorption tests in rats showed that systemic pharmacological bioavailability of insulin was significantly enhanced after its conjugation with LMWP. Overall, the presented chemical conjugation with LMWP could offer a reliable and safe means to improve the intestinal permeability of therapeutic peptides/proteins, shedding light of the possibility for their effective oral delivery. PMID:23863452

  7. Electron nuclear double resonance evidence supporting a monomeric nature for P700 in spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    O'malley, P J; Babcock, G T

    1984-02-01

    Proton electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectra of P700(+) in spinach chloroplasts and in photosystem I particles have been obtained and compared with the corresponding ENDOR spectrum of monomeric chlorophyl a(+) (Chla(+)) cation radical. The hyperfine couplings for P700(+) can be interpreted in terms of those expected for a monomer Chla(+) radical. The reduction in alpha-carbon spin densities observed for the in vivo species when compared to the in vitro radical is attributed to differences in the composition of the ground-state orbital for the two systems. For P700(+), a mixture of 75% D(0)/25% D(1), in which D(0) and D(1) represent the ground-and first excited-state orbitals calculated by Petke et al. for Chla(+) [Petke, J. D., Maggiora, G. M., Shipman, L. L. & Christoffersen, R. E. (1980) Photochem. Photobiol. 31, 243-257], gives good agreement between calculated and experimental spin-density reduction factors. Interaction of the pigment ion with its protein environment such as through ligation of the central Mg atom, hydrogen bonding to the 9-keto-carbonyl group, and electrostatic interactions with charged amino acid residues are proposed as factors responsible for the lowering in energy of the D(1) level in vivo. Combined with similar previous proposals for P680(+) of photosystem II, the data suggest that both primary donor cation radicals of green plant photosynthesis can be viewed as monomeric Chla(+) species in which the D(1) orbital makes a significant contribution to the spin-density distribution. PMID:16593417

  8. Polyhydroxylated [60]Fullerene Binds Specifically to Functional Recognition Sites on Monomeric and Dimeric Ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    Zanzoni, Serena; Ceccon, Alberto; Assfalg, Michael; Singh, Rajesh K.; Fushman, David; D’Onofrio, Mariapina

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in biomedical applications requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms by which NPs interact with biomolecules. NPs associating with proteins may interfere with protein-protein interactions and affect cellular communication pathways, however the impact of NPs on biomolecular recognition remains poorly characterized. In this respect, particularly relevant is the study of NP-induced functional perturbations of proteins implicated in the regulation of key biochemical pathways. Ubiquitin (Ub) is a prototypical protein post-translational modifier playing a central role in numerous essential biological processes. To contribute to an understanding of the interactions between this universally distributed biomacromolecule and NPs, we investigated the adsorption of polyhydroxylated [60]fullerene to monomeric Ub and to a minimal polyubiquitin chain in vitro at atomic resolution. Site-resolved chemical shift and intensity perturbations of Ub’s NMR signals, together with 15N spin relaxation rate changes, exchange saturation transfer effects, and fluorescence quenching data were consistent with the reversible formation of soluble aggregates incorporating fullerenol clusters. Specific interaction epitopes were identified, coincident with functional recognition sites in monomeric and lysine48-linked dimeric Ub. Fullerenol appeared to target the open state of the dynamic structure of dimeric Ub according to a conformational selection mechanism. Importantly, protein-NP association prevented enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of polyubiquitin chains. Our findings provide experiment-based insight into protein/fullerenol recognition, with implications in functional biomolecular communication, including regulatory protein turnover, and for the opportunity of therapeutic intervention in Ub-dependent cellular pathways. PMID:25811293

  9. The I-TevI Nuclease and Linker Domains Contribute to the Specificity of Monomeric TALENs

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P.; Wang, Li; Wolfs, Jason M.; Kolaczyk, Tomasz; McDowell, Brendon; Wang, Xu; Schild-Poulter, Caroline; Bogdanove, Adam J.; Edgell, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Precise genome editing in complex genomes is enabled by engineered nucleases that can be programmed to cleave in a site-specific manner. Here, we fused the small, sequence-tolerant monomeric nuclease domain from the homing endonuclease I-TevI to transcription-like activator effectors (TALEs) to create monomeric Tev-TALE nucleases (Tev-mTALENs). Using the PthXo1 TALE scaffold to optimize the Tev-mTALEN architecture, we found that choice of the N-terminal fusion point on the TALE greatly influenced activity in yeast-based assays, and that the length of the linker used affected the optimal spacing of the TALE binding site from the I-TevI cleavage site, specified by the motif 5′-CNNNG-3′. By assaying activity on all 64 possible sequence variants of this motif, we discovered that in the Tev-mTALEN context, I-TevI prefers A/T-rich triplets over G/C-rich ones at the cleavage site. Profiling of nucleotide requirements in the DNA spacer that separates the CNNNG motif from the TALE binding site revealed substantial, but not complete, tolerance to sequence variation. Tev-mTALENs showed robust mutagenic activity on an episomal target in HEK 293T cells consistent with specific cleavage followed by nonhomologous end-joining repair. Our data substantiate the applicability of Tev-mTALENs as genome-editing tools but highlight DNA spacer and cleavage site nucleotide preferences that, while enhancing specificity, do confer moderate targeting constraints. PMID:24739648

  10. The I-TevI nuclease and linker domains contribute to the specificity of monomeric TALENs.

    PubMed

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Wang, Li; Wolfs, Jason M; Kolaczyk, Tomasz; McDowell, Brendon; Wang, Xu; Schild-Poulter, Caroline; Bogdanove, Adam J; Edgell, David R

    2014-06-01

    Precise genome editing in complex genomes is enabled by engineered nucleases that can be programmed to cleave in a site-specific manner. Here, we fused the small, sequence-tolerant monomeric nuclease domain from the homing endonuclease I-TevI to transcription-like activator effectors (TALEs) to create monomeric Tev-TALE nucleases (Tev-mTALENs). Using the PthXo1 TALE scaffold to optimize the Tev-mTALEN architecture, we found that choice of the N-terminal fusion point on the TALE greatly influenced activity in yeast-based assays, and that the length of the linker used affected the optimal spacing of the TALE binding site from the I-TevI cleavage site, specified by the motif 5'-CNNNG-3'. By assaying activity on all 64 possible sequence variants of this motif, we discovered that in the Tev-mTALEN context, I-TevI prefers A/T-rich triplets over G/C-rich ones at the cleavage site. Profiling of nucleotide requirements in the DNA spacer that separates the CNNNG motif from the TALE binding site revealed substantial, but not complete, tolerance to sequence variation. Tev-mTALENs showed robust mutagenic activity on an episomal target in HEK 293T cells consistent with specific cleavage followed by nonhomologous end-joining repair. Our data substantiate the applicability of Tev-mTALENs as genome-editing tools but highlight DNA spacer and cleavage site nucleotide preferences that, while enhancing specificity, do confer moderate targeting constraints. PMID:24739648

  11. Five monomeric hemocyanin subunits from Portunus trituberculatus: purification, spectroscopic characterization, and quantitative evaluation of phenol monooxygenase activity.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Nobutaka; Yakiyama, Aki; Itoh, Shinobu

    2010-11-01

    Five kinds of monomeric subunits of arthropod hemocyanin have been isolated from swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus hemolymph. The copper centers holding a peroxo species, [(μ-η2:η2-peroxo)dicopper(II)], of these subunits exhibited almost the same UV-vis and visible region CD spectroscopic properties, indicating that they have a similar copper coordination geometry and an electronic structure. Under anaerobic conditions, the oxy-forms of the monomeric subunits were stable in 0.5 M borate buffer (pH 9.0) and reacted with 4-methylphenol (p-cresol) to show the phenolases (cresolase/phenol monooxygenase) activity in the presence of urea. To compare the phenolase (monooxygenase) reactivity, the reactivity of the isolated subunits has been examined quantitatively by using a simplified catalytic system, where the initial product catechol is trapped with borate anion of the buffer solution to prevent following catecholase reaction (Yamazaki and Itoh, 2003). The far-UV region CD spectra were measured in order to clarify the relationship between the content of the secondary structure and the phenolase reactivity. Even though the monomeric subunits exhibit a weak catalytic phenol monooxygenase activity, addition of urea (3 M) significantly enhances their catalytic activity. The differences of the phenolase activity among the monomeric subunits has been discussed on the basis of the spectroscopic analysis and reactivity studies in order to shed light on the enzymatic function of the arthropod hemocyanin in vivo. PMID:20727990

  12. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color and antioxidant capacity of processed black raspberry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of black raspberries that were individually quick-frozen (IQF), canned-in-syrup, canned-in-water, pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Tot...

  13. Is Dynamic Autocrine Insulin Signaling Possible? A Mathematical Model Predicts Picomolar Concentrations of Extracellular Monomeric Insulin within Human Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghu; Li, Jiaxu; Lim, Gareth E.; Johnson, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin signaling is essential for -cell survival and proliferation in vivo. Insulin also has potent mitogenic and anti-apoptotic actions on cultured -cells, with maximum effect in the high picomolar range and diminishing effect at high nanomolar doses. In order to understand whether these effects of insulin are constitutive or can be subjected to physiological modulation, it is essential to estimate the extracellular concentration of monomeric insulin within an intact islet. Unfortunately, the in vivo concentration of insulin monomers within the islet cannot be measured directly with current technology. Here, we present the first mathematical model designed to estimate the levels of monomeric insulin within the islet extracellular space. Insulin is released as insoluble crystals that exhibit a delayed dissociation into hexamers, dimers, and eventually monomers, which only then can act as signaling ligands. The rates at which different forms of insulin dissolve in vivo have been estimated from studies of peripheral insulin injection sites. We used this and other information to formulate a mathematical model to estimate the local insulin concentration within a single islet as a function of glucose. Model parameters were estimated from existing literature. Components of the model were validated using experimental data, if available. Model analysis predicted that the majority of monomeric insulin in the islet is that which has been returned from the periphery, and the concentration of intra-islet monomeric insulin varies from 50–300 pM when glucose is in the physiological range. Thus, our results suggest that the local concentration of monomeric insulin within the islet is in the picomolar ‘sweet spot’ range of insulin doses that activate the insulin receptor and have the most potent effects on -cells in vitro. Together with experimental data, these estimations support the concept that autocrine/paracrine insulin signalling within the islet is dynamic, rather

  14. Distinct Subcellular Trafficking Resulting from Monomeric vs Multimeric Targeting to Endothelial ICAM-1: Implications for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ligand-targeted, receptor-mediated endocytosis is commonly exploited for intracellular drug delivery. However, cells-surface receptors may follow distinct endocytic fates when bound by monomeric vs multimeric ligands. Our purpose was to study this paradigm using ICAM-1, an endothelial receptor involved in inflammation, to better understand its regulation and potential for drug delivery. Our procedure involved fluorescence microscopy of human endothelial cells to determine the endocytic behavior of unbound ICAM-1 vs ICAM-1 bound by model ligands: monomeric (anti-ICAM) vs multimeric (anti-ICAM biotin–streptavidin conjugates or anti-ICAM coated onto 100 nm nanocarriers). Our findings suggest that both monomeric and multimeric ligands undergo a similar endocytic pathway sensitive to amiloride (∼50% inhibition), but not inhibitors of clathrin-pits or caveoli. After 30 min, ∼60–70% of both ligands colocalized with Rab11a-compartments. By 3–5 h, ∼65–80% of multimeric anti-ICAM colocalized with perinuclear lysosomes with ∼60–80% degradation, while 70% of monomeric anti-ICAM remained associated with Rab11a at the cell periphery and recycled to and from the cell-surface with minimal (<10%) lysosomal colocalization and minimal (≤15%) degradation. In the absence of ligands, ICAM-1 also underwent amiloride-sensitive endocytosis with peripheral distribution, suggesting that monomeric (not multimeric) anti-ICAM follows the route of this receptor. In conclusion, ICAM-1 can mediate different intracellular itineraries, revealing new insight into this biological pathway and alternative avenues for drug delivery. PMID:25301142

  15. Holistic versus monomeric strategies for hydrological modelling of human-modified hydrosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbantis, I.; Efstratiadis, A.; Rozos, E.; Kopsiafti, M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2011-03-01

    The modelling of human-modified basins that are inadequately measured constitutes a challenge for hydrological science. Often, models for such systems are detailed and hydraulics-based for only one part of the system while for other parts oversimplified models or rough assumptions are used. This is typically a bottom-up approach, which seeks to exploit knowledge of hydrological processes at the micro-scale at some components of the system. Also, it is a monomeric approach in two ways: first, essential interactions among system components may be poorly represented or even omitted; second, differences in the level of detail of process representation can lead to uncontrolled errors. Additionally, the calibration procedure merely accounts for the reproduction of the observed responses using typical fitting criteria. The paper aims to raise some critical issues, regarding the entire modelling approach for such hydrosystems. For this, two alternative modelling strategies are examined that reflect two modelling approaches or philosophies: a dominant bottom-up approach, which is also monomeric and, very often, based on output information, and a top-down and holistic approach based on generalized information. Critical options are examined, which codify the differences between the two strategies: the representation of surface, groundwater and water management processes, the schematization and parameterization concepts and the parameter estimation methodology. The first strategy is based on stand-alone models for surface and groundwater processes and for water management, which are employed sequentially. For each model, a different (detailed or coarse) parameterization is used, which is dictated by the hydrosystem schematization. The second strategy involves model integration for all processes, parsimonious parameterization and hybrid manual-automatic parameter optimization based on multiple objectives. A test case is examined in a hydrosystem in Greece with high complexities

  16. Model of a DNA-protein complex of the architectural monomeric protein MC1 from Euryarchaea.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Françoise; Delalande, Olivier; Goffinont, Stephane; Culard, Françoise; Loth, Karine; Asseline, Ulysse; Castaing, Bertrand; Landon, Celine

    2014-01-01

    In Archaea the two major modes of DNA packaging are wrapping by histone proteins or bending by architectural non-histone proteins. To supplement our knowledge about the binding mode of the different DNA-bending proteins observed across the three domains of life, we present here the first model of a complex in which the monomeric Methanogen Chromosomal protein 1 (MC1) from Euryarchaea binds to the concave side of a strongly bent DNA. In laboratory growth conditions MC1 is the most abundant architectural protein present in Methanosarcina thermophila CHTI55. Like most proteins that strongly bend DNA, MC1 is known to bind in the minor groove. Interaction areas for MC1 and DNA were mapped by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. The polarity of protein binding was determined using paramagnetic probes attached to the DNA. The first structural model of the DNA-MC1 complex we propose here was obtained by two complementary docking approaches and is in good agreement with the experimental data previously provided by electron microscopy and biochemistry. Residues essential to DNA-binding and -bending were highlighted and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the Arg25 side-chain was essential to neutralize the negative charge of two phosphates that come very close in response to a dramatic curvature of the DNA. PMID:24558431

  17. Identification and Characterization of a Misfolded Monomeric Serpin Formed at Physiological Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, M.C.; Powers, G.A.; Feil, S.C.; Hansen, G.; Parker, M.W.; Bottomley, S.P.

    2010-10-26

    The native serpin state is kinetically trapped. However, under mildly destabilizing conditions, the conformational landscape changes, and a number of nonnative conformations with increased stability can be readily formed. The ability to undergo structural change is due to intrinsic strain within the serpin's tertiary fold, which is utilized for proteinase inhibition but renders the protein susceptible to aberrant folding and self-association. The relationship between these various conformations is poorly understood. Antichymotrypsin (ACT) is an inhibitory serpin that readily forms a number of inactive conformations, induced via either environmental stress or interaction with proteinases. Here we have used a variety of biophysical and structural techniques to characterize the relationship between some of these conformations. Incubation of ACT at physiological temperature results in the formation of a range of conformations, including both polymer and misfolded monomer. The ability to populate these nonnative states and the native conformation reflects an energy landscape that is very sensitive to the solution conditions. X-ray crystallography reveals that the misfolded monomeric conformation is in the delta conformation. Further polymerization and seeding experiments show that the delta conformation is an end point in the misfolding pathway of ACT and not an on-pathway intermediate formed during polymerization. The observation that ACT readily forms this inactive conformation at physiological temperature and pH suggests that it may have a role in both health and disease.

  18. Monomeric Garnet, a far-red fluorescent protein for live-cell STED imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hense, Anika; Prunsche, Benedikt; Gao, Peng; Ishitsuka, Yuji; Nienhaus, Karin; Ulrich Nienhaus, G.

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of far-red emitting variants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is crucially important for imaging live cells, tissues and organisms. Despite notable efforts, far-red marker proteins still need further optimization to match the performance of their green counterparts. Here we present mGarnet, a robust monomeric marker protein with far-red fluorescence peaking at 670 nm. Thanks to its large extinction coefficient of 95,000 M−1cm−1, mGarnet can be efficiently excited with 640-nm light on the red edge of its 598-nm excitation band. A large Stokes shift allows essentially the entire fluorescence emission to be collected even with 640-nm excitation, counterbalancing the lower fluorescence quantum yield of mGarnet, 9.1%, that is typical of far-red FPs. We demonstrate an excellent performance as a live-cell fusion marker in STED microscopy, using 640 nm excitation and 780 nm depletion wavelengths. PMID:26648024

  19. On the Quest of Dioxygen by Monomeric Sarcosine Oxidase. A Molecular Dynamics Investigation.

    PubMed

    Pietra, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    It is reported here on random acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) simulations with the 2GF3 bacterial monomeric sarcosine oxidase (MSOX), O2 , and furoic acid in place of sarcosine, solvated by TIP3 H2 O in a periodic box. An external tiny force, acting randomly on O2 , accelerated its relocation, from the center of activation between residue K265 and the si face of the flavin ring of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor, to the surrounding solvent. Only three of the four O2 gates previously described for this system along a composite method technique were identified, while two more major O2 gates were found. The RAMD simulations also revealed that the same gate can be reached by O2 along different pathways, often involving traps for O2 . Both the residence time of O2 in the traps, and the total trajectory time for O2 getting to the solvent, could be evaluated. The new quick pathways discovered here suggest that O2 exploits all nearby interstices created by the thermal fluctuations of the protein, not having necessarily to look for the permanent large channel used for uptake of the FADH cofactor. To this regard, MSOX resembles closely KijD3 N-oxygenase. These observations solicit experimental substantiation, in a long term aim at discovering whether gates and pathways for the small gaseous ligands inside the proteins are under Darwinian functional evolution or merely stochastic control operates. PMID:26265568

  20. Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy with Monomeric Allergoid in a Mouse Model of Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Babakhin, Alexander; Andreev, Sergey; Nikonova, Alexandra; Shilovsky, Igor; Buzuk, Andrey; Elisyutina, Olga; Fedenko, Elena; Khaitov, Musa

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widespread and difficult to treat allergic skin disease and is a tough challenge for healthcare. In this study, we investigated whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) with a monomeric allergoid obtained by succinylation of ovalbumin (sOVA) is effective in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. An experimental model of AD was reproduced by epicutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA). ASIT was performed with subcutaneous (SC) administration of increasing doses of OVA or sOVA. The levels of anti-OVA antibodies, as well as cytokines, were detected by ELISA. Skin samples from patch areas were taken for histologic examination. ASIT with either OVA or sOVA resulted in a reduction of both the anti-OVA IgE level and the IgG1/IgG2a ratio. Moreover, ASIT with sOVA increased the IFN-γ level in supernatants after splenocyte stimulation with OVA. Histologic analysis of skin samples from the sites of allergen application showed that ASIT improved the histologic picture by decreasing allergic inflammation in comparison with untreated mice. These data suggest that ASIT with a succinylated allergen represents promising approach for the treatment of AD. PMID:26275152

  1. Three-Dimensional Structure of Cofilin Bound to Monomeric Actin Derived by Structural Mass Spectrometry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Amisha Kamal,J.; Benchaar, S.; Takamoto, K.; Reisler, E.; Chance, M.

    2007-01-01

    The cytoskeletal protein, actin, has its structure and function regulated by cofilin. In the absence of an atomic resolution structure for the actin/cofilin complex, the mechanism of cofilin regulation is poorly understood. Theoretical studies based on the similarities of cofilin and gelsolin segment 1 proposed the cleft between subdomains 1 and 3 in actin as the cofilin binding site. We used radiolytic protein footprinting with mass spectrometry and molecular modeling to provide an atomic model of how cofilin binds to monomeric actin. Footprinting data suggest that cofilin binds to the cleft between subdomains 1 and 2 in actin and that cofilin induces further closure of the actin nucleotide cleft. Site-specific fluorescence data confirm these results. The model identifies key ionic and hydrophobic interactions at the binding interface, including hydrogen-bonding between His-87 of actin to Ser-89 of cofilin that may control the charge dependence of cofilin binding. This model and its implications fill an especially important niche in the actin field, owing to the fact that ongoing crystallization efforts of the actin/cofilin complex have so far failed. This 3D binary complex structure is derived from a combination of solution footprinting data and computational approaches and outlines a general method for determining the structure of such complexes.

  2. SuperNova, a monomeric photosensitizing fluorescent protein for chromophore-assisted light inactivation.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kiwamu; Matsuda, Tomoki; Sakai, Naoki; Fu, Donald; Noda, Masanori; Uchiyama, Susumu; Kotera, Ippei; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Horiuchi, Masataka; Fukui, Kiichi; Ayabe, Tokiyoshi; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takeharu

    2013-01-01

    Chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) is a powerful technique for acute perturbation of biomolecules in a spatio-temporally defined manner in living specimen with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whereas a chemical photosensitizer including fluorescein must be added to specimens exogenously and cannot be restricted to particular cells or sub-cellular compartments, a genetically-encoded photosensitizer, KillerRed, can be controlled in its expression by tissue specific promoters or subcellular localization tags. Despite of this superiority, KillerRed hasn't yet become a versatile tool because its dimerization tendency prevents fusion with proteins of interest. Here, we report the development of monomeric variant of KillerRed (SuperNova) by direct evolution using random mutagenesis. In contrast to KillerRed, SuperNova in fusion with target proteins shows proper localization. Furthermore, unlike KillerRed, SuperNova expression alone doesn't perturb mitotic cell division. Supernova retains the ability to generate ROS, and hence promote CALI-based functional analysis of target proteins overcoming the major drawbacks of KillerRed. PMID:24043132

  3. The Ca2+ binding to deionized monomerized and to retinal removed bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, D; el-Sayed, M A

    1995-01-01

    In our continuing effort to characterize the metal cation binding in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) using Ca(2+)-specific electrodes, potentiometric titration was carried out on deionized solubilized bR (containing monomeric units) and deionized bacterioopsin (bR with its retinal removed). Scatchard plots were analyzed. The monomer was found to have plots similar to those of the trimer, suggesting that the binding sites in bR are localized within the protein monomer unit and not between the molecules within the trimer structure. This also supports the previous assumption that the curvature in the Scatchard plot of regenerated bR is not due to cooperativity of metal cation within the trimer, but rather due to multiple sites. Recent studies further support the finding that the curved Scatchard plot is not due to the cooperativity between the metal ions in the two high affinity sites, wherever they are. The results of the analysis of the Scatchard plot for deionized bacterioopsin have shown a change in the binding characteristics of the high affinity but not the low affinity sites from that observed in bR. This result supports previous conclusions that metal cations in the high affinity sites are not far from the retinal cavity. PMID:8580348

  4. Structure-property relationships of electron-beam-irradiated monomeric and polymeric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ha Chul.

    1989-01-01

    Structure-property relationships were investigated for electron beam (EB) irradiated monomeric and polymeric systems. The objectives were to study the feasibility of preparing systems of potential application, and to characterize these systems in terms of structure-property behavior. In this thesis, the basic theories on radiation chemistry were first reviewed. Next, five different studies on the application of EB radiation were discussed. In the first study on the surface modification of the methacyclic acid derivative of the glycidyl ether of bis-phenol A(bis-GMA) substrates, considerable changes in wetting characteristics were observed using functionalized poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) oligomers as surface modifiers. The second subject was utilized to cross-linked caprolactone-allyl glycidyl ether(CL-AGE) copolymers. EB radiation was utilized to crosslink these materials at various temperatures both above and below the crystalline melting point. In the third study, models of time-temperature-energy(TTE) diagrams in an idealized EB radiation curing system were developed to help provide a conceptual understanding of the TTE relationship. The fourth study focused on the effects of EB irradiation on the mechanical and thermal properties of poly(phenylene sulfide). In the fifth study, two systems(symmetric and asymmetric) based on the controlled distribution of bis-GMA within a crosslinked nitrile rubber(NBR) network were prepared utilizing EB irradiation.

  5. Expanded Monomeric Intermediate upon Cold and Heat Unfolding of Phosphofructokinase-2 from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Baez, Mauricio; Wilson, Christian A.M.; Ramírez-Sarmiento, César A.; Guixé, Victoria; Babul, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Folding studies have been focused mainly on small, single-domain proteins or isolated single domains of larger proteins. However, most of the proteins present in biological systems are composed of multiple domains, and to date, the principles that underlie its folding remain elusive. The unfolding of Pfk-2 induced by GdnHCl has been described by highly cooperative three-state equilibrium (N2↔2I↔2U). This is characterized by a strong coupling between the subunits’ tertiary structure and the integrity of the dimer interface because “I” represents an unstructured and expanded monomeric intermediate. Here we report that cold and heat unfolding of Pfk-2 resembles the N2↔2I step of chemically induced unfolding. Moreover, cold unfolding appears to be as cooperative as that induced chemically and even more so than its heat-unfolding counterpart. Because Pfk-2 is a large homodimer of 66 kDa with a complex topology consisting of well-defined domains, these results are somewhat unexpected considering that cold unfolding has been described as a special kind of perturbation that decouples the cooperative unfolding of several proteins. PMID:23200052

  6. Monomerization and ER Relocalization of GRASP Is a Requisite for Unconventional Secretion of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoon; Noh, Shin Hye; Piao, He; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Kuglae; Cha, Jeong Seok; Chung, Woo Young; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Joo Young; Lee, Min Goo

    2016-07-01

    Induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi blockade or ER stress induces Golgi reassembly stacking protein (GRASP)-mediated, Golgi-independent unconventional cell-surface trafficking of the folding-deficient ΔF508-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). However, molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. Here, we show that phosphorylation-dependent dissociation of GRASP homotypic complexes and subsequent relocalization of GRASP to the ER play a critical role in the unconventional secretion of CFTR. Immunolocalization analyses of mammalian cells revealed that the Golgi protein GRASP55 was redistributed to the ER by stimuli that induce unconventional secretion of ΔF508-CFTR, such as induction of ER-to-Golgi blockade by the Arf1 mutant. Notably, the same stimuli also induced phosphorylation of regions near the C-terminus of GRASP55 and dissociation of GRASP homomultimer complexes. Furthermore, phosphorylation-mimicking mutations of GRASP55 induced the monomerization and ER relocalization of GRASP55, and these changes were nullified by phosphorylation-inhibiting mutations. These results provide mechanistic insights into how GRASP accesses the ER-retained ΔF508-CFTR and mediates the ER stress-induced unconventional secretion pathway. PMID:27062250

  7. Lipoamino acid-based micelles as promising delivery vehicles for monomeric amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Serafim, Cláudia; Ferreira, Inês; Rijo, Patrícia; Pinheiro, Lídia; Faustino, Célia; Calado, António; Garcia-Rio, Luis

    2016-01-30

    Lipoamino acid-based micelles have been developed as delivery vehicles for the hydrophobic drug amphotericin B (AmB). The micellar solubilisation of AmB by a gemini lipoamino acid (LAA) derived from cysteine and its equimolar mixtures with the bile salts sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), as well as the aggregation sate of the drug in the micellar systems, was studied under biomimetic conditions (phosphate buffered-saline, pH 7.4) using UV-vis spectroscopy. Pure surfactant systems and equimolar mixtures were characterized by tensiometry and important parameters were determined, such as critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface tension at the CMC (γCMC), maximum surface excess concentration (Γmax), and minimum area occupied per molecule at the water/air interface (Amin). Rheological behaviour from viscosity measurements at different shear rates was also addressed. Solubilisation capacity was quantified in terms of molar solubilisation ratio (χ), micelle-water partition coefficient (KM) and Gibbs energy of solubilisation (ΔGs°). Formulations of AmB in micellar media were compared in terms of drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, aggregation state of AmB and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The LAA-containing micellar systems solubilise AmB in its monomeric and less toxic form and exhibit in vitro antifungal activity comparable to that of the commercial formulation Fungizone. PMID:26617315

  8. Monomeric Garnet, a far-red fluorescent protein for live-cell STED imaging.

    PubMed

    Hense, Anika; Prunsche, Benedikt; Gao, Peng; Ishitsuka, Yuji; Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of far-red emitting variants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is crucially important for imaging live cells, tissues and organisms. Despite notable efforts, far-red marker proteins still need further optimization to match the performance of their green counterparts. Here we present mGarnet, a robust monomeric marker protein with far-red fluorescence peaking at 670 nm. Thanks to its large extinction coefficient of 95,000 M(-1)cm(-1), mGarnet can be efficiently excited with 640-nm light on the red edge of its 598-nm excitation band. A large Stokes shift allows essentially the entire fluorescence emission to be collected even with 640-nm excitation, counterbalancing the lower fluorescence quantum yield of mGarnet, 9.1%, that is typical of far-red FPs. We demonstrate an excellent performance as a live-cell fusion marker in STED microscopy, using 640 nm excitation and 780 nm depletion wavelengths. PMID:26648024

  9. An Intrinsically Disordered Motif Mediates Diverse Actions of Monomeric C-reactive Protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yun; Wang, Jing; Meng, Fan; Jia, Zhe-Kun; Su, Yang; Bai, Qi-Feng; Lv, Ling-Ling; Ma, Fu-Rong; Potempa, Lawrence A; Yan, Yong-Bin; Ji, Shang-Rong; Wu, Yi

    2016-04-15

    Most proinflammatory actions of C-reactive protein (CRP) are only expressed following dissociation of its native pentameric assembly into monomeric form (mCRP). However, little is known about what underlies the greatly enhanced activities of mCRP. Here we show that a single sequence motif, i.e. cholesterol binding sequence (CBS; a.a. 35-47), is responsible for mediating the interactions of mCRP with diverse ligands. The binding of mCRP to lipoprotein component ApoB, to complement component C1q, to extracellular matrix components fibronectin and collagen, to blood coagulation component fibrinogen, and to membrane lipid component cholesterol, are all found to be markedly inhibited by the synthetic CBS peptide but not by other CRP sequences tested. Likewise, mutating CBS in mCRP also greatly impairs these interactions. Functional experiments further reveal that CBS peptide significantly reduces the effects of mCRP on activation of endothelial cells in vitro and on acute induction of IL-6 in mice. The potency and specificity of CBS are critically determined by the N-terminal residues Cys-36, Leu-37, and His-38; while the versatility of CBS appears to originate from its intrinsically disordered conformation polymorphism. Together, these data unexpectedly identify CBS as the major recognition site of mCRP and suggest that this motif may be exploited to tune the proinflammatory actions of mCRP. PMID:26907682

  10. Structural studies of wheat monomeric and dimeric protein inhibitors of alpha-amylase.

    PubMed Central

    Petrucci, T; Sannia, G; Parlamenti, R; Silano, V

    1978-01-01

    Two wheat monomeric protein inhibitors of alpha-amylase with mol.wt. 12000, designated inhibitors 0.28 and 0.39 according to their gel-electrophoretic mobilities, showed almost identical circular-dichroism spectra in both the far and near u.v. at different pH values as well as in the presence or absence of dissociating and reducing agents. Both inhibitors (0.28 and 0.39) were readily inactivated by reduction of the five disulphide bridges present in each inhibitor molecule. These properties are very similar to those exhibited by the wheat dimeric protein inhibitor of alpha-amylase with mol.wt. 24000, designated inhibitor 0.19 according to its gel-electrophoretic mobility. The N-terminal sequence of the 0.19 inhibitor was determined without separating its subunits and compared with that of the 0.28 inhibitor reported by Redman [(1976) Biochem. J. 155, 193--195]. Petide 'maps' from tryptic digests of reduced and carboxymethylated inhibitors 0.19 and 0.28 were compared. One molecule of reducing sugar is covalently bound per inhibitor-0.19 protomer and inhibitor-0.28 molecule. The results obtained strongly support previous findings indicating the structural equivalence of inhibitor 0.28 with each inhibitor-0.19 protomer and the common phylogenetic origin of these protein alpha-amylase inhibitors from wheat kernel. PMID:308369

  11. Methane dehydrogenation on monomeric Rh center located on (100) γ-alumina — A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Yang, Hua-Qing; Gao, Chao; Xu, Jian; Hu, Chang-Wei

    2012-12-01

    The reaction mechanism of methane dehydrogenation on monomeric Rh center located on (100) γ-alumina has been theoretically investigated at the PBE0/cc-pVTZ, SDD level. The (100) face of γ-alumina support is represented by an Al8O26H28 cluster, which is cut out from the ideal crystal structure. Then, two model Rh/γ-Al2O3 catalysts, in which Rh center interacts with one oxygen or two oxygen atoms of the (100) surface of γ-Al2O3, have been compared and denoted as Rh/Al8O26H27 and Rh/Al8O26H26, respectively. Toward methane activation, the model catalyst Rh/Al8O26H27 exhibits better performance than Rh/Al8O26H26. For the first Csbnd H bond cleavage of methane, the lowering of activation barriers on Rh/Al8O26H27 is mainly caused by lower substrate activation strain ΔE≠strain[substr], which is from substrate equilibrium geometry to the geometry it adopts in the TS, in comparison with that on Rh/Al8O26H26. These results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results, where the partially reduced Rh+ is one of the active sites for methane dissociation.

  12. Heterogeneity studies of hamster calcitonin following acute exposure to cigarette smoke: evidence for monomeric secretion.

    PubMed

    Tabassian, A R; Snider, R H; Nylen, E S; Cassidy, M; Becker, K L

    1993-05-01

    Various acute stimuli, including cigarette smoke, induce hypercalcitonemia in man and hamsters. We have shown that this occurs also in thyroidectomized subjects. In the present study we have further explored this phenomenon of secretion from the lungs by studying, simultaneously, the HPLC characteristics of pulmonary tissue and serum in control hamsters and in animals immediately following short-term exposure to cigarette smoke. In addition, we have studied the immunoheterogeneity of lung calcitonin 24 hours following the acute exposure. Control lungs contained monomeric immunoreactive calcitonin (M-iCT), high molecular mass iCT (H-iCT), and CT fragments. Immediately following smoke exposure, there was an acute decrease of lung iCT by radioimmunoassay (RIA) which consisted primarily of a decrease in M-iCT by HPLC. Simultaneously, the iCT increase in the serum by RIA was shown by HPLC to involve M-iCT. Twenty-four hours after smoke inhalation, the lung iCT by RIA and M-iCT by HPLC had returned towards control levels. These findings document the molecular characteristics of lung iCT following acute cigarette smoke stimulation, and suggest that under certain circumstances M-iCT may be actively secreted by the lung. It remains to be determined whether this type of secretion reflects hemocrine or paracrine release and what the physiological role for such a secretion may be. PMID:8507014

  13. Mapping the dynamics and nanoscale organization of synaptic adhesion proteins using monomeric streptavidin

    PubMed Central

    Chamma, Ingrid; Letellier, Mathieu; Butler, Corey; Tessier, Béatrice; Lim, Kok-Hong; Gauthereau, Isabel; Choquet, Daniel; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Park, Sheldon; Sainlos, Matthieu; Thoumine, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The advent of super-resolution imaging (SRI) has created a need for optimized labelling strategies. We present a new method relying on fluorophore-conjugated monomeric streptavidin (mSA) to label membrane proteins carrying a short, enzymatically biotinylated tag, compatible with SRI techniques including uPAINT, STED and dSTORM. We demonstrate efficient and specific labelling of target proteins in confined intercellular and organotypic tissues, with reduced steric hindrance and no crosslinking compared with multivalent probes. We use mSA to decipher the dynamics and nanoscale organization of the synaptic adhesion molecules neurexin-1β, neuroligin-1 (Nlg1) and leucine-rich-repeat transmembrane protein 2 (LRRTM2) in a dual-colour configuration with GFP nanobody, and show that these proteins are diffusionally trapped at synapses where they form apposed trans-synaptic adhesive structures. Furthermore, Nlg1 is dynamic, disperse and sensitive to synaptic stimulation, whereas LRRTM2 is organized in compact and stable nanodomains. Thus, mSA is a versatile tool to image membrane proteins at high resolution in complex live environments, providing novel information about the nano-organization of biological structures. PMID:26979420

  14. DNA binding and phasing analyses of Tn5 transposase and a monomeric variant.

    PubMed Central

    York, D; Reznikoff, W S

    1997-01-01

    Both full-length Tn 5 transposase and a COOH-terminal truncated monomeric form of the protein,n369, have been shown to specifically bind end sequences at comparable affinities. In addition, both proteins distort the target sequence in a similar manner, as determined by a circular permutation assay. In this study,nEK54, a derivative ofn369 with a single amino acid substitution that significantly enhances binding activity, is used in further binding and bending studies along with full-length transposase. Phasing analysis has shown that distortion of the end sequences upon binding of full-length transposase and nEK54 protein is due in part to a protein-induced bend oriented towards the major groove. Because the center of transposase-induced bending maps to the extreme leftward end of the 19 bp consensus sequence, we examined the possibility that optimal protein binding requires additional upstream nucleotide contacts. Experiments presented here show that 9-10 nucleotides are needed upstream of +1 of the 19 bp sequence for efficient binding and this requirement can be met by either single-stranded or double-stranded DNA. PMID:9153315

  15. NMR observation of the swelling process of polydimethylsiloxane networks. Average orientational order of monomeric units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Addad, J. P.; Domard, M.; Herz, J.

    1982-03-01

    The swelling process of several polydimethylsiloxane gels was observed from the relaxation process of the magnetization transverse component of protons bound to elementary chains. Polymeric gels were studied in equilibrium with solvent vapor, using chloroform. A model of progressive swelling process from the dry gel to the equilibrium with pure solvent liquid is proposed from observed elementary chain properties. At small swelling degrees, gels behave like strongly entangled chains in concentrated solutions; then, elementary chains are desinterspersed and a packing condition may be applied from a characteristic swelling degree to equilibrium swelling. In this concentration range, gels swollen by different solvents behave the same way at a given swelling degree. Trapped entanglements are perceived. All these properties are derived from residual dipolar interactions associated with average orientational order of monomeric units induced by chain elongation. This residual energy is shown to be proportional to (r/N)2, with r the end-to-end vector and N the number of links of a chain. The C theorem proposed by De Gennes is extended to NMR properties. It is clearly shown that NMR observed on a chain segment may be sensitive to both its overall dimensions (30 Å) and its internal isomerization properties.

  16. Small N-terminal mutant huntingtin fragments, but not wild type, are mainly present in monomeric form: Implications for pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cong, Shu-Yan; Pepers, Barry A; Roos, Raymund A C; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Dorsman, Josephine C

    2006-06-01

    N-terminal fragments of huntingtin containing an expanded polyglutamine stretch play an important role in the molecular pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. Their ultimate accumulation in insoluble protein aggregates constitutes an important pathological hallmark of Huntington's disease. We report on systematic biochemical comparison studies of soluble wild type and mutant N-terminal huntingtin fragments. The results show that soluble wild type exon 1 fragments are predominantly present in higher molecular weight complexes with a molecular size of approximately 300 kDa, while their mutant counterparts are mainly present in their monomeric form. In contrast, longer N-terminal fragments corresponding to peptides produced by caspase cleavage do not display these differential properties. These findings suggest that especially an increased amount of monomeric form of small N-terminal mutant huntingtin fragments may facilitate aberrant interactions both with itself via the polyglutamine stretch and with other proteins and thereby contribute to molecular pathogenesis. PMID:16380118

  17. Development and characterization of a new inbred transgenic rat strain expressing DsRed monomeric fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Sonia; Wang, Xing-Hua; Yannarelli, Gustavo; Dayan, Victor; Berger, Thorsten; Zocche, Larissa; Kobayashi, Eiji; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Keating, Armand

    2014-10-01

    The inbred rat is a suitable model for studying human disease and because of its larger size is more amenable to complex surgical manipulation than the mouse. While the rodent fulfills many of the criteria for transplantation research, an important requirement is the ability to mark and track donors cells and assess organ viability. However, tracking ability is limited by the availability of transgenic (Tg) rats that express suitable luminescent or fluorescent proteins. Red fluorescent protein cloned from Discosoma coral (DsRed) has several advantages over other fluorescent proteins, including in vivo detection in the whole animal and ex vivo visualization in organs as there is no interference with autofluorescence. We generated and characterized a novel inbred Tg Lewis rat strain expressing DsRed monomeric (DsRed mono) fluorescent protein under the control of a ubiquitously expressed ROSA26 promoter. DsRed mono Tg rats ubiquitously expressed the marker gene as detected by RT-PCR but the protein was expressed at varying levels in different organs. Conventional skin grafting experiments showed acceptance of DsRed monomeric Tg rat skin on wild-type rats for more than 30 days. Cardiac transplantation of DsRed monomeric Tg rat hearts into wild-type recipients further showed graft acceptance and long-term organ viability (>6 months). The DsRed monomeric Tg rat provides marked cells and/or organs that can be followed for long periods without immune rejection and therefore is a suitable model to investigate cell tracking and organ transplantation. PMID:25011565

  18. Mechanistic study of CuZn-SOD from Ipomoea carnea mutated at dimer interface: enhancement of peroxidase activity upon monomerization.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Panchanand; Dixit, Anshuman; Ray, Mamata; Sabat, Surendra Chandra

    2014-02-01

    The enzymatically active monomeric form of CuZn-superoxide dismutase has always been of interest to decipher the structure-function relationship in this class of enzymes. In the present study, spectroscopic and enzymatic characteristics of the dimeric and monomeric forms of recombinant Ipomoea carnea CuZn-superoxide dismutase were made to decipher their stability and altered catalytic properties. The monomeric form of protein was produced through site directed mutagenesis by replacing a conserved hydrophobic leucine with a polar lysine residue at the dimer-interface. Spectral characteristics of both the forms (monomer and dimer) showed the presence of novel electronic transitions. Superoxide scavenging activity of the mutated form was reduced to nearly half of the activity found in the native enzyme. Concomitantly, compared to native form the mutated enzyme showed an increase in peroxidase activity. High temperature dependent circular dichroism spectral analysis, differential scanning calorimetric profile, and the measurement of temperature dependent superoxide scavenging activity indicated an increased susceptibility of the mutated form to higher temperature as compared to the native form. The inhibitor studies like hydrogen peroxide, diethyldithiocarbamate and phenylglyoxal also indicate higher susceptibility, which might be due to, altered arrangement of active site residues as a consequence of the mutation. Molecular modeling and MD simulation studies further indicated that this specific mutation induces loss of hydrophobic interaction at dimer interface, resulting in the observed instability of the dimeric form. Increased peroxidative activity of the enzyme, upon monomerization may have physiological implication essentially in presence of high concentration of H2O2, as in case of plant cells specifically under stress conditions. PMID:24513093

  19. Monomeric ß-amyloid interacts with type-1 insulin-like growth factor receptors to provide energy supply to neurons

    PubMed Central

    Giuffrida, Maria L.; Tomasello, Marianna F.; Pandini, Giuseppe; Caraci, Filippo; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Busceti, Carla; Di Pietro, Paola; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Attanasio, Francesco; Chiechio, Santina; Bagnoli, Silvia; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Vigneri, Riccardo; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Copani, Agata

    2015-01-01

    ß-amyloid (Aß1−42) is produced by proteolytic cleavage of the transmembrane type-1 protein, amyloid precursor protein. Under pathological conditions, Aß1−42self-aggregates into oligomers, which cause synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss, and are considered the culprit of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, Aß1−42 is mainly monomeric at physiological concentrations, and the precise role of monomeric Aß1−42 in neuronal function is largely unknown. We report that the monomer of Aß1−42 activates type-1 insulin-like growth factor receptors and enhances glucose uptake in neurons and peripheral cells by promoting the translocation of the Glut3 glucose transporter from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. In neurons, activity-dependent glucose uptake was blunted after blocking endogenous Aß production, and re-established in the presence of cerebrospinal fluid Aß. APP-null neurons failed to enhance depolarization-stimulated glucose uptake unless exogenous monomeric Aß1−42 was added. These data suggest that Aß1−42 monomers were critical for maintaining neuronal glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, exogenous Aß1−42 monomers were able to rescue the low levels of glucose consumption observed in brain slices from AD mutant mice. PMID:26300732

  20. Discovery of Radioiodinated Monomeric Anthraquinones as a Novel Class of Necrosis Avid Agents for Early Imaging of Necrotic Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Yang, Shengwei; Jiang, Cuihua; Li, Jindian; Wang, Cong; Chen, Linwei; Jin, Qiaomei; Song, Shaoli; Feng, Yuanbo; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of myocardial viability is deemed necessary to aid in clinical decision making whether to recommend revascularization therapy for patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Dianthraquinones such as hypericin (Hyp) selectively accumulate in necrotic myocardium, but were unsuitable for early imaging after administration to assess myocardial viability. Since dianthraquinones can be composed by coupling two molecules of monomeric anthraquinone and the active center can be found by splitting chemical structure, we propose that monomeric anthraquinones may be effective functional groups for necrosis targetability. In this study, eight radioiodinated monomeric anthraquinones were evaluated as novel necrosis avid agents (NAAs) for imaging of necrotic myocardium. All 131I-anthraquinones showed high affinity to necrotic tissues and 131I-rhein emerged as the most promising compound. Infarcts were visualized on SPECT/CT images at 6 h after injection of 131I-rhein, which was earlier than that with 131I-Hyp. Moreover, 131I-rhein showed satisfactory heart-to-blood, heart-to-liver and heart-to-lung ratios for obtaining images of good diagnostic quality. 131I-rhein was a more promising “hot spot imaging” tracer for earlier visualization of necrotic myocardium than 131I-Hyp, which supported further development of radiopharmaceuticals based on rhein for SPECT/CT (123I and 99mTc) or PET/CT imaging (18F and 124I) of myocardial necrosis. PMID:26878909

  1. Monomerization of viral entry inhibitor griffithsin elucidates the relationship between multivalent binding to carbohydrates and anti-HIV activity

    SciTech Connect

    Moulaei, Tinoush; Shenoy, Shilpa R.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Thomas, Cheryl; McMahon, James B.; Dauter, Zbigniew; O'Keefe, Barry R.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-10-28

    Mutations were introduced to the domain-swapped homodimer of the antiviral lectin griffithsin (GRFT). Whereas several single and double mutants remained dimeric, insertion of either two or four amino acids at the dimerization interface resulted in a monomeric form of the protein (mGRFT). Monomeric character of the modified proteins was confirmed by sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation and by their high resolution X-ray crystal structures, whereas their binding to carbohydrates was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Cell-based antiviral activity assays utilizing different variants of mGRFT indicated that the monomeric form of the lectin had greatly reduced activity against HIV-1, suggesting that the antiviral activity of GRFT stems from crosslinking and aggregation of viral particles via multivalent interactions between GRFT and oligosaccharides present on HIV envelope glycoproteins. Atomic resolution crystal structure of a complex between mGRFT and nonamannoside revealed that a single mGRFT molecule binds to two different nonamannoside molecules through all three carbohydrate-binding sites present on the monomer.

  2. Secondary structure of short β-peptides as the chiral expression of monomeric building units: a rational and predictive model.

    PubMed

    Gorrea, Esther; Pohl, Gábor; Nolis, Pau; Celis, Sergio; Burusco, Kepa K; Branchadell, Vicenç; Perczel, András; Ortuño, Rosa M

    2012-11-01

    Chirality of the monomeric residues controls and determines the prevalent folding of small oligopeptides (from di- to tetramers) composed of 2-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (ACBA) derivatives with the same or different absolute and relative configuration. The cis-form of the monomeric ACBA gives rise to two conformers, namely, Z6 and Z8, while the trans-form manifests uniquely as an H8 structure. By combining these subunits in oligo- and polypeptides, their local structural preference remains, thus allowing the rational design of new short foldamers. A lego-type molecular architecture evolves; the overall look depends only on the conformational properties of the structural building units. A versatile and efficient method to predict the backbone folds of designed cyclobutane β-peptides is based on QM calculations. Predictions are corroborated by high-resolution NMR studies on selected stereoisomers, most of them being new foldamers that have been synthesized and characterized for the first time. Thus, the chiral expression of monomeric building units results in the defined secondary structures of small oligomers. As a result of this study, a new set of chirality controlled foldamers is provided to probe as biocompatible biopolymers. PMID:23030251

  3. The leucine-rich amelogenin protein (LRAP) is primarily monomeric and unstructured in physiological solution.

    PubMed

    Tarasevich, Barbara J; Philo, John S; Maluf, Nasib Karl; Krueger, Susan; Buchko, Garry W; Lin, Genyao; Shaw, Wendy J

    2015-04-01

    Amelogenin proteins are critical to the formation of enamel in teeth and may have roles in controlling growth and regulating microstructures of the intricately woven hydroxyapatite (HAP). Leucine-rich amelogenin protein (LRAP) is a 59-residue splice variant of amelogenin and contains the N- and C-terminal charged regions of the full-length protein thought to control crystal growth. Although the quaternary structure of full-length amelogenin in solution has been well studied and can consist of self-assemblies of monomers called nanospheres, there is limited information on the quaternary structure of LRAP. Here, sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) were used to study the tertiary and quaternary structure of LRAP at various pH values, ionic strengths, and concentrations. We found that the monomer is the dominant species of phosphorylated LRAP (LRAP(+P)) over a range of solution conditions (pH 2.7-4.1, pH 4.5-8, 50 mmol/L(mM) to 200 mM NaCl, 0.065-2 mg/mL). The monomer is also the dominant species for unphosphorylated LRAP (LRAP(-P)) at pH 7.4 and for LRAP(+P) in the presence of 2.5 mM calcium at pH 7.4. LRAP aggregates in a narrow pH range near the isoelectric point of pH 4.1. SV and SANS show that the LRAP monomer has a radius of ∼2.0 nm and an asymmetric structure, and solution NMR studies indicate that the monomer is largely unstructured. This work provides new insights into the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of LRAP in solution and provides evidence that the monomeric species may be an important functional form of some amelogenins. PMID:25449314

  4. The Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Protein (LRAP) is Primarily Monomeric and Unstructured in Physiological Solution

    PubMed Central

    Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Philo, John S.; Maluf, Nasib Karl; Krueger, Susan; Buchko, Garry W.; Lin, Genyao; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Amelogenin proteins are critical to the formation of enamel in teeth and may have roles in controlling growth and regulating microstructures of the intricately woven hydroxyapatite (HAP). Leucine-rich amelogenin protein (LRAP) is a 59-residue splice variant of amelogenin and contains the N- and C-terminal charged regions of the full-length protein thought to control crystal growth. Although the quaternary structure of full-length amelogenin in solution has been well studied and can consist of self-assemblies of monomers called nanospheres, there is limited information on the quaternary structure of LRAP. Here, sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) were used to study the tertiary and quaternary structure of LRAP at various pH values, ionic strengths, and concentrations. We found that the monomer is the dominant species of phosphorylated LRAP (LRAP(+P)) over a range of solution conditions (pH 2.7 to 4.1, pH 4.5 to 8, 50 mmol/L(mM) to 200 mM NaCl, 0.065 to 2 mg/mL). The monomer is also the dominant species for unphosphorylated LRAP (LRAP(−P)) at pH 7.4 and for LRAP(+P) in the presence of 2.5 mM calcium at pH 7.4. LRAP aggregates in a narrow pH range near the isoelectric point of pH 4.1. SV and SANS show that the LRAP monomer has a radius of ~2.0 nm and an asymmetric structure, and solution NMR studies indicate that the monomer is largely unstructured. This work provides new insights into the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of LRAP in solution and provides evidence that the monomeric species may be an important functional form of some amelogenins. PMID:25449314

  5. Structural Characterization of Mutations at the Oxygen Activation Site in Monomeric Sarcosine Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman Jorns, Marilyn; Chen, Zhi-wei; Mathews, F. Scott

    2010-04-30

    Oxygen reduction and sarcosine oxidation in monomeric sarcosine oxidase (MSOX) occur at separate sites above the si- and re-faces, respectively, of the flavin ring. Mutagenesis studies implicate Lys265 as the oxygen activation site. Substitution of Lys265 with a neutral (Met, Gln, or Ala) or basic (Arg) residue results in an {approx}10{sup 4}- or 250-fold decrease, respectively, in the reaction rate. The overall structure of MSOX and residue conformation in the sarcosine binding cavity are unaffected by replacement of Lys265 with Met or Arg. The side chain of Met265 exhibits the same configuration in each molecule of Lys265Met crystals and is nearly congruent with Lys265 in wild-type MSOX. The side chain of Arg265 is, however, dramatically shifted (4-5 {angstrom}) compared with Lys265, points in the opposite direction, and exhibits significant conformational variability between molecules of the same crystal. The major species in solutions of Lys265Arg is likely to contain a 'flipped-out' Arg265 and exhibit negligible oxygen activation, similar to Lys265Met. The 400-fold higher oxygen reactivity observed with Lys265Arg is attributed to a minor (<1%) 'flipped-in' Arg265 conformer whose oxygen reactivity is similar to that of wild-type MSOX. A structural water (WAT1), found above the si-face of the flavin ring in all previously determined MSOX structures, is part of an apparent proton relay system that extends from FAD N(5) to bulk solvent. WAT1 is strikingly absent in Lys265Met and Lys265Arg, a feature that may account for the apparent kinetic stabilization of a reductive half-reaction intermediate that is detectable with the mutants but not wild-type MSOX.

  6. Equilibrium unfolding of dimeric desulfoferrodoxin involves a monomeric intermediate: iron cofactors dissociate after polypeptide unfolding.

    PubMed

    Apiyo, D; Jones, K; Guidry, J; Wittung-Stafshede, P

    2001-04-24

    Here we report the conformational stability of homodimeric desulfoferrodoxin (dfx) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 27774). The dimer is formed by two dfx monomers linked through beta-strand interactions in two domains; in addition, each monomer contains two different iron centers: one Fe-(S-Cys)(4) center and one Fe-[S-Cys+(N-His)(4)] center. The dissociation constant for dfx was determined to be 1 microM (DeltaG = 34 kJ/mol of dimer) from the concentration dependence of aromatic residue emission. Upon addition of the chemical denaturant guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) to dfx, a reversible fluorescence change occurred at 2-3 M GuHCl. This transition was dependent upon protein concentration, in accord with a dimer to monomer reaction [DeltaG(H(2)O) = 46 kJ/mol of dimer]. The secondary structure did not disappear, according to far-UV circular dichroism (CD), until 6 M GuHCl was added; this transition was reversible (for incubation times of < 1 h) and independent of dfx concentration [DeltaG(H(2)O) = 50 kJ/mol of monomer]. Thus, dfx equilibrium unfolding is at least three-state, involving a monomeric intermediate with native-like secondary structure. Only after complete polypeptide unfolding (and incubation times of > 1 h) did the iron centers dissociate, as monitored by disappearance of ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption, fluorescence of an iron indicator, and reactivity of cysteines to Ellman's reagent. Iron dissociation took place over several hours and resulted in an irreversibly denatured dfx. It appears as if the presence of the iron centers, the amino acid composition, and, to a lesser extent, the dimeric structure are factors that aid in facilitating dfx's unusually high thermodynamic stability for a mesophilic protein. PMID:11305909

  7. Production of transgenic cloned pigs expressing the far-red fluorescent protein monomeric Plum

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, Masahito; KOBAYASHI, Mirina; NAGAYA, Masaki; MATSUNARI, Hitomi; NAKANO, Kazuaki; MAEHARA, Miki; HAYASHIDA, Gota; TAKAYANAGI, Shuko; SAKAI, Rieko; UMEYAMA, Kazuhiro; WATANABE, Nobuyuki; ONODERA, Masafumi; NAGASHIMA, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Monomeric Plum (Plum), a far-red fluorescent protein with photostability and photopermeability, is potentially suitable for in vivo imaging and detection of fluorescence in body tissues. The aim of this study was to generate transgenic cloned pigs exhibiting systemic expression of Plum using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. Nuclear donor cells for SCNT were obtained by introducing a Plum-expression vector driven by a combination of the cytomegalovirus early enhancer and chicken beta-actin promoter into porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of reconstructed SCNT embryos were 81.0% (34/42) and 78.6% (33/42), respectively. At 36–37 days of gestation, three fetuses systemically expressing Plum were obtained from one recipient to which 103 SCNT embryos were transferred (3/103, 2.9%). For generation of offspring expressing Plum, rejuvenated PFFs were established from one cloned fetus and used as nuclear donor cells. Four cloned offspring and one stillborn cloned offspring were produced from one recipient to which 117 SCNT embryos were transferred (5/117, 4.3%). All offspring exhibited high levels of Plum fluorescence in blood cells, such as lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. In addition, the skin, heart, kidney, pancreas, liver and spleen also exhibited Plum expression. These observations demonstrated that transfer of the Plum gene did not interfere with the development of porcine SCNT embryos and resulted in the successful generation of transgenic cloned pigs that systemically expressed Plum. This is the first report of the generation and characterization of transgenic cloned pigs expressing the far-red fluorescent protein Plum. PMID:25739316

  8. Crystal Structure of a Monomeric Thiolase-Like Protein Type 1 (TLP1) from Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Janardan, Neelanjana; Harijan, Rajesh K.; Wierenga, Rikkert K.; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the Mycobacterium smegmatis genome suggests that it codes for several thiolases and thiolase-like proteins. Thiolases are an important family of enzymes that are involved in fatty acid metabolism. They occur as either dimers or tetramers. Thiolases catalyze the Claisen condensation of two acetyl-Coenzyme A molecules in the synthetic direction and the thiolytic cleavage of 3-ketoacyl-Coenzyme A molecules in the degradative direction. Some of the M. smegmatis genes have been annotated as thiolases of the poorly characterized SCP2-thiolase subfamily. The mammalian SCP2-thiolase consists of an N-terminal thiolase domain followed by an additional C-terminal domain called sterol carrier protein-2 or SCP2. The M. smegmatis protein selected in the present study, referred to here as the thiolase-like protein type 1 (MsTLP1), has been biochemically and structurally characterized. Unlike classical thiolases, MsTLP1 is a monomer in solution. Its structure has been determined at 2.7 Å resolution by the single wavelength anomalous dispersion method. The structure of the protomer confirms that the N-terminal domain has the thiolase fold. An extra C-terminal domain is indeed observed. Interestingly, it consists of six β-strands forming an anti-parallel β-barrel which is completely different from the expected SCP2-fold. Detailed sequence and structural comparisons with thiolases show that the residues known to be essential for catalysis are not conserved in MsTLP1. Consistent with this observation, activity measurements show that MsTLP1 does not catalyze the thiolase reaction. This is the first structural report of a monomeric thiolase-like protein from any organism. These studies show that MsTLP1 belongs to a new group of thiolase related proteins of unknown function. PMID:22844533

  9. Molecular docking and pharmacogenomics of vinca alkaloids and their monomeric precursors, vindoline and catharanthine.

