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Sample records for glycine-spacers influence functional

  1. Glycine-Spacers Influence Functional Motifs Exposure and Self-Assembling Propensity of Functionalized Substrates Tailored for Neural Stem Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Taraballi, Francesca; Natalello, Antonino; Campione, Marcello; Villa, Omar; Doglia, Silvia M.; Paleari, Alberto; Gelain, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of phenomena involved in the self-assembling of bio-inspired biomaterials acting as three-dimensional scaffolds for regenerative medicine applications is a necessary step to develop effective therapies in neural tissue engineering. We investigated the self-assembled nanostructures of functionalized peptides featuring four, two or no glycine-spacers between the self-assembly sequence RADA16-I and the functional biological motif PFSSTKT. The effectiveness of their biological functionalization was assessed via in vitro experiments with neural stem cells (NSCs) and their molecular assembly was elucidated via atomic force microscopy, Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. We demonstrated that glycine-spacers play a crucial role in the scaffold stability and in the exposure of the functional motifs. In particular, a glycine-spacer of four residues leads to a more stable nanostructure and to an improved exposure of the functional motif. Accordingly, the longer spacer of glycines, the more effective is the functional motif in both eliciting NSCs adhesion, improving their viability and increasing their differentiation. Therefore, optimized designing strategies of functionalized biomaterials may open, in the near future, new therapies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:20162033

  2. Cognitive Processes Influencing Marital Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Ileana

    This paper reviews the literature on the role of mediating cognitive factors in marital functioning and satisfaction. Types and patterns of causal attributions of distressed and nondistressed couples are compared and the effectiveness of various intervention models is discussed. The materials also discuss the role of unfulfilled expectations as a…

  3. Influence Function Learning in Information Diffusion Networks

    PubMed Central

    Du, Nan; Liang, Yingyu; Balcan, Maria-Florina; Song, Le

    2015-01-01

    Can we learn the influence of a set of people in a social network from cascades of information diffusion? This question is often addressed by a two-stage approach: first learn a diffusion model, and then calculate the influence based on the learned model. Thus, the success of this approach relies heavily on the correctness of the diffusion model which is hard to verify for real world data. In this paper, we exploit the insight that the influence functions in many diffusion models are coverage functions, and propose a novel parameterization of such functions using a convex combination of random basis functions. Moreover, we propose an efficient maximum likelihood based algorithm to learn such functions directly from cascade data, and hence bypass the need to specify a particular diffusion model in advance. We provide both theoretical and empirical analysis for our approach, showing that the proposed approach can provably learn the influence function with low sample complexity, be robust to the unknown diffusion models, and significantly outperform existing approaches in both synthetic and real world data. PMID:25973445

  4. Production Decline Analysis Using Influence Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Zais, Elliot J.

    1980-12-16

    We previously reported (Zais, 1979) that Arps's exponential equation works quite well on geothermal production data. The hyperbolic equation should probably not be used. In this paper we show the progress made i n using influence functions t o describe reservoir production behavior.

  5. The Influence of Palatoplasty on Eating Function.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Heishiro; Wakami, Satoki; Motomura, Hisashi

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative dietary control and surgical procedures are important for minimizing complications after a palatoplasty because the palate is always exposed to stresses by various movements associated with eating. Currently, we provide fluid foods (food paste, liquid food, and soft food) to postpalatoplasty patients. However, nutritional inadequacies associated with fluid food necessitate the need to develop a new food specifically for postpalatoplasty patients. Although evaluating the influence of a palatoplasty on eating function is important for the development of a new diet, no data have been published on this topic. Thus, to evaluate the influence of a palatoplasty on eating function, we analyzed postoperative changes in the eating condition of cleft palate patients. We performed a retrospective study. All participants had undergone surgery for a cleft palate at our hospital. Nurses recorded the amount of food that patients consumed as a ratio of the whole meal, and we extracted data on the food type and the amount consumed at each meal from their medical records. After the ratio was expressed as a percentage of the whole meal (eating rate), we calculated the mean value of the percentage of the subject group and examined chronological changes. The eating rate was very low on postoperative day 1, it improved over time and was constant on postoperative day 7. From this result, we concluded that palatoplasty greatly influences the eating function of patients, and the influence lasts for at least a week after surgery. PMID:27622108

  6. The Influence of Palatoplasty on Eating Function

    PubMed Central

    Wakami, Satoki; Motomura, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Postoperative dietary control and surgical procedures are important for minimizing complications after a palatoplasty because the palate is always exposed to stresses by various movements associated with eating. Currently, we provide fluid foods (food paste, liquid food, and soft food) to postpalatoplasty patients. However, nutritional inadequacies associated with fluid food necessitate the need to develop a new food specifically for postpalatoplasty patients. Although evaluating the influence of a palatoplasty on eating function is important for the development of a new diet, no data have been published on this topic. Thus, to evaluate the influence of a palatoplasty on eating function, we analyzed postoperative changes in the eating condition of cleft palate patients. We performed a retrospective study. All participants had undergone surgery for a cleft palate at our hospital. Nurses recorded the amount of food that patients consumed as a ratio of the whole meal, and we extracted data on the food type and the amount consumed at each meal from their medical records. After the ratio was expressed as a percentage of the whole meal (eating rate), we calculated the mean value of the percentage of the subject group and examined chronological changes. The eating rate was very low on postoperative day 1, it improved over time and was constant on postoperative day 7. From this result, we concluded that palatoplasty greatly influences the eating function of patients, and the influence lasts for at least a week after surgery.

  7. Influence of cochlear implantation on vestibular function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulan; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Fan; Qin, Zhaobing

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion Vestibular function in patients can be damaged following cochlear implantation. Therefore, assessing the pre-operative vestibular status, carefully choosing the side of implantation, and preserving function by using minimally invasive surgical techniques are important. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cochlear implantation on vestibular function in patients with severe and profound sensorineural hearing loss, and to analyze a possible correlation between the changes in vestibular testing and post-operative vestibular symptoms. Methods Thirty-four patients were evaluated for vestibular function using the cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP and oVEMP, respectively), and 29 patients underwent caloric tests pre-operatively and 4 weeks post-operatively. Results Before surgery, the cVEMPs were recorded bilaterally in 22 patients, unilaterally in eight patients, and absent bilaterally in four patients. The oVEMPs were recorded bilaterally in 19 patients, unilaterally in six patients, and absent bilaterally in nine patients. After implantation, the cVEMPs were absent in 10 patients and the oVEMPs were absent in seven patients on the implanted side. Caloric tests demonstrated canal paresis in 17 patients, and normal responses were recorded in 12 of the 29 patients pre-operatively. There was a significant decrease post-implantation in the ear implanted, with the exception of two patients. Two patients presented with vertigo and another two patients reported slight unsteadiness post-operatively, but all symptoms resolved within 7 days. The impaired vestibular function did not correlate with vestibular symptoms, age, or gender. Function on the contralateral side remained unaffected. PMID:27008103

  8. Do Geographically Isolated Wetlands Influence Landscape Functions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape functions such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support depend on the exchange of solutes, particles, energy, and organisms between elements in hydrological and habitat networks. Wetlands are important network elements, providing hyd...

  9. THERMAL INFLUENCES ON NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of cooling and warming on neural function are reviewed. he literature is presented progressively from the subcellular through the cellular level to the neural systems level. emporal measures relevant to membrane activity, action potentials, synaptic transmission and e...

  10. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Mushet, David M.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  11. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Matthew J; Creed, Irena F; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B; Calhoun, Aram J K; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E; Jawitz, James W; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L Katherine; Lane, Charles R; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L; Mushet, David M; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C

    2016-02-23

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs. PMID:26858425

  12. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Mushet, David M.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs. PMID:26858425

  13. Global network influences on local functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Adam C.; Morais, Michael J.; Willis, Cory M.; Smith, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    A central neuroscientific pursuit is understanding neuronal interactions that support computations underlying cognition and behavior. Although neurons interact across disparate scales – from cortical columns to whole-brain networks – research has been restricted to one scale at a time. We measured local interactions through multi-neuronal recordings while accessing global networks using scalp EEG in rhesus macaques. We measured spike count correlation, an index of functional connectivity with computational relevance, and EEG oscillations, which have been linked to various cognitive functions. We found a surprising non-monotonic relationship between EEG oscillation amplitude and spike count correlation, contrary to the intuitive expectation of a direct relationship. With a widely-used network model we replicated these findings by incorporating a private signal targeting inhibitory neurons, a common mechanism proposed for gain modulation. Finally, we report that spike count correlation explains nonlinearities in the relationship between EEG oscillations and response time in a spatial selective attention task. PMID:25799040

  14. Influence of vascular function and pulsatile hemodynamics on cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Bell, Vanessa; Mitchell, Gary F

    2015-09-01

    Interactions between cardiac and vascular structure and function normally are optimized to ensure delivery of cardiac output with modest pulsatile hemodynamic overhead. Aortic stiffening with age or disease impairs optimal ventricular-vascular coupling, increases pulsatile load, and contributes to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, reduced systolic function, and impaired diastolic relaxation. Aortic pulse pressure and timing of peak systolic pressure are well-known measures of hemodynamic ventricular-vascular interaction. Recent work has elucidated the importance of direct, mechanical coupling between the aorta and the heart. LV systolic contraction results in displacement of aortic and mitral annuli, thereby producing longitudinal stretch in the ascending aorta and left atrium, respectively. Force associated with longitudinal stretch increases systolic load on the LV. However, the resulting energy stored in the elastic elements of the proximal aorta during systole facilitates early diastolic LV recoil and rapid filling. This review discusses current views on hemodynamics and mechanics of ventricular-vascular coupling. PMID:26164466

  15. Species identity influences belowground arthropod assemblages via functional traits

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Courtney E.; Read, Quentin D.; Van Nuland, Michael E.; Bryant, Jessica A. M.; Welch, Jessica N.; Altobelli, Joseph T.; Douglas, Morgan J.; Genung, Mark A.; Haag, Elliot N.; Jones, Devin N.; Long, Hannah E.; Wilburn, Adam D.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2013-01-01

    Plant species influence belowground communities in a variety of ways, ultimately impacting nutrient cycling. Functional plant traits provide a means whereby species identity can influence belowground community interactions, but little work has examined whether species identity influences belowground community processes when correcting for evolutionary history. Specifically, we hypothesized that closely related species would exhibit (i) more similar leaf and root functional traits than more distantly related species, and (ii) more similar associated soil arthropod communities. We found that after correcting for evolutionary history, tree species identity influenced belowground arthropod communities through plant functional traits. These data suggest that plant species structure may be an important predictor in shaping associated soil arthropod communities and further suggest the importance of better understanding the extended consequences of evolutionary history on ecological processes, as similarity in traits may not always reflect similar ecology.

  16. Nutritional influences on visual development and function.

    PubMed

    Lien, Eric L; Hammond, Billy R

    2011-05-01

    Experiments conducted on many different species reveal a fundamental paradox about the vertebrate eye; it is damaged by its own operation. This vulnerability stems from the need to respond to visible light, often actinic, but also from the intrinsic metabolic and structural state of the eye's internal structures. Photoreceptor outer segments, for instance, have high concentrations of diet-derived long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and these membrane lipids are highly prone to peroxidation due to the high oxygen tension of the outer retina. Such a high diathesis for damage would be catastrophic if it were not balanced by an equally impressive system for responding to such stressors. The retina (and to a lesser extent the crystalline lens), for instance, is especially rich in dietary antioxidants such as vitamin E, vitamin C and the macular carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin) putatively to retard light-induced oxidative damage. The nutrients that support both essential function (e.g., retinal, the vitamin form of vitamin A, in photopigment) and protection operate in a highly integrated manner. For instance, Vitamin E is a lipophillic chain-breaking anti-oxidant (protecting DHA-rich outer segment membranes) that regenerates itself through reaction with vitamin C (a primary anti-oxidant against aqueous radicals) and is spatially distributed in complement with the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. Nor are these interactions relegated to simply providing protection and the basic elements needed for transduction. Macular lutein and zeaxanthin, for example, improve visual performance (e.g., reduce glare disability and discomfort, speed photostress recovery, and enhance chromatic contrast) through purely optical means (by absorbing short-wave light anterior to the foveal cones). The vulnerability of the eye to exogenous insult, and the sensitivity of the eye to dietary components, is not static: infants have more vulnerable retinas due to clearer lenses and higher

  17. Influence functions of a thin shallow meniscus-shaped mirror.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L

    1997-04-01

    Thin shallow spherical shell theory is used to derive the general influence function, owing to uniform and/or discrete (actuators) loads, for a thin shallow meniscus-shaped mirror of uniform thickness with a central hole and supported at discrete points. Small elastic deformations are considered. No symmetry on the load distribution constrains the model. Explicit analytical expressions of the set of equations are given for calculating the influence functions. Results agree with the finite element analysis (FEA) to within 1%. When the FEA requires megabytes of RAM memory, the analytical method needs only kilobytes and typically runs 30 times faster. This is a crucial advantage for the iterative optimization of mirror supports such as large passive or active meniscus-shaped primary mirror supports or Cassegrain/Gregorian adaptive secondary actuator configurations. References are given on estimating the shear effects (thick mirror), the thickness variation effect, and the influence of the size of the support pads. PMID:18253168

  18. Influence of Exogenous Progestin on Ovarian Function in Beef Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to precisely regulate follicle recruitment and selection is critical to improving methods to control ovulation in beef cows. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the influence of exogenous progestins, commonly used in synchronization protocols, on ovarian function and...

  19. Mycorrhizas influence functional traits of two tallgrass prairie species.

    PubMed

    Weremijewicz, Joanna; Seto, Kotaro

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, functional traits that influence plant performance and thus, population, community, and ecosystem biology have garnered increasing attention. Generally lacking, however, has been consideration of how ubiquitous arbuscular mycorrhizas influence plant allometric and stoichiometric functional traits. We assessed how plant dependence on and responsiveness to mycorrhizas influence plant functional traits of a warm-season, C4 grass, Andropogon gerardii Vitman, and the contrasting, cool-season, C3 grass, Elymus canadensis L. We grew both host species with and without inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi, across a broad gradient of soil phosphorus availabilities. Both host species were facultatively mycotrophic, able to grow without mycorrhizas at high soil phosphorus availability. A. gerardii was most dependent upon mycorrhizas and E. canadensis was weakly dependent, but highly responsive to mycorrhizas. The high dependence of A. gerardii on mycorrhizas resulted in higher tissue P and N concentrations of inoculated than noninoculated plants. When not inoculated, E. canadensis was able to take up both P and N in similar amounts to inoculated plants because of its weak dependence on mycorrhizas for nutrient uptake and its pronounced ability to change root-to-shoot ratios. Unlike other highly dependent species, A. gerardii had a high root-to-shoot ratio and was able to suppress colonization by mycorrhizal fungi at high soil fertilities. E. canadensis, however, was unable to suppress colonization and had a lower root-to shoot ratio than A. gerardii. The mycorrhiza-related functional traits of both host species likely influence their performance in nature: both species attained the maximum responsiveness from mycorrhizas at soil phosphorus availabilities similar to those of tallgrass prairies. Dependence upon mycorrhizas affects performance in the absence of mycorrhizas. Responsiveness to mycorrhizal fungi is also a function of the environment and

  20. Influence of age on neutrophil function in foals.

    PubMed

    Wichtel, M G; Anderson, K L; Johnson, T V; Nathan, U; Smith, L

    1991-11-01

    Functional activities (phagocytosis and killing) of neutrophil leucocytes (NL) and immunoglobulin G concentrations were evaluated in six healthy foals from birth to 6 months of age. Peripheral blood NL were reacted with Streptococcus equisimilis in 20 per cent pooled equine serum for 30, 60 and 90 mins and functional activities of NL were determined using a fluorochrome microassay. Values for foal NL function were compared with those of healthy adult horses (n = 28). Foal neutrophil function was influenced by age. Killing capacity of NL decreased, whereas phagocytic capacity increased, until 113 days of age, after which a reversal in trends became apparent. Immunoglobulin G concentrations changed significantly over time and were lowest at 29 to 56 days of age. All foal values for NL function fell within the range of normal values established for healthy adult horses. PMID:1778167

  1. Acute and chronic wound fluids influence keratinocyte function differently.

    PubMed

    Thamm, Oliver C; Koenen, Paola; Bader, Nicola; Schneider, Alina; Wutzler, Sebastian; Neugebauer, Edmund A M; Spanholtz, Timo A

    2015-04-01

    Wound healing requires a proper functioning of keratinocytes that migrate, proliferate and lead to a competent wound closure. Impaired wound healing might be due to a disturbed keratinocyte function caused by the wound environment. Basically, chronic wound fluid (CWF) differs from acute wound fluid (AWF). The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of AWF and CWF on keratinocyte function. We therefore investigated keratinocyte migration and proliferation under the influence of AWF and CWF using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] test and scratch assay. We further measured the gene expression by qRT-PCR regarding growth factors and matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs) involved in regeneration processes. AWF had a positive impact on keratinocyte proliferation over time, whereas CWF had an anti-proliferative effect. Keratinocyte migration was significantly impaired by CWF in contrast to an undisturbed wound closure under the influence of AWF. MMP-9 expression was strongly upregulated by CWF compared with AWF. Keratinocyte function was significantly impaired by CWF. An excessive induction of MMP-9 by CWF might lead to a permanent degradation of extracellular matrix and thereby prevent wounds from healing. PMID:23517467

  2. Influence of hypokinesis on physiological functions in fowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nvota, J.; Lamosova, D.; Tesarova, D.; Cierna, V.; Vyboh, P.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of hypokinesis and postincubation stress (which are characteristic for modern techniques of poultry cage keeping) on the endocrine functions, metabolic reactions, body weight growth and proteosynthesis in the muscle of cocks was investigated. The stress due to hypokinesis was observed in growing cocks housed in metallic cages in which they could hardly turn around. The findings obtained indicate that a 35-day hypokinesis did not exert any more significant influence both on physiological functions and body weight growth as well as on proteosynthesis in the muscle of cocks under study; however, it speeded up the protein metabolism in the muscle. The postincubation stress modified significantly the hypokinesis effect. Findings recorded in birds differed considerably from findings obtained in laboratory mammals, in which the hypokinesis induced significant changes in endocrine functions, body weight decrease and proteosynthesis disorders. A good tolerance of hypokinesis by fowl can be interpreted not only by the phylogenetic remoteness of the compared species but also by the domestication.

  3. Influence of persistent monodominance on functional diversity and functional community assembly in African tropical forests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearsley, Elizabeth; Verbeeck, Hans; Hufkens, Koen; Beeckman, Hans; Steppe, Kathy; Boeckx, Pascal; Huygens, Dries

    2015-04-01

    Lowland tropical rainforest are taxonomically diverse and complex systems, although not all tropical communities are equally diverse. Naturally occuring monodominant patches of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei are commonly found across Central Africa alongside higher diversity forests. Nevertheless, a low taxonomical diversity does not necessarily indicate an equivalently low functional diverse system. We investigate the functional diversity and functional community assembly of mixed and monodominant tropical forests in a central region of the Congo Basin in D. R. Congo using 15 leaf and wood traits covering 95% of all species within each community. This unique dataset allows us to investigate differences in functional diversity and ecosystem functioning between mixed and monodominant forest types. Functional richness, functional divergence and functional evenness are three functional diversity measures providing different aspects of functional diversity. The largest difference between the two forest types was found for functional richness, with a lower functional richness in the monodominant forest indicating a higher amount of niche space filled in the mixed forest. The mixed forest also had a higher species richness and Simpson diversity index, indicating that the higher species richness increases the functional niche space. Subsequently, we identified whole community trait shifts within the monodominant forest compared to the mixed forest. The dominance of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei, for which a distinct niche is found for most traits, presented a significant influence on the entire (trait) community expressing fundamental differences in ecosystem functioning. More detailed investigation of species unique within the monodominant forest and species occurring in both forest types provide more insight into the influence of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei. Both the unique and the shared species showed significant shifts in leaf nutrients, specific leaf area and water use

  4. Influence of tetracyclines on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function.

    PubMed Central

    Glette, J; Sandberg, S; Hopen, G; Solberg, C O

    1984-01-01

    Low concentrations of oxytetracycline, doxycycline, or minocycline (less than 10 micrograms/ml) did not influence in vitro polymorphonuclear leukocyte random migration, chemiluminescence, or glucose oxidation. At high concentrations of doxycycline or minocycline (greater than 10 micrograms/ml), chemiluminescence and glucose oxidation were impaired. High concentrations of doxycycline also reduced random migration. Oxytetracycline did not influence these functions in concentrations up to 100 micrograms/ml. The inhibiting effect of doxycycline and minocycline was abolished when 4 mM Mg2+ was added to the reaction mixture, and 4 mM Ca2+ partly restored minocycline-inhibited polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions. This indicates that the major effect of tetracyclines on in vitro polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions is mediated by their divalent cation chelating effect and that the results of in vitro experiments are highly dependent on the concentration of divalent cations in the reaction mixtures. The difference between the tetracyclines may be due to differences in lipid solubility, with solubility being highest for minocycline and lowest for oxytetracycline, or to different divalent cation chelating ability. PMID:6721468

  5. The influence of gravity on structure and function of animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M. D.

    Gravity is the only environmental parameter that has remained constant during the period of evolution of living matter on Earth. Thus, it must have been a major force in shaping livimg things. The influence of gravitational loading on evolution of the vertebrate skeleton is well recognized, and scale effects have been studied. This paper, however, considers in addition four pivotal events in early evolution that would seem to have been significant for the later success and diversification of animal life. These are evolution of the cytoskeleton, cell motility (flagellae and cilia), gravity detecting devices (accelerometers), and biomineralization. All are functionally calcium dependent in eukaryotes and all occurred or were foreshadowed in prokaryotes. A major question is why calcium was selected as an ion of great importance to the structure and function of living matter; another is whether gravity played a role in its selection.

  6. The influence of gravity on structure and function of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Gravity is the only environmental parameter that has remained constant during the period of evolution of living matter on earth. Thus, it must have been a major force in shaping living things. The influence of gravitational loading on evolution of the vertebrate skeleton is well recognized, and scale effects have been studied. This paper, however, considers in addition four pivotal events in early evolution that would seem to have been significant for the later success and diversifcation of animal life. These are evolution of the cytoskeleton, cell motility (flagellae and cilia), gravity detecting devices (accelerometers), and biomineralization. All are functionally calcium dependent in eukaryotes and all occurred or were foreshadowed in prokaryotes. A major question is why calcium was selected as an ion of great importance to the structure and function of living matter; another is whether gravity played a role in its selection.

  7. Influence of Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Cancer on Pulmonary Function

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Akihiro Hiraki, Takao; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tsuda, Toshihide; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate altered pulmonary function retrospectively after RFA. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 41 ablation sessions for 39 patients (22 men and 17 women; mean age, 64.8 years). Vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) at 1 and 3 months after RFA were compared with the baseline (i.e., values before RFA). To evaluate the factors that influenced impaired pulmonary function, univariate analysis was performed by using multiple variables. If two or more variables were indicated as statistically significant by univariate analysis, these variables were subjected to multivariate analysis to identify independent factors. Results: The mean VC and FEV{sub 1} before RFA and 1 and 3 months after RFA were 3.04 and 2.24 l, 2.79 and 2.11 l, and 2.85 and 2.13 l, respectively. The values at 1 and 3 months were significantly lower than the baseline. Severe pleuritis after RFA was identified as the independent factor influencing impaired VC at 1 month (P = 0.003). For impaired FEV{sub 1} at 1 month, only severe pleuritis (P = 0.01) was statistically significant by univariate analysis. At 3 months, severe pleuritis (VC, P = 0.019; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.003) and an ablated parenchymal volume {>=}20 cm{sup 3} (VC, P = 0.047; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.038) were independent factors for impaired VC and FEV{sub 1}. Conclusions: Pulmonary function decreased after RFA. RFA-induced severe pleuritis and ablation of a large volume of marginal parenchyma were associated with impaired pulmonary function.

  8. Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wesley W.; Pak, Chan-gi

    2011-01-01

    A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle.

  9. Impairments that Influence Physical Function among Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Carmen L.; Gawade, Prasad L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Children treated for cancer are at increased risk of developing chronic health conditions, some of which may manifest during or soon after treatment while others emerge many years after therapy. These health problems may limit physical performance and functional capacity, interfering with participation in work, social, and recreational activities. In this review, we discuss treatment-induced impairments in the endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiopulmonary systems and their influence on mobility and physical function. We found that cranial radiation at a young age was associated with a broad range of chronic conditions including obesity, short stature, low bone mineral density and neuromotor impairments. Anthracyclines and chest radiation are associated with both short and long-term cardiotoxicity. Although numerous chronic conditions are documented among individuals treated for childhood cancer, the impact of these conditions on mobility and function are not well characterized, with most studies limited to survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. Moving forward, further research assessing the impact of chronic conditions on participation in work and social activities is required. Moreover, interventions to prevent or ameliorate the loss of physical function among children treated for cancer are likely to become an important area of survivorship research. PMID:25692094

  10. Calculated spanwise lift distributions, influence functions, and influence coefficients for unswept wings in subsonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diederich, Franklin W; Zlotnick, Martin

    1955-01-01

    Spanwise lift distributions have been calculated for nineteen unswept wings with various aspect ratios and taper ratios and with a variety of angle-of-attack or twist distributions, including flap and aileron deflections, by means of the Weissinger method with eight control points on the semispan. Also calculated were aerodynamic influence coefficients which pertain to a certain definite set of stations along the span, and several methods are presented for calculating aerodynamic influence functions and coefficients for stations other than those stipulated. The information presented in this report can be used in the analysis of untwisted wings or wings with known twist distributions, as well as in aeroelastic calculations involving initially unknown twist distributions.

  11. The Influence of Head Motion on Intrinsic Functional Connectivity MRI

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Koene R.A.; Sabuncu, Mert R.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2011-01-01

    Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) has been widely applied to explore group and individual differences. A confounding factor is head motion. Children move more than adults, older adults more than younger adults, and patients more than controls. Head motion varies considerably among individuals within the same population. Here we explored the influence of head motion on fcMRI estimates. Mean head displacement, maximum head displacement, the number of micro movements (> 0.1 mm), and head rotation were estimated in 1000 healthy, young adult subjects each scanned for two resting-state runs on matched 3T scanners. The majority of fcMRI variation across subjects was not linked to estimated head motion. However, head motion had significant, systematic effects on fcMRI network measures. Head motion was associated with decreased functional coupling in the default and frontoparietal control networks – two networks characterized by coupling among distributed regions of association cortex. Other network measures increased with motion including estimates of local functional coupling and coupling between left and right motor regions – a region pair sometimes used as a control in studies to establish specificity. Comparisons between groups of individuals with subtly different levels of head motion yielded difference maps that could be mistaken for neuronal effects in other contexts. These effects are important to consider when interpreting variation between groups and across individuals. PMID:21810475

  12. Influence of gold nanoparticles on platelets functional activity in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchurin, Garif G.; Akchurin, George G.; Ivanov, Alexey N.; Kirichuk, Vyacheslav F.; Terentyuk, George S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolay G.

    2008-02-01

    Now in the leading biomedical centers of the world approved new technology of laser photothermal destruction of cancer cells using plasmon gold nanoparticles. Investigations of influence of gold nanoparticles on white rat platelets aggregative activity in vitro have been made. Platelet aggregation was investigated in platelet rich plasma (PRP) with help of laser analyzer 230 LA <>, Russia). Aggregation inductor was ADP solution in terminal concentration 2.5 micromole (<>, Russia). Gold nanoshells soluted in salt solution were used for experiments. Samples of PRP were incubated with 50 or 100 μl gold nanoshells solution in 5 minute, after that we made definition ADP induced platelet aggregation. We found out increase platelet function activity after incubation with nanoparticles solution which shown in maximum ADP-induced aggregation degree increase. Increase platelet function activity during intravenous nanoshells injection can be cause of thrombosis on patients. That's why before clinical application of cancer cell destruction based on laser photothermal used with plasmon gold nanoparticles careful investigations of thrombosis process and detail analyze of physiological blood parameters are very necessary.

  13. Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wesley Waisang; Pak, Chan-Gi

    2010-01-01

    A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients [AIC] matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO(TradeMark) flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing [ATW] 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle

  14. Pharmaceutical excipients influence the function of human uptake transporting proteins.

    PubMed

    Engel, Anett; Oswald, Stefan; Siegmund, Werner; Keiser, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Although pharmaceutical excipients are supposed to be pharmacologically inactive, solubilizing agents like Cremophor EL have been shown to interact with cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent drug metabolism as well as efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (ABCC2). However, knowledge about their influence on the function of uptake transporters important in drug disposition is very limited. In this study we investigated the in vitro influence of polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), Solutol HS 15 (SOL), and Cremophor EL (CrEL) on the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1A2, OATP2B1, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 and the Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP). In stably transfected human embryonic kidney cells we analyzed the competition of the excipients with the uptake of bromosulfophthalein in OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and NTCP, estrone-3-sulfate (E(3)S) in OATP1A2, OATP1B1, and OATP2B1, estradiol-17β-glucuronide in OATP1B3, and taurocholate (TA) in OATP1A2 and NTCP cells. SOL and CrEL were the most potent inhibitors of all transporters with the strongest effect on OATP1A2, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 (IC(50) < 0.01%). HPCD also strongly inhibited all transport proteins but only for substrates containing a sterane-backbone. Finally, PEG seems to be a selective and potent modulator of OATP1A2 with IC(50) values of 0.05% (TA) and 0.14% (E(3)S). In conclusion, frequently used solubilizing agents were shown to interact substantially with intestinal and hepatic uptake transporters which should be considered in drug development. However, the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be evaluated in further in vivo studies. PMID:22808947

  15. Redox state influence on human galectin-1 function.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xing; Scott, Stacy A; Pritchard, Rhys; Houston, Todd A; Ralph, Stephen J; Blanchard, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Intracellular and extracellular functions of human galectin-1 are influenced by its redox surroundings due to the presence of six cysteines within its amino acid sequence. Galectin-1 recognises intracellular-membrane-anchored Ras proteins that act as molecular switches regulating multiple signal transduction pathways. Human tumours frequently express Ras proteins that have become continuously activated due to point mutations, and this typically leads to deregulation of tumour cell growth, angiogenesis and invasion of metastatic cancer cells. Of significance is that galectin-1 preferably recognises H-Ras, one of the human Ras isoforms, and in particular galectin-1 recognition of the H-Ras farnesyl moiety is paramount to H-Ras membrane anchorage, a prerequisite step for H-Ras-mediated signal transduction regulating normal cell growth and malignant transformation. Herein the impact of the redox state on galectin-1's ability to interact with farnesyl analogues is explored. We demonstrate for the first time that reduced galectin-1 directly binds farnesyl and does so in a carbohydrate-independent manner. A K28T mutation abolishes farnesyl recognition by reduced dimeric galectin-1 whilst its carbohydrate-binding activity is retained, thus demonstrating the presence of an independent region on galectin-1 pertaining to growth inhibitory activity. Intriguingly, oxidised galectin-1 also recognises farnesyl, the biological implication of this novel finding is yet to be elucidated. Further, the redox effect on galectin-1 extracellular function was investigated and we discover that oxidised galectin-1 demonstrates a protective effect upon acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells challenged by oxidative stress. PMID:26116885

  16. Influence of abuse history on gastric sensorimotor function in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Geeraerts, B; Van Oudenhove, L; Fischler, B; Vandenberghe, J; Caenepeel, P; Janssens, J; Tack, J

    2009-01-01

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders have elevated rates of sexual or physical abuse, which may be associated with altered rectal sensorimotor function in irritable bowel syndrome. The aim was to study the association between abuse history and gastric sensorimotor function in functional dyspepsia (FD). We studied gastric sensorimotor function with barostat (sensitivity, compliance and accommodation) and gastric emptying test in 233 consecutive FD patients from a tertiary care centre (162 women, mean age 41.6 +/- 0.9). Patients filled out self-report questionnaires on history of sexual and physical abuse during childhood or adulthood. Eighty-four patients (out of 198, 42.4%) reported an overall history of abuse [sexual and physical in respectively 30.0% (60/200) and 20.3% (42/207)]. FD patients reporting general as well as severe childhood sexual abuse have significantly lower discomfort thresholds during gastric distension [respectively 10.5 +/- 0.4 vs 7.5 +/- 1.0 mmHg above minimal distending pressure (MDP), P = 0.014 and 10.5 +/- 0.4 vs 6.6 +/- 1.2 mmHg above MDP, P = 0.007]. The corresponding intra-balloon volume was also significantly lower (respectively 579 +/- 21 vs 422 +/- 59 mL, P = 0.013 and 579 +/- 19 vs 423 +/- 79 mL, P = 0.033). Gastric accommodation was significantly more pronounced in patients reporting rape during adulthood (91 +/- 12 vs 130 +/- 40 mL, P = 0.016). Abuse history was not associated with differences in gastric emptying. A history of abuse is associated with alterations in gastric sensorimotor function in FD. Particularly sexual abuse, rather than physical abuse, may influence gastric sensitivity and motor function. PMID:18694440

  17. A meta-analysis of zooplankton functional traits influencing ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Marie-Pier; Beisner, Beatrix E; Maranger, Roxane

    2016-04-01

    The use of functional traits to characterize community composition has been proposed as a more effective way to link community structure to ecosystem functioning. Organismal morphology, body stoichiometry, and physiology can be readily linked to large-scale ecosystem processes through functional traits that inform on interspecific and species-environment interactions; yet such effect traits are still poorly included in trait-based approaches. Given their key trophic position in aquatic ecosystems, individual zooplankton affect energy fluxes and elemental processing. We compiled a large database of zooplankton traits contributing to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling and examined the effect of classification and habitat (marine vs. freshwater) on trait relationships. Respiration and nutrient excretion rates followed mass-dependent scaling in both habitats, with exponents ranging from 0.70 to 0.90. Our analyses revealed surprising differences in allometry and respiration between habitats, with freshwater species having lower length-specific mass and three times higher mass-specific respiration rates. These differences in traits point to implications for ecological strategies as well as overall carbon storage and fluxes based on habitat type. Our synthesis quantifies multiple trait relationships and links organisms to ecosystem processes they influence, enabling a more complete integration of aquatic community ecology and biogeochemistry through the promising use of effect traits. PMID:27220222

  18. Comparative Influence of Imidafenacin and Oxybutynin on Voiding Function in Rats with Functional Urethral Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Fukata, A; Yamazaki, T

    2016-06-01

    An antimuscarinic therapy may increase the risk of voiding dysfunction. However, it is unclear whether the relative risk of voiding dysfunction is different among antimuscarinics. Therefore we determined the potencies both in enhancing the bladder capacity (BC), effectiveness, and in decreasing the maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), voiding dysfunction, to compare their therapeutic indices.Under urethane anesthesia, urinary flow rate was measured at distal urethra using an ultrasonic flow meter in female Sprague-Dawley rats with functional urethral obstruction induced by a continuous i. v. infusion of α1-adrenoceptor agonist A-61603 (0.03 μg/kg/min). In a separate group of urethane-anesthetized rats without urethral obstruction, an intermittent cystometry was performed to determine BC.Intravenous imidafenacin and oxybutynin produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in Qmax with the minimum doses of 0.03 and 1 mg/kg, respectively. Imidafenacin and oxybutynin markedly increased BC, with minimum doses of 0.01 and 3 mg/kg, respectively. At the minimum dose to increase BC, oxybutynin caused a significant increase in residual urine volume with a significant decrease in voiding efficiency, whereas imidafenacin had no influence on these values. The relative influence index, which is the ratio of the minimum influence dose between in decreasing of Qmax and in increasing of BC, of imidafenacin was 10 fold higher than that of oxybutynin.This study suggests that imidafenacin has a lower relative risk of voiding difficulty compared with oxybutynin in rats. These results provide new information that antimuscarinics may have varying degrees of impact on voiding difficulty. PMID:26979753

  19. APOE genotype influences functional status among elderly without dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.M.; Jacobs, D.M.; Stern, Y.