    PubMed

    Sertel, Serkan; Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang; Rebacz, Blanka; Konkimalla, Badireenath; Plinkert, Peter K; Krämer, Alwin; Gertsch, Jürg; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-03-15

    Vinblastine and vincristine are dimeric indole alkaloids derived from Catharanthus roseus (formerly: Vinca rosea). Their monomeric precursor molecules are vindoline and catharanthine. While vinblastine and vincristine are well-known mitotic spindle poisons, not much is known about vindoline and catharanthine. Vindoline and catharanthine showed weak cytotoxicity, while vinblastine, vincristine, and the semisynthetic vindesine and vinorelbine revealed high cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. This may reflect a general biological principle of poisonous plants. Highly toxic compounds are not only active towards predators, but also towards plant tissues. Hence, plants need mechanisms to protect themselves from their own poisons. One evolutionary strategy to solve this problem is to generate less toxic precursors, which are dimerized to toxic end products when needed. As shown by in silico molecular docking and biochemical approaches, vinblastine, vincristine and vinorelbine bound with high affinity to α/β-tubulin and inhibited tubulin polymerization, whereas the effects of vindoline and catharanthine were weak. Similarly, vinblastine produced high fractions of mono- and multipolar mitotic spindles, while vindoline and catharanthine did only weakly affect bipolar mitotic spindle formation. Here, we show that vinblastine contributes to cell death by interference with spindle polarity. P-glycoprotein-overexpressing multidrug-resistant CEM/VCR1000 cells were highly resistant towards vincristine and cross-resistant to vinblastine, vindesine, and vinorelbine, but not or only weakly cross-resistant to vindoline and catharanthine. In addition to tubulin as primary target, microarray-based mRNA signatures of responsiveness of these compounds have been identified by COMPARE and signaling pathway profiling. PMID:21219884

  10. Structural Analysis of Monomeric RNA-Dependent Polymerases: Evolutionary and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jácome, Rodrigo; Becerra, Arturo; Ponce de León, Samuel; Lazcano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of monomeric RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases of more than 20 different viruses are available in the Protein Data Bank. They all share the characteristic right-hand shape of DNA- and RNA polymerases formed by the fingers, palm and thumb subdomains, and, in many cases, “fingertips” that extend from the fingers towards the thumb subdomain, giving the viral enzyme a closed right-hand appearance. Six conserved structural motifs that contain key residues for the proper functioning of the enzyme have been identified in all these RNA-dependent polymerases. These enzymes share a two divalent metal-ion mechanism of polymerization in which two conserved aspartate residues coordinate the interactions with the metal ions to catalyze the nucleotidyl transfer reaction. The recent availability of crystal structures of polymerases of the Orthomyxoviridae and Bunyaviridae families allowed us to make pairwise comparisons of the tertiary structures of polymerases belonging to the four main RNA viral groups, which has led to a phylogenetic tree in which single-stranded negative RNA viral polymerases have been included for the first time. This has also allowed us to use a homology-based structural prediction approach to develop a general three-dimensional model of the Ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Our model includes several of the conserved structural motifs and residues described in other viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that define the catalytic and highly conserved palm subdomain, as well as portions of the fingers and thumb subdomains. The results presented here help to understand the current use and apparent success of antivirals, i.e. Brincidofovir, Lamivudine and Favipiravir, originally aimed at other types of polymerases, to counteract the Ebola virus infection. PMID:26397100

  11. Monomeric C-reactive protein inhibits renal cell-directed complement activation mediated by properdin.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, Joseph; van der Pol, Pieter; Dixon, Karen O; Prohászka, Zoltán; Daha, Mohamed R; van Kooten, Cees

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that complement activation on renal tubular cells is involved in the induction of interstitial fibrosis and cellular injury. Evidence suggests that the tubular cell damage is initiated by the alternative pathway (AP) of complement with properdin having an instrumental role. Properdin is a positive regulator of the AP, which can bind necrotic cells as well as viable proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs), inducing complement activation. Various studies have indicated that in the circulation there is an unidentified inhibitor of properdin. We investigated the ability of C-reactive protein (CRP), both in its monomeric (mCRP) and pentameric (pCRP) form, to inhibit AP activation and injury in vitro on renal tubular cells by fluorescent microscopy, ELISA, and flow cytometry. We demonstrated that preincubation of properdin with normal human serum inhibits properdin binding to viable PTECs. We identified mCRP as a factor able to bind to properdin in solution, thereby inhibiting its binding to PTECs. In contrast, pCRP exhibited no such binding and inhibitory effect. Furthermore, mCRP was able to inhibit properdin-directed C3 and C5b-9 deposition on viable PTECs. The inhibitory ability of mCRP was not unique for viable cells but also demonstrated for binding to necrotic Jurkat cells, a target for properdin binding and complement activation. In summary, mCRP is an inhibitor of properdin in both binding to necrotic cells and viable renal cells, regulating complement activation on the cell surface. We propose that mCRP limits amplification of tissue injury by controlling properdin-directed complement activation by damaged tissue and cells. PMID:26984957

  12. Interactions of cationic trimeric, gemini and monomeric surfactants with trianionic curcumin in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meina; Wu, Chunxian; Tang, Yongqiang; Fan, Yaxun; Han, Yuchun; Wang, Yilin

    2014-05-21

    Interactions of trianionic curcumin (Cur(3-)) with a series of cationic surfactants, monomeric surfactant dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), dimeric surfactant hexamethylene-1,6-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) (12-6-12) and trimeric surfactant tri(dodecyldimethylammonioacetoxy)diethyltriamine trichloride (DTAD), have been investigated in aqueous solution of pH 13.0. Surface tension and spectral measurements indicate that the cationic surfactants display a similar surfactant concentration dependent interaction process with Cur(3-), involving three interaction stages. At first the three cationic surfactants electrostatically bind on Cur(3-) to form the surfactant-Cur(3-) complex. Then the bound and unbound cationic surfactants with Cur(3-) aggregate into surfactant-Cur(3-) mixed micelles through hydrophobic interactions above the critical micelle concentration of the surfactants (CMCC) in the presence of Cur(3-). Finally excess unbound surfactants self-assemble into micelles like those without Cur(3-). For all the three surfactants, the addition of Cur(3-) only decreases the critical micelle concentration of 12-6-12 but does not affect the critical micelle concentration of DTAB and DTAD. As the oligomeric degree of surfactants increases, the intermolecular interaction of the cationic surfactants with Cur(3-) increases and the surfactant amount needed for Cur(3-) encapsulation decreases. Compared with 12-6-12, either the weaker interaction of DTAB with Cur(3-) or stronger interaction of DTAD with Cur(3-) limits the stability or solubility of Cur(3-) in surfactant micelles. Therefore, gemini surfactant 12-6-12 is the best choice to effectively suppress Cur(3-) degradation at very low concentrations. Isothermal titration microcalorimetry, surface tension and (1)H NMR results reveal that 12-6-12 and Cur(3-) form a (12-6-12)2-Cur(3-) complex and start to form micelles at extremely decreased concentrations, where either 12-6-12 or Cur(3-) works as a bridge

  13. Monomeric and gemini surfactants as antimicrobial agents - influence on environmental and reference strains.

    PubMed

    Koziróg, Anna; Brycki, Bogumił

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) belong to surfactant commonly used both, in the household and in different branches of industry, primarily in the process of cleaning and disinfection. They have several positive features inter alia effectively limiting the development of microorganisms on many surfaces. In the present work, two compounds were used as biocides: hexamethylene-1,6-bis-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammonium bromide) that belongs to the gemini surfactant (GS), and its single analogue - dodecyl(trimethyl)ammonium bromide (DTAB). Two fold dilution method was used to determine the minimum concentration of compounds (MIC) which inhibit the growth of bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and an environmental strain), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 85327 and an environmental strain), and yeast Candida albicans (ATCC 11509 and an environmental strain). The viability of cells in liquid cultures with addition of these substances at ¼ MIC, ½ MIC and MIC concentrations were also determined. The obtained results show that DTAB inhibits the growth of bacteria at the concentration of 0.126-1.010 µM/ml, and gemini surfactant is active at 0.036-0.029 µM/ml. Therefore, GS is active at more than 17-70-fold lower concentrations than its monomeric analogue. Strains isolated from natural environment are less sensitive upon testing biocides than the references strains. Both compounds at the MIC value reduced the number of cells of all strains. The use of too low concentration of biocides can limit the growth of microorganisms, but often only for a short period of time in case of special environmental strains. Later on, they can adapt to adverse environmental conditions and begin to evolve defence mechanisms. PMID:26641636

  14. Processive and Unidirectional Translocation of Monomeric UvsW Helicase on Single-stranded DNA†

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Scott W.; Perumal, Senthil K.; Benkovic, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    UvsW protein from bacteriophage controls the transition from origin-dependent to origin-independent initiation of replication through the unwinding of R-loops bound to the T4 origins of replication. UvsW has also been implicated through genetic and biochemical experiments to play a role in DNA repair processes such as replication fork regression and Holliday junction branch migration. UvsW is capable of unwinding a wide variety of substrates, many of which contain only duplex DNA without single-stranded regions. Based on this observation, it has been suggested that UvsW is a dsDNA translocase. In this work we examine the ability of UvsW to translocate on ssDNA. Kinetic analysis indicates that the rate of ATP hydrolysis is strongly dependent on the length of the ssDNA lattice, whereas the KM-DNA remains relatively constant, demonstrating that UvsW translocates on ssDNA in an ATP-dependent fashion. Experiments using streptavidin blocks or poly-dT sequences located at either end of the ssDNA substrate indicate that UvsW translocates in a 3’ to 5’ direction. Mutant competition and heparin trapping experiments reveal that UvsW is extremely processive during ATP-driven translocation with a half-life on the order of several minutes. Finally, functional assays provide evidence that UvsW is monomeric while translocating on ssDNA. The ability of UvsW to unwind DNA duplexes is likely to be mechanistically linked to its ability to processively translocate on ssDNA in a 3’ to 5’ unidirectional fashion. PMID:19154117

  15. Circularly permuted monomeric red fluorescent proteins with new termini in the beta-sheet.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Haley J; Cotton, Darrel W; Campbell, Robert E

    2010-08-01

    Circularly permuted fluorescent proteins (FPs) have a growing number of uses in live cell fluorescence biosensing applications. Most notably, they enable the construction of single fluorescent protein-based biosensors for Ca(2+) and other analytes of interest. Circularly permuted FPs are also of great utility in the optimization of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors by providing a means for varying the critical dipole-dipole orientation. We have previously reported on our efforts to create circularly permuted variants of a monomeric red FP (RFP) known as mCherry. In our previous work, we had identified six distinct locations within mCherry that tolerated the insertion of a short peptide sequence. Creation of circularly permuted variants with new termini at the locations corresponding to the sites of insertion led to the discovery of three permuted variants that retained no more than 18% of the brightness of mCherry. We now report the extensive directed evolution of the variant with new termini at position 193 of the protein sequence for improved fluorescent brightness. The resulting variant, known as cp193g7, has 61% of the intrinsic brightness of mCherry and was found to be highly tolerant of circular permutation at other locations within the sequence. We have exploited this property to engineer an expanded series of circularly permuted variants with new termini located along the length of the 10th beta-strand of mCherry. These new variants may ultimately prove useful for the creation of single FP-based Ca(2+) biosensors. PMID:20521333

  16. Solution structure of reduced monomeric Q133M2 copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD). Why is SOD a dimeric enzyme?.

    PubMed

    Banci, L; Benedetto, M; Bertini, I; Del Conte, R; Piccioli, M; Viezzoli, M S

    1998-08-25

    Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase is a dimeric enzyme, and it has been shown that no cooperativity between the two subunits of the dimer is operative. The substitution of two hydrophobic residues, Phe 50 and Gly 51, with two Glu's at the interface region has disrupted the quaternary structure of the protein, thus producing a soluble monomeric form. However, this monomeric form was found to have an activity lower than that of the native dimeric species (10%). To answer the fundamental question of the role of the quaternary structure in the catalytic process of superoxide dismutase, we have determined the solution structure of the reduced monomeric mutant through NMR spectroscopy. Another fundamental issue with respect to the enzymatic mechanism is the coordination of reduced copper, which is the active center. The three-dimensional solution structure of this 153-residue monomeric form of SOD (16 kDa) has been determined using distance and dihedral angle constraints obtained from 13C, 15N triple-resonance NMR experiments. The solution structure is represented by a family of 36 structures, with a backbone rmsd of 0.81 +/- 0.13 A over residues 3-150 and of 0.56 +/- 0.08 A over residues 3-49 and 70-150. This structure has been compared with the available X-ray structures of reduced SODs as well as with the oxidized form of human and bovine isoenzymes. The structure contains the classical eight-stranded Greek key beta-barrel. In general, the backbone and the metal sites are not affected much by the monomerization, except in the region involved in the subunit-subunit interface in the dimeric protein, where a large disorder is present. Significative changes are observed in the conformation of the electrostatic loop, which forms one side of the active site channel and which is fundamental in determining the optimal electrostatic potential for driving the superoxide anions to the copper site which is the rate-limiting step of the enymatic reaction under nonsaturating

  17. Monomeric adiponectin increases cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells cultured in normal and high glucose conditions: Data on kinases activation.

    PubMed

    Grossini, Elena; Farruggio, Serena; Qoqaiche, Fatima; Raina, Giulia; Camillo, Lara; Sigaudo, Lorenzo; Mary, David; Surico, Nicola; Surico, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    We found that monomeric adiponectin was able to increase cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE) cultured both in normal and high glucose condition. Moreover, in normal glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased p38MAPK, Akt, ERK1/2 and eNOS phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent way. Also in high glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased eNOS and above kinases phosphorylation with similar patterns but at lower extent. For interpretation of the data presented in this article, please see the research article "Monomeric adiponectin modulates nitric oxide release and calcium movements in porcine aortic endothelial cells in normal/high glucose conditions" (Grossini et al., in press) [1]. PMID:27583345

  18. Total allowable concentrations of monomeric inorganic aluminum and hydrated aluminum silicates in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Willhite, Calvin C; Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J

    2012-05-01

    Maximum contaminant levels are used to control potential health hazards posed by chemicals in drinking water, but no primary national or international limits for aluminum (Al) have been adopted. Given the differences in toxicological profiles, the present evaluation derives total allowable concentrations for certain water-soluble inorganic Al compounds (including chloride, hydroxide, oxide, phosphate and sulfate) and for the hydrated Al silicates (including attapulgite, bentonite/montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite) in drinking water. The chemistry, toxicology and clinical experience with Al materials are extensive and depend upon the particular physical and chemical form. In general, the water solubility of the monomeric Al materials depends on pH and their water solubility and gastrointestinal bioavailability are much greater than that of the hydrated Al silicates. Other than Al-containing antacids and buffered aspirin, food is the primary source of Al exposure for most healthy people. Systemic uptake of Al after ingestion of the monomeric salts is somewhat greater from drinking water (0.28%) than from food (0.1%). Once absorbed, Al accumulates in bone, brain, liver and kidney, with bone as the major site for Al deposition in humans. Oral Al hydroxide is used routinely to bind phosphate salts in the gut to control hyperphosphatemia in people with compromised renal function. Signs of chronic Al toxicity in the musculoskeletal system include a vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia (deranged membranous bone formation characterized by accumulation of the osteoid matrix and reduced mineralization, reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreased lamellar and osteoid bands with elevated Al concentrations) presenting as bone pain and proximal myopathy. Aluminum-induced bone disease can progress to stress fractures of the ribs, femur, vertebrae, humerus and metatarsals. Serum Al ≥100 µg/L has a 75-88% positive predictive value for Al bone disease. Chronic Al

  19. The leucine-rich amelogenin protein (LRAP) is primarily monomeric and unstructured in physiological solution

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Philo, John S.; Maluf, Nasib Karl; Krueger, Susan; Buchko, Garry W.; Lin, Genyao; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-10-25

    Amelogenin proteins are critical to the formation of enamel in teeth and may have roles in promoting nucleation, controlling growth, and regulating microstructures of the intricately woven hydroxyapatite (HAP). Leucine-rich amelogenin protein (LRAP) is a 59-residue splice variant of amelogenin and contains the N- and C-terminal charged regions of the full-length protein thought to control crystal growth. Although the quaternary structure of full-length amelogenin in solution has been well studied and can consist of self-assemblies of monomers called nanospheres, the quaternary structure of LRAP is not as well studied. Here, analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity (SV) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) were used to study the tertiary and quaternary structure of LRAP over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, and concentrations. SV has advantages over other techniques in accurately quantifying protein speciation in polydisperse solutions. We found that the monomer was the dominant species of phosphorylated LRAP (LRAP(+P)) over a range of solution conditions (pH 2.7 to 4.1, pH 4.5 to 8, 50 mmol/L( mM) to 200 mM NaCl, 0.065 to 2 mg/mL). The monomer was also the dominant species for unphosphorylated LRAP (LRAP(-P)) at pH 7.4 and LRAP(+P) in the presence of 2.5 mM calcium at pH 7.4. LRAP aggregated in a narrow pH range near the isoelectric point (pH 4.1). We conclude that LRAP does not form nanospheres under physiological solution conditions. Both SV and SANS showed that the LRAP monomer has a radius of ~2.0 nm and adopts an extended structure which solution NMR studies show is intrinsically disordered. This work provides new insights into the tertiary and quaternary structure of LRAP and further evidence that the monomeric species is an important functional form of amelogenins

  20. Use of the quartz crystal microbalance to determine the monomeric friction coefficient of polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Mary M.

    1995-01-01

    When a thin film of polymer is coated on to a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the QCM can be used to detect the rate of increase in weight of the polymer film as the volatile penetrant diffuses into the polymer. From this rate information the diffusion coefficient of the penetrant into the polymer can be computed. Calculations requiring this diffusion coefficient lead to values which approximate the monomeric friction coefficient of the polymer. This project has been concerned with the trial of crystal oscillating circuits suitable for driving polymer coated crystals in an atmosphere of penetrant. For these studies done at room temperature, natural rubber was used as an easily applied polymer that is readily penetrated by toluene vapors, qualities anticipated with polyimides when they are tested at T(g) in the presence of toluene. Three quartz crystal oscillator circuits were tested. The simplest circuit used +/- 5 volt dc and had a transistor to transistor logic (TTL) inverter chip that provides a 180 deg phase shift via a feed back loop. This oscillator circuit was stable but would not drive the crystal when the crystal was coated with polymer and subjected to toluene vapors. Removal of a variable resistor from this circuit increased stability but did not otherwise increase performance. Another driver circuit tested contained a two stage differential input, differential output, wide band video amplifier and also contain a feed back loop. The circuit voltage could not be varied and operated at +/- 5 volts dc; this circuit was also stable but failed to oscillate the polymer coated crystal in an atmosphere saturated with toluene vapors. The third oscillator circuit was of similar construction and relied on the same video amplifier but allowed operation with variable voltage. This circuit would drive the crystal when the crystal was submerged in liquid toluene and when the crystal was coated with polymer and immersed in toluene vapors. The frequency readings

  1. The folding unit of phosphofructokinase-2 as defined by the biophysical properties of a monomeric mutant.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sarmiento, César A; Baez, Mauricio; Zamora, Ricardo A; Balasubramaniam, Deepa; Babul, Jorge; Komives, Elizabeth A; Guixé, Victoria

    2015-05-01

    monomerizing mutations. PMID:25954892

  2. The leucine-rich amelogenin protein (LRAP) is primarily monomeric and unstructured in physiological solution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Philo, John S.; Maluf, Nasib Karl; Krueger, Susan; Buchko, Garry W.; Lin, Genyao; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-10-25

    Amelogenin proteins are critical to the formation of enamel in teeth and may have roles in promoting nucleation, controlling growth, and regulating microstructures of the intricately woven hydroxyapatite (HAP). Leucine-rich amelogenin protein (LRAP) is a 59-residue splice variant of amelogenin and contains the N- and C-terminal charged regions of the full-length protein thought to control crystal growth. Although the quaternary structure of full-length amelogenin in solution has been well studied and can consist of self-assemblies of monomers called nanospheres, the quaternary structure of LRAP is not as well studied. Here, analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity (SV) and small angle neutron scatteringmore » (SANS) were used to study the tertiary and quaternary structure of LRAP over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, and concentrations. SV has advantages over other techniques in accurately quantifying protein speciation in polydisperse solutions. We found that the monomer was the dominant species of phosphorylated LRAP (LRAP(+P)) over a range of solution conditions (pH 2.7 to 4.1, pH 4.5 to 8, 50 mmol/L( mM) to 200 mM NaCl, 0.065 to 2 mg/mL). The monomer was also the dominant species for unphosphorylated LRAP (LRAP(-P)) at pH 7.4 and LRAP(+P) in the presence of 2.5 mM calcium at pH 7.4. LRAP aggregated in a narrow pH range near the isoelectric point (pH 4.1). We conclude that LRAP does not form nanospheres under physiological solution conditions. Both SV and SANS showed that the LRAP monomer has a radius of ~2.0 nm and adopts an extended structure which solution NMR studies show is intrinsically disordered. This work provides new insights into the tertiary and quaternary structure of LRAP and further evidence that the monomeric species is an important functional form of amelogenins« less

  3. The Folding Unit of Phosphofructokinase-2 as Defined by the Biophysical Properties of a Monomeric Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Sarmiento, César A.; Baez, Mauricio; Zamora, Ricardo A.; Balasubramaniam, Deepa; Babul, Jorge; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Guixé, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    by monomerizing mutations. PMID:25954892

  4. The Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Protein (LRAP) is primarily monomeric and unstructured in physiological solution

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Philo, John S.; Maluf, Nasib K.; Krueger, Susan; Buchko, Garry W.; Lin, Genyao; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2015-04-01

    Amelogenin proteins are critical to the formation of enamel in teeth and may have roles in promoting nucleation, controlling growth, and regulating microstructures of the intricately woven hydroxyapatite (HAP). Leucine-rich amelogenin protein (LRAP) is a 59-residue splice variant of amelogenin and contains the N- and C-terminal charged regions of the full-length protein thought to control crystal growth. Although the quaternary structure of full-length amelogenin in solution has been well studied and can consist of self-assemblies of monomers called nanospheres, the quaternary structure of LRAP is not as well studied. Here, analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity (SV) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) were used to study the tertiary and quaternary structure of LRAP over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, and concentrations. SV has advantages over other techniques in accurately quantifying protein speciation in polydisperse solutions. We found that the monomer was the dominant species of phosphorylated LRAP (LRAP(+P)) over a range of solution conditions (pH 2.7 to 3.9, pH 4.5 to 8, 50 mmol/L( mM) to 200 mM NaCl, 0.065 to 2 mg/mL). The monomer was also the dominant species for unphosphorylated LRAP (LRAP(-P)) at pH 7.4 and LRAP(+P) in the presence of 2.5 mM calcium at pH 7.4. LRAP aggregated in a narrow pH range near the isoelectric point (pH 4.1). We conclude that LRAP does not form nanospheres under physiological solution conditions. Both SV and SANS showed that the LRAP monomer has a radius of ~2.0 nm and adopts an extended structure which solution NMR studies show is intrinsically disordered. This work provides new insights into the tertiary and quaternary structure of LRAP and further evidence that the monomeric species is an important functional form of amelogenins

  5. Kinetics of O2 Entry and Exit in Monomeric Sarcosine Oxidase via Markovian Milestoning Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Anthony; Yu, Tang-Qing; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Abrams, Cameron F

    2016-06-14

    The flavoenzyme monomeric sarcosine oxidase (MSOX) catalyzes a complex set of reactions currently lacking a consensus mechanism. A key question that arises in weighing competing mechanistic models of MSOX function is to what extent ingress of O2 from the solvent (and its egress after an unsuccessful oxidation attempt) limits the overall catalytic rate. To address this question, we have applied to the MSOX/O2 system the relatively new simulation method of Markovian milestoning molecular dynamics simulations, which, as we recently showed [ Yu et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015 , 137 , 3041 ], accurately predicted the entry and exit kinetics of CO in myoglobin. We show that the mechanism of O2 entry and exit, in terms of which possible solvent-to-active-site channels contribute to the flow of O2, is sensitive to the presence of the substrate-mimicking competitive inhibitor 2-furoate in the substrate site. The second-order O2 entry rate constants were computed to be 8.1 × 10(6) and 3.1 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) for bound and apo MSOX, respectively, both of which moderately exceed the experimentally determined second-order rate constant of (2.83 ± 0.07) × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for flavin oxidation by O2 in MSOX. This suggests that the rate of flavin oxidation by O2 is likely not strongly limited by diffusion from the solvent to the active site. The first-order exit rate constants were computed to be 10(7) s(-1) and 7.2 × 10(6) s(-1) for the apo and bound states, respectively. The predicted faster entry and slower exit of O2 for the bound state indicate a longer residence time within MSOX, increasing the likelihood of collisions with the flavin isoalloxazine ring, a step required for reduction of molecular O2 and subsequent reoxidation of the flavin. This is also indirectly supported by previous experimental evidence favoring the so-called modified ping-pong mechanism, the distinguishing feature of which is an intermediate complex involving O2, the flavin, and the oxidized

  6. Generating monomeric 5-coordinated microperoxidase-11 using carboxylic acid functionalized silver nanoparticles: A surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Kalaivani, Govindasamy; Sivanesan, Arumugam; Kannan, Ayyadurai; Sevvel, Ranganathan

    2016-10-01

    Microperoxidase-11 (MP-11), a heme undecapeptide obtained by proteolytic digestion of cytochrome c, resembles peroxidase enzyme when its heme center is 5-coordinated with a vacant sixth coordination site. However, MP-11 always tends to aggregate in both solution and on surface and eventually forms the 6-coordinated heme. Thus, the present study investigates the immobilization strategy of MP-11 on nanoparticle surface in order to generate monomeric 5-coordinated MP-11 and make them as an efficient biocatalyst. The powerful surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) technique is being employed to attain the detailed structural information of the catalytic site i.e., the heme center. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) tuned and 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA) functionalized silver nanoparticles (Ag@MHA NPs) are used as Raman signal amplifier. The outcome of the SERRS study unambiguously portrays the existence of monomeric 5-coordinated MP-11 on Ag@MHA NPs surface. Here, Ag@MHA NPs plays a dual role of providing a platform to create monomeric 5-coordinated MP-11 and to load large number of MP-11 due to its high surface to volume ratio. Further, the electrostatic interaction between Ag@MHA NPs and MP-11 leads to instantaneous SERRS signal enhancement with a Raman enhancement factor (EFSERS) of 2.36×10(6). Langmuir adsorption isotherm has been employed for the adsorption of MP-11 on Ag@MHA NPs surface, which provides the real surface coverage (ΓS(*)) and equilibrium constant (K) value of 1.54nm and 5×10(11)M(-1). Furthermore, the peroxidase activity of MP-11 has been demonstrated through electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction. PMID:27434160

  7. Interactions of Haptoglobin with Monomeric Globin Species: Insights from Molecular Modeling and Native Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fatunmbi, Ololade; Abzalimov, Rinat R; Savinov, Sergey N; Gershenson, Anne; Kaltashov, Igor A

    2016-03-29

    Haptoglobin (Hp) binds free hemoglobin (Hb) dimers to prevent negative consequences of Hb circulation in the extracellular environment. Although both monomeric Hb and myoglobin (Mb) species also present potential risks, their interactions with Hp have not been extensively studied. Mb is homologous to both the α- and β-chains of Hb and shares many conserved Hb/Hp interface residues, yet whether Hp binds Mb remains unclear. To address this, computational biology tools were used to predict the interactions required for Hp to bind monomeric globins, and the predicted association was tested using native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The Hb/Hp crystal structure was used as the template to create molecular models of two Mb molecules bound to an Hp heterodimer (Mb2/Hp). Molecular modeling suggests that Mb can bind at the Hp α-chain binding site, where 73% of the globin/Hp interactions are conserved. By contrast, several ionic β-chain residues involved in complementary electrostatic interactions with Hp correspond to residues with the opposite charge in Mb, suggesting unfavorable electrostatic Hp/Mb interactions at the β-chain binding site. As shown by native ESI-MS, isolated monomeric Hbα subunits can form 2:1 complexes with Hp heterotetramers in the absence of Hb β-chains. Native ESI-MS also confirmed that Mb can bind to Hp heterotetramers in solution with stoichiometries of 1:1 and 2:1 at physiological pH and ionic strength. The affinity of Hp for Mb appears to be diminished relative to that of Hb α-chains. Our in silico experiments rationalize this change and demonstrate that molecular modeling of protein/protein interactions is a valuable aid for MS experiments. PMID:26937685

  8. Two-dimensional crystallization of monomeric bovine cytochrome c oxidase with bound cytochrome c in reconstituted lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Osuda, Yukiho; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Tani, Kazutoshi; Maeda, Shintaro; Yoshikawa, Shinya; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Gerle, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase utilizes electrons provided by cytochrome c for the active vectorial transport of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane through the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Direct structural evidence on the transient cytochrome c oxidase-cytochrome c complex thus far, however, remains elusive and its physiological relevant oligomeric form is unclear. Here, we report on the 2D crystallization of monomeric bovine cytochrome c oxidase with tightly bound cytochrome c at a molar ratio of 1:1 in reconstituted lipid membranes at the basic pH of 8.5 and low ionic strength. PMID:26754561

  9. Two-dimensional crystallization of monomeric bovine cytochrome c oxidase with bound cytochrome c in reconstituted lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Osuda, Yukiho; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Tani, Kazutoshi; Maeda, Shintaro; Yoshikawa, Shinya; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Gerle, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase utilizes electrons provided by cytochrome c for the active vectorial transport of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane through the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Direct structural evidence on the transient cytochrome c oxidase–cytochrome c complex thus far, however, remains elusive and its physiological relevant oligomeric form is unclear. Here, we report on the 2D crystallization of monomeric bovine cytochrome c oxidase with tightly bound cytochrome c at a molar ratio of 1:1 in reconstituted lipid membranes at the basic pH of 8.5 and low ionic strength. PMID:26754561

  10. Periodic density functional theory studies of the VOx/TiO2 (anatase) catalysts: Structure and stability of monomeric species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yu-Jue; Li, Zhen Hua; Fan, Kang-Nian

    2012-06-01

    Periodic density functional theory has been utilized to investigate the structure and stability of monomeric HVOx species on anatase support. The three most stable surfaces of anatase were investigated, namely the (001), (100) and (101) surfaces. Unlike previous theoretical studies it was found that on the (001) surface vanadia species with five-coordinated vanadium atom are more stable than those with tetrahedrally coordinated vanadium atom. On the other hand, on the (100) and (101) surfaces, the vanadium atom in the vanadia species is still tetrahedrally coordinated. The stability of different VOx/TiO2 structures which are not fully dehydrated has been systematically studied and the results show that the vanadia species on the three surfaces follow an order of TiO2 (001) > TiO2 (100) > TiO2 (101). This can be understood from the acidity and basicity of the three anatase surfaces. The results suggest that monomeric VOx species may be better stabilized if the support exposes more (001) surfaces. Our analyses on electronic structure of the most stable VOx/TiO2 structure (D001) suggest that its bridging V-O-Ti oxygen atoms may have higher reactivity than the terminal vanadyl oxygen atoms.

  11. Identification of small-molecule binding pockets in the soluble monomeric form of the Aβ42 peptide

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Maximillian; Simone, Alfonso De; Schenk, Dale; Toth, Gergely; Dobson, Christopher M.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation of intrinsically disordered peptides and proteins is associated with a wide range of highly debilitating neurological and systemic disorders. In this work we explored the potential of a structure-based drug discovery procedure to target one such system, the soluble monomeric form of the Aβ42 peptide. We utilised for this purpose a set of structures of the Aβ42 peptide selected from clusters of conformations within an ensemble generated by molecular dynamics simulations. Using these structures we carried out fragment mapping calculations to identify binding ‘hot spots’ on the monomeric form of the Aβ42 peptide. This procedure provided a set of hot spots with ligand efficiencies comparable to those observed for structured proteins, and that are clustered into binding pockets. We verified that such pockets exhibit a propensity to bind small molecules known to interact with the Aβ42 peptide. Taken together these results provide an initial indication that fragment-based drug discovery may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases associated with the aggregation of intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:23883055

  12. Re-examination of the dimerization state of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2: predominance of the monomeric form.

    PubMed

    Ito, Genta; Iwatsubo, Takeshi

    2012-02-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) gene have been identified in PARK8, a major form of autosomal-dominantly inherited familial Parkinson's disease, although the biochemical properties of LRRK2 are not fully understood. It has been proposed that LRRK2 predominantly exists as a homodimer on the basis of the observation that LRRK2, with a theoretical molecular mass of 280 kDa, migrates at 600 kDa (p600 LRRK2) on native polyacrylamide gels. In the present study, we biochemically re-examined the nature of p600 LRRK2 and found that p600 LRRK2 was fractionated with a single peak at ~272 kDa by ultracentrifugation on a glycerol gradient. In addition, p600 LRRK2 behaved similarly to monomeric proteins upon two-dimensional electrophoretic separation. These results suggested a monomeric composition of p600 LRRK2 within cells. The p600 LRRK2 exhibited kinase activity as well as GTP-binding activity, and forced dimerization of LRRK2 neither upregulated its kinase activity nor altered its subcellular localization. Collectively, we conclude that the monomer form of LRRK2 is predominant within cells, and that dimerization is dispensable for its enzymatic activity. PMID:22047502

  13. Two-way molecular ligation for efficient conversion of monomeric hepatitis B virus DNA constructs into tandem dimers.

    PubMed

    Zong, Li; Qin, Yanli; Jia, Haodi; Zhou, Huailiang; Chen, Chaoyang; Qiao, Ke; Zhang, Jiming; Wang, Yongxiang; Li, Jisu; Tong, Shuping

    2016-07-01

    Replication of the 3.2-kb hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome is driven by the covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA in the nucleus, from which four classes of co-terminal RNAs are transcribed. Genome replication requires just the 3.5-kb pregenomic RNA, which is terminally redundant. Cloning the full-length HBV genome into a vector disrupts its continuity, thus preventing genome replication at the step of pregenomic RNA transcription. This can be overcome by converting the monomeric construct into a tandem dimer, yet the need to ligate two molecules of the HBV genome with vector DNA makes it inefficient and even unsuccessful. To overcome this problem we partially digested the monomeric construct with the unique restriction enzyme used for cloning, and dephosphorylated the linearized monomer before its ligation with another copy of the HBV genome. Alternatively, the monomer was linearized at another unique restriction site inside the HBV genome, followed by its dephosphorylation and ligation with another copy of the HBV genome linearized at the same site. These approaches of two-way molecular ligation greatly improved the efficiency of dimer formation with about 50% of the bacterial colonies screened harboring tandem dimers. PMID:27025357

  14. A novel function of the monomeric CCTε subunit connects the serum response factor pathway to chaperone-mediated actin folding

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Kerryn L.; Svanström, Andreas; Spiess, Matthias; Karlsson, Roger; Grantham, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Correct protein folding is fundamental for maintaining protein homeostasis and avoiding the formation of potentially cytotoxic protein aggregates. Although some proteins appear to fold unaided, actin requires assistance from the oligomeric molecular chaperone CCT. Here we report an additional connection between CCT and actin by identifying one of the CCT subunits, CCTε, as a component of the myocardin-related cotranscription factor-A (MRTF-A)/serum response factor (SRF) pathway. The SRF pathway registers changes in G-actin levels, leading to the transcriptional up-regulation of a large number of genes after actin polymerization. These genes encode numerous actin-binding proteins as well as actin. We show that depletion of the CCTε subunit by siRNA enhances SRF signaling in cultured mammalian cells by an actin assembly-independent mechanism. Overexpression of CCTε in its monomeric form revealed that CCTε binds via its substrate-binding domain to the C-terminal region of MRTF-A and that CCTε is able to alter the nuclear accumulation of MRTF-A after stimulation by serum addition. Given that the levels of monomeric CCTε conversely reflect the levels of CCT oligomer, our results suggest that CCTε provides a connection between the actin-folding capacity of the cell and actin expression. PMID:26063733

  15. Occurrence of non-monomeric species of aluminium in undersaturated soil and surface waters: consequences for the determination of mineral saturation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudot, Jean-Pierre; Maitat, Ouafae; Merlet, Denis; Rouiller, James

    1996-03-01

    The occurrence of a polymeric and/or colloidal Al pool was demonstrated on an experimental basis in various natural acid soil solutions and stream waters, even in the pH range 3.3-4. A number of these waters were found to be undersaturated with respect to various relevant mineral phases (amorphous Al(OH) 3 and AIPO 4, gibbsite, boehmite, variscite, imogolite, kaolinite, halloysite, jurbanite, basaluminite and alunite). Non-monomeric Al species should not occur in undersaturated aqueous systems in equilibrium; therefore the polymeric/colloidal Al pool observed in these undersaturated waters cannot be in equilibrium with monomeric Al. As a consequence, the traditional determination of saturation indices (S!) by model equilibrium calculation using total concentrations of every element is considered to be unreliable, and any valid procedure should involve the determination of monomeric species (or a part of them) by analytical speciation.

  16. Properties of the monomeric form of human 14-3-3ζ protein and its interaction with tau and HspB6.

    PubMed

    Sluchanko, Nikolai N; Sudnitsyna, Maria V; Seit-Nebi, Alim S; Antson, Alfred A; Gusev, Nikolai B

    2011-11-15

    Dimers formed by seven isoforms of the human 14-3-3 protein participate in multiple cellular processes. The dimeric form has been extensively characterized; however, little is known about the structure and properties of the monomeric form of 14-3-3. The monomeric form is involved in the assembly of homo- and heterodimers, which could partially dissociate back into monomers in response to phosphorylation at Ser58. To obtain monomeric forms of human 14-3-3ζ, we produced four protein constructs with different combinations of mutated (M) or wild-type (W) segments E(5), (12)LAE(14), and (82)YREKIE(87). Under a wide range of expression conditions in Escherichia coli, the MMM and WMM mutants were insoluble, whereas WMW and MMW mutants were soluble, highly expressed, and purified to homogeneity. WMW and MMW mutants remained monomeric over a wide range of concentrations while retaining the α-helical structure characteristic of wild-type 14-3-3. However, WMW and MMW mutants were highly susceptible to proteolysis and had much lower thermal stabilities than the wild-type protein. Using WMW and MMW mutants, we show that the monomeric form interacts with the tau protein and with the HspB6 protein, in both cases forming complexes with a 1:1 stoichiometry, in contrast to the 2:1 and/or 2:2 complexes formed by wild-type 14-3-3. Significantly, this interaction requires phosphorylation of tau protein and HspB6. Because of minimal changes in structure, MMW and especially WMW mutant proteins are promising candidates for analyzing the effect of monomerization on the physiologically important properties of 14-3-3ζ. PMID:21978388

  17. The effects of solvent and temperature on the structural integrity of monomeric melittin by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Hsu, Chia-Ming

    2003-06-01

    In this study, the secondary structural integrity of monomeric melittin was shown to depend strongly on the solvent by 200 ps molecular dynamics simulations with temperature jump technique. The α-helix content of melittin increased with increasing the aliphatic chain length of alcohol and decreased with increasing simulation temperature. In addition, the melting temperature of melittin, at which the averaged helicity decreased to 50%, was linearly correlated to the aliphatic chain length of alcohol. The weaker dielectric constant of longer aliphatic chain length of alcohol possibly reduces the hydrogen bonding between amide protons and surrounding solvent molecules and simultaneously promotes the intramolecular hydrogen bonding in melittin and therefore stabilizes the secondary structure of melittin.

  18. [Acceleration of the excretion of monomeric 239Pu-citrate from the body as effected by pentacyne encapsulated in liposomes].

    PubMed

    Il'in, L A; Smirnov, A A; Ivannikov, A T; Parfenova, I M

    1983-01-01

    Liposomes, obtained by a modified procedure involving reverse phases, contained 2-3-times more 14C-pentacyne than the multilayer Banchem;s liposomes. Efficiency of pentacyne encapsulated in liposomes was higher, as compared with a non-encapsulated preparation in studies of urinary excretion of monomeric 239Pu-citrate in rats. Liposomal pentacyne increased most effectively the rate of the radionuclide excretion from liver tissue and skeleton as compared with the action of non-encapsulated complex-forming agent; as a result of which the radionuclide was excreted from liver tissue at a 1.6-2-times and from skeleton--with the 1.4-times higher rates. The both preparations increased the 239Pu excretion with urine and feces. The liposomal pentacyne accelerated an additional excretion of the nuclide with urine. PMID:6353751

  19. Monomerization alters the dynamics of the lid region in Campylobacter jejuni CstII: an MD simulation study.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Pradeep Kumar; Srivastava, Alka; Rao, K Krishnamurthy; Balaji, Petety V

    2016-04-01

    CstII, a bifunctional (α2,3/8) sialyltransferase from Campylobacter jejuni, is a homotetramer. It has been reported that mutation of the interface residues Phe121 (F121D) or Tyr125 (Y125Q) leads to monomerization and partial loss of enzyme activity, without any change in the secondary or tertiary structures. MD simulations of both tetramer and monomer, with and without bound donor substrate, were performed for the two mutants and WT to understand the reasons for partial loss of activity due to monomerization since the active site is located within each monomer. RMSF values were found to correlate with the crystallographic B-factor values indicating that the simulations are able to capture the flexibility of the molecule effectively. There were no gross changes in either the secondary or tertiary structure of the proteins during MD simulations. However, interface is destabilized by the mutations, and more importantly the flexibility of the lid region (Gly152-Lys190) is affected. The lid region accesses three major conformations named as open, intermediate, and closed conformations. In both Y121Q and F121D mutants, the closed conformation is accessed predominantly. In this conformation, the catalytic base His188 is also displaced. Normal mode analysis also revealed differences in the lid movement in tetramer and monomer. This provides a possible explanation for the partial loss of enzyme activity in both interface mutants. The lid region controls the traffic of substrates and products in and out of the active site, and the dynamics of this region is regulated by tetramerization. Thus, this study provides valuable insights into the role of loop dynamics in enzyme activity of CstII. PMID:26208676

  20. G-actin guides p53 nuclear transport: potential contribution of monomeric actin in altered localization of mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Taniya; Guha, Deblina; Manna, Argha; Panda, Abir Kumar; Bhat, Jyotsna; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2016-01-01

    p53 preserves genomic integrity by restricting anomaly at the gene level. Till date, limited information is available for cytosol to nuclear shuttling of p53; except microtubule-based trafficking route, which utilizes minus-end directed motor dynein. The present study suggests that monomeric actin (G-actin) guides p53 traffic towards the nucleus. Histidine-tag pull-down assay using purified p53(1–393)-His and G-actin confirms direct physical association between p53 and monomeric G-actin. Co-immunoprecipitation data supports the same. Confocal imaging explores intense perinuclear colocalization between p53 and G-actin. To address atomistic details of the complex, constraint-based docked model of p53:G-actin complex was generated based on crystal structures. MD simulation reveals that p53 DNA-binding domain arrests very well the G-actin protein. Docking benchmark studies have been carried out for a known crystal structure, 1YCS (complex between p53DBD and BP2), which validates the docking protocol we adopted. Co-immunoprecipitation study using “hot-spot” p53 mutants suggested reduced G-actin association with cancer-associated p53 conformational mutants (R175H and R249S). Considering these findings, we hypothesized that point mutation in p53 structure, which diminishes p53:G-actin complexation results in mutant p53 altered subcellular localization. Our model suggests p53Arg249 form polar-contact with Arg357 of G-actin, which upon mutation, destabilizes p53:G-actin interaction and results in cytoplasmic retention of p53R249S. PMID:27601274

  1. G-actin guides p53 nuclear transport: potential contribution of monomeric actin in altered localization of mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Saha, Taniya; Guha, Deblina; Manna, Argha; Panda, Abir Kumar; Bhat, Jyotsna; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2016-01-01

    p53 preserves genomic integrity by restricting anomaly at the gene level. Till date, limited information is available for cytosol to nuclear shuttling of p53; except microtubule-based trafficking route, which utilizes minus-end directed motor dynein. The present study suggests that monomeric actin (G-actin) guides p53 traffic towards the nucleus. Histidine-tag pull-down assay using purified p53(1-393)-His and G-actin confirms direct physical association between p53 and monomeric G-actin. Co-immunoprecipitation data supports the same. Confocal imaging explores intense perinuclear colocalization between p53 and G-actin. To address atomistic details of the complex, constraint-based docked model of p53:G-actin complex was generated based on crystal structures. MD simulation reveals that p53 DNA-binding domain arrests very well the G-actin protein. Docking benchmark studies have been carried out for a known crystal structure, 1YCS (complex between p53DBD and BP2), which validates the docking protocol we adopted. Co-immunoprecipitation study using "hot-spot" p53 mutants suggested reduced G-actin association with cancer-associated p53 conformational mutants (R175H and R249S). Considering these findings, we hypothesized that point mutation in p53 structure, which diminishes p53:G-actin complexation results in mutant p53 altered subcellular localization. Our model suggests p53Arg249 form polar-contact with Arg357 of G-actin, which upon mutation, destabilizes p53:G-actin interaction and results in cytoplasmic retention of p53R249S. PMID:27601274

  2. Effect of monomeric sequence on mechanical properties of P(VP-co-HEMA) hydrogels at low hydration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Geol; Brunello, Giuseppe F; Jang, Seung Soon; Lee, J Hannah; Bucknall, David G

    2009-05-14

    We have used molecular modeling of both random and blocky hydrogel networks of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with VP:HEMA=37:13 composition to investigate the effect of the monomeric sequence on the mechanical properties. The degrees of monomer sequence randomness for the random and the blocky copolymers were 1.170 and 0.104, respectively, and the degree of polymerization was set as 50. The equilibrated density of the dry gel network was 0.968+/-0.007 and 0.911+/-0.007 g/cm3 for the random and the blocky sequences, respectively. In the partially hydrated state with 10 wt % water content, the effect of the monomeric sequence causes more distinct differences in density of 1.004+/-0.007 and 0.916+/-0.009 g/cm3 for the random and the blocky copolymer network, respectively. We observed that in such networks, the water molecules are associated more closely with the N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone than with the hydroxyethyl methacrylate moieties, which is consistent with results from quantum mechanical solvation free energy calculations. By simulating a compressive deformation of the dry gels up to 80% strain, we found that the random sequence network develops higher stress levels than the blocky network. We also found that stress reduction occurs in the random sequence network due to the hydration, which is not evident in the blocky sequence network. This difference in stress reduction between the random and the blocky sequence networks is due to the difference in the structural rearrangement of monomers in the presence of water during deformation. The random sequence network is able to undergo much more efficient rearrangement of HEMA units than in the blocky sequence network. PMID:19358560

  3. Functional independence of monomeric CHIP28 water channels revealed by expression of wild-type mutant heterodimers.

    PubMed

    Shi, L B; Skach, W R; Verkman, A S

    1994-04-01

    CHIP28 is a major water transporting protein in erythrocytes and kidney which forms tetramers in membranes (Verbavatz, J. M., Brown, D., Sabolic, I., Valenti, G., Ausiello, D. A., Van Hoek, A. N., Ma, T., and Verkman, A. S. (1993) J. Cell Biol. 123, 605-618). To determine whether CHIP28 monomers function independently, chimeric cDNA dimers were constructed which contained wild-type CHIP28 in series with either wild-type CHIP28, a non-water transporting CHIP28 mutant (C189W), or a functional but mercurial-insensitive CHIP28 mutant (C189S). Transcribed cRNAs were injected in Xenopus oocytes and plasma membrane expression was assayed by quantitative immunofluorescence. Water channel function was measured by osmotically induced swelling. CHIP28 homo- and heterodimers were targeted to the oocyte plasma membrane and functioned as water channels. Relative osmotic water permeability (Pf) values (normalized for plasma membrane expression of monomeric subunits) were: 1.0 (CHIP28 monomer), 0.0 (C189W), 1.07 (C189S), 1.10 (CHIP28-CHIP28 dimer) and 0.52 (CHIP28-C189W). The increase in oocyte Pf was linearly related to plasma membrane expression of wild-type CHIP28 and C189S subunits. HgCl2 (0.3 mM) inhibited channel-mediated Pf in oocytes expressing wild-type CHIP28 monomers and dimers by 85-90%, but did not inhibit Pf in oocytes expressing C189S. HgCl2 inhibited Pf in oocytes expressing CHIP28-C189S dimers by 44 +/- 7%, consistent with one mercurial-sensitive and one insensitive subunit in the heterodimer. These results indicate that despite their assembly in tetramers, monomeric CHIP28 subunits function independently as water channels. PMID:7511600

  4. Conformational and thermal stability of mature dimeric human myeloperoxidase and a recombinant monomeric form from CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Srijib; Stampler, Johanna; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian

    2011-02-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a lysosomal heme enzyme present in the azurophilic granules of human neutrophils and monocytes. It is a critical element of the human innate immune system by exerting antimicrobial effects. It is a disulfide bridged dimer with each monomer containing a light and a heavy polypeptide and its biosynthesis and intracellular transport includes several posttranslational processing steps. By contrast, MPO recombinantly produced in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines is monomeric, partially unprocessed and contains a N-terminal propeptide (proMPO). It mirrors a second form of MPO constitutively secreted from normal bone marrow myeloid precursors. In order to clarify the impact of posttranslational modifications on the structural integrity and enzymology of these two forms of human myeloperoxidase, we have undertaken an investigation on the conformational and thermal stability of leukocyte MPO and recombinant proMPO by using complementary biophysical techniques including UV-Vis, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as differential scanning calorimetry. Mature leucocyte MPO exhibits a peculiar high chemical and thermal stability under oxidizing conditions but is significantly destabilized by addition of dithiothreitol. Unfolding of secondary and tertiary structure occurs concomitantly with denaturation of the heme cavity, reflecting the role of three MPO-typical heme to protein linkages and of six intra-chain disulfides for structural integrity by bridging N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. Recombinant monomeric proMPO follows a similar unfolding pattern but has a lower conformational and thermal stability. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic data of unfolding are discussed with respect to the known three-dimensional structure of leukocyte MPO as well as to known physiological roles. PMID:20933108

  5. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of decameric and monomeric forms of C49S mutant thioredoxin-dependent AhpC from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Supangat; Seo, Kyung Hye; Furqoni, Ahmad; Kwon, Young-Chul; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kon Ho

    2008-05-01

    Decameric and monomeric forms of recombinant C49S mutant AhpC from H. pylori have been crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 and 2.25 Å, respectively. Cys49Ser mutant Helicobacter pylori alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (C49S HpAhpC) was purified under reducing conditions in monomeric and decameric forms. The monomeric form was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.25 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 245.8, b = 140.7, c = 189.5 Å, β = 127°, and contained 20 molecules in the asymmetric unit. A crystal of the decameric form was obtained by the microbatch crystallization method and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. It belonged to space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 257.5, b = 417.5, c = 95.6 Å. The structure of the monomeric form of C49S HpAhpC has been solved by the molecular-replacement method.

  6. Urea Unfolding Study of E. coli Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Monomeric Variants Proves the Role of C-Terminal Domain in Stability

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Baisakhi; Banerjee, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA exists as a dimer in its native form and the C-terminal coiled-coil part plays an important role in the dimerization process. The truncated N-terminal containing the first 700 amino acids (1–700) forms a monomeric variant possessing similar aminoacylation activity like wild type. A point mutation in the C-terminal domain (G674D) also produces a monomeric variant with a fivefold reduced aminoacylation activity compared to the wild type enzyme. Urea induced denaturation of these monomeric mutants along with another alaRS variant (N461 alaRS) was studied together with the full-length enzyme using various spectroscopic techniques such as intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonic acid binding, near- and far-UV circular dichroism, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Aminoacylation activity assay after refolding from denatured state revealed that the monomeric mutants studied here were unable to regain their activity, whereas the dimeric full-length alaRS gets back similar activity as the native enzyme. This study indicates that dimerization is one of the key regulatory factors that is important in the proper folding and stability of E. coli alaRS. PMID:26617997

  7. Solution structure determination of monomeric human IgA2 by X-ray and neutron scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and constrained modelling: a comparison with monomeric human IgA1.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Patricia B; Whitty, Patrick W; Robertson, Alexis; Eaton, Julian T; Almogren, Adel; Kerr, Michael A; Woof, Jenny M; Perkins, Stephen J

    2004-05-14

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA), the most abundant human immunoglobulin, mediates immune protection at mucosal surfaces as well as in plasma. It exists as two subclasses IgA1 and IgA2, and IgA2 is found in at least two allotypic forms, IgA2m(1) or IgA2m(2). Compared to IgA1, IgA2 has a much shorter hinge region, which joins the two Fab and one Fc fragments. In order to assess its solution structure, monomeric recombinant IgA2m(1) was studied by X-ray and neutron scattering. Its Guinier X-ray radius of gyration R(G) is 5.18 nm and its neutron R(G) is 5.03 nm, both of which are significantly smaller than those for monomeric IgA1 at 6.1-6.2 nm. The distance distribution function P(r)for IgA2m(1) showed a broad peak with a subpeak and gave a maximum dimension of 17 nm, in contrast to the P(r) curve for IgA1, which showed two distinct peaks and a maximum dimension of 21 nm. The sedimentation coefficients of IgA1 and IgA2m(1) were 6.2S and 6.4S, respectively. These data show that the solution structure of IgA2m(1) is significantly more compact than IgA1. The complete monomeric IgA2m(1) structure was modelled using molecular dynamics to generate random IgA2 hinge structures, to which homology models for the Fab and Fc fragments were connected to generate 10,000 full models. A total of 104 compact best-fit IgA2m(1) models gave good curve fits. These best-fit models were modified by linking the two Fab light chains with a disulphide bridge that is found in IgA2m(1), and subjecting these to energy refinement to optimise this linkage. The averaged solution structure of the arrangement of the Fab and Fc fragments in IgA2m(1) was found to be predominantly T-shaped and flexible, but also included Y-shaped structures. The IgA2 models show full steric access to the two FcalphaRI-binding sites at the Calpha2-Calpha3 interdomain region in the Fc fragment. Since previous scattering modelling had shown that IgA1 also possessed a flexible T-shaped solution structure, such a T-shape may be

  8. Chemistry of Monomeric and Dinuclear Non-Oxido Vanadium(IV) and Oxidovanadium(V) Aroylazine Complexes: Exploring Solution Behavior.

    PubMed

    Dash, Subhashree P; Majumder, Sudarshana; Banerjee, Atanu; Carvalho, M Fernanda N N; Adão, Pedro; Pessoa, João Costa; Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Garribba, Eugenio; Reuter, Hans; Dinda, Rupam

    2016-02-01

    A series of mononuclear non-oxido vanadium(IV) [V(IV)(L(1-4))2] (1-4), oxidoethoxido vanadium(V) [V(V)O(L(1-4))(OEt)] (5-8), and dinuclear μ-oxidodioxidodivanadium(V) [V(V)2O3(L(1))2] (9) complexes with tridentate aroylazine ligands are reported [H2L(1) = 2-furoylazine of 2-hydroxy-1-acetonaphthone, H2L(2) = 2-thiophenoylazine of 2-hydroxy-1-acetonaphthone, H2L(3) = 1-naphthoylazine of 2-hydroxy-1-acetonaphthone, H2L(4) = 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoylazine of 2-hydroxy-1-acetonaphthone]. The complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, by various spectroscopic techniques, and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (for 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, and 9). The non-oxido V(IV) complexes (1-4) are quite stable in open air as well as in solution, and DFT calculations allow predicting EPR and UV-vis spectra and the electronic structure. The solution behavior of the [V(V)O(L(1-4))(OEt)] compounds (5-8) is studied confirming the formation of at least two different types of V(V) species in solution, monomeric corresponding to 5-8, and μ-oxidodioxidodivanadium [V(V)2O3(L(1-4))2] compounds. The μ-oxidodioxidodivanadium compound [V(V)2O3(L(1))2] (9), generated from the corresponding mononuclear complex [V(V)O(L(1))(OEt)] (5), is characterized in solution and in the solid state. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses of the non-oxido vanadium(IV) compounds (2 and 3) show a N2O4 binding set and a trigonal prismatic geometry, and those of the V(V)O complexes 5, 6, and 8 and the μ-oxidodioxidodivanadium(V) (9) reveal that the metal center is in a distorted square pyramidal geometry with O4N binding sets. For the μ-oxidodioxidodivanadium species in equilibrium with 5-8 in CH2Cl2, no mixed-valence complexes are detected by chronocoulometric and EPR studies. However, upon progressive transfer of two electrons, two distinct monomeric V(IV)O species are detected and characterized by EPR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. PMID:26789655

  9. Functional Alteration of a Dimeric Insecticidal Lectin to a Monomeric Antifungal Protein Correlated to Its Oligomeric Status

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Nilanjana; Ghosh, Prithwi; Das, Kalipada; Das, Sampa

    2011-01-01

    Background Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) is a 25-kDa homodimeric, insecticidal, mannose binding lectin whose subunits are assembled by the C-terminal exchange process. An attempt was made to convert dimeric ASAL into a monomeric form to correlate the relevance of quaternary association of subunits and their functional specificity. Using SWISS-MODEL program a stable monomer was designed by altering five amino acid residues near the C-terminus of ASAL. Methodology/Principal Findings By introduction of 5 site-specific mutations (-DNSNN-), a β turn was incorporated between the 11th and 12th β strands of subunits of ASAL, resulting in a stable monomeric mutant ASAL (mASAL). mASAL was cloned and subsequently purified from a pMAL-c2X system. CD spectroscopic analysis confirmed the conservation of secondary structure in mASAL. Mannose binding assay confirmed that molecular mannose binds efficiently to both mASAL and ASAL. In contrast to ASAL, the hemagglutination activity of purified mASAL against rabbit erythrocytes was lost. An artificial diet bioassay of Lipaphis erysimi with mASAL displayed an insignificant level of insecticidal activity compared to ASAL. Fascinatingly, mASAL exhibited strong antifungal activity against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria brassicicola in a disc diffusion assay. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of mASAL might be associated with the alteration of the membrane permeability of the fungus. Furthermore, a ligand blot assay of the membrane subproteome of R. solani with mASAL detected a glycoprotein receptor having interaction with mASAL. Conclusions/Significance Conversion of ASAL into a stable monomer resulted in antifungal activity. From an evolutionary aspect, these data implied that variable quaternary organization of lectins might be the outcome of defense-related adaptations to diverse situations in plants. Incorporation of mASAL into agronomically

  10. The experimental folding landscape of monomeric lactose repressor, a large two-domain protein, involves two kinetic intermediates.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Corey J; Das, Payel; Clementi, Cecilia; Matthews, Kathleen S; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2005-10-11

    To probe the experimental folding behavior of a large protein with complex topology, we created a monomeric variant of the lactose repressor protein (MLAc), a well characterized tetrameric protein that regulates transcription of the lac operon. Purified MLAc is folded, fully functional, and binds the inducer isopropyl beta-d-thiogalactoside with the same affinity as wild-type LacI. Equilibrium unfolding of MLAc induced by the chemical denaturant urea is a reversible, apparent two-state process (pH 7.5, 20 degrees C). However, time-resolved experiments demonstrate that unfolding is single-exponential, whereas refolding data indicate two transient intermediates. The data reveal the initial formation of a burst-phase (tau < ms) intermediate that corresponds to approximately 50% of the total secondary-structure content. This step is followed by a rearrangement reaction that is rate-limited by an unfolding process (tau approximately 3 s; pH 7.5, 20 degrees C) and results in a second intermediate. This MLAc intermediate converts to the native structure (tau approximately 30 s; pH 7.5, 20 degrees C). Remarkably, the experimental folding-energy landscape for MLAc is in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions using a simple topology-based C(alpha)-model as presented in a companion article in this issue. PMID:16203983

  11. Plasma Levels of Endothelial Microparticles Bearing Monomeric C-reactive Protein are Increased in Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jeffrey R; Trial, JoAnn; Nambi, Vijay; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Taffet, George E; Entman, Mark L

    2016-06-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) as an indicator of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has shown limited sensitivity. We demonstrate that two isoforms of CRP (pentameric, pCRP and monomeric, mCRP) present in soluble form or on microparticles (MPs) have different biological effects and are not all measured by clinical CRP assays. The high-sensitivity CRP assay (hsCRP) did not measure pCRP or mCRP on MPs, whereas flow cytometry did. MPs derived from endothelial cells, particularly those bearing mCRP, were elevated in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients compared to controls. The numbers of mCRP(+) endothelial MPs did not correlate with hsCRP measurements of soluble pCRP, indicating their independent modulation. In controls, statins lowered mCRP(+) endothelial MPs. In a model of vascular inflammation, mCRP induced endothelial shedding of MPs and was proinflammatory, while pCRP was anti-inflammatory. mCRP on endothelial MPs may be both an unmeasured indicator of, and an amplifier of, vascular disease, and its detection might improve risk sensitivity. PMID:26891844

  12. Structure of the monomeric outer-membrane porin OmpG in the open and closed conformation

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Özkan; Vinothkumar, Kutti R; Goswami, Panchali; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2006-01-01

    OmpG, a monomeric pore-forming protein from Escherichia coli outer membranes, was refolded from inclusion bodies and crystallized in two different conformations. The OmpG channel is a 14-stranded β-barrel, with short periplasmic turns and seven extracellular loops. Crystals grown at neutral pH show the channel in the open state at 2.3 Å resolution. In the 2.7 Å structure of crystals grown at pH 5.6, the pore is blocked by loop 6, which folds across the channel. The rearrangement of loop 6 appears to be triggered by a pair of histidine residues, which repel one another at acidic pH, resulting in the breakage of neighbouring H-bonds and a lengthening of loop 6 from 10 to 17 residues. A total of 151 ordered LDAO detergent molecules were found in the 2.3 Å structure, mostly on the hydrophobic outer surface of OmpG, mimicking the outer membrane lipid bilayer, with three LDAO molecules in the open pore. In the 2.7 Å structure, OmpG binds one OG and one glucose molecule as sugar substrates in the closed pore. PMID:16888630

  13. Monomeric chlorophyll a enol: evidence for its possible role as the primary electron donor in photosystem I of plant photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wasielewski, M.R.; Norris, J.R.; Shipman, L.L.; Lin, C.P.; Svec, W.A.

    1981-05-01

    The chlorophyll a (Chl a) special-pair model of the primary donor of photosystem I (P700) does not account in a completely adequate fashion for the magnetic resonance properties observed for P700/sup +/. Enolization of the Chl a ring V ..beta..-keto ester results in a very different ..pi.. electronic structure. The ESR spectrum of the cation radical consists of a single 6.1-G gaussian line that is line narrowed relative to that of Chl a/sup +/ in a manner similar to P700/sup +/. Electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy resolves only a 3.5-MHz hyperfine splitting for the 3-methyl group. The remaining splittings are all less than 3.5 MHz. Application of the special-pair model to the (/sup 13/C)P700/sup +/ second-moment data yields a 100% error. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations on ethyl chlorophyllide a enol cation bear out the ESR and ENDOR data. We conclude that a monomeric Chl a enol model provides a better description of the magnetic resonance parameters and oxidation potential of P700 than a Chl-a special-pair model.

  14. A comparative experimental and quantum chemical study on monomeric and dimeric structures of 3,5-dibromoanthranilic acid.

    PubMed

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Cinar, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    This study presents the structural and spectroscopic characterization of 3,5-dibromoanthranilic acid with help of experimental techniques (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, NMR) and quantum chemical calculations. The vibrational spectra of title compound were recorded in solid state with FT-IR and FT-Raman in the range of 4000-400 and 4000-50 cm(-1), respectively. The vibrational frequencies were also computed using B3LYP method of DFT with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The fundamental assignments were done on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The (1)H, (13)C and DEPT NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution and calculated by gauge-invariant atomic orbitals (GIAO) method. The UV absorption spectra of the compound were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm in ethanol, water and DMSO solutions. Solvent effects were calculated using time-dependent density functional theory and CIS method. The ground state geometrical structure of compound was predicted by B3LYP method and compared with the crystallographic structure of similar compounds. All calculations were made for monomeric and dimeric structure of compound. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. Mulliken atomic charges of neutral and anionic form of the molecule were computed and compared with anthranilic acid. PMID:22871548

  15. Interaction of wheat monomeric and dimeric protein inhibitors with alpha-amylase from yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L. larva).

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, V; Gramenzi, F; Pace, W; Petrucci, T; Poerio, E; Silano, V

    1980-01-01

    The highly purified alpha-amylase from Tenebrio molitor L. larva (yellow mealworm) reversibly combines with two closely related homogeneous glycoprotein inhibitors, one dimeric (termed 'inhibitor 0.19') and one monomeric (termed 'inhibitor 0.28'), from wheat flour. As established by means of difference spectroscopy and kinetic studies, molar combining ratios for the amylase--inhibitor-0.19 and amylase-inhibitor-0.28 complexes were 1:1 and 1:2 respectively. Two amylase--inhibitor-0.19 complexes with slightly different retention volumes on Bio-Gel P-300 and only one amylase--inhibitor-0.28 complex were observed. Dissociation constants of the amylase--inhibitor-0.19 and amylase--inhibitor-0.28 complexes were 0.85 nM and 0.13 nM respectively. A strong tendency of both complexes to precipitate under an ultracentrifugal field was observed; the minimum molecular weight calculated for the two complexes under such conditions was approx. 95 000. The two complexes showed difference spectra indicating involvement of structurally related or identical tryptophyl side chains in the binding of inhibitors 0.28 and 0.19 to the amylase. A model summarizing the main features of the inhibition of the insect amylase by the two wheat protein inhibitors is proposed. PMID:6985361

  16. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Tau Aggregation by Targeting Monomeric Tau As a Potential Therapeutic Approach for Tauopathies

    PubMed Central

    Pickhardt, Marcus; Neumann, Thomas; Schwizer, Daniel; Callaway, Kari; Vendruscolo, Michele; Schenk, Dale; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Mandelkow, Eva M.; Dobson, Christopher M.; McConlogue, Lisa; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Tóth, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    A potential strategy to alleviate the aggregation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is to maintain the native functional state of the protein by small molecule binding. However, the targeting of the native state of IDPs by small molecules has been challenging due to their heterogeneous conformational ensembles. To tackle this challenge, we applied a high-throughput chemical microarray surface plasmon resonance imaging screen to detect the binding between small molecules and monomeric full-length Tau, a protein linked with the onset of a range of Tauopathies. The screen identified a novel set of drug-like fragment and lead-like compounds that bound to Tau. We verified that the majority of these hit compounds reduced the aggregation of different Tau constructs in vitro and in N2a cells. These results demonstrate that Tau is a viable receptor of drug-like small molecules. The drug discovery approach that we present can be applied to other IDPs linked to other misfolding diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

  17. A comparative experimental and quantum chemical study on monomeric and dimeric structures of 3,5-dibromoanthranilic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Cinar, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    This study presents the structural and spectroscopic characterization of 3,5-dibromoanthranilic acid with help of experimental techniques (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, NMR) and quantum chemical calculations. The vibrational spectra of title compound were recorded in solid state with FT-IR and FT-Raman in the range of 4000-400 and 4000-50 cm-1, respectively. The vibrational frequencies were also computed using B3LYP method of DFT with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The fundamental assignments were done on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The 1H, 13C and DEPT NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution and calculated by gauge-invariant atomic orbitals (GIAO) method. The UV absorption spectra of the compound were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm in ethanol, water and DMSO solutions. Solvent effects were calculated using time-dependent density functional theory and CIS method. The ground state geometrical structure of compound was predicted by B3LYP method and compared with the crystallographic structure of similar compounds. All calculations were made for monomeric and dimeric structure of compound. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. Mulliken atomic charges of neutral and anionic form of the molecule were computed and compared with anthranilic acid.

  18. Monomeric nature of dengue virus NS3 helicase and thermodynamic analysis of the interaction with single-stranded RNA

    PubMed Central

    Gebhard, Leopoldo G.; Incicco, J. Jeremías; Smal, Clara; Gallo, Mariana; Gamarnik, Andrea V.; Kaufman, Sergio B.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is a multifunctional protein formed by a superfamily-2 RNA helicase linked to a protease domain. In this work, we report results from in vitro experiments designed to determine the oligomeric state of dengue virus NS3 helicase (NS3h) and to characterize fundamental properties of the interaction with single-stranded (ss)RNA. Pulsed field gradient-NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the effective hydrodynamic radius of NS3h, which was constant over a wide range of protein concentrations in the absence and presence of ssRNA. Size exclusion chromatography-static light scattering experiments showed that NS3h eluted as a monomeric molecule even in the presence of ssRNA. Binding of NS3h to ssRNA was studied by quantitative fluorescence titrations using fluorescein-labeled and unlabeled ssRNA oligonucleotides of different lengths, and the effect of the fluorescein label on the interaction parameters was also analyzed. Experimental results were well described by a statistical thermodynamic model based on the theory of non-specific interactions of large ligands to a one-dimensional lattice. We found that binding of NS3h to ssRNA oligonucleotides and to poly(A) is characterized by minimum and occluded binding site sizes both of 10 nucleotides and by a weak positive cooperativity between adjacent proteins. PMID:25223789

  19. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of Tau aggregation by targeting monomeric Tau as a potential therapeutic approach for Tauopathies

    PubMed Central

    Pickhardt, Marcus; Neumann, Thomas; Schwizer, Daniel; Callaway, Kari; Vendruscolo, Michele; Schenk, Dale; George-Hyslop, Peter; Mandelkow, Eva M.; Dobson, Christopher M.; McConlogue, Lisa; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Tóth, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    A potential strategy to alleviate the aggregation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is to maintain the native functional state of the protein by small molecule binding. However, the targeting of the native state of IDPs by small molecules has been challenging due to their heterogeneous conformational ensembles. To tackle this challenge, we applied a high-throughput chemical microarray surface plasmon resonance imaging screen to detect the binding between small molecules and monomeric full-length Tau, a protein linked with the onset of a range of Tauopathies. The screen identified a novel set of drug-like fragment and lead-like compounds that bound to Tau. We verified that the majority of these hit compounds reduced the aggregation of different Tau constructs in vitro and in N2a cells. These results demonstrate that Tau is a viable receptor of drug-like small molecules. The drug discovery approach that we present can be applied to other IDPs linked to other misfolding diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. PMID:26510979

  20. The full-length cell-cell fusogen EFF-1 is monomeric and upright on the membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, Tzviya; Vasishtan, Daven; Siebert, C. Alistair; Grünewald, Kay

    2014-05-01

    Fusogens are membrane proteins that remodel lipid bilayers to facilitate membrane merging. Although several fusogen ectodomain structures have been solved, structural information on full-length, natively membrane-anchored fusogens is scarce. Here we present the electron cryo microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of the Caenorhabditis elegans epithelial fusion failure 1 (EFF-1) protein natively anchored in cell-derived membrane vesicles. This reveals a membrane protruding, asymmetric, elongated monomer. Flexible fitting of a protomer of the EFF-1 crystal structure, which is homologous to viral class-II fusion proteins, shows that EFF-1 has a hairpin monomeric conformation before fusion. These structural insights, when combined with our observations of membrane-merging intermediates between vesicles, enable us to propose a model for EFF-1 mediated fusion. This process, involving identical proteins on both membranes to be fused, follows a mechanism that shares features of SNARE-mediated fusion while using the structural building blocks of the unilaterally acting class-II viral fusion proteins.

  1. Analysis of by-product formation and sugar monomerization in sugarcane bagasse pretreated at pilot plant scale: differences between autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Edwin; Bakker, Rob; van Zeeland, Alniek; Sanchez Garcia, David; Punt, Arjen; Eggink, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is an interesting feedstock for the biobased economy since a large fraction is polymerized sugars. Autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment conditions combined with enzyme hydrolysis were used on lignocellulose rich bagasse to acquire monomeric. By-products found after pretreatment included acetic, glycolic and coumaric acid in concentrations up to 40, 21 and 2.5 g/kg dry weight bagasse respectively. Alkaline pretreated material contained up to 45 g/kg bagasse DW of sodium. Acid and autohydrolysis pretreatment results in a furan formation of 14 g/kg and 25 g/kg DW bagasse respectively. Enzyme monomerization efficiencies of pretreated solid material after 72 h were 81% for acid pretreatment, 77% for autohydrolysis and 57% for alkaline pretreatment. Solid material was washed with superheated water to decrease the amount of by-products. Washing decreased organic acid, phenol and furan concentrations in solid material by at least 60%, without a major sugar loss. PMID:25643957

  2. Development of a sampling patch to measure dermal exposures to monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Thomasen, Jennifer M; Fent, Kenneth W; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a patch sampler to monitor dermal exposures to monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in the automotive refinishing industry. Different patch materials were used to construct the patches, and patches impregnated with a derivatizing solution were compared with those that were not impregnated. We observed that impregnated felt patches measured significantly more HDI monomer (p = 0.04) than non-impregnated patches in a controlled experiment. Both impregnated and non-impregnated patches were compared with the tape-strip method by monitoring three spray painters' dermal exposure to monomeric and polymeric HDI. Isocyanurate was the predominant species measured by all three sampler types with detectable levels in >86% of samples. Overall, tape-strips of exposed skin measured lower levels of monomeric and polymeric HDI than impregnated patch samplers at the same sampling site on the skin. Unlike tape-strips, impregnated patches are not as prone to evaporative or reactive losses or losses due to rapid penetration into the skin. Further investigations are warranted to evaluate these and other methods to measure dermal exposure to workers under occupational conditions to better understand the relationship between dermal exposure and internal dose. PMID:22074266

  3. Controls on inorganic monomeric aluminum release from soils after a clearcut in southeastern New York State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, M. R.; Murdoch, P. S.; Burns, D. A.; Lawrence, G. B.

    2004-12-01

    A 24 ha catchment in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York was clearcut during the winter of 1996-97. Soil water from the O-, upper B-, and lower B horizons was examined for interactions between inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) and nitrate (NO3-), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, and base cations to discern how Alim was released from soils to stream water after the disturbance. Alim at concentrations greater than 2 μ moles l-1 can be toxic to some fish species and can inhibit the uptake of calcium by tree roots thereby decreasing tree tolerance to stress. Alim was strongly correlated with NO3- in upper and lower B-horizon soil water (r2 = 0.67 and 0.68 respectively), but the relation was much weaker in O-horizon soil water (r2 = 0.40). O-horizon soil water had the lowest pH values despite having lower NO3- concentrations than were measured in the B-horizon; high DOC concentrations in O-horizon soil water suggest that the acidity was partly due to organic acids. The O-horizon also had higher exchangeable base cations than the B-horizon that buffered the inorganic acidity produced by NO3- after the clearcut. The high organic content of the O-horizon also allowed for organic complexation of Al as indicated by the strong correlation between DOC and organic monomeric Al (r2 = 0.67). Alim concentrations were much higher and DOC concentrations were much lower in B-horizon soil water than in the O-horizon and in the B-horizon the high Alim concentrations persisted for a year longer after the clearcut. Alim concentrations in groundwater seeps were consistently low because mineral dissolution of base cations provided a high buffering capacity; as a result water with high NO3- concentration was buffered by base cations rather than by Alim. In contrast, B-horizon soil water, which had low buffering capacity and low DOC concentration, contributed large amounts of Alim to stream water, especially at NO3- concentrations above 100 μ moles l-1, an apparent

  4. Monomeric DR2/MOG-35-55 recombinant TCR ligand treats relapses of experimental encephalomyelitis in DR2 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Link, Jason M; Rich, Cathleen M; Korat, Maya; Burrows, Gregory G; Offner, Halina; Vandenbark, Arthur A

    2007-04-01

    Treatment of human autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) will likely require agents that can prevent or reverse the inflammatory process that results in clinical relapses and disease progression. We evaluated the ability of a newly designed monomeric recombinant TCR ligand (RTL342M) containing HLA-DR2 peptide-binding domains covalently linked to MOG-35-55 peptide to prevent and treat both the initial episode and subsequent relapses of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in HLA-DR2 transgenic mice. Single doses of RTL342M given either i.v. or s.c. to HLA-DR2 mice produced a rapid (within 24 h) and dose-dependent reversal of clinical signs of paralytic EAE, and even a single dose < or = 2 microg could produce a significant treatment effect. Multiple daily doses were even more effective than the same total amount of RTL given as a single dose. By establishing the minimal effective dose, we determined that RTLs may be 50 times more potent than molar equivalent doses of myelin peptide alone. RTL342M given prior to induction of EAE prevented disease in most mice, and the remainder could be successfully retreated with RTL. Most important for clinical application, RTL342M was highly effective for treating EAE relapses when given periodically prior to the relapse or even after relapses had occurred. These data demonstrate the rapid and potent clinical effects of RTL342M at disease onset and during relapses in EAE and establish important principles governing the application of this novel approach as a possible therapy for patients with MS. PMID:17257899

  5. Quantification and Statistical Modeling—Part I: Breathing-Zone Concentrations of Monomeric and Polymeric 1,6-Hexamethylene Diisocyanate

    PubMed Central

    Fent, Kenneth W.; Gaines, Linda G. Trelles; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Flack, Sheila L.; Ding, Kai; Herring, Amy H.; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a repeated exposure-assessment survey for task-based breathing-zone concentrations (BZCs) of monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) during spray painting on 47 automotive spray painters from North Carolina and Washington State. We report here the use of linear mixed modeling to identify the primary determinants of the measured BZCs. Both one-stage (N = 98 paint tasks) and two-stage (N = 198 paint tasks) filter sampling was used to measure concentrations of HDI, uretidone, biuret, and isocyanurate. The geometric mean (GM) level of isocyanurate (1410 μg m−3) was higher than all other analytes (i.e. GM < 7.85 μg m−3). The mixed models were unique to each analyte and included factors such as analyte-specific paint concentration, airflow in the paint booth, and sampler type. The effect of sampler type was corroborated by side-by-side one- and two-stage personal air sampling (N = 16 paint tasks). According to paired t-tests, significantly higher concentrations of HDI (P = 0.0363) and isocyanurate (P = 0.0035) were measured using one-stage samplers. Marginal R2 statistics were calculated for each model; significant fixed effects were able to describe 25, 52, 54, and 20% of the variability in BZCs of HDI, uretidone, biuret, and isocyanurate, respectively. Mixed models developed in this study characterize the processes governing individual polyisocyanate BZCs. In addition, the mixed models identify ways to reduce polyisocyanate BZCs and, hence, protect painters from potential adverse health effects. PMID:19622637

  6. Quantification and Statistical Modeling—Part II: Dermal Concentrations of Monomeric and Polymeric 1,6-Hexamethylene Diisocyanate

    PubMed Central

    Fent, Kenneth W.; Trelles Gaines, Linda G.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Flack, Sheila L.; Ding, Kai; Herring, Amy H.; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a quantitative dermal and inhalation exposure assessment of monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI) in 47 automotive spray painters from North Carolina and Washington State. We report here the use of linear mixed modeling (LMM) to identify the primary determinants of dermal exposure. Dermal concentrations of HDI, uretidone, biuret, and isocyanurate were significantly higher in 15 painters who did not wear coveralls or gloves (N = 51 paint tasks) than in 32 painters who did wear coveralls and gloves (N = 192 paint tasks) during spray painting. Regardless of whether protective clothing was worn, isocyanurate was the predominant species measured in the skin [geometric mean (GM) = 33.8 ng mm−3], with a 95% detection rate. Other polyisocyanates (GM ≤ 0.17 ng mm−3) were detected in skin during <23% of the paint tasks. According to marginal R2 statistics, mixed models generated in this study described no <36% of the variability in dermal concentrations of the different polyisocyanates measured in painters who did not wear protective clothing. These models also described 55% of the variability in dermal concentrations of isocyanurate measured in all painters (N = 288 paint tasks). The product of analyte-specific breathing-zone concentration (BZC) and paint time was the most significant variable in all the models. Through LMM, a better understanding of the exposure pathways governing individual polyisocyanate exposures may be achieved. In particular, we were able to establish a link between BZC and dermal concentration, which may be useful for exposure reconstruction and quantitatively characterizing the protective effect of coveralls and gloves. This information can be used to reduce dermal exposures and better protect automotive spray painters from potential adverse health effects. PMID:19635734

  7. Monomeric C-reactive protein and Notch-3 co-operatively increase angiogenesis through PI3K signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Boras, Emhamed; Slevin, Mark; Alexander, M Yvonne; Aljohi, Ali; Gilmore, William; Ashworth, Jason; Krupinski, Jerzy; Potempa, Lawrence A; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Elobeid, Adila; Matou-Nasri, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is the most acute-phase reactant serum protein of inflammation and a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease. Its expression is associated with atherosclerotic plaque instability and the formation of immature micro-vessels. We have previously shown that CRP upregulates endothelial-derived Notch-3, a key receptor involved in vascular development, remodelling and maturation. In this study, we investigated the links between the bioactive monomeric CRP (mCRP) and Notch-3 signalling in angiogenesis. We used in vitro (cell counting, wound-healing and tubulogenesis assays) and in vivo (chorioallantoic membrane) angiogenic assays and Western blotting to study the angiogenic signalling pathways induced by mCRP and Notch-3 activator chimera protein (Notch-3/Fc). Our results showed an additive effect on angiogenesis of mCRP stimulatory effect combined with Notch-3/Fc promoting bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) proliferation, migration, tube formation in Matrigel(TM) with up-regulation of phospho-Akt expression. The pharmacological blockade of PI3K/Akt survival pathway by LY294002 fully inhibited in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis induced by mCRP/Notch-3/Fc combination while blocking Notch signalling by gamma-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) partially inhibited mCRP/Notch-3/Fc-induced angiogenesis. Using a BAEC vascular smooth muscle cell co-culture sprouting angiogenesis assay and transmission electron microscopy, we showed that activation of both mCRP and Notch-3 signalling induced the formation of thicker sprouts which were shown later by Western blotting to be associated with an up-regulation of N-cadherin expression and a down-regulation of VE-cadherin expression. Thus, mCRP combined with Notch-3 activator promote angiogenesis through the PI3K/Akt pathway and their therapeutic combination has potential to promote and stabilize vessel formation whilst reducing the risk of haemorrhage from unstable plaques. PMID:24972386

  8. CP29, a monomeric light-harvesting complex II protein, is essential for state transitions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Tokutsu, Ryutaro; Iwai, Masakazu; Minagawa, Jun

    2009-03-20

    In oxygen-evolving photosynthesis, the two photosystems, photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII), function in parallel, and their excitation levels must be balanced to maintain an optimal photosynthetic rate under various light conditions. State transitions balance excitation energy between the two photosystems by redistributing light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins. Here we describe two RNA interference (RNAi) mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with one of the minor monomeric LHCII proteins, CP29 or CP26, knocked down. These two proteins have been identified in PSI-LHCI supercomplexes that harbor mobile LHCII proteins from PSII under a state where PSII is preferentially excited (State 2). We show that both the CP29 and CP26 RNAi mutants undergo reductions in the PSII antenna size during a transition from State 1 (a state where PSI is preferentially excited) to State 2, as reflected by nonphotochemical quenching of fluorescence, low temperature fluorescence spectra, and functional absorption cross-section. However, the undocked LHCIIs from PSII do not re-associate with PSI in the CP29-RNAi (b4i) mutant because the antenna size of PSI was not complementary increased. The mobile LHCIIs in the CP26-RNAi (b5i) mutant, however, re-associate with PSI, whose PSI-LHCI/II supercomplex is visualized on a sucrose density gradient. This study clarifies that CP29, not CP26, is an essential component in state transitions and demonstrates that CP29 is crucial when mobile LHCIIs re-associate with PSI under State 2 conditions. PMID:19144643

  9. Production of Monomeric Aromatic Compounds from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Lignin by Chemical and Enzymatic Methods.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ling; Hassan, Osman; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Badri, Khairiah

    2015-01-01

    In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBF) was pretreated with alkali, and lignin was extracted for further degradation into lower molecular weight phenolic compounds using enzymes and chemical means. Efficiency of monomeric aromatic compounds production from OPEFBF lignin via chemical (nitrobenzene versus oxygen) and enzymatic [cutinase versus manganese peroxidase (MnP)] approaches was investigated. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (2, 5, and 10% wt.) and reaction time (30, 90, and 180 minutes) on the yield of aromatic compounds were studied. The results obtained indicated that nitrobenzene oxidation produced the highest yield (333.17 ± 49.44 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 5.67 ± 0.25 ppm p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 25.57 ± 1.64 ppm vanillic acid, 168.68 ± 23.23 ppm vanillin, 75.44 ± 6.71 ppm syringic acid, 815.26 ± 41.77 ppm syringaldehyde, 15.21 ± 2.19 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 44.75 ± 3.40 ppm ferulic acid), among the tested methods. High sodium hydroxide concentration (10% wt.) was needed to promote efficient nitrobenzene oxidation. However, less severe oxidation condition was preferred to preserve the hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid). Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis was found to be more efficient than MnP-catalyzed oxidation in the production of aromatic compounds. By hydrolyzed 8% wt. of lignin with 0.625 mL cutinase g(-1) lignin at pH 8 and 55°C for 24 hours, about 642.83 ± 14.45 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 70.19 ± 3.31 ppm syringaldehyde, 22.80 ± 1.04 ppm vanillin, 27.06 ± 1.20 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 50.19 ± 2.23 ppm ferulic acid were produced. PMID:26798644

  10. Filamentation of Escherichia coli K12 elicited by some monomeric, dimeric and trimeric complexes of ruthenium in various oxidation states.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J F; Hughes, M N; Poole, R K; Rees, J F

    1985-05-01

    A number of ruthenium complexes were tested for their ability to induce filamentation in Escherichia coli. These included monomeric and dimeric complexes with ruthenium in the II or III oxidation states, as well as mixed-valence complexes with ruthenium in the (II,III) oxidation states. In general, dimeric mixed-valence Ru(II,III) complexes were the most active class of compound, although some complexes of this type were relatively inactive. These were pyrazine- or bipyridyl-bridged complexes which are known to involve strong metal-ligand interaction, which stabilizes the Ru(II) oxidation state. Some Ru(III) complexes were also significantly active in induction of filamentous growth in E. coli. One of these was [Ru(NH3)5Cl]Cl2, which did not inhibit electron transport, Mg2+-ATPase activity or DNA synthesis in E. coli, but like [Ru2(NH3)6Br3]Br2 X H2O was a potent inhibitor of respiration-driven calcium transport in the organism. Filament-inducing activity of the complex was reduced in the presence of NaCl, but not in the presence of added Ca2+, ethanol, calcium pantothenate, or E. coli 'division promoting extract'. This behaviour is also similar to that of [Ru2(NH3)6Br3]Br2 X H2O. It is suggested that both complexes may induce filamentation in E. coli by a common mechanism, which may involve interference with calcium metabolism, or a wall or membrane target, rather than interaction with DNA. PMID:3159489

  11. Monomeric C-reactive protein-a key molecule driving development of Alzheimer’s disease associated with brain ischaemia?

    PubMed Central

    Slevin, M.; Matou, S.; Zeinolabediny, Y.; Corpas, R.; Weston, R.; Liu, D.; Boras, E.; Di Napoli, M.; Petcu, E.; Sarroca, S.; Popa-Wagner, A.; Love, S.; Font, M. A.; Potempa, L. A.; Al-baradie, R.; Sanfeliu, C.; Revilla, S.; Badimon, L.; Krupinski, J.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) increases dramatically in patients with ischaemic stroke. Monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP) appears in the ECM of ischaemic tissue after stroke, associating with microvasculature, neurons and AD-plaques, Aβ, also, being able to dissociate native-CRP into inflammatory, mCRP in vivo. Here, mCRP injected into the hippocampal region of mice was retained within the retrosplenial tract of the dorsal 3rd ventrical and surrounding major vessels. Mice developed behavioural/cognitive deficits within 1 month, concomitant with mCRP staining within abnormal looking neurons expressing p-tau and in beta-amyloid 1-42-plaque positive regions. mCRP co-localised with CD105 in microvessels suggesting angiogenesis. Phospho-arrays/Western blotting identified signalling activation in endothelial cells and neurons through p-IRS-1, p-Tau and p-ERK1/2-which was blocked following pre-incubation with mCRP-antibody. mCRP increased vascular monolayer permeability and gap junctions, increased NCAM expression and produced haemorrhagic angiogenesis in mouse matrigel implants. mCRP induced tau244–372 aggregation and assembly in vitro. IHC study of human AD/stroke patients revealed co-localization of mCRP with Aβ plaques, tau-like fibrils and IRS-1/P-Tau positive neurons and high mCRP-levels spreading from infarcted core regions matched reduced expression of Aβ/Tau. mCRP may be responsible for promoting dementia after ischaemia and mCRP clearance could inform therapeutic avenues to reduce the risk of future dementia. PMID:26335098

  12. Effect of artificial accelerated aging on the optical properties and monomeric conversion of composites used after expiration date.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Mundim, Fabricio Mariano; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri; Puppin Rontani, Regina Maria; Consani, Simonides

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate how artificial accelerated aging (AAA) affected color stability (ΔE), opacity (ΔOP), and degree of conversion (DOC) for 3 composite materials (Tetric Ceram, Tetric Ceram HB, and Tetric Flow) used both 180 days before and 180 days after their expiration dates. To evaluate the materials' optical properties, 10 specimens of each composite-5 prior to expiration and 5 after the materials' expiration date-were made in a teflon matrix. After polishing, the specimens were submitted to initial color and opacity readings and submitted to AAA for 384 hours; at that point, new readings were taken to determine ΔE and ΔOP. To evaluate monomeric conversion evaluation, 6 specimens from each composite and expiration date-3 prior to AAA and 3 after-were submitted to DOC analysis. Results of the 2-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's tests (P < 0.05) demonstrated that all composites had ΔE values above the clinically acceptable level (ΔE ≥ 3.3). When expiration dates were compared, only Tetric Flow showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Regardless of the expiration date, ΔOP values for all composites increased after AAA, but not significantly (P > 0.05). The expired Tetric Flow had the highest DOC values (71.42% ± 4.21) before AAA, significantly different than that of the other composites (P > 0.05). It was concluded that both expiration date and AAA affected the properties of the composites tested. PMID:24192739

  13. Monomeric C-reactive protein--a key molecule driving development of Alzheimer's disease associated with brain ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Slevin, M; Matou, S; Zeinolabediny, Y; Corpas, R; Weston, R; Liu, D; Boras, E; Di Napoli, M; Petcu, E; Sarroca, S; Popa-Wagner, A; Love, S; Font, M A; Potempa, L A; Al-Baradie, R; Sanfeliu, C; Revilla, S; Badimon, L; Krupinski, J

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases dramatically in patients with ischaemic stroke. Monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP) appears in the ECM of ischaemic tissue after stroke, associating with microvasculature, neurons and AD-plaques, Aβ, also, being able to dissociate native-CRP into inflammatory, mCRP in vivo. Here, mCRP injected into the hippocampal region of mice was retained within the retrosplenial tract of the dorsal 3rd ventrical and surrounding major vessels. Mice developed behavioural/cognitive deficits within 1 month, concomitant with mCRP staining within abnormal looking neurons expressing p-tau and in beta-amyloid 1-42-plaque positive regions. mCRP co-localised with CD105 in microvessels suggesting angiogenesis. Phospho-arrays/Western blotting identified signalling activation in endothelial cells and neurons through p-IRS-1, p-Tau and p-ERK1/2-which was blocked following pre-incubation with mCRP-antibody. mCRP increased vascular monolayer permeability and gap junctions, increased NCAM expression and produced haemorrhagic angiogenesis in mouse matrigel implants. mCRP induced tau244-372 aggregation and assembly in vitro. IHC study of human AD/stroke patients revealed co-localization of mCRP with Aβ plaques, tau-like fibrils and IRS-1/P-Tau positive neurons and high mCRP-levels spreading from infarcted core regions matched reduced expression of Aβ/Tau. mCRP may be responsible for promoting dementia after ischaemia and mCRP clearance could inform therapeutic avenues to reduce the risk of future dementia. PMID:26335098

  14. Occurrence and speciation of polymeric chromium(III), monomeric chromium(III) and chromium(VI) in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ligang; Cai, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory experiments suggest that polymeric Cr(III) could exist in aqueous solution for a relative long period of time. However, the occurrence of polymeric Cr(III) has not been reported in environmental media due partially to the lack of method for speciating polymeric Cr. We observed an unknown Cr species during the course of study on speciation of Cr in the leachates of chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. Efforts were made to identify structure of the unknown Cr species. Considering the forms of Cr existed in the CCA-treated woods, we mainly focused our efforts to determine if the unknown species were polymeric Cr(III), complex of Cr/As or complex of Cr with dissolved organic matter (DOM). In order to evaluate whether polymeric Cr(III) largely exist in wood leachates, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS was used) for simultaneous speciation of monomeric Cr(III), polymeric Cr(III), and Cr(VI). In addition to wood leachates where polymeric Cr (III) ranged from 39.1 to 67.4%, occurrence of the unknown Cr species in other environmental matrices, including surface waters, tap and waste waters, was also investigated. It was found that polymeric Cr(III) could exist in environmental samples containing μg/L level of Cr, at a level up to 60% of total Cr, suggesting that polymeric Cr(III) could significantly exist in natural environments. Failure in quantifying polymeric Cr(III) would lead to the underestimation of total Cr and bias in Cr speciation. The environmental implication of the presence of polymeric Cr(III) species in the environment deserves further study. PMID:27156211

  15. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies against monomeric dengue virus non-structural glycoprotein 1 (NS1).

    PubMed

    Gelanew, Tesfaye; Poole-Smith, B Katherine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2015-09-15

    Dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural-1 (NS1) glycoprotein is useful for diagnosis of DENV infections in the first 8 days of illness with any of the four serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4). However, NS1 diagnostics are less sensitive for secondary DENV infections so the utility of NS1 diagnostics in dengue endemic countries where there is predominantly secondary infections is being questioned. Heat-mediated immunecomplex dissociation (ICD) prior to testing serum samples can significantly improve NS1 test sensitivity in secondary infections but requires monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive to heat-denatured NS1. In order to incorporate a simple heat-mediated ICD step, a crucial step was to develop new MAbs with high affinity and specificity to heat-denatured DENV NS1 protein. In the present study, six new MAbs were isolated from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant monomeric NS1 of DENV-1 and DENV-2. Characterization using three different methods: indirect ELISA, fixed cell ELISA and western blot revealed that all six MAbs are serotype-cross-reactive and capable of recognizing dimeric and hexameric isoforms as well as heat-denatured NS1 from all four DENV serotypes. No cross-reactivity to NS1 of West Nile virus and Yellow fever virus was observed on western blot and indirect ELISA. Five of the six MAbs mapped to the DENV NS1 region of 105-119 amino acids. The remaining MAb mapped to DENV NS1 region of 25-39 amino acids. These two NS1 regions were found to be highly conserved among all four DENV serotypes by sequences analysis and database comparison. These MAbs were used to develop an NS1 capture ELISA and tested using a small panel of clinical specimens. The results from the NS1 capture ELISA indicated at least a three-fold increase in NS1 antigen detection in heat-denatured samples compared to untreated specimens. Furthermore, artificial immunecomplexed results also demonstrated the binding efficiency of these MAbs to heat denatured NS1. Taken together

  16. Production of Monomeric Aromatic Compounds from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Lignin by Chemical and Enzymatic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Pei-Ling; Hassan, Osman; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Badri, Khairiah

    2015-01-01

    In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBF) was pretreated with alkali, and lignin was extracted for further degradation into lower molecular weight phenolic compounds using enzymes and chemical means. Efficiency of monomeric aromatic compounds production from OPEFBF lignin via chemical (nitrobenzene versus oxygen) and enzymatic [cutinase versus manganese peroxidase (MnP)] approaches was investigated. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (2, 5, and 10% wt.) and reaction time (30, 90, and 180 minutes) on the yield of aromatic compounds were studied. The results obtained indicated that nitrobenzene oxidation produced the highest yield (333.17 ± 49.44 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 5.67 ± 0.25 ppm p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 25.57 ± 1.64 ppm vanillic acid, 168.68 ± 23.23 ppm vanillin, 75.44 ± 6.71 ppm syringic acid, 815.26 ± 41.77 ppm syringaldehyde, 15.21 ± 2.19 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 44.75 ± 3.40 ppm ferulic acid), among the tested methods. High sodium hydroxide concentration (10% wt.) was needed to promote efficient nitrobenzene oxidation. However, less severe oxidation condition was preferred to preserve the hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid). Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis was found to be more efficient than MnP-catalyzed oxidation in the production of aromatic compounds. By hydrolyzed 8% wt. of lignin with 0.625 mL cutinase g−1 lignin at pH 8 and 55°C for 24 hours, about 642.83 ± 14.45 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 70.19 ± 3.31 ppm syringaldehyde, 22.80 ± 1.04 ppm vanillin, 27.06 ± 1.20 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 50.19 ± 2.23 ppm ferulic acid were produced. PMID:26798644

  17. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further.

  18. Correlation of CD2 binding and functional properties of multimeric and monomeric lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3.

    PubMed

    Dustin, M L; Olive, D; Springer, T A

    1989-02-01

    LFA-3 was purified with an intact (mLFA-3) or an enzymatically removed membrane-anchoring domain (sLFA-3). Gel filtration and sucrose gradient sedimentation showed sLFA-3 to be a single highly glycosylated polypeptide chain in solution, while mLFA-3 formed micelles of 8 LFA-3 monomers. 125I-mLFA-3 bound to Jurkat T leukemic cell surface CD2 with much higher avidity than sLFA-3. mLFA-3 binding had characteristics of a multivalent interaction with cell surface CD2 and had an avidity of 1.5 nM for Jurkat cells and 12 nM for resting T cells. Two CD2 mAbs tested did not block mLFA-3 binding: 9-1 and CD2.1. These mAbs were tested in combination with LFA-3 for their ability to activate T cells. The combination of mLFA-3 and CD2.1 mAbs induced a rapid increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ in Jurkat cells which was proportional to mLFA-3 occupation of CD2 sites. sLFA-3 showed no activity in the Ca2+ flux assay. The combination of mLFA-3 and the CD2.1 mAbs significantly stimulated proliferation of PBMC. The combination of mLFA-3 and 9-1 mAbs was weakly or not mitogenic for the same cells. The combination of CD2.1 and sLFA-3 at concentrations up to 480 nM was not consistently mitogenic. Therefore, monomeric LFA-3/CD2 interaction appears to have a relatively low affinity, while multimeric LFA-3 binds with high avidity. T cell activation by binding of LFA-3 to CD2 appears to require occupation of 10(4) to 10(5) CD2 sites, which is likely to occur during adhesion, but is rare in receptor systems with soluble ligands. PMID:2463330

  19. Exploring the conformational and binding properties of unphosphorylated/phosphorylated monomeric and trimeric Bcl-2 through docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Zacarías-Lara, Oscar J; Correa-Basurto, José; Bello, Martiniano

    2016-07-01

    B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) is commonly associated with the progression and preservation of cancer and certain lymphomas; therefore, it is considered as a biological target against cancer. Nevertheless, evidence of all its structural binding sites has been hidden because of the lack of a complete Bcl-2 model, given the presence of a flexible loop domain (FLD), which is responsible for its complex behavior. FLD region has been implicated in phosphorylation, homotrimerization, and heterodimerization associated with Bcl-2 antiapoptotic function. In this contribution, homology modeling, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the microsecond (µs) time-scale and docking calculations were combined to explore the conformational complexity of unphosphorylated/phosphorylated monomeric and trimeric Bcl-2 systems. Conformational ensembles generated through MD simulations allowed for identifying the most populated unphosphorylated/phosphorylated monomeric conformations, which were used as starting models to obtain trimeric complexes through protein-protein docking calculations, also submitted to µs MD simulations. Principal component analysis showed that FLD represents the main contributor to total Bcl-2 mobility, and is affected by phosphorylation and oligomerization. Subsequently, based on the most representative unphosphorylated/phosphorylated monomeric and trimeric Bcl-2 conformations, docking studies were initiated to identify the ligand binding site of several known Bcl-2 inhibitors to explain their influence in homo-complex formation and phosphorylation. Docking studies showed that the different conformational states experienced by FLD, such as phosphorylation and oligomerization, play an essential role in the ability to make homo and hetero-complexes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 393-413, 2016. PMID:27016043

  20. Monomeric Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 Peptides in Solution Adopt Very Similar Ramachandran Map Distributions That Closely Resemble Random Coil

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the aggregation and fibrillation of amyloid peptides Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 into amyloid plaques. Despite strong potential therapeutic interest, the structural pathways associated with the conversion of monomeric Aβ peptides into oligomeric species remain largely unknown. In particular, the higher aggregation propensity and associated toxicity of Aβ1–42 compared to that of Aβ1–40 are poorly understood. To explore in detail the structural propensity of the monomeric Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 peptides in solution, we recorded a large set of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters, including chemical shifts, nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs), and J couplings. Systematic comparisons show that at neutral pH the Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 peptides populate almost indistinguishable coil-like conformations. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectra collected at very high resolution remove assignment ambiguities and show no long-range NOE contacts. Six sets of backbone J couplings (3JHNHα, 3JC′C′, 3JC′Hα, 1JHαCα, 2JNCα, and 1JNCα) recorded for Aβ1–40 were used as input for the recently developed MERA Ramachandran map analysis, yielding residue-specific backbone ϕ/ψ torsion angle distributions that closely resemble random coil distributions, the absence of a significantly elevated propensity for β-conformations in the C-terminal region of the peptide, and a small but distinct propensity for αL at K28. Our results suggest that the self-association of Aβ peptides into toxic oligomers is not driven by elevated propensities of the monomeric species to adopt β-strand-like conformations. Instead, the accelerated disappearance of Aβ NMR signals in D2O over H2O, particularly pronounced for Aβ1–42, suggests that intermolecular interactions between the hydrophobic regions of the peptide dominate the aggregation process. PMID:26780756

  1. GacA is essential for Group A S treptococcus and defines a new class of monomeric dTDP‐4‐dehydrorhamnose reductases (RmlD)

    PubMed Central

    van der Beek, Samantha L.; Le Breton, Yoann; Ferenbach, Andrew T.; Chapman, Robert N.; van Aalten, Daan M. F.; Navratilova, Iva; Boons, Geert‐Jan; McIver, Kevin S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The sugar nucleotide dTDP‐L‐rhamnose is critical for the biosynthesis of the Group A Carbohydrate, the molecular signature and virulence determinant of the human pathogen Group A S treptococcus (GAS). The final step of the four‐step dTDP‐L‐rhamnose biosynthesis pathway is catalyzed by dTDP‐4‐dehydrorhamnose reductases (RmlD). RmlD from the Gram‐negative bacterium S almonella is the only structurally characterized family member and requires metal‐dependent homo‐dimerization for enzymatic activity. Using a biochemical and structural biology approach, we demonstrate that the only RmlD homologue from GAS, previously renamed GacA, functions in a novel monomeric manner. Sequence analysis of 213 Gram‐negative and Gram‐positive RmlD homologues predicts that enzymes from all Gram‐positive species lack a dimerization motif and function as monomers. The enzymatic function of GacA was confirmed through heterologous expression of gac A in a S. mutans rml D knockout, which restored attenuated growth and aberrant cell division. Finally, analysis of a saturated mutant GAS library using Tn‐sequencing and generation of a conditional‐expression mutant identified gac A as an essential gene for GAS. In conclusion, GacA is an essential monomeric enzyme in GAS and representative of monomeric RmlD enzymes in Gram‐positive bacteria and a subset of Gram‐negative bacteria. These results will help future screens for novel inhibitors of dTDP‐L‐rhamnose biosynthesis. PMID:26278404

  2. Directed evolution of a monomeric, bright and photostable version of Clavularia cyan fluorescent protein: structural characterization and applications in fluorescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Al, Hui-wang; Henderson, J. Nathan; Remington, S. James; Campbell, Robert E.

    2008-05-07

    The arsenal of engineered variants of the GFP [green FP (fluorescent protein)] from Aequorea jellyfish provides researchers with a powerful set of tools for use in biochemical and cell biology research. The recent discovery of diverse FPs in Anthozoa coral species has provided protein engineers with an abundance of alternative progenitor FPs from which improved variants that complement or supersede existing Aequorea GFP variants could be derived. Here, we report the engineering of the first monomeric version of the tetrameric CFP (cyan FP) cFP484 from Clavularia coral. Starting from a designed synthetic gene library with mammalian codon preferences, we identified dimeric cFP484 variants with fluorescent brightness significantly greater than the wild-type protein. Following incorporation of dimer-breaking mutations and extensive directed evolution with selection for blue-shifted emission, high fluorescent brightness and photostability, we arrived at an optimized variant that we have named mTFP1 [monomeric TFP1 (teal FP 1)]. The new mTFP1 is one of the brightest and most photostable FPs reported to date. In addition, the fluorescence is insensitive to physiologically relevant pH changes and the fluorescence lifetime decay is best fitted as a single exponential. The 1.19 {angstrom} crystal structure (1 {angstrom}=0.1 nm) of mTFP1 confirms the monomeric structure and reveals an unusually distorted chromophore conformation. As we experimentally demonstrate, the high quantum yield of mTFP1 (0.85) makes it particularly suitable as a replacement for ECFP (enhanced CFP) or Cerulean as a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) donor to either a yellow or orange FP acceptor.

  3. Expression of Arg-Gingipain RgpB Is Required for Correct Glycosylation and Stability of Monomeric Arg-Gingipain RgpA from Porphyromonas gingivalis W50

    PubMed Central

    Rangarajan, Minnie; Hashim, Ahmed; Aduse-Opoku, Joseph; Paramonov, Nikolay; Hounsell, Elizabeth F.; Curtis, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Arg-gingipains are extracellular cysteine proteases produced by the gram-negative periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and are encoded by rgpA and rgpB. Three Arg-gingipains, heterodimeric high-molecular-mass Arg-gingipain HRgpA comprising the α-catalytic chain and the β-adhesin chain, the monomeric soluble Arg-gingipain comprising only the α-catalytic chain (RgpAcat), and the monomeric membrane-type heavily glycosylated Arg-gingipain comprising the α-catalytic chain (mt-RgPAcat), are derived from rgpA. The monomeric enzymes contain between 14 and 30% carbohydrate by weight. rgpB encodes two monomeric enzymes, RgpB and mt-RgpB. Earlier work indicated that rgpB is involved in the glycosylation process, since inactivation of rgpB results in the loss of not only RgpB and mt-RgpB but also mt-RgpAcat. This work aims to confirm the role of RgpB in the posttranslational modification of RgpAcat and the effect of aberrant glycosylation on the properties of this enzyme. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of cellular proteins from W50 and an inactivated rgpB strain (D7) showed few differences, suggesting that loss of RgpB has a specific effect on RgpA maturation. Inactivation of genes immediately upstream and downstream of rgpB had no effect on rgpA-derived enzymes, suggesting that the phenotype of the rgpB mutant is not due to a polar effect on transcription at this locus. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis of purified RgpAcat from W50 and D7 strains gave identical peptide mass fingerprints, suggesting that they have identical polypeptide chains. However, RgpAcat from D7 strain had a higher isoelectric point and a dramatic decrease in thermostability and did not cross-react with a monoclonal antibody which recognizes a glycan epitope on the parent strain enzyme. Although it had the same total sugar content as the parent strain enzyme, there were significant differences in the monosaccharide composition and linking sugars. These

  4. Synthesis, Radical Reactivity, and Thermochemistry of Monomeric Cu(II) Alkoxide Complexes Relevant to Cu/Radical Alcohol Oxidation Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Porter, Thomas R; Capitao, Dany; Kaminsky, Werner; Qian, Zhaoshen; Mayer, James M

    2016-06-01

    Two new monomeric Cu(II) alkoxide complexes were prepared and fully characterized as models for intermediates in copper/radical mediated alcohol oxidation catalysis: Tp(tBuR)Cu(II)OCH2CF3 with Tp(tBu) = hydro-tris(3-tert-butyl-pyrazol-1-yl)borate 1 or Tp(tBuMe) = hydro-tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methyl-pyrazol-1-yl)borate 2. These complexes were made as models for potential intermediates in enzymatic and synthetic catalytic cycles for alcohol oxidation. However, the alkoxide ligands are not readily oxidized by loss of H; instead, these complexes were found to be hydrogen atom acceptors. They oxidize the hydroxylamine TEMPOH, 2,4,6-tri-t-butylphenol, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene to the nitroxyl radical, phenoxyl radical, and benzene, with formation of HOCH2CF3 (TFE) and the Cu(I) complexes Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)-MeCN in dichloromethane/1% MeCN or 1/2 [Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)]2 in toluene. On the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics arguments, these reactions likely proceed through concerted proton-electron transfer mechanisms. Thermochemical analyses give lower limits for the "effective bond dissociation free energies (BDFE)" of the O-H bonds in 1/2[Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)]2 + TFE and upper limits for the free energies associated with alkoxide oxidations via hydrogen atom transfer (effective alkoxide α-C-H BDFEs). These values are summations of the free energies of multiple chemical steps, which include the energetically favorable formation of 1/2[Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)]2. The effective alkoxide α-C-H bonds are very weak, BDFE ≤ 38 ± 4 kcal mol(-1) for 1 and ≤44 ± 5 kcal mol(-1) for 2 (gas-phase estimates), because C-H homolysis is thermodynamically coupled to one electron transfer to Cu(II) as well as the favorable formation of the 1/2[Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)]2 dimer. Treating 1 with the H atom acceptor (t)Bu3ArO(•) did not result in the expected alkoxide oxidation to an aldehyde, but rather net 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxyl radical transfer occurred to generate an unusual 2-substituted dienone-ether product. Treating 2

  5. Cloning of the gene and characterization of the enzymatic properties of the monomeric alkaline phosphatase (PhoX) from Pasteurella multocida strain X-73.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Ru; Shien, Jui-Hung; Shieh, Happy K; Hu, Chung-Chi; Gong, Shuen-Rong; Chen, Ling-Yun; Chang, Poa-Chun

    2007-02-01

    We have identified a new phoX gene encoding the monomeric alkaline phosphatase from Pasteurella multocida X-73. This gene was not found in the published genome sequence of Pasteurella multocida pm70. Characterization of the recombinant PhoX of Pasteurella multocida X-73 showed that it is a monomeric enzyme, activated by Ca(2+) and possibly secreted by the Tat pathway. These features distinguish phosphatases of the PhoX family from those of the PhoA family. All proteins of the PhoX family were found to contain a conserved motif that shares significant sequence homology with the calcium-binding site of a phosphotriesterase known as diisopropylfluorophosphatase. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that D527 of PhoX might be the ligand bound to the catalytic calcium. This is the first report on identification of homologous sequences between PhoX and the phosphotriesterase and on the potential calcium-binding site of PhoX. PMID:17156125

  6. Pushing the size limit of de novo structure ensemble prediction guided by sparse SDSL-EPR restraints to 200 residues: The monomeric and homodimeric forms of BAX.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Axel W; Bordignon, Enrica; Bleicken, Stephanie; García-Sáez, Ana J; Jeschke, Gunnar; Meiler, Jens

    2016-07-01

    Structure determination remains a challenge for many biologically important proteins. In particular, proteins that adopt multiple conformations often evade crystallization in all biologically relevant states. Although computational de novo protein folding approaches often sample biologically relevant conformations, the selection of the most accurate model for different functional states remains a formidable challenge, in particular, for proteins with more than about 150 residues. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy can obtain limited structural information for proteins in well-defined biological states and thereby assist in selecting biologically relevant conformations. The present study demonstrates that de novo folding methods are able to accurately sample the folds of 192-residue long soluble monomeric Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX). The tertiary structures of the monomeric and homodimeric forms of BAX were predicted using the primary structure as well as 25 and 11 EPR distance restraints, respectively. The predicted models were subsequently compared to respective NMR/X-ray structures of BAX. EPR restraints improve the protein-size normalized root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD100) of the most accurate models with respect to the NMR/crystal structure from 5.9Å to 3.9Å and from 5.7Å to 3.3Å, respectively. Additionally, the model discrimination is improved, which is demonstrated by an improvement of the enrichment from 5% to 15% and from 13% to 21%, respectively. PMID:27129417

  7. LPS ligand and culture additives improve production of monomeric MD-1 and 2 in Pichia pastoris by decreasing aggregation and intermolecular disulfide bonding

    PubMed Central

    Mengwasser, Kristen E.; Bryant, Clare E.; Gay, Nick J.; Gangloff, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation proteins MD-1 and MD-2 have both been shown to form a heterogeneous collection of oligomers when expressed in absence of their respective receptor, RP105 and TLR4. The biological relevance of these oligomers is not clear. Only monomeric proteins have been found to be active and able to trigger an immune response to endotoxin by modulating the TLR4 pathway. In this study, we produced variants of MD-1 and MD-2 in Pichia pastoris. To minimize the time and expense of initial expression tests, small-scale cultures have been set up to allow the rapid identification of the highest expressing clone and the optimal expression conditions. The expression vectors used, the site of linearization and the locus of integration affected the yield of transformation. Next we screened culture additives and found that they significantly increased the fraction of monomeric proteins secreted in the culture medium (up to 15% of the total MD protein produced). We confirmed their presence by size-exclusion chromatography. Optimal anti-aggregation agents were protein-dependent except for LPS that presented stabilizing effects for all MD proteins. Contrary to previous reports, this study suggests that MD-1 can bind to LPS. PMID:21130168

  8. LPS ligand and culture additives improve production of monomeric MD-1 and 2 in Pichia pastoris by decreasing aggregation and intermolecular disulfide bonding.

    PubMed

    Mengwasser, Kristen E; Bryant, Clare E; Gay, Nick J; Gangloff, Monique

    2011-04-01

    Myeloid differentiation proteins MD-1 and MD-2 have both been shown to form a heterogeneous collection of oligomers when expressed in absence of their respective receptor, RP105 and TLR4. The biological relevance of these oligomers is not clear. Only monomeric proteins have been found to be active and able to trigger an immune response to endotoxin by modulating the TLR4 pathway. In this study, we produced variants of MD-1 and MD-2 in Pichia pastoris. To minimize the time and expense of initial expression tests, small-scale cultures have been set up to allow the rapid identification of the highest expressing clone and the optimal expression conditions. The expression vectors used, the site of linearization and the locus of integration affected the yield of transformation. Next we screened culture additives and found that they significantly increased the fraction of monomeric proteins secreted in the culture medium (up to 15% of the total MD protein produced). We confirmed their presence by size-exclusion chromatography. Optimal anti-aggregation agents were protein-dependent except for LPS that presented stabilizing effects for all MD proteins. Contrary to previous reports, this study suggests that MD-1 can bind to LPS. PMID:21130168

  9. Resolved single-molecule detection of individual species within a mixture of anti-biotin antibodies using an engineered monomeric nanopore.