    1995-12-18

    The presence of apolipoprotein-{epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) significantly increases the risk of Alzheimer`s disease (AD). The association between APOE-{epsilon}4 status and functional abilities was explored further in a multicultural sample of community-dwelling, nondemented elders. The sample was limited to cognitively-intact, community-dwelling elders, who were free of stroke or other neurologic disability. In 218 elders who met research criteria, the presence of APOE-{epsilon}4 was associated with poorer functional status, apart from the effects of neuropsychological performance, gender, age, and education (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.9). In 158 subjects without an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele, 50% reported no functional limitation; in the 60 subjects with an {epsilon}4 allele, only 28% reported no functional limitation (P < .01). The relationship was not explained by the distribution of co-morbidities. The association between poorer function and the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was evident in each ethnic group. In path analyses, the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was associated with decreased functional ability in non-demented elders not simply through an association with poorer cognitive status, but also independently. These results suggest that the APOE-{epsilon}4 genotype is associated with functional deficit in people with normal neuropsychological profiles. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Influence of experimental hypokinesia on gastric secretory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markova, O. O.; Vavryshchuk, V. I.; Rozvodovskyy, V. I.; Proshcheruk, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The gastric secretory function of rats was studied in 4, 8, 16 and 30 day hypokinesia. Inhibition of both the gastric juice secretory and acid producing functions was found. The greatest inhibition was observed on day 8 of limited mobility. By days 16 and 30 of the experiment, a tendency of the gastric secretory activity to return to normal was observed, although it remained reduced.

  1. Influencing factors on color and product-function association.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ya-Hsien

    2011-06-01

    The associations of age, sex, and matching types with color and product-function were examined in a real-world product scenario (shampoo) among 128 volunteers (M age = 29.3 yr.; SD = 15.6). A pilot study identified eight popular colors and eight product-functions. The association between color and product-function was explored in the main sample. Responses suggested seven pairings of color/product-functions: Red/Hot oil treatment, Yellow/Bright and shiny hair, Green/Herbal extracts, Blue/Deep cleaning, Purple/Soothing, Black/Antiseptic, and White/Anti-dandruff. Analyses indicated that adult participants required more repetitions for retention, as did memorization with random pairing compared to participant-selected pairings. There were statistically significant correlations of responses to colors and product functions. With known color/product-function associations, manufacturers might promote their products more effectively. It is suggested that the associations might be sex- or culture-specific. PMID:21879633

  2. Avian ecosystem functions are influenced by small mammal ecosystem engineering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birds are important mobile link species that contribute to landscape-scale patterns by means of pollination, seed dispersal, and predation. Birds are often associated with habitats modified by small mammal ecosystem engineers. We investigated whether birds prefer to forage on degu (Octodon degus) runways by comparing their foraging effort across sites with a range of runway densities, including sites without runways. We measured granivory by granivorous and omnivorous birds at Rinconada de Maipú, central Chile. As a measure of potential bird foraging on insects, we sampled invertebrate prey richness and abundance across the same sites. We then quantified an index of plot-scale functional diversity due to avian foraging at the patch scale. Results We recorded that birds found food sources sooner and ate more at sites with higher densities of degu runways, cururo mounds, trees, and fewer shrubs. These sites also had higher invertebrate prey richness but lower invertebrate prey abundance. This implies that omnivorous birds, and possibly insectivorous birds, forage for invertebrates in the same plots with high degu runway densities where granivory takes place. In an exploratory analysis we also found that plot-scale functional diversity for four avian ecosystem functions were moderately to weakly correllated to expected ecosystem function outcomes at the plot scale. Conclusions Degu ecosystem engineering affects the behavior of avian mobile link species and is thus correlated with ecosystem functioning at relatively small spatial scales. PMID:24359802

  3. Influence of chronic kidney disease on cardiac structure and function.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kunihiro; Ballew, Shoshana H; Coresh, Josef

    2015-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), the presence of kidney dysfunction and/or damage, is a worldwide public health issue. Although CKD is independently associated with various subtypes of cardiovascular diseases, a recent international collaborative meta-analysis demonstrates that CKD is particularly strongly associated with heart failure, suggesting its critical impact on cardiac structure and function. Although numerous studies have investigated the association of CKD and cardiac structure and function, these studies substantially vary regarding source populations and methodology (e.g., measures of CKD and/or parameters of cardiac structure and function), making it difficult to reach universal conclusions. Nevertheless, in this review, we comprehensively examine relevant studies, discuss potential mechanisms linking CKD to alteration of cardiac structure and function, and demonstrate clinical implications as well as potential future research directions. We exclusively focus on studies investigating both CKD measures, kidney function (i.e., glomerular filtration rate [GFR], creatinine clearance, or levels of filtration markers), and kidney damage represented by albuminuria, since current international clinical guidelines of CKD recommend staging CKD and assessing its clinical risk based on both GFR and albuminuria. PMID:26194332

  4. The influence of the choice of the oceanic phase function on imaging under water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braesicke, K.; Repasi, E.

    2015-05-01

    There is a large diversity of phase functions for the computer simulation of light under water. Some papers look at the influence of these phase functions on the results of computer simulations of the remote sensing reflectance. We study the influence of these phase functions on the computer simulation of the resulting image of a target illuminated by a laser. For these simulations we are only interested in those parts of the light that reach the camera position. Therefor we investigate the influence of the phase function on the image. We use a Monte Carlo Simulator with several Fournier-Forand, Henyey-Greenstein phase functions. The resulting signals at the receiver of these simulations are compared to a simulation with a Petzold function that is based on measurements of the phase function.

  5. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  6. Surface plasma functionalization influences macrophage behavior on carbon nanowalls.

    PubMed

    Ion, Raluca; Vizireanu, Sorin; Stancu, Claudia Elena; Luculescu, Catalin; Cimpean, Anisoara; Dinescu, Gheorghe

    2015-03-01

    The surfaces of carbon nanowall samples as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were treated with oxygen or nitrogen plasma to improve their wettability and to functionalize their surfaces with different functional groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle results illustrated the effective conversion of the carbon nanowall surfaces from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and the incorporation of various amounts of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen functional groups during the treatments. The early inflammatory responses elicited by un-treated and modified carbon nanowall surfaces were investigated by quantifying tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha released by attached RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence studies were employed to investigate the changes in macrophage morphology and adhesive properties, while MTT assay was used to quantify cell proliferation. All samples sustained macrophage adhesion and growth. In addition, nitrogen plasma treatment was more beneficial for cell adhesion in comparison with un-modified carbon nanowall surfaces. Instead, oxygen plasma functionalization led to increased macrophage adhesion and spreading suggesting a more activated phenotype, confirmed by elevated cytokine release. Thus, our findings showed that the chemical surface alterations which occur as a result of plasma treatment, independent of surface wettability, affect macrophage response in vitro. PMID:25579904

  7. Chapter 8. Resident Group Influences on Team Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, Gale E.; Fulcher, Leon C.

    2006-01-01

    Research has documented important interplays between the diagnostic characteristics of residents in group care centers and the functioning of staff teams responsible for the delivery of services. Factors that impact on the quality of working life satisfactions and frustrations are variable over time and may originate from within the team, the…

  8. Influence of organizational functioning on client engagement in treatment.

    PubMed

    Greener, Jack M; Joe, George W; Simpson, D Dwayne; Rowan-Szal, Grace A; Lehman, Wayne E K

    2007-09-01

    This study focused on the relationship between organizational functioning factors measured in a staff survey using the Texas Christian University (TCU) Organizational Readiness for Change assessment and client-level engagement measured by the TCU Client Evaluation of Self and Treatment in drug treatment programs. The sample consisted of 531 clinical and counseling staff and 3,475 clients from 163 substance abuse treatment programs located in nine states from three regional Addiction Technology Transfer Centers. Measures of client engagement in treatment (rapport, satisfaction, and participation) were shown to be higher in programs with more positive staff ratings of organizational functioning. In particular, these programs had fewer agency needs and more favorable ratings for their resources, staff attributes, and climate. These findings help establish the importance of addressing organizational factors as part of an overall strategy for improving treatment effectiveness. PMID:17433863

  9. Genetic Ancestry Influences Asthma Susceptibility and Lung Function Among Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, Maria; Thakur, Neeta; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Galanter, Joshua M.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Eng, Celeste; Nishimura, Katherine K.; Oh, Sam S.; Vora, Hita; Huntsman, Scott; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Hu, Donglei; Drake, Katherine A.; Conti, David V.; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Sandoval, Karla; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Lurmann, Fred; Islam, Talat S.; Davis, Adam; Farber, Harold J.; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro C.; Serebrisky, Denise; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lenoir, Michael A.; Ford, Jean G.; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon M.; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Williams, L. Keoki; Gilliland, Frank D.; Gauderman, W. James; Kumar, Rajesh; Torgerson, Dara G.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood asthma prevalence and morbidity varies among Latinos in the United States, with Puerto Ricans having the highest and Mexicans the lowest. Objective To determine whether genetic ancestry is associated with the odds of asthma among Latinos, and secondarily whether genetic ancestry is associated with lung function among Latino children. Methods We analyzed 5,493 Latinos with and without asthma from three independent studies. For each participant we estimated the proportion of African, European, and Native American ancestry using genome-wide data. We tested whether genetic ancestry was associated with the presence of asthma and lung function among subjects with and without asthma. Odds ratios (OR) and effect sizes were assessed for every 20% increase in each ancestry. Results Native American ancestry was associated with lower odds of asthma (OR=0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66–0.78, p=8.0×10−15), while African ancestry was associated with higher odds of asthma (OR=1.40, 95%CI: 1.14–1.72, p=0.001). These associations were robust to adjustment for covariates related to early life exposures, air pollution and socioeconomic status. Among children with asthma, African ancestry was associated with lower lung function, including both pre- and post-bronchodilator measures of forced expiratory volume in the first second (−77±19 ml, p=5.8×10−5 and −83±19 ml, p=1.1×10−5, respectively) and forced vital capacity (−100±21 ml, p=2.7×10−6 and −107±22 ml, p=1.0×10−6, respectively). Conclusion Differences in the proportions of genetic ancestry can partially explain disparities in asthma susceptibility and lung function among Latinos. PMID:25301036

  10. Influence of Acupuncture Stimulation on Cerebral Network in Functional Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Siyuan; Zeng, Fang; Liu, Jixin; Zheng, Hui; Huang, Wenjing; Liu, Ting; Chen, Dashuai; Qin, Wei; Gong, Qiyong; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is a commonly used therapy for treating functional diarrhea (FD), although there is limited knowledge on the mechanism. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in brain activities elicited by acupuncture between FD patients and healthy controls (HC) so as to explore the possible mechanism. Eighteen FD patients and eighteen HC received 10 sessions of acupuncture treatment at ST25 acupoints. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were, respectively, performed before and after acupuncture. The defecation frequency, Bristol stool form scale (SBFS), and MOS 36-item Short Healthy Survey (SF-36) were employed to evaluate the clinical efficacy. After acupuncture, the FD patients showed a significant decrease in defecation frequency and BSFS score. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) map showed a decrease in the paracentral lobule and postcentral gyrus, and an increase in the angular gyrus, insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and precuneus in the FD group. Moreover, the changes in ReHo values in the ACC were correlated with the reduction in defecation frequency. Decreasing functional connectivity among the ACC, insula, thalamus, and orbital frontal cortex only existed in the FD group. Conclusively, acupuncture alleviated defecation frequency and improved stool formation in FD patients. The efficacy might result from the regulation of the homeostasis afferent processing network. PMID:24459533

  11. The Tacrolimus Metabolism Rate Influences Renal Function after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Thölking, Gerold; Fortmann, Christian; Koch, Raphael; Gerth, Hans Ulrich; Pabst, Dirk; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Kabar, Iyad; Hüsing, Anna; Wolters, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    The effective calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) tacrolimus (Tac) is an integral part of the standard immunosuppressive regimen after renal transplantation (RTx). However, as a potent CNI it has nephrotoxic potential leading to impaired renal function in some cases. Therefore, it is of high clinical impact to identify factors which can predict who is endangered to develop CNI toxicity. We hypothesized that the Tac metabolism rate expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the dose (C/D ratio) is such a simple predictor. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of the C/D ratio on kidney function after RTx. Renal function was analyzed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after RTx in 248 patients with an immunosuppressive regimen including basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. According to keep the approach simple, patients were split into three C/D groups: fast, intermediate and slow metabolizers. Notably, compared with slow metabolizers fast metabolizers of Tac showed significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values at all the time points analyzed. Moreover, fast metabolizers underwent more indication renal biopsies (p = 0.006) which revealed a higher incidence of CNI nephrotoxicity (p = 0.015) and BK nephropathy (p = 0.024) in this group. We herein identified the C/D ratio as an easy calculable risk factor for the development of CNI nephrotoxicity and BK nephropathy after RTx. We propose that the simple C/D ratio should be taken into account early in patient’s risk management strategies. PMID:25340655

  12. The tacrolimus metabolism rate influences renal function after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Thölking, Gerold; Fortmann, Christian; Koch, Raphael; Gerth, Hans Ulrich; Pabst, Dirk; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Kabar, Iyad; Hüsing, Anna; Wolters, Heiner; Reuter, Stefan; Suwelack, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The effective calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) tacrolimus (Tac) is an integral part of the standard immunosuppressive regimen after renal transplantation (RTx). However, as a potent CNI it has nephrotoxic potential leading to impaired renal function in some cases. Therefore, it is of high clinical impact to identify factors which can predict who is endangered to develop CNI toxicity. We hypothesized that the Tac metabolism rate expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the dose (C/D ratio) is such a simple predictor. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of the C/D ratio on kidney function after RTx. Renal function was analyzed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after RTx in 248 patients with an immunosuppressive regimen including basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. According to keep the approach simple, patients were split into three C/D groups: fast, intermediate and slow metabolizers. Notably, compared with slow metabolizers fast metabolizers of Tac showed significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values at all the time points analyzed. Moreover, fast metabolizers underwent more indication renal biopsies (p = 0.006) which revealed a higher incidence of CNI nephrotoxicity (p = 0.015) and BK nephropathy (p = 0.024) in this group. We herein identified the C/D ratio as an easy calculable risk factor for the development of CNI nephrotoxicity and BK nephropathy after RTx. We propose that the simple C/D ratio should be taken into account early in patient's risk management strategies. PMID:25340655

  13. Genetic loci influencing kidney function and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chambers, John C; Zhang, Weihua; Lord, Graham M; van der Harst, Pim; Lawlor, Debbie A; Sehmi, Joban S; Gale, Daniel P; Wass, Mark N; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beckmann, Jacqui; Bilo, Henk J G; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris J; Caulfield, Mark J; Connell, John M C; Cook, H Terence; Cotlarciuc, Ioana; Davey Smith, George; de Silva, Ranil; Deng, Guohong; Devuyst, Olivier; Dikkeschei, Lambert D; Dimkovic, Nada; Dockrell, Mark; Dominiczak, Anna; Ebrahim, Shah; Eggermann, Thomas; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Floege, Jurgen; Forouhi, Nita G; Gansevoort, Ron T; Han, Xijin; Hedblad, Bo; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J; Hepkema, Bouke G; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria; Hypponen, Elina; Johnson, Toby; de Jong, Paul E; Kleefstra, Nanne; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lapsley, Marta; Li, Yun; Loos, Ruth J F; Luan, Jian'an; Luttropp, Karin; Maréchal, Céline; Melander, Olle; Munroe, Patricia B; Nordfors, Louise; Parsa, Afshin; Peltonen, Leena; Penninx, Brenda W; Perucha, Esperanza; Pouta, Anneli; Prokopenko, Inga; Roderick, Paul J; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh J; Sanna, Serena; Schalling, Martin; Schlessinger, David; Schlieper, Georg; Seelen, Marc A J; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sjögren, Marketa; Smit, Johannes H; Snieder, Harold; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Timothy D; Stenvinkel, Peter; Sternberg, Michael J E; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ubink-Veltmaat, Lielith J; Uda, Manuela; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn; Zerres, Klaus; Waeber, Gerard; Wareham, Nicholas J; Maxwell, Patrick H; McCarthy, Mark I; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Mooser, Vincent; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Lightstone, Liz; Scott, James; Navis, Gerjan; Elliott, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S

    2010-05-01

    Using genome-wide association, we identify common variants at 2p12-p13, 6q26, 17q23 and 19q13 associated with serum creatinine, a marker of kidney function (P = 10(-10) to 10(-15)). Of these, rs10206899 (near NAT8, 2p12-p13) and rs4805834 (near SLC7A9, 19q13) were also associated with chronic kidney disease (P = 5.0 x 10(-5) and P = 3.6 x 10(-4), respectively). Our findings provide insight into metabolic, solute and drug-transport pathways underlying susceptibility to chronic kidney disease. PMID:20383145

  14. Influence of cigarette smoking on human autonomic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedermaier, O. N.; Smith, M. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Goldstein, D. S.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although cigarette smoking is known to lead to widespread augmentation of sympathetic nervous system activity, little is known about the effects of smoking on directly measured human sympathetic activity and its reflex control. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied the acute effects of smoking two research-grade cigarettes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and on arterial baroreflex-mediated changes of sympathetic and vagal neural cardiovascular outflows in eight healthy habitual smokers. Measurements were made during frequency-controlled breathing, graded Valsalva maneuvers, and carotid baroreceptor stimulation with ramped sequences of neck pressure and suction. Smoking provoked the following changes: Arterial pressure increased significantly, and RR intervals, RR interval spectral power at the respiratory frequency, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Plasma nicotine levels increased significantly, but plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y levels did not change. Peak sympathetic nerve activity during and systolic pressure overshoots after Valsalva straining increased significantly in proportion to increases of plasma nicotine levels. The average carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex relation shifted rightward and downward on arterial pressure and RR interval axes; average gain, operational point, and response range did not change. CONCLUSIONS. In habitual smokers, smoking acutely reduces baseline levels of vagal-cardiac nerve activity and completely resets vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Smoking also reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity but augments increases of sympathetic activity triggered by brief arterial pressure reductions. This pattern of autonomic changes is likely to influence smokers' responses to acute arterial pressure reductions importantly.

  15. Probiotic modulation of dendritic cell function is influenced by ageing.

    PubMed

    You, Jialu; Dong, Honglin; Mann, Elizabeth R; Knight, Stella C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2014-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for the generation of T-cell responses. DC function may be modulated by probiotics, which confer health benefits in immunocompromised individuals, such as the elderly. This study investigated the effects of four probiotics, Bifidobacterium longum bv. infantis CCUG 52486, B. longum SP 07/3, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L.GG) and L. casei Shirota (LcS), on DC function in an allogeneic mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR) model, using DCs and T-cells from young and older donors in different combinations. All four probiotics enhanced expression of CD40, CD80 and CCR7 on both young and older DCs, but enhanced cytokine production (TGF-β, TNF-α) by old DCs only. LcS induced IL-12 and IFNγ production by DC to a greater degree than other strains, while B. longum bv. infantis CCUG 52486 favoured IL-10 production. Stimulation of young T cells in an allogeneic MLR with DC was enhanced by probiotic pretreatment of old DCs, which demonstrated greater activation (CD25) than untreated controls. However, pretreatment of young or old DCs with LPS or probiotics failed to enhance the proliferation of T-cells derived from older donors. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ageing increases the responsiveness of DCs to probiotics, but this is not sufficient to overcome the impact of immunosenescence in the MLR. PMID:24094416

  16. Influence of passive smoking on functional abilities in children.

    PubMed

    Pavić, Ivan; Pavić, Pero; Palčić, Iva; Nenadić, Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Passive smoking has been found to be associated with a large number of disorders of passive smokers. It seems that the children are the most susceptible population for harmful effects of passive smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of passive smoking on children's functional abilities. The target population was 199 children who were 13-15 years old at the time of the study. For the assessment of motor skills 6-min run test was used. Children exposed to passive smoking by their mothers had statistically significant lower functional abilities (r =-0.7029; 95% CI -0.7707 to -0.6194; p < 0.0001). We also found statistically significant difference if the both parents are smokers (r =-0.3343; 95% CI -0.4595 to -0.1961; p < 0.0001). The results of our study did not show statistically significant difference if the children are exposed to cigarette smoke by their fathers (r = 0.03139; 95% CI -0.1171 to 0.1785; p = 0.6792). Public health preventive actions should go toward minimizing the exposure of children to passive smoking by counseling the smoking parents that quitting smoking provides enormous health benefits not only to them but also to their children. PMID:22149107

  17. Loss-of-function variants influence the human serum metabolome.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Li, Alexander H; Metcalf, Ginger A; Muzny, Donna M; Morrison, Alanna C; White, Simon; Mosley, Thomas H; Gibbs, Richard A; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2016-08-01

    The metabolome is a collection of small molecules resulting from multiple cellular and biological processes that can act as biomarkers of disease, and African-Americans exhibit high levels of genetic diversity. Exome sequencing of a sample of deeply phenotyped African-Americans allowed us to analyze the effects of annotated loss-of-function (LoF) mutations on 308 serum metabolites measured by untargeted liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In an independent sample, we identified and replicated four genes harboring six LoF mutations that significantly affected five metabolites. These sites were related to a 19 to 45% difference in geometric mean metabolite levels, with an average effect size of 25%. We show that some of the affected metabolites are risk predictors or diagnostic biomarkers of disease and, using the principle of Mendelian randomization, are in the causal pathway of disease. For example, LoF mutations in SLCO1B1 elevate the levels of hexadecanedioate, a fatty acid significantly associated with increased blood pressure levels and risk of incident heart failure in both African-Americans and an independent sample of European-Americans. We show that SLCO1B1 LoF mutations significantly increase the risk of incident heart failure, thus implicating the metabolite in the causal pathway of disease. These results reveal new avenues into gene function and the understanding of disease etiology by integrating -omic technologies into a deeply phenotyped population study. PMID:27602404

  18. Loss-of-function variants influence the human serum metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Li, Alexander H.; Metcalf, Ginger A.; Muzny, Donna M.; Morrison, Alanna C.; White, Simon; Mosley, Thomas H.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The metabolome is a collection of small molecules resulting from multiple cellular and biological processes that can act as biomarkers of disease, and African-Americans exhibit high levels of genetic diversity. Exome sequencing of a sample of deeply phenotyped African-Americans allowed us to analyze the effects of annotated loss-of-function (LoF) mutations on 308 serum metabolites measured by untargeted liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In an independent sample, we identified and replicated four genes harboring six LoF mutations that significantly affected five metabolites. These sites were related to a 19 to 45% difference in geometric mean metabolite levels, with an average effect size of 25%. We show that some of the affected metabolites are risk predictors or diagnostic biomarkers of disease and, using the principle of Mendelian randomization, are in the causal pathway of disease. For example, LoF mutations in SLCO1B1 elevate the levels of hexadecanedioate, a fatty acid significantly associated with increased blood pressure levels and risk of incident heart failure in both African-Americans and an independent sample of European-Americans. We show that SLCO1B1 LoF mutations significantly increase the risk of incident heart failure, thus implicating the metabolite in the causal pathway of disease. These results reveal new avenues into gene function and the understanding of disease etiology by integrating -omic technologies into a deeply phenotyped population study. PMID:27602404

  19. INFLUENCE OF ASSESSMENT SETTING ON THE RESULTS OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSES OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Rispoli, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    Analogue functional analyses are widely used to identify the operant function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Because problem behavior often occurs across multiple settings (e.g., homes, schools, outpatient clinics), it is important to determine whether the results of functional analyses vary across settings. This brief review covers 3 recent studies that examined the influence of different settings on the results of functional analyses and identifies directions for future research. PMID:21358920

  20. Fish otolith mass asymmetry: morphometry and influence on acoustic functionality.

    PubMed

    Lychakov, D V; Rebane, Y T

    2005-03-01

    The role of the fish otolith mass asymmetry in acoustic functionality is studied. The saccular, lagenar and utricular otoliths are weighted in two species of the Black Sea rays, 15 species of the Black Sea teleost fish and guppy fish. The dimensionless otolith mass asymmetry chi is calculated as ratio of the difference between masses of the right and left paired otoliths to average otolith mass. In the most fish studied the otolith mass asymmetry is within the range of -0.2 < chi < +0.2 (< 20%). We do not find specific fish species with extremely large or extremely small otolith asymmetry. The large otoliths do not belong solely to any particular side, left or right. The heavier otoliths of different otolithic organs can be located in different labyrinths. No relationship has been found between the magnitude of the otolith mass asymmetry and the length (mass, age) of the animal. The suggested fluctuation model of the otolith growth can interpret these results. The model supposes that the otolith growth rate varies slightly hither and thither during lifetime of the individual fish. Therefore, the sign of the relative otolith mass asymmetry can change several times in the process of the individual fish growth but within the range outlined above. Mathematical modeling shows that acoustic functionality (sensitivity, temporal processing, sound localization) of the fish can be disturbed by the otolith mass asymmetry. But this is valid only for the fish with largest otolith masses, characteristic of the bottom and littoral fish, and with highest otolith asymmetry. For most fish the values of otolith mass asymmetry is well below critical values. Thus, the most fish get around the troubles related to the otolith mass asymmetry. We suggest that a specific physicochemical mechanism of the paired otolith growth that maintains the otolith mass asymmetry at the lowest possible level should exist. However, the principle and details of this mechanism are still far from being

  1. Paternal fenvalerate exposure influences reproductive functions in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dong; Parvizi, Nahid; Zhou, Yuchuan; Xu, Kesi; Jiang, Hui; Li, Rongjie; Hang, Yiqiong; Lu, Yang

    2013-11-01

    Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has been shown to have adverse effects on male reproductive system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate whether these adverse effects are passed from exposed male mice to their offspring. Adult male mice received Fen (10 mg/kg) daily for 30 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Fenvalerate significantly changed the methylation status of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (Ace), forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a), huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 (Nr3c2), promyelocytic leukemia (Pml), and Prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator (Ptgfrn) genes in paternal mice sperm genomic DNA. Further, Fen significantly increased sperm abnormalities; serum testosterone and estradiol-17ß level in adult male (F0) and their male offspring (F1). Further, paternal Fen treatment significantly increased the length of estrous cycle, serum estradiol-17ß concentration in estrus, and progesterone levels in diestrus in female offspring (F1). These findings suggest that adverse effects of paternal Fen exposure on reproductive functions can be seen not only in treated males (F0) but also in their offsprings. PMID:23548413

  2. Neto2 Influences on Kainate Receptor Pharmacology and Function.

    PubMed

    Han, Liwei; Howe, James R; Pickering, Darryl S

    2016-08-01

    Neuropilin tolloid-like protein 2 (Neto2) is an auxiliary subunit of kainate receptors (KARs). It specifically regulates KARs, for example slows desensitization and deactivation, increases the rate of recovery from desensitization, promotes modal gating and increases agonist sensitivity. Although the mechanism of Neto2 modulation is still unclear, gain-of-function results from the characterization of GluK1-GluA2 chimeras indicate that the GluK1 sequences included in these chimeras (part or all of the TMD and part of the linkers between the TMDs and LBD) play a key role in Neto2 modulation of KAR. In addition, GluK2 M3-S2 linkers and the D1-D1 dimer interface were also recently identified to be important for Neto2 modulation, and some studies suggested that Neto2's N-terminal regions, LDLa domain and the C-terminal regions are important for its modulation of KARs. Although more studies are needed to confirm the roles of these domains and to identify all the domains and residues essential for KAR modulation, these results facilitate our understanding of Neto2 modulation at the structural level, which could potentially aid the development of novel therapies for the treatment of diseases that are associated with KARs, for example epilepsies, non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:26928870

  3. The influence of atypical antipsychotic drugs on sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Just, Marek J

    2015-01-01

    Human sexuality is contingent upon many biological and psychological factors. Such factors include sexual drive (libido), physiological arousal (lubrication/erection), orgasm, and ejaculation, as well as maintaining normal menstrual cycle. The assessment of sexual dysfunction can be difficult due to the intimate nature of the problem and patients’ unwillingness to discuss it. Also, the problem of dysfunction is often overlooked by doctors. Atypical antipsychotic treatment is a key component of mental disorders’ treatment algorithms recommended by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence, the American Psychiatric Association, and the British Society for Psychopharmacology. The relationship between atypical antipsychotic drugs and sexual dysfunction is mediated in part by antipsychotic blockade of pituitary dopamine D2 receptors increasing prolactin secretion, although direct correlations have not been established between raised prolactin levels and clinical symptoms. Variety of mechanisms are likely to contribute to antipsychotic-related sexual dysfunction, including hyperprolactinemia, sedation, and antagonism of a number of neurotransmitter receptors (α-adrenergic, dopaminergic, histaminic, and muscarinic). Maintaining normal sexual function in people treated for mental disorders can affect their quality of life, mood, self-esteem, attitude toward taking medication, and compliance during therapy. PMID:26185449

  4. Factors influencing reticulophagocytic function in insulin-treated diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, S.; Charlesworth, J.A.; Pussell, B.A.; Campbell, L.V.; Kotowicz, M.A.