    PubMed

    Fahie, Monifa; Chisholm, Christina; Chen, Min

    2015-02-24

    Oligomeric protein nanopores with rigid structures have been engineered for the purpose of sensing a wide range of analytes including small molecules and biological species such as proteins and DNA. We chose a monomeric β-barrel porin, OmpG, as the platform from which to derive the nanopore sensor. OmpG is decorated with seven flexible loops that move dynamically to create a distinct gating pattern when ionic current passes through the pore. Biotin was chemically tethered to the most flexible one of these loops. The gating characteristic of the loop's movement in and out of the porin was substantially altered by analyte protein binding. The gating characteristics of the pore with bound targets were remarkably sensitive to molecular identity, even providing the ability to distinguish between homologues within an antibody mixture. A total of five gating parameters were analyzed for each analyte to create a unique fingerprint for each biotin-binding protein. Our exploitation of gating noise as a molecular identifier may allow more sophisticated sensor design, while OmpG's monomeric structure greatly simplifies nanopore production. PMID:25575121

  10. Iron deficiency in cyanobacteria causes monomerization of photosystem I trimers and reduces the capacity for state transitions and the effective absorption cross section of photosystem I in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexander G; Krol, Marianna; Sveshnikov, Dmitry; Selstam, Eva; Sandström, Stefan; Koochek, Maryam; Park, Youn-Il; Vasil'ev, Sergej; Bruce, Doug; Oquist, Gunnar; Huner, Norman P A

    2006-08-01

    The induction of the isiA (CP43') protein in iron-stressed cyanobacteria is accompanied by the formation of a ring of 18 CP43' proteins around the photosystem I (PSI) trimer and is thought to increase the absorption cross section of PSI within the CP43'-PSI supercomplex. In contrast to these in vitro studies, our in vivo measurements failed to demonstrate any increase of the PSI absorption cross section in two strains (Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803) of iron-stressed cells. We report that iron-stressed cells exhibited a reduced capacity for state transitions and limited dark reduction of the plastoquinone pool, which accounts for the increase in PSII-related 685 nm chlorophyll fluorescence under iron deficiency. This was accompanied by lower abundance of the NADP-dehydrogenase complex and the PSI-associated subunit PsaL, as well as a reduced amount of phosphatidylglycerol. Nondenaturating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation of the chlorophyll-protein complexes indicated that the monomeric form of PSI is favored over the trimeric form of PSI under iron stress. Thus, we demonstrate that the induction of CP43' does not increase the PSI functional absorption cross section of whole cells in vivo, but rather, induces monomerization of PSI trimers and reduces the capacity for state transitions. We discuss the role of CP43' as an effective energy quencher to photoprotect PSII and PSI under unfavorable environmental conditions in cyanobacteria in vivo. PMID:16798943

  11. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenegger, Helga C.; Schöberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T.; Cross, Julie O.; Heald, Steve M.; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J. Herbert; Stucky, Galen D.

    2003-01-01

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomineral reinforcing the jaws. In the present article, we attempt to unravel the role of zinc in Nereis limbata jaws, using a combination of position-resolved state-of-the-art techniques. It is shown that the local hardness and stiffness of the jaws correlate with the local zinc concentration, pointing toward a structural role for zinc. Zinc always is detected in tight correlation with chlorine, suggesting the presence of a zinc–chlorine compound. No crystalline inorganic phase was found, however, and results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy further exclude the presence of simple inorganic zinc–chlorine compounds in amorphous form. The correlation of local histidine levels in the protein matrix and zinc concentration leads us to hypothesize a direct coordination of zinc and chlorine to the protein. A comparison of the role of the transition metals zinc and copper in the jaws of two polychaete worm species Nereis and Glycera, respectively, is presented. PMID:12886017

  12. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenegger, Helga C.; Schoberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T.; Cross, Julie O.; Heald, Steve M.; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J. Herbert; Stucky, Galen

    2003-08-05

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomineral reinforcing the jaws. In the present article, we attempt to unravel the role of zinc in Nereis limbata jaws, using a combination of position-resolved state-of-the-art techniques. It is shown that the local hardness and stiffness of the jaws correlate with the local zinc concentration, pointing toward a structural role for zinc. Zinc always is detected in tight correlation with chlorine, suggesting the presence of a zinc-chlorine compound. No crystalline inorganic phase was found, however, and results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy further exclude the presence of simple inorganic zinc-chlorine compounds in amorphous form. The correlation of local histidine levels in the protein matrix and zinc concentration leads us to hypothesize a direct coordination of zinc and chlorine to the protein. A comparison of the role of the transition metals zinc and copper in the jaws of two polychaete worm species Nereis and Glycera, respectively, is presented.

  13. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenegger, Helga C.; Schoberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T.; Cross, Julie O.; Heald, Steve M.; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J. Herbert; Stucky, Galen

    2003-08-05

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomineral reinforcing the jaws. In the present article, we attempt to unravel the role of zinc in Nereis limbata jaws, using a combination of position-resolved state-of-the-art techniques. It is shown that the local hardness and stiffness of the jaws correlate with the local zinc concentration, pointing toward a structural role for zinc. Zinc always is detected in tight correlation with chlorine, suggesting the presence of a zinc– chlorine compound. No crystalline inorganic phase was found, however, and results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy further exclude the presence of simple inorganic zinc– chlorine compounds in amorphous form. The correlation of local histidine levels in the protein matrix and zinc concentration leads us to hypothesize a direct coordination of zinc and chlorine to the protein. A comparison of the role of the transition metals zinc and copper in the jaws of two polychaete worm species Nereis and Glycera, respectively, is presented.

  14. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm.

    PubMed

    Lichtenegger, Helga C; Schöberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T; Cross, Julie O; Heald, Steve M; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J Herbert; Stucky, Galen D

    2003-08-01

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomineral reinforcing the jaws. In the present article, we attempt to unravel the role of zinc in Nereis limbata jaws, using a combination of position-resolved state-of-the-art techniques. It is shown that the local hardness and stiffness of the jaws correlate with the local zinc concentration, pointing toward a structural role for zinc. Zinc always is detected in tight correlation with chlorine, suggesting the presence of a zinc-chlorine compound. No crystalline inorganic phase was found, however, and results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy further exclude the presence of simple inorganic zinc-chlorine compounds in amorphous form. The correlation of local histidine levels in the protein matrix and zinc concentration leads us to hypothesize a direct coordination of zinc and chlorine to the protein. A comparison of the role of the transition metals zinc and copper in the jaws of two polychaete worm species Nereis and Glycera, respectively, is presented. PMID:12886017

  15. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphism in monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitor genes from wild emmer wheat, primarily from Israel and Golan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Various enzyme inhibitors act on key insect gut digestive hydrolases, including alpha-amylases and proteinases. Alpha-amylase inhibitors have been widely investigated for their possible use in strengthening a plant's defense against insects that are highly dependent on starch as an energy source. We attempted to unravel the diversity of monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitor genes of Israeli and Golan Heights' wild emmer wheat with different ecological factors (e.g., geography, water, and temperature). Population methods that analyze the nature and frequency of allele diversity within a species and the codon analysis method (comparing patterns of synonymous and non-synonymous changes in protein coding sequences) were used to detect natural selection. Results Three hundred and forty-eight sequences encoding monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitors (WMAI) were obtained from 14 populations of wild emmer wheat. The frequency of SNPs in WMAI genes was 1 out of 16.3 bases, where 28 SNPs were detected in the coding sequence. The results of purifying and the positive selection hypothesis (p < 0.05) showed that the sequences of WMAI were contributed by both natural selection and co-evolution, which ensured conservation of protein function and inhibition against diverse insect amylases. The majority of amino acid substitutions occurred at the C-terminal (positive selection domain), which ensured the stability of WMAI. SNPs in this gene could be classified into several categories associated with water, temperature, and geographic factors, respectively. Conclusions Great diversity at the WMAI locus, both between and within populations, was detected in the populations of wild emmer wheat. It was revealed that WMAI were naturally selected for across populations by a ratio of dN/dS as expected. Ecological factors, singly or in combination, explained a significant proportion of the variations in the SNPs. A sharp genetic divergence over very short geographic distances compared to

  16. Cloning of stanniocalcin (STC) cDNAs of divergent teleost species: Monomeric STC supports monophyly of the ancient teleosts, the osteoglossomorphs.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Yutaka; Irwin, David M; Youson, John H

    2006-10-01

    Molecular cloning of teleost stanniocalcin (STC) cDNAs was undertaken in two species of order Osteoglossiformes of subdivision Osteoglossomorpha and one species of each of orders Cypriniformes and Perciformes within the subdivision Euteleostei. The elephantnose (Gnathonemus petersii) and the butterflyfish (Pantadon buchholzi) are basal teleosts in different osteoglossiforme suborders yet their 218 amino acid (aa) mature hormones, from prehormones of 249 and 251aa, respectively, have only 10 cysteine residues. A substitution for cysteine at the intermonomeric disulfide linkage site, implies that their STCs exist as monomeric peptides, as is the case with STC from another osteoglossormorph, arawana [Amemiya, Y., Marra, L.E., Reyhani, N., Youson, J.H., 2002. Stanniocalcin from an ancient teleost: a monomeric form of the hormone and a possible extracorpuscular distribution. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188, 141-150]. The STC cDNA of the generalized teleost and cyprinid, the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), encodes a prehormone of 249aa with a signal peptide of 31aa and a mature protein of 218aa that possesses 11 cysteine residues. The latter feature is consistent with a previous analysis that white sucker mature STC is a glycosylated, homodimeric peptide [Amemiya, Y., Marra, L.E., Reyhani, N., Youson, J.H., 2002. Stanniocalcin from an ancient teleost: a monomeric form of the hormone and a possible extracorpuscular distribution. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188, 141-150]. An open reading frame of the STC cDNA of the derived teleost and perciforme, the smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), encodes a prehormone of 255aa with a signal peptide of 33aa and a mature protein of 222aa. The position of the 11 cysteines in smallmouth bass STC suggests that it exists as a homodimeric peptide. A phylogenetic analysis, using the new STC-1 amino acid sequences and those in the gene data base provided strong support for monophyly of the Osteoglossomorpha and indicated, with positioning of

  17. Small Molecules Detected by Second-Harmonic Generation Modulate the Conformation of Monomeric α-Synuclein and Reduce Its Aggregation in Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Moree, Ben; Yin, Guowei; Lázaro, Diana F.; Munari, Francesca; Strohäker, Timo; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Zweckstetter, Markus; Salafsky, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are structurally dynamic molecules that perform specialized functions through unique conformational changes accessible in physiological environments. An ability to specifically and selectively control protein function via conformational modulation is an important goal for development of novel therapeutics and studies of protein mechanism in biological networks and disease. Here we applied a second-harmonic generation-based technique for studying protein conformation in solution and in real time to the intrinsically disordered, Parkinson disease related protein α-synuclein. From a fragment library, we identified small molecule modulators that bind to monomeric α-synuclein in vitro and significantly reduce α-synuclein aggregation in a neuronal cell culture model. Our results indicate that the conformation of α-synuclein is linked to the aggregation of protein in cells. They also provide support for a therapeutic strategy of targeting specific conformations of the protein to suppress or control its aggregation. PMID:26396193

  18. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) peel.

    PubMed

    Dranca, Florina; Oroian, Mircea

    2016-07-01

    The present study describes the extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant peel using ultrasonic treatments and methanol and 2-propanol as extraction solvents. The extraction yields were optimized by varying the solvent concentration, ultrasonic frequency, temperature and time of ultrasonic treatment. Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results showed that for TPC extraction the optimal condition were obtained with a methanol concentration of 76.6%, 33.88 kHz ultrasonic frequency, a temperature of 69.4 °C and 57.5 min extraction time. For TMA the optimal condition were the following: 54.4% methanol concentration, 37 kHz, 55.1 °C and process time of 44.85 min. PMID:26701808

  19. Role of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor and fibronectin in the interaction of platelets in flowing blood with monomeric and fibrillar human collagen types I and III.

    PubMed

    Houdijk, W P; Sakariassen, K S; Nievelstein, P F; Sixma, J J

    1985-02-01

    Platelet adhesion to monomeric collagen types I and III, which were purified from human umbilical arteries, was studied in a perfusion chamber under well defined flow conditions. For this purpose, glass coverslips were coated with 20-30 micrograms/cm2 of collagen types I and III by spraying a solution of these collagens with a retouching air brush. Platelet deposition increased with the time of perfusion. Adhesion to both collagen types was similar in the first 3 min, but increased platelet deposition occurred on collagen type III after 3 min due to thrombus formation. Adhesion at a shear rate of 800 s-1 was strongly impaired with plasma of a patient with von Willebrand's disease or with fibronectin-free plasma. Addition of purified fibronectin to fibronectin-free plasma restored adhesion to the level obtained with normal plasma. Platelet deposition in normal plasma increased with increasing shear rates. Platelet deposition in VWD-plasma was normal at 490 s-1, but there was no increase at higher shear rates. Platelet deposition in fibronectin-free plasma was diminished at all shear rates studied from 490 to 1,300 s-1. Perfusion with a human albumin solution (HAS) to which purified Factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex (FVIII-VWF) and fibronectin had been added gave similar platelet deposition as with normal plasma. Preincubation of collagen with FVIII-VWF and perfusion with HAS containing fibronectin, or, conversely, preincubation with fibronectin and perfusion with HAS containing FVIII-VWF, also resulted in adhesion similar to that observed in normal plasma. Similar adhesion was also observed after preincubation with both FVIII-VWF and fibronectin and subsequent perfusion with HAS alone. Sequential preincubations with first FVIII-VWF and then fibronectin, or with first fibronectin and then FVIII-VWF followed by perfusion with HAS, also gave a similar adhesion as observed with normal plasma. These data indicate that platelet adhesion to monomeric collagen types

  20. Role of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor and fibronectin in the interaction of platelets in flowing blood with monomeric and fibrillar human collagen types I and III.

    PubMed Central

    Houdijk, W P; Sakariassen, K S; Nievelstein, P F; Sixma, J J

    1985-01-01

    Platelet adhesion to monomeric collagen types I and III, which were purified from human umbilical arteries, was studied in a perfusion chamber under well defined flow conditions. For this purpose, glass coverslips were coated with 20-30 micrograms/cm2 of collagen types I and III by spraying a solution of these collagens with a retouching air brush. Platelet deposition increased with the time of perfusion. Adhesion to both collagen types was similar in the first 3 min, but increased platelet deposition occurred on collagen type III after 3 min due to thrombus formation. Adhesion at a shear rate of 800 s-1 was strongly impaired with plasma of a patient with von Willebrand's disease or with fibronectin-free plasma. Addition of purified fibronectin to fibronectin-free plasma restored adhesion to the level obtained with normal plasma. Platelet deposition in normal plasma increased with increasing shear rates. Platelet deposition in VWD-plasma was normal at 490 s-1, but there was no increase at higher shear rates. Platelet deposition in fibronectin-free plasma was diminished at all shear rates studied from 490 to 1,300 s-1. Perfusion with a human albumin solution (HAS) to which purified Factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex (FVIII-VWF) and fibronectin had been added gave similar platelet deposition as with normal plasma. Preincubation of collagen with FVIII-VWF and perfusion with HAS containing fibronectin, or, conversely, preincubation with fibronectin and perfusion with HAS containing FVIII-VWF, also resulted in adhesion similar to that observed in normal plasma. Similar adhesion was also observed after preincubation with both FVIII-VWF and fibronectin and subsequent perfusion with HAS alone. Sequential preincubations with first FVIII-VWF and then fibronectin, or with first fibronectin and then FVIII-VWF followed by perfusion with HAS, also gave a similar adhesion as observed with normal plasma. These data indicate that platelet adhesion to monomeric collagen types

  1. Hydrolyzable tannins of tamaricaceous plants. V. Structures of monomeric-trimeric tannins and cytotoxicity of macrocyclic-type tannins isolated from Tamarix nilotica (1).

    PubMed

    Orabi, Mohamed A A; Taniguchi, Shoko; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Morio; Yoshida, Takashi; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2013-05-24

    Three new ellagitannin monomers, nilotinins M5-M7 (1-3), a dimer, nilotinin D10 (4), and a trimer, nilotinin T1 (5), together with three known dimers, hirtellin D (7) and tamarixinins B (8) and C (9), and a trimer, hirtellin T2 (6), were isolated from Tamarix nilotica dried leaves. The structures of the tannins were elucidated by intensive spectroscopic methods and chemical conversions into known tannins. The new trimer (5) is a unique macrocyclic type whose monomeric units are linked together by an isodehydrodigalloyl and two dehydrodigalloyl moieties. Additionally, dimeric and trimeric macrocyclic-type tannins isolated from T. nilotica in this study were assessed for possible cytotoxic activity against four human tumor cell lines. Tumor-selective cytotoxicities of the tested compounds were higher than those of synthetic and natural potent cytotoxic compounds, including polyphenols, and comparable with those of 5-fluorouracil and melphalan. PMID:23675651

  2. Resolution of two native monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina and the sequence of two napA genes

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Philippa J.L.; McKinzie, Audra A.; Codd, Rachel; School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Two monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina. {yields} Sequence of napA from napEDABC-type operon and napA from NapDAGHB-type operon. {yields} Isolation of NAP as NapA or NapAB correlated with NapA P47E amino acid substitution. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite in the bacterial periplasm occurs in the 90 kDa NapA subunit of the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP) system. Most Shewanella genomes contain two nap operons: napEDABC and napDAGHB, which is an unusual feature of this genus. Two native, monomeric, 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins were resolved by hydrophobic interaction chromatography from aerobic cultures of Shewanella gelidimarina replete with reduced nitrogen compounds. The 90 kDa protein obtained in higher yield was characterized as NapA by electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies and was identified by LC/MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS as NapA from the napEDABC-type operon. The other 90 kDa protein, which was unstable and produced in low yields, was posited as NapA from the napDAGHB-type operon. Two napA genes have been sequenced from the napEDABC-type and napDAGHB-type operons of S. gelidimarina. Native NAP from S. putrefaciens was resolved as one NapA monomer and one NapAB heterodimer. Two amino acid substitutions in NapA correlated with the isolation of NAP as a NapA monomer or a NapAB heterodimer. The resolution of native, redox-active NapA isoforms in Shewanella provides new insight into the respiratory versatility of this genus, which has implications in bioremediation and the assembly of microbial fuel cells.

  3. Crystal structures of two monomeric triosephosphate isomerase variants identified via a directed-evolution protocol selecting for L-arabinose isomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Krause, Mirja; Kiema, Tiila Riikka; Neubauer, Peter; Wierenga, Rik K

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structures are described of two variants of A-TIM: Ma18 (2.7 Å resolution) and Ma21 (1.55 Å resolution). A-TIM is a monomeric loop-deletion variant of triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) which has lost the TIM catalytic properties. Ma18 and Ma21 were identified after extensive directed-evolution selection experiments using an Escherichia coli L-arabinose isomerase knockout strain expressing a randomly mutated A-TIM gene. These variants facilitate better growth of the Escherichia coli selection strain in medium supplemented with 40 mM L-arabinose. Ma18 and Ma21 differ from A-TIM by four and one point mutations, respectively. Ma18 and Ma21 are more stable proteins than A-TIM, as judged from CD melting experiments. Like A-TIM, both proteins are monomeric in solution. In the Ma18 crystal structure loop 6 is open and in the Ma21 crystal structure loop 6 is closed, being stabilized by a bound glycolate molecule. The crystal structures show only small differences in the active site compared with A-TIM. In the case of Ma21 it is observed that the point mutation (Q65L) contributes to small structural rearrangements near Asn11 of loop 1, which correlate with different ligand-binding properties such as a loss of citrate binding in the active site. The Ma21 structure also shows that its Leu65 side chain is involved in van der Waals interactions with neighbouring hydrophobic side-chain moieties, correlating with its increased stability. The experimental data suggest that the increased stability and solubility properties of Ma21 and Ma18 compared with A-TIM cause better growth of the selection strain when coexpressing Ma21 and Ma18 instead of A-TIM. PMID:27303904

  4. Monomeric Form of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Type I Revealed by X-ray Crystallography and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Shinya; Nagai, Anna; Kinjo, Saya; Mashimo, Ryutaro; Akimoto, Megumi; Kizawa, Kenji; Yabe-Wada, Toshiki; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Takahara, Hidenari; Unno, Masaki

    2016-07-31

    Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD; EC 3.5.3.15) is a post-translational modification enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of arginine in protein molecules to a citrulline residue in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. In this study, we determined the structure of an active form of human PAD1 crystallized in the presence of Ca(2+) at 3.2-Å resolution. Although human PAD2 and PAD4 isozymes were previously reported to form a head-to-tail homodimer, it is still unknown whether this quaternary structure is common to other PAD isozymes. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contained two PAD1 molecules; however, the head-to-tail dimeric form was not found. Small-angle X-ray scattering analyses revealed PAD1 to be a monomer in solution, while PAD3 was dimerized with a structure similar to PAD2 and PAD4. PAD1 was apparently different from the crystal structures of PAD2 and PAD4, with an elongated N-terminal loop that appears to prevent the formation of the homodimer. Of interest, the N-terminal loop occupied the substrate binding site of the adjacent PAD1 molecules in the crystal. Deimination of S100A3 peptides in vitro implied that PAD isozymes recognize the quaternary structure of S100A3. The substrate-accessible monomeric structure brought about by the extension of its N terminus may partly account for the highest tolerant substrate recognition of PAD1. This is the first ever report on the molecular structure of PAD1 demonstrating the unique monomeric form of the PAD isozyme. PMID:27393304

  5. Monomeric C-phycocyanin at room temperature and 77 K. Resolution of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the individual chromophores and the energy-transfer rate constants

    SciTech Connect

    Debreczeny, M.P.; Sauer, K. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA ); Zhou, J.; Bryant, D.A. )

    1993-09-23

    At both room temperature (RT) and 77 K, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the three individual chromophore types ([alpha][sub 84], [beta][sub 84], and [beta][sub 155]) found in monomeric C-phycocyanin ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]), isolated from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, were resolved along with the rates of energy transfer between the chromophores. The cpcB/C155S mutant, whose PC is missing the [beta][sub 155] chromophore, was useful in effecting this resolution. At RT, the single broad peak in the visible region of the absorption spectrum of ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]) was resolved into its three-component spectra by comparing the steady-state absorption spectra of the isolated wild-type [alpha] subunit of PC ([alpha][sup PC]) (containing only the [alpha][sub 84] chromophore) with those of the monomeric PCs isolated from the mutant strain ([alpha][sup PC][beta]*) and the wild-type strain ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]). At 77 K, the visible region of the absorption spectrum of ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]) splits into two peaks. This partial resolution at 77 K of the chromophore spectra of ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]) when compared with the 77 K absorption spectra of [alpha][sup PC], [beta][sup PC], and ([alpha][sup PC][beta]*) provided a confirmation of our RT assignments of the chromophore absorption spectra. 38 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. An experimentally robust model of monomeric apolipoprotein A-I created from a chimera of two X-ray structures and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Segrest, Jere P; Jones, Martin K; Shao, Baohai; Heinecke, Jay W

    2014-12-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) retards atherosclerosis by accepting cholesterol from the artery wall. However, the structure of the proposed acceptor, monomeric apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein of HDL, is poorly understood. Two published models for monomeric apoA-I used cross-linking distance constraints to derive best fit conformations. This approach has limitations. (i) Cross-linked peptides provide no information about secondary structure. (ii) A protein chain can be folded in multiple ways to create a best fit. (iii) Ad hoc folding of a secondary structure is unlikely to produce a stable orientation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues. To address these limitations, we used a different approach. We first noted that the dimeric apoA-I crystal structure, (Δ185-243)apoA-I, is topologically identical to a monomer in which helix 5 forms a helical hairpin, a monomer with a hydrophobic cleft running the length of the molecule. We then realized that a second crystal structure, (Δ1-43)apoA-I, contains a C-terminal structure that fits snuggly via aromatic and hydrophobic interactions into the hydrophobic cleft. Consequently, we combined these crystal structures into an initial model that was subjected to molecular dynamics simulations. We tested the initial and simulated models and the two previously published models in three ways: against two published data sets (domains predicted to be helical by H/D exchange and six spin-coupled residues) and against our own experimentally determined cross-linking distance constraints. We note that the best fit simulation model, superior by all tests to previously published models, has dynamic features of a molten globule with interesting implications for the functions of apoA-I. PMID:25423138

  7. Molecular structures and solvation of free monomeric and dimeric ferriheme in aqueous solution: insights from molecular dynamics simulations and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuter, David; Streltsov, Victor; Davydova, Natalia; Venter, Gerhard A; Naidoo, Kevin J; Egan, Timothy J

    2014-10-20

    CHARMM force field parameters have been developed to model nonprotein bound five-coordinate ferriheme (ferriprotoporphyrin IX) species in aqueous solution. Structures and solvation were determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at 298 K of monomeric [HO-ferriheme](2-), [H2O-ferriheme](-), and [H2O-ferriheme](0); π-π dimeric [(HO-ferriheme)2](4-), [(H2O-ferriheme)(HO-ferriheme)](3-), [(H2O-ferriheme)2](2-), and [(H2O-ferriheme)2](0); and μ-oxo dimeric [μ-(ferriheme)2O](4-). Solvation of monomeric species predominated around the axial ligand, meso-hydrogen atoms of the porphyrin ring (Hmeso), and the unligated face. Existence of π-π ferriheme dimers in aqueous solution was supported by MD calculations where such dimers remained associated over the course of the simulation. Porphyrin rings were essentially coplanar. In these dimers major and minor solvation was observed around the axial ligand and Hmeso positions, respectively. In μ-oxo ferriheme, strong solvation of the unligated face and bridging oxide ligand was observed. The solution structure of the μ-oxo dimer was investigated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The EXAFS spectrum obtained from frozen solution was markedly different from that recorded on dried μ-oxo ferriheme solid. Inclusion of five solvent molecules obtained from spatial distribution functions in the structure generated from MD simulation was required to produce acceptable fits to the EXAFS spectra of the dimer in solution, while the solid was suitably fitted using the crystal structure of μ-oxo ferriheme dimethyl ester which included no solvent molecules. PMID:25275882

  8. Zn-bis-glutathionate is the best co-substrate of the monomeric phytochelatin synthase from the photosynthetic heavy metal-hyperaccumulator Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    García-García, Jorge D; Girard, Lourdes; Hernández, Georgina; Saavedra, Emma; Pardo, Juan P; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Encalada, Rusely; Reyes-Prieto, Adrián; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    The phytochelatin synthase from photosynthetic Euglena gracilis (EgPCS) was analyzed at the transcriptional, kinetic, functional, and phylogenetic levels. Recombinant EgPCS was a monomeric enzyme able to synthesize, in the presence of Zn(2+) or Cd(2+), phytochelatin2-phytochelatin4 (PC2-PC4) using GSH or S-methyl-GS (S-methyl-glutathione), but not γ-glutamylcysteine or PC2 as a substrate. Kinetic analysis of EgPCS firmly established a two-substrate reaction mechanism for PC2 synthesis with Km values of 14-22 mM for GSH and 1.6-2.5 μM for metal-bis-glutathionate (Me-GS2). EgPCS showed the highest Vmax and catalytic efficiency with Zn-(GS)2, and was inactivated by peroxides. The EgPCS N-terminal domain showed high similarity to that of other PCSases, in which the typical catalytic core (Cys-70, His-179 and Asp-197) was identified. In contrast, the C-terminal domain showed no similarity to other PCSases. An EgPCS mutant comprising only the N-terminal 235 amino acid residues was inactive, suggesting that the C-terminal domain is essential for activity/stability. EgPCS transcription in Euglena cells was not modified by Cd(2+), whereas its heterologous expression in ycf-1 yeast cells provided resistance to Cd(2+) stress. Phylogenetic analysis of the N-terminal domain showed that EgPCS is distant from plants and other photosynthetic organisms, suggesting that it evolved independently. Although EgPCS showed typical features of PCSases (constitutive expression; conserved N-terminal domain; kinetic mechanism), it also exhibited distinct characteristics such as preference for Zn-(GS)2 over Cd-(GS)2 as a co-substrate, a monomeric structure, and ability to solely synthesize short-chain PCs, which may be involved in conferring enhanced heavy-metal resistance. PMID:24464102

  9. Crystal Structure of a Monomeric Form of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Endonuclease Nsp15 Suggests a Role for Hexamerization As An Allosteric Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, J.S.; Saikatendu, K.S.; Subramanian, V.; Neuman, B.W.; Buchmeier, M.J.; Stevens, R.C.; Kuhn, P.; /Scripps Res. Inst.

    2007-07-09

    Mature nonstructural protein-15 (nsp15) from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) contains a novel uridylate-specific Mn{sup 2+}-dependent endoribonuclease (NendoU). Structure studies of the full-length form of the obligate hexameric enzyme from two CoVs, SARS-CoV and murine hepatitis virus, and its monomeric homologue, XendoU from Xenopus laevis, combined with mutagenesis studies have implicated several residues in enzymatic activity and the N-terminal domain as the major determinant of hexamerization. However, the tight link between hexamerization and enzyme activity in NendoUs has remained an enigma. Here, we report the structure of a trimmed, monomeric form of SARS-CoV nsp15 (residues 28 to 335) determined to a resolution of 2.9 Angstroms. The catalytic loop (residues 234 to 249) with its two reactive histidines (His 234 and His 249) is dramatically flipped by {approx}120 degrees into the active site cleft. Furthermore, the catalytic nucleophile Lys 289 points in a diametrically opposite direction, a consequence of an outward displacement of the supporting loop (residues 276 to 295). In the full-length hexameric forms, these two loops are packed against each other and are stabilized by intimate intersubunit interactions. Our results support the hypothesis that absence of an adjacent monomer due to deletion of the hexamerization domain is the most likely cause for disruption of the active site, offering a structural basis for why only the hexameric form of this enzyme is active.

  10. Understanding the Effect of Monomeric Iridium(III/IV) Aquo Complexes on the Photoelectrochemistry of IrO(x)·nH2O-Catalyzed Water-Splitting Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yixin; Vargas-Barbosa, Nella M; Strayer, Megan E; McCool, Nicholas S; Pandelia, Maria-Erini; Saunders, Timothy P; Swierk, John R; Callejas, Juan F; Jensen, Lasse; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2015-07-15

    Soluble, monomeric Ir(III/IV) complexes strongly affect the photoelectrochemical performance of IrO(x)·nH2O-catalyzed photoanodes for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The synthesis of IrO(x)·nH2O colloids by alkaline hydrolysis of Ir(III) or Ir(IV) salts proceeds through monomeric intermediates that were characterized using electrochemical and spectroscopic methods and modeled in TDDFT calculations. In air-saturated solutions, the monomers exist in a mixture of Ir(III) and Ir(IV) oxidation states, where the most likely formulations at pH 13 are [Ir(OH)5(H2O)](2-) and [Ir(OH)6](2-), respectively. These monomeric anions strongly adsorb onto IrO(x)·nH2O colloids but can be removed by precipitation of the colloids with isopropanol. The monomeric anions strongly adsorb onto TiO2, and they promote the adsorption of ligand-free IrO(x)·nH2O colloids onto mesoporous titania photoanodes. However, the reversible adsorption/desorption of electroactive monomers effectively short-circuits the photoanode redox cycle and thus dramatically degrades the photoelectrochemical performance of the cell. The growth of a dense TiO2 barrier layer prevents access of soluble monomeric anions to the interface between the oxide semiconductor and the electrode back contact (a fluorinated tin oxide transparent conductor) and leads to improved photoanode performance. Purified IrO(x)·nH2O colloids, which contain no adsorbed monomer, give improved performance at the same electrodes. These results explain earlier observations that IrO(x)·nH2O catalysts can dramatically degrade the performance of metal oxide photoanodes for the OER reaction. PMID:26106904

  11. The solution structures of native and patient monomeric human IgA1 reveal asymmetric extended structures: implications for function and IgAN disease

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Gar Kay; Wright, David W.; Vennard, Owen L.; Rayner, Lucy E.; Pang, Melisa; Yeo, See Cheng; Gor, Jayesh; Molyneux, Karen; Barratt, Jonathan; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Native IgA1, for which no crystal structure is known, contains an O-galactosylated 23-residue hinge region that joins its Fab and Fc regions. IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease in developed countries. Because IgA1 in IgAN often has a poorly O-galactosylated hinge region, the solution structures of monomeric IgA1 from a healthy subject and three IgAN patients with four different O-galactosylation levels were studied. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that all four IgA1 samples were monomeric with similar sedimentation coefficients, s020,w. X-ray scattering showed that the radius of gyration (Rg) slightly increased with IgA1 concentration, indicating self-association, although their distance distribution curves, P(r), were unchanged with concentration. Neutron scattering indicated similar Rg values and P(r) curves, although IgA1 showed a propensity to aggregate in heavy water buffer. A new atomistic modelling procedure based on comparisons with 177000 conformationally-randomized IgA1 structures with the individual experimental scattering curves revealed similar extended Y-shaped solution structures for all four differentially-glycosylated IgA1 molecules. The final models indicated that the N-glycans at Asn263 were folded back against the Fc surface, the C-terminal tailpiece conformations were undefined and hinge O-galactosylation had little effect on the solution structure. The solution structures for full-length IgA1 showed extended hinges and the Fab and Fc regions were positioned asymmetrically to provide ample space for the functionally-important binding of two FcαR receptors to its Fc region. Whereas no link between O-galactosylation and the IgA1 solution structure was detected, an increase in IgA1 aggregation with reduced O-galactosylation may relate to IgAN. PMID:26268558

  12. Solvent exposure of Tyr10 as a probe of structural differences between monomeric and aggregated forms of the amyloid-β peptide

    PubMed Central

    Aran Terol, Pablo; Kumita, Janet R.; Hook, Sharon C.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Esbjörner, Elin K.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is a characteristic pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease. We have exploited the relationship between solvent exposure and intrinsic fluorescence of a single tyrosine residue, Tyr10, in the Aβ sequence to probe structural features of the monomeric, oligomeric and fibrillar forms of the 42-residue Aβ1-42. By monitoring the quenching of Tyr10 fluorescence upon addition of water-soluble acrylamide, we show that in Aβ1-42 oligomers this residue is solvent-exposed to a similar extent to that found in the unfolded monomer. By contrast, Tyr10 is significantly shielded from acrylamide quenching in Aβ1-42 fibrils, consistent with its proximity to the fibrillar cross-β core. Furthermore, circular dichroism measurements reveal that Aβ1-42 oligomers have a considerably lower β-sheet content than the Aβ1-42 fibrils, indicative of a less ordered molecular arrangement in the former. Taken together these findings suggest significant differences in the structural assembly of oligomers and fibrils that are consistent with differences in their biological effects. PMID:26551456

  13. The sigma-1 receptors are present in monomeric and oligomeric forms in living cells in the presence and absence of ligands

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deo R.; Biener, Gabriel; Yang, Jay; Oliver, Julie A.; Ruoho, Arnold; Raicu, Valerică

    2015-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a 223-amino-acid membrane protein that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane of some mammalian cells. The S1R is regulated by various synthetic molecules including (+)-pentazocine, cocaine and haloperidol and endogenous molecules such as sphingosine, dimethyltryptamine and dehydroepiandrosterone. Ligand-regulated protein chaperone functions linked to oxidative stress and neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neuropathic pain have been attributed to the S1R. Several client proteins that interact with S1R have been identified including various types of ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). When S1R constructs containing C-terminal monomeric GFP2 and YFP fusions were co-expressed in COS-7 cells and subjected to FRET spectrometry analysis, monomers, dimers and higher oligomeric forms of S1R were identified under non-liganded conditions. In the presence of the prototypic S1R agonist, (+)-pentazocine, however, monomers and dimers were the prevailing forms of S1R. The prototypic antagonist, haloperidol, on the other hand, favoured higher order S1R oligomers. These data, in sum, indicate that heterologously expressed S1Rs occur in vivo in COS-7 cells in multiple oligomeric forms and that S1R ligands alter these oligomeric structures. We suggest that the S1R oligomerization states may regulate its function(s). PMID:25510962

  14. The sigma-1 receptors are present in monomeric and oligomeric forms in living cells in the presence and absence of ligands.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ashish K; Mavlyutov, Timur; Singh, Deo R; Biener, Gabriel; Yang, Jay; Oliver, Julie A; Ruoho, Arnold; Raicu, Valerică

    2015-03-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a 223-amino-acid membrane protein that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane of some mammalian cells. The S1R is regulated by various synthetic molecules including (+)-pentazocine, cocaine and haloperidol and endogenous molecules such as sphingosine, dimethyltryptamine and dehydroepiandrosterone. Ligand-regulated protein chaperone functions linked to oxidative stress and neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neuropathic pain have been attributed to the S1R. Several client proteins that interact with S1R have been identified including various types of ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). When S1R constructs containing C-terminal monomeric GFP2 and YFP fusions were co-expressed in COS-7 cells and subjected to FRET spectrometry analysis, monomers, dimers and higher oligomeric forms of S1R were identified under non-liganded conditions. In the presence of the prototypic S1R agonist, (+)-pentazocine, however, monomers and dimers were the prevailing forms of S1R. The prototypic antagonist, haloperidol, on the other hand, favoured higher order S1R oligomers. These data, in sum, indicate that heterologously expressed S1Rs occur in vivo in COS-7 cells in multiple oligomeric forms and that S1R ligands alter these oligomeric structures. We suggest that the S1R oligomerization states may regulate its function(s). PMID:25510962

  15. Monomeric Corynebacterium glutamicum N-acetyl glutamate kinase maintains sensitivity to L-arginine but has a lower intrinsic catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Hao; Liang, Shuli; Han, Shuangyan; Lin, Ying; Yang, Xiaorong; Zheng, Suiping

    2016-02-01

    N-acetyl glutamate kinase (NAGK) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of L-arginine, and L-arginine-sensitive NAGK typically has hexameric architecture. Defining the relationship between this architecture and L-arginine inhibition can provide a foundation to identify the key amino acids involved in the allosteric regulation network of L-arginine. In the present study, the key amino acids in the N-terminal helix (N-helix) of Corynebacterium glutamicum (Cg) NAGK required for hexamer formation were determined using structural homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. It was also verified that hexameric architecture is required for the positive cooperativity of inhibition by L-arginine and for efficient catalysis, but that it is not the determinant of inhibition by L-arginine. Monomeric mutants retained a similar sensitivity to L-arginine as the hexameric form, indicating that monomers contain an independent, sensitive signal transduction network of L-arginine to mediate allosteric regulation. Mutation studies of CgNAGKs also revealed that amino acid residues 18-23 of the N-helix are required for inhibition by L-arginine, and that E19 may be an essential amino acid influencing the apparent affinity of L-arginine. Collectively, these studies may illuminate the basic mechanism of metabolic homeostasis of C. glutamicum. PMID:26512006

  16. Depolymerization of alginate into a monomeric sugar acid using Alg17C, an exo-oligoalginate lyase cloned from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Taek; Chung, Jae Hyuk; Wang, Damao; Lee, Jieun; Woo, Hee Chul; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2012-03-01

    Macroalgae are considered to be promising biomass for fuels and chemicals production. To utilize brown macroalgae as biomass, the degradation of alginate, which is the main carbohydrate of brown macroalgae, into monomeric units is a critical prerequisite step. Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 is capable of degrading more than ten different polysaccharides including alginate, and its genome sequence demonstrated that this bacterium contains several putative alginate lyase genes including alg17C. The gene for Alg17C, which is classified into the PL-17 family, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant Alg17C was found to preferentially act on oligoalginates with degrees of polymerization higher than 2 to produce the alginate monomer, 4-deoxy-L: -erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid. The optimal pH and temperature for Alg17C were found to be 6 and 40 °C, respectively. The K (M) and V (max) of Alg17C were 35.2 mg/ml and 41.7 U/mg, respectively. Based on the results of this study, Alg17C could be used as the key enzyme to produce alginate monomers in the process of utilizing alginate for biofuels and chemicals production. PMID:22281843

  17. Base-content dependence of emission enhancements, quantumyields, and lifetimes of cyanine dyes bound to double-strand DNA: Photophysical properties of monomeric and bichromophoric DNA stains

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, T.L.; Nafisi, K.; Zhao, M.; Lenhard, J.R.; Johnson, I.

    1995-12-21

    This paper reports fluorescence quantum yield, emission enhancement, and emission lifetime measurements for 10 cyanine dyes complexed to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA), (dAdT){sub 10}, and (dGdC){sub 6} duplexes. Six of the dyes are linked bichromophores with four cationic charges per molecule, and four are monomers with two cationic charges per molecule. All of the dyes exhibit either bi- or triexponential emission decay kinetics reflecting different dye/ds DNA modes of binding, and the average radiative lifetime for the bichromophores bound to ds DNA is 5.1{+-}0.8 ns. These results are consistent with expectations that binding-induced restriction of torsion about the central methine bridge is responsible for the large emission enhancements of these dyes. Scrutiny of the lengths of average emission lifetime for these 10 dyes on (dAdT){sub 10} and (dGdC){sub 6} duplexes finds that they do not vary as expected if electron transfer (ET) emission quenching were an important process. There are also differences in emission quantum yield between dyes with pyridinium and quinolinium structural components when bound to (dAdT){sub 10} and (dGdC){sub 6} duplexes. These differences are very distinct for the monomeric dyes where pyridinium dyes have 4-fold greater emission yields on (dAdT){sub 10} duplexes and quinolinium dyes have 2-fold greater emission yields on (dGdC){sub 6} duplexes. 68 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O'Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  19. Complement factor H binding of monomeric C-reactive protein downregulates proinflammatory activity and is impaired with at risk polymorphic CFH variants

    PubMed Central

    Molins, Blanca; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Adán, Alfredo; Antón, Rosa; Arostegui, Juan I.; Yagüe, Jordi; Dick, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and immune-mediated processes are pivotal to the pathogenic progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk for AMD, the pathophysiological importance of the prototypical acute-phase reactant in the etiology of the disease is unknown, and data regarding the exact role of CRP in ocular inflammation are limited. In this study, we provide mechanistic insight into how CRP contributes to the development of AMD. In particular, we show that monomeric CRP (mCRP) but not the pentameric form (pCRP) upregulates IL-8 and CCL2 levels in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Further, we show that complement factor H (FH) binds mCRP to dampen its proinflammatory activity. FH from AMD patients carrying the “risk” His402 polymorphism displays impaired binding to mCRP, and therefore proinflammatory effects of mCRP remain unrestrained. PMID:26961257

  20. Dynamics of zeaxanthin binding to the photosystem II monomeric antenna protein Lhcb6 (CP24) and modulation of its photoprotection properties.

    PubMed

    Betterle, Nico; Ballottari, Matteo; Hienerwadel, Rainer; Dall'Osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Lhcb6 (CP24) is a monomeric antenna protein of photosystem II, which has been shown to play special roles in photoprotective mechanisms, such as the Non-Photochemical Quenching and reorganization of grana membranes in excess light conditions. In this work we analyzed Lhcb6 in vivo and in vitro: we show this protein, upon activation of the xanthophyll cycle, accumulates zeaxanthin into inner binding sites faster and to a larger extent than any other pigment-protein complex. By comparative analysis of Lhcb6 complexes violaxanthin or zeaxanthin binding, we demonstrate that zeaxanthin not only down-regulates chlorophyll singlet excited states, but also increases the efficiency of chlorophyll triplet quenching, with consequent reduction of singlet oxygen production and significant enhancement of photo-stability. On these bases we propose that Lhcb6, the most recent addition to the Lhcb protein family which evolved concomitantly to the adaptation of photosynthesis to land environment, has a crucial role in zeaxanthin-dependent photoprotection. PMID:20494647

  1. X-ray Crystal Structures of Monomeric and Dimeric Peptide Inhibitors in Complex with the Human Neonatal Fc Receptor, FcRn

    SciTech Connect

    Mezo, Adam R.; Sridhar, Vandana; Badger, John; Sakorafas, Paul; Nienaber, Vicki

    2010-10-28

    The neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, is responsible for the long half-life of IgG molecules in vivo and is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. A family of peptides comprising the consensus motif GHFGGXY, where X is preferably a hydrophobic amino acid, was shown previously to inhibit the human IgG:human FcRn protein-protein interaction (Mezo, A. R., McDonnell, K. A., Tan Hehir, C. A., Low, S. C., Palombella, V. J., Stattel, J. M., Kamphaus, G. D., Fraley, C., Zhang, Y., Dumont, J. A., and Bitonti, A. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 105, 2337-2342). Herein, the x-ray crystal structure of a representative monomeric peptide in complex with human FcRn was solved to 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure shows that the peptide binds to human FcRn at the same general binding site as does the Fc domain of IgG. The data correlate well with structure-activity relationship data relating to how the peptide family binds to human FcRn. In addition, the x-ray crystal structure of a representative dimeric peptide in complex with human FcRn shows how the bivalent ligand can bridge two FcRn molecules, which may be relevant to the mechanism by which the dimeric peptides inhibit FcRn and increase IgG catabolism in vivo. Modeling of the peptide:FcRn structure as compared with available structural data on Fc and FcRn suggest that the His-6 and Phe-7 (peptide) partially mimic the interaction of His-310 and Ile-253 (Fc) in binding to FcRn, but using a different backbone topology.

  2. Validation and Characterization of a Novel Peptide That Binds Monomeric and Aggregated β-Amyloid and Inhibits the Formation of Neurotoxic Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Barr, Renae K; Verdile, Giuseppe; Wijaya, Linda K; Morici, Michael; Taddei, Kevin; Gupta, Veer B; Pedrini, Steve; Jin, Liang; Nicolazzo, Joseph A; Knock, Erin; Fraser, Paul E; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-01-01

    Although the formation of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD), the soluble oligomers rather than the mature amyloid fibrils most likely contribute to Aβ toxicity and neurodegeneration. Thus, the discovery of agents targeting soluble Aβ oligomers is highly desirable for early diagnosis prior to the manifestation of a clinical AD phenotype and also more effective therapies. We have previously reported that a novel 15-amino acid peptide (15-mer), isolated via phage display screening, targeted Aβ and attenuated its neurotoxicity (Taddei, K., Laws, S. M., Verdile, G., Munns, S., D'Costa, K., Harvey, A. R., Martins, I. J., Hill, F., Levy, E., Shaw, J. E., and Martins, R. N. (2010) Neurobiol. Aging 31, 203-214). The aim of the current study was to generate and biochemically characterize analogues of this peptide with improved stability and therapeutic potential. We demonstrated that a stable analogue of the 15-amino acid peptide (15M S.A.) retained the activity and potency of the parent peptide and demonstrated improved proteolytic resistance in vitro (stable to t = 300 min, c.f. t = 30 min for the parent peptide). This candidate reduced the formation of soluble Aβ42 oligomers, with the concurrent generation of non-toxic, insoluble aggregates measuring up to 25-30 nm diameter as determined by atomic force microscopy. The 15M S.A. candidate directly interacted with oligomeric Aβ42, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance/Biacore analysis, with an affinity in the low micromolar range. Furthermore, this peptide bound fibrillar Aβ42 and also stained plaques ex vivo in brain tissue from AD model mice. Given its multifaceted ability to target monomeric and aggregated Aβ42 species, this candidate holds promise for novel preclinical AD imaging and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26538562

  3. Monomeric TonB and the Ton box are required for the formation of a high-affinity transporter-TonB complex.

    PubMed

    Freed, Daniel M; Lukasik, Stephen M; Sikora, Arthur; Mokdad, Audrey; Cafiso, David S

    2013-04-16

    The energy-dependent uptake of trace nutrients by Gram-negative bacteria involves the coupling of an outer membrane transport protein to the transperiplasmic protein TonB. In this study, a soluble construct of Escherichia coli TonB (residues 33-239) was used to determine the affinity of TonB for outer membrane transporters BtuB, FecA, and FhuA. Using fluorescence anisotropy, TonB(33-239) was found to bind with high affinity (tens of nanomolar) to both BtuB and FhuA; however, no high-affinity binding to FecA was observed. In BtuB, the high-affinity binding of TonB(33-239) was eliminated by mutations in the Ton box, which yield transport-defective protein, or by the addition of a Colicin E3 fragment, which stabilizes the Ton box in a folded state. These results indicate that transport requires a high-affinity transporter-TonB interaction that is mediated by the Ton box. Characterization of TonB(33-239) using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) demonstrates that a significant population of TonB(33-239) exists as a dimer; moreover, interspin distances are in approximate agreement with interlocked dimers observed previously by crystallography for shorter TonB fragments. When the TonB(33-239) dimer is bound to the outer membrane transporter, DEER shows that the TonB(33-239) dimer is converted to a monomeric form, suggesting that a dimer-monomer conversion takes place at the outer membrane during the TonB-dependent transport cycle. PMID:23517233

  4. Effect of monomeric and polymeric co-solutes on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide wormlike micelles: rheology, Cryo-TEM and small-angle neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Kelly R; da Silva, Marcelo A; Sabadini, Edvaldo; Karlsson, Göran; Dreiss, Cécile A

    2010-05-15

    The effect of hydrophobic and hydrophilic co-solutes on the rheological properties of wormlike micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium salicylate (NaSal) or sodium bromide (NaBr) was investigated. Monomeric (ethanol, 2-propanol, benzene and benzylic alcohol) and polymeric species (poly(ethylene oxide), poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(propylene oxide), respectively PEO, PVA and PPO) of varying molecular weight were studied in order to assess the effect of co-solute 'length' on the interactions with the wormlike micelles. Rheological properties were characterised by the plateau modulus G(0) and the relaxation time τ(R) obtained from fits to the Maxwell model, and by the zero-shear viscosity η(0). The rheological properties were unaltered by the addition of all hydrophilic solutes (up to 20 mM). With hydrophobic co-solutes instead, both η(0) and τ(R) decreased considerably, while G(0) was unaffected. The effects were particularly remarkable with PPO for concentrations as low as 5 mM (ca. 0.3 g L(-1)), and τ(R) was seen to follow an exponential decrease with polymer M(w). The effect of the aromatic solutes (benzene and benzyl alcohol) on the rheology was highly dependent on the counterions used to induce micellar growth (Sal(-) or Br(-)), revealing a different type of interaction. Surprisingly, small-angle neutron scattering and Cryo-TEM measurements showed that the drastic changes observed in the rheology were not correlated to any visible structural change. Therefore the strong decrease in viscosity and relaxation time are to be attributed to other mechanisms than micellar break-up or rod-to-sphere transition. PMID:20181353

  5. The monomeric receptor binding domain of tetrameric α2-macroglobulin binds to cell surface GRP78 triggering equivalent activation of signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Misra, Uma Kant; Payne, Sturgis; Pizzo, Salvatore Vincent

    2013-06-11

    α2-Macroglobulin (α2M) is a broad spectrum proteinase inhibitor that when activated by proteinases (α2M*) undergoes a major conformational change exposing receptor recognition sites in each of its four subunits. These complexes bind to two distinct receptors, namely, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and cell surface glucose-regulated protein [Mr ∼ 78000 (GRP78)]. The latter is a very high affinity receptor (Kd = 50-100 pM) whose ligation triggers pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic signaling cascades. Despite its four binding sites, Scatchard analysis of binding of α2M* to cells does not yield a cooperative plot. We, therefore, hypothesize that a monomeric cloned and expressed α2M receptor binding domain (RBD) should trigger comparable signaling events. Indeed, RBD or its K1370A mutant that binds to GRP78 but cannot bind to LRP regulates DNA and protein synthesis by human prostate cancer cells in a manner comparable to that of α2M*. Akt and mTORC1 activation and signaling are also comparably upregulated by α2M*, RBD, or mutant K1370A. Antibodies directed against the carboxyl-terminal domain of GRP78 are antagonists that block α2M*-mediated effects on pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic signaling cascades and protein and DNA synthesis. The effects of RBD and its mutant were similarly blocked by these antibodies. Finally, proteolysis of α2M at pH values from 5.7 to 7.0 causes production of free RBD and RBD-containing fragments. Thus, while α2M* ligates only one GRP78 receptor molecule per α2M*, it may potentially serve as a reservoir for release of up to four binding fragments per molecule. PMID:23721263

  6. Syntheses of monomeric (. eta. sup 5 -pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)platinum(IV) methyl and bromo complexes and of (hydrotris(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)borato)trimethylplatinum

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, S.; Ramamoorthy, V.; Sharp, P.R. )

    1990-09-05

    The reaction of Cp*MgCl{center dot}THF (Cp* = C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}) with 1 equiv of PtMe{sub 3}I and PtMe{sub 2}Br{sub 2} produces Cp*PtMe{sub 3} (1) and Cp*PtMe{sub 2}Br (2), respectively. Reaction of 2 with Br{sub 2} produces Cp*PtMeBr{sub 2} (3) in good yield. The structures of 2 and 3 have been determined by x-ray crystallography, and the crystal structure data are reported. Complex 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P2{sub 1}/m, and complex 3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P2{sub 1}/m. The molecules reside on mirror planes and are monomeric pseudotetrahedral Pt(IV) complexes with piano stool type geometries and {eta}{sup 5}-Cp* groups. Both molecules have Br atoms on the mirror. This leads to a disorder of the Me and the second Br positions in complex 3. The average Pt-C(Cp*) bond length is 2.25 (7) {angstrom} in 2 and 2.22 (4) {angstrom} in 3. The Pt-C(Me) and Pt-Br bond lengths in 2 are 2.07 (2) and 2.498 (2) {angstrom}, respectively. The ordered Pt-Br bond length in 3 is 2.496 (2) {angstrom}. Treatment of 1 with halogens results in the cleavage of the Pt-Cp* bond. The reaction of PtMe{sub 3}I with KTp* (Tp* = (HB(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl){sub 3}){sup {minus}}) in thf gives Tp*PtMe{sub 3} (4) in almost quantitative yield. The reaction of 4 with Br{sub 2} brominates the 4-position of the pyrazolyl ring only. 28 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. RhoGDI-1 modulation of the activity of monomeric RhoGTPase RhoA regulates endothelial barrier function in mouse lungs.

    PubMed

    Gorovoy, Matvey; Neamu, Radu; Niu, Jiaxin; Vogel, Stephen; Predescu, Dan; Miyoshi, Jun; Takai, Yoshimi; Kini, Vidisha; Mehta, Dolly; Malik, Asrar B; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana

    2007-07-01

    Rho family GTPases have been implicated in the regulation of endothelial permeability via their actions on actin cytoskeletal organization and integrity of interendothelial junctions. In cell culture studies, activation of RhoA disrupts interendothelial junctions and increases endothelial permeability, whereas activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 enhances endothelial barrier function by promoting the formation of restrictive junctions. The primary regulators of Rho proteins, guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), form a complex with the GDP-bound form of the Rho family of monomeric G proteins, and thus may serve as a nodal point regulating the activation state of RhoGTPases. In the present study, we addressed the in vivo role of RhoGDI-1 in regulating pulmonary microvascular permeability using RhoGDI-1(-/-) mice. We observed that basal endothelial permeability in lungs of RhoGDI-1(-/-) mice was 2-fold greater than wild-type mice. This was the result of opening of interendothelial junctions in lung microvessels which are normally sealed. The activity of RhoA (but not of Rac1 or Cdc42) was significantly increased in RhoGDI-1(-/-) lungs as well as in cultured endothelial cells on downregulation of RhoGDI-1 with siRNA, consistent with RhoGDI-1-mediated modulation RhoA activity. Thus, RhoGDI-1 by repressing RhoA activity regulates lung microvessel endothelial barrier function in vivo. In this regard, therapies augmenting endothelial RhoGDI-1 function may be beneficial in reestablishing the endothelial barrier and lung fluid balance in lung inflammatory diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:17525371

  8. The photophysics of monomeric bacteriochlorophylls c and d and their derivatives: properties of the triplet state and singlet oxygen photogeneration and quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnovsky, A. A. Jr; Cheng, P.; Blankenship, R. E.; Moore, T. A.; Gust, D.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of pigment triplet-triplet absorption, pigment phosphorescence and photosensitized singlet oxygen luminescence were carried out on solutions containing monomeric bacteriochlorophylls (Bchl) c and d, isolated from green photosynthetic bacteria, and their magnesium-free and farnesyl-free analogs. The energies of the pigment triplet states fell in the range 1.29-1.34 eV. The triplet lifetimes in aerobic solutions were 200-250 ns; they increased to 280 +/- 70 microseconds after nitrogen purging in liquid solutions and to 0.7-2.1 ms in a solid matrix at ambient or liquid nitrogen temperatures. Rate constants for quenching of the pigment triplet state by oxygen were (2.0-2.5) x 10(9) M-1 s-1, which is close to 1/9 of the rate constant for diffusion-controlled reactions. This quenching was accompanied by singlet oxygen formation. The quantum yields for the triplet state formation and singlet oxygen production were 55-75% in air-saturated solutions. Singlet oxygen quenching by ground-state pigment molecules was observed. Quenching was the most efficient for magnesium-containing pigments, kq = (0.31-1.2) x 10(9) M-1 s-1. It is caused mainly by a physical process of singlet oxygen (1O2) deactivation. Thus, Bchl c and d and their derivatives, as well as chlorophyll and Bchl a, combine a high efficiency of singlet oxygen production with the ability to protect photochemical and photobiological systems against damage by singlet oxygen.

  9. The Q-cycle reviewed: how well does a monomeric mechanism of the bc1 complex account for the function of a dimeric complex?

    PubMed Central

    Crofts, Antony R.; Holland, J. Todd; Victoria, Doreen; Kolling, Derrick R.J.; Dikanov, Sergei A.; Gilbreth, Ryan; Lhee, Sangmoon; Kuras, Richard; Kuras, Mariana Guergova

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the Q-cycle mechanism of the bc1 complex is reviewed. The data strongly support a mechanism in which the Qo-site operates through a reaction in which the first electron transfer from ubiquinol to the oxidized iron-sulfur protein is the rate determining step for the overall process. The reaction involves a proton-coupled electron transfer down a hydrogen bond between the ubiquinol and a histidine ligand of the [2Fe-2S] cluster, in which the unfavorable protonic configuration contributes a substantial part of the activation barrier. The reaction is endergonic, and the products are an unstable ubisemiquinone at the Qo-site, and the reduced iron-sulfur protein, the extrinsic mobile domain of which is now free to dissociate and move away from the site to deliver an electron to cyt c1 and liberate the H+. When oxidation of the semiquinone is prevented, it participates in bypass reactions, including superoxide generation if O2 is available. When the b-heme chain is available as acceptor, the semiquinone is oxidized in a process in which the proton is passed to the glutamate of the conserved –PEWY- sequence, and the semiquinone anion passes its electron to heme bL to form the product ubiquinone. The rate is rapid compared to the limiting reaction, and would require movement of the semiquinone closer to heme bL to enhance the rate constant. The acceptor reactions at the Qi-site are still controversial, but likely involve a “two-electron gate” in which a stable semiquinone stores an electron. Possible mechanisms to explain the cytb150 phenomenon are discussed, and the information from pulsed EPR studies about the structure of the intermediate state is reviewed. The mechanism discussed is applicable to a monomeric bc1 complex. We discuss evidence in the literature that has been interpreted as shown that the dimeric structure participates in a more complicated mechanism involving electron transfer across the dimer interface. We show from

  10. Mechanism of action studies of lomaiviticin A and the monomeric lomaiviticin aglycon. Selective and potent activity toward DNA double-strand break repair-deficient cell lines.

    PubMed

    Colis, Laureen C; Hegan, Denise C; Kaneko, Miho; Glazer, Peter M; Herzon, Seth B

    2015-05-01

    (-)-Lomaiviticin A (1) and the monomeric lomaiviticin aglycon [aka: (-)-MK7-206, (3)] are cytotoxic agents that induce double-strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA. Here we elucidate the cellular responses to these agents and identify synthetic lethal interactions with specific DNA repair factors. Toward this end, we first characterized the kinetics of DNA damage by 1 and 3 in human chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562) cells. DSBs are rapidly induced by 3, reaching a maximum at 15 min post addition and are resolved within 4 h. By comparison, DSB production by 1 requires 2-4 h to achieve maximal values and >8 h to achieve resolution. As evidenced by an alkaline comet unwinding assay, 3 induces extensive DNA damage, suggesting that the observed DSBs arise from closely spaced single-strand breaks (SSBs). Both 1 and 3 induce ataxia telangiectasia mutated- (ATM-) and DNA-dependent protein kinase- (DNA-PK-) dependent production of phospho-SER139-histone H2AX (γH2AX) and generation of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) foci in K562 cells within 1 h of exposure, which is indicative of activation of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) repair. Both compounds also lead to ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related- (ATR-) dependent production of γH2AX at later time points (6 h post addition), which is indicative of replication stress. 3 is also shown to induce apoptosis. In accord with these data, 1 and 3 were found to be synthetic lethal with certain mutations in DNA DSB repair. 1 potently inhibits the growth of breast cancer type 2, early onset- (BRCA2-) deficient V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line derivative (VC8), and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten- (PTEN-) deficient human glioblastoma (U251) cell lines, with LC50 values of 1.5 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.6 pM, respectively, and selectivities of >11.6 versus the isogenic cell lines transfected with and expressing functional BRCA2 and PTEN genes. 3 inhibits the growth of the same

  11. Small-angle X-ray scattering analysis reveals the ATP-bound monomeric state of the ATPase domain from the homodimeric MutL endonuclease, a GHKL phosphotransferase superfamily protein.

    PubMed

    Iino, Hitoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Nishida, Yuya; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Fukui, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    DNA mismatch repair is an excision system that removes mismatched bases chiefly generated by replication errors. In this system, MutL endonucleases direct the excision reaction to the error-containing strand of the duplex by specifically incising the newly synthesized strand. Both bacterial homodimeric and eukaryotic heterodimeric MutL proteins belong to the GHKL ATPase/kinase superfamily that comprises the N-terminal ATPase and C-terminal dimerization regions. Generally, the GHKL proteins show large ATPase cycle-dependent conformational changes, including dimerization-coupled ATP binding of the N-terminal domain. Interestingly, the ATPase domain of human PMS2, a subunit of the MutL heterodimer, binds ATP without dimerization. The monomeric ATP-bound state of the domain has been thought to be characteristic of heterodimeric GHKL proteins. In this study, we characterized the ATP-bound state of the ATPase domain from the Aquifex aeolicus MutL endonuclease, which is a homodimeric GHKL protein unlike the eukaryotic MutL. Gel filtration, dynamic light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses clearly showed that the domain binds ATP in a monomeric form despite its homodimeric nature. This indicates that the uncoupling of dimerization and ATP binding is a common feature among bacterial and eukaryotic MutL endonucleases, which we suggest is closely related to the molecular mechanisms underlying mismatch repair. PMID:25809295

  12. Iron Deficiency in Cyanobacteria Causes Monomerization of Photosystem I Trimers and Reduces the Capacity for State Transitions and the Effective Absorption Cross Section of Photosystem I in Vivo1

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Alexander G.; Krol, Marianna; Sveshnikov, Dmitry; Selstam, Eva; Sandström, Stefan; Koochek, Maryam; Park, Youn-Il; Vasil'ev, Sergej; Bruce, Doug; Öquist, Gunnar; Huner, Norman P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The induction of the isiA (CP43′) protein in iron-stressed cyanobacteria is accompanied by the formation of a ring of 18 CP43′ proteins around the photosystem I (PSI) trimer and is thought to increase the absorption cross section of PSI within the CP43′-PSI supercomplex. In contrast to these in vitro studies, our in vivo measurements failed to demonstrate any increase of the PSI absorption cross section in two strains (Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803) of iron-stressed cells. We report that iron-stressed cells exhibited a reduced capacity for state transitions and limited dark reduction of the plastoquinone pool, which accounts for the increase in PSII-related 685 nm chlorophyll fluorescence under iron deficiency. This was accompanied by lower abundance of the NADP-dehydrogenase complex and the PSI-associated subunit PsaL, as well as a reduced amount of phosphatidylglycerol. Nondenaturating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation of the chlorophyll-protein complexes indicated that the monomeric form of PSI is favored over the trimeric form of PSI under iron stress. Thus, we demonstrate that the induction of CP43′ does not increase the PSI functional absorption cross section of whole cells in vivo, but rather, induces monomerization of PSI trimers and reduces the capacity for state transitions. We discuss the role of CP43′ as an effective energy quencher to photoprotect PSII and PSI under unfavorable environmental conditions in cyanobacteria in vivo. PMID:16798943

  13. Glyceriformia Fauchald, 1977 (Annelida: "Polychaeta") from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Böggemann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Eight species of Glyceridae (Glycera brevicirris, Glycera cf. lapidum, Glycera onomichiensis, Glycera sagittariae, Glycera tesselata, Glycera tridactyla, Glycerella magellanica, Hemipodia cf. simplex) and six species of Goniadidae (Goniada antipoda, Goniada cf. brunnea, Goniada echinulata, Goniada emerita, Goniada grahami, Goniada paucidens) have been collected during several expeditions to the vicinity of Lizard Island (Australia, Queensland). An identification key to the Glyceriformia that inhabit the region is presented. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions are given for all investigated species. PMID:26624067

  14. Rapid systemic and local treatments with the antibacterial peptide dimer A3-APO and its monomeric metabolite eliminate bacteria and reduce inflammation in intradermal lesions infected with Propionibacterium acnes and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ostorhazi, Eszter; Voros, Elvira; Nemes-Nikodem, Eva; Pinter, Dora; Sillo, Palma; Mayer, Balazs; Wade, John D; Otvos, Laszlo

    2013-12-01

    When administered intramuscularly, the designer antibacterial peptide dimer A3-APO is highly efficacious in mouse models of Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus burn infections. Here we compared the efficacy of A3-APO and its monomeric metabolite in mouse models of S. aureus and Propionibacterium acnes intradermal infections following administration as intramuscular (i.m.) or topical treatments. In the animal models, either (i) the ears of CD-1 mice were infected with P. acnes or (ii) S. aureus was injected into burn wounds inflicted to the back. A3-APO or the monomer were injected intramuscularly at 5 mg/kg one to three times or were applied three times as 1% local treatment in phosphate-buffered saline or Vaseline(®). Despite being inactive against the strains in vitro, in vivo the skin conditions of the mice were dramatically improved upon peptide treatment regardless of dosing frequency, administration mode or drug valency. In the P. acnes study, A3-APO statistically significantly reduced ear thickness and ear bacterial counts. The amount of ear connective tissue and epithelial macrophages correlated with therapeutic success. Bacterial load in the lesions was more representative of physical improvement than ear dimensions. In the S. aureus model, both peptides eliminated wound bacteria from >10(7) CFU/mg to almost background levels, with monomer treatment being somewhat more successful. In conclusion, A3-APO and its monomeric metabolite very efficiently ameliorate resistant aerobic and anaerobic intradermal infections, but the protection is apparently not due to direct bacterial killing. Immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory actions are likely involved. Nevertheless, topical and i.m. administrations are equally effective. PMID:24074727

  15. A comparative immunogenicity study in rabbits of disulfide-stabilized, proteolytically cleaved, soluble trimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp140, trimeric cleavage-defective gp140 and monomeric gp120

    SciTech Connect

    Beddows, Simon; Franti, Michael; Dey, Antu K.; Kirschner, Marc; Iyer, Sai Prasad N.; Fisch, Danielle C.; Ketas, Thomas; Yuste, Eloisa; Desrosiers, Ronald C.; Klasse, Per Johan; Maddon, Paul J.; Olson, William C.; Moore, John P. . E-mail: jpm2003@med.cornell.edu

    2007-04-10

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) complex, a homotrimer containing gp120 surface glycoprotein and gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein subunits, mediates the binding and fusion of the virus with susceptible target cells. The Env complex is the target for neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and is the basis for vaccines intended to induce NAbs. Early generation vaccines based on monomeric gp120 subunits did not confer protection from infection; one alternative approach is therefore to make and evaluate soluble forms of the trimeric Env complex. We have directly compared the immunogenicity in rabbits of two forms of soluble trimeric Env and monomeric gp120 based on the sequence of HIV-1{sub JR-FL}. Both protein-only and DNA-prime, protein-boost immunization formats were evaluated, DNA-priming having little or no influence on the outcome. One form of trimeric Env was made by disrupting the gp120-gp41 cleavage site by mutagenesis (gp140{sub UNC}), the other contains an intramolecular disulfide bond to stabilize the cleaved gp120 and gp41 moieties (SOSIP.R6 gp140). Among the three immunogens, SOSIP.R6 gp140 most frequently elicited neutralizing antibodies against the homologous, neutralization-resistant strain, HIV-1{sub JR-FL}. All three proteins induced NAbs against more sensitive strains, but the breadth of activity against heterologous primary isolates was limited. When antibodies able to neutralize HIV-1{sub JR-FL} were detected, antigen depletion studies showed they were not directed at the V3 region but were targeted at other, undefined gp120 and also non-gp120 epitopes.

  16. Effects of hydration on mechanical properties of a highly sclerotized tissue.

    PubMed

    Moses, Dana N; Pontin, Michael G; Waite, J Herbert; Zok, Frank W

    2008-04-15

    The jaws of the bloodworm Glycera dibranchiata consist principally of protein and melanin scaffolds with small amounts of unmineralized copper (Cu) and mineralized atacamite (Cu(2)Cl(OH)(3)) fibers in distinct regions. Remarkably, when tested in air, the regions containing unmineralized Cu are the hardest, stiffest, and most abrasion resistant. To establish the functions of jaw constituents in physiologically relevant environments, this study examines the effects of hydration on their response to indentation, scratching, and wear. Although all jaw regions are degraded by the presence of water, the ones containing unmineralized Cu are affected least. Notably, scratch depths in the bulk and the atacamite-containing regions double when wet, whereas the corresponding increase in the regions with unmineralized Cu is approximately 20%. The results support the view that Cu ions are involved in the formation of intermolecular coordination complexes, creating a cross-linked molecular network that is both mechanically robust and resistant to water ingress. Hydration effects are greatest during wear testing, rates of material removal in water being about three times those in air. The mechanism underlying accelerated wear is suspected to involve coupled effects of near-surface damage and enhanced water ingress, resulting in increased plasticization and susceptibility to plastic plowing. PMID:18192350

  17. A nonmineralized approach to abrasion-resistant biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Pontin, Michael G.; Moses, Dana N.; Waite, J. Herbert; Zok, Frank W.

    2007-01-01

    The tooth-like mouthparts of some animals consist of biomacromolecular scaffolds with few mineral components, making them intriguing paradigms of biostructural materials. In this study, the abrasion resistance of the jaws of one such animal, the bloodworm Glycera dibranchiata, has been evaluated by nanoindentation, nanoscratching, and wear testing. The hardest, stiffest, and most abrasion-resistant materials are found within a thin (<3 μm) surface layer near the jaw tip and a thicker (10–20 μm) subsurface layer, both rich in unmineralized Cu. These results are consistent with the supposition that Cu ions are involved in the formation of intermolecular coordination complexes between proteins, creating a highly cross-linked molecular network. The intervening layer contains aligned atacamite [Cu2(OH)3Cl] fibers and exhibits hardness and stiffness (transverse to the alignment direction) that are only slightly higher than those of the bulk material but lower than those of the two Cu-rich layers. Furthermore, the atacamite-containing layer is the least abrasion-resistant, by a factor of ≈3, even relative to the bulk material. These observations are broadly consistent with the behavior of engineering polymer composites with hard fiber or particulate reinforcements. The alignment of fibers parallel to the jaw surface, and the fiber proximity to the surface, are both suggestive of a natural adaptation to enhance bending stiffness and strength rather than to endow the surface regions with enhanced abrasion resistance. PMID:17702868

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic): Sandworm and bloodworm

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.H., Jr.; Ruff, R.E.; Moran, D.

    1988-04-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The sandworm (Nereis virens) is a commercially valuable baitworm, reaching lengths of 30 cm. Most worms live 4 or 5 years. Males swarm in the water column before spawning in the females' burrows. Both males and females die after spawning. A planktonic larval phase is either brief or lacking. Sandworms are omnivorous. They can significantly reduce the abundance of smaller infaunal organisms. Predators on sandworms include bloodworms and gulls. Physiological tolerances are broad although most worms are found in fine sand with water of high salinity. Sandworms have been the subject of much toxicological research and readily adapt to laboratory conditions. The bloodworm (Glycera dibranchiata), attaining lengths of 40 cm, is also an important baitworm. Its maximum life span is 5 years. Spawning occurs in the water column with both males and females dying after spawning. Bloodworms are primarily predators, preying on certain species of polychaetes and crustaceans, although they are capable of digesting detritus. Bloodworms appear to have few predators. Bloodworms possess at least two types of hemoglobin, permitting them to tolerate a wide range of oxygen tensions. 177 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Monomeric, trimeric, and tetrameric transition metal complexes (Mn, Fe, Co) containing N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-2-aminoethanol/-ate: preparation, crystal structure, molecular magnetism and oxidation catalysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jong Won; Rowthu, Sankara Rao; Hyun, Min Young; Song, Young Joo; Kim, Cheal; Kim, Bong Gon; Min, Kil Sik

    2011-06-01

    The reaction of N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-2-aminoethanol (bpaeOH), NaSCN/NaN(3), and metal (M) ions [M = Mn(II), Fe(II/III), Co(II)] in MeOH, leads to the isolation of a series of monomeric, trimeric, and tetrameric metal complexes, namely [Mn(bpaeOH)(NCS)(2)] (1), [Mn(bpaeO)(N(3))(2)] (2), [Fe(bpaeOH)(NCS)(2)] (3), [Fe(4)(bpaeO)(2)(CH(3)O)(2)(N(3))(8)] (4), [Co(bpaeOH)(NCS)(2)] (5), and [Co(3)(bpaeO)(2)(NO(3))(N(3))(4)](NO(3)) (6). These compounds have been investigated by single crystal X-ray diffractometry and magnetochemistry. In complex 1 the Mn(II) is bonded to one bpaeOH and two thiocyanate ions, while in complex 2 it is coordinated to a deprotonated bpaeO(-) and two azide ions. The oxidation states of manganese ions are 2+ for 1 and 3+ for 2, respectively, indicating that the different oxidation states depend on the type of binding anions. The structures of monomeric iron(II) and cobalt(II) complexes 3 and 5 with two thiocyanate ions are isomorphous to that of 1. Compounds 1, 2, 3, and 5 exhibit high-spin states in the temperature range 5 to 300 K. 4 contains two different iron(III) ions in an asymmetric unit, one is coordinated to a deprotonated bpaeO(-), an azide ion, and a methoxy group, and the other is bonded to three azide ions and two oxygens from bpaeO(-) and a methoxy group. Two independent iron(III) ions in 4 form a tetranuclear complex by symmetry. 4 displays both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic couplings (J = 9.8 and -14.3 cm(-1)) between the iron(III) ions. 6 is a mixed-valence trinuclear cobalt complex, which is formulated as Co(III)(S = 0)-Co(II)(S = 3/2)-Co(III)(S = 0). The effective magnetic moment at room temperature corresponds to the high-spin cobalt(II) ion (∼4.27 μ(B)). Interestingly, 6 showed efficient catalytic activities toward various olefins and alcohols with modest to excellent yields, and it has been proposed that a high-valent Co(V)-oxo species might be responsible for oxygen atom transfer in the olefin epoxidation and

  20. DMR (deacetylation and mechanical refining) processing of corn stover achieves high monomeric sugar concentrations (230 g L-1) during enzymatic hydrolysis and high ethanol concentrations (>10% v/v) during fermentation without hydrolysate purification or concentration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Xiaowen; Kuhn, Erik; Jennings, Edward W.; Nelson, Robert; Tao, Ling; Zhang, Min; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2016-04-01

    Distilling and purifying ethanol and other products from second generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating costs to biofuel production. The energy usage associated with distillation negatively affects plant gate costs and causes environmental and life-cycle impacts, and the lower titers in fermentation caused by lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis increase energy and water usage and ethanol production costs. In addition, lower ethanol titers increase the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels increase capital expenditure (CAPEX). Therefore, increasing biofuel titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuel production for several decades. In thismore » work, we achieved approximately 230 g L-1 of monomeric sugars after high solid enzymatic hydrolysis using deacetylation and mechanical refining (DMR) processed corn stover substrates produced at the 100 kg per day scale. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations achieved by the DMR process allowed fermentation to ethanol with titers as high as 86 g L-1, which translates into approximately 10.9% v/v ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that titers greater than 10% v/v ethanol in fermentations derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps have been reported. As a result, the potential cost savings from high sugar and ethanol titers achieved by the DMR process are also reported using TEA analysis.« less

  1. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chenggu; Jiang, Hua; Li, Lei; Liu, Tianming; Song, Xuejie; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2) and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3). Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species. PMID:27479072

  2. Stereospecific Approach to the Synthesis of Ring-A Oxygenated Sarpagine Indole Alkaloids. Total Synthesis of the Dimeric Indole Alkaloid P-(+)-Dispegatrine and Six Other Monomeric Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Edwankar, Chitra R.; Edwankar, Rahul V.; Namjoshi, Ojas A.; Liao, Xuebin

    2013-01-01

    The first regio- and stereocontrolled total synthesis of the bisphenolic, bisquaternary alkaloid (+)-dispegatrine (1) has been accomplished in an overall yield of 8.3% (12 reaction vessels) from 5-methoxy-D-tryptophan ethyl ester (17). A crucial late-stage thallium(III) mediated intermolecular oxidative dehydrodimerization was employed in the formation of the C9-C9′ biaryl axis in 1. The complete stereocontrol observed in this key biaryl coupling step is due to the asymmetric induction by the natural sarpagine configuration of the monomer lochnerine (6) and was confirmed by both the Suzuki and the oxidative dehydrodimerization model studies on the tetrahydro β-carboline (35). The axial chirality of the lochnerine dimer (40) and in turn dispegatrine (1) was established by X-ray crystallography and was determined to be P(S). Additionally, the first total synthesis of the monomeric indole alkaloids (+)-spegatrine (2), (+)-10-methoxyvellosimine (5), (+)-lochnerine (6), lochvinerine (7), (+)-sarpagine (8), and (+)-lochneram (11) were also achieved via the common pentacyclic intermediate 16. PMID:23721107

  3. Stereospecific approach to the synthesis of ring-A oxygenated sarpagine indole alkaloids. Total synthesis of the dimeric indole alkaloid P-(+)-dispegatrine and six other monomeric indole alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Edwankar, Chitra R; Edwankar, Rahul V; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Liao, Xuebin; Cook, James M

    2013-07-01

    The first regio- and stereocontrolled total synthesis of the bisphenolic, bisquaternary alkaloid (+)-dispegatrine (1) has been accomplished in an overall yield of 8.3% (12 reaction vessels) from 5-methoxy-d-tryptophan ethyl ester (17). A crucial late-stage thallium(III) mediated intermolecular oxidative dehydrodimerization was employed in the formation of the C9-C9' biaryl axis in 1. The complete stereocontrol observed in this key biaryl coupling step is due to the asymmetric induction by the natural sarpagine configuration of the monomer lochnerine (6) and was confirmed by both the Suzuki and the oxidative dehydrodimerization model studies on the tetrahydro β-carboline (35). The axial chirality of the lochnerine dimer (40) and in turn dispegatrine (1) was established by X-ray crystallography and was determined to be P(S). Additionally, the first total synthesis of the monomeric indole alkaloids (+)-spegatrine (2), (+)-10-methoxyvellosimine (5), (+)-lochnerine (6), lochvinerine (7), (+)-sarpagine (8), and (+)-lochneram (11) were also achieved via the common pentacyclic intermediate 16. PMID:23721107

  4. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chenggu; Jiang, Hua; Li, Lei; Liu, Tianming; Song, Xuejie; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2) and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3). Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species. PMID:27479072

  5. A monomeric photosensitizer for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ruizheng; Ma, Lina; Zhang, Lele; Li, Chunyang; Liu, Wendi; Wei, Min; Yan, Dan; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2014-12-11

    A targeted photosensitizer used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) was fabricated by incorporation of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and folic acid (FA) into polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) micelles, which exhibits excellent anticancer performance revealed by both in vitro studies and in vivo tests. PMID:25327438

  6. Water-Soluble Fe(II)−H2O Complex with a Weak O−H Bond Transfers a Hydrogen Atom via an Observable Monomeric Fe(III)−OH

    PubMed Central

    Brines, Lisa M.; Coggins, Michael K.; Poon, Penny Chaau Yan; Toledo, Santiago; Kaminsky, Werner; Kirk, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the metal ion properties that favor O−H bond formation versus cleavage should facilitate the development of catalysts tailored to promote a specific reaction, e.g., C−H activation or H2O oxidation. The first step in H2O oxidation involves the endothermic cleavage of a strong O−H bond (BDFE = 122.7 kcal/mol), promoted by binding the H2O to a metal ion, and by coupling electron transfer to proton transfer (PCET). This study focuses on details regarding how a metal ion’s electronic structure and ligand environment can tune the energetics of M(HO−H) bond cleavage. The synthesis and characterization of an Fe(II)−H2O complex, 1, that undergoes PCET in H2O to afford a rare example of a monomeric Fe(III)−OH, 7, is described. High-spin 7 is also reproducibly generated via the addition of H2O to {[FeIII(OMe2N4(tren))]2-(µ-O)}2+ (8). The O−H bond BDFE of Fe(II)−H2O (1) (68.6 kcal/mol) is calculated using linear fits to its Pourbaix diagram and shown to be 54.1 kcal/mol less than that of H2O and 10.9 kcal/mol less than that of [Fe(II)(H2O)6]2+. The O−H bond of 1 is noticeably weaker than the majority of reported Mn+(HxO−H) (M = Mn, Fe; n+ = 2+, 3+; x = 0, 1) complexes. Consistent with their relative BDFEs, Fe(II)−H2O (1) is found to donate a H atom to TEMPO•, whereas the majority of previously reported Mn+−O(H) complexes, including [MnIII(SMe2N4(tren))(OH)]+ (2), have been shown to abstract H atoms from TEMPOH. Factors responsible for the weaker O−H bond of 1, such as differences in the electron-donating properties of the ligand, metal ion Lewis acidity, and electronic structure, are discussed. PMID:25611075

  7. The role of steric constraints in the formation of rare aqua bridged coordination polymers: Synthesis, characterization and X-ray structures of polymeric, [Cu(2-chlorobenzoate)2(β-picoline)2(μ-H2O)]n and monomeric, [Cu(2-chlorobenzoate)2(γ-picoline)2(H2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Raj Pal; Venugopalan, Paloth; Aree, Thammarat; Ferretti, Valeria

    2015-07-01

    Reaction of hydrated copper(II) 2-chloro-benzoate with β-/γ-picoline in methanol: water mixture (4:1 v/v) yielded polymeric [Cu(2-chlorobenzoate)2(β-picoline)2(μ-H2O)]n; 1 and monomeric [Cu(2-chlorobenzoate)2(γ-picoline)2(H2O)]; 2. The newly synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, TGA and single crystal X-ray structure determination. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that both complexes crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system with space group and unit cell dimensions: C2/c; a = 51.71 Å, b = 10.58 Å, c = 10.02 Å and β = 100.5° for 1 and P21/c; a = 11.81 Å, b = 16.33 Å, c = 13.79 Å and β = 90.77° for 2. Whereas in 1 the presence of constituent and mediating water molecules running along a-axis gives rise to 1-dimensional zig-zag polymer chains, in complex 2, the presence of square pyramidal arrangement of ligands around copper(II) center results in monomeric structure. Various non-covalent interactions like Osbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯л have been observed to play a decisive role in the stabilization of crystal lattices in both complexes.

  8. Synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties of (BEDT-TTF)[Ni(tdas){sub 2}]: the first monomeric [Ni(tdas){sub 2}]{super -} monoanion, (BEDT-TTF = bis (ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene; tdas = 1,2,5-thiadiazole-3,4-dithiolate).

    SciTech Connect

    Curreli, S.; Deplano, P.; Mercuri, M. L.; Pilia, L.; Serpe, A.; Schlueter, J. A.; Whited, M. A.; Geiser, U.; Coronado, E.; Gomez-Garcia, C. J.; Canadell, E.; Materials Science Division; Univ. de Valencia; Inorganica ed Analitica; Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona

    2004-03-22

    We report the synthesis, structure, and physical properties of (BEDT-TTF)[Ni(tdas){sub 2}] [BEDT-TTF, or ET, is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene; tdas is 1,2,5-thiadiazole-3,4-dithiolate], which is the first example of a salt containing monomeric [Ni(tdas){sub 2}]{sup -} monoanions. This salt, which crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c with a = 17.2324(6) {angstrom}, b = 13.2740(5) {angstrom}, c = 10.9467(4) {angstrom}, {beta} = 96.974(2){sup o}, and V = 2485.5(2) {angstrom}{sup 3}, forms a layered structure. One layer contains dimerized BEDT-TTF electron donor molecules and isolated [Ni(tdas){sub 2}]{sup -} monoanions, while the second layer contains chains of [Ni(tdas){sub 2}]{sup -} monoanions. Conductivity measurements show that (BEDT-TTF)[Ni(tdas){sub 2}] has a semiconductor-to-semiconductor transition near 200 K, while magnetic measurements indicate that it is an S = 1/2 paramagnet with weak antiferromagnetic coupling. Reflectance spectra reveal bands in the near-infrared region (6.6 x 10{sup 3} and 10.6 x 10{sup 3} cm{sup -1}) which are typical of (BEDT-TTF){sub 2}{sup 2+} dimers. From these data, we can conclude that the unpaired electron lies on the [Ni(tdas){sub 2}]{sup -} anions. Tight-binding band structure calculations were used to analyze the electronic structure of this salt.

  9. Structural Basis for Substrate Specificity in Human Monomeric Carbonyl Reductases

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawari, Yasser; Dunford, James E.; Kochan, Grazyna; Wsol, Vladimir; Martin, Hans-Joerg; Maser, Edmund; Oppermann, Udo

    2009-01-01

    Carbonyl reduction constitutes a phase I reaction for many xenobiotics and is carried out in mammals mainly by members of two protein families, namely aldo-keto reductases and short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases. In addition to their capacity to reduce xenobiotics, several of the enzymes act on endogenous compounds such as steroids or eicosanoids. One of the major carbonyl reducing enzymes found in humans is carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) with a very broad substrate spectrum. A paralog, carbonyl reductase 3 (CBR3) has about 70% sequence identity and has not been sufficiently characterized to date. Screening of a focused xenobiotic compound library revealed that CBR3 has narrower substrate specificity and acts on several orthoquinones, as well as isatin or the anticancer drug oracin. To further investigate structure-activity relationships between these enzymes we crystallized CBR3, performed substrate docking, site-directed mutagenesis and compared its kinetic features to CBR1. Despite high sequence similarities, the active sites differ in shape and surface properties. The data reveal that the differences in substrate specificity are largely due to a short segment of a substrate binding loop comprising critical residues Trp229/Pro230, Ala235/Asp236 as well as part of the active site formed by Met141/Gln142 in CBR1 and CBR3, respectively. The data suggest a minor role in xenobiotic metabolism for CBR3. Enhanced version This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1. PMID:19841672

  10. Oligosaccharides and monomeric carbohydrates production from olive tree pruning biomass.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Soledad; Puentes, Juan G; Sánchez, Sebastián; Moya, Alberto J

    2013-04-01

    Using the severity factor, it has been possible to study cellulose and hemicellulose fractional conversion, sugar yields change and oligosaccharides variation through olive tree pruning biomass pretreatments with acid or liquid hot water under pressure. The temperatures tested were in the range 180-230°C, operation time varying between 0 and 30min and acid concentration used did not exceed 0.05M. Complete hemicellulose solubilization in autohydrolysis was achieved using severity factors (logR0) close to 3.9 (most sugars are like oligomers), while if sulfuric acid 0.025M is employed, this parameter could be smaller (≥3.4). With these treatments, we have obtained cellulose conversions between 30 and 42% from liquid hot water experiments, 40-51% with sulfuric acid 0.025M and 42-57% when the acid concentration was 0.05M. The best results in terms of maximum yield in total sugars, d-glucose and d-xylose, with a low amount of acetic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural, was obtained at 200°C, 0min (what means that there is no time of temperature maintenance, only heating and cooling) and H2SO4 0.025M. PMID:23499077

  11. Synthesis of Amorphous Monomeric Glass Mixtures for Organic Electronic Applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, You-Chi Mason; Molaire, Michel F; Weiss, David S; Angel, Felipe A; DeBlase, Catherine R; Fors, Brett P

    2015-12-18

    We report a divergent synthetic strategy and novel design concept that exploit molecular mixtures to create amorphous organic charge-transporting glasses. Using Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions, we synthesized well-defined molecular mixtures in a single step. These solution-processable materials are noncrystalline and show good thermal and morphological stabilities. Moreover, they have robust hole and electron mobilities, which make them excellent candidate materials for organic light-emitting diodes. Our general strategy enables the facile synthesis of noncrystalline materials with well-controlled electronic properties. PMID:26560445

  12. Monomeric and oligomeric complexes of the B cell antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Schamel, W W; Reth, M

    2000-07-01

    The current structural model of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) describes it as a symmetric protein complex in which one membrane-bound immunoglobulin molecule (mIg) is noncovalently bound on each side by an Ig-alpha/Ig-beta heterodimer. Using peptide-tagged Ig-alpha proteins, blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE), and biosynthetical labeling of B cells, we find that the mIg:Ig-alpha/Ig-beta complex has a stoichiometry of 1:1 and not 1:2. An anti-Flag stimulation of B cells coexpressing Flag-tagged and wild-type Ig-alpha proteins results in the phosphorylation of both Ig-alpha proteins, suggesting that on the surface of living B cells, several BCR monomers are in contact with each other. A BN-PAGE analysis after limited detergent lysis provides further evidence for an oligomeric BCR structure. PMID:10933390

  13. Predicting Homogeneous Pilus Structure from Monomeric Data and Sparse Constraints.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Shu, Chuanjun; Yan, Qin; Sun, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Type IV pili (T4P) and T2SS (Type II Secretion System) pseudopili are filaments extending beyond microbial surfaces, comprising homologous subunits called "pilins." In this paper, we presented a new approach to predict pseudo atomic models of pili combining ambiguous symmetric constraints with sparse distance information obtained from experiments and based neither on electronic microscope (EM) maps nor on accurate a priori symmetric details. The approach was validated by the reconstruction of the gonococcal (GC) pilus from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the type IVb toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) from Vibrio cholerae, and pseudopilus of the pullulanase T2SS (the PulG pilus) from Klebsiella oxytoca. In addition, analyses of computational errors showed that subunits should be treated cautiously, as they are slightly flexible and not strictly rigid bodies. A global sampling in a wider range was also implemented and implied that a pilus might have more than one but fewer than many possible intact conformations. PMID:26064954

  14. Predicting Homogeneous Pilus Structure from Monomeric Data and Sparse Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ke; Shu, Chuanjun; Yan, Qin; Sun, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Type IV pili (T4P) and T2SS (Type II Secretion System) pseudopili are filaments extending beyond microbial surfaces, comprising homologous subunits called “pilins.” In this paper, we presented a new approach to predict pseudo atomic models of pili combining ambiguous symmetric constraints with sparse distance information obtained from experiments and based neither on electronic microscope (EM) maps nor on accurate a priori symmetric details. The approach was validated by the reconstruction of the gonococcal (GC) pilus from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the type IVb toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) from Vibrio cholerae, and pseudopilus of the pullulanase T2SS (the PulG pilus) from Klebsiella oxytoca. In addition, analyses of computational errors showed that subunits should be treated cautiously, as they are slightly flexible and not strictly rigid bodies. A global sampling in a wider range was also implemented and implied that a pilus might have more than one but fewer than many possible intact conformations. PMID:26064954

  15. Photophysical properties of monomeric and oligomeric ruthenium (II) porphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Marjo; Guez, David; Marvaud, Valérie; Markovitsi, Dimitra

    1994-12-01

    The present Letter deals with three ruthenium(II) porphyrins: RuTBP(CO) (EtOH), RuTBP(pyz) 2 and [RuTBP(pyz)] n where TBP = tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin, EtOH = ethanol and pyz = pyrazine. Their photophysical properties are studied by steady-state and time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopy. Each one of the examined compounds shows weak luminescence originating from a different electronic state: porphyrin triplet 3 (π,π ∗) for RuTBP (CO) (EtOH), equatorial 3LCT for RuTBP(pyz) 2 and axial 1MLCT for [RuTBP(pyz)] n.

  16. Kinetics of Reactions of Monomeric Nitrosomethane Induced by Flash Photolysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozubek, H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which the kinetics of dimerization of nitrosamine induced by a flash of light is measured. The experiment can be performed with a commercial ultraviolet-VIS spetrophotometer with easy to make modifications. The experiment demonstrates a flash photolysis system not always available in university chemistry laboratories.…

  17. [Monomeric indole alkaloids from the aerial parts of Catharanthus roseus].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiang-Zhang; Wang, Guo-Cai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2010-04-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don is a plant of the Catharanthus genus of Apocynaceae which has been reported to have therapeutic effects of detoxication and anticancer. In order to further study the alkaloid constituents of C. roseus, the aerial parts of the plant were extracted with 95% EtOH, and then treated with 2% H2SO4 and NH3H2O to obtain total alkaloids. The total alkaloids were separated and purified by column chromatography over silica gel and prepared by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. A new alkaloid together with five known compounds were isolated and identified as vindolinine B (1), lochnericine (2), horhammericine (3), vindorosine (4), vindoline (5), and coronaridine (6). Compound 1 is a new compound and named as vindolinine B. PMID:21355212

  18. Enhanced Pharmacokinetics of Factor VIIa as a Monomeric Fc Fusion.

    PubMed

    Salas, Joe; Liu, Tongyao; Lu, Qi; Kulman, John D; Ashworth, Tamera; Kistanova, Elena; Moore, Nancy; Pierce, Glenn F; Jiang, Haiyan; Peters, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is utilized for on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes in hemophilia patients with neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) against Factor VIII or Factor IX, but a short half-life in the circulation (~2.5hrs) limits its use in a prophylactic setting. Recombinant FVIIa variants with improved pharmacokinetic properties may enable improved treatment and prevention of bleeding episodes in the inhibitor population. In this study we describe recombinant FVIIaFc (rFVIIaFc), a recombinant Fc-fusion protein generated to utilize the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated recycling pathway that protects immunoglobulin G from catabolism. On the basis of activity, rFVIIaFc exhibited a 5.5-fold extension in terminal half-life in hemophilia A mice compared to rFVIIa. The potency of rFVIIaFc was comparable to that of rFVIIa in thrombin generation assay and ROTEM. In agreement with these data, rFVIIaFc and rFVIIa showed similar acute efficacy at comparable molar doses in the tail clip bleeding model in hemophilia A mice. Taken together, these studies demonstrate enhanced pharmacokinetics and similar hemostatic properties for rFVIIaFc compared to rFVIIa. PMID:25721936

  19. Crystal Structure of the Monomeric Porin OmpG

    SciTech Connect

    Subbarao,G.; van den Berg, B.

    2006-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria contains a large number of channel proteins that mediate the uptake of ions and nutrients necessary for growth and functioning of the cell. An important group of OM channel proteins are the porins, which mediate the non-specific, diffusion-based passage of small (<600 Da) polar molecules. All porins of Gram-negative bacteria that have been crystallized to date form stable trimers, with each monomer composed of a 16-stranded {beta}-barrel with a relatively narrow central pore. In contrast, the OmpG porin is unique, as it appears to function as a monomer. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of OmpG from Escherichia coli to a resolution of 2.3 Angstroms. The structure shows a 14-stranded {beta}{beta}-barrel with a relatively simple architecture. Due to the absence of loops that fold back into the channel, OmpG has a large ({approx}13 Angstroms) central pore that is considerably wider than those of other E. coli porins, and very similar in size to that of the toxin a-hemolysin. The architecture of the channel, together with previous biochemical and other data, suggests that OmpG may form a non-specific channel for the transport of larger oligosaccharides. The structure of OmpG provides the starting point for engineering studies aiming to generate selective channels and for the development of biosensors.

  20. Direct Spectroscopic Observation of Large Quenching of First Order Orbital Angular Momentum with Bending in Monomeric, Two-Coordinate Fe(II) Primary Amido Complexes and the Profound Magnetic Effects of the Absence of Jahn- and Renner-Teller Distortions in Rigorously Linear Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, W. Alexander; Stich, Troy A.; Brynda, Marcin; Yeagle, Gregory J.; Fettinger, James C.; De Hont, Raymond; Reiff, William M.; Schulz, Charles E.; Britt, R. David; Power, Philip P.

    2009-01-01

    The monomeric iron(II) amido derivatives Fe{N(H)Ar*}2 (1), Ar* = C6H3-2,6-(C6H2-2,4,6-Pri3)2, and Fe{N(H)Ar#}2 (2), Ar# = C6H3-2,6-(C6H2-2,4,6-Me3)2, were synthesized and studied in order to determine the effects of geometric changes on their unusual magnetic properties. The compounds, which are the first stable homoleptic primary amides of iron(II), were obtained by the transamination of Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2, with HN(SiMe3)2 elimination, by the primary amines H2NAr* or H2NAr#. X-ray crystallography shows that they have either strictly linear (1) or bent (2, N–Fe–N = 140.9(2)°) iron coordination. Variable temperature magnetization and applied magnetic field Mössbauer spectroscopy studies reveal a very large dependence of the magnetic properties on the metal coordination geometry. At ambient temperature, the linear 1 displayed an effective magnetic moment in the range 7.0 to 7.50 μB, consistent with essentially free ion magnetism. There is a very high internal orbital field component, HL ≈ 170 T which is only exceeded by a HL ≈ 203 T of Fe{C(SiMe3)3}2. In contrast, the strongly bent 2 displays a significantly lower μeff value in the range 5.25 to 5.80 μB at ambient temperature and a much lower orbital field HL value of 116 T. The data for the two amido complexes demonstrate a very large quenching of the orbital magnetic moment upon bending the linear geometry. In addition, a strong correlation of HL with overall formal symmetry is confirmed. ESR spectroscopy supports the existence of large orbital magnetic moments in 1 and 2, and DFT calculations provide good agreement with the physical data. PMID:19670870

  1. Fluorine for Hydrogen Exchange in the Hydrofluorobenzene Derivatives C6HxF(6-x), where x = 2, 3, 4 and 5 by Monomeric [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH; The Solid State Isomerization of [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2Ce(2,3,4,5-C6HF4) to [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2Ce(2,3,4,6-C6HF4)

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Richard; Werkema, Evan L.; Andersen, Richard A.

    2008-04-21

    The reaction between monomeric bis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclopentadienyl)cerium hydride, Cp'2CeH, and several hydrofluorobenzene derivatives is described. The aryl derivatives that are the primary products, Cp'2Ce(C6H5-xFx) where x = 1,2,3,4, are thermally stable enough to be isolated in only two cases, since all of them decompose at different rates to Cp'2CeF and a fluorobenzyne; the latter is trapped by either solvent when C6D6 is used or by a Cp'H ring when C6D12 is the solvent. The trapped products are identified by GCMS analysis after hydrolysis. The aryl derivatives are generated cleanly by reaction of the metallacycle, Cp'((Me3C)2C5H2C(Me2)CH2)Ce, with a hydrofluorobenzene and the resulting arylcerium products, in each case, are identified by their 1H and 19F NMR spectra at 20oC. The stereochemical principle that evolves from these studies is that the thermodynamic isomer is the one in which the CeC bond is flanked by two ortho-CF bonds. This orientation is suggested to arise from the negative charge that is localized on the ipso-carbon atom due to Co(delta+)-Fo(delta-) polarization. The preferred regioisomer is determined by thermodynamic rather than kinetic effects; this is illustrated by the quantitative, irreversible solid-state conversion at 25oC over two months of Cp'2Ce(2,3,4,5-C6HF4) to Cp'2Ce(2,3,4,6-C6HF4), an isomerization that involves a CeC(ipso) for C(ortho)F site exchange.

  2. A monomeric insulin from the porcupine (Hystrix cristata), an Old World hystricomorph.

    PubMed

    Horuk, R; Blundell, T L; Lazarus, N R; Neville, R W; Stone, D; Wollmer, A

    1980-08-21

    The insulins of New World hystricomorph rodents exhibit many novel amino acid changes in primary structure when compared with other mammalian insulins. These changes give rise to unusual properties (low potency, failure to self-associate) not shared by other naturally-occurring insulins. We report here on the primary structure, zinc-binding properties and circular dichroism (CD) of porcupine-insulin (Hystrix cristata), the first Old World hystricomorph insulin to be investigated, and discuss the changes in primary structure of the hormone in relation to its properties. Residue B22 is strongly implicated as being responsible for the unusual properties of porcupine insulin. PMID:6995860

  3. Synthesis of Monomeric Fe(II) and Ru(II) Complexes of Tetradentate Phosphines

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Barun; Ellern, Arkady; Pestovsky, Oleg; Sadow, Aaron; Bakac, Andreja

    2011-03-07

    rac-Bis[{l_brace}(diphenylphosphino)ethyl{r_brace}-phenylphosphino]methane (DPPEPM) reacts with iron(II) and ruthenium(II) halides to generate complexes with folded DPPEPM coordination. The paramagnetic, five-coordinate Fe(DPPEPM)Cl{sub 2} (1) in CD{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} features a tridentate binding mode as established by {sup 31}P{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} NMR spectroscopy. Crystal structure analysis of the analogous bromo complex, Fe(DPPEPM)Br{sub 2} (2) revealed a pseudo-octahedral, cis-{alpha} geometry at iron with DPPEPM coordinated in a tetradentate fashion. However, in CD{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solution, the coordination of DPPEPM in 2 is similar to that of 1 in that one of the external phosphorus atoms is dissociated resulting in a mixture of three tridentate complexes. The chloro ruthenium complex cis-Ru({kappa}{sup 4}-DPPEPM)Cl{sub 2} (3) is obtained from rac-DPPEPM and either [RuCl{sub 2}(COD)]{sub 2} [COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene] or RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 4}. The structure of 3 in both the solid state and in CD{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solution features a folded {kappa}{sup 4}-DPPEPM. This binding mode was also observed in cis-[Fe({kappa}{sup 4}-DPPEPM)(CH{sub 3}CN){sub 2}](CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} (4). Addition of an excess of CO to a methanolic solution of 1 results in the replacement of one of the chloride ions by CO to yield cis-[Fe({kappa}{sup 4}-DPPEPM)Cl(CO)](Cl) (5). The same reaction in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} produces a mixture of 5 and [Fe({kappa}{sup 3}-DPPEPM)Cl{sub 2}(CO)] (6) in which one of the internal phosphines has been substituted by CO. Complexes 2, 3, 4, and 5 appear to be the first structurally characterized monometallic complexes of {kappa}{sup 4}-DPPEPM.

  4. Huntingtin N-Terminal Monomeric and Multimeric Structures Destabilized by Covalent Modification of Heteroatomic Residues.

    PubMed

    Arndt, James R; Kondalaji, Samaneh Ghassabi; Maurer, Megan M; Parker, Arlo; Legleiter, Justin; Valentine, Stephen J

    2015-07-21

    Early stage oligomer formation of the huntingtin protein may be driven by self-association of the 17-residue amphipathic α-helix at the protein's N-terminus (Nt17). Oligomeric structures have been implicated in neuronal toxicity and may represent important neurotoxic species in Huntington's disease. Therefore, a residue-specific structural characterization of Nt17 is crucial to understanding and potentially inhibiting oligomer formation. Native electrospray ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) techniques and molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) have been applied to study coexisting monomer and multimer conformations of Nt17, independent of the remainder of huntingtin exon 1. MDS suggests gas-phase monomer ion structures comprise a helix-turn-coil configuration and a helix-extended-coil region. Elongated dimer species comprise partially helical monomers arranged in an antiparallel geometry. This stacked helical bundle may represent the earliest stages of Nt17-driven oligomer formation. Nt17 monomers and multimers have been further probed using diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC). An N-terminal site (N-terminus of Threonine-3) and Lysine-6 are modified at higher DEPC concentrations, which led to the formation of an intermediate monomer structure. These modifications resulted in decreased extended monomer ion conformers, as well as a reduction in multimer formation. From the MDS experiments for the dimer ions, Lys6 residues in both monomer constituents interact with Ser16 and Glu12 residues on adjacent peptides; therefore, the decrease in multimer formation could result from disruption of these or similar interactions. This work provides a structurally selective model from which to study Nt17 self-association and provides critical insight toward Nt17 multimerization and, possibly, the early stages of huntingtin exon 1 aggregation. PMID:26098795

  5. Charge transfer of iron(III) monomeric and oligomeric aqua hydroxo complexes: semiempirical investigation into photoactivity.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ludovic; de Laat, Joseph; Legube, Bernard

    2002-05-01

    Aqueous hydrolyses of iron(III) solutions were studied using electronic spectroscopy. Complete spectra from 200 to 800 nm were obtained for the four ferric aqua hydroxo complexes: Fe(H(2)O)(6)(3+), Fe(OH)(H(2)O)(5)(2+), Fe(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)(+), and the dimer Fe(2)(mu-Omicron Eta)(2)(H(2)O)(8)(4+). Semiempirical Zindo/s calculations were employed to assign which types of electronic transfers are involved so that the photoactivity as regards the photoreduction dissociation Fe(III)(aq) Fe(II)(aq) + OH* can be discussed. Fe(3+) exhibits two LMCT from non-bonding p orbitals (nLp) located at 190 and 240 nm. Fe(OH)(2+) shows two major nLp(OH) --> d transitions at 205 and 295 nm. As regards its geometry, computed investigations using an Fe-OH distance of 2.05 A better fit than using a shorter distance ( approximately 1.8 A); the same conclusion remains constant for all hydroxo complexes. The dihydroxo form's spectrum was confronted to its common cis and trans expectable isomers plus an unusual pentacoordinate one. Even if the trans isomer is supposed to be the lowest Gibbs free energy species in solution, there is some evidence of the presence of the cis form; hence, both species must be close in energy. Other isolated nLp(OH) --> d transfer wavelengths are 235, 245, and 335 nm. As for the dimer, this study provides some clue in favor of the bis(mu-hydroxo)) description. Both water and hydroxo ligands are involved along the electronic transitions toward only d(1) metal-centered orbitals at 220 and 260 nm for H(2)O, 335 and 470 nm for OH(-), and 205 nm for both. Charge transfers for the hydrogen oxide bridge form Fe(2)(mu-Eta(3)Omicron(2))(H(2)O)(8)(5+) were also computed. Finally predictions about the two bis(mu-hydroxo) bridge trimer Fe(3)(OH)(4)(H(2)O)(10)(5+) enable one to foresee a huge and broad charge transfer in the UV region (approximately 240 nm) followed by a multi nLp(OH) --> d(1) transfer extending up to approximately 650 nm. PMID:11978119

  6. Lack of substrate inhibition in a monomeric form of human cytosolic SULT2A1.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ian T; Leyh, Thomas S; Kadlubar, Susan A; Falany, Charles N

    2010-12-01

    Mammalian cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) frequently show substrate inhibition during the sulfation of increasing concentrations of substrates. SULT2A1, a major human liver isoform responsible for the conjugation of hydroxysteroids, bile acids and aliphatic hydroxyl groups in drugs and xenobiotics, is a homodimer and displays substrate inhibition during the conjugation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Maltose binding protein (MBP)-SULT2A1 fusion protein, produced as an intermediate step in the purification of the SULT2A1 homodimer, elutes during size exclusion chromatography as a monomer. The initial-rate parameters (Km and Vmax) of the monomer (MBP-SULT2A1) and native SULT2A1 dimer for DHEA sulfation are extremely similar; however, the monomer is not inhibited by DHEA. Intrinsic fluorescence studies show that two DHEA molecules bind each SULT2A1 subunit, one in the catalytic site and one in an apparent allosteric site. Lack of dimerization in the MBP-SULT2A1 fusion protein decreased the Kd for binding of DHEA at the allosteric site. These results suggest that formation of the homodimer is associated with structural re-arrangements leading to increased DHEA binding at an allo-steric site that is associated with substrate inhibition. PMID:25961208

  7. Lack of substrate inhibition in a monomeric form of human cytosolic SULT2A1.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ian T; Leyh, Thomas S; Kadlubar, Susan A; Falany, Charles N

    2010-12-01

    Mammalian cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) frequently show substrate inhibition during the sulfation of increasing concentrations of substrates. SULT2A1, a major human liver isoform responsible for the conjugation of hydroxysteroids, bile acids and aliphatic hydroxyl groups in drugs and xenobiotics, is a homodimer and displays substrate inhibition during the conjugation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Maltose binding protein (MBP)-SULT2A1 fusion protein, produced as an intermediate step in the purification of the SULT2A1 homodimer, elutes during size exclusion chromatography as a monomer. The initial-rate parameters (K(m) and V(max)) of the monomer (MBP-SULT2A1) and native SULT2A1 dimer for DHEA sulfation are extremely similar; however, the monomer is not inhibited by DHEA. Intrinsic fluorescence studies show that two DHEA molecules bind each SULT2A1 subunit, one in the catalytic site and one in an apparent allosteric site. Lack of dimerization in the MBP-SULT2A1 fusion protein decreased the K(d) for binding of DHEA at the allosteric site. These results suggest that formation of the homodimer is associated with structural rearrangements leading to increased DHEA binding at an allosteric site that is associated with substrate inhibition. PMID:21822453

  8. Dual ASE from the monomeric and excimeric states of a conjugated-polymer (PDHF) in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibnaouf, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, the spectral and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties of a conjugated polymer poly [9, 9-di-(2‧-ethylhexyl) fluorenyl-2, 7-diyl] (PDHF) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) have been studied. Our results showed that the absorption spectra of PDHF in THF have only one peak under wide range of concentrations (0.012 mol/m3 to 0.39 mol/m3), it could be seen that the shape of the absorption did not change; this indicates no dimer formation in these solutions for all concentrations mentioned above. On the other hand, the fluorescence spectra of PDHF in THF, at low concentration, showed two peaks, the primary at 415 nm and the secondary at 435 nm. The effects of concentration and the temperature on PDHF in THF under same conditions were studied. For example, the intensity of the peak at 435 nm became increasingly stronger for higher concentration and lower temperature. These are analogs to the excimeric behavior of organic molecules. Under high power pulsed laser excitation, we observed ASE at 418 nm and 437 nm. These ASE peaks could arise from the monomer and excimer states of the macromolecule respectively. The ASE spectra of PDHF were compared with the rhodamine 6 G (Rh 6 G). The most important and distinguishing features are that PDHF has a two times better photochemical stability than rhodamine 6 G and high optical gain compared with the conventional laser dyes.

  9. Fibrillar Oligomers Nucleate the Oligomerization of Monomeric Amyloid β but Do Not Seed Fibril Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jessica W.; Breydo, Leonid; Isas, J. Mario; Lee, Jerome; Kuznetsov, Yurii G.; Langen, Ralf; Glabe, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Soluble amyloid oligomers are potent neurotoxins that are involved in a wide range of human degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease. In Alzheimer disease, amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers bind to neuronal synapses, inhibit long term potentiation, and induce cell death. Recent evidence indicates that several immunologically distinct structural variants exist as follows: prefibrillar oligomers (PFOs), fibrillar oligomers (FOs), and annular protofibrils. Despite widespread interest, amyloid oligomers are poorly characterized in terms of structural differences and pathological significance. FOs are immunologically related to fibrils because they react with OC, a conformation-dependent, fibril-specific antibody and do not react with antibodies specific for other types of oligomers. However, fibrillar oligomers are much smaller than fibrils. FOs are soluble at 100,000 × g, rich in β-sheet structures, but yet bind weakly to thioflavin T. EPR spectroscopy indicates that FOs display significantly more spin-spin interaction at multiple labeled sites than PFOs and are more structurally similar to fibrils. Atomic force microscopy indicates that FOs are approximately one-half to one-third the height of mature fibrils. We found that Aβ FOs do not seed the formation of thioflavin T-positive fibrils from Aβ monomers but instead seed the formation of FOs from Aβ monomers that are positive for the OC anti-fibril antibody. These results indicate that the lattice of FOs is distinct from the fibril lattice even though the polypeptide chains are organized in an immunologically identical conformation. The FOs resulting from seeded reactions have the same dimensions and morphology as the initial seeds, suggesting that the seeds replicate by growing to a limiting size and then splitting, indicating that their lattice is less stable than fibrils. We suggest that FOs may represent small pieces of single fibril protofilament and that the addition of monomers to the ends of FOs is kinetically more favorable than the assembly of the oligomers into fibrils via sheet stacking interaction. These studies provide novel structural insight into the relationship between fibrils and FOs and suggest that the increased toxicity of FOs may be due to their ability to replicate and the exposure of hydrophobic sheet surfaces that are otherwise obscured by sheet-sheet interactions between protofilaments in a fibril. PMID:20018889

  10. New Monomeric Stilbenoids from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seeds Challenged by an Aspergillus flavus Strain.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Victor S; Krausert, Nicole M; Gloer, James B

    2016-01-27

    Two new stilbene derivatives have been isolated from peanut seeds challenged by an Aspergillus flavus strain, along with chiricanine B, which has not been previously reported from peanuts, as well as a stilbenoid reported previously only as a synthetic product. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were determined by analysis of (1)H and (13)C NMR, HRESIMS, MS(n), and UV data. The new stilbenoids were named arahypin-13 (21), arahypin-14 (22), and arahypin-15 (23). Together with other known bioactive peanut stilbenoids that were also produced in the challenged seeds, these new compounds may play a defensive role against invasive fungi. PMID:26672388

  11. Cassava starch maltodextrinization/monomerization through thermopressurized aqueous phosphoric acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Fontana, J D; Passos, M; Baron, M; Mendes, S V; Ramos, L P

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic conditions were established for the depolymerization of cassava starch for the production of maltodextrins and glucose syrups. Thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses corroborated that the proper H3PO4 strength and thermopressurization range (e.g., 142-170 degrees C; 2.8-6.8 atm) can be successfully explored for such hydrolytic purposes of native starch granules. Because phosphoric acid can be advantageously maintained in the hydrolysate and generates, after controlled neutralization with ammonia, the strategic nutrient triplet for industrial fermentations (C, P, N), this pretreatment strategy can be easily recognized as a recommended technology for hydrolysis and upgrading of starch and other plant polysaccharides. Compared to the classic catalysts, the mandatory desalting step (chloride removal by expensive anion-exchange resin or sulfate precipitation as the calcium-insoluble salt) can be avoided. Furthermore, properly diluted phosphoric acid is well known as an allowable additive in several popular soft drinks such as colas since its acidic feeling in the mouth is compatible and synergistic with both natural and artificial sweeteners. Glycosyrups from phosphorolyzed cassava starch have also been upgraded to high-value single-cell protein such as the pigmented yeast biomass of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma), whose astaxanthin (diketo-dihydroxy-beta-carotene) content may reach 0.5-1.0 mg/g of dry yeast cell. This can be used as an ideal complement for animal feeding as well as a natural staining for both fish farming (meat) and poultry (eggs). PMID:11963875

  12. The Monomeric Species of the Regulatory Domain of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Has a Low Conformational Stability.

    PubMed

    Neira, José L; Hornos, Felipe; Bacarizo, Julio; Cámara-Artigás, Ana; Gómez, Javier

    2016-06-21

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrH) catalyzes the hydroxylation of tyrosine to form 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, the first step in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. The protein contains a 159-residue regulatory domain (RD) at its N-terminus that forms dimers in solution; the N-terminal region of RDTyrH (residues 1-71) is absent in the solution structure of the domain. We have characterized the conformational stability of two species of RDTyrH (one containing the N-terminal region and another lacking the first 64 residues) to clarify how that N-terminal region modulates the conformational stability of RD. Under the conditions used in this study, the RD species lacking the first 64 residues is a monomer at pH 7.0, with a small conformational stability at 25 °C (4.7 ± 0.8 kcal mol(-1)). On the other hand, the entire RDTyrH is dimeric at physiological pH, with an estimated dissociation constant of 1.6 μM, as determined by zonal gel filtration chromatography; dimer dissociation was spectroscopically silent to circular dichroism but not to fluoresecence. Both RD species were disordered below physiological pH, but the acquisition of secondary native-like structure occurs at pHs lower than those measured for the attainment of tertiary native- and compactness-like arrangements. PMID:27224548

  13. The effect of proteolysis on the induction of cell death by monomeric alpha-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Brück, Wolfram M; Gibson, Glenn R; Brück, Thomas B

    2014-02-01

    α-Lactalbumin (α-la) is a major whey protein found in milk. Previous data suggested that α-la has antiproliferative effects in human adenocarcinoma cell lines such as Caco-2 and HT-29. However, the cell death inducing α-la was not a naturally occurring monomer but either a multimeric variant or an α-la:oleic acid complex (HAMLET/BAMLET). Proteolysis showed that both human and bovine α-la are susceptible to digestion. ELISA assays assessing cell death with the native undigested α-la fractions showed that undigested protein fractions did have a significant cell death effect on CaCo-2 cells. Bovine α-la was also more effective than human α-la. A reduction in activity corresponded with lower concentrations of the protein and partial digestion and fragmentation of the protein using trypsin and pepsin. This suggests that the tertiary structure is vital for the apoptotic effect. PMID:24139905

  14. A simplified method for monomeric carbohydrate analysis of corn stover biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constituent determination of biomass for theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) estimation requires the removal of non-structural carbohydrates prior to analysis to prevent interference with the analytical procedure. According to the accepted U.S. Dept. of Energy-National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)...