    1984-09-01

    The splenic component of reticulophagocytic function (RPF) was examined in 29 insulin-treated diabetic subjects (13 type I and 16 type II) by measurement of clearance of altered, radiolabeled, autologous erythrocytes. Double-isotope studies were performed with cells altered by: (1) preincubation with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and (2) coating with IgG antibody to the Rhesus (Rh) D antigen, labeled with 99mTc and 51Cr, respectively. HLA typing for the A, B, and DR loci was performed in those patients showing a defect in the clearance of IgG-coated cells. Values for half-life (t1/2) were correlated with the incidence of diabetic complications, levels of HbA1, and circulating immune complexes (CIC). Two patterns of abnormal clearance were observed: first, an isolated defect of IgG-coated cell clearance in 7 patients (3 had the HLA B8/DR3 haplotype) and second, abnormal removal of both types of cell in a further 7 patients (3 had B8/DR3). There was no correlation between half-lives as measured by the two methods, although exclusion of the patients with a defect of IgG-coated cell clearance alone yielded a highly significant correlation for the remaining 15 Rh-positive patients (P less than 0.01). Abnormalities of IgG-coated cell clearance were more frequent in patients with HbA1 greater than 9% (P less than 0.02), while t1/2 of NEM-altered cells was significantly greater in patients with CIC (P less than 0.05). There was no correlation between t1/2 and the incidence of peripheral complications.

  5. The influence of demographic factors on functional capacity and everyday functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gould, Felicia; Bowie, Christopher R; Harvey, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have impaired everyday living and social outcomes. Performance-based measures, including neuropsychological (NP) performance and functional capacity (FC) measures have demonstrated usefulness in predicting these outcomes. We examined the correlation of demographic factors (race, age, and education) and FC measures, and the relative ability of NP performance, FC, and demographic factors to predict real-world outcomes in social, vocational, and residential domains in 194 outpatients with schizophrenia. Age, education, sex, and racial status were significantly, but modestly, associated with performance-based measures of everyday functioning, while, in addition, age and education had a similar modest relationship with social competence. Age, but none of the other demographic variables, contributed to the prediction of all three domains of everyday functioning. Functional capacity variables predicted everyday outcomes even when demographic variables were entered into a predictive equation first. These data suggest a similar and modest but detectable effect of demographic factors on performance-based measures of functional capacity as seen with NP performance in schizophrenia populations. Older age contributed to poorer everyday functioning even after consideration of functional capacity, which seems similar to findings in healthy populations without clinically notable cognitive decline. PMID:22272559

  6. The impact of objective function selection on the influence of individual data points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David; Thyer, Mark; Westra, Seth; McInerney, David

    2016-04-01

    Across the field of hydrology practitioners apply a range of objective functions which are selected based upon the intended model application and suitability of the objective function assumptions to the data in question. Despite most objective functions providing fundamentally different calibration results there are currently limited methods for comparison of alternatives. Influence diagnostics quantify the impact of individual data points on model performance, parameters and predictions. The goal of this study is to use compare four commonly applied objective functions in hydrology using influence diagnostics to provide insights on how objective function selection changes the influence of individual data points on model calibration. The specific aims are to: 1) explore the impact on magnitude of influence of objective functions, 2) investigate similarities between influential points identified by objective functions and, 3) categorise flows that are influential under objective functions. We use case-deletion influence diagnostics to examine four objective functions: Standard Least Squares (SLS), Weighted Least Squares (WLS), Log transformed flows (LOG) and the Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE). We apply these objective functions to six scenarios: two conceptual hydrological models (GR4J and IHACRES) across three catchment case studies with varying runoff coefficients (0.14 to 0.57). We quantify influence using the case-deletion relative change in flow metrics: mean flow prediction, maximum flow prediction, and the 10th percentile low flow prediction. The results show that when using objective functions SLS and KGE influential data points have larger magnitude influence (maximum of 10% change in the flow metrics across all data points for both objective functions) than heteroscedastic WLS and LOG (WLS maximum of 8% and LOG maximum of 6% change in the flow metrics). SLS and KGE identify similar influential points (75% of the most influential points are common to both

  7. Kinematics, influence functions and field quantities for disturbance propagation from moving disturbance sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, A.

    1984-01-01

    A unified method is presented for deriving the influence functions of moving singularities which determine the field quantities in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. The moving singularities comprise volume and surface distributions having arbitrary orientations in space and to the trajectory. Hence one generally valid formula for the influence functions which reveal some universal relationships and remarkable properties in the disturbance fields. The derivations used are completely consistent with the physical processes in the propagation field, such that treatment renders new descriptions for some standard concepts. The treatment is uniformly valid for subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers.

  8. Estimate of the influence of muzzle smoke on function range of infrared system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yan-ling; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jiang-hui; Wu, Jun; Gao, Meng; Gao, Fei; Zhao, Yu-jie; Zhang, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Muzzle smoke produced by weapons shooting has important influence on infrared (IR) system while detecting targets. Based on the theoretical model of detecting spot targets and surface targets of IR system while there is muzzle smoke, the function range for detecting spot targets and surface targets are deduced separately according to the definition of noise equivalent temperature difference(NETD) and minimum resolution temperature difference(MRTD). Also parameters of muzzle smoke affecting function range of IR system are analyzed. Base on measured data of muzzle smoke for single shot, the function range of an IR system for detecting typical targets are calculated separately while there is muzzle smoke and there is no muzzle smoke at 8~12 micron waveband. For our IR system function range has reduced by over 10% for detecting tank if muzzle smoke exists. The results will provide evidence for evaluating the influence of muzzle smoke on IR system and will help researchers to improve ammo craftwork.

  9. Using an Adoption Design to Separate Genetic, Prenatal, and Temperament Influences on Toddler Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; DeGarmo, David S.; Bridgett, David J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David

    2012-01-01

    Poor executive functioning has been implicated in children’s concurrent and future behavioral difficulties, making work aimed at understanding processes related to the development of early executive function (EF) critical for models of developmental psychopathology. Deficits in EF have been associated with adverse prenatal experiences, genetic influences, and temperament characteristics. However, our ability to disentangle the predictive and independent effects of these influences has been limited by a dearth of genetically-informed research designs that also consider prenatal influences. The present study examined EF and language development in a sample of 361 toddlers who were adopted at birth and reared in non-relative adoptive families. Predictors included genetic influences (as inherited from birth mothers), prenatal risk, and growth in child negative emotionality. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of prenatal risk on toddler effortful attention at age 27 months became nonsignificant once genetic influences were considered in the model. In addition, genetic influences had unique effects on toddler effortful attention. Latent growth modeling indicated that increases in toddler negative emotionality from 9 to 27 months were associated with poorer delay of gratification and poorer language development. Similar results were obtained in models incorporating birth father data. Mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of EF deficits are discussed. PMID:22799580

  10. Using an adoption design to separate genetic, prenatal, and temperament influences on toddler executive function.

    PubMed

    Leve, Leslie D; DeGarmo, David S; Bridgett, David J; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-06-01

    Poor executive functioning has been implicated in children's concurrent and future behavioral difficulties, making work aimed at understanding processes related to the development of early executive function (EF) critical for models of developmental psychopathology. Deficits in EF have been associated with adverse prenatal experiences, genetic influences, and temperament characteristics. However, our ability to disentangle the predictive and independent effects of these influences has been limited by a dearth of genetically informed research designs that also consider prenatal influences. The present study examined EF and language development in a sample of 361 toddlers who were adopted at birth and reared in nonrelative adoptive families. Predictors included genetic influences (as inherited from birth mothers), prenatal risk, and growth in child negative emotionality. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of prenatal risk on toddler effortful attention at age 27 months became nonsignificant once genetic influences were considered in the model. In addition, genetic influences had unique effects on toddler effortful attention. Latent growth modeling indicated that increases in toddler negative emotionality from 9 to 27 months were associated with poorer delay of gratification and poorer language development. Similar results were obtained in models incorporating birth father data. Mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of EF deficits are discussed. PMID:22799580

  11. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  12. Circadian rhythms in myocardial metabolism and contractile function; influence of workload and oleate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple extra-cardiac stimuli, such as workload and circulating nutrients (e.g., fatty acids), known to influence myocardial metabolism and contractile function exhibit marked circadian rhythms. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the rat heart exhibits circadian rhythms in its ...

  13. Influence of Rice Development on the Function of Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease resistance genes most commonly used in breeding programs are single, dominant, resistance (R) genes with relative effectiveness influenced by plant developmental stage. Knowing the developmental stages at which an R gene is functional is important for disease management. In rice, resistanc...

  14. The Influence of Acculturation on Family Functioning among Hispanic Americans in a Bicultural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Jorge I; Hosch, Harmon M.

    It has been observed that the process of acculturation is a potential source of stress. The population of El Paso-Ciudad Juarez border region of Texas and Mexico can be considered as highly vulnerable to the influence of acculturative stress on family functioning. An empirical study was conducted to investigate the relationship between…

  15. The Influence of Sex Hormones on Functional Cerebral Asymmetries in Postmenopausal Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ulrike; Erdmann, Gisela

    2008-01-01

    Studies investigating changes in functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs) with hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle in young women have led to controversial hypotheses about an influence of estrogen (E) and/or progesterone (P) on FCAs. Based on methodical, but also on principal problems in deriving conclusions about hormone effects from…

  16. Influence of multi-scale hydrologic controls on river network connectivity and riparian function

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecological functions of rivers and streams and their associated riparian zones are strongly influenced by surface and subsurface hydrologic routing of water within river basins and river networks. Hydrologic attributes of the riparian area for a given stream reach are typica...

  17. The Influence of Frontal Lobe Tumors and Surgical Treatment on Advanced Cognitive Functions.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shengyu; Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Brain cognitive functions affect patient quality of life. The frontal lobe plays a crucial role in advanced cognitive functions, including executive function, meta-cognition, decision-making, memory, emotion, and language. Therefore, frontal tumors can lead to serious cognitive impairments. Currently, neurosurgical treatment is the primary method to treat brain tumors; however, the effects of the surgical treatments are difficult to predict or control. The treatment may both resolve the effects of the tumor to improve cognitive function or cause permanent disabilities resulting from damage to healthy functional brain tissue. Previous studies have focused on the influence of frontal lesions and surgical treatments on patient cognitive function. Here, we review cognitive impairment caused by frontal lobe brain tumors. PMID:27072331

  18. Factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being among Medicare-Medicaid enrollees

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kathy D.; Pepper, Ginette A.; Caserta, Michael; Wong, Bob; Brunker, Cherie P.; Morris, Diana L.; Burant, Christopher J.; Hazelett, Susan; Kropp, Denise; Allen, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    Dually enrolled Medicare-Medicaid older adults are a vulnerable population. We tested House's Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Inequalities in Health and Aging in Medicare-Medicaid enrollees by examining the extent to which disparities indicators, which included race, age, gender, neighborhood poverty, education, income, exercise (e.g., walking), and physical activity (e.g., housework) influence physical function and emotional well-being. This secondary analysis included 337 Black (31%) and White (69%) older Medicare-Medicaid enrollees. Using path analysis, we determined that race, neighborhood poverty, education, and income did not influence physical function or emotional well-being. However, physical activity (e.g., housework) was associated with an increased self-report of physical function and emotional well-being of β = .23, p< .001; β = .17, p< .01, respectively. Future studies of factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being in this population should take into account health status indicators such as allostatic load, comorbidity, and perceived racism/discrimination. PMID:25784082

  19. The Influence of Neurocognitive Functioning on Proactive Coping Behaviors in Adults With HIV.

    PubMed

    Cody, Shameka L; Fazeli, Pariya L; D Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E

    2016-10-01

    Although many can appreciate the life-sustaining benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy, some adults with HIV continue to have difficulty managing physical, neurocognitive, and everyday stressors. Fortunately, some adults with HIV are able to use accumulated resources (e.g., social networks) to help them engage in proactive coping behaviors such as planning and problem solving. Others, however, manage their stressors by engaging in avoidant coping, isolating themselves, or ruminating about the negative aspects of their situation. Perhaps, the capacity to engage in proactive coping may be influenced by damage to the frontal-striatal-thalamo circuitry, a region of the brain responsible for executive functioning and often compromised in adults with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. This study examined potential neurocognitive influences on proactive coping behaviors in adults with HIV (N = 98). Participants were administered a series of neurocognitive and psychosocial measures to determine if neurocognitive functioning and other factors that have been associated with coping in other populations, such as spirituality/religiosity, influenced proactive coping behaviors. Multiple regression analysis revealed that spirituality/religiosity (p = .002), rather than neurocognitive functioning (Useful Field of View, p = .277; Trails A, p = .701; Trails B, p = .365; Wechsler Memory Scale-III Digit Span, p = .864), was a significant predictor of proactive coping. Interventions to address spirituality/religiosity needs of adults with HIV may possibly facilitate proactive coping behaviors and improve mood, both of which are important for healthy neurocognitive functioning. PMID:27579965

  20. Factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being among Medicare-Medicaid enrollees.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kathy D; Pepper, Ginette A; Caserta, Michael; Wong, Bob; Brunker, Cherie P; Morris, Diana L; Burant, Christopher J; Hazelett, Susan; Kropp, Denise; Allen, Kyle R

    2015-01-01

    Dually enrolled Medicare-Medicaid older adults are a vulnerable population. We tested House's Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Inequalities in Health and Aging in Medicare-Medicaid enrollees by examining the extent to which disparities indicators, which included race, age, gender, neighborhood poverty, education, income, exercise (e.g., walking), and physical activity (e.g., housework) influence physical function and emotional well-being. This secondary analysis included 337 Black (31%) and White (69%) older Medicare-Medicaid enrollees. Using path analysis, we determined that race, neighborhood poverty, education, and income did not influence physical function or emotional well-being. However, physical activity (e.g., housework) was associated with an increased self-report of physical function and emotional well-being of β = .23, p < .001; β = .17, p < .01, respectively. Future studies of factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being in this population should take into account health status indicators such as allostatic load, comorbidity, and perceived racism/discrimination. PMID:25784082

  1. Resource type influences the effects of reserves and connectivity on ecological functions.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Nicholas A; Olds, Andrew D; Connolly, Rod M; Martin, Tyson S H; Gilby, Ben L; Maxwell, Paul S; Huijbers, Chantal M; Schoeman, David S; Schlacher, Thomas A

    2016-03-01

    Connectivity is a pivotal feature of landscapes that affects the structure of populations and the functioning of ecosystems. It is also a key consideration in conservation planning. But the potential functional effects of landscape connectivity are rarely evaluated in a conservation context. The removal of algae by herbivorous fish is a key ecological function on coral reefs that promotes coral growth and recruitment. Many reef herbivores are harvested and some use other habitats (like mangroves) as nurseries or feeding areas. Thus, the effects of habitat connectivity and marine reserves can jointly promote herbivore populations on coral reefs, thereby influencing reef health. We used a coral reef seascape in eastern Australia to test whether seascape connectivity and reserves influence herbivory. We measured herbivore abundance and rates of herbivory (on turf algae and macroalgae) on reefs that differed in both their level of connectivity to adjacent mangrove habitats and their level of protection from fishing. Reserves enhanced the biomass of herbivorous fish on coral reefs in all seascape settings and promoted consumption of turf algae. Consumption of turf algae was correlated with the biomass of surgeonfish that are exploited outside reserves. By contrast, both reserve status and connectivity influenced herbivory on macroalgae. Consumption of macroalgae was greatest on fished reefs that were far from mangroves and was not strongly correlated with any fish species. Our findings demonstrate that landscape connectivity and reserve status can jointly affect the functioning of ecosystems. Moreover, we show that reserve and connectivity effects can differ markedly depending on resource type (in this case turf algae vs. macroalgae). The effectiveness of conservation initiatives will therefore depend on our ability to understand how these multiple interactive effects structure the distribution of ecological functions. These findings have wider implications for the

  2. [Influence of breakfast on cognitive functions of children from an urban area in Valencia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Márquez Acosta, M; Sutil de Naranjo, R; Rivas de Yépez, C E; Rincón Silva, M; Torres, M; Yépez, R D; Portillo, Z

    2001-03-01

    It's well known that physical growth and intellectual activity is influenced by nutritional status. With the purpose of evaluate the fasting effects on the cognitive functions, anthropometric state and cognitive functions (logic and school work performance), under fasting and post-breakfast condition were assessed in a group of 68 school children age 9 and 10 years, who studied in a private school (1998-1999). Logic reasoning was measured with Raven test and attention, precision, velocity and fatigue with the Lepez test. The main of the children (80%) were well-nourished and 20% had showed overweight. At breakfast condition all subjects were over 50 percentil for Raven test. Consumption of breakfast influence on logic reasoning (p < 0.001) and school work performance (p < 0.01). It is concluded that in these well nourished children, breakfast consumption improved cognitive performance. PMID:11515233

  3. The influence of espresso coffee on neurocognitive function in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Bragança, M; Marinho, M; Marques, J; Moreira, R; Palha, A; Marques-Teixeira, J; Esteves, M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of coffee intake on cognitive function in persons living with HIV (PLWH). 130 PLWH with CD4 > 200 cells/mm(3), undetectable viral load, treated with HAART were included. A structured interview was applied and relevant clinical and laboratory data were assessed, including coffee intake. For neuropsychological assessment, the HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center Battery was chosen. Univariate nonparametric statistics and multivariate regression model were used. A significant association between espresso coffee use and a better cognitive function was verified in five of the eight psychometric measurements. In the multivariate analysis, after variable adjustment, linear regression analysis showed that coffee intake was a positive predictor for attention/working memory, executive functions and Global Deficit Score. Although the mechanisms behind the influence of caffeine on cognitive functioning are controversial, regular espresso coffee intake may have favourable effects on cognitive deterioration caused by HIV. PMID:26932511

  4. Environmental Conditions Influence the Plant Functional Diversity Effect on Potential Denitrification

    PubMed Central

    Sutton-Grier, Ariana E.; Wright, Justin P.; McGill, Bonnie M.; Richardson, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Global biodiversity loss has prompted research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. Few studies have examined how plant diversity impacts belowground processes; even fewer have examined how varying resource levels can influence the effect of plant diversity on microbial activity. In a field experiment in a restored wetland, we examined the role of plant trait diversity (or functional diversity, (FD)) and its interactions with natural levels of variability of soil properties, on a microbial process, denitrification potential (DNP). We demonstrated that FD significantly affected microbial DNP through its interactions with soil conditions; increasing FD led to increased DNP but mainly at higher levels of soil resources. Our results suggest that the effect of species diversity on ecosystem functioning may depend on environmental factors such as resource availability. Future biodiversity experiments should examine how natural levels of environmental variability impact the importance of biodiversity to ecosystem functioning. PMID:21311768

  5. Finite-difference models of ordinary differential equations - Influence of denominator functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, Ronald E.; Smith, Arthur

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence on the solutions of finite-difference schemes of using a variety of denominator functions in the discrete modeling of the derivative for any ordinary differential equation. The results obtained are a consequence of using a generalized definition of the first derivative. A particular example of the linear decay equation is used to illustrate in detail the various solution possibilities that can occur.

  6. Influence of Body Composition on Lung Function and Respiratory Muscle Strength in Children With Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Costa Junior, Dirceu; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana S.; Araujo, Poliane N.; Barbalho-Moulin, Marcela C.; Alves, Viviane C.; Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Costa, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity affects lung function and respiratory muscle strength. The aim of the present study was to assess lung function and respiratory muscle strength in children with obesity and determine the influence of body composition on these variables. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 75 children (40 with obesity and 35 within the ideal weight range) aged 6 - 10 years. Body mass index, z score, waist circumference, body composition (tetrapolar bioimpedance), respiratory muscle strength and lung function (spirometry) were evaluated. Results Children with obesity exhibited larger quantities of both lean and fat mass in comparison to those in the ideal weight range. No significant differences were found between groups regarding the respective reference values for respiratory muscle strength. Male children with obesity demonstrated significantly lower lung function values (forced expiratory volume in the first second % (FEV1%) and FEV1/forced vital capacity % (FVC%) : 93.76 ± 9.78 and 92.29 ± 3.8, respectively) in comparison to males in the ideal weight range (99.87 ± 9.72 and 96.31 ± 4.82, respectively). The regression models demonstrated that the spirometric variables were influenced by all body composition variables. Conclusion Children with obesity demonstrated a reduction in lung volume and capacity. Thus, anthropometric and body composition characteristics may be predictive factors for altered lung function. PMID:26767078

  7. The thin mirror deformation and stress distribution analysis based on different influence functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongqiao; Fan, Bin; Wu, Yongqian; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Rong

    2014-08-01

    The active support technique can be applied in the fabrication of large thin meniscus mirror. It can reduce the grinding and polishing difficulty for thin mirror. Compare between two kinds of influence function, we correct the Zernike 5th, 6th, 10th and 11th mode deformation. The low-order Zernike modes which are prone to appearing during large primary mirror processing are revised with active support technology. Influence functions are expressed with Z coordinate value and Zernike coefficient of surface shape. This paper reports that respectively adopting different influence functions to solve correction forces and the correction forces compensates specific Zernike modes of mirror deformation. After comparing the PV and RMS values of amendatory residual of surface shape, we analyze the effect of different correction forces to the biggest stress on the underside of the primary mirror. We compare the two methods based on the PV and RMS values of the residual error and the Max-stress. Gain a conclusion that correction forces obtained from Z coordinate value of surface shape is superior to the one obtained from the Zernike coefficient of surface shape.

  8. The influence of the parents' educational level on the development of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Guajardo, Soledad

    2005-01-01

    Information about the influence of educational variables on the development of executive functions is limited. The aim of this study was to analyze the relation of the parents' educational level and the type of school the child attended (private or public school) to children's executive functioning test performance. Six hundred twenty-two participants, ages 5 to 14 years (276 boys, 346 girls) were selected from Colombia and Mexico and grouped according to three variables: age (5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, and 13-14 years), gender (boys and girls), and school type (private and public). Eight executive functioning tests taken from the Evaluacion Neuropsicologica Infantil; Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, & Ostrosky, (in press) were individually administered: Semantic Verbal Fluency, Phonemic Verbal Fluency, Semantic Graphic Fluency, Nonsemantic Graphic Fluency, Matrices, Similarities, Card Sorting, and the Mexican Pyramid. There was a significant effect of age on all the test scores and a significant effect of type of school attended on all but Semantic Verbal Fluency and Nonsemantic Graphic Fluency tests. Most children's test scores, particularly verbal test scores, significantly correlated with parents' educational level. Our results suggest that the differences in test scores between the public and private school children depended on some conditions existing outside the school, such as the parents' level of education. Implications of these findings for the understanding of the influence of environmental factors on the development of executive functions are presented. PMID:15992255

  9. Relationship between involvement and functional milk desserts intention to purchase. Influence on attitude towards packaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Besio, Mariángela; Giménez, Ana; Deliza, Rosires

    2010-10-01

    Consumers perceive functional foods as member of the particular food category to which they belong. In this context, apart from health and sensory characteristics, non-sensory factors such as packaging might have a key role on determining consumers' purchase decisions regarding functional foods. The aims of the present work were to study the influence of different package attributes on consumer willingness to purchase regular and functional chocolate milk desserts; and to assess if the influence of these attributes was affected by consumers' level of involvement with the product. A conjoint analysis task was carried out with 107 regular milk desserts consumers, who were asked to score their willingness to purchase of 16 milk dessert package concepts varying in five features of the package, and to complete a personal involvement inventory questionnaire. Consumers' level of involvement with the product affected their interest in the evaluated products and their reaction towards the considered conjoint variables, suggesting that it could be a useful segmentation tool during food development. Package colour and the presence of a picture on the label were the variables with the highest relative importance, regardless of consumers' involvement with the product. The importance of these variables was higher than the type of dessert indicating that packaging may play an important role in consumers' perception and purchase intention of functional foods. PMID:20609376

  10. Irradiating of Bulk Soybeans: Influence on Their Functional and Sensory Properties for Soyfood Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chia, Chiew-Ling; Wilson, Lester A.; Boylston, Terri; Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Soybeans were chosen for lunar and planetary missions, where soybeans will be supplied in bulk or grown locally, due to their nutritive value and ability to produce oil and protein for further food applications. However, soybeans must be processed into foods prior to consumption. Radiation that soybeans would be exposed to during bulk storage prior to and during a Mars mission may influence their germination and functional properties. The influence of radiation includes the affect of surface pasteurization to ensure the astronauts safety from food-borne illnesses (HACCP, CCP), and the affect of the amount of radiation the soybeans receive during a Mars mission. Decreases in the amount of natural antioxidants free radical formation, and oxidation-induced changes in the soybean will influence the nutritional value, texture, color, and aroma of soyfoods. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of pasteurization and sterilization surface radiation on whole soybeans using gamma and electron beam radiation. The influence of 0, 1, 5, 10, and 30kGy on microbial load, germination rate, ease of processing, and quality of soymilk and tofu were determined. Surface radiation of whole dry soybeans using electron beam or gamma rays from 1-30kGy did provide microbial safety for the astronauts. However, the lower dose levels had surviving yeasts and molds. These doses caused oxidative changes that resulted in soymilk and tofu with rancid aromas. GC-MS of the aroma compounds using SPME Headspace confirmed the presence of lipid oxidation compounds. Soybean germination ability was reduced as radiation dosage increased. While lower doses may reduce these problems, the ability to insure microbial safety of bulk soybeans will be lost. Counter measures could include vacuum packaging, nitrogen flushing, added antioxidants, and radiating under freezing conditions. Doses below 1kGy need to be investigated further to determine the influence of the radiation encountered

  11. Functional trait differences influence neighbourhood interactions in a hyperdiverse Amazonian forest.

    PubMed

    Fortunel, Claire; Valencia, Renato; Wright, S Joseph; Garwood, Nancy C; Kraft, Nathan J B

    2016-09-01

    As distinct community assembly processes can produce similar community patterns, assessing the ecological mechanisms promoting coexistence in hyperdiverse rainforests remains a considerable challenge. We use spatially explicit neighbourhood models of tree growth to quantify how functional trait and phylogenetic similarities predict variation in growth and crowding effects for the 315 most abundant tree species in a 25-ha lowland rainforest plot in Ecuador. We find that functional trait differences reflect variation in (1) species maximum potential growth, (2) the intensity of interspecific interactions for some species, and (3) species sensitivity to neighbours. We find that neighbours influenced tree growth in 28% of the 315 focal tree species. Neighbourhood effects are not detected in the remaining 72%, which may reflect the low statistical power to model rare taxa and/or species insensitivity to neighbours. Our results highlight the spectrum of ways in which functional trait differences can shape community dynamics in highly diverse rainforests. PMID:27358248

  12. Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian influences on higher-order cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Burke, Tina M; Scheer, Frank A J L; Ronda, Joseph M; Czeisler, Charles A; Wright, Kenneth P

    2015-08-01

    Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian processes modulate cognition, including reaction time, memory, mood and alertness. How these processes influence higher-order cognitive functions is not well known. Six participants completed a 73-day-long study that included two 14-day-long 28-h forced desynchrony protocols to examine separate and interacting influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase on higher-order cognitive functions of inhibitory control and selective visual attention. Cognitive performance for most measures was impaired immediately after scheduled awakening and improved during the first ~2-4 h of wakefulness (decreasing sleep inertia); worsened thereafter until scheduled bedtime (increasing sleep homeostasis); and was worst at ~60° and best at ~240° (circadian modulation, with worst and best phases corresponding to ~09:00 and ~21:00 hours, respectively, in individuals with a habitual wake time of 07:00 hours). The relative influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase depended on the specific higher-order cognitive function task examined. Inhibitory control appeared to be modulated most strongly by circadian phase, whereas selective visual attention for a spatial-configuration search task was modulated most strongly by sleep inertia. These findings demonstrate that some higher-order cognitive processes are differentially sensitive to different sleep-wake regulatory processes. Differential modulation of cognitive functions by different sleep-wake regulatory processes has important implications for understanding mechanisms contributing to performance impairments during adverse circadian phases, sleep deprivation and/or upon awakening from sleep. PMID:25773686

  13. Genetic influence on exercise-induced changes in physical function among mobility-limited older adults.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brinkley, Tina E; Carter, Christy S; Church, Timothy S; Dodson, John A; Goodpaster, Bret H; McDermott, Mary M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Yank, Veronica; Johnson, Julie A; Pahor, Marco

    2014-03-01

    To date, physical exercise is the only intervention consistently demonstrated to attenuate age-related declines in physical function. However, variability exists in seniors' responsiveness to training. One potential source of variability is the insertion (I allele) or deletion (D allele) of a 287 bp fragment in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. This polymorphism is known to influence a variety of physiological adaptions to exercise. However, evidence is inconclusive regarding the influence of this polymorphism on older adults' functional responses to exercise. This study aimed to evaluate the association of ACE I/D genotypes with changes in physical function among Caucasian older adults (n = 283) following 12 mo of either structured, multimodal physical activity or health education. Measures of physical function included usual-paced gait speed and performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After checking Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we used using linear regression to evaluate the genotype*treatment interaction for each outcome. Covariates included clinic site, body mass index, age, sex, baseline score, comorbidity, and use of angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE inhibitors. Genotype frequencies [II (19.4%), ID (42.4%), DD (38.2%)] were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). The genotype*treatment interaction was statistically significant for both gait speed (P = 0.002) and SPPB (P = 0.020). Exercise improved gait speed by 0.06 ± 0.01 m/sec and SPPB score by 0.72 ± 0.16 points among those with at least one D allele (ID/DD carriers), but function was not improved among II carriers. Thus, ACE I/D genotype appears to play a role in modulating functional responses to exercise training in seniors. PMID:24423970

  14. Influence of Functional Movement Rehabilitation on Quality of Life in People with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cholewa, Joanna; Gorzkowska, Agnieszka; Szepelawy, Michal; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Cholewa, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Parkinson’s disease is one of the most frequent diseases of the central nervous system. Thorough knowledge of reasons for movement defects may contribute to the ability to quality of life at a good level as far as motor abilities are concerned. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of functional movement rehabilitation on the degree of intensity of movement symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects] The research was carried out in people diagnosed with stage III Parkinson’s disease, according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale classification. [Methods] In order to establish the clinical state of patients, parts I, II, and III of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living scale, and the quality of life in Parkinson’s disease questionnaire were applied. The intervention group took part in 60 minutes of functional movement rehabilitation twice a week for a period of 15 weeks. The main emphasis was placed on the ability to cope with everyday activities. [Results] A significant difference in scores for the given scales between before and after research the intervention period was observed in the intervention group. [Conclusion] The obtained results revealed positive that the influence of applied rehabilitation program had a positive influence on the degree of intensity of movement symptoms in people with Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25276010

  15. Study Protocol: The influence of Running Therapy on executive functions and sleep of prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Meijers, Jesse; Harte, Joke; Meynen, Gerben; Cuijpers, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Executive dysfunction appears to be related to increased recidivism. Of note is that sleep disturbances, which are highly prevalent in prisons, may attenuate executive functions. Thus, improving executive functions, either directly or indirectly through the improvement of sleep, may reduce recidivism. It is hypothesised that physical exercise, in the form of Running Therapy, has a direct positive effect on executive functions as well as an indirect effect through the improvement of sleep. Methods/Design: Seventy two (N = 72) detainees in various penitentiary institutions in the Netherlands will be recruited in this study. A baseline measurement, including six neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), an assessment of sleep quality and duration using the Actiwatch (Actiwatch 2, Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, USA) and various other measurements will be administered before the start of the treatment. After 3 months of Running Therapy, participants will be assessed again with the same tests for neuropsychological and physical functioning. Primary outcomes are executive functioning and various sleep variables. Discussion: This study will be the first to investigate the possible influence of Running Therapy on the cognitive functioning, sleep and aggression in prisoners. PMID:26664703

  16. Superstatistics analysis of the ion current distribution function: Met3PbCl influence study.

    PubMed

    Miśkiewicz, Janusz; Trela, Zenon; Przestalski, Stanisław; Karcz, Waldemar

    2010-09-01

    A novel analysis of ion current time series is proposed. It is shown that higher (second, third and fourth) statistical moments of the ion current probability distribution function (PDF) can yield new information about ion channel properties. The method is illustrated on a two-state model where the PDF of the compound states are given by normal distributions. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of the SV cation channels of vacuolar membrane of Beta vulgaris and the influence of trimethyllead chloride (Met(3)PbCl) on the ion current probability distribution. Ion currents were measured by patch-clamp technique. It was shown that Met(3)PbCl influences the variance of the open-state ion current but does not alter the PDF of the closed-state ion current. Incorporation of higher statistical moments into the standard investigation of ion channel properties is proposed. PMID:20354691

  17. Effects of Cannabis on Neurocognitive Functioning: Recent Advances, Neurodevelopmental Influences, and Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Gonzalez, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have examined the effects of cannabis on neurocognition. Recent advances in this field provide us with a better understanding of how cannabis use influences neurocognition both acutely (during intoxication) and non-acutely (after acute effects subside). Evidence of problems with episodic memory is one of the most consistent findings reported; however, several other neurocognitive domains appear to be adversely affected by cannabis use under various conditions. There is significant variability in findings across studies, thus a discussion of potential moderators is increasingly relevant. The purpose of this review was to 1) provide an update on research of cannabis’ acute and non-acute effects on neurocognition, with a focus on findings since 2007 and 2) suggest and discuss how neurodevelopmental issues and sex differences may influence cannabis effects on neurocognition. Finally we discuss how future investigations may lead to better understanding of the complex interplay among cannabis, stages of neurodevelopment, and sex on neurocognitive functioning. PMID:23129391

  18. Seafloor heterogeneity influences the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Pusceddu, Antonio; Trincardi, Fabio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical ecology predicts that heterogeneous habitats allow more species to co-exist in a given area. In the deep sea, biodiversity is positively linked with ecosystem functioning, suggesting that deep-seabed heterogeneity could influence ecosystem functions and the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF). To shed light on the BEF relationships in a heterogeneous deep seabed, we investigated variations in meiofaunal biodiversity, biomass and ecosystem efficiency within and among different seabed morphologies (e.g., furrows, erosional troughs, sediment waves and other depositional structures, landslide scars and deposits) in a narrow geo-morphologically articulated sector of the Adriatic Sea. We show that distinct seafloor morphologies are characterized by highly diverse nematode assemblages, whereas areas sharing similar seabed morphologies host similar nematode assemblages. BEF relationships are consistently positive across the entire region, but different seabed morphologies are characterised by different slope coefficients of the relationship. Our results suggest that seafloor heterogeneity, allowing diversified assemblages across different habitats, increases diversity and influence ecosystem processes at the regional scale, and BEF relationships at smaller spatial scales. We conclude that high-resolution seabed mapping and a detailed analysis of the species distribution at the habitat scale are crucial for improving management of goods and services delivered by deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:27211908

  19. Seafloor heterogeneity influences the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships in the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Pusceddu, Antonio; Trincardi, Fabio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical ecology predicts that heterogeneous habitats allow more species to co-exist in a given area. In the deep sea, biodiversity is positively linked with ecosystem functioning, suggesting that deep-seabed heterogeneity could influence ecosystem functions and the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF). To shed light on the BEF relationships in a heterogeneous deep seabed, we investigated variations in meiofaunal biodiversity, biomass and ecosystem efficiency within and among different seabed morphologies (e.g., furrows, erosional troughs, sediment waves and other depositional structures, landslide scars and deposits) in a narrow geo-morphologically articulated sector of the Adriatic Sea. We show that distinct seafloor morphologies are characterized by highly diverse nematode assemblages, whereas areas sharing similar seabed morphologies host similar nematode assemblages. BEF relationships are consistently positive across the entire region, but different seabed morphologies are characterised by different slope coefficients of the relationship. Our results suggest that seafloor heterogeneity, allowing diversified assemblages across different habitats, increases diversity and influence ecosystem processes at the regional scale, and BEF relationships at smaller spatial scales. We conclude that high-resolution seabed mapping and a detailed analysis of the species distribution at the habitat scale are crucial for improving management of goods and services delivered by deep-sea ecosystems.