  15. Supported and inserted monomeric niobium oxide species on/in silica: a molecular picture.

    PubMed

    Tranca, Diana C; Wojtaszek-Gurdak, Anna; Ziolek, Maria; Tielens, Frederik

    2015-09-14

    The geometry, energetic, and spectroscopic properties of molecular structures of silica-supported niobium oxide catalysts are studied using periodic density functional calculations (DFT) and compared with experimental data. The calculations are done for Nb oxide species inserted or grafted in/on an amorphous hydroxylated silica surface. Different positions of the Nb atom/atoms in the silica structure have been investigated. By means of DFT calculations the geometry and the degree of hydration of Nb oxide species with oxidation state +5 have been studied. The local Nb geometry depends on different parameters such as the number of Nb-O-Si groups vs. Nb-O-H groups, the formation of H bonds and the distance between Nb atoms. The interaction between the oxide and silanol groups occurs by formation of Si-O-Nb bonds with chemically and thermally stable Brønsted and Lewis acid sites. UV-Vis, reflection absorption infrared vibrational spectra (RAIRS) as well as various thermodynamic properties have also been investigated in order to get a better insight into the system studied and to provide support to possible experimental studies. PMID:26250394

  16. Preparation of polyimides from mixtures of monomeric diamines and esters of polycarboxylic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Lightsey, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Polyimides having high thermal and oxidative stability are prepared by the reaction of a mixture of monomers comprising (1) a dialkyl or tetraalkyl ester of an aromatic tetracarboxylic acid; (2) an aromatic diamine; and (3) a monoalkyl or dialkyl ester of a dicarboxylic acid where in the ratio of a:b:c is n:(n+1):2, wherein n has a value from 1 to 20. The mixture of monomers is prepared in a 30 to 70 percent by weight solution of an organic solvent, a substrate impregnated with the solution and heated at 50 to 205 C to remove said solvent and form a low molecular weight prepolymer, and thereafter heated at 275 to 350 C to cure to a high molecular weight polyimide.

  17. Synthesis of N-Substituted Silaneamines: Monomeric Precursors of Silicon Carbide-Nitride Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Silanetriamines are prepared by the condensation of methyl or phenyl trichlorosilane with a primary amine. The amines used were methyl, n-propyl, n-butyl and allyl. The silaneamines were prepared by adding the chlorosilane to a solution of the amine in either petroleum ether or toluene. The compounds were purified by distillation and characterized by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  18. Ag atom agglomeration in monomeric and oligomeric olefinic matrices. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, M.P.; Ozin, G.A.

    1986-06-19

    Attention is directed to the interaction of silver atoms (Ag) and low nuclearity silver clusters (Ag/sub n/) with mono- and oligoolefinic matrices. The study serves as a prelude to that involving the corresponding liquid-phase reactions including those with polyolefins (part 2). In this paper, model studies of the reactivity of Ag atoms toward ethylene, propylene, and 1-butene revealed an order of thermal stability for the products (assayed by observance of the intense characteristic charge-transfer band around 590 nm) of silver(ethylene)/sub n/ < silver(propylene)/sub n/ < silver(1-butene)/sub n/. The above order of thermal stability did not carry over to higher molecular weight olefins. Squalene, a C/sub 30/H/sub 50/ triterpene, was selected as a low molecular weight analogue of polyisoprene for use as a hybrid matrix. Although silver atoms, dimers, and higher nuclearity species could be isolated in this matrix, there was no evidence of a product showing a visible charge-transfer band. EPR spectroscopy of this same system showed AG atoms to be distributed between alkene (pseudocomplex) and alkane sites.

  19. Spin Equilibria in Monomeric Manganocenes: Solid State Magnetic and EXAFS Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M. D.; Sofield, C. D.; Booth, C. H.; Andersen, R. A.

    2009-02-09

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements and X-ray data confirm that tert-butyl-substituted manganocenes [(Me{sub 3}C){sub n}C{sub 5}H{sub 5?n}]{sub 2}Mn (n = 1, 2) follow the trend previously observed with the methylated manganocenes; that is, electron-donating groups attached to the Cp ring stabilize the low-spin (LS) electronic ground state relative to Cp{sub 2}Mn and exhibit higher spin-crossover (SCO) temperatures. However, introducing three CMe{sub 3} groups on each ring gives a temperature-invariant high-spin (HS) state manganocene. The origin of the high-spin state in [1,2,4-(Me{sub 3}C){sub 3}C{sub 5}H{sub 2}]{sub 2}Mn is due to the significant bulk of the [1,2,4-(Me{sub 3}C){sub 3}C{sub 5}H{sub 2}]{sup -} ligand, which is sufficient to generate severe inter-ring steric strain that prevents the realization of the low-spin state. Interestingly, the spin transition in [1,3-(Me{sub 3}C){sub 2}C{sub 5}H{sub 3}]{sub 2}Mn is accompanied by a phase transition resulting in a significant irreversible hysteresis ({Delta}T{sub c} = 16 K). This structural transition was also observed by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements. Magnetic susceptibility studies and X-ray diffraction data on SiMe{sub 3}-substituted manganocenes [(Me{sub 3}Si){sub n}C{sub 5}H{sub 5-n}]{sub 2}Mn (n = 1, 2, 3) show high-spin configurations in these cases. Although tetra- and hexasubstituted manganocenes are high-spin at all accessible temperatures, the disubstituted manganocenes exhibit a small low-spin admixture at low temperature. In this respect it behaves similarly to [(Me{sub 3}C)(Me{sub 3}Si)C{sub 5}H{sub 3}]{sub 2}Mn, which has a constant low-spin admixture up to 90 K and then gradually converts to high-spin. Thermal spin-trapping can be observed for [(Me{sub 3}C)(Me{sub 3}Si)C{sub 5}H{sub 3}]{sub 2}Mn on rapid cooling.

  20. Prolonged activity of factor IX as a monomeric Fc fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Peters, Robert T; Low, Susan C; Kamphaus, George D; Dumont, Jennifer A; Amari, John V; Lu, Qi; Zarbis-Papastoitsis, Greg; Reidy, Thomas J; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Nichols, Timothy C; Bitonti, Alan J

    2010-03-11

    Treatment of hemophilia B requires frequent infusions of factor IX (FIX) to prophylax against bleeding episodes. Hemophilia B management would benefit from a FIX protein with an extended half-life. A recombinant fusion protein (rFIXFc) containing a single FIX molecule attached to the Fc region of immunoglobulin G was administered intravenously and found to have an extended half-life, compared with recombinant FIX (rFIX) in normal mice, rats, monkeys, and FIX-deficient mice and dogs. Recombinant FIXFc protein concentration was determined in all species, and rFIXFc activity was measured in FIX-deficient animals. The half-life of rFIXFc was approximately 3- to 4-fold longer than that of rFIX in all species. In contrast, in mice in which the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) was deleted, the half-life of rFIXFc was similar to rFIX, confirming the increased circulatory time was due to protection of the rFIXFc via the Fc/FcRn interaction. Whole blood clotting time in FIX-deficient mice was corrected through 144 hours for rFIXFc, compared with 72 hours for rFIX; similar results were observed in FIX-deficient dogs. Taken together, these studies show the enhanced pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of the rFIXFc fusion protein and provide the basis for evaluating rFIXFc in patients with hemophilia B. PMID:20056791

  1. Huntingtin N-terminal monomeric and multimeric structures destabilized by covalent modification of heteroatomic residues

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, James R.; Kondalaji, Samaneh G.; Maurer, Megan M.; Parker, Arlo; Legleiter, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Early-stage oligomer formation of the huntingtin protein may be driven by self-association of the seventeen-residue amphipathic α-helix at the protein’s N-terminus (Nt17). Oligomeric structures have been implicated in neuronal toxicity and may represent important neurotoxic species in Huntington’s disease. Therefore, a residue-specific structural characterization of Nt17 is crucial to understanding and potentially inhibiting oligomer formation. Native electrospray ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) techniques and molecular dynamics simulations (MDS), have been applied to study coexisting monomer and multimer conformations of Nt17, independent of the remainder of huntingtin exon 1. MDS suggests gas-phase monomer ion structures are comprised of a helix-turn-coil configuration and a helix-extended coil region. Elongated dimer species are comprised of partially-helical monomers arranged in an antiparallel geometry. This stacked helical bundle may represent the earliest stages of Nt17-driven oligomer formation. Nt17 monomers and multimers have been further probed using diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC). An N-terminal site (N-terminus of Threonine-3) and Lysine-6 are modified at higher DEPC concentrations, which led to the formation of an intermediate monomer structure. These modifications resulted in decreased extended monomer ion conformers, as well as a reduction in multimer formation. From the MDS experiments for the dimer ions, Lys6 residues in both monomer constituents interact with Ser16 and Glu12 residues on adjacent peptides; therefore, the decrease in multimer formation could result from disruption of these or similar interactions. This work provides a structurally selective model from which to study Nt17 self-association and provides critical insight toward Nt17 multimerization and possibly, the early stages of huntingtin exon 1 aggregation. PMID:26098795

  2. Monomeric [alpha]-Synuclein Binds Congo Red Micelles in a Disordered Manner

    SciTech Connect

    Maltsev, Alexander S.; Grishaev, Alexander; Bax, Ad

    2012-03-15

    The histological dye Congo Red (CR) previously has been shown to inhibit {alpha}-synuclein (aS) fibrillation, but the mode of this inhibition remained unclear. Because of favorable exchange kinetics, interaction between CR and aS lends itself to a detailed nuclear magnetic resonance study, and relaxation dispersion measurements yield the bound fraction and time scales for the interaction of aS with CR. We find that at pH 6, CR exists as a micelle, and at a CR:aS molar ratio of {approx}1, only a small fraction of aS ({approx}2%) is bound to these micelles. Rapid exchange (k{sub ex} {approx} 3000 s{sup -1}) between the free and CR-bound states broadens and strongly attenuates resonances of aS by two processes: a magnetic field-dependent contribution, caused by the chemical shift difference between the two states, and a nearly field-independent contribution caused by slower tumbling of aS bound to the CR micelle. The salt dependence of the interaction suggests a predominantly electrostatic mechanism for the 60 N-terminal residues, while the weaker interaction between residues 61-100 and CR is mostly hydrophobic. Chemical shift and transferred NOE data indicate that aS becomes slightly more helical but remains largely disordered when bound to CR. Results indicate that inhibition of fibril formation does not result from binding of CR to free aS and, therefore, must result from interaction of aS fibrils or protofibrils with CR micelles.

  3. Solution structure of monomeric BsaL, the type III secretion needle protein of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Yu; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2006-06-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria that are important human pathogens possess type III secretion systems as part of their required virulence factor repertoire. During the establishment of infection, these pathogens coordinately assemble greater than 20 different proteins into a macromolecular structure that spans the bacterial inner and outer membranes and, in many respects, resembles and functions like a syringe. This type III secretion apparatus (TTSA) is used to inject proteins into a host cell's membrane and cytoplasm to subvert normal cellular processes. The external portion of the TTSA is a needle that is composed of a single type of protein that is polymerized in a helical fashion to form an elongated tube with a central channel of 2-3 nm in diameter. TTSA needle proteins from a variety of bacterial pathogens share sequence conservation; however, no atomic structure for any TTSA needle protein is yet available. Here, we report the structure of a TTSA needle protein called BsaL from Burkholderia pseudomallei determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The central part of the protein assumes a helix-turn-helix core domain with two well-defined alpha-helices that are joined by an ordered, four-residue linker. This forms a two-helix bundle that is stabilized by interhelix hydrophobic contacts. Residues that flank this presumably exposed core region are not completely disordered, but adopt a partial helical conformation. The atomic structure of BsaL and its sequence homology with other TTSA needle proteins suggest potentially unique structural dynamics that could be linked with a universal mechanism for control of type III secretion in diverse gram-negative bacterial pathogens. PMID:16631790

  4. Stabilization of a β-hairpin in monomeric Alzheimer's amyloid-β peptide inhibits amyloid formation

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Wolfgang; Grönwall, Caroline; Jonsson, Andreas; Ståhl, Stefan; Härd, Torleif

    2008-01-01

    According to the amyloid hypothesis, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is triggered by the oligomerization and aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into protein plaques. Formation of the potentially toxic oligomeric and fibrillar Aβ assemblies is accompanied by a conformational change toward a high content of β-structure. Here, we report the solution structure of Aβ(1–40) in complex with the phage-display selected affibody protein ZAβ3, a binding protein of nanomolar affinity. Bound Aβ(1–40) features a β-hairpin comprising residues 17–36, providing the first high-resolution structure of Aβ in β conformation. The positions of the secondary structure elements strongly resemble those observed for fibrillar Aβ. ZAβ3 stabilizes the β-sheet by extending it intermolecularly and by burying both of the mostly nonpolar faces of the Aβ hairpin within a large hydrophobic tunnel-like cavity. Consequently, ZAβ3 acts as a stoichiometric inhibitor of Aβ fibrillation. The selected Aβ conformation allows us to suggest a structural mechanism for amyloid formation based on soluble oligomeric hairpin intermediates. PMID:18375754

  5. VASP is a processive actin polymerase that requires monomeric actin for barbed end association

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    Ena/VASP proteins regulate the actin cytoskeleton during cell migration and morphogenesis and promote assembly of both filopodial and lamellipodial actin networks. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying their cellular functions we used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to visualize VASP tetramers interacting with static and growing actin filaments in vitro. We observed multiple filament binding modes: (1) static side binding, (2) side binding with one-dimensional diffusion, and (3) processive barbed end tracking. Actin monomers antagonize side binding but promote high affinity (Kd = 9 nM) barbed end attachment. In low ionic strength buffers, VASP tetramers are weakly processive (Koff = 0.69 s−1) polymerases that deliver multiple actin monomers per barbed end–binding event and effectively antagonize filament capping. In higher ionic strength buffers, VASP requires profilin for effective polymerase and anti-capping activity. Based on our observations, we propose a mechanism that accounts for all three binding modes and provides a model for how VASP promotes actin filament assembly. PMID:21041447

  6. Crystal structure of a monomeric retroviral protease solved by protein folding game players.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Firas; DiMaio, Frank; Cooper, Seth; Kazmierczyk, Maciej; Gilski, Miroslaw; Krzywda, Szymon; Zabranska, Helena; Pichova, Iva; Thompson, James; Popović, Zoran; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Baker, David

    2011-10-01

    Following the failure of a wide range of attempts to solve the crystal structure of M-PMV retroviral protease by molecular replacement, we challenged players of the protein folding game Foldit to produce accurate models of the protein. Remarkably, Foldit players were able to generate models of sufficient quality for successful molecular replacement and subsequent structure determination. The refined structure provides new insights for the design of antiretroviral drugs. PMID:21926992

  7. Binary Toxin Subunits of Lysinibacillus sphaericus Are Monomeric and Form Heterodimers after In Vitro Activation

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Yeu Khai; Torres, Jaume; Boonserm, Panadda

    2016-01-01

    The binary toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been successfully used for controlling mosquito-transmitted diseases. An activation step shortens both subunits BinA and BinB before their interaction with membranes and internalization in midgut cells, but the precise role of this activation step is unknown. Herein, we show conclusively using three orthogonal biophysical techniques that protoxin subunits form only monomers in aqueous solution. However, in vitro activated toxins readily form heterodimers. This oligomeric state did not change after incubation of these heterodimers with detergent. These results are consistent with the evidence that maximal toxicity in mosquito larvae is achieved when the two subunits, BinA and BinB, are in a 1:1 molar ratio, and directly link proteolytic activation to heterodimerization. Formation of a heterodimer must thus be necessary for subsequent steps, e.g., interaction with membranes, or with a suitable receptor in susceptible mosquito species. Lastly, despite existing similarities between BinB C-terminal domain with domains 3 and 4 of pore-forming aerolysin, no aerolysin-like SDS-resistant heptameric oligomers were observed when the activated Bin subunits were incubated in the presence of detergents or lipidic membranes. PMID:27341696

  8. Purification and properties of a monomeric lactate dehydrogenase from yak Hypoderma sinense larva.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Jin, Suyu; Huang, Lin; Liu, Haohao; Huang, Zhihong; Lin, Yaqiu; Zheng, Yucai

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to study the characteristics of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from Hypoderma sinense larva. H. sinense larvae were collected from yak (Bos grunniens) and identified by a PCR-RFLP method. Analysis of LDH activity showed that the total LDH activity in H. sinense larva was negatively correlated with the length of larva. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the extracts of H. sinense larvae revealed one band of LDH, which was then purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. This enzyme showed an approximately 36 kDa band on SDS-gel under both reducing and non-reducing conditions, in addition, size exclusion chromatography analysis showed that its molecular weight was smaller than bovine serum albumin (67 kDa), indicating that it contains only one subunit. Michaelis constants (Km) values assay revealed that LDH from H. sinense larva showed significantly lower Km for lactate than other animals. LDH of H. sinense larva was stable at 60 °C for 15 min, and also exhibited high catalytic efficiency in a wide range of pH. HgCl₂ at the concentration of 0.1mM significantly decreased the activity of LDH from H. sinense larva but not at the concentration of 0.01 mM. The results of the present study demonstrate that LDH from H. sinense larva is a thermal stable and pH insensitive enzyme suitable for catalyzing both forward and reverse reactions. PMID:23474203

  9. Monomeric Amyloid Beta Peptide in Hexafluoroisopropanol Detected by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang-Haagen, Bo; Biehl, Ralf; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Radulescu, Aurel; Richter, Dieter; Willbold, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Small proteins like amyloid beta (Aβ) monomers are related to neurodegenerative disorders by aggregation to insoluble fibrils. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a nondestructive method to observe the aggregation process in solution. We show that SANS is able to resolve monomers of small molecular weight like Aβ for aggregation studies. We examine Aβ monomers after prolonged storing in d-hexafluoroisopropanol (dHFIP) by using SANS and dynamic light scattering (DLS). We determined the radius of gyration from SANS as 1.0±0.1 nm for Aβ1–40 and 1.6±0.1 nm for Aβ1–42 in agreement with 3D NMR structures in similar solvents suggesting a solvent surface layer with 5% increased density. After initial dissolution in dHFIP Aβ aggregates sediment with a major component of pure monomers showing a hydrodynamic radius of 1.8±0.3 nm for Aβ1–40 and 3.2±0.4 nm for Aβ1–42 including a surface layer of dHFIP solvent molecules. PMID:26919121

  10. Quenching in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking monomeric antenna proteins of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Miloslavina, Yuliya; de Bianchi, Silvia; Dall'Osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto; Holzwarth, Alfred R

    2011-10-21

    The minor light-harvesting complexes CP24, CP26, and CP29 have been proposed to play a key role in the zeaxanthin (Zx)-dependent high light-induced regulation (NPQ) of excitation energy in higher plants. To characterize the detailed roles of these minor complexes in NPQ and to determine their specific quenching effects we have studied the ultrafast fluorescence kinetics in knockout (ko) mutants koCP26, koCP29, and the double mutant koCP24/CP26. The data provide detailed insight into the quenching processes and the reorganization of the Photosystem (PS) II supercomplex under quenching conditions. All genotypes showed two NPQ quenching sites. Quenching site Q1 is formed by a light-induced functional detachment of parts of the PSII supercomplex and a pronounced quenching of the detached antenna parts. The antenna remaining bound to the PSII core was also quenched substantially in all genotypes under NPQ conditions (quenching site Q2) as compared with the dark-adapted state. The latter quenching was about equally strong in koCP26 and the koCP24/CP26 mutants as in the WT. Q2 quenching was substantially reduced, however, in koCP29 mutants suggesting a key role for CP29 in the total NPQ. The observed quenching effects in the knockout mutants are complicated by the fact that other minor antenna complexes do compensate in part for the lack of the CP24 and/or CP29 complexes. Their lack also causes some LHCII dissociation already in the dark. PMID:21844190

  11. Quenching in Arabidopsis thaliana Mutants Lacking Monomeric Antenna Proteins of Photosystem II*

    PubMed Central

    Miloslavina, Yuliya; de Bianchi, Silvia; Dall'Osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto; Holzwarth, Alfred R.

    2011-01-01

    The minor light-harvesting complexes CP24, CP26, and CP29 have been proposed to play a key role in the zeaxanthin (Zx)-dependent high light-induced regulation (NPQ) of excitation energy in higher plants. To characterize the detailed roles of these minor complexes in NPQ and to determine their specific quenching effects we have studied the ultrafast fluorescence kinetics in knockout (ko) mutants koCP26, koCP29, and the double mutant koCP24/CP26. The data provide detailed insight into the quenching processes and the reorganization of the Photosystem (PS) II supercomplex under quenching conditions. All genotypes showed two NPQ quenching sites. Quenching site Q1 is formed by a light-induced functional detachment of parts of the PSII supercomplex and a pronounced quenching of the detached antenna parts. The antenna remaining bound to the PSII core was also quenched substantially in all genotypes under NPQ conditions (quenching site Q2) as compared with the dark-adapted state. The latter quenching was about equally strong in koCP26 and the koCP24/CP26 mutants as in the WT. Q2 quenching was substantially reduced, however, in koCP29 mutants suggesting a key role for CP29 in the total NPQ. The observed quenching effects in the knockout mutants are complicated by the fact that other minor antenna complexes do compensate in part for the lack of the CP24 and/or CP29 complexes. Their lack also causes some LHCII dissociation already in the dark. PMID:21844190

  12. Expression and purification of an engineered human endothelin receptor B in a monomeric form.

    PubMed

    Mishin, A V; Luginina, A P; Potapenko, A P; Borshchevskiy, V I; Katritch, V; Edelweiss, E; Okhrimenko, I S; Gordeliy, V I; Cherezov, V G

    2016-03-01

    In humans, two endothelin receptors, ETa and ETb, are activated by three endogenous 21-mer cyclic peptides, ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3, which control various physiological processes, including vasoconstriction, vasodilation, and stimulation of cell proliferation. The first stage of this study it to produce a stable solubilized and purified receptor in a monodisperse state. This article is focused on the engineering, expression, purification, and characterization of the endothelin receptor B for subsequent structural and functional studies. PMID:27193723

  13. Single-dose monomeric HA subunit vaccine generates full protection from influenza challenge.

    PubMed

    Mallajosyula, Jyothi K; Hiatt, Ernie; Hume, Steve; Johnson, Ashley; Jeevan, Trushar; Chikwamba, Rachel; Pogue, Gregory P; Bratcher, Barry; Haydon, Hugh; Webby, Richard J; McCormick, Alison A

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are an efficient strategy to meet the demands of a possible influenza pandemic, because of rapid and scalable production. However, vaccines made from recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) subunit protein are often of low potency, requiring high dose or boosting to generate a sustained immune response. We have improved the immunogenicity of a plant-made HA vaccine by chemical conjugation to the surface of the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) which is non infectious in mammals. We have previously shown that TMV is taken up by mammalian dendritic cells and is a highly effective antigen carrier. In this work, we tested several TMV-HA conjugation chemistries, and compared immunogenicity in mice as measured by anti-HA IgG titers and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI). Importantly, pre-existing immunity to TMV did not reduce initial or boosted titers. Further optimization included dosing with and without alum or oil-in water adjuvants. Surprisingly, we were able to stimulate potent immunogenicity and HAI titers with a single 15 µg dose of HA as a TMV conjugate. We then evaluated the efficacy of the TMV-HA vaccine in a lethal virus challenge in mice. Our results show that a single dose of the TMV-HA conjugate vaccine is sufficient to generate 50% survival, or 100% survival with adjuvant, compared with 10% survival after vaccination with a commercially available H1N1 vaccine. TMV-HA is an effective dose-sparing influenza vaccine, using a single-step process to rapidly generate large quantities of highly effective flu vaccine from an otherwise low potency HA subunit protein. PMID:24378714

  14. New Monomeric Stilbenoids from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seeds Challenged by an Aspergillus flavus Strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new stilbene derivatives have been isolated from peanut seeds challenged by an Aspergillus flavus strain, along with chiricanine B that has not been reported from peanuts, as well as a stilbenoid that has been known as a synthetic product. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were d...

  15. [Roles of intracellular calcium and monomeric G-proteins in regulating exocytosis of human neutrophils].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Wang, Jun-Han; Wu, Jian-Min; Xu, Tao; Zhang, Chun-Guang

    2003-12-25

    Neutrophils play a major role in host defense against microbial infection. There are some clues indicate that neutrophils may also play a role in the pathophysiology of the airway obstruction in chronic asthma. We studied the roles of intracellular calcium and GTP gamma S in the regulation of neutrophils exocytosis using pipette perfusion and membrane capacitance measurement technique in whole cell patch clamp configuration. The results showed that the membrane capacitance increase induced by calcium revealed a biphasic process. The first phase occurred when the calcium level was between 0.2-14 micromol/L with a plateau amplitude of 1.23 pF and a calcium EC50 of 1.1 micromol/L. This phase might correspond to the release of the tertiary granules. The second phase occurred when the calcium concentration was between 20-70 micromol/L with a plateau increment of 6.36 pF, the calcium EC50 being about 33 micromol/L. This phase might represent the release of the primary and secondary granules. Intracellular calcium also simultaneously increased the exocytotic rate and the eventual extent in neutrophils. On the other hand, GTP gamma S can increase the exocytotic rate in a dose-dependent manner but had no effect on the eventual extent of membrane capacitance increment (>6 pF) if the cell was stimulated for a long period (>20 min). GTP gamma S (ranging from 20 to 100 micromol/L) induced the neutrophils to release all four types of the granules at very low intracellular calcium level. PMID:14695488

  16. Synthesis and structural characterization of monomeric and dimeric peptide nucleic acids prepared by using microwave-promoted multicomponent reactions.

    PubMed

    Ovadia, Reuben; Lebrun, Aurélien; Barvik, Ivan; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Baraguey, Carine; Alvarez, Karine

    2015-12-01

    A solution phase synthesis of peptide nucleic acid monomers and dimers was developed by using microwave-promoted Ugi multicomponent reactions. A mixture of a functionalized amine, a carboxymethyl nucleobase, paraformaldehyde and an isocyanide as building blocks generates PNA monomers which are then partially deprotected and used in a second Ugi 4CC reaction, leading to PNA dimers. Conformational rotamers were identified by using NMR and MD simulations. PMID:26394794

  17. Benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one inhibits soybean growth and alters the monomeric composition of lignin.

    PubMed

    Parizotto, Angela Valderrama; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Marchiosi, Rogério; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the allelochemical benzoxazolin-2-(3H)-one (BOA) were evaluated on growth, lignin content and its monomers p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) in roots, stems and leaves of soybean. BOA decreased the lengths and fresh weights of roots and stems, and the fresh weights and areas of leaves. Reductions in the growth were accompanied by enhanced lignin content in all tissues. In roots, the allelochemical increased the content of H, G and S monomers as well as the overall amount of lignin (referred to as the sum of H+G+S), but did not alter the S/G ratio. In stems and leaves, BOA increased the H, G, S and H+G+S contents while decreasing the S/G ratio. In brief, BOA-induced inhibition of soybean may be due to excessive production of monomers that increase the degree of polymerization of lignin, limit cell expansion, solidify the cell wall and restrict plant growth. PMID:25826260

  18. Structure of AadA from Salmonella enterica: a monomeric aminoglycoside (3′′)(9) adenyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yang; Näsvall, Joakim; Wu, Shiying; Andersson, Dan I.; Selmer, Maria

    2015-10-31

    The crystal structure of the aminoglycoside-adenylating enzyme AadA is reported together with functional experiments providing insights into its oligomeric state, ligand binding and catalysis. Aminoglycoside resistance is commonly conferred by enzymatic modification of drugs by aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes such as aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferases (ANTs). Here, the first crystal structure of an ANT(3′′)(9) adenyltransferase, AadA from Salmonella enterica, is presented. AadA catalyses the magnesium-dependent transfer of adenosine monophosphate from ATP to the two chemically dissimilar drugs streptomycin and spectinomycin. The structure was solved using selenium SAD phasing and refined to 2.5 Å resolution. AadA consists of a nucleotidyltransferase domain and an α-helical bundle domain. AadA crystallizes as a monomer and is a monomer in solution as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering, in contrast to structurally similar homodimeric adenylating enzymes such as kanamycin nucleotidyltransferase. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments show that ATP binding has to occur before binding of the aminoglycoside substrate, and structure analysis suggests that ATP binding repositions the two domains for aminoglycoside binding in the interdomain cleft. Candidate residues for ligand binding and catalysis were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis. In vivo resistance and in vitro binding assays support the role of Glu87 as the catalytic base in adenylation, while Arg192 and Lys205 are shown to be critical for ATP binding.

  19. Varied Probability of Staying Collapsed/Extended at the Conformational Equilibrium of Monomeric Aβ40 and Aβ42

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wanling; Wang, Yuanyuan; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Yang, Huaiyu; Xu, Yechun

    2015-01-01

    In present study, we set out to investigate the conformation dynamics of Aβ40 and Aβ42 through exploring the impact of intra-molecular interactions on conformation dynamics using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Our 40 microsecond-scale simulations reveal heterogeneous conformation ensembles of Aβ40 and Aβ42 that encompass ~35% β-strand and ~60% unstructured coils. Two conformational states were identified in both alloforms: a collapsed state (CS) that resembles the structural motif of face-to-face hydrophobic clustering in amyloid fibrils, and an extended state (ES) that features the structural characteristics of anti-parallel β-sheets in amyloid oligomers. In Aβ40, the C-terminus remains unstructured and rarely interacts with other parts, thereof the hydrophobic clustering is in loose contact and the peptide assumes ES with high probability. In contrast, the C-terminus of Aβ42 adopts a β-strand structure that strongly interacts with segments E3-R5 and V18-A21. The active association leads to a more compact hydrophobic collapse and refrain the alloform from ES. Based on the structural characterization, we propose that the fibril and oligomer assembly pathways could respectively take off from CS and ES, and their aggregation propensity may be governed by the probability of visiting the corresponding conformational states at the equilibrium. PMID:26046578

  20. Solution and solid-state structures of the monomeric, piano-stool mono(peralkylcyclopentadienyl)vanadium(IV) trihalides

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, M.S.; Messerle, L. )

    1990-05-02

    The method recently reported by Herberhold and co-workers for the high-yield preparation of (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})VX{sub 3} (X = Cl, Br or I) by direct halogenation of (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})V(OCO){sub 4} has been reproduced by the authors. Spectroscopic and spectrometric data for the (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}) and C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}Et compounds and the solid-state molecular structure of ({eta}-C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}Et)VCI{sub 3} are reported. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. cDNA sequence and heterologous expression of monomeric spinach pullulanase: multiple isomeric forms arise from the same polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Renz, A; Schikora, S; Schmid, R; Kossmann, J; Beck, E

    1998-05-01

    The spinach pullulanase gene was cloned and sequenced using peptide sequences of the purified enzyme as a starting point and employing PCR techniques and cDNA library screening. Its open reading frame codes for a protein of 964 amino acids which represents a precursor of the pullulanase. The N-terminal transit peptide consists of 65 amino acids, and the mature protein, comprising 899 amino acids, has a calculated molecular mass of 99kDa. Pullulanase is a member of the alpha-amylase family. In addition to a characteristic catalytic (beta/alpha)8-barrel domain, it contains a domain, F, that is specific for branching and debranching enzymes. Pullulanase cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified protein was compared with the enzyme from spinach leaves. Identity of the two proteins was confirmed in terms of catalytic properties, N-terminal amino acid sequences and molecular masses. The pullulanase produced by E. coli showed the same microheterogeneity as the spinach leaf enzyme: it could be resolved into two substrate-induced forms by electrophoresis in amylopectin-containing polyacrylamide gels, and, in the absence of substrate, into several free forms (charge isomers) by isoelectric focusing or chromatofocusing. Rechromatofocusing of single free forms resulted in the originally observed pattern of molecular forms. However, heterogeneity of the protein disappeared on isoelectric focusing under completely denaturing conditions when only one protein band was observed. Post-translational modifications such as glycosylation and phosphorylation could be excluded as potential explanations for the protein heterogeneity. Therefore the microheterogeneity of spinach leaf pullulanase results from neither genetic variation nor post-translational modifications, but is a property of the single unmodified gene product. The different interconvertible forms of the pullulanase represent protein populations of different tertiary structure of the same polypeptide. PMID:9560325

  2. The structure of monomeric components of self-assembling CXCR4 antagonists determines the architecture of resulting nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngshim; Chen, Yuhong; Tarasova, Nadya I.; Gaponenko, Vadim

    2011-12-01

    Self-assembling peptides play increasingly important roles in the development of novel materials and drug delivery vehicles. Understanding mechanisms governing the assembly of nanoarchitectures is essential for the generation of peptide-based nanodevices. We find that a cone-shaped derivative of the second transmembrane domain of CXCR4 receptor, x4-2-6 self-assembles into nanospheres, while a related cylindrical peptide, x4-2-9 forms fibrils. Stronger intermolecular interactions in nanospheres than in fibrils result in slow rates of particle disassembly and protection against proteolytic degradation.

  3. Me{sup 5}C{sup 5}Ni(acac): A monomeric, paramagnetic, 18-electron, spin-equilibrium molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Anderson, R.A. |

    1996-11-13

    New synthetic procedures have been developed for Me{sup 5}C{sup 5}M(acac), M = Co or Ni. The crystal structures of these 17- or 18-electron monomers show that the compounds are isomorphous and in space group P1{bar O}, with the planes defined by the Me{sup 5}C{sup 5} ring and the M(acac) fragment perpendicular to within 5{degree}. The Me{sup 5}C{sup 5} ring in both molecules has an ene-allyl distortion which is rationalized by the low molecular symmetry (C{sup s}), which removes the degeneracy in the e{sup +} and e{sup -} ring orbitals. The electronic structure of the cobalt compound is {sup 2}A, as deduced from magnetic susceptibility and EPR spectroscopy. The electronic structure of the nickel compound depends upon the temperature. In the solid state, the compound is diamagnetic below 150 K, but it becomes paramagnetic with increasing temperature. The {sup 1}H NMR chemical shift of the compound in solution are nonlinear in temperature, and a plot of {delta} vs T{sup -1} yields an equilibrium constant of 0.47 at 303 K for the low spin high spin equilibrium. The 20-electron phosphine complexes of nickel can be isolated; Me{sup 5}C{sup 5}Ni(acac)(PMe{sup 3}) is a simple paramagnet with two unpaired spins, but the PEt{sup 3} complex exists in equilibrium with its base-free compound in solution. The cobalt compound does not give an isolable phosphine complex. A simple symmetry orbital model is proposed that accounts for the electronic and molecular structures of these organometallic compounds. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Sequence-selective carbohydrate-DNA interaction: dimeric and monomeric forms of the calicheamicin oligosaccharide interfere with transcription factor function.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C; Smith, B M; Ajito, K; Komatsu, H; Gomez-Paloma, L; Li, T; Theodorakis, E A; Nicolaou, K C; Vogt, P K

    1996-01-01

    The synthetic oligosaccharide moiety of the antibiotic calicheamicin and the head-to-head dimer of this oligosaccharide are known to bind to the minor groove of DNA in a sequence-selective manner preferring distinct target sequences. We tested these carbohydrates for their ability to interfere with transcription factor function. The oligosaccharides inhibit binding of transcription factors to DNA in a sequence-selective manner, probably by inducing a conformational change in DNA structure. They also interfere with transcription by polymerase II in vitro. The effective concentrations of the oligosaccharides for inhibition of transcription factor binding and for transcriptional inhibition are in the micromolar range. The dimer is a significantly more active inhibitor than is the monomer. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8570664

  5. Structure of AadA from Salmonella enterica: a monomeric aminoglycoside (3′′)(9) adenyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang; Näsvall, Joakim; Wu, Shiying; Andersson, Dan I.; Selmer, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aminoglycoside resistance is commonly conferred by enzymatic modification of drugs by aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes such as aminoglycoside nucleo­tidyltransferases (ANTs). Here, the first crystal structure of an ANT(3′′)(9) adenyltransferase, AadA from Salmonella enterica, is presented. AadA catalyses the magnesium-dependent transfer of adenosine monophosphate from ATP to the two chemically dissimilar drugs streptomycin and spectinomycin. The structure was solved using selenium SAD phasing and refined to 2.5 Å resolution. AadA consists of a nucleotidyltransferase domain and an α-helical bundle domain. AadA crystallizes as a monomer and is a monomer in solution as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering, in contrast to structurally similar homodimeric adenylating enzymes such as kanamycin nucleotidyltransferase. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments show that ATP binding has to occur before binding of the aminoglycoside substrate, and structure analysis suggests that ATP binding repositions the two domains for aminoglycoside binding in the interdomain cleft. Candidate residues for ligand binding and catalysis were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis. In vivo resistance and in vitro binding assays support the role of Glu87 as the catalytic base in adenylation, while Arg192 and Lys205 are shown to be critical for ATP binding. PMID:26527143

  6. Synthesis, conformational and spectroscopic characterization of monomeric styrene derivatives having pendant p-substituted benzylic ether groups.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Mehmet; Ozcan, Levent; Karabacak, Mehmet; Erol, Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Three derivatives of styrene monomer, 4-chlorophenyl-4-vinylbenzyl ether (I), 4-methoxyphenyl-4-vinylbenzyl ether (II) and 4-ethylphenyl-4-vinylbenzyl ether (III) were synthesized. The synthesized two novel compounds (I and III) and one with undefined structural features were identified by experimental spectroscopic techniques and density functional approach. The optimized geometrical structure, vibrational and electronic transitions along with chemical shifts of those compounds were presented in this study. The vibrational spectra of investigated compounds were recorded in solid state with FT-IR spectrometry in the range of 4000-400 cm(-1). The computational vibrational wavenumbers and also ground state equilibrium conformations were carried out by using density functional method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Assignments of the fundamental vibrational modes were examined on the basis of the measured data and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. Isotropic chemical shift of hydrogen and carbon nuclei were investigated via observed (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra in deuterated DMSO solution and predicted data applied with gauge-invariant atomic orbitals (GIAOs) method. The UV absorption spectra of monomers were observed in the range of 200-800 nm in ethanol, and time dependent DFT method was used to obtain the electronic properties. A detailed description of spectroscopic behaviors of compound was given based on the comparison of experimental measurements and theoretical computations. PMID:23608133

  7. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  8. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  9. Monomeric Ti(IV) homopiperazine complexes and their exploitation for the ring opening polymerisation of rac-lactide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The area of biodegradable/sustainable polymers is one of increasing importance in the 21st Century due to their positive environmental characteristics. Lewis acidic metal centres are currently one of the most popular choices for the initiator for the polymerisation. Thus, in this paper we report the synthesis and characterisation of a series of monometallic homopiperazine Ti(IV) complexes where we have systematically varied the sterics of the phenol moieties. Results When the ortho substituent of the ligand is either a Me, tBu or amyl then the β-cis isomer is isolated exclusively in the solid-state. Nevertheless, in solution multiple isomers are clearly observed from analysis of the NMR spectra. However, when the ortho substituent is an H-atom then the trans-isomer is formed in the solid-state and solely in solution. The complexes have been screened for the polymerisation of rac-lactide in solution and under the industrially preferred melt conditions. Narrow molecular weight material (PDI 1.07 – 1.23) is formed under melt conditions with controlled molecular weights. Conclusions Six new Ti(IV) complexes are presented which are highly active for the polymerisation. In all cases atactic polymer is prepared with predictable molecular weight control. This shows the potential applicability of Ti(IV) to initiate the polymerisations. PMID:23915921

  10. Evidence for monomeric and oligomeric hormone-binding domains in affinity-purified gonadotropin receptor from rat ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.Y.; Menon, K.M.J. )

    1989-11-01

    Rat ovarian lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor was purified from a Triton X-100-solubilized membrane preparation by affinity chromatography with Affi-Gel 10 coupled to purified human choriogonadotropin. The affinity-purified receptor preparations contained a single class of high-affinity binding sites for {sup 125}I-labeled human choriogonadotropin, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} M, which is comparable to the K{sub d} values for membrane-bound and solubilized receptors. The purified receptor appeared as two dominant bands with molecular weights of 135,000 and 92,000 after sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) under nonreducing conditions. When the individual affinity-purified receptor bands were electroeluted from the gel and analyzed again by SDS/PAGE under nonreducing conditions, both the M{sub r} 92,000 and the 135,000 proteins retained their original molecular form even when 8 M urea was included in the gel. However, when the electrophoretically purified M{sub r} 92,000 and 135,000 bands were subjected to SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions, the M{sub r} 135,000 species was almost completely converted to a M{sub r} 92,000 band, but the M{sub r} 92,000 species did not undergo any alteration in molecular weight. The results suggest that the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor from rat ovary exists in two molecular forms, and the higher molecular weight form appears to be composed of disulfide-linked M{sup r} 92,000 subunit, which comprises the hormone-binding domain.

  11. Time-Resolved Detection of Light-Induced Dimerization of Monomeric Aureochrome-1 and Change in Affinity for DNA.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yuki; Nakasone, Yusuke; Nakatani, Yoichi; Hisatomi, Osamu; Terazima, Masahide

    2016-08-01

    Aureochrome (Aureo) is a recently discovered blue light sensor protein initially from Vaucheria frigida, in which it controls blue light-dependent branch formation and/or development of a sex organ by a light-dependent change in the affinity for DNA. Although photochemical reactions of Aureo-LOV (LOV is a C-terminal light-oxygen-voltage domain) and the N-terminal truncated construct containing a bZIP (N-terminal basic leucine zipper domain) and a LOV domain have previously been reported, the reaction kinetics of the change in affinity for DNA have never been elucidated. The reactions of Aureo where the cysteines are replaced by serines (AureoCS) as well as the kinetics of the change in affinity for a target DNA are investigated in the time-domain. The dimerization rate constant is obtained as 2.8 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), which suggests that the photoinduced dimerization occurs in the LOV domain and the bZIP domain dimerizes using the interaction with DNA. Surprisingly, binding with the target DNA is completed very quickly, 7.7 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), which is faster than the protein dimerization rate. It is proposed that the nonspecific electrostatic interaction, which is observed as a weak binding with DNA, may play a role in the efficient searching for the target sequence within the DNA. PMID:27404115

  12. Processing and Storage Effects on Monomeric Anthocyanins, Percent Polymeric Color, and Antioxidant Capacity of Processed Blackberry Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberries are a rich source of polyphenolics, particularly anthocyanins, that may contribute to the reduced risk of chronic disease; however, as with most berries, the fresh fruit are only seasonally available. With most of the blackberries consumed as frozen or in thermally processed forms after...

  13. Binding dynamics of a monomeric SSB protein to DNA: a single-molecule multi-process approach

    PubMed Central

    Morten, Michael J.; Peregrina, Jose R.; Figueira-Gonzalez, Maria; Ackermann, Katrin; Bode, Bela E.; White, Malcolm F.; Penedo, J. Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs) are ubiquitous across all organisms and are characterized by the presence of an OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide/oligopeptide) binding motif to recognize single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Despite their critical role in genome maintenance, our knowledge about SSB function is limited to proteins containing multiple OB-domains and little is known about single OB-folds interacting with ssDNA. Sulfolobus solfataricus SSB (SsoSSB) contains a single OB-fold and being the simplest representative of the SSB-family may serve as a model to understand fundamental aspects of SSB:DNA interactions. Here, we introduce a novel approach based on the competition between Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE) and quenching to dissect SsoSSB binding dynamics at single-monomer resolution. We demonstrate that SsoSSB follows a monomer-by-monomer binding mechanism that involves a positive-cooperativity component between adjacent monomers. We found that SsoSSB dynamic behaviour is closer to that of Replication Protein A than to Escherichia coli SSB; a feature that might be inherited from the structural analogies of their DNA-binding domains. We hypothesize that SsoSSB has developed a balance between high-density binding and a highly dynamic interaction with ssDNA to ensure efficient protection of the genome but still allow access to ssDNA during vital cellular processes. PMID:26578575

  14. Bhageerath-H: A homology/ab initio hybrid server for predicting tertiary structures of monomeric soluble proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The advent of human genome sequencing project has led to a spurt in the number of protein sequences in the databanks. Success of structure based drug discovery severely hinges on the availability of structures. Despite significant progresses in the area of experimental protein structure determination, the sequence-structure gap is continually widening. Data driven homology based computational methods have proved successful in predicting tertiary structures for sequences sharing medium to high sequence similarities. With dwindling similarities of query sequences, advanced homology/ ab initio hybrid approaches are being explored to solve structure prediction problem. Here we describe Bhageerath-H, a homology/ ab initio hybrid software/server for predicting protein tertiary structures with advancing drug design attempts as one of the goals. Results Bhageerath-H web-server was validated on 75 CASP10 targets which showed TM-scores ≥0.5 in 91% of the cases and Cα RMSDs ≤5Å from the native in 58% of the targets, which is well above the CASP10 water mark. Comparison with some leading servers demonstrated the uniqueness of the hybrid methodology in effectively sampling conformational space, scoring best decoys and refining low resolution models to high and medium resolution. Conclusion Bhageerath-H methodology is web enabled for the scientific community as a freely accessible web server. The methodology is fielded in the on-going CASP11 experiment. PMID:25521245

  15. Monomeric mixed cadmium-2,2'-dipyridylamine complex derived from ferrocenecarboxylic acid: Structural, electrochemical and biological studies.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Kabali; Gopalakrishnan, Mohan; Palanisami, Nallasamy

    2015-09-01

    A mixed Cd(II) complex {[Cd(FcCOO)2(dpyam)(H2O)][Cd(dpyam)2 (H2O)2]·(ClO4)2·CH3OH} (1) (where FcCOO=ferrocenecarboxylic acid and dpyam=2,2'-dipyridylamine), has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, (1)H &(13)C NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The molecular structure of compound 1 has been determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique, which consists of mixed two different cadmium(II) complexes and two uncoordinated perchlorate ions. The crystal packing shows that the compound 1 self-assembled by intermolecular hydrogen bonding via pyridyl N-H⋯O and coordinated water O⋯H-O-H⋯O, to afford the molecule 2D supramolecular network. Compound 1 exhibits high-energy intraligand (π-π(∗)) fluorescence emission. In electrochemical studies of compound 1 shows negative potential compared with ferrocenecarboxylic acid due to formation of coordination complex with Cd ions. The antibacterial study against the distinct bacterial strains show compound 1 has significant activity. PMID:25879985

  16. Monomeric mixed cadmium-2,2‧-dipyridylamine complex derived from ferrocenecarboxylic acid: Structural, electrochemical and biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Kabali; Gopalakrishnan, Mohan; Palanisami, Nallasamy

    2015-09-01

    A mixed Cd(II) complex {[Cd(FcCOO)2(dpyam)(H2O)][Cd(dpyam)2 (H2O)2]·(ClO4)2·CH3OH} (1) (where FcCOO = ferrocenecarboxylic acid and dpyam = 2,2‧-dipyridylamine), has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H & 13C NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The molecular structure of compound 1 has been determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique, which consists of mixed two different cadmium(II) complexes and two uncoordinated perchlorate ions. The crystal packing shows that the compound 1 self-assembled by intermolecular hydrogen bonding via pyridyl N-H⋯O and coordinated water O⋯H-O-H⋯O, to afford the molecule 2D supramolecular network. Compound 1 exhibits high-energy intraligand (π-π∗) fluorescence emission. In electrochemical studies of compound 1 shows negative potential compared with ferrocenecarboxylic acid due to formation of coordination complex with Cd ions. The antibacterial study against the distinct bacterial strains show compound 1 has significant activity.

  17. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of eCGP123, an extremely stable monomeric green fluorescent protein with reversible photoswitching properties.

    PubMed

    Don Paul, Craig; Traore, Daouda A K; Byres, Emma; Rossjohn, Jamie; Devenish, Rodney J; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew; Wilce, Matthew C J; Prescott, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Enhanced consensus green protein variant 123 (eCGP123) is an extremely thermostable green fluorescent protein (GFP) that exhibits useful negative reversible photoswitching properties. eCGP123 was derived by the application of both a consensus engineering approach and a recursive evolutionary process. Diffraction-quality crystals of recombinant eCGP123 were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The eCGP123 crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.10 Å resolution. The data were indexed in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.63, b = 75.38, c = 84.51 Å, α = 90.96, β = 89.92, γ = 104.03°. The Matthews coefficient (V(M) = 2.26 Å(3) Da(-1)) and a solvent content of 46% indicated that the asymmetric unit contained eight eCGP123 molecules. PMID:22102044

  18. Klotho Regulates 14-3-3ζ Monomerization and Binding to the ASK1 Signaling Complex in Response to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Brobey, Reynolds K.; Dheghani, Mehdi; Foster, Philip P.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Rosenblatt, Kevin P

    2015-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) signaling complex is a key regulator of p38 MAPK activity, a major modulator of stress-associated with aging disorders. We recently reported that the ratio of free ASK1 to the complex-bound ASK1 is significantly decreased in Klotho-responsive manner and that Klotho-deficient tissues have elevated levels of free ASK1 which coincides with increased oxidative stress. Here, we tested the hypothesis that: 1) covalent interactions exist among three identified proteins constituting the ASK1 signaling complex; 2) in normal unstressed cells the ASK1, 14-3-3ζ and thioredoxin (Trx) proteins simultaneously engage in a tripartite complex formation; 3) Klotho’s stabilizing effect on the complex relied solely on 14-3-3ζ expression and its apparent phosphorylation and dimerization changes. To verify the hypothesis, we performed 14-3-3ζ siRNA knock-down experiments in conjunction with cell-based assays to measure ASK1-client protein interactions in the presence and absence of Klotho, and with or without an oxidant such as rotenone. Our results show that Klotho activity induces posttranslational modifications in the complex targeting 14-3-3ζ monomer/dimer changes to effectively protect against ASK1 oxidation and dissociation. This is the first observation implicating all three proteins constituting the ASK1 signaling complex in close proximity. PMID:26517365

  19. Molecular structure (monomeric and dimeric) and hydrogen bonds in 5-benzyl 2-thiohydantoin studied by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Deval, Vipin; Kumar, Amit; Gupta, Vineet; Sharma, Anamika; Gupta, Archana; Tandon, Poonam; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki

    2014-11-11

    In the present work the structural and spectral characteristics of 5-benzyl-2-thiohydantoin (5-BTH) have been studied by methods of infrared, Raman spectroscopy and quantum chemistry. Electrostatic potential surface, optimized geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and activities of Raman scattering were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-311G++(d,p) basis set. Our results support the hydrogen bonding pattern proposed by reported crystalline structure. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule are calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded in methanol solvent. The TD-DFT calculations have been performed to explore the influence of electronic absorption spectra in the gas phase, as well as in solution environment using PCM and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of the compound were calculated at different temperatures and corresponding relations between the properties and temperature were also studied. PMID:24845873

  20. Molecular structure (monomeric and dimeric) and hydrogen bonds in 5-benzyl 2-thiohydantoin studied by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deval, Vipin; Kumar, Amit; Gupta, Vineet; Sharma, Anamika; Gupta, Archana; Tandon, Poonam; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki

    2014-11-01

    In the present work the structural and spectral characteristics of 5-benzyl-2-thiohydantoin (5-BTH) have been studied by methods of infrared, Raman spectroscopy and quantum chemistry. Electrostatic potential surface, optimized geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and activities of Raman scattering were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-311G++(d,p) basis set. Our results support the hydrogen bonding pattern proposed by reported crystalline structure. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule are calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded in methanol solvent. The TD-DFT calculations have been performed to explore the influence of electronic absorption spectra in the gas phase, as well as in solution environment using PCM and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of the compound were calculated at different temperatures and corresponding relations between the properties and temperature were also studied.

  1. PHI: a powerful new program for the analysis of anisotropic monomeric and exchange-coupled polynuclear d- and f-block complexes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Nicholas F; Anderson, Russell P; Turner, Lincoln D; Soncini, Alessandro; Murray, Keith S

    2013-05-15

    A new program, PHI, with the ability to calculate the magnetic properties of large spin systems and complex orbitally degenerate systems, such as clusters of d-block and f-block ions, is presented. The program can intuitively fit experimental data from multiple sources, such as magnetic and spectroscopic data, simultaneously. PHI is extensively parallelized and can operate under the symmetric multiprocessing, single process multiple data, or GPU paradigms using a threaded, MPI or GPU model, respectively. For a given problem PHI is been shown to be almost 12 times faster than the well-known program MAGPACK, limited only by available hardware. PMID:23386394

  2. FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV spectra and DFT calculations on monomeric and dimeric structure of 2-amino-5-bromobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Cinar, Mehmet

    2012-02-01

    In this work, the molecular conformation, vibrational and electronic transition analysis of 2-amino-5-bromobenzoic acid (2A5BrBA) were presented for the ground state using experimental techniques (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP exchange correlation with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the regions of 400-4000 cm -1 and 50-4000 cm -1, respectively. There are four conformers, C1, C2, C3 and C4 for this molecule. The geometrical parameters, energies and wavenumbers have been obtained for all four conformers. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of 2A5BrBA as the C1 form. The complete assignments of fundamental vibrations were performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. Raman activities calculated by DFT method have been converted to the corresponding Raman intensities using Raman scattering theory. The UV spectra of investigated compound were recorded in the region of 200-400 nm for ethanol and water solutions. The electronic properties were evaluated with help of time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) theoretically and results were compared with experimental observations. The thermodynamic properties of the studied compound at different temperatures were calculated, revealing the correlations between standard heat capacity, standard entropy, standard enthalpy changes and temperatures. The observed and the calculated geometric parameters, vibrational wavenumbers and electronic transitions were compared with observed data and found to be in good agreement.

  3. Ultrahigh and High Resolution Structures and Mutational Analysis of Monomeric Streptococcus pyogenes SpeB Reveal a Functional Role for the Glycine-rich C-terminal Loop

    SciTech Connect

    González-Páez, Gonzalo E.; Wolan, Dennis W.

    2012-09-05

    Cysteine protease SpeB is secreted from Streptococcus pyogenes and has been studied as a potential virulence factor since its identification almost 70 years ago. Here, we report the crystal structures of apo mature SpeB to 1.06 {angstrom} resolution as well as complexes with the general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and a novel substrate mimetic peptide inhibitor. These structures uncover conformational changes associated with maturation of SpeB from the inactive zymogen to its active form and identify the residues required for substrate binding. With the use of a newly developed fluorogenic tripeptide substrate to measure SpeB activity, we determined IC{sub 50} values for trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and our new peptide inhibitor and the effects of mutations within the C-terminal active site loop. The structures and mutational analysis suggest that the conformational movements of the glycine-rich C-terminal loop are important for the recognition and recruitment of biological substrates and release of hydrolyzed products.

  4. Molecular analysis of plasmid DNA repair within ultraviolet-irradiated Escherichia coli. II. UvrABC-initiated excision repair and photolyase-catalyzed dimer monomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1988-09-05

    In this study, a novel approach to the analysis of DNA repair in Escherichia coli was employed which allowed the first direct determination of the mechanisms by which endogenous DNA repair enzymes encounter target sites in vivo. An in vivo plasmid DNA repair analysis was employed to discriminate between two possible mechanisms of target site location: a processive DNA scanning mechanism or a distributive random diffusion mechanism. The results demonstrate that photolyase acts by a distributive mechanism within E. coli. In contrast, UvrABC-initiated excision repair occurs by a limited processive DNA scanning mechanism. A majority of the dimer sites on a given plasmid molecule were repaired prior to the dissociation of the UvrABC complex. Furthermore, plasmid DNA repair catalyzed by the UvrABC complex occurs without a detectable accumulation of nicked plasmid intermediates despite the fact that the UvrABC complex generates dual incisions in the DNA at the site of a pyrimidine dimer. Therefore, the binding or assembly of the UvrABC complex on DNA at the site of a pyrimidine dimer represents the rate-limiting step in the overall process of UvrABC-initiated excision repair in vivo.

  5. Adsorption mechanism in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Effect of the surface coverage of a monomeric C18-silica stationary phase

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2006-04-01

    The effect of the bonding density of the octadecyl chains onto the same silica on the adsorption and retention properties of low molecular weight compounds (phenol, caffeine, and sodium 2-naphthalene sulfonate) was investigated. The same mobile phase (methanol:water, 20:80, v/v) and temperature (T = 298 K) were applied and two duplicate columns (A and B) from each batch of packing material (neat silica, simply endcapped or C{sub 1} phase, 0.42, 1.01, 2.03, and 3.15 {micro}mol/m{sup 2} of C{sub 18} alkyl chains) were tested. Adsorption data of the three compounds were acquired by frontal analysis (FA) and the adsorption energy distributions (AEDs) were calculated using the expectation-maximization method. Results confirmed earlier findings in linear chromatography of a retention maximum at an intermediate bonding density. From a general point of view, the saturation capacity of the adsorbent tends to decrease with increasing bonding density, due to the vanishing space intercalated between the C{sub 18} bonded chains and to the decrease of the specific surface area of the stationary phase. The equilibrium constants are maximum for an intermediary bonding density ({approx}2 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}). An enthalpy-entropy compensation was found for the thermodynamic parameters of the isotherm data. Weak equilibrium constants (small {Delta}H) and high saturation capacities (large {Delta}S) were observed at low bonding densities, higher equilibrium constants and lower saturation capacities at high bonding densities, the combinations leading to similar apparent retention in RPLC. The use of a low surface coverage column is recommended for preparative purposes.

  6. A chromatographic estimate of the degree of surface heterogeneity of reversed-phase liquid chromatography packing materials II-Endcapped monomeric C18-bonded stationary phase

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2006-01-01

    In a previous report, the heterogeneity of a non-endcapped C{sub 30}-bonded stationary phase was investigated, based on the results of the measurements of the adsorption isotherms of two neutral compounds (phenol and caffeine) and two ionizable compounds (sodium naphthalene sulfonate and propranololium chloride) by frontal analysis (FA). The same method is applied here for the characterization of the surface heterogeneity of two new brands of endcapped C{sub 18}-bonded stationary phases (Gemini and Sunfire). The adsorption isotherms of the same four chemicals were measured by FA and the results confirmed by the independent calculation of the adsorption energy distribution (AED), using the expectation-maximization (EM) method. The effect of the length of the bonded alkyl chain was investigated. Shorter alkyl-bonded-chains (C{sub 18} versus C{sub 30}) and the end-capping of the silica surface contribute to decrease the surface heterogeneity under the same experimental conditions (30% methanol, 25 mM NaCl). The AEDs of phenol and caffeine are bimodal with the C{sub 18}-bonded columns while they are trimodal and quadrimodal, respectively, with a non-endcapped C{sub 30}-bonded column. The 'supersites' (adsorption energy >20 kJ/mol) found on the C{sub 30}-Prontosil column and attributed to a cation exchange mechanism completely disappear on the C{sub 18}-Gemini and C{sub 18}-Sunfire, probably because the end-capping of the silica surface eliminates most if not all the ionic interactions.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a monomeric octahedral C2-symmetric titanium complex bearing two 3,3'-diphenyl-2,2'-biphenol ligands.