  20. Influence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic spacer-containing enzyme conjugates on functional parameters of steroid immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Nara, Seema; Tripathi, Vinay; Chaube, Shail K; Rangari, Kiran; Singh, Harpal; Kariya, Kiran P; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G

    2008-02-01

    Introduction of spacers in coating steroid antigen or enzyme conjugates or immunogen is known to exert an influence on the sensitivity of steroid enzyme immunoassays. We have introduced hydrophobic and hydrophilic spacers between enzyme and steroid moieties and studied their effects on functional parameters of enzyme immunoassays, using cortisol as a model steroid. Cortisol-3-O-carboxymethyloxime-bovine serum albumin (F-3-O-CMO-BSA) was used as immunogen to raise the antiserum in New Zealand white rabbits. Three enzyme conjugates were prepared using cortisol-21-hemisuccinate (F-21-HS) as carboxylic derivative of cortisol and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as an enzyme label. These were F-21-HS-HRP (without spacer), F-21-HS-adipic acid dihydrazide-HRP (adipic acid dihydrazide as hydrophobic spacer), and F-21-HS-urea-HRP (urea as hydrophilic spacer). The influence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic spacers on the functional parameters of assays such as lower detection limit, ED50, and specificity was studied with reference to enzyme conjugate without spacer. The results of the present investigation revealed that the presence of a hydrophilic spacer in the enzyme conjugate decreases the lower detection limit, decreases the ED50, and marginally improves the specificity of assays. These improvements in functional parameters of assays may be due to the decreased magnitude of the overall hydrophobic interactions existing between the spacer in enzyme conjugate and the antigen binding site of the antibody. PMID:18023401

  1. Seafloor heterogeneity influences the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships in the deep sea

    PubMed Central

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Pusceddu, Antonio; Trincardi, Fabio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical ecology predicts that heterogeneous habitats allow more species to co-exist in a given area. In the deep sea, biodiversity is positively linked with ecosystem functioning, suggesting that deep-seabed heterogeneity could influence ecosystem functions and the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF). To shed light on the BEF relationships in a heterogeneous deep seabed, we investigated variations in meiofaunal biodiversity, biomass and ecosystem efficiency within and among different seabed morphologies (e.g., furrows, erosional troughs, sediment waves and other depositional structures, landslide scars and deposits) in a narrow geo-morphologically articulated sector of the Adriatic Sea. We show that distinct seafloor morphologies are characterized by highly diverse nematode assemblages, whereas areas sharing similar seabed morphologies host similar nematode assemblages. BEF relationships are consistently positive across the entire region, but different seabed morphologies are characterised by different slope coefficients of the relationship. Our results suggest that seafloor heterogeneity, allowing diversified assemblages across different habitats, increases diversity and influence ecosystem processes at the regional scale, and BEF relationships at smaller spatial scales. We conclude that high-resolution seabed mapping and a detailed analysis of the species distribution at the habitat scale are crucial for improving management of goods and services delivered by deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:27211908

  2. Hygiene and other early childhood influences on the subsequent function of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Rook, Graham A W; Lowry, Christopher A; Raison, Charles L

    2015-08-18

    The immune system influences brain development and function. Hygiene and other early childhood influences impact the subsequent function of the immune system during adulthood, with consequences for vulnerability to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Inflammatory events during pregnancy can act directly to cause developmental problems in the central nervous system (CNS) that have been implicated in schizophrenia and autism. The immune system also acts indirectly by "farming" the intestinal microbiota, which then influences brain development and function via the multiple pathways that constitute the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota also regulates the immune system. Regulation of the immune system is crucial because inflammatory states in pregnancy need to be limited, and throughout life inflammation needs to be terminated completely when not required; for example, persistently raised levels of background inflammation during adulthood (in the presence or absence of a clinically apparent inflammatory stimulus) correlate with an increased risk of depression. A number of factors in the perinatal period, notably immigration from rural low-income to rich developed settings, caesarean delivery, breastfeeding and antibiotic abuse have profound effects on the microbiota and on immunoregulation during early life that persist into adulthood. Many aspects of the modern western environment deprive the infant of the immunoregulatory organisms with which humans co-evolved, while encouraging exposure to non-immunoregulatory organisms, associated with more recently evolved "crowd" infections. Finally, there are complex interactions between perinatal psychosocial stressors, the microbiota, and the immune system that have significant additional effects on both physical and psychiatric wellbeing in subsequent adulthood. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:24732404

  3. Influence of an inductive impedance of the time evolution of the distribution function

    SciTech Connect

    Moshammer, H.

    1992-12-01

    The evolution of the distribution function in analytic form contains much more than a good visual agreement between the analytically-derived and the tracked distribution in phase space. 1. Transverse matching of transport lines: A parameter composed of the [beta] functions of the beam and the [beta] functions of the lattice may be identified as a driving term of the filamentation process. Assuming an octupole-like perturbation in a storage ring (or a chromatic perturbation in a linac), this parameter is the well-known [beta][sub mag] factor. 2. First and second moments may be derived from the relatively simple analytic expression of the distribution function. A comparison between actual measurements of the center of mass and beam size and these analytic expressions may allow the injection to be optimized. The expression of the first moment contains the information of the incoming beam emittance and may be used to extract the beam emittance out of turn-by-turn BPM data. In this paper we want to treat the influence of an inductive wakefield on the time evolution of the distribution function. To be specific, we work in the longitudinal phase space and assume the transport line to be a storage ring.

  4. Influence of an inductive impedance of the time evolution of the distribution function

    SciTech Connect

    Moshammer, H.

    1992-12-01

    The evolution of the distribution function in analytic form contains much more than a good visual agreement between the analytically-derived and the tracked distribution in phase space. 1. Transverse matching of transport lines: A parameter composed of the {beta} functions of the beam and the {beta} functions of the lattice may be identified as a driving term of the filamentation process. Assuming an octupole-like perturbation in a storage ring (or a chromatic perturbation in a linac), this parameter is the well-known {beta}{sub mag} factor. 2. First and second moments may be derived from the relatively simple analytic expression of the distribution function. A comparison between actual measurements of the center of mass and beam size and these analytic expressions may allow the injection to be optimized. The expression of the first moment contains the information of the incoming beam emittance and may be used to extract the beam emittance out of turn-by-turn BPM data. In this paper we want to treat the influence of an inductive wakefield on the time evolution of the distribution function. To be specific, we work in the longitudinal phase space and assume the transport line to be a storage ring.

  5. IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV infection

    PubMed Central

    Depla, Marion; Pelletier, Sandy; Bédard, Nathalie; Brunaud, Camille; Bruneau, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Polymorphisms in the type III interferon IFN‐λ3 and the killer cell immunoglobulin‐like receptor (KIR) genes controlling the activity of natural killer (NK) cells can predict spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism may modulate NK cell function during acute HCV. Methods We monitored the plasma levels of type III IFNs in relation to the phenotype and the function of NK cells in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) during acute HCV infection with different outcomes. Results Early acute HCV was associated with high variability in type III IFNs plasma levels and the favorable IFN‐λ3 CC genotype was associated with higher viral loads. Reduced expression of Natural Killer Group Protein 2A (NKG2A) was associated with lower IFN‐λ3 plasma levels and the CC genotype. IFN‐γ production by NK cells was higher in individuals with the CC genotype during acute infection but this did not prevent viral persistence. IFN‐λ3 plasma levels did not correlate with function of NK cells and IFN‐λ3 prestimulation did not affect NK cell activation and function. Conclusions These results suggest that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV but other factors may act in concert to determine the outcome of the infection. PMID:27621819

  6. [The influences of anterior disc displacement on oral mandibular function and morphology and their biological mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Xia, Wendi; Fu, Kiayuan

    2016-03-01

    Anterior disc displacement is a common subtype seen in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. It may cause mandibular movement disorders, such as clicking of joint, intermittent closed lock, limitation of mouth opening, etc. These disorders may affect the life qualities of patients. Anterior disc displacement may also cause mandibular malformations, especially among adolescents, which may affect the growth of condyle, therefore may have a correlation with mandibular retrusion or mandibular deviation when grown up. This paper going to review the influences of anterior disc displacement on oral mandibular function and morphology and their biological mechanisms. PMID:26980658

  7. [Influence of chronic pain in the functional capacity of institutionalized elderly].

    PubMed

    Reis, Luciana Araújo; Torres, Gilson de Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of pain, in terms of its duration, location and intensity, on the functional capacity of institutionalized elderly. That was a cross-sectional study carried out with a sample of 60 elderly patients. The instrument was composed by sociodemographic and health variables, the numerical pain scale and the Barthel scale. The Chi-square test showed a significant statistical difference between the presence of pain and the following activities: bathing (p=0.015) dressing (p=0.041), toilet use (p=0.001), bed-chair transfer (p=0.032), ambulation (p=0.010) and stairs climbing (p=0.008) and between total Barthel score and the presence of pain, p<0,000. The results of this study show that pain has a negative effect on the functional capacity of the elderly. PMID:21755210

  8. Influence of the local-spin-density correlation functional on the stability of bcc ferromagnetic iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Clougherty, D. P.; MacLaren, J. M.; Albers, R. C.; Wang, C. S.

    1991-10-01

    The influence of local-spin-dependent correlation effects on the predicted stable ground-state phase of iron is reexamined with use of general-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave calculations. Differences in the form of the Vosko-Wilk-Nusair (VWN) local-spin-density functional used in previous studies are noted, since in previous studies significant additional approximations were made with respect to those of Vosko, Wilk, and Nusan [Can. J. Phys. 58, 1200 (1980)] and of MacLaren, Clougherty, and Albers [Phys. Rev. B 42, 3205 (1990)]. While the results of previous linear muffin-tin orbital calculations using the VWN functional predict a bcc ferromagnetic ground state, the present calculations show that the VWN spin-correlation effects fail to stabilize a bcc ground state. Considerable sensitivity to the form of the spin interpolation is found.

  9. Non-equilibrium quantum theory for nanodevices based on the Feynman-Vernon influence functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jinshuang; Wei-Yuan Tu, Matisse; Zhang, Wei-Min; Yan, YiJing

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we present a non-equilibrium quantum theory for transient electron dynamics in nanodevices based on the Feynman-Vernon influence functional. Applying the exact master equation for nanodevices we recently developed to the more general case in which all the constituents of a device vary in time in response to time-dependent external voltages, we obtained non-perturbatively the transient quantum transport theory in terms of the reduced density matrix. The theory enables us to study transient quantum transport in nanostructures with back-reaction effects from the contacts, with non-Markovian dissipation and decoherence being fully taken into account. For a simple illustration, we apply the theory to a single-electron transistor subjected to ac bias voltages. The non-Markovian memory structure and the nonlinear response functions describing transient electron transport are obtained.

  10. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Chantal N.; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Vasić, Nada; Avrutin, Sergey; Blom, Elma

    2016-01-01

    When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever). Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children’s literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children’s grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children’s grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children’s cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children’s executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition) task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children’s messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children’s grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally) significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children’s grammar performance. On the other hand, use

  11. The influence of gut function on lymphoid cell populations in the intestinal mucosa of lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J D; Morris, B

    1983-01-01

    The number and type of lymphoid cells in the intestinal mucosa of lambs change during the first weeks after birth. The influence of gut function on these changes was examined by comparing the evolution of lymphoid cell populations in normal ileum with that in lengths of ileum which had been isolated surgically from the functional intestinal tract of the lamb before birth. The isolated lengths of ileum had a normal blood and nerve supply and they remained healthy throughout a period of at least 2 years, although they did not have a normal histological development. In comparison with normal ileum, the villi of the isolated ileal segments were much smaller and there were many fewer intraepithelial lymphocytes; the lamina propria had significantly fewer lymphocytes than the functional ileum and only a few plasma cells. When isolated ileal segments were reconnected into the intestinal tract after having been isolated from it for 1-3 months, the histology of the mucosa reverted to that of the normal gut, with the same number and types of lymphoid cells. Radiolabelled lymphoblasts collected from intestinal lymph and injected intravenously accumulated to only a small extent in isolated segments of ileum compared with either the normal or the reconnected segments of ileum. This suggested that the paucity of lymphocytes in the mucosa of the isolated segments was due to a reduced extravasation of these cells there. The influence which the gut contents exert on the lymphoid cell population in the mucosa is probably associated with antigenic stimulation but may also be related to other factors concerned in the normal digestive functions of the gut. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6862523

  12. Physiology and endocrinology symposium: evidence that oviduct secretions influence sperm function: a retrospective view for livestock.

    PubMed

    Killian, G

    2011-05-01

    The mammalian oviduct has long been recognized as an organ essential for successful reproduction. Bovine, ovine, porcine, and equine animal models have offered clear advantages for oviduct study related to gamete physiology, fertilization, and early embryonic development. Livestock species are amenable to surgical alteration of the reproductive tract, estrous cycle manipulation, gamete cryopreservation, and AI, as well as in vitro fertilization and embryo production. Although most reproductive technology developed for livestock was intended to benefit production animal agriculture, these techniques are a treasure trove of tools for researchers to better understand how the oviduct influences gamete function. Oviduct secretions obtained from in vitro tissue cultures or via indwelling oviduct catheters have been used for analyses to define the protein, lipid, carbohydrate, enzyme, and electrolyte compositions of the secretions during the estrous cycle or in response to hormone treatment. Oviduct secretions or components purified from them have also been used in in vitro assays to assess their ability to bind to sperm, influence sperm viability, motility, sperm capacitation, the acrosome reaction, sperm-egg binding, and egg penetration, as well as subsequent embryonic development. Compelling data have emerged which show that the composition of secretions differs during the estrous cycle and that their composition differs whether they originate from the ampullary or isthmic regions of the oviduct. These differences in composition are functionally relevant and associated with different responses by sperm. Evidence indicatess that oviduct-specific glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, carbohydrates, norepinepherine, catecholamines, heat-shock protein, and osteopontin are components of the oviductal milieu that have the capacity to modulate sperm function. Future research on the livestock oviduct will likely define the role that oviduct secretions have in modulating sperm

  13. Influence of nanotopography on periodontal ligament stem cell functions and cell sheet based periodontal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Li, Bei; Zhao, Lingzhou; Jin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal regeneration is an important part of regenerative medicine, with great clinical significance; however, the effects of nanotopography on the functions of periodontal ligament (PDL) stem cells (PDLSCs) and on PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration have never been explored. Titania nanotubes (NTs) layered on titanium (Ti) provide a good platform to study this. In the current study, the influence of NTs of different tube size on the functions of PDLSCs was observed. Afterward, an ectopic implantation model using a Ti/cell sheets/hydroxyapatite (HA) complex was applied to study the effect of the NTs on cell sheet based periodontal regeneration. The NTs were able to enhance the initial PDLSC adhesion and spread, as well as collagen secretion. With the Ti/cell sheets/HA complex model, it was demonstrated that the PDLSC sheets were capable of regenerating the PDL tissue, when combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) sheets and HA, without the need for extra soluble chemical cues. Simultaneously, the NTs improved the periodontal regeneration result of the ectopically implanted Ti/cell sheets/HA complex, giving rise to functionally aligned collagen fiber bundles. Specifically, much denser collagen fibers, with abundant blood vessels as well as cementum-like tissue on the Ti surface, which well-resembled the structure of natural PDL, were observed in the NT5 and NT10 sample groups. Our study provides the first evidence that the nanotopographical cues obviously influence the functions of PDLSCs and improve the PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration size dependently, which provides new insight to the periodontal regeneration. The Ti/cell sheets/HA complex may constitute a good model to predict the effect of biomaterials on periodontal regeneration. PMID:26150714

  14. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Chantal N; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Vasić, Nada; Avrutin, Sergey; Blom, Elma

    2016-01-01

    When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever). Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition) task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally) significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand, use of textese does

  15. Plant functional coexistence and influence on the eco-hydrologic response of semiarid hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanjalili, Mohammadjafar; Saco, Patricia M.; Willgoose, Garry

    2016-04-01

    Through its influence on rainfall-runoff and erosion-deposition processes, vegetation remarkably regulates different aspects of landscape processes. Here, the influence of different plant functional dynamics on the coexistence of different species in arid and semi-arid regions with banded vegetation patterns is investigated. Simulations capture the coevolution and coexistence of two different species interacting with hydrology in hillslopes with gentle slopes. The dynamic vegetation model simulates the dynamics of overland runoff, soil moisture, facilitation mechanisms (evaporation reduction through shading and enhanced infiltration by vegetation), local and non-local seed dispersal, competition through water uptake and changes in the biomass of the two species. Here for simplicity the two species are assumed to use water from the same soil depth. Results of the coexistence of the two species capture differences in facilitation-competition interactions caused by specific types of vegetation with varying hydrologic traits. The results illustrate that the dominance of facilitation or competition feedbacks which determine either the coexistence of the two species or survival of only one of them strongly depends on the characteristics and hydrologic traits of the coexisting species and the severity of water stresses. We therefore argue that our results should stimulate further research into the role of interspecific and intraspecific feedbacks between different plant species and specifically the influence of the resulting vegetation community on landform evolution processes.

  16. Influence of concentration modifier on the structure and functional properties of aluminum oxyhydroxide modified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiyan, L. N.; Gryaznova, E. N.; Galanov, S. I.; Sidorova, O. I.

    2016-02-01

    Studying the properties of nanomaterials is an important task, but nanomaterials with desired properties is a promising direction. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of the value of the concentration of the modifier (ions Mn2+) on the structural and functional properties of modified aluminum oxyhydroxide. In this paper, using methods such as the X-ray diffraction studies, differential thermal analysis, electron microscopy, chromatography. The paper found that increasing the concentration of the modifier result in significant changes in the morphology, the appearance of metallic aluminum, which is well seen on X-ray data samples. The influence of thermal effects on a modified aluminum oxyhydroxide argon. Set the phase transition temperatures in the synthesized samples. It is shown that with increasing sodeozhaniya manganese in the composition of the synthesized samples decreases the value of specific surface area. Study of the functional properties showed that the synthesized material has catalytic properties in the oxidation of methane. It is shown that the effective sample is a sample with a manganese content of 2.7 wt. %. By XRD results calcined in air samples modified aluminum oxyhydroxide was shown that only in the sample with a manganese content of 2.7 wt. % MnAl2O4 phase is formed, which is catalytically active phase.

  17. Chronic Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Agricultural Workers - Influence of Exposure Duration and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Stoleski, Saso; Minov, Jordan; Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Job exposure in agricultural workers often leads to respiratory impairment. AIM: To assess the influence of exposure duration and smoking on chronic respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity in agricultural workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study covered 75 agricultural workers, compared with an equal number of office workers matched by age, exposure duration and smoking status. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain data on chronic respiratory symptoms, job and smoking history. Lung functional testing was performed by spirometry. RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher in agricultural workers, with significant difference for cough (P = 0.034), and dyspnea (P = 0.028). Chronic respiratory symptoms among agricultural workers were significantly associated with duration of exposure (P < 0.05) and daily smoking (P < 0.01), as well as with daily smoking in controls (P < 0.01). The average values of spirometric parameters in exposed workers were significantly different for MEF50 (P = 0.002), MEF75 (P = 0.000), and MEF25-75 (P = 0.049). Obstructive changes in small airways in exposed workers were strongly related to exposure duration (P < 0.05) and smoking (P < 0.01). Agricultural workers with job exposure more than 15 years had more expressed adverse respiratory symptoms and lung function decline. CONCLUSION: The results confirmed the influence of agricultural exposure and daily smoking on chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation, primarily targeting the small airways.

  18. How emotional abilities modulate the influence of early life stress on hippocampal functioning.

    PubMed

    Aust, Sabine; Alkan Härtwig, Elif; Koelsch, Stefan; Heekeren, Hauke R; Heuser, Isabella; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-07-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is known to have considerable influence on brain development, mental health and affective functioning. Previous investigations have shown that alexithymia, a prevalent personality trait associated with difficulties experiencing and verbalizing emotions, is particularly related to ELS. The aim of the present study was to investigate how neural correlates of emotional experiences in alexithymia are altered in the presence and absence of ELS. Therefore, 50 healthy individuals with different levels of alexithymia were matched regarding ELS and investigated with respect to neural correlates of audio-visually induced emotional experiences via functional magnetic resonance imaging. The main finding was that ELS modulated hippocampal responses to pleasant (>neutral) stimuli in high-alexithymic individuals, whereas there was no such modulation in low-alexithymic individuals matched for ELS. Behavioral and psychophysiological results followed a similar pattern. When considered independent of ELS, alexithymia was associated with decreased responses in insula (pleasant > neutral) and temporal pole (unpleasant > neutral). Our results show that the influence of ELS on emotional brain responses seems to be modulated by an individual's degree of alexithymia. Potentially, protective and adverse effects of emotional abilities on brain responses to emotional experiences are discussed. PMID:23685776

  19. Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics: measurement of actuator influence functions and comparison with modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.

    2011-09-01

    The present generation of X-ray telescopes emphasizes either high image quality (e.g. Chandra with sub-arc second resolution) or large effective area (e.g. XMM-Newton), while future observatories under consideration (e.g. Athena, AXSIO) aim to greatly enhance the effective area, while maintaining moderate (~10 arc-seconds) image quality. To go beyond the limits of present and planned missions, the use of thin adjustable optics for the control of low-order figure error is needed to obtain the high image quality of precisely figured mirrors along with the large effective area of thin mirrors. The adjustable mirror prototypes under study at Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory are based on two different principles and designs: 1) thin film lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric actuators directly deposited on the mirror back surface, with the strain direction parallel to the glass surface (for sub-arc-second angular resolution and large effective area), and 2) conventional leadmagnesium- niobate (PMN) electrostrictive actuators with their strain direction perpendicular to the mirror surface (for 3-5 arc second resolution and moderate effective area). We have built and operated flat test mirrors of these adjustable optics. We present the comparison between theoretical influence functions as obtained by finite element analysis and the measured influence functions obtained from the two test configurations.

  20. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Sasso-Cerri, Estela; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling. PMID:26247020

  1. Hydrodynamic function of polyurethane prosthetic heart valves: influences of Young's modulus and leaflet thickness.

    PubMed

    Bernacca, Gillian M; O'Connor, Bernard; Williams, David F; Wheatley, David J

    2002-01-01

    The development of flexible polyurethane heart valves has been hindered by material degradation in vivo. Low modulus polyurethane leaflets are regarded as desirable to achieve good hydrodynamic function. However, low modulus materials may suffer high strain accumulation, hence poor durability. Higher modulus materials may improve durability, but may have poor hydrodynamic function. This study examines the hydrodynamic behaviour of biostable polyurethane valves, varying Young's modulus from 5 to 63.6 MPa and mean leaflet thickness from 48-238 microm. Parameters studied included mean pressure gradient, energy losses and regurgitation over 5 equivalent cardiac outputs (3.6, 4.9, 6.4, 8.0 and 9.61 min(-1)) At low cardiac output, modulus was not significantly correlated with any parameter of valve opening. At 9.61 min(-1), modulus significantly influenced mean pressure gradient (p = 0.033). Mean leaflet thickness significantly correlated with mean pressure gradient and energy losses during forward flow at all cardiac outputs (p<0.001). This study demonstrates that, over a wide range of moduli, valve hydrodynamic function is not affected significantly by the material modulus. Leaflet thickness is a highly significant factor. Higher modulus elastomers in a range up to 32.5 MPa may be useful in prosthetic heart valve leaflet manufacture, retaining good hydrodynamic function while potentially extending the lifetime of the valve. PMID:11762853

  2. Step-by-Step Simulation of Radiation Chemistry Using Green Functions for Diffusion-Influenced Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiolytic species are formed approximately 1 ps after the passage of ionizing radiation through matter. After their formation, they diffuse and chemically react with other radiolytic species and neighboring biological molecules, leading to various oxidative damage. Therefore, the simulation of radiation chemistry is of considerable importance to understand how radiolytic species damage biological molecules [1]. The step-by-step simulation of chemical reactions is difficult, because the radiolytic species are distributed non-homogeneously in the medium. Consequently, computational approaches based on Green functions for diffusion-influenced reactions should be used [2]. Recently, Green functions for more complex type of reactions have been published [3-4]. We have developed exact random variate generators of these Green functions [5], which will allow us to use them in radiation chemistry codes. Moreover, simulating chemistry using the Green functions is which is computationally very demanding, because the probabilities of reactions between each pair of particles should be evaluated at each timestep [2]. This kind of problem is well adapted for General Purpose Graphic Processing Units (GPGPU), which can handle a large number of similar calculations simultaneously. These new developments will allow us to include more complex reactions in chemistry codes, and to improve the calculation time. This code should be of importance to link radiation track structure simulations and DNA damage models.

  3. Influence of a quality improvement learning collaborative program on team functioning in primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, Jyoti; Brown, Judith Belle; Han, Han; Harris, Stewart B; Green, Michael; Russell, Grant; Roberts, Sharon; Webster-Bogaert, Susan; Fournie, Meghan; Thind, Amardeep; Reichert, Sonja M; Birtwhistle, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Quality improvement (QI) programs are frequently implemented to support primary healthcare (PHC) team development and to improve care outcomes. In Ontario, Canada, the Quality Improvement and Innovation Partnership (QIIP) offered a learning collaborative (LC) program to support the development of interdisciplinary team function and improve chronic disease management, disease prevention, and access to care. A qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was conducted as part of a mixed-method evaluation to explore the influence of the program on team functioning in participating PHC teams. A purposive sampling strategy was used to identify PHC teams (n = 10), from which participants of different professional roles were selected through a purposeful recruitment process to reflect maximum variation of team roles. Additionally, QI coaches working with the interview participants and the LC administrators were also interviewed. Data were collected through semistructured telephone interviews that were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted through an iterative and interpretive approach. The shared experience of participating in the program appeared to improve team functioning. Participants described increased trust and respect for each other's clinical and administrative roles and were inspired by learning about different approaches to interdisciplinary care. This appeared to enhance collegial relationships, collapse professional silos, improve communication, and increase interdisciplinary collaboration. Teamwork involves more than just physically grouping healthcare providers from multiple disciplines and mandating them to work together. The LC program provided opportunities for participants to learn how to work collaboratively, and participation in the LC program appeared to enhance team functioning. PMID:25799255

  4. Resource identity modifies the influence of predation risk on ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Trussell, Geoffrey C; Ewanchuk, Patrick J; Matassa, Catherine M

    2008-10-01

    It is well established that predators can scare as well as consume their prey. In many systems, the fear of being eaten causes trait-mediated cascades whose strength can rival or exceed that of more widely recognized density-mediated cascades transmitted by predators that consume their prey. Despite this progress it is only beginning to be understood how the influence of predation risk is shaped by environmental context and whether it can exert an important influence on ecosystem-level processes. This study used a factorial mesocosm experiment that manipulated basal-resource identity (either barnacles, Semibalanus balanoides, or mussels, Mytilus edulis) to determine how resources modify the influence of predation risk, cascade strength, and the efficiency of energy transfer in two, tritrophic, rocky-shore food chains containing the predatory green crab (Carcinus maenas) and an intermediate consumer (the snail, Nucella lapillus). The effect of predation risk and the strength of trait-mediated cascades (both in absolute and relative terms) were much stronger in the barnacle than in the mussel food chain. Moreover, predation risk strongly diminished the efficiency of energy transfer in the barnacle food chain but had no significant effect in the mussel food chain. The influence of resource identity on indirect-effect strength and energy transfer was likely caused by differences in how each resource shapes the degree of risk perceived by prey. We suggest that our understanding of the connection between trophic dynamics and ecosystem functioning will improve considerably once the effects of predation risk on individual behavior and physiology are considered. PMID:18959317

  5. Influence of COMT Genotype on Antero-posterior Cortical Functional Connectivity Underlying Interference Resolution.

    PubMed

    Jaspar, Mathieu; Manard, Marine; Dideberg, Vinciane; Bours, Vincent; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

    2016-02-01

    Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val(158)Met) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of executive functioning and its neural correlates. However, this attention has generally centered on the prefrontal cortices because of the well-known direct impact of COMT enzyme on these cerebral regions. In this study, we were interested in the modulating effect of COMT genotype on anterior and posterior brain areas underlying interference resolution during a Stroop task. More specifically, we were interested in the functional connectivity between the right inferior frontal operculum (IFop), an area frequently associated with inhibitory efficiency, and posterior brain regions involved in reading/naming processes (the 2 main non-executive determinants of the Stroop effect). The Stroop task was administered during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning to 3 groups of 15 young adults divided according to their COMT Val(158)Met genotype [Val/Val (VV), Val/Met (VM), and Met/Met (MM)]. Results indicate greater activity in the right IFop and the left middle temporal gyrus in homozygous VV individuals than in Met allele carriers. In addition, the VV group exhibited stronger positive functional connectivity between these 2 brain regions and stronger negative connectivity between the right IFop and left lingual gyrus. These results confirm the impact of COMT genotype on frontal functions. They also strongly suggest that differences in frontal activity influence posterior brain regions related to a non-executive component of the task. Particularly, changes in functional connectivity between anterior and posterior brain areas might correspond to compensatory processes for performing the task efficiently when the available dopamine level is low. PMID:25205659

  6. Algal exudates and stream organic matter influence the structure and function of denitrifying bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Kalscheur, Kathryn N; Rojas, Miguel; Peterson, Christopher G; Kelly, John J; Gray, Kimberly A

    2012-11-01

    Within aquatic ecosystems, periphytic biofilms can be hot spots of denitrification, and previous work has suggested that algal taxa within periphyton can influence the species composition and activity of resident denitrifying bacteria. This study tested the hypothesis that algal species composition within biofilms influences the structure and function of associated denitrifying bacterial communities through the composition of organic exudates. A mixed population of bacteria was incubated with organic carbon isolated from one of seven algal species or from one of two streams that differed in anthropogenic inputs. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) revealed differences in the organic composition of algal exudates and stream waters, which, in turn, selected for distinct bacterial communities. Organic carbon source had a significant effect on potential denitrification rates (DNP) of the communities, with organics isolated from a stream with high anthropogenic inputs resulting in a bacterial community with the highest DNP. There was no correlation between DNP and numbers of denitrifiers (based on nirS copy numbers), but there was a strong relationship between the species composition of denitrifier communities (as indicated by tag pyrosequencing of nosZ genes) and DNP. Specifically, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas stutzeri-like nosZ sequences across treatments correlated significantly with DNP, and bacterial communities incubated with organic carbon from the stream with high anthropogenic inputs had the highest relative abundance of P. stutzeri-like nosZ sequences. These results demonstrate a significant relationship between bacterial community composition and function and provide evidence of the potential impacts of anthropogenic inputs on the structure and function of stream microbial communities. PMID:22828897

  7. Exploring influence of subliminal interoception on whole-brain functional network connectivity dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Behnaz; Mantini, Dante; Mehnert, Ulrich; Kollias, Spyros

    2015-08-01

    Recent fMRI studies have highlighted a dynamic relation across large-scale intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) of human brain. The origin of such temporal variations in functional connectivity especially during the task-free (resting-state) fMRI is still a matter of debate and ongoing investigation. In this exploratory study, we sought to determine whether subliminal differences in interoception (e.g., distention pressure on the viscera) can influence the dynamics of whole-brain functional network connectivity. A group of healthy right-handed female subjects, close in age (n = 15, mean age ± SD = 30.33 ± 8.7 years) underwent a series of eyes-open resting-state fMRI scans under different interoceptive conditions including catheterization and partial bladder filling. Using a high-dimensional independent component analysis, the functional imaging data were parcellated into 75 components, out of which 33 were identified as non-artifactual ICNs. Changes in dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) were evaluated using the sliding-time window approach and k-means clustering algorithm. We used subject medians for each cluster state and compared differences in dFNC correlations using a paired t-test. Following a false discovery rate multiple comparison correction threshold of p<;0.05, no significant differences in dFNC were found. However, different dwell times for each (pseudo-)resting-state were observed. More liberal statistical criteria (uncorrected p<;0.005) also indicated differences in dFNC between ICN pairs especially involving the salience, subcortical, sensorimotor, cerebellar and brainstem networks. Further investigations of the effect of internal (bodily) sensations on the time-varying aspects of functional connectivity can improve our understanding of the nature of temporal fluctuations in interrelations between intrinsic brain networks. PMID:26736351

  8. Influence of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) gene polymorphism on cognitive function in schizophrenia✰,✰✰

    PubMed Central

    Wonodi, Ikwunga; McMahon, Robert P.; Krishna, Nithin; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Liu, Judy; Glassman, Matthew; Hong, L. Elliot; Gold, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits compromise quality of life and productivity for individuals with schizophrenia and have no effective treatments. Preclinical data point to the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism as a potential target for pro-cognitive drug development. We have previously demonstrated association of a kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) gene variant with reduced KMO gene expression in postmortem schizophrenia cortex, and neurocognitive endophenotypic deficits in a clinical sample. KMO encodes kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), the rate-limiting microglial enzyme of cortical kynurenine metabolism. Aberration of the KMO gene might be the proximal cause of impaired cortical kynurenine metabolism observed in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between KMO variation and cognitive function in schizophrenia is unknown. This study examined the effects of the KMO rs2275163C>T C (risk) allele on cognitive function in schizophrenia. Methods We examined the association of KMO polymorphisms with general neuropsychological performance and P50 gating in a sample of 150 schizophrenia and 95 healthy controls. Results Consistent with our original report, the KMO rs2275163C>T C (risk) allele was associated with deficits in general neuropsychological performance, and this effect was more marked in schizophrenia compared with controls. Additionally, the C (Arg452) allele of the missense rs1053230C>T variant (KMO Arg452Cys) showed a trend effect on cognitive function. Neither variant affected P50 gating. Conclusions These data suggest that KMO variation influences a range of cognitive domains known to predict functional outcome. Extensive molecular characterization of this gene would elucidate its role in cognitive function with implications for vertical integration with basic discovery. PMID:25464917

  9. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH TRAINING ON PHYSICAL FUNCTION: INFLUENCE OF POWER, STRENGTH, AND BODY COMPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Erik D.; Srivatsan, Sindhu R.; Agrawal, Siddhartha; Menon, Kalapurakkal S.; Delmonico, Matthew J.; Wang, Min Q.; Hurley, Ben F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the effects of strength training (ST) on physical function and (b) the influence of strength, power, muscle volume (MV), and body composition on physical function. Healthy, inactive adults (n = 50) aged 65 years and older underwent strength, power, total body composition (% fat and fat free mass [FFM]), and physical function testing before and after 22 weeks of ST. Physical function testing consisted of tasks designed to mimic common physical activities of daily living (ADL). To improve internal validity of the assessment of mid-thigh intermuscular fat, subcutaneous fat, and knee extensors MV, a 10-week unilateral ST program using the untrained leg as an internal control preceded 12 weeks of whole-body ST. Strength, power, and FFM increased significantly with ST (all p < 0.05), whereas rapid walk, 5 chair stands, and get up and go time decreased significantly with ST in the overall group (all p < 0.05). Women improved significantly in both walking test times (both p < 0.05) but not in the stair climb test, whereas men improved in the stair climb test (p < 0.05) but not in walking test times. Multiple regression analysis revealed the highest R2 (0.28) for the change in chair stands time, followed by stair climb and usual walk at 0.27 and 0.21, respectively. ST improves performance in functional tasks important for ADLs. Changes in strength, power, and FFM are predictors of ST-induced improvements in these tasks. PMID:19910811

  10. Downregulation of FoxC2 Increased Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: Influence of Lymphatic Drainage Function?

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Felix; Potepalov, Sergey; Shehzahdi, Romana; Bernas, Michael; Witte, Marlys; Abreo, Fleurette; Traylor, James; Orr, Wayne A.; Tsunoda, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although inflammation-induced expansion of the intestinal lymphatic vasculature (lymphangiogenesis) is known to be a crucial event in limiting inflammatory processes, through clearance of interstitial fluid and immune cells, considerably less is known about the impact of an impaired lymphatic clearance function (as seen in inflammatory bowel diseases) on this cascade. We aimed to investigate whether the impaired intestinal lymphatic drainage function observed in FoxC2(+/−) mice would influence the course of disease in a model of experimental colitis. Methods: Acute dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in wild-type and haploinsufficient FoxC2(+/−) mice, and survival, disease activity, colonic histopathological injury, neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration were evaluated. Functional and structural changes in the intestinal lymphatic vessel network were analyzed, including submucosal edema, vessel morphology, and lymphatic vessel density. Results: We found that FoxC2 downregulation in FoxC2(+/−) mice significantly increased the severity and susceptibility to experimental colitis, as displayed by lower survival rates, increased disease activity, greater histopathological injury, and elevated colonic neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration. These findings were accompanied by structural (dilated torturous lymphatic vessels) and functional (greater submucosal edema, higher immune cell burden) changes in the intestinal lymphatic vasculature. Conclusions: These results indicate that sufficient lymphatic clearance plays a crucial role in limiting the initiation and perpetuation of experimental colitis and those disturbances in the integrity of the intestinal lymphatic vessel network could intensify intestinal inflammation. Future therapies might be able to exploit these processes to restore and maintain adequate lymphatic clearance function in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25822012

  11. Genetic Influences on Resting-state Functional Networks: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yixiao; Ma, Zhiwei; Hamilton, Christina; Liang, Zhifeng; Hou, Xiao; Ma, Xingshun; Hu, Xiaomei; He, Qian; Deng, Wei; Wang, Yingcheng; Zhao, Liansheng; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Tao; Zhang, Nanyin

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in resting-state networks (RSNs) are often associated with psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Given this critical linkage, it has been hypothesized that RSNs can potentially be used as endophenotypes for brain diseases. To validate this notion, a critical step is to show that RSNs exhibit heritability. However, the investigation of the genetic basis of RSNs has only been attempted in the default-mode network at the region-of-interest level, while the genetic control on other RSNs has not been determined yet. Here we examined the genetic and environmental influences on eight well-characterized RSNs by using a twin design. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 56 pairs of twins were collected. The genetic and environmental effects on each RSN were estimated by fitting the functional connectivity covariance of each voxel in the RSN to the classic ACE twin model. The data showed that although environmental effects accounted for the majority of variance in widespread areas, there were specific brain sites that showed significant genetic control for individual RSNs. These results suggest that part of the human brain functional connectome is shaped by genomic constraints. Importantly, this information can be useful for bridging genetic analysis and network-level assessment of brain disorders. PMID:26147340

  12. The Influence of Functional Fitness and Cognitive Training of Physical Disabilities of Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, I-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Ko-Chia; Hong, Wei-Chin; Lu, Yu-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    According to an investigation done by Taiwan Ministry of the Interior in 2013, there was more than 90% of the disability care institutions mainly based on life care. Previous studies have shown that individuals can effectively improve physical and cognitive training, improved in independent living and everyday competence. The purpose of the study was to investigate influence of the intervention program applying functional fitness and cognitive training to disabled residents in the institution. The subjects were disabled persons of a care institution in southern Taiwan and were randomly divided into training and control groups, both having 17 subjects. The age of the subjects was between 56 and 98 years with a mean age of 79.08 ± 10.04 years; the subjects of training group implemented 12 weeks of training on physical and cognitive training, while the control group subjects did not have any training program. The results revealed that subjects of the training group have significantly improved their functional shoulder rotation flexibility of left and right anterior hip muscle group flexibility of right, sitting functional balance of left and right, naming, attention, delayed recall, orientation, and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA). The study suggested developing physical fitness programs and physical and cognitive prescriptions for the disabled people of the institutions. PMID:25756064

  13. The influence of functional fitness and cognitive training of physical disabilities of institutions.

    PubMed

    Yeh, I-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Ko-Chia; Hong, Wei-Chin; Lu, Yu-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    According to an investigation done by Taiwan Ministry of the Interior in 2013, there was more than 90% of the disability care institutions mainly based on life care. Previous studies have shown that individuals can effectively improve physical and cognitive training, improved in independent living and everyday competence. The purpose of the study was to investigate influence of the intervention program applying functional fitness and cognitive training to disabled residents in the institution. The subjects were disabled persons of a care institution in southern Taiwan and were randomly divided into training and control groups, both having 17 subjects. The age of the subjects was between 56 and 98 years with a mean age of 79.08 ± 10.04 years; the subjects of training group implemented 12 weeks of training on physical and cognitive training, while the control group subjects did not have any training program. The results revealed that subjects of the training group have significantly improved their functional shoulder rotation flexibility of left and right anterior hip muscle group flexibility of right, sitting functional balance of left and right, naming, attention, delayed recall, orientation, and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA). The study suggested developing physical fitness programs and physical and cognitive prescriptions for the disabled people of the institutions. PMID:25756064

  14. Sex Differences in Genetic and Environmental Influences on Longitudinal Change in Functional Ability in Late Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Ernsth-Bravell, Marie; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual and gender differences in aging of functional ability. Method. Twenty assessments of functional ability are collected as part of the longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging from 859 twins aged 50–88 at the first wave. Participants completed up to 6 assessments covering a 19-year period. Factor analysis was used to create 3 factors: flexibility, fine motor skills, and balance. Results. Latent growth curve analysis demonstrated increasing disability and variability after age 70. For flexibility, results indicated significant sex differences in mean change trajectories but no sex differences in components of variance. No sex differences were found for fine motor movement. For balance, there were no sex differences in mean change trajectories; however, there was significant genetic variance for changes in balance in women after age 70 but not for men. Discussion. Although idiosyncratic environmental influences account for a large part of increasing variance, correlated and shared rearing environmental effects were also evident. Thus, both microenvironmental (individual) and macroenvironmental (family and cultural) effects, as well as genetic factors, affect maintenance of functional ability in late adulthood. PMID:24398585

  15. Influence of olfactory bulbectomy on maternal behavior and dopaminergic function in nucleus accumbens in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Tan-No, Koichi; Onogi, Hiroshi; Niijima, Fukie; Tadano, Takeshi

    2010-12-20

    Olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) induces behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations resembling clinical depression and is widely used as an animal model of depression. It has been reported that depression is a critical cause of child abuse and neglect and that maternal behavior involves dopaminergic neurons of the mesolimbic pathway. In a previous study we found that OBX mice show maternal behavior deficits which are improved by administration of apomorphine, a non-selective dopamine agonist. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) on maternal behavior deficits to examine the influence of pre-synaptic dopaminergic function in OBX mice. Furthermore, we measured tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels using microphotometry and quantified dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors using autoradiography in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). As a result, 25mg/kg l-DOPA with 12.5mg/kg benserazide improved disrupted maternal behavior in OBX mice and there are no changes in TH levels or number of D1- and D2-like receptors between sham and OBX mothers. The behavioral data support the hypothesis that changed dopaminergic function may contribute to maternal behavior deficits in OBX mice. However, our findings concerning dopaminergic function suggest that the deficits in OBX mice are not simply due to changes in TH levels or dopamine receptor number in the NAc. PMID:20638419

  16. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) influences androgen receptor (AR) function in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, Paul; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.; Balaji, K.C.

    2008-09-05

    Protein kinase D1 (PKD1), founding member of PKD protein family, is down-regulated in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). We demonstrate that PKD1 and androgen receptor (AR) are present as a protein complex in PCa cells. PKD1 is associated with a transcriptional complex which contains AR and promoter sequence of the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) gene. Ectopic expression of wild type PKD1 and the kinase dead mutant PKD1 (K628W) attenuated the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of AR in prostate cancer cells and yeast cells indicating that PKD1 can affect AR transcription activity, whereas knocking down PKD1 enhanced the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of AR. Co-expression of kinase dead mutant with AR significantly inhibited androgen-mediated cell proliferation in both LNCaP and DU145 PC cells. Our data demonstrate for the first time that PKD1 can influence AR function in PCa cells.

  17. Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: structure, function, and culture (Part II).

    PubMed

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Larrabee, Hollynn; Dyne, Pamela L; Promes, Susan B

    2011-02-01

    Strategies for approaching generational issues that affect teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology in emergency medicine (EM) have been reported. Tactics to address generational influences involving the structure and function of the academic emergency department (ED), organizational culture, and EM schedule have not been published. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic EM. Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can address some common issues encountered in academic EM. By understanding the differences and strengths of each of the cohorts in academic EM departments and considering simple mitigating strategies, faculty leaders can maximize their cooperative effectiveness and face the challenges of a new millennium. PMID:21314780

  18. Biocompatibility of ferroelectric lithium niobate and the influence of polarization charge on osteoblast proliferation and function.

    PubMed

    Carville, N Craig; Collins, Liam; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia; Lukasz, Bart I; McKayed, Katey K; Simpson, Jeremy C; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the influence of substrate surface charge on in vitro osteoblast cell proliferation on ferroelectric lithium niobate (LN) crystal surfaces is investigated. LN has a spontaneous polarization along the z-axis and is thus characterized by positive and negative bound polarization charge at the +z and -z surfaces. Biocompatibility of LN was demonstrated via culturing and fluorescence imaging of MC3T3 osteoblast cells for up to 11 days. The cells showed enhanced proliferation rates and improved osteoblast function through mineral formation on the positively and negatively charged LN surfaces compared to electrostatically neutral x-cut LN and a glass cover slip control. These results highlight the potential of LN as a template for investigating the role of charge on cellular processes. PMID:25504748

  19. Possible scenarios of the influence of low-dose ionizing radiation on neural functioning.

    PubMed

    Zakhvataev, Vladimir E

    2015-12-01

    Possible scenarios of the influence of ionizing radiation on neural functioning and the CNS are suggested. We argue that the radiation-induced bystander mechanisms associated with Ca(2+) flows, reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, and cytokines might lead to modulation of certain neuronal signaling pathways. The considered scenarios of conjugation of the bystander signaling and the neuronal signaling might result in modulation of certain synaptic receptors, neurogenesis, neurotransmission, channel conductance, synaptic signaling, different forms of neural plasticity, memory formation and storage, and learning. On this basis, corresponding new possible strategies for treating neurodegenerative deceases and mental disorders are proposed. The mechanisms considered might also be associated with neuronal survival and relevant to the treatment for brain injuries. At the same time, these mechanisms might be associated with detrimental effects and might facilitate the development of some neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:26526727

  20. Effect of the inflated-pressure to the tool influence function for polishing using SR bonnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunjin; Yang, Xu; Zhong, Bo; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Yinbiao; Xu, Qiao

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the inner pressure to the tool influence function (TIF) for polishing using a semi-rigid (SR) bonnet tool. The simulation model of a Semi-rigid (SR) bonnet polishing tool polishing BK7 is demonstrated and the pressure distribution data under different inflated-pressures in the contact area has been extracted. It's observed that the inflated-pressure has few effects to the polishing pressure, and their shapes are also Gaussian-like. Hence, we made a hypothesis that the effect of inflated-pressure to the TIF is rather small. To verify this hypothesis, a group of experiments to generate TIFs under different inflated-pressure are conducted, and the hypothesis has been proved to be correct through comparing these TIFs.

  1. Flexible system model reduction and control system design based upon actuator and sensor influence functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Yeung; Johnson, Timothy L.; Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    A model reduction technique based on aggregation with respect to sensor and actuator influence functions rather than modes is presented for large systems of coupled second-order differential equations. Perturbation expressions which can predict the effects of spillover on both the reduced-order plant model and the neglected plant model are derived. For the special case of collocated actuators and sensors, these expressions lead to the derivation of constraints on the controller gains that are, given the validity of the perturbation technique, sufficient to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system. A case study demonstrates the derivation of stabilizing controllers based on the present technique. The use of control and observation synthesis in modifying the dimension of the reduced-order plant model is also discussed. A numerical example is provided for illustration.

  2. Modeling and validation of polishing tool influence functions for manufacturing segments for an extremely large telescope.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyu; Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Zhang, Wei

    2013-08-10

    We present a simulation technique to predict tool influence functions (TIFs) based on the Precessions polishing process, which is driven by addressing mass fabrication of the European Extremely Large Telescope mirror segments. Precessions polishing requires accurate and predictable TIFs to optimize the multiple process parameters, particularly when sequential polishing runs are performed by different polishing tools. In this paper, the static and dynamic TIFs are simulated based on the Preston equation. The velocity distribution is calculated according to the geometry of the precession motion. The pressure distribution at the polishing spot is calculated by means of finite element analysis (FEA). The FEA result is validated by direct force measurement with a simulation error of 4.3%. The simulation results of TIFs are verified by an experiment that shows the residual errors are less than 5% for both static and dynamic TIFs. PMID:23938432

  3. The persistent influence of concussion on attention, executive control and neuroelectric function in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Moore, Davis R; Pindus, Dominika M; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Ellemberg, Dave; Hillman, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the influence of pediatric sport-related concussion on brain and cognitive function. To do so, we used a between-participants design, measures of executive control, and event-related potentials (ERPs). The findings demonstrate that children with a history of concussion exhibit behavioral deficits in attention, working memory and impulse control, as well as neuroelectric alterations in ERP indices of visual attention (N1), conflict resolution (N2) and attentional resource allocation (P3). Furthermore, the age at injury related to the magnitude of several concussion-related deficits. Accordingly, a single sports-related concussive incident during childhood (m=2.1years prior to testing) may lead to subtle, yet pervasive alterations in the behavioral and neural indices of attention and executive control, and age at injury may moderate injury outcomes. PMID:26608697

  4. Influence of working side contacts on masticatory function for mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Sueda, S; Fueki, K; Sato, S; Sato, H; Shiozaki, T; Kato, M; Ohyama, T

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of working side contacts for masticatory function for a distal extension removable partial denture. Five subjects who had edentulous arches from second premolar to second molar opposing natural teeth participated. Working side contacts were altered by using three types of artificial teeth attached to the denture base. A-form teeth made contact with opposite teeth while acting as the working side in a lateral excursion. The cusp angles of B- and C-form teeth were decreased by 10 degrees and 20 degrees, respectively compared with A-form teeth. B-and C-form teeth discluded with opposite teeth on the working side. Subjects were asked to perform two kinds of masticatory performance test. Obtained data were evaluated by the repeated-measures anova and the Tukey test for multiple comparisons. Results revealed that there was a significant difference (P=0.001) in the three types of teeth in the mixing ability test and the value of A-form teeth was statistically less value than those of the other teeth. However, there was no significant difference in the comminuting ability test. These results suggested that working side contacts between artificial teeth and opposite natural teeth influenced mixing ability, but not comminuting ability. PMID:12588504

  5. A non-catalytic histidine residue influences the function of the metalloprotease of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Forster, Brian M; Bitar, Alan Pavinski; Marquis, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Mpl, a thermolysin-like metalloprotease, and PC-PLC, a phospholipase C, are synthesized as proenzymes by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. During intracellular growth, L. monocytogenes is temporarily confined in a membrane-bound vacuole whose acidification leads to Mpl autolysis and Mpl-mediated cleavage of the PC-PLC N-terminal propeptide. Mpl maturation also leads to the secretion of both Mpl and PC-PLC across the bacterial cell wall. Previously, we identified negatively charged and uncharged amino acid residues within the N terminus of the PC-PLC propeptide that influence the ability of Mpl to mediate the maturation of PC-PLC, suggesting that these residues promote the interaction of the PC-PLC propeptide with Mpl. In the present study, we identified a non-catalytic histidine residue (H226) that influences Mpl secretion across the cell wall and its ability to process PC-PLC. Our results suggest that a positive charge at position 226 is required for Mpl functions other than autolysis. Based on the charge requirement at this position, we hypothesize that this residue contributes to the interaction of Mpl with the PC-PLC propeptide. PMID:24140648

  6. Lifespan aging and belief reasoning: Influences of executive function and social cue decoding.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Louise H; Bull, Rebecca; Allen, Roy; Insch, Pauline; Burr, Kirsty; Ogg, Will

    2011-08-01

    Older adults often perform poorly on Theory of Mind (ToM) tests that require understanding of others' beliefs and intentions. The course and specificity of age changes in belief reasoning across the adult lifespan is unclear, as is the cause of the age effects. Cognitive and neuropsychological models predict that two types of processing might influence age differences in belief reasoning: executive functioning and social cue detection. In the current study we assessed 129 adults aged between 18 and 86 on novel measures of ToM (video clips and verbal vignettes), which manipulated whether true or false belief reasoning was required. On both video and verbal tasks, older adults (aged 65-88) had specific impairments in false belief reasoning, but showed no such problem in performing true belief tasks. Middle-aged adults (aged 40-64) generally performed as well as the younger adults (aged 18-39). Difficulties in updating information in working memory (but not inhibitory problems) partially mediated the age differences in false belief reasoning. Also, the ability to decode biological motion, indexing social cue detection, partially mediated age-related variance in the ability to interpret false beliefs. These results indicate that age differences in decoding social cues and updating information in memory may be important influences on the specific problems encountered when reasoning about false beliefs in old age. PMID:21624567

  7. Influence of neurotransmitters on sexual differentiation of brain structure and function.

    PubMed

    Döhler, K D; Jarzab, B; Sickmöller, P M; Kokociñska, D; Kaminski, M; Gubala, E; Achtelik, W; Wagiel, J

    1991-01-01

    Newborn rats received daily subcutaneous treatment with compounds which influence serotoninergic, cholinergic, alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic activity. In adulthood luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion pattern, female sexual behavior, and the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic are (SDN-POA) were determined. Postnatal administration of l-tryptophan increased the volume of the SDN-POA significantly when given alone or when given simultaneously with testosterone propionate (TP). Para-chlorophenyl-alanine (pCPA) also increased SDN-POA volume, but did not potentiate the stimulating influence of TP. Clonidine had no effect per se on SDN-POA development, but it significantly potentiated the effect of TP in females. Salbutamol increased SDN-POA volume in females and in males. Postnatal treatment of female rats with the alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists prazosine and yohimbine or with the nicotin receptor antagonist mecamylamine had permanent potentiating effects on the pattern of LH secretion, whereas postnatal treatment with beta-adrenergic compounds reduced the LH-release response to gonadal steroids in adulthood. Postnatal treatment with clonidin or l-tryptophane inhibited differentiation of the capacity for lordosis behavior. Beta-receptor agonists postnatally had a potentiating effect on the capacity for lordosis behavior in female and male rats. Cholinergic stimulation postnatally inhibited differentiation of the capacity for lordosis behavior in female rats, but prevented the inhibitory effect of postnatal androgenization. There was no correlation between SDN-POA volume and any of the two functional parameters. PMID:1685710

  8. Influence of non-invasive X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) on the microbial community structure and function in soil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Doreen; Pagenkemper, Sebastian; Nellesen, Jens; Peth, Stephan; Horn, Rainer; Schloter, Michael

    2013-05-01

    In this study the influence of X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) on the microbial community structure and function in soils has been investigated. Our results clearly indicate that XRCT of soil samples has a strong impact on microbial communities and changes structure and function significantly due to the death of selected microbial groups as a result of the treatment. PMID:23499670

  9. Non-linear controls influence functions in an aircraft dynamics simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Motter, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    In the development and testing of novel structural and controls concepts, such as morphing aircraft wings, appropriate models are needed for proper system characterization. In most instances, available system models do not provide the required additional degrees of freedom for morphing structures but may be modified to some extent to achieve a compatible system. The objective of this study is to apply wind tunnel data collected for an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), that implements trailing edge morphing, to create a non-linear dynamics simulator, using well defined rigid body equations of motion, where the aircraft stability derivatives change with control deflection. An analysis of this wind tunnel data, using data extraction algorithms, was performed to determine the reference aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for the aircraft. Further, non-linear influence functions were obtained for each of the aircraft s control surfaces, including the sixteen trailing edge flap segments. These non-linear controls influence functions are applied to the aircraft dynamics to produce deflection-dependent aircraft stability derivatives in a non-linear dynamics simulator. Time domain analysis of the aircraft motion, trajectory, and state histories can be performed using these nonlinear dynamics and may be visualized using a 3-dimensional aircraft model. Linear system models can be extracted to facilitate frequency domain analysis of the system and for control law development. The results of this study are useful in similar projects where trailing edge morphing is employed and will be instrumental in the University of Maryland s continuing study of active wing load control.