    PubMed

    Diebold, Carine; Mobian, Pierre; Huguenard, Clarisse; Allouche, Lionel; Henry, Marc

    2009-12-14

    The 3,3'-diphenyl-2,2'-biphenol (dpbpolH(2)) ligand is shown to react with Ti(OPr(i))(4) in a 2:1 ratio to yield a novel C(2)-symmetric mononuclear octahedral Ti(IV) bis-biphenolate complex, cis-Ti(dpbpol)(2)(HOPr(i))(2). PMID:19921051

  8. Rotational spectroscopy of ClZnCH3 (X1A1): Gas-phase synthesis and characterization of a monomeric Grignard-type reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, J.; Bucchino, M. P.; Kilchenstein, K. M.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2016-02-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of the organozinc halide, ClZnCH3 (X1A1), has been measured using Fourier-transform microwave (FTMW) and millimeter-wave direct-absorption methods in the frequency range 10-296 GHz. This work is the first study of ClZnCH3 by gas-phase spectroscopy. The molecule was created in a DC discharge from the reaction of zinc vapor, produced either by a Broida-type oven or by laser ablation, with chloromethane in what appears to be a metal insertion process. Rotational and chlorine quadrupole constants were determined for three zinc isotopologues. The Znsbnd Cl bond was found to be partly ionic and significantly shorter than in EtZnCl.

  9. Heterologous protection elicited by candidate monomeric recombinant HIV-1 gp120 vaccine in the absence of cross neutralising antibodies in a macaque model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current data suggest that an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine should elicit both adaptive humoral and cell mediated immune responses. Such a vaccine will also need to protect against infection from a range of heterologous viral variants. Here we have developed a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) based model in cynomolgus macaques to investigate the breadth of protection conferred by HIV-1W61D recombinant gp120 vaccination against SHIVsbg and SHIVSF33 challenge, and to identify correlates of protection. Results High titres of anti-envelope antibodies were detected in all vaccinees. The antibodies reacted with both the homologous HIV-1W61D and heterologous HIV-1IIIB envelope rgp120 which has an identical sequence to the SHIVsbg challenge virus. Significant titres of virus neutralising antibodies were detected against SHIVW61D expressing an envelope homologous with the vaccine, but only limited cross neutralisation against SHIVsbg, SHIV-4 and SHIVSF33 was observed. Protection against SHIVsbg infection was observed in vaccinated animals but none was observed against SHIVSF33 challenge. Transfer of immune sera from vaccinated macaques to naive recipients did not confer protection against SHIVsbg challenge. In a follow-up study, T cell proliferative responses detected after immunisation with the same vaccine against a single peptide present in the second conserved region 2 of HIV-1 W61D and HIV-1 IIIB gp120, but not SF33 gp120. Conclusions Following extended vaccination with a HIV-1 rgp120 vaccine, protection was observed against heterologous virus challenge with SHIVsbg, but not SHIVSF33. Protection did not correlate with serological responses generated by vaccination, but might be associated with T cell proliferative responses against an epitope in the second constant region of HIV-1 gp120. Broader protection may be obtained with recombinant HIV-1 envelope based vaccines formulated with adjuvants that generate proliferative T cell responses in addition to broadly neutralising antibodies. PMID:22799593

  10. The amyloid precursor protein C-terminal fragment C100 occurs in monomeric and dimeric stable conformations and binds γ-secretase modulators.

    PubMed

    Botev, Anne; Munter, Lisa-Marie; Wenzel, Ringo; Richter, Luise; Althoff, Veit; Ismer, Jochen; Gerling, Ulla; Weise, Christoph; Koksch, Beate; Hildebrand, Peter W; Bittl, Robert; Multhaup, Gerd

    2011-02-01

    The amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is contained within the C-terminal fragment (β-CTF) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and is intimately linked to Alzheimer's disease. In vivo, Aβ is generated by sequential cleavage of β-CTF within the γ-secretase module. To investigate γ-secretase function, in vitro assays are in widespread use which require a recombinant β-CTF substrate expressed in bacteria and purified from inclusion bodies, termed C100. So far, little is known about the conformation of C100 under different conditions of purification and refolding. Since C100 dimerization influences the efficiency and specificity of γ-secretase cleavage, it is also of great interest to determine the secondary structure and the oligomeric state of the synthetic substrate as well as the binding properties of small molecules named γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) which we could previously show to modulate APP transmembrane sequence interactions [Richter et al. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 14597-14602]. Here, we use circular dichroism and continuous-wave electron spin resonance measurements to show that C100 purified in a buffer containing SDS at micelle-forming concentrations adopts a highly stable α-helical conformation, in which it shows little tendency to aggregate or to form higher oligomers than dimers. By surface plasmon resonance analysis and molecular modeling we show that the GSM sulindac sulfide binds to C100 and has a preference for C100 dimers. PMID:21186781

  11. Quantum-chemical (DFT, MP2) and spectroscopic studies (FT-IR and UV) of monomeric and dimeric structures of 2(3H)-Benzothiazolone.

    PubMed

    Sinha, L; Prasad, O; Karabacak, M; Mishra, H N; Narayan, V; Asiri, A M

    2014-01-01

    Molecular geometry and vibrational wavenumbers of 2(3H)-Benzothiazolone (C7H5NSO, HBT) was investigated using density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational wavenumbers are found to be in good agreement with experimental FT-IR spectra. Hydrogen-bonded dimer of HBT, optimized by counterpoise correction, was studied by MP2 and DFT/B3LYP at the 6-311+G(d,p) level and the effects of molecular association through NH---O hydrogen bonding were discussed. A detailed analysis of the nature of the hydrogen bonding, using topological parameters, such as electronic charge density, Laplacian, kinetic and potential energy density evaluated at bond critical points (BCP) has also been presented. The UV absorption spectra of the compound dissolved in ethanol and chloroform solutions were recorded in the range of 200-600 nm. The UV-vis spectrum of the title molecule was also calculated using TD-DFT method. The calculated energy and oscillator strength almost exactly reproduce the experimental data. Total and partial density of state (TDOS, PDOS) of the HBT in terms of HOMOs and LUMOs and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated and analyzed. The electric dipole moment, polarizability and the first static hyper-polarizability values for HBT were calculated at the DFT/B3LYP with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The results also show that the HBT molecule may have nonlinear optical (NLO) comportment with non-zero values. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization was analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. PMID:24177879

  12. Activity and Structural Comparisons of Solution Associating and Monomeric Channel-Forming Peptides Derived from the Glycine Receptor M2 Segment

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gabriel A.; Prakash, Om; Zhang, Ke; Shank, Lalida P.; Takeguchi, Wade A.; Robbins, Ashley; Gong, Yu-Xi; Iwamoto, Takeo; Schultz, Bruce D.; Tomich, John M.

    2004-01-01

    A number of channel-forming peptides derived from the second transmembrane (TM) segment (M2) of the glycine receptor α1 subunit (M2GlyR), including the 22-residue sequence NK4-M2GlyR p22 wild type (WT) (KKKKPARVGLGITTVLTMTTQS), induce anion permeation across epithelial cell monolayers. In vitro assays suggest that this peptide or related sequences might function as a candidate for ion channel replacement therapy in treating channelopathies such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The wild-type sequence forms soluble associations in water that diminish its efficacy. Introduction of a single substitution S22W at the C-terminus, NK4-M2GlyR p22 S22W, eliminates the formation of higher molecular weight associations in solution. The S22W peptide also reduces the concentration of peptide required for half-maximal anion transport induced across Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) monolayers. A combination of 2D double quantum filtered correlation spectroscopy (DQF-COSY), total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), and rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) data were recorded for both the associating WT and nonassociating S22W peptides and used to compare the primary structures and to assign the secondary structures. High-resolution structural studies were recorded in the solvent system (40% 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE)/water), which gave the largest structural difference between the two peptides. Nuclear Overhauser effect crosspeak intensity provided interproton distances and the torsion angles were measured by spin-spin coupling constants. These constraints were put into the DYANA modeling program to generate a group of structures. These studies yielded energy-minimized structures for this mixed solvent environment. Structure for both peptides is confined to the 15-residue transmembrane segments. The energy-minimized structure for the WT peptide shows a partially helical extended structure. The S22W peptide adopts a bent conformation forming a hydrophobic pocket by hydrophobic interactions. PMID:14990471

  13. How do monomeric components of a polymer gel dosimeter respond to ionising radiation: A steady-state radiolysis towards preparation of a 3D polymer gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek

    2011-12-01

    Ionising radiation-induced reactions of aqueous single monomer solutions and mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (Bis) in a steady-state condition are presented below and above gelation doses in order to highlight reactions in irradiated 3D polymer gel dosimeters, which are assigned for radiotherapy dosimetry. Both monomers are shown to undergo radical polymerisation and cross-linking, which result in the measured increase in molecular weight and radius of gyration of the formed polydisperse polymer coils. The formation of nanogels was also observed for Bis solutions at a low concentration. In the case of PEGDA-Bis mixtures, co-polymerisation is suggested as well. At a sufficiently high radiation dose, the formation of a polymer network was observed for both monomers and their mixture. For this reason a sol-gel analysis for PEGDA and Bis was performed gravimetrically and a proposition of an alternative to this method employing a nuclear magnetic resonance technique is made. The two monomers were used for preparation of 3D polymer gel dosimeters having the acronyms PABIG and PABIG nx. The latter is presented for the first time in this work and is a type of the formerly established PABIG polymer gel dosimeter. The elementary characteristics of the new composition are presented, underlining the ease of its preparation, low dose threshold, and slightly increased sensitivity but lower quasi-linear range of dose response in comparison to PABIG.

  14. “Covalent Hydration” Reactions in Model Monomeric Ru 2,2'-Bipyridine Complexes: Thermodynamic Favorability as a Function of Metal Oxidation and Overall Spin States

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkanlar, Abdullah; Cape, Jonathan L.; Hurst, James K.; Clark, Aurora E.

    2011-09-05

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to investigate the plausibility of water addition to the simple mononuclear ruthenium complexes, [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)Ru=O]{sup 2+}/{sup 3+} and [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)RuOH]{sup 3+}, in which the OH fragment adds to the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine (bpy) ligand. Activation of bpy toward water addition has frequently been postulated within the literature, although there exists little definitive experimental evidence for this type of 'covalent hydration'. In this study, we examine the energetic dependence of the reaction upon metal oxidation state, overall spin state of the complex, as well as selectivity for various positions on the bipyridine ring. The thermodynamic favorability is found to be highly dependent upon all three parameters, with free energies of reaction that span favorable and unfavorable regimes. Aqueous addition to [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)Ru=O]{sup 3+} was found to be highly favorable for the S = 1/2 state, while reduction of the formal oxidation state on the metal center makes the reaction highly unfavorable. Examination of both facial and meridional isomers reveals that when bipyridine occupies the position trans to the ruthenyl oxo atom, reactivity toward OH addition decreases and the site preferences are altered. The electronic structure and spectroscopic signatures (EPR parameters and simulated spectra) have been determined to aid in recognition of 'covalent hydration' in experimental systems. EPR parameters are found to uniquely characterize the position of the OH addition to the bpy as well as the overall spin state of the system.

  15. Interactions of the monomeric and dimeric flavones apigenin and amentoflavone with the plasma membrane of L929 cells; a fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Lenne-Gouverneur, A F; Lobstein, A; Haan-Archipoff, G; Duportail, G; Anton, R; Kuhry, J G

    1999-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous polyphenolic compounds, found in vascular plants, which are endowed with a large variety of biological effects. Some of these effects have been assumed to result from interactions with the cell plasma membrane. In order to investigate the nature of these interactions a fluorescence study was performed with two flavonoids, currently used in one of the laboratories: apigenin and its homologous dimer amentoflavone. After preliminary assays with DPH in several types of phospholipid liposomes, the effects of these flavonoids on the membrane of mouse L929 fibroblasts were compared, using the non-permeant probe TMA-DPH. Amentoflavone, unlike apigenin, induced a static quenching effect, which denoted an important, but reversible, association of the molecule with the plasma membrane. In addition, amentoflavone treatment induced a dose-dependent increase in TMA-DPH fluorescence anisotropy, which could be interpreted as an increase in membrane lipidic order. For apigenin, the effect was much less important. Moreover, exploiting the capacity of TMA-DPH to label endocytic compartments, it was shown that, after association with the membrane, amentoflavone is not internalized into the cell. Possible correlations of these membrane effects with other biological properties are discussed. PMID:10417980

  16. A monomeric complex of ammonia and cuprous chloride: H{sub 3}N⋯CuCl isolated and characterised by rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, Dror M.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Stephens, Susanna L.; Walker, Nicholas R. E-mail: a.c.legon@bristol.ac.uk; Tew, David P.; Legon, Anthony C. E-mail: a.c.legon@bristol.ac.uk

    2015-04-14

    The H{sub 3}N⋯CuCl monomer has been generated and isolated in the gas phase through laser vaporisation of a copper sample in the presence of low concentrations of NH{sub 3} and CCl{sub 4} in argon. The resulting complex cools to a rotational temperature approaching 2 K during supersonic expansion of the gas sample and is characterised by broadband rotational spectroscopy between 7 and 18.5 GHz. The spectra of six isotopologues are measured and analysed to determine rotational, B{sub 0}; centrifugal distortion, D{sub J}, D{sub JK}; and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of Cu, Cl, and {sup 14}N nuclei, χ{sub aa} (X). The geometry of the complex is C{sub 3v} with the N, Cu, and Cl atoms located on the a inertial axis. Bond distances and the ∠(H —N⋯Cu) bond angle within the complex are precisely evaluated through fitting of geometrical parameters to the experimentally determined moments of inertia and through ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T)(F12*)/AVQZ level. The r(Cu —Cl), r(Cu —N), and ∠(H —N⋯Cu) parameters are, respectively, evaluated to be 2.0614(7) Å, 1.9182(13) Å, and 111.40(6)° in the r{sub 0} geometry, in good agreement with the ab initio calculations. Geometrical parameters evaluated for the isolated complex are compared with those established crystallographically for a solid-state sample of [Cu(NH{sub 3})Cl].

  17. Cloning and characterization of a gene encoding Rac/Rop-like monomeric guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Toshiaki; Shite, Masato; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2009-06-01

    A cDNA clone, designated Sd-racrop (969 bp), was isolated from seedlings of Scoparia dulcis. This gene contains an open reading frame encoding the protein of 197 amino acid residues with high homology to Rac/Rop small guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding proteins from various plant sources. In Southern hybridization analysis, the restriction digests prepared from genomic DNA of S. dulcis showed a main signal together with a few weakly hybridized bands. The transcriptional level of Sd-racrop showed a transient decrease by exposure of the leaf tissues of S. dulcis to the ethylene-generating reagent 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid. However, an appreciable increase in gene expression was reproducibly observed upon treatment of the plant with methyl jasmonate. These results suggest that the Sd-racrop product plays roles in ethylene- and methyl jasmonate-induced responses of S. dulcis accompanying the change in the transcriptional level, however, the cellular events mediated by this protein toward these external stimuli would be regulated by various mechanisms. PMID:19483328

  18. Ultrahigh and High Resolution Structures and Mutational Analysis of Monomeric Streptococcus pyogenes SpeB Reveal a Functional Role for the Glycine-rich C-terminal Loop

    PubMed Central

    González-Páez, Gonzalo E.; Wolan, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine protease SpeB is secreted from Streptococcus pyogenes and has been studied as a potential virulence factor since its identification almost 70 years ago. Here, we report the crystal structures of apo mature SpeB to 1.06 Å resolution as well as complexes with the general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and a novel substrate mimetic peptide inhibitor. These structures uncover conformational changes associated with maturation of SpeB from the inactive zymogen to its active form and identify the residues required for substrate binding. With the use of a newly developed fluorogenic tripeptide substrate to measure SpeB activity, we determined IC50 values for trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and our new peptide inhibitor and the effects of mutations within the C-terminal active site loop. The structures and mutational analysis suggest that the conformational movements of the glycine-rich C-terminal loop are important for the recognition and recruitment of biological substrates and release of hydrolyzed products. PMID:22645124

  19. Syntheses, carbonylations, and dihydrogen exchange studies of monomeric and dimeric silox ([sup 1]Bu[sub 3]SiO[sup [minus

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Toreki, R.; LaPointe, R.E.; Wolczanski, P.T.; Van Duyne, G.D.; Roe, D.C. )

    1993-06-30

    The direct conversion of natural gas to fuels will ultimately be the most desirable use of this abundant resource, but recent Fischer-Tropsch process (F-T) routes represent feasible, competitive substitutes, and some are actually approaching commercialization. Recently, the use of [sup t]Bu[sub 3]SiO[sup [minus

  20. Role of Polymeric Endosomolytic Agents in Gene Transfection: A Comparative Study of Poly(l-lysine) Grafted with Monomeric l-Histidine Analogue and Poly(l-histidine)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Endosomal entrapment is one of the main barriers that must be overcome for efficient gene expression along with cell internalization, DNA release, and nuclear import. Introducing pH-sensitive ionizable groups into the polycationic polymers to increase gene transfer efficiency has proven to be a useful method; however, a comparative study of introducing equal numbers of ionizable groups in both polymer and monomer forms, has not been reported. In this study, we prepared two types of histidine-grafted poly(l-lysine) (PLL), a stacking form of poly(l-histidine) (PLL-g-PHis) and a mono- l-histidine (PLL-g-mHis) with the same number of imidazole groups. These two types of histidine-grafted PLL, PLL-g-PHis and PLL-g-mHis, showed profound differences in hemolytic activity, cellular uptake, internalization, and transfection efficiency. Cy3-labeled PLL-g-PHis showed strong fluorescence in the nucleus after internalization, and high hemolytic activity upon pH changes was also observed from PLL-g-PHis. The arrangement of imidazole groups from PHis also provided higher gene expression than mHis due to its ability to escape the endosome. mHis or PHis grafting reduced the cytotoxicity of PLL and changed the rate of cellular uptake by changing the quantity of free ε-amines available for gene condensation. The subcellular localization of PLL-g-PHis/pDNA measured by YOYO1-pDNA intensity was highest inside the nucleus, while the lysotracker, which stains the acidic compartments was lowest among these polymers. Thus, the polymeric histidine arrangement demonstrate the ability to escape the endosome and trigger rapid release of polyplexes into the cytosol, resulting in a greater amount of pDNA available for translocation to the nucleus and enhanced gene expression. PMID:25144273

  1. Chemistry and catalytic activity of molybdenum(VI)-pyrazolylpyridine complexes in olefin epoxidation. Crystal structures of monomeric dioxo, dioxo-μ-oxo, and oxodiperoxo derivatives.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ana C; Nolasco, Mariela; Balula, Salete S; Antunes, Margarida M; Pereira, Cláudia C L; Almeida Paz, Filipe A; Valente, Anabela A; Pillinger, Martyn; Ribeiro-Claro, Paulo; Klinowski, Jacek; Gonçalves, Isabel S

    2011-01-17

    The dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes [MoO2Cl2(PzPy)] (1) and [MoO2(OSiPh3)2(PzPy)] (5) (PzPy = 2-[3(5)-pyrazolyl]pyridine) were synthesized and characterized by vibrational spectroscopy, with assignments being supported by DFT calculations. Complex 5 was additionally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Recrystallization of 1 under different conditions originated crystal structures containing either the mononuclear [MoO2Cl2(PzPy)] complex co-crystallized with 2-[3(5)-pyrazolyl]pyridinium chloride, binuclear [Mo2O4(μ2-O)Cl2(PzPy)2] complexes, or the oxodiperoxomolybdenum(VI) complex [MoO(O2)2Cl(PzPyH)], in which a 2-[3(5)-pyrazolyl]pyridinium cation weakly interacts with the Mo(VI) center via a pyrazolyl N-atom. The crystal packing in the different structures is mediated by a variety of supramolecular interactions: hydrogen bonding involving the pyridinium and/or pyrazolyl N-H groups, weak CH · · · O and CH · · · π contacts, and strong π-π stacking. Complexes 1 and 5 are moderately active catalysts for the epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene at 55 °C using tert-butylhydroperoxide as oxidant, giving 1,2-epoxycyclooctane as the only reaction product. Insoluble materials were recovered at the end of the first catalytic runs and characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and powder X-ray diffraction. For complex 5 the loss of the triphenylsiloxy ligands during the catalytic run resulted in the formation of a tetranuclear complex, [Mo4O8(μ2-O)4(PzPy)4]. The recovered solids could be used as efficient heterogeneous catalysts for the epoxidation of cyclooctene, showing no loss of catalytic performance between successive catalytic runs. PMID:21141938

  2. ALU repeats in promoters are position-dependent co-response elements (coRE) that enhance or repress transcription by dimeric and monomeric progesterone receptors.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Britta M; Jambal, Purevsuren; Schittone, Stephanie A; Horwitz, Kathryn B

    2009-07-01

    We have conducted an in silico analysis of progesterone response elements (PRE) in progesterone receptor (PR) up-regulated promoters. Imperfect inverted repeats, direct repeats, and half-site PRE are widespread, not only in PR-regulated, but also in non-PR-regulated and random promoters. Few resemble the commonly used palindromic PRE with three nucleotide (nt) spacers. We speculated that PRE may be necessary but insufficient to control endogenous PR-dependent transcription. A search for PRE partners identified a highly conserved 234-nt sequence invariably located within 1-2 kb of transcription start sites. It resembles ALU repeats and contains binding sites for 11 transcription factors. The 234-nt sequence of the PR-regulated 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase promoter was cloned in the forward or reverse orientation in front of zero, one, or two inverted repeat PRE, and one or tandem PRE half-sites, driving luciferase. Under these conditions the 234-nt sequence functions as a co-response element (coRE). From the PRE or tandem half-sites, the reverse coRE is a strong activator of PR and glucocorticoid receptor-dependent transcription. The forward coRE is a powerful repressor. The prevalence of PRE half-sites in natural promoters suggested that PR monomers regulate transcription. Indeed, dimerization-domain mutant PR monomers were stronger transactivators than wild-type PR on PRE or tandem half-sites. This was repressed by the forward coRE. We propose that in natural promoters the coRE functions as a composite response element with imperfect PRE and half-sites to present variable, orientation-dependent transcription factors for interaction with nearby PR. PMID:19372234

  3. A Hydrophobic Gold Surface Triggers Misfolding and Aggregation of the Amyloidogenic Josephin Domain in Monomeric Form, While Leaving the Oligomers Unaffected

    PubMed Central

    Apicella, Alessandra; Soncini, Monica; Deriu, Marco Agostino; Natalello, Antonino; Bonanomi, Marcella; Dellasega, David; Tortora, Paolo; Regonesi, Maria Elena; Casari, Carlo Spartaco

    2013-01-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation in intracellular and extracellular spaces is regarded as a main marker of the presence of degenerative disorders such as amyloidoses. To elucidate the mechanisms of protein misfolding, the interaction of proteins with inorganic surfaces is of particular relevance, since surfaces displaying different wettability properties may represent model systems of the cell membrane. Here, we unveil the role of surface hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity in the misfolding of the Josephin domain (JD), a globular-shaped domain of ataxin-3, the protein responsible for the spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. By means of a combined experimental and theoretical approach based on atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal changes in JD morphology and secondary structure elicited by the interaction with the hydrophobic gold substrate, but not by the hydrophilic mica. Our results demonstrate that the interaction with the gold surface triggers misfolding of the JD when it is in native-like configuration, while no structural modification is observed after the protein has undergone oligomerization. This raises the possibility that biological membranes would be unable to affect amyloid oligomeric structures and toxicity. PMID:23527026

  4. Assessment of the dietary intake of total flavan-3-ols, monomeric flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Kuhnle, Gunter G C

    2014-04-28

    Dietary interventions with flavan-3-ols have shown beneficial effects on vascular function. The translation of these findings into the context of the health of the general public requires detailed information on habitual dietary intake. However, only limited data are currently available for European populations. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the habitual intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins (PA) and theaflavins in the European Union (EU) and determined their main food sources using the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. Data for adults aged 18-64 years were available from fourteen European countries, and intake was determined using the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition Database, developed for the present study and based on the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases. The mean habitual intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, theaflavins and PA ranged from 181 mg/d (Czech Republic) to 793 mg/d (Ireland). The highest intakes of flavan-3-ol monomers and theaflavins were observed in Ireland (191/505 mg/d) and the lowest intakes in Spain (24/9 mg/d). In contrast, the daily intake of PA was highest in Spain (175 mg/d) and lowest in The Netherlands (96 mg/d). Main sources were tea (62%), pome fruits (11%), berries (3%) and cocoa products (3%). Tea was the major single contributor to monomer intake (75%), followed by pome fruits (6%). Pome fruits were also the main source of PA (28%). The present study provides important data on the population-based intake of flavanols in the EU and demonstrates that dietary intake amounts for flavan-3-ol monomers, PA and theaflavins vary significantly across European countries. The average habitual intake of flavan-3-ols is considerably below the amounts used in most dietary intervention studies. PMID:24331295

  5. Dynamics of Vacuoles and H+-Pyrophosphatase Visualized by Monomeric Green Fluorescent Protein in Arabidopsis: Artifactual Bulbs and Native Intravacuolar Spherical Structures[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Segami, Shoji; Makino, Sachi; Miyake, Ai; Asaoka, Mariko; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    We prepared Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing a functional green fluorescent protein (GFP)-linked vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase) under the control of its own promoter to investigate morphological dynamics of vacuoles and tissue-specific expression of H+-PPase. The lines obtained had spherical structures in vacuoles with strong fluorescence, which are referred to as bulbs. Quantitative analyses revealed that the occurrence of the bulbs correlated with the amount of GFP. Next, we prepared a construct of H+-PPase linked with a nondimerizing GFP (mGFP); we detected no bulbs. These results indicate that the membranes adhere face-to-face by antiparallel dimerization of GFP, resulting in the formation of bulbs. In plants expressing H+-PPase-mGFP, intravacuolar spherical structures with double membranes, which differed from bulbs in fluorescence intensity and intermembrane spacing, were still observed in peripheral endosperm, pistil epidermis and hypocotyls. Four-dimensional imaging revealed the dynamics of formation, transformation, and disappearance of intravacuolar spherical structures and transvacuolar strands in living cells. Visualization of H+-PPase-mGFP revealed intensive accumulation of the enzyme, not only in dividing and elongating cells but also in mesophyll, phloem, and nectary cells, which may have high sugar content. Dynamic morphological changes including transformation of vacuolar structures between transvacuolar strands, intravacuolar sheet-like structures, and intravacuolar spherical structures were also revealed. PMID:25118245

  6. A monomeric complex of ammonia and cuprous chloride: H3N⋯CuCl isolated and characterised by rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Dror M; Zaleski, Daniel P; Stephens, Susanna L; Tew, David P; Walker, Nicholas R; Legon, Anthony C

    2015-04-14

    The H3N⋯CuCl monomer has been generated and isolated in the gas phase through laser vaporisation of a copper sample in the presence of low concentrations of NH3 and CCl4 in argon. The resulting complex cools to a rotational temperature approaching 2 K during supersonic expansion of the gas sample and is characterised by broadband rotational spectroscopy between 7 and 18.5 GHz. The spectra of six isotopologues are measured and analysed to determine rotational, B0; centrifugal distortion, DJ, DJK; and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of Cu, Cl, and (14)N nuclei, χaa (X). The geometry of the complex is C3v with the N, Cu, and Cl atoms located on the a inertial axis. Bond distances and the ∠(H -N⋯Cu) bond angle within the complex are precisely evaluated through fitting of geometrical parameters to the experimentally determined moments of inertia and through ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T)(F12*)/AVQZ level. The r(Cu -Cl), r(Cu -N), and ∠(H -N⋯Cu) parameters are, respectively, evaluated to be 2.0614(7) Å, 1.9182(13) Å, and 111.40(6)° in the r0 geometry, in good agreement with the ab initio calculations. Geometrical parameters evaluated for the isolated complex are compared with those established crystallographically for a solid-state sample of [Cu(NH3)Cl]. PMID:25877573

  7. Partially transformed, anchorage-independent human diploid fibroblasts result from overexpression of the c-sis oncogene: mitogenic activity of an apparent monomeric platelet-derived growth factor 2 species.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, C W; Brondyk, W H; Burgess, J A; Manoharan, T H; Häne, B G; Fahl, W E

    1988-01-01

    A human c-sis cDNA in an expression vector was introduced into human diploid fibroblasts by transfection or electroporation. Fibroblast clones showing an aberrant, densely packed colony morphology were isolated and found to overexpress a 3.6-kilobase sis mRNA species and associated immunoprecipitable platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) 2 proteins. Parallel analyses in cell clones of sis mRNA expression and colony formation in agar indicated that, above a threshold, a linear, positive correlation existed between sis overexpression and acquired anchorage independence. The sis-overexpressing cells formed transient, regressing tumor nodules when injected into nude mice, consistent with the finite life span which they retained. Protein products generated from the transfected c-sis construct in two overexpressing clones were immunoprecipitated with anti-human PDGF antibodies. One clone contained an apparent PDGF dimer of 21 kilodaltons; the second clone contained only an apparent PDGF monomer of 12 kilodaltons, which was shown to account for all of the mitogenic activity present in the cells, essentially all of which was concentrated in the membrane fraction. The results demonstrate a clear link between sis overexpression and acquisition of a partially transformed, anchorage-independent phenotype, and when combined with previous observations of sis overexpression in human tumors, clearly implicate sis overexpression as a genetic mechanism which contributes to human cell transformation. Images PMID:3290648

  8. Photogeneration of monomeric porphyrins from the (tetraphenylporphyrin)Rh-In(octaethylporphyrin) dissociation of the Rh-In bond: Investigation of their reactions in the picosecond-microsecond time domain

    SciTech Connect

    Coutsolelos, A.G.; Daphnomili, D.; Scheidt, W.R.; Ferraudi, G.

    1998-04-20

    Literature reports show that a number of Rh-In heteroporphyrin dimers are thermally stable in hydrocarbon solvents but undergo photodissociation into mononuclear porphyrin products when exposed to visible light. In contrast, Rh(II) or Ir(II) porphyrinato dimers, [M(Por)]{sub 2}, are much more reactive compounds that participate in numerous organometallic reactions. This includes some unusual reactions, i.e., the formation of metalloformyl species, CO reductive coupling, and hydrocarbon activation. The reactions of metastable Rh and In porphyrins occurring in a picosecond-microsecond time domain were investigated in this work.

  9. Monomeric and dimeric structures analysis and spectroscopic characterization of 3,5-difluorophenylboronic acid with experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H and 13C NMR, UV) techniques and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Kose, Etem; Atac, Ahmet; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Kurt, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of 3,5-difluorophenylboronic acid (3,5-DFPBA, C6H3F2B(OH)2) were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and FT-Raman spectra (3500-10 cm-1) in the solid phase and 1H and 13C NMR spectra in DMSO solution were recorded. The UV spectra that dissolved in ethanol and water were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm for each solution. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule have been obtained for possible three conformers from DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. The geometry of the molecule was fully optimized, vibrational spectra were calculated and fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. Hydrogen-bonded dimer of title molecule, optimized by counterpoise correction, was also studied B3LYP at the 6-311++G(d,p) level and the effects of molecular association through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding have been discussed. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, oscillator strength, wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. Total and partial density of state (TDOS and PDOS) and also overlap population density of state (OPDOS) diagrams analysis were presented. The effects due to the substitutions of boric acid group and halogen were investigated. The results of the calculations were applied to simulate spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. Besides, frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), nonlinear optical properties (NLO) and thermodynamic features were performed.

  10. NMR, UV, FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra and molecular structure (monomeric and dimeric structures) investigation of nicotinic acid N-oxide: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atac, Ahmet; Karabacak, Mehmet; Karaca, Caglar; Kose, Etem

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the experimental and theoretical UV, NMR, and vibrational features of nicotinic acid N-oxide (abbreviated as NANO, C 6H 5NO 3) were studied. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum of studied compound that dissolved in water was examined in the range of 200-800 nm. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra in solid state were observed in the region 4000-400 cm -1 and 3500-50 cm -1, respectively. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra in DMSO were recorded. The geometrical parameters, energies and the spectroscopic properties of NANO were obtained for all four conformers from density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. There are four conformers, C n, n = 1-4 for this molecule. The computational results identified the most stable conformer of title molecule as the C1 form. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, absorption wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by CIS approach. Finally the calculation results were applied to simulate infrared, Raman, and UV spectra of the title compound which show good agreement with observed spectra.

  11. Comparative studies on the lysosomal association of monomeric /sup 239/Pu and /sup 241/Am in rat and Chinese hamster liver: analysis with sucrose, metrizamide, and Percoll density gradients of subcellular binding as dependent on time

    SciTech Connect

    Suetterlin, U.; Thies, W.G.; Haffner, H.; Seidel, A.

    1984-05-01

    The binding of /sup 239/Pu and /sup 241/Am in the livers of Chinese hamsters and rats was analyzed by centrifugation of a mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction in sucrose, metrizamide, and Percoll density gradients at intervals between 4 and 70 days after nuclide injection. The behavior of /sup 239/Pu and /sup 241/Am during the centrifugation experiments was very similar. In contrast to the results for rats, the median densities of the nuclide fraction liberated by addition of Triton X-100, and the nuclide profiles do not respond typically to Triton WR 1339 treatment of the animals. It was concluded from the results that the major fraction of /sup 239/Pu and /sup 241/Am remained bound to typical lysosomes in rat liver, whereas those in hamster liver may be transformed into telolysosomes. Possibly, a vesicular biliary transport system for certain heavy metals, for which evidence exists in rat liver, does not occur in Chinese hamster liver.

  12. One‐Electron Oxidation of [M(PtBu3)2] (M=Pd, Pt): Isolation of Monomeric [Pd(PtBu3)2]+ and Redox‐Promoted C−H Bond Cyclometalation

    PubMed Central

    Troadec, Thibault; Tan, Sze‐yin; Wedge, Christopher J.; Rourke, Jonathan P.; Unwin, Patrick R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oxidation of zero‐valent phosphine complexes [M(PtBu3)2] (M=Pd, Pt) has been investigated in 1,2‐difluorobenzene solution using cyclic voltammetry and subsequently using the ferrocenium cation as a chemical redox agent. In the case of palladium, a mononuclear paramagnetic PdI derivative was readily isolated from solution and fully characterized (EPR, X‐ray crystallography). While in situ electrochemical measurements are consistent with initial one‐electron oxidation, the heavier congener undergoes C−H bond cyclometalation and ultimately affords the 14 valence‐electron PtII complex [Pt(κ 2 PC‐PtBu2CMe2CH2)(PtBu3)]+ with concomitant formation of [Pt(PtBu3)2H]+. PMID:26879233

  13. Reactions of Monomeric [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH and CO with orwithout H2:An Experimental and Computational Study

    SciTech Connect

    Werkema, Evan L.; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile; Andersen,Richard A.

    2006-09-07

    Addition of CO to [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH, Cp'2CeH, intoluene yields the cis (Cp'2Ce)2(mu-OCHCHO), in which the cis enediolategroup bridges the two metallocene fragments. The cis enediolatequantitatively isomerizes intramolecularly to the trans-enediolate inC6D6 at 100oC over seven months. When the solvent is pentane,Cp'2Ce(OCH2)CeCp'2 forms, in which the oxomethylene group or theformaldehyde dianion bridges the two metallocene fragments. The cisenediolate is suggested to form by insertion of CO into the Ce-C bond ofCp'2Ce(OCH2)CeCp'2 generating Cp'2CeOCH2COCeCp'2. The stereochemistry ofthe cis-enediolate is determined by a 1,2-hydrogen shift in the OCH2COfragment that has the OC(H2) bond anti periplanar relative to the carbenelone pair. The bridging oxomethylene complex reacts with H2, but not withCH4, to give Cp'2CeOMe, which is also the product of the reaction betweenCp'2CeH and a mixture of CO and H2. The oxomethylene complex reacts withCO to give the cis enediolate complex. DFT calculations on C5H5 modelmetallocenes show that the reaction of Cp2CeH with CO and H2 to giveCp2CeOMe is exoergic by 50 kcal mol-1. The net reaction proceeds by aseries of elementary reactions that occur after the formyl complex,Cp2Ce(eta-2 CHO), is formed by further reaction with H2. The key pointthat emerges from the calculated potential energy surface is thebifunctional nature of the metal formyl in which the carbon atom behavesas a donor and acceptor. Replacing H2 by CH4 increases the activationenergy barrier by 17 kcal mol-1.

  14. Effect of monomeric and oligomeric sugar osmolytes on DeltaGD, the Gibbs energy of stabilization of the protein at different pH values: is the sum effect of monosaccharide individually additive in a mixture?

    PubMed

    Poddar, Nitesh Kumar; Ansari, Z A; Singh, R K Brojen; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Ahmad, Faizan

    2008-12-01

    Thermal denaturation curves of ribonuclease-A were measured by monitoring changes in the far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra in the presence of different concentrations of six sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, raffinose and stachyose) and mixture of monosaccharide constituents of each oligosaccharide at various pH values in the range of 6.0-2.0. These measurements gave values of T(m) (midpoint of denaturation), DeltaH(m) (enthalpy change at T(m)), DeltaC(p) (constant-pressure heat capacity change) under a given solvent condition. Using these values of DeltaH(m), T(m) and DeltaC(p) in appropriate thermodynamic relations, thermodynamic parameters at 25 degrees C, namely, DeltaG(D)(o) (Gibbs energy change), DeltaH(D)(o) (enthalpy change), and DeltaS(D)(o) (entropy change) were determined at a given pH and concentration of each sugar (including its mixture of monosaccharide constituents). Our main conclusions are: (i) each sugar stabilizes the protein in terms of T(m) and DeltaG(D)(o), and this stabilization is under enthalpic control, (ii) the protein stabilization by the oligosaccharide is significantly less than that by the equimolar concentration of the constituent monosaccharides, and (iii) the stabilization by monosaccharides in a mixture is fully additive. Furthermore, measurements of the far- and near-UV CD spectra suggested that secondary and tertiary structures of protein in their native and denatured states are not perturbed on the addition of sugars. PMID:18835508

  15. Diversification of the silverspot butterflies (Nymphalidae) in the Neotropics inferred from multi-locus DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Massardo, Darli; Fornel, Rodrigo; Kronforst, Marcus; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Moreira, Gilson Rudinei Pires

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is a diverse group of butterflies distributed throughout the Neotropics, which has been studied extensively, in particular the genus Heliconius. However, most of the other lineages, such as Dione, which are less diverse and considered basal within the group, have received little attention. Basic information, such as species limits and geographical distributions remain uncertain for this genus. Here we used multilocus DNA sequence data and the geographical distribution analysis across the entire range of Dione in the Neotropical region in order to make inferences on the evolutionary history of this poorly explored lineage. Bayesian time-tree reconstruction allows inferring two major diversification events in this tribe around 25mya. Lineages thought to be ancient, such as Dione and Agraulis, are as recent as Heliconius. Dione formed a monophyletic clade, sister to the genus Agraulis. Dione juno, D. glycera and D. moneta were reciprocally monophyletic and formed genetic clusters, with the first two more close related than each other in relation to the third. Divergence time estimates support the hypothesis that speciation in Dione coincided with both the rise of Passifloraceae (the host plants) and the uplift of the Andes. Since the sister species D. glycera and D. moneta are specialized feeders on passion-vine lineages that are endemic to areas located either within or adjacent to the Andes, we inferred that they co-speciated with their host plants during this vicariant event. PMID:25300455

  16. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of phenolic resin containing waste streams to sequentially recover monomers and chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.

    1992-08-04

    A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a waste phenolic resin containing feedstreams in a manner such that pyrolysis of said resins and a given high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolyses of the resins in other monomeric components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said resin and a given high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other monomeric components; selecting, if desired, a catalyst and a support and treating said feedstreams with said catalyst to effect acid or basic catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said first temperature program range to utilize reactive gases such as oxygen and steam in the pyrolysis process to drive the production of specific products; differentially heating said feedstreams at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantity of said high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other monomeric components therein; separating said high value monomeric constituent; selecting a second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said phenolic resins waste and differentially heating said feedstreams at said higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said different high value monomeric constituent; and separating said different high value monomeric constituent. 11 figs.

  17. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of phenolic resin containing waste streams to sequentially recover monomers and chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Evans, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a waste phenolic resin containing feedstreams in a manner such that pyrolysis of said resins and a given high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolyses of the resins in other monomeric components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said resin and a given high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other monomeric components; selecting, if desired, a catalyst and a support and treating said feedstreams with said catalyst to effect acid or basic catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said first temperature program range to utilize reactive gases such as oxygen and steam in the pyrolysis process to drive the production of specific products; differentially heating said feedstreams at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantity of said high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other monomeric components therein; separating said high value monomeric constituent; selecting a second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said phenolic resins waste and differentially heating said feedstreams at said higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said different high value monomeric constituent; and separating said different high value monomeric constituent.

  18. Synthesis and spectroscopic and structural characterization of the monomeric diborylphosphine and diphosphinoborane compounds PhP(BMes/sub 2/)/sub 2/ and MesB(PPh/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (Mes = 2,4,6-Me/sub 3/C/sub 6/H/sub 2/)

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, R.A.; Dias, H.V.R.; Power, P.P.

    1988-11-02

    The synthesis and spectroscopic and first x-ray structural characterization of a diborylphosphine, PhP(BMes/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (1), and a diphosphinoborane, MesB(PPh/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (2), are described. The structure of 1 has a planar core that involves the phosphorus and two boron atoms and also the five substituent carbons. In addition, the B-P bond lengths are shortened, which suggests a close structural analogy between 1 and the allyl cation. In the case of 2, although the boron remains planar, both phosphorus centers are pyramidal with slightly longer B-P bonds than in 1. Both 1 and 2 are the first examples of their respective classes of compound to be well characterized. Crystal data with Mo K..cap alpha.. radiation (lambda = 0.71069 /angstrom/) at 130 K are as follows. 1: a = 14.302 (4) /angstrom/, b = 15.701 (3) /angstrom/, c = 16.601 (6) /angstrom/, ..beta.. = 109.61 (2)/degrees/; monoclinic, space group C2/c, Z = 4, R = 0.059. 2: a = 7.815 (2) /angstrom/, b = 8.723 (2) /angstrom/, c = 40.147 (10) /angstrom/, ..beta.. = 94.90 (2)/degrees/; monoclinic, space group P2/sub 1//n, Z = 4, R = 0.041. A listing of available /sup 11/B and /sup 31/P NMR data on compounds involving triply connected boron and phosphorus centers is also provided and discussed in the context of the data for 1 and 2. 25 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  19. Reversible transformation of a stable monomeric silicon(II) compound into a stable disilene by phase transfer: experimental and theoretical studies of the system {[(Me3Si)2N](Me5C5)Si}n with n = 1,2.

    PubMed

    Jutzi, Peter; Mix, Andreas; Neumann, Beate; Rummel, Britta; Schoeller, Wolfgang W; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Rozhenko, A B

    2009-09-01

    The salt (eta(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)silicon(II) tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate (5) reacts at -78 degrees C with lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide in dimethoxyethane (DME) as solvent to give quantitatively the compound [bis(trimethylsilyl)amino][pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]silicon(II) 6A in the form of a colorless viscous oil. The reaction performed at -40 degrees C leads to the silicon(IV) compound 7, the formal oxidative addition product of 6A with DME. Cycloaddition is observed in the reaction of 6A with 2,3-dimethylbutadiene to give the silicon(IV) compound 8. Upon attempts to crystallize 6A from organic solvents such as hexane, THF, or toluene, the deep yellow compound trans-1,2-bis[bis(trimethylsilyl)amino]-1,2-bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)disilene (6B), the formal dimer of 6A, crystallizes from the colorless solution, but only after several days or even weeks. Upon attempts to dissolve the disilene 6B in the described organic solvents, a colorless solution is obtained after prolonged vigorous shaking or ultrasound treatment. From this solution, pure 6A can be recovered after solvent evaporation. This transformation process can be repeated several times. In a mass spectroscopic investigation of 6B, Si=Si bond cleavage is observed to give the molecular ion with the composition of 6A as the fragment with the highest mass. The X-ray crystal structure analysis of the disilene 6B supports a molecule with a short Si=Si bond (2.168 A) with efficiently packed, rigid sigma-bonded cyclopentadienyl substituents and silylamino groups. The conformation of the latter does not allow electron donation to the central silicon atom. Theoretical calculations at the density functional level (RI-BP86 and B3LYP, TZVP basis set) confirm the structure of 6B and reveal for silylene 6A the presence of an eta(2)-bonded cyclopentadienyl ligand and of a silylamino group in a conformation that prevents electron back-donation. Further theoretical calculations for the silicon(II) compound 6A, the disilene 6B, and the two species 11 and 11* derived from 6A (which derive from Si=Si bond cleavage) support the experimental findings. The reversible phase-dependent transformation between 6A and 6B is caused by (a) different stereoelectronic and steric effects exerted by the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl group in 6A and 6B, (b) some energy storage in the solid state structure of 6B (molecular jack in the box), (c) a small energy difference between 6A and 6B, (d) a low activation barrier for the equilibration process, and (e) the gain in entropy upon monomer formation. PMID:19655748

  20. Hydrogen for X-group exchange in CH3X, X = Cl, Br, I, OMe and NMe2 byMonomeric [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH: Experimental and Computational Support for a Carbenoid Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Werkema, Evan; Andersen, Richard; Yahia, Ahmed; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile

    2009-05-15

    The reaction between [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH, referred to as Cp'2CeH, andCH3X where X is Cl, Br, I, OMe and NMe2, are described. The reactions fall intothree distinct classes. Class a, where X = Cl, Br and I rapidly form Cp'2CeX and CH4without formation of identifiable intermediates in the 1H NMR spectra. Class b, whereX = OMe proceeds rapidly to Cp'2Ce(eta2-CH2OMe) and H2 and then to Cp'2CeOMeand CH4. The methoxymethyl derivative is sufficiently stable to be isolated andcharacterized and it is rapidly converted to Cp'2CeOMe in presence of BPh3. Class c,where X = NMe2 does not result in formation of Cp'2CeNMe2, but deuterium labelingexperiments show that H for D exchange occurs in NMe3. Density functionalcalculations DFT(B3PW91) on the reaction of (C5H5)2CeH, referred to as Cp2CeH,and CH3X show that the barrier for alpha-CH activation, resulting in formation ofCp2Ce(eta2-CH2X), proceeds with a relatively low activation barrier (DeltaG++) but thesubsequent ejection of CH2 and trapping by H2 has a higher barrier; the height of thesecond barrier lies in the order F, Cl, Br, I< OMe<< NMe2, consistent with theexperimental studies. The DFT calculations also show that the two-step reaction,which proceeds through a carbenoid intermediate, has a lower barrier than a directone-step sigma bond metathesis mechanism. The reaction of Cp2CeCH2OMe and BPh3 is calculated to be a low barrier process and the ylide, CH2(+)BPh3(-), is a transition state and not an intermediate.

  1. Synthesis, structure and NMR characterization of a new monomeric aluminophosphate [ dl-Co(en) 3] 2[Al(HPO 4) 2(H 1.5PO 4) 2(H 2PO 4) 2](H 3PO 4) 4 containing four different types of monophosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Li, Jiyang; Xu, Jun; Duan, Fangzheng; Deng, Feng; Xu, Ruren

    2009-03-01

    A new zero-dimensional (0D) aluminophosphate monomer [ dl-Co(en) 3] 2[Al(HPO 4) 2(H 1.5PO 4) 2(H 2PO 4) 2](H 3PO 4) 4 (designated AlPO-CJ38) with Al/P ratio of 1/6 has been solvothermally prepared by using racemic cobalt complex dl-Co(en) 3Cl 3 as the template. The Al atom is octahedrally linked to six P atoms via bridging oxygen atoms, forming a unique [Al(HPO 4) 2(H 1.5PO 4) 2(H 2PO 4) 2] 6- monomer. Notably, there exists intramolecular symmetrical O⋯H⋯O bonds, which results in pseudo-4-rings stabilized by the strong H-bonding interactions. The structure is also featured by the existence of four different types of monophosphates that have been confirmed by 31P NMR and 1H NMR spectra. The crystal data are as follows: AlPO-CJ38, [ dl-Co(en) 3] 2[Al(HPO 4) 2(H 1.5PO 4) 2(H 2PO 4) 2](H 3PO 4) 4, M = 1476.33, monoclinic, C2/ c (No. 15), a = 36.028(7) Å, b = 8.9877(18) Å, c = 16.006(3) Å, β = 100.68(3)°, U = 5093.2(18) Å 3,Z = 4, R1 = 0.0509 ( I > 2 σ( I)) and wR2 = 0.1074 (all data). CCDC number 689491.

  2. Preparation of monomeric (Me[sub 5]C[sub 5])[sub 2]VO and (Me[sub 5]C[sub 5])[sub 2]Ti(O)(L) and their decomposition to (Me[sub 5]C[sub 5])[sub 4]M[sub 4]([mu]-O)[sub 6

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R. III; Matsunaga, P.T.; Andersen, R.A. )

    1993-07-28

    Nitrous oxide is a convenient source of oxygen atoms for the synthesis of oxometallocenes (and the products derived there from) as well as for the insertion of oxygen into metal-hydrogen or -carbon bonds. In this communication we show that (Me[sub 5]C[sub 5])[sub 2]VO and (Me[sub 5]C[sub 5])[sub 2]-Ti(O)(L), where L is pyridine or a substituted pyridine, can be isolated in reactions between nitrous oxide and the metallocenes and that they decompose to the known tetranuclear materials (Me[sub 5]C[sub 5])[sub 4]V[sub 4]([mu]-O)[sub 6] and (Me[sub 5]C[sub 5])[sub 4]([mu]-O)[sub 6]. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Variations in macrobenthic community structures in relation to environmental variables in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Wataru; Umehara, Akira; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nakai, Satoshi

    2015-03-15

    A data set of 425 sites investigated by the Ministry of the Environment in 2001-2005 was used to evaluate the current sediment situation and its effect on macrobenthic community structure in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Cluster analysis and principle component analysis of sediments using physico-chemical parameters revealed that total organic carbon, mud, sulfide contents, and oxidation-reduction potential were important parameters influencing macrobenthic population size and biodiversity. A total organic carbon of 1 mg g(-1) interval was highly negatively correlated with two biodiversity indices in the range of 1-20 mg g(-1). Overall, 42% of total sites were organically enriched with much lower macrobenthic population sizes and biodiversity, while 26% were characterized by sandy sediment with a high population size and high proportion of Arthropoda. Nemertea sp., Glycera sp., Notomastus sp. and Ophiophragmus japonicus were common macrobenthos, while Theora fragilis and Ptychoderidae were typical macrobenthos in organically enriched sediments. PMID:25624011

  4. Small cell foams containing a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer as a nucleating agent

    DOEpatents

    Hedstrand, D.M.; Tomalia, D.A.

    1995-02-28

    A small cell foam having a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer is described. This modified dense star polymer or dendrimer has a highly branched interior of one monomeric composition and an exterior structure of a different monomeric composition capable of providing a hydrophobic outer shell and a particle diameter of from about 5 to about 1,000 nm with a matrix polymer.

  5. Phenolic acids in black raspberry and in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs fed black raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6-mo storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of blueberries that were canned in syrup, canned in water, pureed, and juiced (clarified and non-clarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polym...

  6. Path Forward for RAF Therapies: Inhibition of Monomers and Dimers.

    PubMed

    Kortum, Robert L; Morrison, Deborah K

    2015-09-14

    Current BRAF inhibitors block signaling from monomeric BRAF(V600E), but not from oncogenic RAS, which requires RAF dimerization. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Yao and colleagues investigate why current drugs are ineffective against RAF dimers, while Peng and colleagues describe a pan-RAF inhibitor targeting both monomeric and dimeric RAF. PMID:26373275

  7. Small cell foams containing a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer as a nucleating agent

    DOEpatents

    Hedstrand, David M.; Tomalia, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    A small cell foam having a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer is described. This modified dense star polymer or dendrimer has a highly branched interior of one monomeric composition and an exterior structure of a different monomeric composition capable of providing a hydrophobic outer shell and a particle diameter of from about 5 to about 1,000 nm with a matrix polymer.

  8. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1993-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  9. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1994-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents, selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  10. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1994-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  11. Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethyleneterephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1998-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  12. Controlled catalystic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polycarbonate and plastic waste to recover monomers

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1994-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis to convert a plastic waste feed stream containing polycarbonate and ABS to high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituents prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting an acid or base catalysts and an oxide or carbonate support for treating the feed stream to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of the high value monomeric constituents of polycarbonate and ABS in the first temperature program range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis or other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents from the polycarbonate to cause pyrolysis to a different high value monomeric constituent of the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of different high value monomeric constituents; and separating the different high value monomeric constituents.

  13. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1994-10-25

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 83 figs.

  14. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polycarbonate and plastic waste to recover monomers

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1994-06-14

    A process is described using fast pyrolysis to convert a plastic waste feed stream containing polycarbonate and ABS to high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituents prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting an acid or base catalysts and an oxide or carbonate support for treating the feed stream to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of the high value monomeric constituents of polycarbonate and ABS in the first temperature program range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis or other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents from the polycarbonate to cause pyrolysis to a different high value monomeric constituent of the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of different high value monomeric constituents; and separating the different high value monomeric constituents. 68 figs.

  15. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1994-04-05

    A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents, selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 87 figures.

  16. Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethylene-terephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover [monomers

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1998-10-13

    A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feed stream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 83 figs.

  17. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polymer waste comprising nylon 6 and a polyolefin or mixtures of polyolefins to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1994-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  18. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polymer waste comprising nylon 6 and a polyolefin or mixtures of polyolefins to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1994-10-25

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 83 figs.

  19. Methods of forming boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  20. Shuttling protein nucleolin is a microglia receptor for amyloid beta peptide 1-42.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Koike, Masanori; Hirano, Kazuya; Miki, Yuichi; Beppu, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ42) plays a key role in the neurotoxicity found in Alzheimer's disease. Mononuclear phagocytes in the brain (microglia), can potentially clear Aβ via phagocytosis. Recently, the shuttling-protein nucleolin has been shown to possess scavenger receptor-activity. Here, we investigated whether this receptor interacts specifically with Aβ type 1-42 and mediates its phagocytosis by microglia. While monomeric and fibril Aβ42 were phagocytosed by mouse microglial EOC2 cells, amyloid β peptide 1-40 (Aβ40) was only weakly phagocytosed. Surface plasmon-resonance analysis revealed that nucleolin strongly associates with Aβ42, but only weakly associates with Aβ40. Immunofluorescence staining of anti-nucleolin antibody revealed that EOC2 cells and rat primary microglia express nucleolin on their cell surfaces. Further, pretreating EOC2 cells with anti-nucleolin antibody, but not immunoglobulin G (IgG), inhibited phagocytosis of monomeric Aβ42 by microglia. Additionally, nucleolin-transfected HEK293 cells phagocytosed monomeric and fibril Aβ42 but not monomeric and fibril Aβ40. Moreover, AGRO, a nucleolin-specific oligonucleotide aptamer, inhibited phagocytosis of monomeric and fibril Aβ42, but not monomeric and fibril Aβ40. These results indicate that nucleolin is a receptor that allows microglia to recognize monomeric and fibril Aβ42. PMID:23912744

  1. Trophic ecology of the swimming crab Polybius henslowii Leach, 1820 in Galician and Cantabrian Seas: Influences of natural variability and the Prestige oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signa, G.; Cartes, J. E.; Solé, M.; Serrano, A.; Sánchez, F.

    2008-11-01

    Diet and feeding intensity of the portunid crab Polybius henslowii were studied during the spring of 2004 along Galician and Cantabrian continental shelves (NW Iberian Peninsula) between 78 and 287 m. The area had been affected by the Prestige oil spill in November 2002, with different sectors at different levels of pollution: highest in between Miño River and Cape Finisterre (MF) and from there to Estaca de Bares Point (FE) and lowest from Estaca to Cape Peñas (EP). From 37272 specimens collected in 59 bottom hauls, 342 were analysed for stomach fullness and diet composition. Stomach fullness was lower in FE, but with no significant differences among sectors. Diet was a mixture of pelagic and benthic prey: cephalopods ( Ilex coindetti), brachyurans ( P. henslowii) and polychaetes ( Glycera sp.). Other prey were beloniform eggs and fish remains. Two stress markers were also studied in some specimens: Acetylcholinesterase (a neurotoxicity marker) varied among sampled areas, while lipid peroxidation (an oxidative stress marker) did not. Changes in trophic variables, distribution and density were analysed in relation to depth, surface and bottom T, surface Chl a from satellite imagery and tar aggregate concentration in sediments. Along Galician and Cantabrian coasts prey availability, linked to productivity level, seems to be the main factor affecting P. henslowii diet and distribution. Interannual abundance variability seems to be controlled by large-scale climatic conditions (NAO index). This natural variability masks possible effects induced by the oil spill.