  10. Influence of Functionalization of Nanocontainers on Self-Healing Anticorrosive Coatings.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoliang; Schenderlein, Matthias; Huang, Xing; Brownbill, Nick J; Blanc, Frédéric; Shchukin, Dmitry

    2015-10-21

    Feedback coating based on pH-induced release of inhibitor from organosilyl-functionalized containers is considered as a compelling candidate to achieve smart self-healing corrosion protection. Four key factors that determine the overall coating performance include (1) the uptake and release capacity of containers, (2) prevention of the premature leakage, (3) compatibility of containers in coating matrix, and (4) cost and procedure simplicity consideration. The critical influence introduced by organosilyl-functionalization of containers is systematically demonstrated by investigating MCM-41 silica nanoparticles modified with ethylenediamine (en), en-4-oxobutanoic acid salt (en-COO(-)), and en-triacetate (en-(COO(-))3) with higher and lower organic contents. The properties of the modified silica nanoparticles as containers were mainly characterized by solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, N2 sorption, thermogravimetric analysis, small-angle X-ray scattering, dynamic light scattering, and UV-vis spectroscopy. Finally, the self-healing ability and anticorrosive performances of hybrid coatings were examined through scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We found that en-(COO(-))3-type functionalization with content of only 0.23 mmol/g performed the best as a candidate for establishing pH-induced release system because the resulting capped and loaded (C-L) functionalized silica nanocontainers (FSNs) exhibit high loading (26 wt %) and release (80%) capacities for inhibitor, prevention of premature leakage (less than 2%), good dispersibility in coating matrix, and cost effectiveness. PMID:26393678

  11. MiR-181a influences the cognitive function of epileptic rats induced by pentylenetetrazol

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yiqing; Liu, Xixia; Liao, Yuhan; Luo, Chun; Zou, Donghua; Wei, Xing; Huang, Qi; Wu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that the expression of miR-181a in memory impairment group of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats was up-regulated, but whether miR-181a influenced the cognitive function of PTZ-induced epileptic rats remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the role of miR-181a in the cognitive function of PTZ-induced epileptic rats. A model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was induced via PTZ kindling in SD male rats. The epileptic rats were divided into Epilepsy group, Agomir-control group, miR-181a agomir group, 12 rats for each. 12 rats were used as sham group. We found that compared to the sham group, the expression of miR-181a in the Epilepsy group was increased. We also found that escape latency in the 5th day was prolonged and crossing times in the 6th day was reduced via Morris Water Maze test, which may indicate memory impairment. Furthermore, over-expression of miR-181a effectively reduced Bcl-2 protein level and increased apoptosis in hippocampus. Moreover, compared with Agomir-control group, the escape latency of miR-181a agomir group was obviously induced (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that miR-181a may play a role in impairing the cognitive function of PTZ-induced epileptic rats, and miR-181a could decrease the Bcl-2 protein and induce the apoptosis in the hippocampus that might be the way to impair cognitive function. PMID:26722477

  12. Influence of Ketamine on Early Postoperative Cognitive Function After Orthopedic Surgery in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ki Hwa; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jeong Won; Park, Jang Su; Lee, Kyu Won; Jeon, Sang Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a serious and frequent complication after surgery, especially in elderly patients. Ketamine is an N-methyl D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist with demonstrated neuroprotective effects. An intravenous bolus of a sub-anesthetic dose (0.5 mg/kg) of ketamine can reduce postoperative delirium (POD) and POCD after cardiac surgery. But, the influence of ketamine on early POCD after non-cardiac surgery is unclear. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of ketamine on early postoperative cognitive function after orthopedic surgery in elderly patients. Patients and Methods: Fifty six elderly patients (> 60-years-old), scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery during general anesthesia (duration of anesthesia > two hours) were enrolled. Patients received intravenous bolus, a total of 3 mL mixed with 0.9% normal saline and 0.5 mg/kg ketamine (K group) or 3 mL of 0.9% normal saline (N group). Three neurocognitive function tests (mini-mental status examination, trail-making test, digit substitution test), and c-reactive protein (CRP) concentration were determined before surgery and on postoperative day one (POD 1) and postoperative day six (POD 6). Results: The two groups had similar demographic characteristics except for the gender. Surgical and anesthetic data were not significantly different. A statistically significant difference was observed in comparison of trail-making test score. Trail-making test score increased more in the N group (52.5 points) than the K group (13 points) at POD 1 (P = 0.047) compared with baseline scores. There were no significant differences in the mini-mental status examination, digit substitution test and CRP concentration at POD 1 and POD 6 between the two groups. POCD (the two Z-scores in more than two tests or the combined Z-score was 1.96 or more) was present in one patient (4%) in the K group at POD 6 (P = 0.98). Conclusions: The incidence of POCD was not

  13. Opposite influence of light and blindness on pituitary-gonadal function.

    PubMed

    Bellastella, Antonio; De Bellis, Annamaria; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Esposito, Katherine

    2014-01-13

    Some environmental factors may influence the pituitary-gonadal function. Among these, light plays an important role in animals and in humans. The effect of light on the endocrine system is mediated by the pineal gland, through the modulation of melatonin secretion. In fact, melatonin secretion is stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light, thus its circadian rhythm peaks at night. Light plays a favorable action on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis likely inhibiting melatonin secretion, while the exogenous melatonin administration does not seem to impair the hormonal secretions of this axis. The basal and rhythmic pituitary-gonadal hormone secretions are regulated by a central clock gene and some independent clock genes in the peripheral tissues. Light is able to induce the expression of some of these genes, thus playing an important role in regulating the hormonal secretions of pituitary-gonadal axis and the sexual and reproductive function in animals and humans. The lack of light stimulus in blind subjects induces increase in plasma melatonin concentrations with a free-running rhythm of secretion, which impairs the hormonal secretions of pituitary-gonadal axis, causing disorders of reproductive processes in both sexes. PMID:24454307

  14. Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Diar; Hirata, Kazumasa; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2014-01-23

    In order to overcome the skin's excellent barrier function formulation scientists often employ skin penetration enhancers (SPEs) in topical and transdermal formulations. The effects of these compounds on skin health is still not well understood at the molecular level. The aim of the present work was to probe the effects of some common SPEs on desquamatory protease activity in healthy skin. The SPEs studied were isopropyl myristate (IPM), propylene glycol, (PG), propylene glycol laurate (PGL) and Transcutol™ (TC). Occluded infinite doses of each SPE were applied to human volunteers for 24 h. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements were taken before and after application of SPEs. Tape strips were collected from the treated sites to determine protein content and the activity of two desquamatory proteases kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and kallikrein 7 (KLK7). TEWL values were also measured after tape stripping. PG was found to elevate both TEWL values and KLK7 activity to a significant extent (p<0.05). No significant effects were observed for the other SPEs. The ability of PG to alter the skin barrier at the macroscopic level and the influence of the molecule on protease activity reported here may have implications for its use in topical formulations used for the management of impaired skin barrier function such as atopic eczema or psoriasis. PMID:24063883

  15. Adaptation of β-Cell and Endothelial Function to Carbohydrate Loading: Influence of Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Barry E; Schneiderman, Neil; Marks, Jennifer B; Mendez, Armando J; Gonzalez, Alex; Llabre, Maria M; Smith, Steven R; Bizzotto, Roberto; Santini, Eleonora; Manca, Maria Laura; Skyler, Jay S; Mari, Andrea; Ferrannini, Ele

    2015-07-01

    High-carbohydrate diets have been associated with β-cell strain, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction. We examined how β-cell and endothelial function adapt to carbohydrate overloading and the influence of insulin resistance. On sequential days in randomized order, nondiabetic subjects (classified as insulin-sensitive [IS] [n = 64] or insulin-resistant [IR] [n = 79] by euglycemic clamp) received four mixed meals over 14 h with either standard (300 kcal) or double carbohydrate content. β-Cell function was reconstructed by mathematical modeling; brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured before and after each meal. Compared with IS, IR subjects showed higher glycemia and insulin hypersecretion due to greater β-cell glucose and rate sensitivity; potentiation of insulin secretion, however, was impaired. Circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) were less suppressed in IR than IS subjects. Baseline FMD was reduced in IR, and postprandial FMD attenuation occurred after each meal, particularly with high carbohydrate, similarly in IR and IS. Throughout the two study days, higher FFA levels were significantly associated with lower (incretin-induced) potentiation and impaired FMD. In nondiabetic individuals, enhanced glucose sensitivity and potentiation upregulate the insulin secretory response to carbohydrate overloading. With insulin resistance, this adaptation is impaired. Defective suppression of endogenous FFA is one common link between impaired potentiation and vascular endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25754957

  16. Influence of socioeconomic status on lung function and prediction equations in Indian children.

    PubMed

    Raju, P Sitarama; Prasad, K V V; Ramana, Y Venkata; Balakrishna, N; Murthy, K J R

    2005-06-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on lung functions and to suggest prediction equations for Indian children. For this purpose, 2,616 normal, healthy schoolchildren aged between 5-15 years were recruited. Boys were classified into three groups, i.e., high-income (HIG), middle-income (MIG), and low-income (LIG), while girls were classified into HIG and LIG groups, based on socioeconomic status (SES). Height, weight, chest circumference, body surface area (BSA), fat-free mass (FFM), and body fat were assessed. Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured. The results, before and after adjustment of physical characteristics, showed that anthropometry, body composition, and lung functions were significantly higher in HIG compared to MIG and LIG children, while in girls, no differences were observed in physical characteristics after adjustments. Multiple linear regression equations were developed to predict FEV1, FVC, and PEFR, using independent variables like age, height, fat-free mass, and SES. It is opined that these equations could be used as Indian reference equations for healthy children based on the SES. PMID:15789442

  17. Do Demographics and Functional Abilities Influence Vehicle Type Driven by Older Canadians?

    PubMed

    Vrkljan, Brenda; Crizzle, Alexander; Villeneuve, Simon; Porter, Michelle; Koppel, Sjaan; Mazer, Barbara L; Naglie, Gary; Bédard, Michel; Tuokko, Holly A; Gélinas, Isabelle; Marshall, Shawn C; Rapoport, Mark J

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we examined the Candrive baseline data (n = 928; aged 70 to 94; 62% were men) to determine whether driver characteristics (i.e., age, gender, height, weight, BMI) and certain functional abilities (i.e., Rapid Paced Walk, Timed Up and Go) influenced the types of vehicles driven. There were significant differences with respect to type of vehicle and mean driver age (F = 3.58, p = 0.003), height, (F = 13.32, p < 0.001), weight (F = 14.31, p < 0.001), and BMI (F = 4.40, p = 0.001). A greater proportion of drivers with osteoporosis (χ2 = 21.23, p = 0.020) and osteo/rheumatoid arthritis (χ2 = 21.23, p = 0.020) drove small and medium-sized cars compared to larger ones. Further research is needed to examine older driver-vehicle interactions, and the relationship to demographics and functional abilities, given the vulnerability of this age group to automotive-related injuries. PMID:27062937

  18. Genetic Variation in Functional Traits Influences Arthropod Community Composition in Aspen (Populus tremula L.)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Kathryn M.; Ingvarsson, Pär K.; Jansson, Stefan; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores. PMID:22662190

  19. Influence of psychological intervention on pain and immune functions of patients receiving lung cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinying; Cui, Limin; Wang, Wei; Su, Quanzhi; Li, Xiuzhi; Wu, Junben

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influence of psychological intervention on pain, immune system and adrenocortical functions of patients receiving lung cancer surgery. Methods: We selected 124 patients who received surgery for treating stage I or II lung cancer and divided into experimental group and control group. The experimental group received comprehensive psychological intervention while the control group was given conventional nursing intervention. Pain of patients in two groups was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS). Before and after intervention, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ and free cortisol level in serum were measured. Moreover, QLQ-C30, a life quality measurement scale developed by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) was used. Results: Compared to control group, VAS of patients in experimental group remarkably decreased before anesthesia, 6 hour, 12 hour 24 hour and 48 hour after surgery (P<0.05), and moreover, OLQ-C30 score and various factor scores (except physical symptoms) in experimental group were much higher (P<0.05). No statistical significant difference was found in immune index between two groups before intervention (P>0.05). Differences of CD3+ and CD4+ before and after intervention were both statistically significant (P<0.05), so did free cortisol level (P<0.05). Conclusion: Comprehensive psychological intervention can effectively relieve pain, improve immune functions and enhance quality of life for patients suffering from lung cancer surgery. PMID:27022366

  20. Influence of functional groups on organic aerosol cloud condensation nucleus activity.

    PubMed

    Suda, Sarah R; Petters, Markus D; Yeh, Geoffrey K; Strollo, Christen; Matsunaga, Aiko; Faulhaber, Annelise; Ziemann, Paul J; Prenni, Anthony J; Carrico, Christian M; Sullivan, Ryan C; Kreidenweis, Sonia M

    2014-09-01

    Organic aerosols in the atmosphere are composed of a wide variety of species, reflecting the multitude of sources and growth processes of these particles. Especially challenging is predicting how these particles act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Previous studies have characterized the CCN efficiency for organic compounds in terms of a hygroscopicity parameter, κ. Here we extend these studies by systematically testing the influence of the number and location of molecular functional groups on the hygroscopicity of organic aerosols. Organic compounds synthesized via gas-phase and liquid-phase reactions were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with scanning flow CCN analysis and thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometry. These experiments quantified changes in κ with the addition of one or more functional groups to otherwise similar molecules. The increase in κ per group decreased in the following order: hydroxyl ≫ carboxyl > hydroperoxide > nitrate ≫ methylene (where nitrate and methylene produced negative effects, and hydroperoxide and nitrate groups produced the smallest absolute effects). Our results contribute to a mechanistic understanding of chemical aging and will help guide input and parametrization choices in models relying on simplified treatments such as the atomic oxygen:carbon ratio to predict the evolution of organic aerosol hygroscopicity. PMID:25118824

  1. Adaptation of β-Cell and Endothelial Function to Carbohydrate Loading: Influence of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Barry E.; Schneiderman, Neil; Marks, Jennifer B.; Mendez, Armando J.; Gonzalez, Alex; Llabre, Maria M.; Smith, Steven R.; Bizzotto, Roberto; Santini, Eleonora; Manca, Maria Laura; Skyler, Jay S.; Mari, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    High-carbohydrate diets have been associated with β-cell strain, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction. We examined how β-cell and endothelial function adapt to carbohydrate overloading and the influence of insulin resistance. On sequential days in randomized order, nondiabetic subjects (classified as insulin-sensitive [IS] [n = 64] or insulin-resistant [IR] [n = 79] by euglycemic clamp) received four mixed meals over 14 h with either standard (300 kcal) or double carbohydrate content. β-Cell function was reconstructed by mathematical modeling; brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured before and after each meal. Compared with IS, IR subjects showed higher glycemia and insulin hypersecretion due to greater β-cell glucose and rate sensitivity; potentiation of insulin secretion, however, was impaired. Circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) were less suppressed in IR than IS subjects. Baseline FMD was reduced in IR, and postprandial FMD attenuation occurred after each meal, particularly with high carbohydrate, similarly in IR and IS. Throughout the two study days, higher FFA levels were significantly associated with lower (incretin-induced) potentiation and impaired FMD. In nondiabetic individuals, enhanced glucose sensitivity and potentiation upregulate the insulin secretory response to carbohydrate overloading. With insulin resistance, this adaptation is impaired. Defective suppression of endogenous FFA is one common link between impaired potentiation and vascular endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25754957

  2. Envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: profound influences on immune functions.

    PubMed Central

    Chirmule, N; Pahwa, S

    1996-01-01

    Infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) leads to progressive destruction of the CD4+ T-cell subset, resulting in immune deficiency and AIDS. The specific binding of the viral external envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, gp120, to the CD4 molecules initiates viral entry. In the past few years, several studies have indicated that the interaction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with cells and molecules of the immune system leads to pleiotropic biological effects on immune functions, which include effects on differentiation of CD34+ lymphoid progenitor cells and thymocytes, aberrant activation and cytokine secretion patterns of mature T cells, induction of apoptosis, B-cell hyperactivity, inhibition of T-cell dependent B-cell differentiation, modulation of macrophage functions, interactions with components of complement, and effects on neuronal cells. The amino acid sequence homologies of the envelope glycoproteins with several cellular proteins have suggested that molecular mimicry may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. This review summarizes work done by several investigators demonstrating the profound biological effects of envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 on immune system cells. Extensive studies have also been done on interactions of the viral envelope proteins with components of the immune system which may be important for eliciting a "protective immune response." Understanding the influences of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins on the immune system may provide valuable insights into HIV-1 disease pathogenesis and carries implications for the trials of HIV-1 envelope protein vaccines and immunotherapeutics. PMID:8801439

  3. Subconscious olfactory influences of stimulant and relaxant odors on immune function.

    PubMed

    Trellakis, Sokratis; Fischer, Cornelia; Rydleuskaya, Alena; Tagay, Sefik; Bruderek, Kirsten; Greve, Jens; Lang, Stephan; Brandau, Sven

    2012-08-01

    Brain and immune system are linked by bidirectional pathways so that changes of the central nervous system may influence various immune functions. The olfactory system may be involved in this interaction. In most odor studies subjects are aware of an odor exposure, using frequently high odor concentrations or long-term exposures without controls. In this pilot study, the potential immune effects of short-term odor exposure were examined in 32 blinded subjects (16 male, 16 female). Subjects were exposed without their knowledge either to a stimulant essential oil (grapefruit, fennel, pepper), a no-odor control or a relaxant essential oil (lavender, patchouli, rose) during a set of psychological questionnaires for 30 min at three separate visits. Activity of neutrophil granulocytes (CXCL8 release, CD16) and peripheral blood concentrations of mainly neutrophil-related immunological markers were measured. We tested the triple of stimulant odor, control and relaxant odor for every subject in a model which assumed opposite effects of the stimulant and the relaxant odor. This hypothesis was falsified by our experimental data, as no significant effect was observed for the parameters tested. The human immune functions tested in our study are not modulated by short-term odor exposure in blinded subjects. Further studies should directly dissect possible differences between long-term and short-term exposures of non-blinded subjects versus blinded subjects. PMID:22159968

  4. Influence of Physical Activity and Nutrition on Obesity-Related Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Zourdos, Michael C.; Jo, Edward; Ormsbee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Research examining immune function during obesity suggests that excessive adiposity is linked to impaired immune responses leading to pathology. The deleterious effects of obesity on immunity have been associated with the systemic proinflammatory profile generated by the secretory molecules derived from adipose cells. These include inflammatory peptides, such as TNF-α, CRP, and IL-6. Consequently, obesity is now characterized as a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, a condition considerably linked to the development of comorbidity. Given the critical role of adipose tissue in the inflammatory process, especially in obese individuals, it becomes an important clinical objective to identify lifestyle factors that may affect the obesity-immune system relationship. For instance, stress, physical activity, and nutrition have each shown to be a significant lifestyle factor influencing the inflammatory profile associated with the state of obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to comprehensively evaluate the impact of lifestyle factors, in particular psychological stress, physical activity, and nutrition, on obesity-related immune function with specific focus on inflammation. PMID:24324381

  5. Influence of the scattering phase function in numerical modeling of hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2016-03-01

    In simulations of light transport in biological tissues and organs knowledge of tissue optical properties is imperative for realism of the predicted effects. One factor which is commonly overlooked is the choice of appropriate scattering phase function. Henyey-Greenstein phase function (PF) is often applied due to its suitability for analytical derivations and availability of the corresponding tissue anisotropy factors. At the same time it is known that it doesn't match the angular distribution of scattering in many tissues. In here, we study the influence of the PF in 3D Monte Carlo simulations of hyperspectral imaging (HSI). For a simple geometrical (three-layered) model of skin and a discrete blood vessel, hyperspectral images in the 400-1000 nm spectral range were simulated using Henyey-Greenstein, modified Henyey-Greenstein, and Mie PF, respectively. The results are compared in the spatial and spectral domains. In addition, the effective tissue properties as determined from the simulated HSI using 1D inverse MC are compared with the input parameter values. The results show that the choice of PF assumed in light transport models has a substantial impact on simulated HSI. Using an inappropriate PF can result in significantly altered HSI and considerable artifacts in extracted values of the skin parameters.

  6. Influence of aging over 10 years on auditory and vestibular functions in three patients with auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takeshi; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2011-05-01

    The influence of aging on hearing and vestibular function in patients with auditory neuropathy has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate how hearing and vestibular function in this disease change with aging. The subjects were three female patients with auditory neuropathy. We checked their hearing and vestibular function by speech discrimination tests, ABR, ECochG, DPOAE, caloric test, damped-rotational chair test, and VEMPs. In all three patients, speech discrimination ability and vestibular function markedly declined with aging. However, speech language understanding and higher brain function were less affected by aging. PMID:21198343

  7. Structural and functional influences of coagulation factor XIII subunit B heterozygous missense mutants

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anne; Biswas, Arijit; Ivaskevicius, Vytautas; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The coagulation factor XIII(FXIII) is a plasma circulating heterotetrameric protransglutaminase that acts at the end of the coagulation cascade by covalently cross-linking preformed fibrin clots (to themselves and to fibrinolytic inhibitors) in order to stabilize them against fibrinolysis. It circulates in the plasma as a heterotetramer composed of two homomeric catalytic Factor XIIIA2 (FXIIIA2) and two homomeric protective/carrier Factor XIIIB2 subunit (FXIIIB2). Congenital deficiency of FXIII is of two types: severe homozygous/compound heterozygous FXIII deficiency which results in severe bleeding symptoms and mild heterozygous FXIII deficiency which is associated with mild bleeding (only upon trauma) or an asymptomatic phenotype. Defects in the F13B gene (Factor XIIIB subunit) occur more frequently in mild FXIII deficiency patients than in severe FXIII deficiency. We had recently reported secretion-related defects for seven previously reported F13B missense mutations. In the present study we further analyze the underlying molecular pathological mechanisms as well as the heterozygous expression phenotype for these mutations using a combination of in vitro heterologous expression (in HEK293T cells) and confocal microscopy. In combination with the in vitro work we have also performed an in silico solvated molecular dynamic simulation study on previously reported FXIIIB subunit sushi domain homology models in order to predict the putative structure-functional impact of these mutations. We were able to categorize the mutations into the following functional groups that: (1) affect antigenic stability as well as binding to FXIIIA subunit, that is, Cys5Arg, Cys316Phe, and Pro428Ser (2) affect binding to FXIIIA subunit with little or no influence on antigenic stability, that is, Ile81Asn and Val401Gln c) influence neither aspects and are most likely causality linked polymorphisms or functional polymorphisms, that is, Leu116Phe and Val217Ile. The Cys5Arg mutation was the

  8. Structural and functional influences of coagulation factor XIII subunit B heterozygous missense mutants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Anne; Biswas, Arijit; Ivaskevicius, Vytautas; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2015-07-01

    The coagulation factor XIII(FXIII) is a plasma circulating heterotetrameric protransglutaminase that acts at the end of the coagulation cascade by covalently cross-linking preformed fibrin clots (to themselves and to fibrinolytic inhibitors) in order to stabilize them against fibrinolysis. It circulates in the plasma as a heterotetramer composed of two homomeric catalytic Factor XIIIA2 (FXIIIA2) and two homomeric protective/carrier Factor XIIIB2 subunit (FXIIIB2). Congenital deficiency of FXIII is of two types: severe homozygous/compound heterozygous FXIII deficiency which results in severe bleeding symptoms and mild heterozygous FXIII deficiency which is associated with mild bleeding (only upon trauma) or an asymptomatic phenotype. Defects in the F13B gene (Factor XIIIB subunit) occur more frequently in mild FXIII deficiency patients than in severe FXIII deficiency. We had recently reported secretion-related defects for seven previously reported F13B missense mutations. In the present study we further analyze the underlying molecular pathological mechanisms as well as the heterozygous expression phenotype for these mutations using a combination of in vitro heterologous expression (in HEK293T cells) and confocal microscopy. In combination with the in vitro work we have also performed an in silico solvated molecular dynamic simulation study on previously reported FXIIIB subunit sushi domain homology models in order to predict the putative structure-functional impact of these mutations. We were able to categorize the mutations into the following functional groups that: (1) affect antigenic stability as well as binding to FXIIIA subunit, that is, Cys5Arg, Cys316Phe, and Pro428Ser (2) affect binding to FXIIIA subunit with little or no influence on antigenic stability, that is, Ile81Asn and Val401Gln c) influence neither aspects and are most likely causality linked polymorphisms or functional polymorphisms, that is, Leu116Phe and Val217Ile. The Cys5Arg mutation was the

  9. Control channels in the brain and their influence on brain executive functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinglei; Choa, Fow-Sen; Hong, Elliot; Wang, Zhiguang; Islam, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    In a computer network there are distinct data channels and control channels where massive amount of visual information are transported through data channels but the information streams are routed and controlled by intelligent algorithm through "control channels". Recent studies on cognition and consciousness have shown that the brain control channels are closely related to the brainwave beta (14-40 Hz) and alpha (7-13 Hz) oscillations. The high-beta wave is used by brain to synchronize local neural activities and the alpha oscillation is for desynchronization. When two sensory inputs are simultaneously presented to a person, the high-beta is used to select one of the inputs and the alpha is used to deselect the other so that only one input will get the attention. In this work we demonstrated that we can scan a person's brain using binaural beats technique and identify the individual's preferred control channels. The identified control channels can then be used to influence the subject's brain executive functions. In the experiment, an EEG measurement system was used to record and identify a subject's control channels. After these channels were identified, the subject was asked to do Stroop tests. Binaural beats was again used to produce these control-channel frequencies on the subject's brain when we recorded the completion time of each test. We found that the high-beta signal indeed speeded up the subject's executive function performance and reduced the time to complete incongruent tests, while the alpha signal didn't seem to be able to slow down the executive function performance.

  10. Elucidating X Chromosome Influences on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Green, Tamar; Shrestha, Sharon Bade; Chromik, Lindsay C.; Rutledge, Keetan; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hong, David S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify distinct behavioral and cognitive profiles associated with ADHD in Turner syndrome (TS), relative to idiopathic ADHD and neurotypical controls, in order to elucidate X-linked influences contributing to ADHD. Methods We used a multilevel-model approach to compare 49 girls with TS to 37 neurotypical females, aged 5–12, on established measures of behavior (BASC-2) and neurocognitive function (NEPSY). We further compared girls with TS to BASC-2 and NEPSY age-matched reference data obtained from children with idiopathic ADHD. Results Within the TS group, 51% scored at or above the “at-risk” range for ADHD-associated behaviors on the BASC-2 (TS/+ADHD). The BASC-2 behavioral profile in this TS/+ADHD-subgroup was comparable to a reference group of boys with ADHD with respect to attentional problems and hyperactivity. However, the TS/+ADHD-subgroup had significantly higher hyperactivity scores relative to a reference sample of girls with ADHD (p=0.016). The behavioral profile in TS was associated with significantly lower attention and executive function scores on the NEPSY relative to neurotypical controls (p=0.015); but was comparable to scores from a reference sample of children with idiopathic ADHD. Deficits in attention and executive function were not observed in girls with TS having low levels of ADHD-associated behavior (TS/−ADHD). Conclusions ADHD-associated behavioral and cognitive problems in TS are prevalent and comparable in severity to those found in children with idiopathic ADHD. The ADHD phenotype in TS also appears relatively independent of cognitive features typically associated with TS, like visuospatial weaknesses. These findings suggest that X-linked haploinsufficiency and downstream biological effects contribute to increased risk for ADHD. PMID:26228422

  11. Influence of preemptive analgesia on pulmonary function and complications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Şen, Meral; Özol, Duygu; Bozer, Mikdat

    2009-12-01

    Pain and diaphragmatic dysfunction are the major reasons for postoperative pulmonary complications after upper abdominal surgery. Preoperative administration of analgesics helps to reduce and prevent pain. The objective of this study was first to research the rate of pulmonary complications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and then analyze the influence of preemptive analgesia on pulmonary functions and complications. Seventy patients scheduled for elective LC were included in our double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study. Randomly, 35 patients received 1 g etofenamate (group 1) and 35 patients 0.9% saline (group 2) intramuscularly 1 h before surgery. All patients underwent physical examination, chest radiography, lung function tests, and pulse oxygen saturation measurements 2 h before surgery and postoperatively on day 2. Atelectasis was graded as micro, focal, segmental, or lobar. With preemptive analgesia, the need for postoperative analgesia decreased significantly in group 1. In both groups mean spirometric values were reduced significantly after the operation, but the difference and proportional change according to preoperative recordings were found to be similar [29.5 vs. 31.3% reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and 32.9 vs. 33.5% reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) for groups 1 and 2, respectively]. There was an insignificant drop in oxygen saturation rates for both groups. The overall incidence of atelectasia was similar for group 1 and 2 (30.2 vs. 29.2%). Although the degree of atelectesia was found to be more severe in the placebo group, the difference was not statistically significant. We concluded that although preemptive analgesia decreased the need for postoperative analgesia, this had no effect on pulmonary functions and pulmonary complications. PMID:19117121

  12. [Research on Cardiac Structure and Function in the Overweight and Obese population and Influence Factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmei; Han, Lina; Huang, He; Yu, Yerong; Li, Jiangbo; Liu, Xiaoqin

    2016-02-01

    In this study we performed Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI), two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D- STI) and three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STI) on enrolled healthy, overweight and obese groups (34 subjects in each group), respectively, to analyze cardiac structure and its function. Compared with healthy group, global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), global area strain(GAS) and global radial strain (GRS) decreased progressively (P < 0.05). The ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to global early diastolic strain rate of left ventricle (E/e'sr) (r = 0.466, P < 0.001), GLS (r = 0.502, P < 0. 001), GCS (r = 0.426, P < 0.001), GAS (r = 0.535, P < 0.001) and GRS (r = -0.554, P < 0.001) were correlated with body mass index (BMI). E/e'sr (r = 0.37, P = 0.003), GLS (r = 0.455, P < 0.001), GCS (r = 0.282, P = 0.02), GAS (r = 0.412, P < 0.001) and GRS (r = -0.471, P < 0.001) were correlated with free fatty acid (FFA). Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that BMI was independently correlated with E/e'sr, GLS, GCS, GAS and GRS. Waist to hip ratio (WHR) was independently correlated with GLS, GCS, GAS and GRS. FFA was independently correlated with E/e'sr (P < 0.05). The study showed that cardiac structure changed and impaired left ventricular global systolic and diastolic function in overweight and obes population. Moreover, BMI, WHR and FFA may be independent influence factors of cardiac function in overweight and obese population. PMID:27382752

  13. [The influence of playing the clarinet on the dentomaxillofacial morphology and function].

    PubMed

    Ogino, H

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to understand the influence of playing the clarinet on the dentomaxillofacial morphology and function. The 12 subjects, selected at random (all adults, 4 men and 8 women) had played the clarinet for more than 10 years. The subjects had anamnesis, oral photo pictures, facial photo pictures, cast model, lateral cephalograms (lateral cephalo) and frontal cephalograms (frontal cephalo) taken when they were in centric occlusion and playing the clarinet. The results were as follows: 1. The facial profile and occlusal relation depend on the subjects. (2 mandibular retrognathism. 4 prognathism and 6 crowding.) 2. No characteristic skeletal pattern was found compared with controls in angle measurement but subjects had a tendency to have large facial height in linear measurement of lateral cephalo. And in denture pattern the lower incisors were linguoclination. 3. Concerning the lateral cephalo, we noticed that the angle of the clarinet in relation to the body axis increased in accordance with the prognathism and decreased with the retrognathism. 4. The subjects don't have identical midline, comparing lower midline to dentofacial midline, when playing, the angle of clarinet to the body was eccentric according to maxillary incisors in frontal cephalo. 5. Anterial and posterial length was short in mandibular arch, analyzing the cast model. 6. The pressure on mouthpiece increased in accordance with the prognathism and decreased with retrognathism. 7. The results of the EMG analysis indicated that the muscle activity of oral sphincter was described as 1). upper lip, 2). lower lip, 3). commisure of lips and differences were found depending on the parts being studied and the sound played on the clarinet. In conclusion, the skeletal and denture problem influence the holding position of the clarinet, embouchure and the way of playing it. In case of mandibular prognathism, when playing, the subjects pressed on their teeth with the clarinet. So B

  14. Factors influencing older black women’s sexual functioning and their disclosure of sexual concerns

    PubMed Central

    White, T; Laganá, L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The study of older women’s sexual health has been very limited. Most of the available research in this area is on Caucasian older women; a few studies have targeted the sexuality of older Black women. There could be several reasons for this and for the common reluctance of these women to disclose information on their sexual health. The aim of this review was to discuss factors influencing older black women’s sexual functioning and their disclosure of sexual concerns. Discussion In this article, we first briefly reviewed the literature on sexual health among older women, then covered historical and social issues that are likely to influence older Black women’s sexuality as well as their common reluctance to disclose intimate details of their lives to their health providers. This information could be important for researchers as well as healthcare professionals. Specific groups of clinicians potentially interested in this discussion are sexual health professionals, couples’ counsellors as well as other professionals attempting to address older patients’ problems such as relationship, intimacy and sex challenges. Without knowledge of critical issues such as the potentially traumatizing historical events and the multiple societal pressures that are likely to impact these women’s sexuality and disclosure of sexual concerns, it would be difficult for researchers and clinicians to get an accurate account of older Black women’s sexual needs. Conclusion Older Black women’s sexuality is a very delicate and complex topic. We encourage interested professionals to make an effort to become more aware of what is potentially holding back older Black women from disclosing their sexual concerns to them, and have provided some historical information and research suggestions to guide professionals interested in investigating older African American women’s sexuality in a more tactful and culturally-sensitive way. PMID:25598985

  15. Environmental conditions and biotic interactions influence ecosystem structure and function in a drying stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlam, J.P.; Magoulick, D.D.

    2010-01-01

    Benthic consumers influence stream ecosystem structure and function, but these interactions depend on environmental context. We experimentally quantified the effects of central stoneroller minnows (Campostoma anomalum (Rafinesque) and Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki meeki (Faxon)) on benthic communities using electric exclusion quadrats in Little Mulberry Creek before (June) and during (August) seasonal stream drying. Unglazed ceramic tiles were deployed in June and August to measure periphyton and invertebrate abundance, and leafpack decomposition and primary production were also measured in August. Relationships between stoneroller and crayfish density and the size of consumer effects were evaluated with multiple linear regression models. Average chlorophyll a abundance was greater on exposed than exclusion tiles in August, but not in June. Sediment dry mass, periphyton ash-free dry mass (AFDM), and chironomid densities on tiles did not differ among treatments in either period. Leaf packs decayed faster in exposed than exclusion treatments (kexposed = 0.038 ?? 0.013, kexclusion = 0.007 ?? 0.002), but consumer effects were stronger in some pools than others. Leafpack invertebrate biomass and abundance and tile primary productivity did not differ among treatments. Consumer effects on chlorophyll a were related to crayfish and stoneroller density, and effects on chironomid density were related to stoneroller density. These results contrast with a previous exclusion experiment in Little Mulberry Creek that demonstrated strong consumer effects. The influence of stream drying on consumer effects appears to have been reduced by strong spates, underscoring the importance of conducting multi-year studies to determine the magnitude of variability in ecological interactions. ?? US Government: USGS 2010.