  2. Jumbo squid beaks: inspiration for design of robust organic composites.

    PubMed

    Miserez, Ali; Li, Youli; Waite, J Herbert; Zok, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The hard tissues found in some invertebrate marine organisms represent intriguing paradigms for robust, lightweight materials. The present study focuses on one such tissue: that comprising the beak of the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas). Its main constituents are chitin fibers (15-20wt.%) and histidine- and glycine-rich proteins (40-45%). Notably absent are mineral phases, metals and halogens. Despite being fully organic, beak hardness and stiffness are at least twice those of the most competitive synthetic organic materials (notably engineering polymers) and comparable to those of Glycera and Nereis jaws. Furthermore, the combination of hardness and stiffness makes the beaks more resistant to plastic deformation when in contact with blunt abrasives than virtually all metals and polymers. The 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine and abundant histidine content in the beak proteins as well as the pigmented hydrolysis-resistant residue are suggestive of aromatic cross-linking. A high cross-linking density between the proteins and chitin may be the single most important determinant of hardness and stiffness in the beak. Beak microstructure is characterized by a lamellar arrangement of the constituents, with a weak interface that promotes crack deflection and endows the structure with high fracture toughness. The susceptibility of this microstructure to cracking along these interfaces from contact stresses at the external surface is mitigated by the presence of a protective coating. PMID:17113369

  3. Macrobenthic community structure and species composition in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in jellyfish bloom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Songyao; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Hongfa; Zhang, Baolin

    2014-05-01

    To understand the characteristics of macrobenthic structures and the relationship between environment and benthic assemblages in jellyfish bloom, we studied the macrobenthos and related environmental factors in the coastal waters of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Data were collected during two seasonal cruises in April and August of 2011, and analyzed with multivariate statistical methods. Up to 306 macrobenthic species were registered from the research areas, including 115 species of Polychaeta, 78 of Crustacea, 61 of Mollusca, 30 of Echinodermata, and 22 of other groups. Nine polychaete species occurred at frequencies higher than 25% from the sampling stations: Lumbrineris longifolia, Notomastus latericeus, Ninöe palmata, Ophelina acuminata, Nephtys oligobranchia, Onuphis geophiliformis, Glycera chirori, Terebellides stroemii, and Aricidea fragilis. Both the average biomass and abundance of macrobenthos are higher in August (23.8 g/m2 and 237.7 ind./m2) than those in April (11.3 g/m2 and 128 ind./m2); the dissimilarity of macrobenthic structures among stations is as high as 70%. In terms of the dissimilarity values, we divided the stations into four clusters in spring and eight in summer. The ABC curve shows that the macrofauna communities in high jellyfish abundance were not changed. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that depth, temperature, median grain size, total organic carbon of sediment and total nitrogen in sediment were important factors affecting the macrozoobenthic community in the study area.

  4. Distribution and structure of the upper sublittoral macrobenthic communities of Tróia sand beaches (Setúbal, Portugal) and their relationship with environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Vale, Maria; Cabral, Henrique; Andrade, Francisco

    2010-04-01

    The present study dealt with the spatial and temporal variability of the distribution of the upper sublittoral benthic macrofauna of the Tróia peninsula sand beaches and its relationship with abiotic environmental factors. The existence of a relationship between the data set of macrobenthic species distribution and community structure in the Sado estuary (432 individual samples) and the environmental factors in analysis was investigated. Morpho-sedimentary data analysis revealed an environmental gradient, from the marine margin (exposed marine environment) to the estuarine margin (sheltered estuarine environment). Benthic macrofauna analysis showed a gradient of increasing number of individuals, species richness and diversity from the marine margin (Exposed) to the estuarine margin (Sheltered). Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed the dominant patterns in the community structure to be explained by the environmental factors considered, the most important, of which in influencing the spatial and temporal pattern, being beach slope, organic matter and calcium carbonate contents. The structure of the sandy beach communities studied showed a clear dominance of the spatial patterns over the seasonal ones. Four assemblages were defined-(1) an assemblage dominated by Angulus tenuis, on the marine margin of the peninsula; (2) an assemblage dominated by Euclymene sp. and Apseudes latreillei, on the sea-estuary transition area and related to the presence of a Zostera spp. meadow; (3) an assemblage dominated by Glycera sp. and Scoloplos armiger, on the sea-estuary transition area; (4) an assemblage dominated by Notomastus latericeus, Nassarius reticulatus and Cyathura carinata, on the estuarine margin. PMID:20383379

  5. Determination of Total Carbohydrates in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure uses two-step sulfuric acid hydrolysis to hydrolyze the polymeric forms of carbohydrates in algal biomass into monomeric subunits. The monomers are then quantified by either HPLC or a suitable spectrophotometric method.

  6. Investigation of accessory hemicellulases and pectinases for polysaccharide hydrolysis of ionic liquid pretreated biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The polysaccharides, cellulose, hemicellulose, and other additional carbohydrate polymers of terrestrial biomass, comprise renewable feedstocks for carbon-based chemicals and fuels. Biomass pretreatment is required to overcome its recalcitrance to biochemical deconstruction to monomeric sugars for ...

  7. Deconstruction of ionic liquid pretreated lignocellulosic biomass using mono-component cellulases and hemicellulases and commercial mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulosic biomass is comprised of cellulose and hemicellulose, sources of polysaccharides, and lignin, a macromolecule with extensive aromaticity. Lignocellulose requires pretreatment before biochemical conversion to its monomeric sugars which can provide a renewable carbon based feedstock for...

  8. Optical properties of polymethine molecules incorporated into a macroscopic set of parallel nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starovoytov, A. A.; Belotitskii, V. I.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Sysoeva, A. A.

    2012-11-01

    The structural properties of polymethine molecules incorporated into nanofibers of chrysotile asbestos have been studied by absorption-spectroscopy methods. These experiments have shown that, in chrysotile nanotubes, monomeric, all- trans- and cis-isomers, dimers and J aggregates can be observed. Upon incorporation of a dye from weakly concentrated solutions, monomeric forms of polymethine molecules, extended chromophores of which are oriented along parallel asbestos nanotubes, are predominantly observed. The hybrid material under investigation may be of interest for applied problems.

  9. Evaluation of aluminum indices to predict aluminum toxicity to plants grown in nutrient solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Alva, A.K.; Blamey, F.P.C.; Edwards, D.G.; Asher, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Difficulty has been experienced in establishing a suitable aluminum (Al) index to predict Al toxicity to plants grown in nutrient solutions with a wide range of properties. In the present study, relationships were evaluated between root length and (i) concentration of total Al, (ii) concentration of monomeric Al, and (iii) the sum of the activities of monomeric Al species (..sigma..a/sub Al mono/) in solution. Results are reported for soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Total Al concentration in solution, comprising polymeric and monomeric Al species, was a poor index of Al toxicity, confirming the hypothesis that only monomeric Al is toxic to root growth. In solutions with widely differing composition, the concentration of monomeric Al also proved unsatisfactory due to ionic strength effects on the activities of monomeric Al species. ..sigma..a/sub Al mono/ was the best index of Al toxicity, accounting for 72 to 92% of the variation in root length depending on the plant species. Root length was reduced by 50% at ..sigma..a/sub Al mono/ of 7-16 ..mu..M in soybean, 13 ..mu..M in subterranean clover and alfalfa, and 11 ..mu..M in sunflower.

  10. Cooperative Stabilization of Transthyretin by Clusterin and Diflunisal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The circulating protein transthyretin (TTR) can unfold, oligomerize, and form highly structured amyloid fibrils that are deposited in tissues, causing organ damage and disease. This pathogenic process is caused by a heritable TTR point mutation in cases of familial TTR-related amyloidosis or wild-type TTR in cases of age-associated amyloidosis (previously called senile systemic amyloidosis). The TTR amyloid cascade is hypothesized to begin with the dissociation of the TTR native tetrameric structure into folded but unstable monomeric TTR subunits. Unfolding of monomeric TTR initiates an oligomerization process leading to aggregation and fibril formation. Numerous proteostatic mechanisms for regulating the TTR amyloid cascade exist. Extracellular chaperones provide an innate defense against misfolded proteins. Clusterin (CLU), a plasma protein, has the capacity to recognize exposed hydrophobic regions of misfolded proteins, shielding them from aggregation. We have previously demonstrated that CLU is associated with the amyloid fibrils in cardiac tissues from patients with TTR amyloidosis. In this study, we have used tetrameric and monomeric TTR structural variants to determine the ability of CLU to inhibit TTR amyloid fibril formation. Using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we determined that CLU preferentially stabilizes monomeric TTR and generates increasingly stable conformations under acid stress. Moreover, studies using surface plasmon resonance showed a direct interaction of CLU with high-molecular weight TTR oligomers. The interactions of CLU with monomeric and aggregated TTR proceed in a cooperative manner in the presence of diflunisal, a small molecule drug used to stabilize TTR tetramers. PMID:25478940

  11. Speciation and equilibrium relations of soluble aluminum in a headwater stream at base flow and during rain events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    In the Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, the short-term dynamics of soluble aluminum in stream water sampled during rain events differed significantly from stream water sampled during base flow conditions. Three fractions of dissolved aluminum were measured. The inorganic monomeric fraction made up approximately two thirds of the total reactive aluminum at base flow, followed by the acid-soluble and organic monomeric fractions, respectively. Equilibrium modeling showed that hydroxide complexes were the most abundant form of inorganic monomeric aluminum followed by fluoride, free aluminum ion, and sulfate. The activity of inorganic monomeric aluminum at base flow appears to be in equilibrium with an Al(OH)3 phase with solubility intermediate between microcrystalline gibbsite and natural gibbsite. During two rain events, the concentration of all three aluminum fractions increased significantly. The primary cause of the transient increase in the Al(OH)3 saturation index appears to have been the neutralization of excess H+ added by soil water through reaction with stream water HCO3- at a more rapid rate than excess inorganic monomeric aluminum could be removed from solution by hydroxide mineral precipitation. -from Author

  12. Uronic Acid products release from enzymically active cell wall from tomato fruit and its dependency on enzyme quantity and distribution.

    PubMed

    Huber, D J; Lee, J H

    1988-07-01

    Isolated cell wall from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers) fruit released polymeric (degree of polymerization [DP] > 8), oligomeric, and monomeric uronic acids in a reaction mediated by bound polygalacturonase (PG) (EC 3.2.1.15). Wall autolytic capacity increased with ripening, reflecting increased levels of bound PG; however, characteristic oligomeric and monomeric products were recovered from all wall isolates exhibiting net pectin release. The capacity of wall from fruit at early ripening (breaker, turning) to generate oligomeric and monomeric uronic acids was attributed to the nonuniform ripening pattern of the tomato fruit and, consequently, a locally dense distribution of enzyme in wall originating from those fruit portions at more temporally advanced stages of ripening. Artificial autolytically active wall, prepared by permitting solubilized PG to bind to enzymically inactive wall from maturegreen fruit, released products which were similar in size characteristics to those recovered from active wall isolates. Extraction of wall-bound PG using high concentrations of NaCl (1.2 molar) did not attenuate subsequent autolytic activity but greatly suppressed the production of oligomeric and monomeric products. An examination of water-soluble uronic acids recovered from ripe pericarp tissue disclosed the presence of polymeric and monomeric uronic acids but only trace quantities of oligomers. The significance in autolytic reactions of enzyme quantity and distribution and their possible relevance to in vivo pectin degradation will be discussed. PMID:16666191

  13. Pyruvate Oxidoreductases Involved in Glycolytic Anaerobic Metabolism of Polychaetes from the Continental Shelf off Central-South Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2000-10-01

    The presence of low oxygen conditions in extensive areas of the continental shelf off central-south Chile has important effects on the biochemical adaptations of the organisms living in this ecosystem. Polychaetes assemblages cohabit on the shelf with an extensively distributed prokaryotic community made up of giant filamentous sulfur bacteria (mainly Thioploca sp.). The aim of this research was to characterize the pyruvate oxidoreductases enzymes involved in the biochemical adaptation of these benthic polychaetes. Nine polychaete species ( Paraprionospio pinnata, Nephtys ferruginea, Glycera americana, Haploscoloplos sp., Lumbrineris composita, Sigambra bassi, Aricidea pigmentata , Cossura chilensis, and Pectinaria chilensis) were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), octopine dehydrogenase (OPDH), strombine dehydrogenase (STRDH) and alanopine dehydrogenase (ALPDH). Each species had a characteristic number of the pyruvate oxidoreductases assayed ranging from 4 in Paraprionospio pinnata to 1 in Pectinaria chilensis . The pyruvate saturation curves obtained for the enzymes from all species analysed, except L. composita, suggest that NADH can be oxidized at different rates depending on the amino acid used in the reaction with pyruvate. Our results indicate that organisms having more that one pyruvate oxidoreductase present a greater metabolic capacity to cope with functional and environmental hypoxia because these enzymes would better regulate the pyruvate consumption rate during the transition period. Thus, the dominance of Paraprionospio pinnata in the study area and its worldwide distribution is consistent with its higher number of pyruvate oxidoreductases with different pyruvate consumption rates involved in anaerobic metabolism. Finally, a positive allometric relationship was found between body size and the specific activity of ALPDH, STRDH, and maximum pyruvate oxidoreductase specific activity. This latter result suggests a positive scaling of the specific

  14. Optical and morphological characterizations of pyronin dye-poly (vinyl alcohol) thin films formed on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meral, Kadem; Arik, Mustafa; Onganer, Yavuz

    2016-04-01

    Thin films of pyronin dye mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on glass substrate were prepared by using spin-coating technique. The optical and morphological properties of the thin films were studied by UV-Vis., steady-state fluorescence spectroscopies and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thin films on glass substrate were fabricated at various [PVA]/[dye] (P/D) ratios. Hence, the monomeric and H-aggregates thin films of pyronin dye mixed with PVA were formed as a function of the dye and PVA concentration. It was determined that while the monomeric thin films showed strong fluorescence, the formation of H-aggregates in the thin film caused to decreasing the fluorescence intensity. AFM studies demonstrated that the morphology of the thin film was drastically varied with changing the optical property of the thin film such as monomeric and H-aggregates thin films.

  15. Structure and Stereochemical Determination of Hypogeamicins from a Cave-Derived Actinomycete

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Culture extracts from the cave-derived actinomycete Nonomuraea specus were investigated, resulting in the discovery of a new S-bridged pyronaphthoquinone dimer and its monomeric progenitors designated hypogeamicins A–D (1–4). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy, and the relative stereochemistries of the pyrans were inferred using NOE and comparison to previously reported compounds. Absolute stereochemistry was determined using quantum chemical calculations of specific rotation and vibrational and electronic circular dichroism spectra, after an extensive conformational search and including solute–solvent polarization effects, and comparing with the corresponding experimental data for the monomeric congeners. Interestingly, the dimeric hypogeamicin A (1) was found to be cytotoxic to the colon cancer derived cell line TCT-1 at low micromolar ranges, but not bacteria, whereas the monomeric precursors possessed antibiotic activity but no significant TCT-1 cytotoxicity. PMID:25046128

  16. Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties I: flour and protein characteristics.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Mehak; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-03-01

    The relationships of polymeric as well as monomeric proteins (unextractable and extractable) with various flour properties amongst Indian wheat varieties were evaluated. Unextractable polymeric proteins and unextractable monomeric proteins in flours ranged from 23.83% to 51.97% and 48.03% to 76.17%, respectively. Varieties with higher grain hardness index resulted into flours with higher a(∗), ash content and protein content. Unextractable polymeric and monomeric proteins were related to grain hardness index. Unextractable polymeric proteins showed a positive correlation with gluten index and LASRC. Majority of varieties with HMW-GS combinations of 91kDa+80kDa+78kDa+74kDa PPs showed very high grain hardness index (97-100). PMID:26471563

  17. Advances in engineering of fluorescent proteins and photoactivatable proteins with red emission

    PubMed Central

    Piatkevich, Kiryl D.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2009-01-01

    Monomeric fluorescent proteins of different colors are widely used to study behavior and targeting of proteins in living cells. Fluorescent proteins that irreversibly change their spectral properties in response to light irradiation of a specific wavelength, or photoactivate, have become increasingly popular to image intracellular dynamics and super-resolution protein localization. Until recently, however, no optimized monomeric red fluorescent proteins and red photoactivatable proteins have been available. Furthermore, monomeric fluorescent proteins, which change emission from blue to red simply with time, so-called fluorescent timers, were developed to study protein age and turnover. Understanding of chemical mechanisms of the chromophore maturation or photoactivation into a red form will further advance engineering of fluorescent timers and photoactivatable proteins with enhanced and novel properties. PMID:19914857

  18. The flip-flop mechanism of the phosphorylation of yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bakuleva, N P; Baykov, A A; Kasho, V N; Nazarova, T I; Avaeva, S M

    1983-01-01

    1. An active monomeric form of inorganic pyrophosphatase from baker's yeast was prepared by maleylation of the protein at pH 10.5. 2. The dimeric and monomeric pyrophosphatase bound at non-catalytic sites 0.5 and 1.0 mol of slowly dissociating Pi per mol subunit, respectively. This stoichiometry was not affected on active site blockage with PPi. 3. Added Pi accelerated the dissociation of Pi from the dimeric but not monomeric enzyme. 4. Our results indicate a strong interaction to occur between the non-catalytic sites of two subunits of native pyrophosphatase which results in diminished stability of Pi binding to one of them. PMID:6134648

  19. Excited-state transient of vanadyl uroporphyrin I detected by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Alden, R.G.; Sparks, L.D.; Ondrias, M.R. ); Crawford, B.A.; Shelnutt, J.A. )

    1990-02-22

    Transient Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate excited states of vanadyl uroporphyrin I (VOUroP) in both monomeric and dimeric forms. Uroporphyrins are water-soluble porphyrins with propionic and acetic acid groups substituted at the {beta}-pyrrole carbon positions. Monomeric VOUroP in aqueous solution is known to be six-coordinate with a ligand trans to the oxo ligand. Upon dimerization, the sixth ligand site is inaccessible, and a five-coordinate species is observed. At high laser fluence, an excited-state transient is formed in the monomeric species. Raman spectra of this species are most consistent with an {sup 2}A{sub 1u} (a{sub 1u}({pi}) {yields} d{sub xy}) charge-transfer state. In contrast, dimeric VOUroP shows little evidence of an excited state in the transient Raman spectra during a 10-ns laser pulse.

  20. Illegitimate replication of linear hepadnavirus DNA through nonhomologous recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, W; Summers, J

    1995-01-01

    Linear hepadnavirus DNA in primary hepatocyte cultures efficiently participates in intra- and intermolecular nonhomologous recombination at its ends. The products of this recombination are (i) monomeric covalently closed circular DNAs (cccDNAs) with deletions and insertions around the site of joining and (ii) oligomeric forms in which monomers are joined near the ends in random orientation. A fraction of monomeric cccDNAs can serve as intermediates in further DNA replication through at least five generations of nonhomologous recombination in a process we call illegitimate replication. We suggest that the monomeric and oligomeric linear DNAs produced by illegitimate replication may be precursors of the integrated and other high-molecular-weight hepadnaviral DNA forms seen in chronic infection. PMID:7769660

  1. The crowded environment of a reverse micelle induces the formation of β-strand seed structures for nucleating amyloid fibril formation.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Priscilla S-W; Axelsen, Paul H

    2012-04-11

    A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of insoluble fibrils in the brain composed of amyloid beta (Aβ) proteins with parallel in-register cross-β-sheet structure. It has been suggested that the aggregation of monomeric Aβ proteins into fibrils is promoted by "seeds" that form within compartments of the brain that have limited solvent due to macromolecular crowding. To characterize these seeds, a crowded macromolecular environment was mimicked by encapsulating Aβ40 monomers into reverse micelles. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that monomeric Aβ proteins form extended β-strands in reverse micelles, while an analogue with a scrambled sequence does not. This is a remarkable finding, because the formation of extended β-strands by monomeric Aβ proteins suggests a plausible mechanism whereby the formation of amyloid fibrils may be nucleated in the human brain. PMID:22448820

  2. Composition of the Aliphatic Components of Suberin of the Endodermal Fraction from the First Internode of Etiolated Sorghum Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Espelie, Karl E.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The stems from etiolated seedlings of Sorghum bicolor were separated into epidermal and endodermal fractions by manually removing the stele from the cortex. The epidermal fraction was shown to contain a lipid polymer whose monomeric composition was characteristic of cutin with dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid as a major component (25%). The endodermal fraction contained a lipid polymer whose monomeric composition was characteristic of suberin: hexadecanoic acid 12%, octadecenol 6%, octadecenoic acid 23%, ω-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid 17%, hexadecanedioc acid 8%, ω-hydroxyoctadecenoic acid 8%, and octadecenedioic acid 12%. This endodermal polymer is thought to be the suberin component of the Casparian band. PMID:16660742

  3. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  4. Peptide-formation on cysteine-containing peptide scaffolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, B. C.; Orgel, L. E.

    1999-01-01

    Monomeric cysteine residues attached to cysteine-containing peptides by disulfide bonds can be activated by carbonyldiimidazole. If two monomeric cysteine residues, attached to a 'scaffold' peptide Gly-Cys-Glyn-Cys-Glu10, (n = 0, 1, 2, 3) are activated, they react to form the dipeptide Cys-Cys. in 25-65% yield. Similarly, the activation of a cysteine residue attached to the 'scaffold' peptide Gly-Cys-Gly-Glu10 in the presence of Arg5 leads to the formation of Cys-Arg5 in 50% yield. The significance of these results for prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  5. Effect of light-exposure duration on the amount of leachable monomers from light-activated reline material.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, M; Takahashi, Y; Fukushima, T; Habu, T

    1996-02-01

    Leaching of monomers from light-activated direct intraoral reline material (Lebaron LC) was determined by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. This study evaluated the effects of exposure duration and thickness to determine appropriate curing conditions that reduce the levels of unreacted monomeric components. Prolonged duration of exposure (30 minutes) reduced the amount of leached monomer. However, the results of this study indicated that the amount of leached monomeric components increased with an increasing reline material thickness. The results suggest that the light-activated reline material should be cured for sufficient prolonged exposure duration. PMID:8667278

  6. A redox-dependent dimerization switch regulates activity and tolerance for reactive oxygen species of barley seed glutathione peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Navrot, Nicolas; Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Svensson, Birte; Hägglund, Per

    2015-05-01

    Monomeric and dimeric forms of recombinant barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) glutathione peroxidase 2 (HvGpx2) are demonstrated to display distinctly different functional properties in vitro. Monomeric HvGpx2 thus has five fold higher catalytic efficiency than the dimer towards tert-butyl hydroperoxide, but is more sensitive to inactivation by hydrogen peroxide. Treatment of the monomer with hydrogen peroxide results in dimer formation. This observed new behavior of a plant glutathione peroxidase suggests a mechanism involving a switch from a highly catalytically competent monomer to a less active, but more oxidation-resistant dimer. PMID:25796076

  7. In vitro trimerization of OmpF porin secreted by spheroplasts of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sen, K; Nikaido, H

    1990-01-01

    It is not yet clear how bacterial outer membrane proteins reach their correct destination after they are secreted across the cytoplasmic membrane. We show here that porin OmpF is secreted into the medium as a water-soluble monomeric protein by spheroplasts of Escherichia coli. Furthermore, this monomeric porin is taken up by cell envelope preparations or purified lipopolysaccharides in the presence of 0.03% Triton X-100 and is converted correctly into the mature trimeric conformation. These results appear to reproduce a part of the physiological export and targeting steps of this protein. Images PMID:1689050

  8. Tumoral fibrosis effect on the radiation absorbed dose of (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate and (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate conjugated to gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Azorín-Vega, E P; Zambrano-Ramírez, O D; Rojas-Calderón, E L; Ocampo-García, B E; Ferro-Flores, G

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the tumoral fibrosis effect on the radiation absorbed dose of the radiopharmaceuticals (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate (monomeric) and (177)Lu-Tyr(3)-octreotate-gold nanoparticles (multimeric) using an experimental HeLa cells tumoral model and the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code. Experimental and computer micro-environment models with or without fibrosis were constructed. Results showed that fibrosis increases up to 33% the tumor radiation absorbed dose, although the major effect on the dose was produced by the type of radiopharmaceutical (112Gy-multimeric vs. 43Gy-monomeric). PMID:25305748

  9. The Lewis-acid-catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched poly(glycerol-diacid)s in toluene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first examples of monomeric glycerol-derived hyperbranched polyesters produced in a non-polar solvent system are reported here. The polymers were made by the Lewis acid (dibutyltin(IV)oxide)-catalyzed polycondensation of glycerol with either succinic acid (n (aliphatic chain length)=2), glutari...

  10. L-Rhamnose-containing supramolecular nanofibrils as potential immunosuppressive materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fan; Heesters, Balthasar A; Chiu, Isaac; Gao, Yuan; Shi, Junfeng; Zhou, Ning; Carroll, Michael C; Xu, Bing

    2014-09-21

    An l-rhamnose-based hydrogelator self-assembles to form nanofibrils, which, in contrast to the properties of monomeric l-rhamnose, suppress the antibody response of mice to phycoerythrin (PE), a fluorescent protein antigen. As the first example of the supramolecular assemblies of a saccharide to suppress immunity, this work illustrates a new approach of immunomodulation. PMID:25078446

  11. Humoral immune responses in foetal sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, K J; Morris, B

    1978-01-01

    A total of fifty-two foetal sheep between 49 and 126 days gestation were injected with polymeric and monomeric flagellin, dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin, chicken red blood cells, ovalbumin, ferritin, chicken gamma-globulin and the somatic antigens of Salmonella typhimurium in a variety of combinations. Immune responses were followed in these animals by taking serial blood samples from them through indwelling vascular cannulae and measuring the circulating titres of antibody. Of the antigens tested, ferritin induced immune responses in the youngest foetuses. A short time later in gestation, the majority of foetuses responded to chicken red blood cells, polymeric flagellin, monomeric flagellin and dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin. Only older foetuses responded regularly to chicken gamma-globulin and ovalbumin. However, antibodies to all these antigens were first detected over the relatively short period of development between 64 and 82 days gestation and this made it difficult to define any precise order in the development of immune responsiveness. Of the antigens tested only the somatic antigens of S. typhimurium failed to induce a primary antibody response during foetal life. The character and magnitude of the antibody responses in foetuses changed throughout in utero development. Both the total amount of antibody produced and the duration of the response increased with foetal age. Foetuses younger than 87 days gestation did not synthesize 2-mercaptoethanol resistant antibodies or IgG1 immunoglobulin to any of the antigens tested, whereas most foetuses older than this regularly did so. PMID:711249

  12. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION OF LIME PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW TO ETHANOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw used in this study contained 44.24 +/- 0.28% cellulose and 25.23 +/- 0.11% hemicellulose. Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from ...

  13. L-Rhamnose-containing supramolecular nanofibrils as a potential immunosuppressive material

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fan; Heesters, Balthasar A.; Chiu, Isaac; Gao, Yuan; Shi, Junfeng; Zhou, Ning

    2014-01-01

    An L-rhamnose-based hydrogelator self-assembles to form nanofibrils, which, contrasting to the properties of monomeric L-rhamnose, suppress the antibody response of mice to phycoerythrin (PE), a fluorescent protein antigen. As the first example of the supramolecular assemblies of a saccharide to suppress immunity, this work illustrates a new approach of immunomodulation. PMID:25078446

  14. Oligomeric state of lipocalin-1 (LCN1) by multiangle laser light scattering and fluorescence anisotropy decay.

    PubMed

    Gasymov, Oktay K; Abduragimov, Adil R; Merschak, Petra; Redl, Bernhard; Glasgow, Ben J

    2007-10-01

    Multiangle laser light scattering and fluorescence anisotropy decay measurements clarified the oligomeric states of native and recombinant tear lipocalin (lipocalin-1, TL). Native TL is monomeric. Recombinant TL (5-68 microM) with or without the histidine tag shows less than 7% dimer formation that is not in equilibrium with the monomeric form. Fluorescence anisotropy decay showed a correlation time of 9-10 ns for TL (10 microM-1 mM). Hydrodynamic calculations based on the crystallographic structure of a monomeric TL mutant closely concur with the observed correlation time. The solution properties calculated with HYDROPRO and SOLPRO programs from the available crystallographic structure of a monomeric TL mutant concur closely with the observed fluorescence anisotropy decay. The resulting model shows that protein topology is the major determinant of rotational correlation time and accounts for deviation from the Stokes-Einstein relation. The data challenge previous gel filtration studies to show that native TL exists predominantly as a monomer in solution rather than as a dimer. Delipidation of TL results in a formation of a complex oligomeric state (up to 25%). These findings are important as the dynamic processes in the tear film are limited by diffusional, translational as well as rotational, properties of the protein. PMID:17869594

  15. Oligomeric State of Lipocalin-1 (LCN1) by Multiangle Laser Light Scattering and Fluorescence Anisotropy Decay

    PubMed Central

    Gasymov, Oktay K.; Abduragimov, Adil R.; Merschak, Petra; Redl, Bernhard; Glasgow, Ben J.

    2007-01-01

    Multiangle laser light scattering and fluorescence anisotropy decay measurements clarified the oligomeric states of native and recombinant tear lipocalin (lipocalin-1, TL). Native TL is monomeric. Recombinant TL (5-68 μM) with or without the histidine tag shows less than 7% dimer formation that is not in equilibrium with the monomeric form. Fluorescence anisotropy decay showed a correlation time of 9-10 ns for TL (10 μM- 1mM). Hydrodynamic calculations based on the crystallographic structure of a monomeric TL mutant closely concur with the observed correlation time. The solution properties calculated with HYDROPRO and SOLPRO programs from the available crystallographic structure of a monomeric TL mutant concur closely with the observed fluorescence anisotropy decay. The resulting model shows that protein topology is the major determinant of rotational correlation time and accounts for deviation from the Stokes-Einstein relation. The data challenge previous gel filtration studies to show that native TL exists predominantly as a monomer in solution rather than as a dimer. Delipidation of TL results in a formation of a complex oligomeric state (up to 25%). These findings are important as the dynamic processes in the tear film are limited by diffusional, translational as well as rotational, properties of the protein. PMID:17869594

  16. Fuel ethanol production from microwave pretreated wheat straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of temperature (160-240 deg C, 5 min) and duration (5-20 min at 200 deg C) of microwave pretreatment of wheat straw (8.6%, w/v, in water) on its enzymatic saccharification to fermentable sugars were evaluated. The yield of monomeric sugars from microwave (200 deg C, 10 min) pretreated w...

  17. Biomass, Part A: Cellulose and hemicellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, W.A.; Kellogg, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    This volume covers cellulose and hemicellulose and includes proven and reproducible methods for research related to the conversion of carbohydrate polymers to usable monomeric units. Sections on the preparation of biomass materials and of substrates are included, as are sections on analytical methods and on the purification and assay of enzymes.

  18. Better End-Cap Processing for Oxidation-Resistant Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Frimer, Aryeh A.

    2004-01-01

    A class of end-cap compounds that increase the thermo-oxidative stab ility of polyimides of the polymerization of monomeric reactants (PM R) type has been extended. In addition, an improved processing proto col for this class of end-cap compounds has been invented.

  19. Preparation of native and recombinant light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b complex.

    PubMed

    Rühle, Wolfgang; Paulsen, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Procedures to isolate native light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b complex (LHCIIb) and to reconstitute recombinant LHCIIb are described. Separation of trimeric from monomeric forms and free pigment by sucrose density-gradient ultracentrifugation can be applied to both native and reconstituted complexes. The preparations are characterized by their pigment composition, protein pattern, and spectral properties. PMID:20960126

  20. Preparation of native and recombinant light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b complex.

    PubMed

    Rühle, Wolfgang; Paulsen, Harald

    2004-01-01

    Procedures to isolate native light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b complex (LHCIIb) and to reconstitute recombinant LHCIIb are described. Separation of trimeric from monomeric forms and free pigment by sucrose density-gradient ultracentrifugation can be applied to both native and reconstituted complexes. The preparations are characterized by their pigment composition, protein pattern and spectral properties. PMID:15187272

  1. Thermochromic platinum complexes

    DOEpatents

    Kostic, Nenad M.; Zhou, Xia-Ying

    1990-05-29

    Thermochromic compounds containing the [Pt(dipic)Cl].sup.- anion. These compounds are yellow and monomeric at high temperatures or in low concentrations and abruptly change to red and polymeric at low temperatures or higher solution concentrations. This unusual property allows them to be used as temperature sensors.

  2. Thermochromic platinum complexes

    DOEpatents

    Kostic, Nenad M.; Zhou, Xia-Ying

    1989-08-15

    Thermochromic compounds containing the [Pt(dipic)Cl].sup.- anion. These compounds are yellow and monomeric at high temperatures or in low concentrations and abruptly change to red and polymeric at low temperatures or higher solution concentrations. This unusual property allows them to be used as temperature sensors.

  3. Purification and characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 Beta-xylosidase from Geobacillus thermoleovorans IT-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 43 enzyme termed deAX was isolated and subcloned from a culture seeded with a compost starter mixed bacterium population, expressed with a C-terminal His6-tag, and purified to apparent homogeneity. deAX was monomeric in solution, and had a broad pH maxi...

  4. Under Pressure That Splits a Family in Two. The Case of Lipocalin Family

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, Stephane; Marabotti, Anna; Staiano, Maria; Varriale, Antonio; Domaschke, Thomas; Lange, Reinhard; D’Auria, Sabato

    2012-01-01

    The lipocalin family is typically composed of small proteins characterized by a range of different molecular recognition properties. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are a class of proteins of this family devoted to the transport of small hydrophobic molecules in the nasal mucosa of vertebrates. Among OBPs, bovine OBP (bOBP) is of great interest for its peculiar structural organization, characterized by a domain swapping of its two monomeric subunits. The effect of pressure on unfolding and refolding of native dimeric bOBP and of an engineered monomeric form has been investigated by theoretical and experimental studies under pressure. A coherent model explains the pressure-induced protein structural changes: i) the substrate-bound protein stays in its native configuration up to 330 MPa, where it loses its substrate; ii) the substrate-free protein dissociates into monomers at 200 MPa; and iii) the monomeric substrate-free form unfolds at 120 MPa. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that the pressure-induced tertiary structural changes that accompany the quaternary structural changes are mainly localized at the interface between the monomers. Interestingly, pressure-induced unfolding is reversible, but dimerization and substrate binding can no longer occur. The volume of the unfolding kinetic transition state of the monomer has been found to be similar to that of the folded state. This suggests that its refolding requires relatively large structural and/or hydrational changes, explaining thus the relatively low stability of the monomeric form of this class of proteins. PMID:23209756

  5. Time-resolved spectroscopy of solid poly/1-vinyl naphthalene/ following electron beam pulse radiolysis - Pulse radiolytic studies on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, D. R.; Liang, R. H.; Di Stefano, S.; Moacanin, J.; Gupta, A.

    1982-01-01

    Transient emission studies following pulse radiolysis of solid poly(1-vinyl naphthalene) show existence of excited monomers and two excimers. Quenching experiments indicate that excimers are not formed directly by recombination of ions but probably by trapping of migrating monomeric excitation in preformed traps whose density is approximately one in 1000.

  6. Functional, photochemically active, and chemically asymmetric membranes by interfacial polymerization of derivatized multifunctional prepolymers

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, Harold K.; Wamser, Carl C.

    1988-01-01

    The preparation of a novel class of thin film membranes by interfacial polymerization is disclosed, said membanes incorporating as part of their polymeric structure the functionality of monomeric or oligomeric precursors. Specific embodiments include porphyrin and phthalocyanime derivatives that are photochemically or electrochemically active, as well as chemically asymmetric membranes.

  7. Functional, photochemically active, and chemically asymmetric membranes by interfacial polymerization of derivatized multifunctional prepolymers

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, H.K.; Wamser, C.C.

    1990-04-17

    The preparation of a novel class of thin film membranes by interfacial polymerization is disclosed, said membranes incorporating as part of their polymeric structure the functionality of monomeric or oligomeric precursors. Specific embodiments include porphyrin and phthalocyanine derivatives that are photochemically or electrochemically active, as well as chemically asymmetric membranes.

  8. Functional, photochemically active, and chemically asymmetric membranes by interfacial polymerization of derivatized multifunctional prepolymers

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, Harold K.; Wamser, Carl C.

    1990-01-01

    The preparation of a novel class of thin film membranes by interfacial polymerization is disclosed, said membranes incorporating as part of their polymeric structure the functionality of monomeric or oligomeric precursors. Specific embodiments include porphyrin and phthalocyanine derivatives that are photochemically or electrochemically active, as well as chemically asymmetric membranes.

  9. Enzyme Systems for Optimization of Ionic-Liquid Pretreated Biomass Saccharification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass, which consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, is being developed as a renewable carbon source for fuel and chemical production. The use of biomass as a renewable carbon source requires that it be hydrolyzed to monomeric sugars through efficient processes. The process which shows t...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HEMOLYSIN, STACHYLYSIN, FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachybotrys chartarum is a toxigenic fungus that has been associated with human health concerns, including pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis. This fungus produces a hemolysin, stachylysin, which in its monomeric form, has a molecular wieght of 11,920 daltons as determined by m...

  11. Protein composition of wheat gluten polymer fractions determined by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour proteins from the US bread wheat Butte 86 were extracted in 0.5% SDS using a two-step procedure with and without sonication and further separated by size exclusion chromatography into monomeric and polymeric fractions. Proteins in each fraction were analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel...

  12. Voltage-Induced Misfolding of Zinc-Replete ALS Mutant Superoxide Dismutase-1.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunhua; Acerson, Mark J; Shuford, Kevin L; Shaw, Bryan F

    2015-10-21

    The monomerization of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an early step along pathways of misfolding linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Monomerization requires the reversal of two post-translational modifications that are thermodynamically favorable: (i) dissociation of active-site metal ions and (ii) reduction of intramolecular disulfide bonds. This study found, using amide hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange, capillary electrophoresis, and lysine-acetyl protein charge ladders, that ALS-linked A4V SOD1 rapidly monomerizes and partially unfolds in an external electric field (of physiological strength), without loss of metal ions, exposure to disulfide-reducing agents, or Joule heating. Voltage-induced monomerization was not observed for metal-free A4V SOD1, metal-free WT SOD1, or metal-loaded WT SOD1. Computational modeling suggested a mechanism for this counterintuitive effect: subunit macrodipoles of dimeric SOD1 are antiparallel and amplified 2-fold by metal coordination, which increases torque at the dimer interface as subunits rotate to align with the electric field. PMID:26207449

  13. Hyperfine interactions in soybean and lupin oxy-leghemoglobins studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Alenkina, I. V.; Zakharova, A. P.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    A comparative study of monomeric soybean and lupin leghemoglobins in the oxy-form was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 90 K. The 57Fe hyperfine parameters of measured spectra were evaluated and compared with possible structural differences in the heme Fe(II)-O 2 bond.

  14. Introducing a Hydrogen-Bond Donor into a Weakly Nucleophilic Brønsted Base: Alkali Metal Hexamethyldisilazides (MHMDS, M=Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) with Ammonia.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Roman; Michel, Reent; Herbst-Irmer, Regine; Schöne, Ralf; Stalke, Dietmar

    2016-08-22

    Alkali metal 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazide (MHMDSs) are one of the most utilised weakly nucleophilic Brønsted bases in synthetic chemistry and especially in natural product synthesis. Like lithium organics, they aggregate depending on the employed donor solvents. Thus, they show different reactivity and selectivity as a function of their aggregation and solvation state. To date, monomeric LiHMDS with monodentate donor bases was only characterised in solution. Since the first preparation of LiHMDS in 1959 by Wannagat and Niederprüm, all efforts to crystallise monomeric LiHMDS in the absence of chelating ligands failed. Herein, we present ammonia adducts of LiHMDS, NaHMDS, KHMDS, RbHMDS and CsHMDS with unprecedented aggregation motifs: 1) The hitherto missing monomeric key compound in the LiHMDS aggregation architectures. Monomeric crystal structures of trisolvated LiHMDS (1) and NaHMDS (2), showing unique intermolecular hydrogen bonds, 2) the unprecedented tetrasolvated KHMDS (3) and RbHMDS (4) dimers and 3) the disolvated CsHMDS (5) dimer with very close intermolecular Si-CH3 ⋅⋅⋅Cs s-block "agostic" interactions have been prepared and characterised by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. PMID:27457218

  15. Update: The Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrate and Protein: Role of the Small Intestine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leese, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the role of the small intestine in the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and proteins. Indicates as outdated the view that these materials must be broken down to monomeric units before absorption and that the gut secretes a mixture of digestive juices which brings about absorption. (JN)

  16. Graphene-supported hemin as a highly active biomimetic oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Xue, Teng; Jiang, Shan; Qu, Yongquan; Su, Qiao; Cheng, Rui; Dubin, Sergey; Chiu, Chin-Yi; Kaner, Richard; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-04-16

    Well supported: stable hemin-graphene conjugates formed by immobilization of monomeric hemin on graphene, showed excellent catalytic activity, more than 10 times better than that of the recently developed hemin-hydrogel system and 100 times better than that of unsupported hemin. The catalysts also showed excellent binding affinities and catalytic efficiencies approaching that of natural enzymes. PMID:22368046

  17. GENOTOXICITY OF ACRYLIC ACID, METHYL ACRYLATE, ETHYL ACRYLATE, METHYL METHACRYLATE, AND ETHYL METHACRYLATE IN L5178Y MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of monomeric acrylate/methacrylate esters (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, and ethyl methacrylate) as well as acrylic acid were examined for genotoxic activity in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells without exogenous activation. All five compounds induced c...

  18. Tertiary structure of myohemerythrin at low resolution.

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, W A; Klippenstein, G L; Ward, K B

    1975-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies have produced a low resolution image and also located the iron atoms of a monomeric hemerythrin from muscles of a sipunculan worm. These results reveal the course of the polypeptide chain and some details of the active center. Images PMID:1056020

  19. DFT Study of Uranyl Peroxo Complexes with H₂O, F⁻, OH⁻, CO₃ ²⁻, and NO₃-

    SciTech Connect

    Odoh, Samuel O.; Schreckenbach, Georg

    2013-05-06

    The structural and electronic properties of monomeric uranyl peroxo complexes with aquo, hydroxo, fluoro, carbonate, and nitrate ligands have been studied using DFT calculations with relativistic pseudopotentials. The calculated affinity of the peroxo group for the actinyl moiety far exceeds that of the other ligands tested in this work.

  20. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF LOW PH AND ELEVATED ALUMINUM ON SURVIVAL, MATURATION, SPAWNING AND EMBRYO-LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE FATHEAD MINNOW IN SOFT WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to a range of pH and A1 concentrations in soft water (8 mg Ca L-1) to determine effect levels at various life stages. The tested pH levels ranged from 8.0 through 5.2 and inorganic monomeric A1 from 15 through 60 ug L-1. Reproduc...

  1. Bioconversion of lime pretreated wheat straw to fuel ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from wheat straw (8.6%, w/v) by lime pretreatment (100 mg/g straw, 121 deg C, 1 h) and enzymatic hydrolysis ...

  2. Absorption-polarization characteristics of rhodamine 6G and its base in poly(methyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Prishchepov, A.S.; Nizamou, N.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented of the measurement and analysis of the absorption-polarization characteristics of rhodamine 6G and the base of rhodamine 6G (BR6G) in polymeric films of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA). The absorption spectrum of a PMMA film containing BR6G and the cationic dye in the monomeric and associated states are shown.

  3. Inhibition of Receptor Dimerization as a Novel Negative Feedback Mechanism of EGFR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kluba, Malgorzata; Engelborghs, Yves; Hofkens, Johan; Mizuno, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Dimerization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is crucial for initiating signal transduction. We employed raster image correlation spectroscopy to continuously monitor the EGFR monomer-dimer equilibrium in living cells. EGFR dimer formation upon addition of EGF showed oscillatory behavior with a periodicity of about 2.5 min, suggesting the presence of a negative feedback loop to monomerize the receptor. We demonstrated that monomerization of EGFR relies on phospholipase Cγ, protein kinase C, and protein kinase D (PKD), while being independent of Ca2+ signaling and endocytosis. Phosphorylation of the juxtamembrane threonine residues of EGFR (T654/T669) by PKD was identified as the factor that shifts the monomer-dimer equilibrium of ligand bound EGFR towards the monomeric state. The dimerization state of the receptor correlated with the activity of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase, downstream of the EGFR. Based on these observations, we propose a novel, negative feedback mechanism that regulates EGFR signaling via receptor monomerization. PMID:26465157

  4. Lasing characteristics of difluoroborates of 2,2'-dipyrromethene derivatives in solid matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsova, R T; Aksenova, Yu V; Solodova, T A; Kopylova, T N; Tel'minov, E N; Mayer, G V; Berezin, M B; Antina, E V; Burkova, S L; Semeikin, A S

    2014-03-28

    The luminescence-spectral, lasing and photochemical characteristics of laser media based on boron fluoride complexes of dipyrromethenes, embedded into solid bulk matrices of polymethylmethacrylate and its modifications (obtained by adding polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane during polymerisation) and into polymer films, in which polyhedral silsesquioxane enters the composition of monomeric unit, have been investigated. (lasers)

  5. Functionality of Gliadin Proteins in Wheat Flour Tortillas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gliadins are monomeric proteins that are encoded by the genes at the locus Gli 1 and Gli 2 present on the short arm of homeologous wheat chromosomes 1 and 6, respectively. Studies have suggested that gliadins may play an important role in determining the functional properties of wheat flour. The mai...

  6. A new way to silicone-based peptide polymers.

    PubMed

    Jebors, Said; Ciccione, Jeremie; Al-Halifa, Soultan; Nottelet, Benjamin; Enjalbal, Christine; M'Kadmi, Céline; Amblard, Muriel; Mehdi, Ahmad; Martinez, Jean; Subra, Gilles

    2015-03-16

    We describe a new class of silicone-containing peptide polymers obtained by a straightforward polymerization in water using tailored chlorodimethylsilyl peptide blocks as monomeric units. This general strategy is applicable to any type of peptide sequences, yielding linear or branched polymer chains composed of well-defined peptide sequences. PMID:25650781

  7. Peptidoglycan recognition by the Drosophila Imd pathway.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takashi; Golenbock, Douglas; Silverman, Neal

    2005-01-01

    The structural requirements for recognition of peptidoglycan (PGN) by PGRP-LC and activation of the Drosophila IMD pathway are not yet clear. In order to examine this question more carefully, the activity of peptidoglycan from different types of bacteria was compared in cell-based and whole animal assays. Drosophila S2* cells, but not adult flies, responded to Lys-type Micrococcus luteus PGN, but with significantly less potency compared to Dap-type Escherichia coli PGN, while intact Lys-type PGN from Staphylococcus aureus was inactive. After treatment with lysostaphin, which digests the cross-bridging peptides, S. aureus PGN weakly stimulated the IMD pathway, similar to M. luteus PGN. Further digestion with mutanolysin, which creates monomeric PGN fragments, abolished the activity of S. aureus PGN. On the other hand, monomeric E. coli PGN, generated by mutanolysin digestion, was still active but required different isoforms of PGRP-LC for recognition. Polymeric PGN required only PGRP-LCx, while monomeric E. coli PGN required both the PGRP-LCa and PGRP-LCx isoforms. These results suggest that the recognition by PGRP-LCx alone requires polymeric PGN, and that polymeric Dap-type PGN is a more potent PGRP-LCx agonist, compared to Lys-type PGN. These results also suggest that the heteromeric PGRP-LCa/LCx receptor complex recognizes monomeric Dap-type, but not Lys-type, PGN. PMID:16303095

  8. Use of moments of momentum to predict the crystal habit in potassium hydrogen phthalate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Patrick G.; Petty, John T.

    1990-01-01

    A relatively simple calculation of the moments of momentum predicts the morphological order of crystal faces for potassium hydrogen phthalate. The effects on the habit caused by the addition of monomeric, dimeric, and larger aggregates during crystal growth are considered. The first six of the seven observed crystal faces are predicted with this method.

  9. Trans beta substituted chlorins and methods of making and using the same

    DOEpatents

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan

    2003-05-06

    Trans beta substituted chlorins and methods of making the same are disclosed, along with polymers formed from or containing such trans beta substituted chlorins as one or more monomeric units therein, light harvesting rods formed from such polymers, and electrodes carrying such polymers.

  10. Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, E.

    1993-02-01

    Object was to understand factors controlling the activity of O{sub 2} reduction and generation electrocatalysts, in order to attain higher activity and longer-term stability. Two broad classes of catalysts were developed: transition metal macrocycles in monomeric and polymeric forms, and transition metal oxides including perovskites and pyrochlores. 20 refs., 14 figs.

  11. Gliadin functionality in the gluten network: Role of omega-gliadin proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gluten forming proteins found in the wheat endosperm consist of gliadin and glutenin proteins. These proteins are responsible for the viscoelastic properties found in wheat dough. Gliadins are further divided into a-/ß-, '- and '- fractions. These proteins are monomeric in structure whereas, gluteni...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HEMOLYSIN, FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachybotrys chartarum is a toxigenic fungus that has been associated with human health concerns, including pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis. This fungus produces a hemolysin, stachylysin, which in its apparent monomeric form has a molecular mass of 11,920
    Da as determ...

  13. Understanding the fundamental mechanism behind accumulation of oligosaccharides during high solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, polysaccharides are cleaved by glycosyl hydrolases to soluble oligosaccharides and further hydrolyzed by ß-glucosidase, ß-xylosidase and other enzymes to monomeric sugars. However, commercial enzyme mixtures do not hydrolyze all of these oligosaccharides and v...

  14. Dimerization of core complexes as an efficient strategy for energy trapping in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Chenchiliyan, Manoop; Timpmann, Kõu; Jalviste, Erko; Adams, Peter G; Hunter, C Neil; Freiberg, Arvi

    2016-06-01

    In the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, light harvesting LH2 complexes transfer absorbed solar energy to RC-LH1-PufX core complexes, which are mainly found in the dimeric state. Many other purple phototrophs have monomeric core complexes and the basis for requiring dimeric cores is not fully established, so we analysed strains of Rba. sphaeroides that contain either native dimeric core complexes or altered monomeric cores harbouring a deletion of the first 12 residues from the N-terminus of PufX, which retains the PufX polypeptide but removes the major determinant of core complex dimerization. Membranes were purified from strains with dimeric or monomeric cores, and with either high or low levels of the LH2 complex. Samples were interrogated with absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence kinetic spectroscopies to reveal their light-harvesting and energy trapping properties. We find that under saturating excitation light intensity the photosynthetic membranes containing LH2 and monomeric core complexes have fluorescence lifetimes nearly twice that of membranes with LH2 plus dimeric core complexes. This trend of increased lifetime is maintained with RCs in the open state as well, and for two different levels of LH2 content. Thus, energy trapping is more efficient when photosynthetic membranes of Rba. sphaeroides consist of RC-LH1-PufX dimers and LH2 complexes. PMID:27013332

  15. Photoinduced charge separation and stabilization in clusters of a fullerene-aniline dyad

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.G.; Biju, V.; Guldi, D.M.; Kamat, P.V.; George, M.V.

    1999-10-21

    Fullerene-bridge-aniline dyad and the model fulleropyrrolidine compound form stable, optically transparent clusters in mixtures (3:1) of acetonitrile and toluene. Ground- and excited-state properties of the clusters of the dyad and the model compound are compared with their corresponding monomeric forms. Clustering of the dyad as well as the model compound exhibits a red-shifted emission maximum ({lambda}{sub max} {approximately}738 nm) compared to their monomeric forms ({lambda}{sub max} {approximately}714 nm). The electron transfer from the appended electron donor moiety to the parent fullerene core in the dyad cluster is evident from the decreased ({approximately}80%) fluorescence yield. The formation of fullerene radical anion (absorption maximum at 1010nm) with a lifetime of several hundreds of microseconds was further confirmed using nanosecond laser (337 nm) flash photolysis experiments. In contrast, the dyad molecules in their monomeric form did not yield any detectable yield of C{sub 60} radical anion following laser pulse excitation. The failure to observe any charge-transfer intermediates following laser pulse excitation. The failure to observe any charge-transfer intermediates following laser pulse excitation, even in polar solvents such as benzonitrile or nitromethane, suggested that fast back-electron-transfer process must be operative in the monomeric dyad system. On the other hand, clustering of the fullerene-based dyads in a mixed-solvent system can provide a unique way to decrease the rate of back electron transfer, thus stabilizing the electron-transfer products.

  16. Sexual function and depressive symptoms in young women with elevated macroprolactin content: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Okopien, Bogusław

    2016-07-01

    Elevated prolactin levels seem to be associated with impaired sexuality. The clinical significance of macroprolactinemia, associated with the predominance of high molecular mass circulating forms of prolactin, is still poorly understood. This study was aimed at investigating sexual function in young women with macroprolactinemia. The study enrolled 14 young women with macroprolactinemia, 14 with increased monomeric prolactin levels, as well as 14 age- and weight-matched healthy women. All patients completed a questionnaire evaluating female sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index-FSFI), as well as a questionnaire assessing the presence and severity of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition-BDI-II). Apart from total prolactin levels and macroprolactin content, circulating levels of thyrotropin, total testosterone, and 17-β estradiol were also measured. Patients with elevated monomeric prolactin levels had a lower total FSFI score, as well as lower scores for all domains: sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual satisfaction, and dyspareunia. These scores correlated with total and monomeric prolactin levels. In turn, women with macroprolactinemia were characterized by a lower score for sexual desire, and only this score correlated with total prolactin levels and macroprolactin content. The total score in the BDI-II questionnaire was higher in patients with hyper- and macroprolactinemia than in the control subjects. Contrary to multidimensional impairment of sexual function in women with elevated monomeric prolactin, macroprolactinemia only seems to disturb sexual desire. PMID:26902871

  17. Understanding sugar yield loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharides accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolisis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, polysaccharides are cleaved by glycosyl hydrolases to soluble oligosaccharides and further hydrolyzed by ß-glucosidase, ß-xylosidase and other enzymes to monomeric sugars. However, not all oligosaccharides can be fully hydrolyzed and they may accumulate to 18-...

  18. Novel bimodal porous N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-silica monolithic capillary microextraction and its application to the fractionation of aluminum in rainwater and fruit juice by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fei; Hu, Bin

    2008-01-01

    A novel bimodal porous N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AAPTS)-silica monolithic capillary was prepared by sol-gel technology, and used as capillary microextraction (CME) column for aluminum fractionation by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV)-ICP-MS with the use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) slurry as fluorinating agent. The extraction behaviors of different Al species were studied and it was found that in the pH range of 4-7, labile monomeric Al (free Al 3+, Al-OH and Al-F) could be retained quantitatively on the monolithic capillary, while non-labile monomeric Al (Al-Cit and Al-EDTA) passed through the capillary directly. The labile monomeric Al retained on monolithic capillary was eluted with 10 μL 1 mol L - 1 HCl and the elution was introduced into the ETV for fluorination assisted ETV-ICP-MS determination. The total monomeric Al fraction was also determined by AAPTS-silica monolithic CME-fluorination-assisted electrothermal vaporization (FETV)-ICP-MS after the sample solution was adjusted to pH 8.8. Non-labile monomeric Al was obtained by subtracting labile monomeric Al from the total monomeric Al. Under the optimized conditions, the relative standard deviation (R.S.D) was 6.2% ( C = 1 μg L - 1 , n = 7; sample volume, 5 mL), and the limit of detection was 1.6 ng L - 1 for Al with an enrichment factor of 436 fold and a sampling frequency of 9 h - 1 . The prepared AAPTS-silica monolithic capillary showed an excellent pH tolerance and solvent stability and could be used for more than 250 times without decreasing adsorption efficiency. The developed method was applied to the fraction of Al in rainwater and fruit juice, and the results demonstrated that the established system had advantages over the existing 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) chelating system for Al fractionation such as wider pH range, higher tolerance of interference and better regeneration.

  19. Characterization of Surface and Bulk Nitrates of γ-Al2O3-Supported Alkaline Earth Oxides using Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Donghai; Ge, Qingfeng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Verrier, Christelle M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2009-05-14

    “Surface" and "bulk" nitrates formed on a series of alkaline earth oxides (AEOs), AE(NO3)2, were investigated using first-principles density functional theory calculations. The formation of these surface and bulk nitrates was modeled by the adsorption of NO2+NO3 pairs on gamma-Al2O3-supported monomeric AEOs (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO) and on the extended AEO(001) surfaces, respectively. The calculated vibrational frequencies of the surface and bulk nitrates based on our proposed models are in good agreement with experimental measurements of AEO/gamma-Al2O3 materials after prolonged NO2 exposure. This indicates that experimentally observed "surface" nitrates are most likely formed with isolated two dimensional (including monomeric) AEO clusters on the gamma-Al2O3 substrate, while the "bulk" nitrates are formed on exposed (including (001)) surfaces (and likely in the bulk as well) of large three dimensional AEO particles supported on the gamma-Al2O3 substrate. Also in line with the experiments, our calculations show that the low and high frequency components of the vibrations for both surface and bulk nitrates are systematically red shifted with the increasing basicity and cationic size of the AEOs. The adsorption strengths of NO2+NO3 pairs are nearly the same for the series of alumina-supported monomeric AEOs, while the adsorption strengths of NO2+NO3 pairs on the AEO surfaces increase in the order of MgO < CaO < SrO ~ BaO. Compared to the NO2+NO3 pair that only interacts with monomeric AEOs, the stability of NO2+NO3 pairs that interact with both the monomeric AEO and the gamma-Al2O3 substrate is enhanced by about 0.5 eV. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  20. Dynamical Behavior of Human α-Synuclein Studied by Quasielastic Neutron Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Satoru; Araki, Katsuya; Matsuo, Tatsuhito; Yagi, Hisashi; Yamada, Takeshi; Shibata, Kaoru; Mochizuki, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    α-synuclein (αSyn) is a protein consisting of 140 amino acid residues and is abundant in the presynaptic nerve terminals in the brain. Although its precise function is unknown, the filamentous aggregates (amyloid fibrils) of αSyn have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. To understand the pathogenesis mechanism of this disease, the mechanism of the amyloid fibril formation of αSyn must be elucidated. Purified αSyn from bacterial expression is monomeric but intrinsically disordered in solution and forms amyloid fibrils under various conditions. As a first step toward elucidating the mechanism of the fibril formation of αSyn, we investigated dynamical behavior of the purified αSyn in the monomeric state and the fibril state using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). We prepared the solution sample of 9.5 mg/ml purified αSyn, and that of 46 mg/ml αSyn in the fibril state, both at pD 7.4 in D2O. The QENS experiments on these samples were performed using the near-backscattering spectrometer, BL02 (DNA), at the Materials and Life Science Facility at the Japan Accelerator Research Complex, Japan. Analysis of the QENS spectra obtained shows that diffusive global motions are observed in the monomeric state but largely suppressed in the fibril state. However, the amplitude of the side chain motion is shown to be larger in the fibril state than in the monomeric state. This implies that significant solvent space exists within the fibrils, which is attributed to the αSyn molecules within the fibrils having a distribution of conformations. The larger amplitude of the side chain motion in the fibril state than in the monomeric state implies that the fibril state is entropically favorable. PMID:27097022