  16. Life Experience and Demographic Influences on Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Paul W. H.; Melrose, Rebecca J.; Marquine, María J.; Johnson, Julene K.; Napoles, Anna; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Farias, Sarah; Reed, Bruce; Mungas, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the influence of a broad spectrum of life experiences on longitudinal cognitive trajectories in a demographically diverse sample of older adults. Method Participants were 333 educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. Mixed-effects regression was used to measure baseline status in episodic memory, executive functioning, and semantic memory and change in a global cognition factor defined by change in these three domain-specific measures. We examined effects of life experience variables (literacy, childhood socioeconomic status, morphometric measures of physical development, life course physical and recreational activity) on longitudinal cognitive trajectories, covarying for age, APOE genotype and demographics (education, ethnicity, language). Results Non-Latino whites had higher baseline cognition, but life experience variables attenuated ethnic differences in cognitive scores. Age, literacy, childhood socioeconomic status and physical activity significantly influenced baseline cognition. Age, APOE ε4 and decline in intellectually and socially stimulating recreational activity from mid to late life were independently associated with increased late life cognitive decline. Higher literacy and late life recreational activity were associated with less decline. Literacy had similar effects for English and Spanish readers/speakers. Bilingual English and Spanish speakers did not differ from English Speakers in cognitive performance. Conclusions Life experience variables, especially literacy level, were strongly related to baseline cognition and substantially attenuated effects of race/ethnicity and education. Cognitive change was best explained by age, APOE ε4, literacy, and current recreational activities. Literacy had robust associations with baseline cognition and cognitive change in both English and Spanish speakers. PMID:24933483

  17. The influence of CCD pixel binning option to its modulation transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasibov, A.; Kholmatov, A.; Nasibov, H.; Hacizade, F.

    2010-05-01

    In recent years CCD manufacturers have been supplying their devices with multi-purpose abilities to manipulate the CCD's readout pattern, where one of these versatile options is a flexible pixel binning option. The pixel binning is a process of combining multiple pixel charges in horizontal, vertical or in both directions simultaneously, into a single charge. The binning process positively influences to the signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity and frame rate at the cost of decreasing spatial resolution, which, in its turn, negatively influences to the spatial frequency response of the imaging system (i.e. to the output image quality). The modulation transfer function (MTF) is an essential measure for characterizing the spatial-frequency response of the array imaging system. In this work we have performed a theoretical and experimental investigation of the MTF of CCD array in the context of the pixel binning option. We have derived a generalized equation of the geometrical MTF for the v x h binning mode, where v and h denote the numbers of binned pixels in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. The MTF measurements were performed using a method, based on the generation of laser speckle and utilizing the high resolution (1360×1024) monochrome CCD array. The MTF of normal mode, 2×1-horizontal, 1×2 - vertical, and 2x2 quadratic binning modes were measured by employing single-slit aperture method. CCD binning is widely used in spectroscopy, astronomy, in many image processing applications, such as autofocus, object tracking, etc. The results of this work can be useful for designing optical systems, involving CCD pixel binning option.

  18. Preprocessing strategy influences graph-based exploration of altered functional networks in major depression.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, Viola; Lord, Anton Richard; Li, Meng; van der Meer, Johan; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Bogerts, Bernhard; Breakspear, Michael; Walter, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Resting-state fMRI studies have gained widespread use in exploratory studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. Graph metrics derived from whole brain functional connectivity studies have been used to reveal disease-related variations in many neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression (MDD). These techniques show promise in developing diagnostics for these often difficult to identify disorders. However, the analysis of resting-state datasets is increasingly beset by a myriad of approaches and methods, each with underlying assumptions. Choosing the most appropriate preprocessing parameters a priori is difficult. Nevertheless, the specific methodological choice influences graph-theoretical network topologies as well as regional metrics. The aim of this study was to systematically compare different preprocessing strategies by evaluating their influence on group differences between healthy participants (HC) and depressive patients. We thus investigated the effects of common preprocessing variants, including global mean-signal regression (GMR), temporal filtering, detrending, and network sparsity on group differences between brain networks of HC and MDD patients measured by global and nodal graph theoretical metrics. Occurrence of group differences in global metrics was absent in the majority of tested preprocessing variants, but in local graph metrics it is sparse, variable, and highly dependent on the combination of preprocessing variant and sparsity threshold. Sparsity thresholds between 16 and 22% were shown to have the greatest potential to reveal differences between HC and MDD patients in global and local network metrics. Our study offers an overview of consequences of methodological decisions and which neurobiological characteristics of MDD they implicate, adding further caution to this rapidly growing field. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1422-1442, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26888761

  19. Responsive culture platform to examine the influence of microenvironmental geometry on cell function in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Kloxin, April M.; Lewis, Katherine J. R.; DeForest, Cole A.; Seedorf, Gregory; Tibbitt, Mark W.; Balasubramaniam, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development of a well-based cell culture platform that enables experimenters to control the geometry and connectivity of cellular microenvironments spatiotemporally. The base material is a hydrogel comprised of photolabile and enzyme-labile crosslinks and pendant cell adhesion sequences, enabling spatially-specific, in situ patterning with light and cell-dictated microenvironment remodeling through enzyme secretion. Arrays of culture wells of varying shape and size were patterned into the hydrogel surface using photolithography, where well depth was correlated with irradiation dose. The geometry of these devices can be subsequently modified through sequential patterning, while simultaneously monitoring changes in cell geometry and connectivity. Towards establishing the utility of these devices for dynamic evaluation of the influence of physical cues on tissue morphogenesis, the effect of well shape on lung epithelial cell differentiation (i.e., primary mouse alveolar type II cells, ATII cells) was assessed. Shapes inspired by alveoli were degraded into hydrogel surfaces. ATII cells were seeded within the well-based arrays and encapsulated by the addition of a top hydrogel layer. Cell differentiation in response to these geometries was characterized over 7 days of culture with immunocytochemistry (surfactant protein C, ATII; T1α protein, alveolar type I (ATI) differentiated epithelial cells) and confocal image analysis. Individual cell clusters were further connected by eroding channels between wells during culture via controlled two-photon irradiation. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the development and utility of responsive hydrogel culture devices to study how a range of microenvironment geometries of evolving shape and connectivity might influence or direct cell function. PMID:23138879

  20. Preserved local but disrupted contextual figure-ground influences in an individual with abnormal function of intermediate visual areas

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Joseph L.; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Rees, Geraint; Bentin, Shlomo; Driver, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception depends not only on local stimulus features but also on their relationship to the surrounding stimulus context, as evident in both local and contextual influences on figure-ground segmentation. Intermediate visual areas may play a role in such contextual influences, as we tested here by examining LG, a rare case of developmental visual agnosia. LG has no evident abnormality of brain structure and functional neuroimaging showed relatively normal V1 function, but his intermediate visual areas (V2/V3) function abnormally. We found that contextual influences on figure-ground organization were selectively disrupted in LG, while local sources of figure-ground influences were preserved. Effects of object knowledge and familiarity on figure-ground organization were also significantly diminished. Our results suggest that the mechanisms mediating contextual and familiarity influences on figure-ground organization are dissociable from those mediating local influences on figure-ground assignment. The disruption of contextual processing in intermediate visual areas may play a role in the substantial object recognition difficulties experienced by LG. PMID:22947116

  1. Applying local Green's functions to study the influence of the crustal structure on hydrological loading displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Robert; Klemann, Volker

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the elastic Earth properties on seasonal or shorter periodic surface mass loads due to atmospheric surface pressure and terrestrial water storage variations is usually modeled by applying a local isostatic model like a homogeneous half-space model, or by a one dimensional spherical Earth model like PREM from which a unique set of elastic load Love numbers, or alternatively, elastic Green's functions are derived. The drawbacks of these strategies are that, in the first case, the response according to the local Earth structure is valid only if load and observer almost coincide, or that, in the second case, only the response of an average Earth structure is considered. However, for surface loads with horizontal scales less than 2500 km2, as for instance, for strong localized hydrological signals associated with heavy precipitation events and river floods, the Earth elastic response becomes very sensitive to inhomogeneities in the Earth crustal structure. We derive a set of local Green's functions defined for every global 1°× 1° gridcell for the 3-layer crustal structure TEA12. Local Green's functions show standard deviations of ±12% in the vertical and ±21% in the horizontal directions for distances in the range from 0.1° to 0.5°. The application of local Green's functions introduces a variability of 0.5 - 1.0 mm into the hydrological loading displacements, both in vertical and in horizontal directions. Maximum changes due to the local crustal structures are from -25% to +26% in the vertical and -91% to +55% in the horizontal displacements. In addition, the horizontal displacement changes its direction significantly, even to the opposite. The modeling of a site-dependent crustal response to surface loads provides an alternative way to probe the density and elastic structure of the Earth's crust and mantle by means of observed surface deformations caused by mass re-distributions. In addition, realistic loading models allow the monitoring of mass

  2. Independent and Interactive Influences of the APOE Genotype and Beta-Amyloid Burden on Cognitive Function in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the independent and interactive influences of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and beta-amyloid (Aβ) on multiple cognitive domains in a large group of cognitively normal (CN) individuals and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Participants were included if clinical and cognitive assessments, amyloid imaging, and APOE genotype were all available from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database (CN = 324, MCI = 502, AD = 182). Individuals with one or two copies of ε4 were designated as APOE ε4 carriers (ε4+); individuals with no ε4 were designated as APOE ε4 non-carriers (ε4−). Based on mean florbetapir standard uptake value ratios, participants were classified as Aβ burden-positive (Aβ+) or Aβ burden-negative (Aβ−). In MCI, APOE ε4 effects were predominantly observed on frontal executive function, with ε4+ participants exhibiting poorer performances; Aβ positivity had no influence on this effect. Aβ effects were observed on global cognition, memory, and visuospatial ability, with Aβ+ participants exhibiting poorer performances. Measures of frontal executive function were not influenced by Aβ. Interactive effects of APOE ε4+ and Aβ were observed on global cognition and verbal recognition memory. Aβ, not APOE ε4+, influenced clinical severity and functional status. The influences of APOE ε4+ and Aβ on cognitive function were minimal in CN and AD. In conclusion, we provide further evidence of both independent and interactive influences of APOE ε4+ and Aβ on cognitive function in MCI, with APOE ε4+ and Aβ showing dissociable effects on executive and non-executive functions, respectively. PMID:26839485

  3. Influence of Temple Headache Frequency on Physical Functioning and Emotional Functioning in Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorder Pain

    PubMed Central

    List, Thomas; John, Mike T.; Ohrbach, Richard; Schiffman, Eric L.; Truelove, Edmond L.; Anderson, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship of headache frequency with patient-reported physical functioning and emotional functioning in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) subjects with concurrent temple headache. Methods The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Validation Project identified, as a subset of 614 TMD cases and 91 controls (n = 705), 309 subjects with concurrent TMD pain diagnoses (RDC/TMD) and temple headache. The temple headaches were subdivided into infrequent, frequent, and chronic headache according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD–II). Study variables included self-report measures of physical functioning (Jaw Function Limitation Scale [JFLS], Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS], Short Form–12 [SF–12]) and emotional functioning (depression and anxiety as measured by the Symptom Checklist–90R/SCL–90R). Differences among the three headache subgroups were characterized by increasing headache frequency. The relationship between ordered headache frequency and physical as well as emotional functioning was analyzed using linear regression and trend tests for proportions. Results Physical functioning, as assessed with the JFLS (P < .001), SF-12 (P < .001), and GCPS (P < .001), was significantly associated with increased headache frequency. Emotional functioning, reflected in depression and anxiety, was also associated with increased frequency of headache (both P < .001). Conclusion Headache frequency was substantially correlated with reduced physical functioning and emotional functioning in subjects with TMD and concurrent temple headaches. A secondary finding was that headache was precipitated by jaw activities more often in subjects with more frequent temple headaches. PMID:22558607

  4. Influence of Parasite Load on Renal Function in Mice Acutely Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Parreira, Ricardo Cambraia; Miguel, Renata Botelho; de Paula Rogerio, Alexandre; Oliveira, Carlo Jose Freire; Chica, Javier Emilio Lazo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite the vast number of studies evaluating the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease, the influence of parasite burden on kidney lesions remains unclear. Thus, the main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of T. cruzi infection on renal function and determine whether there was a correlation between parasite load and renal injury using an acute experimental model of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Low, medium and high parasite loads were generated by infecting C57BL/6 mice with 300 (low), 3,000 (medium) or 30,000 (high) numbers of “Y” strain trypomastigotes. We found that mice infected with T. cruzi trypomastigotes show increased renal injury. The infection resulted in reduced urinary excretion and creatinine clearance. We also observed a marked elevation in the ratio of urine volume to kidney and body weight, blood urea nitrogen, chloride ion, nitric oxide, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the number of leukocytes in the blood and/or renal tissues of infected mice. Additionally, we observed the presence of the parasite in the cortical/medullary and peri-renal region, an increase of inflammatory infiltrate and of vascular permeability of the kidney. Overall, most renal changes occurred mainly in animals infected with high parasitic loads. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate that T. cruzi impairs kidney function, and this impairment is more evident in mice infected with high parasitic loads. Moreover, these data suggest that, in addition to the extensively studied cardiovascular effects, renal injury should be regarded as an important indicator for better understanding the pan-infectivity of the parasite and consequently for understanding the disease in experimental models. PMID:23951243

  5. DEFINING THE PLAYERS IN HIGHER-ORDER NETWORKS: PREDICTIVE MODELING FOR REVERSE ENGINEERING FUNCTIONAL INFLUENCE NETWORKS

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Jason E.; Costa, Michelle N.; Stevens, S.L.; Stenzel-Poore, Mary; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-01-20

    A difficult problem that is currently growing rapidly due to the sharp increase in the amount of high-throughput data available for many systems is that of determining useful and informative causative influence networks. These networks can be used to predict behavior given observation of a small number of components, predict behavior at a future time point, or identify components that are critical to the functioning of the system under particular conditions. In these endeavors incorporating observations of systems from a wide variety of viewpoints can be particularly beneficial, but has often been undertaken with the objective of inferring networks that are generally applicable. The focus of the current work is to integrate both general observations and measurements taken for a particular pathology, that of ischemic stroke, to provide improved ability to produce useful predictions of systems behavior. A number of hybrid approaches have recently been proposed for network generation in which the Gene Ontology is used to filter or enrich network links inferred from gene expression data through reverse engineering methods. These approaches have been shown to improve the biological plausibility of the inferred relationships determined, but still treat knowledge-based and machine-learning inferences as incommensurable inputs. In this paper, we explore how further improvements may be achieved through a full integration of network inference insights achieved through application of the Gene Ontology and reverse engineering methods with specific reference to the construction of dynamic models of transcriptional regulatory networks. We show that integrating two approaches to network construction, one based on reverse-engineering from conditional transcriptional data, one based on reverse-engineering from in situ hybridization data, and another based on functional associations derived from Gene Ontology, using probabilities can improve results of clustering as evaluated by a

  6. Compensating for velocity truncation during subaperture polishing by controllable and time-variant tool influence functions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhichao; Cheng, Haobo; Tam, Hon-Yuen

    2015-02-10

    The velocity-varying regime used in deterministic subaperture polishing employs a time-invariant tool influence function (TIF) to figure localized surface errors by varying the transverse velocities of polishing tools. Desired transverse velocities have to be truncated if they exceed the maximal velocity of computer numerical control (CNC) machines, which induces excessive material removal and reduces figuring efficiency (FE). A time-variant (TV) TIF regime is presented, in which a TIF serves as a variable to compensate for excessive material removal when the transverse velocities are truncated. Compared with other methods, the TV-TIF regime exhibits better performance in terms of convergence rate, FE, and versatility; its operability can also be strengthened by a TIF library. Comparative experiments were conducted on a magnetorheological finishing machine to validate the effectiveness of the TV-TIF regime. Without a TV-TIF, the tool made an unwished dent (depth of 76 nm) at the center because of the velocity truncation problem. Through compensation with a TV-TIF, the dent was completely removed by the second figuring process, and a TV-TIF improved the FE from 0.029 to 0.066  mm(3)/h. PMID:25968037

  7. Influence of the acute alcoholism on the phagocytic function of the mononuclear phagocytic system

    PubMed Central

    Sabino, KR; Petroianu, A; Alberti, LR

    2011-01-01

    Rationale:Alcoholics are more likely to have infections, mainly in the respiratory system. Alcohol seems to inhibit the immune system. Despite the extensive literature related to alcoholism, data related to the immune system are still not conclusive. Objective: The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of acute alcohol intake on colloid distribution in the organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Methods and Results: Thirteen male Swiss mice were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 5) – control, and Group 2 (n = 8) – animals that received 0.5 ml ethanol 50%, 30 minutes before the experiment. Colloidal sulphur labeled with ⁸⁸mTc was used to evaluate colloid distribution in the liver, spleen and lungs. Colloid clearance was assessed as well. A gamma camera was used to measure the radioactivity of these organs and of a blood clot. No difference was found in the presence of colloid in the organs of both groups. The liver showed the highest phagocytic intake, followed by the spleen and lungs (p = 0.021 for Group 1 and p = 0.003 for Group 2). A minimum amount of radiation remained in the blood of both groups. Discussion: According to the experiential conditions of this work, acute ingestion of alcohol did not interfere with the phagocytic function of the mononuclear phagocyte system in mice. PMID:22514578

  8. Longitudinal relationships of executive cognitive function and parent influence to child substance use and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2013-06-01

    Considered a set of neuro-cognitive skills, executive cognitive function (ECF) may serve to protect children from initiating substance use, although its role relative to other protective influences that parents and physical activity might provide is not known. As part of a large multiple health risk behavior trial for prevention of substance use and obesity, Pathways, the present study evaluated the relative impact of ECF on lifetime substance use (tobacco and alcohol) and physical activity in a panel of fourth grade children over a 6-month period (N = 1005; 51 % female; 25 % on free/reduced lunch; 60 % Hispanic/Latino or multi-racial; 28 elementary schools). A self-report survey included measures of ECF, lifetime tobacco and alcohol use, out-of-school physical activity, exercising with parents, and parent rules about food/sedentary behavior, monitoring, and arguing, was adapted for use with children. A path analysis demonstrated that ECF was the major predictor of lower substance use and higher physical activity and exercising with parents. Physical activity and exercising with parents showed reciprocal positive relationships. Findings suggest that promoting ECF skills should be a major focus of child health promotion and substance use prevention programs, although the potential protective effects of physical activity and exercise with parents on substance use in this young age group are not yet clear. PMID:23345012

  9. Influence of particle size on bioprocess induced changes on technological functionality of wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Kärki, Ilona; Nordlund, Emilia; Heiniö, Raija-Liisa; Poutanen, Kaisa; Katina, Kati

    2014-02-01

    Wheat bran is nutritionally an important source of dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals, but its negative influence on dough rheology, texture and sensory quality of bread limits its use in bread baking. The current study aimed at improving the technological functionality of bran by bioprocessing Wheat bran of different particle size (750, 400, 160, 50 μm) was fermented 8 h or 24 h with Lactobacillus brevis E95612 and Kazachstania exigua C81116 with or without addition of enzyme mixture with various carbohydrase activities. Kinetics of growth and acidification showed that the growth of the starters was enhanced in the presence of enzymes in bran having particle size of 160 and 50 μm. Fermentation was critical to improve dough stability and volume of bran enriched breads, whereas addition of enzymes had the most significant effect in improving bread shelf-life. Wheat bread containing 160 μm bran fermented 8 h with enzymes had mild flavour, the highest volume and shelf-life. Reduction of particle size increased perceived smoothness of mouthfeel but provided darker colour in bran-containing breads. The short 8 h bioprocessing, with or without enzymes did not increase pungent flavour or bitter aftertaste in comparison with the native bran. PMID:24230475

  10. Endogenous fatty acids in olfactory hairs influence pheromone binding protein structure and function in Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Nardella, Jason; Terrado, Mailyn; Honson, Nicolette S; Plettner, Erika

    2015-08-01

    The gypsy moth utilizes a pheromone, (7R,8S)-2-methyl-7,8-epoxyoctadecane, for mate location. The pheromone is detected by sensory hairs (sensilla) on the antennae of adult males. Sensilla contain the dendrites of olfactory neurons bathed in lymph, which contains pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). We have extracted and identified free fatty acids from lymph of sensory hairs, and we demonstrate that these function as endogenous ligands for gypsy moth PBP1 and PBP2. Homology modeling of both PBPs, and docking of fatty acids reveal multiple binding sites: one internal, the others external. Pheromone binding assays suggest that these fatty acids increase PBP-pheromone binding affinity. We show that fatty acid binding causes an increase in α-helix content in the N-terminal domain, but not in the C-terminal peptide of both proteins. The C-terminal peptide was shown to form a α-helix in a hydrophobic, homogeneous environment, but not in the presence of fatty acid micelles. Through partition assays we show that the fatty acids prevent adsorption of the pheromone on hydrophobic surfaces and facilitate pheromone partition into an aqueous phase. We propose that lymph is an emulsion of fatty acids and PBP that influence each other and thereby control the partition equilibria of hydrophobic odorants. PMID:26032337

  11. Influence of voxelization on finite difference time domain simulations of head-related transfer functions.

    PubMed

    Prepeliță, Sebastian; Geronazzo, Michele; Avanzini, Federico; Savioja, Lauri

    2016-05-01

    The scattering around the human pinna that is captured by the Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) is a complex problem that creates uncertainties in both acoustical measurements and simulations. Within the simulation framework of Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) with axis-aligned staircase boundaries resulting from a voxelization process, the voxelization-based uncertainty propagating in the HRTF-captured sound field is quantified for one solid and two surface voxelization algorithms. Simulated results utilizing a laser-scanned mesh of Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research (KEMAR) show that in the context of complex geometries with local topology comparable to grid spacing such as the human pinna, the voxelization-related uncertainties in simulations emerge at lower frequencies than the generally used accuracy bandwidths. Numerical simulations show that the voxelization process induces both random error and algorithm-dependent bias in the simulated HRTF spectral features. Frequencies fr below which the random error is bounded by various dB thresholds are estimated and predicted. Particular shortcomings of the used voxelization algorithms are identified and the influence of the surface impedance on the induced errors is studied. Simulations are also validated against measurements. PMID:27250145

  12. Microbe-associated immunomodulatory metabolites: Influence on T cell fate and function.

    PubMed

    Castro, C N; Freitag, J; Berod, L; Lochner, M; Sparwasser, T

    2015-12-01

    During the past two decades, a growing interest surrounding the interaction between microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and pattern recognition receptors has occurred. This attention is now driven alongside bacterial-derived metabolites, which impact immune cell differentiation and function. Hence, this review introduces the term meta-MAMP as a means to classify the microbial derived-metabolites, which influence the immune response by affecting specific cellular processes. We discuss two prominent examples of meta-MAMPs: the first, rapamycin (isolated from Streptomyces), was discovered in the 1970s and since then has been thoroughly studied. The second, soraphen A (isolated from Myxobacteria), was discovered in the early 1990s but only recently identified as a promising immunomodulator. Both meta-MAMPs are similar in their remarkable capacity to modulate T cell fate by targeting key metabolic pathways triggered upon T cell activation. In this context, we highlight the progress made in the field of immunometabolism and the possibility of modulating metabolic pathways such as cellular fatty acid metabolism as a strategy for immunomodulation. We focus on the use of microbial metabolites as auspicious agents for T cell fate modulation. PMID:26320629

  13. Chronic functional ethanol tolerance in mice influenced by body temperature during acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Alkana, R.L.; Bejanian, M.; Syapin, P.J.; Finn, D.A.

    1987-07-27

    Previous studies have found that body temperature during intoxication influences brain sensitivity to ethanol with the sensitivity being less at cool than at warm body temperatures. If this effect of temperature reflects alterations in the acute membrane perturbing action of ethanol, as suggested by in vitro studies, then body temperature reduction during tolerance acquisition should reduce the effectiveness of a given ethanol concentration and, in turn, should reduce the development of chronic functional ethanol tolerance. To test this hypothesis, adult drug-naive C57BL/6J mice were injected i.p. once daily for five days with 3.6 g/kg ethanol and were exposed to 34C or 25C for five hours following injection. On day 6, both ethanol acquisition groups and naive mice were injected i.p. with 4.0 g/kg ethanol and exposed to 25C. During acquisition, the group exposed to 34C had significantly higher body temperatures than the mice exposed to 25C, and there were no statistically significant differences in blood ethanol concentrations between treatment conditions. The extent of tolerance on day 6 was significantly greater in the 34C acquisition group than in the 25C acquisition group. 31 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  14. Edge control in CNC polishing, paper 2: simulation and validation of tool influence functions on edges.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyu; Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Sayle, Andrew; Messelink, Wilhelmus; Evans, Rob; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2013-01-14

    Edge mis-figure is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for manufacturing the segments of extremely large telescopes, which can dominate key aspects of performance. A novel edge-control technique has been developed, based on 'Precessions' polishing technique and for which accurate and stable edge tool influence functions (TIFs) are crucial. In the first paper in this series [D. Walker Opt. Express 20, 19787-19798 (2012)], multiple parameters were experimentally optimized using an extended set of experiments. The first purpose of this new work is to 'short circuit' this procedure through modeling. This also gives the prospect of optimizing local (as distinct from global) polishing for edge mis-figure, now under separate development. This paper presents a model that can predict edge TIFs based on surface-speed profiles and pressure distributions over the polishing spot at the edge of the part, the latter calculated by finite element analysis and verified by direct force measurement. This paper also presents a hybrid-measurement method for edge TIFs to verify the simulation results. Experimental and simulation results show good agreement. PMID:23388930

  15. The lysine biosynthetic enzyme Lys4 influences iron metabolism, mitochondrial function and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Do, Eunsoo; Park, Minji; Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Kronstad, James W; Jung, Won Hee

    2016-09-01

    The lysine biosynthesis pathway via α-aminoadipate in fungi is considered an attractive target for antifungal drugs due to its absence in mammalian hosts. The iron-sulfur cluster-containing enzyme homoaconitase converts homocitrate to homoisocitrate in the lysine biosynthetic pathway, and is encoded by LYS4 in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we identified the ortholog of LYS4 in the human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, and found that LYS4 expression is regulated by iron levels and by the iron-related transcription factors Hap3 and HapX. Deletion of the LYS4 gene resulted in lysine auxotrophy suggesting that Lys4 is essential for lysine biosynthesis. Our study also revealed that lysine uptake was mediated by two amino acid permeases, Aap2 and Aap3, and influenced by nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). Furthermore, the lys4 mutant showed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, agents that challenge cell wall/membrane integrity, and azole antifungal drugs. We showed that these phenotypes were due in part to impaired mitochondrial function as a result of LYS4 deletion, which we propose disrupts iron homeostasis in the organelle. The combination of defects are consistent with our observation that the lys4 mutant was attenuated virulence in a mouse inhalation model of cryptococcosis. PMID:27353379

  16. Protein deubiquitination during oocyte maturation influences sperm function during fertilisation, antipolyspermy defense and embryo development.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Miriam; Song, Won-Hee; Sutovsky, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Ubiquitination is a covalent post-translational modification of proteins by the chaperone protein ubiquitin. Upon docking to the 26S proteasome, ubiquitin is released from the substrate protein by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). We hypothesised that specific inhibitors of two closely related oocyte DUBs, namely inhibitors of the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCH) UCHL1 (L1 inhibitor) and UCHL3 (L3 inhibitor), would alter porcine oocyte maturation and influence sperm function and embryo development. Aberrant cortical granule (CG) migration and meiotic spindle defects were observed in oocytes matured with the L1 or L3 inhibitor. Embryo development was delayed or blocked in oocytes matured with the general DUB inhibitor PR-619. Aggresomes, the cellular stress-inducible aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins, formed in oocytes matured with L1 inhibitor or PR-619, a likely consequence of impaired protein turnover. Proteomic analysis identified the major vault protein (MVP) as the most prominent protein accumulated in oocytes matured with PR-619, suggesting that the inhibition of deubiquitination altered the turnover of MVP. The mitophagy/autophagy of sperm-contributed mitochondria inside the fertilised oocytes was hindered by DUB inhibitors. It is concluded that DUB inhibitors alter porcine oocyte maturation, fertilisation and preimplantation embryo development. By regulating the turnover of oocyte proteins and mono-ubiquitin regeneration, the DUBs may promote the acquisition of developmental competence during oocyte maturation. PMID:24848520

  17. Influence of motor imagination on cortical activation during functional electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Clare; Osuagwu, Bethel A.; Vuckovic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Motor imagination (MI) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) can activate the sensory-motor cortex through efferent and afferent pathways respectively. Motor imagination can be used as a control strategy to activate FES through a brain–computer interface as the part of a rehabilitation therapy. It is believed that precise timing between the onset of MI and FES is important for strengthening the cortico-spinal pathways but it is not known whether prolonged MI during FES influences cortical response. Methods Electroencephalogram was measured in ten able-bodied participants using MI strategy to control FES through a BCI system. Event related synchronisation/desynchronisation (ERS/ERD) over the sensory-motor cortex was analysed and compared in three paradigms: MI before FES, MI before and during FES and FES alone activated automatically. Results MI practiced both before and during FES produced strongest ERD. When MI only preceded FES it resulted in a weaker beta ERD during FES than when FES was activated automatically. Following termination of FES, beta ERD returns to the baseline level within 0.5 s while alpha ERD took longer than 1 s. Conclusions When MI and FES are combined for rehabilitation purposes it is recommended that MI is practiced throughout FES activation period. Significance The study is relevant for neurorehabilitation of movement. PMID:25454278

  18. Influence of blood supply, thermal and mechanical traumata on hearing function in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Braun, V; Richter, H P

    1996-01-01

    Even with modern neurosurgical techniques preservation of functional hearing in acoustic neurinoma surgery is still impossible in a large number of cases. Due to the necessity of averaging the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) this monitoring is not a real time measurement. Therefore the surgeon cannot be sure which manipulation during the tumour dissection has caused the loss of the BAEPs. The direct monitoring of the cochlear nerve (CNAP) may warn the surgeon earlier. But it is not able to explain, which manipulation has caused the worsening of the potentials. A loss of the waves after coagulation of a vessel next to the cochlear nerve may be the result of the heat or of the disturbance of the blood supply. Potentially harmful to cochlear nerve function may be the interruption of inner ear blood supply, thermal or mechanical traumata. Experimental studies are rare to nonexistent. We therefore tested selectively each trauma for its influence on the BAEPs in an animal model. In New Zealand rabbits a lateral craniectomy of the posterior fossa was performed. Care was taken not to retract the cerebellum or to open the inner ear system, because both factors might disturb the BAEPs. Each step of the operation was followed by BAEP recording. After reaching the internal auditory canal, the cerebellopontine angle of 6 animals was exposed to heated water with definitive increasing temperature. The BAEPs did not react significantly until 71 degrees C was reached and protein coagulation started. In the second group, the internal auditory artery of 6 rabbits was compressed with a microdissector for 3 minutes. Subsequently the BAEPs disappeared in all animals. In the last group a constant pressure of 10 g was applied to 6 cochlear nerves for 1 minute consistently causing the loss of the BAEPs. The results are statistically significant (p = 0.03). We therefore concluded that the blood supply of the inner ear is of the upmost importance for cochlear nerve function

  19. Influence of emphysema distribution on pulmonary function parameters in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Helder Novais e; Neves, Inês; Redondo, Margarida; Cunha, Rui; Pereira, José Miguel; Magalhães, Adriana; Fernandes, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact that the distribution of emphysema has on clinical and functional severity in patients with COPD. METHODS: The distribution of the emphysema was analyzed in COPD patients, who were classified according to a 5-point visual classification system of lung CT findings. We assessed the influence of emphysema distribution type on the clinical and functional presentation of COPD. We also evaluated hypoxemia after the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and determined the six-minute walk distance (6MWD). RESULTS: Eighty-six patients were included. The mean age was 65.2 ± 12.2 years, 91.9% were male, and all but one were smokers (mean smoking history, 62.7 ± 38.4 pack-years). The emphysema distribution was categorized as obviously upper lung-predominant (type 1), in 36.0% of the patients; slightly upper lung-predominant (type 2), in 25.6%; homogeneous between the upper and lower lung (type 3), in 16.3%; and slightly lower lung-predominant (type 4), in 22.1%. Type 2 emphysema distribution was associated with lower FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and DLCO. In comparison with the type 1 patients, the type 4 patients were more likely to have an FEV1 < 65% of the predicted value (OR = 6.91, 95% CI: 1.43-33.45; p = 0.016), a 6MWD < 350 m (OR = 6.36, 95% CI: 1.26-32.18; p = 0.025), and post-6MWT hypoxemia (OR = 32.66, 95% CI: 3.26-326.84; p = 0.003). The type 3 patients had a higher RV/TLC ratio, although the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COPD appears to be greater in type 4 patients, and type 3 patients tend to have greater hyperinflation. The distribution of emphysema could have a major impact on functional parameters and should be considered in the evaluation of COPD patients. PMID:26785956

  20. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Brorson, Marianne Møller; Boas, Malene; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Lindström, Emma Sofie; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Frisch, Thomas; Main, Katharina M.; Bendtzen, Klaus; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)) on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg) secretion from the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor) by any of the investigated diesters could be demonstrated. All phthalate diesters were metabolised to the respective monoester, however with a fall in efficiency for high concentrations of the larger diesters DnBP and DEHP. In conclusion, human thyroid cells were able to metabolise phthalates but this phthalate-exposure did not appear to substantially influence selected functions of these cells. PMID:26985823

  1. Responses to Forces Influencing Cohesion as a Function of Player Status and Level of Male Varsity Basketball Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Joseph J.; Gray, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    A study analyzed team cohesion perceptions of 515 male varsity basketball players (10 to 22 years of age) to determine if factors influencing team cohesion were a function of competitive intensity or of the importance of individual players to their team. Players with the most game playing time were more satisfied than those with less playing time.…

  2. Molecular Recognition and Structural Influences on Function in Bio-nanosystems of Nucleic Acids and Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda

    duplexes alone interacted with cations distinct from a specific sequence. Under physiologically relevant conditions, a duplex of RNA polyguanine-polycitidine was highly responsive and able to sequester cations to the middle of the purine stretches. The least responsive structure was a DNA polyadenine-polythymine duplex. A random sequence DNA duplex contorted into an RNA-like helix resulted in cationic dynamics similar to RNA systems. These studies showed that cation diffusive binding events in nucleic acid duplex structures are sequence specific and heavily influenced by structural aspects helical forms to account for much of the differences observed. Although structural information in nucleic acids is encoded within their sequence, linking amino acid sequence to protein structure is murkier; the structural information within proteins is encoded by the folding process itself: a complex phenomenon driven toward the equilibrium state of the active conformation. Upwards of two thirds of a protein's sequence can be substituted with similar amino acids without significantly perturbing its function; conserved residues of about 10% seem to be vital; since evolutionary selection pressure in proteins operates 3-dimenionally, a linear sequence is partially informative. We explored this problem by folding de-novo the cytosolic portion of the membrane protein, cellulose synthase, CESA1 from upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Ghcesa1). The cytoplasmic region was generated by homology modeling and refined with molecular dynamics. These mutations impair local structural flexibility which likely results in cellulose that is produced at a lower rate and is less crystalline. Additional modeling of fragments of cellulose synthases from the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, offered novel insights into the function of conserved cytosolic domains within plant cellulose synthases. Transport mechanisms related to the transmembrane region revealed significant differences between plants and a

  3. Menstrual cycle influence on cognitive function and emotion processing—from a reproductive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Gingnell, Malin

    2014-01-01

    The menstrual cycle has attracted research interest ever since the 1930s. For many researchers the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. Over the past years methodological improvements in menstrual cycle studies have been noted, and this review summarizes the findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies in healthy women. Whereas the predominant hypotheses of the cognitive field state that sexually dimorphic cognitive skills that favor men are improved during menstrual cycle phases with low estrogen and that cognitive skills that favor women are improved during cycle phases with increased estrogen and/or progesterone, this review has not found sufficient evidence to support any of these hypotheses. Mental rotation has gained specific interest in this aspect, but a meta-analysis yielded a standardized mean difference in error rate of 1.61 (95% CI −0.35 to 3.57), suggesting, at present, no favor of an early follicular phase improvement in mental rotation performance. Besides the sexually dimorphic cognitive skills, studies exploring menstrual cycle effects on tasks that probe prefrontal cortex function, for instance verbal or spatial working memory, have also been reviewed. While studies thus far are few, results at hand suggest improved performance at times of high estradiol levels. Menstrual cycle studies on emotional processing, on the other hand, tap into the emotional disorders of the luteal phase, and may be of relevance for women with premenstrual disorders. Although evidence at present is limited, it is suggested that emotion recognition, consolidation of emotional memories, and fear extinction is modulated by the menstrual cycle in women. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, several studies report changes in brain reactivity across the menstrual cycle, most notably increased amygdala reactivity in the luteal phase. Thus, to the extent that behavioral changes

  4. The influence of zinc status and malnutrition on immunological function in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Ainley, C; Cason, J; Slavin, B M; Wolstencroft, R A; Thompson, R P

    1991-06-01

    Cellular immunity is likely to be important in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease; whether it is abnormal is not clear. The heterogeneity of patients with Crohn's disease probably underlies the disparity of reports, but attempts to determine which clinical features influence cellular immunity have been largely unsuccessful. This is probably caused by the omission of nutritional status as a potential factor, even though zinc deficiency has frequently been linked with abnormal immunity. Therefore, a detailed study of nutritional and tissue zinc status, nonspecific cellular immunity, and a measure of phagocytic function was performed in 32 patients with Crohn's disease and in a control group of 18 normal subjects and 12 patients with anorexia nervosa. Fourteen patients with Crohn's disease, all patients with anorexia nervosa, but none of the normal controls were malnourished. Peripheral blood lymphocyte population levels were normal in patients with Crohn's disease and in normal controls, but there was a small decrease in the levels of patients with anorexia nervosa. In vivo delayed hypersensitivity skin test responses were profoundly depressed in patients with anorexia nervosa and decreased in patients with Crohn's disease who were malnourished or receiving systemic glucocorticoids. In vitro lymphocyte transformation was reduced in malnourished patients with Crohn's disease, but there were only minor changes in patients with anorexia nervosa. There were alterations of in vitro immunoregulation in Crohn's disease, but they were not responsible for the abnormal lymphocyte transformation responses in malnourished patients. In vitro phagocytic function was reduced in patients with active Crohn's disease. These findings suggest that depressed in vivo and in vitro cellular immunity in malnourished patients with Crohn's disease is caused by a qualitative lymphocyte defect and that depressed in vivo but normal in vitro cellular immunity in anorexia nervosa is caused by a

  5. The Influence of Ecological Isolation on the Structural and Functional Stability of Complex Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, R. B.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.

    2005-01-01

    To help understand how the behavior of microorganisms and microbial communities in insular space habitats may differ from the behavior of these groups on Earth, long-term incubations (100+ days) were conducting using wastewater bioreactors (batch fed) designed to mimic "closed" and "open" ecological systems. The issue of immigration was considered, and the goal of the research was to determine whether the stability of microbial communities in space is reduced due to their prolonged isolation. Bioreactors were established by inoculating flasks of sterile synthetic wastewater with the microbial community obtained from a local treatment facility; each day, one-third of the medium in the flask was replaced with an equal volume of sterile artificial wastewater. Flasks were divided into two treatments: "closed" and "open" to recruitment of additional microorganisms. "Closed" flasks were maintained as described above, while the medium used to feed the "open" flasks was supplemented daily with a small amount of raw sewage (which provided a continuous source of new potential community members). Significant differences in microbial community structure and function developed in the two sets of communities, and the results suggest that the open community was more stable and better able to adjust to changing environmental conditions. Each community's resistance to environmental (temperature fluctuations) and biological stresses (starvation and invasion by an opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was monitored. Experiments were also conducted to determine whether the effect of isolation changes depending on the microbial communities' initial diversity or composition; communities with a low(er) initial diversity were less stable. Overall, the results indicate that isolation will be an important factor influencing the activity of microbial communities on board spacecraft. A possible way of mitigating these effects would be to include communities with high initial

  6. Bim polymorphisms: influence on function and response to treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Vincent; Rousseau, Julie; Labuda, Malgorzata; Sharif-Askari, Bahram; Brukner, Ivan; Laverdière, Caroline; Ceppi, Francesco; Sallan, Stephen E.; Silverman, Lewis B.; Neuberg, Donna; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Sinnett, Daniel; Krajinovic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Corticosteroids (CS) induce apoptosis in the malignant lymphoid cells and are critical component of combination therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Several genome-wide microarray studies demonstrated major implication of proapoptotic Bim in mediating CS-related resistance in leukemia cells. Experimental design We investigated Bim gene polymorphisms and their association with childhood ALL outcome, and the mechanism underlying the observed finding. Results Lower overall survival (OS) was associated with Bim C29201T located in BH3 domain (p=0.01). An association remained significant in multivariate model (p=0.007), was more apparent in high risk (HR) patients (p=0.004) and patients treated with dexamethasone (p=0.009), and was subsequently confirmed in the replication patient cohort (p=0.03). RNA analysis revealed that C29201T affects generation of gamma isoforms (gamma1) that lack pro-apoptotic BH3 domain. The phenotypic effect was minor suggesting the influence of additional factors that may act in conjunction with Bim genotype. Combined analysis with Mcl gene polymorphism (G -486T) revealed profound reduction in OS in individuals with both risk genotypes (p<0.0005 in discovery and p=0.002 in replication cohort) and particularly in HR patients (p≤0.008). Conclusions Increased expression of pro-survival Mcl1 and presence of Bim isoforms lacking pro-apoptotic function might explain marked reduction of OS in a disease and dose dependent manner in ALL patients carrying Bim and Mcl1 risk genotypes. PMID:23908358

  7. Influence of different length spacers containing enzyme conjugate on functional parameters of progesterone ELISA.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K; Kariya, Kiran P; Prasad, Pramod K V; Kumar, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    In steroid enzyme immunoassay (EIA), there is an increase or decrease of labeled steroid recognition by antibody due to homologous and heterologous combinations of enzyme conjugate with immunogen that affects sensitivity of the assay. We have introduced three to 18 atomic length linkers between enzyme and steroid moieties and studied their effects on functional parameters such as sensitivity, ED(50), and specificity of progesterone enzyme immunoassays. Progesterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-bovine serum albumin (P-3-CMO-BSA) was used as an immunogen to raise the antiserum in New Zealand white rabbits. Five enzyme conjugates were prepared using 17-α-hydroxy-progesterone-3-carboxymethyloxime (17-α-OH-P-3-CMO) as carboxylic derivative of 17-α-hydroxy-progesterone and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as label. These were 17-α-OH-P-3-CMO-HRP, 17-α-OH-P-3-CMO-urea-HRP (17-α-OH-P-3-CMO-U-HRP), 17-α-OH-P-3-CMO-ehylenediamine-HRP (17-α-OH-P-3-CMO-EDA-HRP), 17-α-OH-P-3-CMO-carbohydrazide-HRP (17-α-OH-P-3-CMO-CH-HRP), and 17-α-OH-P-3-CMO-adipic acid dihydrazide-6-aminocaproic acid-HRP (17-α-OH-P-3-CMO-ADH-6ACA-HRP). The influence of different atomic length linkers on sensitivity, ED(50), and specificity were studied with reference to label without linker. The results of the present investigation revealed that the incorporation of ADH-6ACA spacer in 17-α-hydroxy-progesterone-enzyme conjugate improved the sensitivity in antigen plus bridge heterologous EIA system. The presence of spacer in enzyme conjugate improved the sensitivity and specificity (cross-reactivity) in some antigen plus bridge heterologous assay of progesterone. PMID:23323985

  8. Mechanical forces contribute to neonatal lung growth: the influence of altered diaphragm function in piglets.

    PubMed

    Price, M R; Galantowicz, M E; Stolar, C J

    1992-03-01

    Neonatal lung growth is controlled in part by mechanical forces. Altered mechanical forces precipitated by phrenectomy or prosthetic replacement of the diaphragm result in altered thoracic volume relationships, which, in turn, change lung distending pressures and or thoracic volume. These effects might contribute to regional lung growth. We postulated a relationship between altered thoracic mechanical forces and changes in lung growth and asked if altered diaphragm function influenced regional lung growth. Piglets (28d, 7-8kg), were assigned to left transthoracic phrenectomy (P), prosthetic diaphragm replacement (PDR), or sham (S), (n = 6). After a mean 10 days, piglets were studied with tracheostomy and regional pleural pressure transducers. Integrated lung volumes (LV) were recorded with intrapleural pressure (Pip). Dynamic compliance (Cdyn) was calculated (dV/dP). After sacrifice continuous pressure volume (P/V) curves were generated. Lungs were then cut into 4 quadrants based on relationship to R/L bronchus and processed for DNA content and total protein indexes. Analysis of data were made within and between groups. Body weight and gain were similar in all. LV, Pip, Cdyn, and P/V were not significantly different in PDR and P compared with S. Pip differences between thoracic regions within each group were significant for PDR and showed LU less than RU, LL less than RL (P less than 0.05). RU and RL Pip in the PDR group were the same as S. Pip in the P group were decreased in the RU, LU, and LL but only the LL approached significance. Whole lung wet weights were decreased (P less than .05) in P compared to PDR and S.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1501014

  9. Influence of exercise duration and hydration status on cognitive function during prolonged cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Grego, F; Vallier, J-M; Collardeau, M; Rousseu, C; Cremieux, J; Brisswalter, J

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of submaximal aerobic exercise duration on simple and complex cognitive performance. Eight well-trained male subjects agreed to participate in this study (trial group). A control group of eight regularly trained male subjects was included for comparative purposes. For the trial group, the experiment involved a critical flicker fusion test (CFF) and a map recognition task performed before, every 20 min during, and immediately after, a 3-h cycling task at an intensity corresponding to approximately 60 % of VO2max. Data were obtained over two experimental sessions with fluid ingestion (F) or no fluid (NF) ingestion. For the control group the experiment was the same but without exercise and fluid ingestion. In the trial group, a significant effect of hydration status was observed on physiological parameters (p <0.05). No effect was found on cognitive performance. A significant decrease in CFF performance was observed after 120 min of exercise when compared with the first 20 min (respectively for CFFmdi: 2.6 vs. 3.8 Hz), irrespective of experimental condition. A significant improvement in speed of response (respectively: 3291 vs. 3062 msec for 20 and 120 min, respectively) and a decrease in error number (21.5 % vs. 6.0 % for 20 and 120 min, respectively) during the map recognition task were recorded between 80 min and 120 min when compared with the first 20 min of exercise. After 120 min the number of recorded errors was significantly greater indicating a shift in the accuracy-speed trade-off (6.0 % vs. 14.1 % for 120 and 180 min, respectively). These results provide some evidence for exercise-induced facilitation of cognitive function. However this positive effect disappears during prolonged exercise--as evidenced within our study by an increase in errors during the complex task and an alteration in perceptual response (i.e. the appearance of symptoms of central fatigue). PMID:15643531

  10. Inherited functional variants of the lymphocyte receptor CD5 influence melanoma survival.

    PubMed

    Potrony, Miriam; Carreras, Esther; Aranda, Fernando; Zimmer, Lisa; Puig-Butille, Joan-Anton; Tell-Martí, Gemma; Armiger, Noelia; Sucker, Antje; Giménez-Xavier, Pol; Martínez-Florensa, Mario; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Schadendorf, Dirk; Puig, Susana; Lozano, Francisco

    2016-09-15

    Despite the recent progress in treatment options, malignant melanoma remains a deadly disease. Besides therapy, inherited factors might modulate clinical outcome, explaining in part widely varying survival rates. T-cell effector function regulators on antitumor immune responses could also influence survival. CD5, a T-cell receptor inhibitory molecule, contributes to the modulation of antimelanoma immune responses as deduced from genetically modified mouse models. The CD5 SNPs rs2241002 (NM_014207.3:c.671C > T, p.Pro224Leu) and rs2229177 (NM_014207.3:c.1412C > T, p.Ala471Val) constitute an ancestral haplotype (Pro224-Ala471) that confers T-cell hyper-responsiveness and worsens clinical autoimmune outcome. The assessment of these SNPs on survival impact from two melanoma patient cohorts (Barcelona, N = 493 and Essen, N = 215) reveals that p.Ala471 correlates with a better outcome (OR= 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33-0.99, Adj. p = 0.043, in Barcelona OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.40-1.01, Adj. p = 0.051, in Essen). While, p.Leu224 was associated with increased melanoma-associated mortality in both cohorts (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.07-3.24, Adj. p = 0.030 in Barcelona and OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.04-3.26, Adj. p = 0.037, in Essen). Furthermore survival analyses showed that the Pro224-Ala471 haplotype in homozygosis improved melanoma survival in the entire set of patients (HR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.67, Adj. p = 0.005). These findings highlight the relevance of genetic variability in immune-related genes for clinical outcome in melanoma. PMID:27169428

  11. Coming Together and Pulling Apart: Exploring the Influence of Functional Status on Co-resident Relationships in Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Navtej K.; Kemp, Candace L.; Ball, Mary M.; Burgess, Elisabeth O.; Perkins, Molly M.

    2013-01-01

    Social relationships can have considerable influence on physical and mental well-being in later life, particularly for those in long-term care settings such as assisted living (AL). Research set in AL suggests that other residents are among the most available social contacts and that co-resident relationships can affect life satisfaction, quality of life, and well-being. Functional status is a major factor influencing relationships, yet AL research has not studied in-depth or systematically considered the role it plays in residents’ relationships. This study examines the influences of physical and mental function on co-resident relationships in AL and identifies the factors shaping the influence of functional status. We present an analysis of qualitative data collected over a one-year period in two distinct AL settings. Data collection included: participant observation, informal interviews, and formal in-depth interviews with staff, residents, administrators and visitors, as well as surveys with residents. Grounded theory methods guided our data collection and analysis. Our analysis identified the core category, “coming together and pulling apart”, which signifies that functional status is multi-directional, fluid, and operates in different ways in various situations and across time. Key facility- (e.g., admission and retention practices, staff intervention) and resident-level (e.g., personal and situational characteristics) factors shape the influence of functional status on co-resident relationships. Based on our findings, we suggest strategies for promoting positive relationships among residents in AL, including the need to educate staff, families, and residents. PMID:24300052

  12. SOIL N:P RATIO INFLUENCES MYCORRHIZAL FUNCTION AND SOIL ORGANISM FEEDBACKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The degree to which plants benefit from mycorrhizal symbioses is influenced by soil fertility. Plants generally benefit the most from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations when they are growing in phosphorus (P) deficient soil; however soil nitrogen (N) availability can also influence mycorrhizal...

  13. Influence of Vegetations' Metabolites on the Composition and Functioning of Soil Microbial Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Microbiota is one of the major factors of soils fertility. It transforms organic substances in soil and, therefore, serves as the main component in the cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Microbial communities (MC) are characterized as highly diverse and extremely complex structures. This allows them to adapt to any affection and provide all the necessary biospheric functions. Hence, the study of their functional diversity and adaptivity of microbiota provides the key to the understanding of the ecosystems' functioning and their adaptivity to the human impact. The formation of MC at the initial stage is regulated by the fluxes of substrates and biologically active substances (BAS), which vary greatly in soils under different vegetations. These fluxes are presented by: low molecular weights organic substances (LMWOS), which can be directly included in metabolism of microbes; polymers, that can be decomposed to LMWOS by exoenzymes; and more complex compounds, having different "drug effects" (e.g. different types of phenolic acids) and regulating growth and enzymatic properties of microbiota. Therefore, the main hypothesis of the research was formulated as follows: penetration of different types of substrates and BAS into soil leads to the emergence of MC varying in enzymatic properties and structure. As a soil matrix we used the soil from the untreated variant of the lysimeter model experiment taking place in the faculty of Soil Science of the MSU for over the last 40 years. It was sieved with a 2mm sieves, humidified and incubated at 25C during one week. Subsequently, the samples were air-dried with occasional stirring for one more week. Thereafter, aliquots of the prepared soil were taken for the different experimental variants. The samples were rewetted with solutions of various substrates (glucose, cellulose, starch, etc.) and thoroughly mixed. The control variant was established with addition of deionised water. The samples were incubated at the 25C. During the

  14. Influence of Functional Knee Bracing on the Isokinetic and Functional Tests of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficient Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Razjouyan, Javad

    2013-01-01

    Use of functional knee braces has been suggested to provide protection and to improve kinetic performance of the knee in Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL)-injured patients. However, many athletes might refrain from wearing the braces because of the fear of performance hindrance in the playing field. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three functional knee brace/sleeves upon the isokinetic and functional performance of ACL-deficient and healthy subjects. Six anterior cruciate ligament deficient (29.0±5.3 yrs., 175.2±5.4 cm, and 73.0±10.0 kg) and six healthy male subjects (27.2±3.7 yrs., 176.4±6.4 cm, and 70.3±6.9 kg) were selected. The effect of a custom-made functional knee brace, and two neoprene knee sleeves, one with four metal supports and one without support were examined via the use of isokinetic and functional tests in four sets (non-braced,wearing functional knee brace,and wearing the sleeves). Cross-over hop and single leg vertical jump test were performed and jump height, and hop distance were recorded. Peak torque to body weight ratio and average power in two isokinetic velocities(60°.s−1,180°.s−1) were recorded and the brace/sleeves effect was calculated as the changes in peak torque measured in the brace/sleeves conditions, expressed as a percentage of peak torque measured in non-braced condition. Frequency content of the isokinetic torque-time curves was also analyzed. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the measured values in four test conditions within each control and ACL-deficient group,and Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison between the two groups. No significant differences in peak torque, average power, torque-time curve frequency content, vertical-jump and hop measurements were found within the experimental and the non-braced conditions (p>0.05). Although the examined functional knee brace/sleeves had no significant effect on the knee muscle performance, there have been some enhancement regarding

  15. Analyzing the Stability of Price Response Functions: Measuring the Influence of Different Parameters in a Monte Carlo Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusch, Michael; Baier, Daniel

    The usage and the estimation of price response function is very important for strategic marketing decisions. Typically price response functions with an empirical basis are used. However, such price response functions are subject to a lot of disturbing influence factors, e.g., the assumed profit maximum price and the assumed corresponding quantity of sales. In such cases, the question how stable the found price response function is was not answered sufficiently up to now. In this paper, the question will be pursued how much (and what kind of) errors in market research are pardonable for a stable price response function. For the comparisons, a factorial design with synthetically generated and disturbed data is used.

  16. Silver nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotube carpets: influence of surface functionalization.

    PubMed

    Karumuri, Anil K; Oswal, Dhawal P; Hostetler, Heather A; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of nanoparticle-based functional devices depends strongly on the surface morphology and area of the support. An emerging powerful approach of increasing the available surface area without decreasing strength or increasing bulk is to attach arrays of suitable nanotubes on the surface, and to attach the necessary nanoparticles to them. Earlier publications by this team have shown that carpet-like arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be successfully grown on a variety of larger carbon substrates such as graphite, foams and fabric, which offer hierarchical multiscale supporting architecture suitable for the attachment of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). A limiting factor of pure CNT arrays in fluid-based applications is their hydrophobicity, which can reduce the percolation of an aqueous medium through individual nanotubes. Previous studies have demonstrated that the treatment of CNT carpets with dry (oxygen) plasma can induce reversible wettability, and treatment with wet (sol-gel) coating can impart permanent wettability. In this paper, we report the influence of such treatments on the attachment of AgNPs, and their effectiveness in water disinfection treatments. Both types of hydrophilic surface treatment show an increase in silver loading on the CNT carpets. Oxygen-plasma treated surfaces (O-CNT) show fine and densely packed AgNPs, whereas silica-coated nanotubes (silica-CNT) show uneven clusters of AgNPs. However, O-CNT surfaces lose their hydrophilicity during AgNP deposition, whereas silica-CNT surfaces remain hydrophilic. This difference significantly impacts the antibacterial effectiveness of these materials, as tested in simulated water containing Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli, JM109). AgNPs on silica-coated CNT substrates showed significantly higher reduction rates of E. coli compared to AgNPs on plasma-treated CNT substrates, despite the finer and better dispersed AgNP distribution in the latter. These results provide important

  17. Disruption of the circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte influences mycardial contractile function, metabolism, and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virtually every mammalian cell, including cardiomyocytes, possesses an intrinsic circadian clock. The role of this transcriptionally based molecular mechanism in cardiovascular biology is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte influences diurnal variatio...

  18. Mediterranean-type ecosystems: the influence of biodiversity on their functioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, George W.; Richardson, David M.; Keeley, Jon E.; Hobbs, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Ecosystems in the Mediterranean-climate regions of the world have served as a unit for comparative ecological studies for over two decades. The cohesiveness of research in this set of widely distributed regions rests on the similarity of the climates where they occur, and the identifiable convergence in elements of their vegetation structure (Di Castri and Mooney 1973). In this chapter we review functional aspects of what have come to be known as Mediterranean-type ecosystems (METs) in the context of a concerned global interest in the sustainability of the human environment and its dependence on biological diversity. The approach we adopt here is to look for evidence that this biodiversity, for which some MTEs are renowned (Cowling, 1992; Hobbs, 1992), has an influence on processes which are important both for the maintenance of natural systems, and for providing "ecosystem services" with human utility. Almost a century ago, Schimper (1903) recognized the biological similarities between five widely separated regions characterized by Mediterranean-type climates, and much comparative work has been done on that basis since. These regions comprise the Mediterranean basin itself, a major portion of California, central Chile, the southwestern and southern extremities of South Africa, and parts of southwestern and southern Australia (Figure 7.1). The first attention paid to MTEs in terms of quantitative ecological research arose out of the International Biological Programme (IBP) of the 1960s and 1970s. Those efforts focused on comparisons between the Chilean and Californian systems (Mooney 1977), and dealt with parallel models of ecosystem processes, especially water flux (Fuentes et al 1995). Because of the already perceived similarities between vegetation in these and the other three regions, the project was soon extended to include all five regions. The first broad comparative overview was published as an anthology which considered the origins and the convergent

  19. Influence of ovaries and photoperiod on reproductive function in the mare.

    PubMed

    Freedman, L J; Garcia, M C; Ginther, O J

    1979-01-01

    A 16 h daily photoperiod hastened the onset of the ovulatory season (first ovulation); gonadotrophin and follicular changes prior to the onset were similar in intact light-treated and control mares. A preovulatory decline in FSH concentrations before the onset of the ovulatory season preceded the decrease in number of follicles (15--25 mm) and the rise in LH concentrations which was temporally associated with the growth of an ovulatory follicle. Seasonal changes of FSH and LH concentrations were found in ovariectomized mares and were influenced by photoperiod. During the anovulatory season, there was no ovarian influence on gonadotrophin concentrations. However, during the ovulatory season the ovaries exerted a positive influence on seasonally elevated LH concentrations during oestrus and a negative influence during dioestrus. The ovaries exerted a negative influence on seasonally elevated FSH concentrations throughout the oestrous cycle. The onset of the ovulatory season occurred at the time of the first sustained increase in LH concentrations resulting from positive seasonal (increasing photoperiod) and ovarian influences. PMID:289843

  20. Influence of Assessment Setting on the Results of Functional Analyses of Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Rispoli, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    Analogue functional analyses are widely used to identify the operant function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Because problem behavior often occurs across multiple settings (e.g., homes, schools, outpatient clinics), it is important to determine whether the results of functional analyses vary across settings.…

  1. On the saturation of the refractive index structure function. II - Influence of the correlation length on astronomical 'seeing'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatakrishnan, P.

    1987-01-01

    A physical length scale in the wavefront corresponding to the parameter (r sub 0) characterizing the loss in detail in a long exposure image is identified, and the influence of the correlation scale of turbulence as r sub 0 approaches this scale is shown. Allowing for the effect of 2-point correlations in the fluctuations of the refractive index, Venkatakrishnan and Chatterjee (1987) proposed a modified law for the phase structure function. It is suggested that the departure of the phase structure function from the 5/3 power law for length scales in the wavefront approaching the correlation scale of turbulence may lead to better 'seeing' at longer wavelengths.

  2. Aromatic Lateral Substituents Influence the Excitation Energies of Hexaaza Lanthanide Macrocyclic Complexes: A Wave Function Theory and Density Functional Study.

    PubMed

    Rabanal-León, Walter A; Murillo-López, Juliana A; Páez-Hernández, Dayán; Arratia-Pérez, Ramiro

    2015-09-24

    The high interest in lanthanide chemistry, and particularly in their luminescence, has been encouraged by the need of understanding the lanthanide chemical coordination and how the design of new luminescent materials can be affected by this. This work is focused on the understanding of the electronic structure, bonding nature, and optical properties of a set of lanthanide hexaaza macrocyclic complexes, which can lead to potential optical applications. Here we found that the DFT ground state of the open-shell complexes are mainly characterized by the manifold of low lying f states, having small HOMO-LUMO energy gaps. The results obtained from the wave function theory calculations (SO-RASSI) put on evidence the multiconfigurational character of their ground state and it is observed that the large spin-orbit coupling and the weak crystal field produce a strong mix of the ground and the excited states. The electron localization function (ELF) and the energy decomposition analysis (EDA) support the idea of a dative interaction between the macrocyclic ligand and the lanthanide center for all the studied systems; noting that, this interaction has a covalent character, where the d-orbital participation is evidenced from NBO analysis, leaving the f shell completely noninteracting in the chemical bonding. From the optical part we observed in all cases the characteristic intraligand (IL) (π-π*) and ligand to metal charge-transfer (LMCT) bands that are present in the ultraviolet and visible regions, and for the open-shell complexes we found the inherent f-f electronic transitions on the visible and near-infrared region. PMID:26325624

  3. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    PubMed

    Engi, Sheila A; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances. PMID:26760038

  4. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Engi, Sheila A.; Planeta, Cleopatra S.; Crestani, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances. PMID:26760038

  5. Influence of personality and neuropsychological ability on social functioning and self-management in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Vierck, Esther; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-10-30

    A majority of bipolar patients (BD) show functional difficulties even in remission. In recent years cognitive functions and personality characteristics have been associated with occupational and psychosocial outcomes, but findings are not consistent. We assessed personality and cognitive functioning through a range of tests in BD and control participants. Three cognitive domains-verbal memory, facial-executive, and spatial memory-were extracted by principal component analysis. These factors and selected personality dimensions were included in hierarchical regression analysis to predict psychosocial functioning and the use of self-management strategies while controlling for mood status. The best determinants of good psychosocial functioning were good verbal memory and high self-directedness. The use of self-management techniques was associated with a low level of harm-avoidance. Our findings indicate that strategies to improve memory and self-directedness may be useful for increasing functioning in individuals with bipolar disorder. PMID:26282228

  6. Influence of pressure derivative of partition function on thermodynamic properties of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Sharma, Rohit; Singh, Kuldip

    2015-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties (compressibility coefficient Z γ , specific heat at constant volume c v , adiabatic coefficient γ a , isentropic coefficient γ i s e n , and sound speed c s ) of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium hydrogen thermal plasma have been investigated for different values of pressure and non-equilibrium parameter θ (=Te/Th) in the electron temperature range from 6000 K to 60 000 K. In order to estimate the influence of pressure derivative of partition function on thermodynamic properties, two cases have been considered: (a) in which pressure derivative of partition function is taken into account in the expressions and (b) without pressure derivative of partition function in their expressions. Here, the case (b) represents expressions already available in literature. It has been observed that the temperature from which pressure derivative of partition function starts influencing a given thermodynamic property increases with increase of pressure and non-equilibrium parameter θ. Thermodynamic property in the case (a) is always greater than its value in the case (b) for compressibility coefficient and specific heat at constant volume, whereas for adiabatic coefficient, isentropic coefficient, and sound speed, its value in the case (a) is always less than its value in the case (b). For a given value of θ, the relationship of compressibility coefficient with degree of ionization depends upon pressure in the case (a), whereas it is independent of pressure in the case (b). Relative deviation between the two cases shows that the influence of pressure derivative of partition function is significantly large and increases with the augmentation of pressure and θ for compressibility coefficient, specific heat at constant volume, and adiabatic coefficient, whereas for isentropic coefficient and sound speed, it is marginal even at high values of pressure and non-equilibrium parameter θ.

  7. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part I: Maternal Behavior Permanently Affects Adult Behavior in Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights the field of epigenetics and its relevance in determining the effects of maternal nurturing on behavioral patterns in offsprings. Results concluded that maternal behavior influences the offspring's behavior to stress in adulthood and the effects are transgenerational through epigenetic mechanisms.

  8. What is the zone of influence of an individual tree on soil microbial structure and function?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Appalachian mountains of West Virginia, landscape fragmentation results in areas with gradual blending of forests and pastures ecosystems. Studies that address changes across ecological gradients must take into consideration the zone of influence of each ecosystem to ensure that samples take...

  9. Therapeutic Influence as a Function of Counselor Attire and the Seating Arrangement in an Initial Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Carlton S.

    Initial impressions of a counselor's credibility and attractiveness may affect the development of rapport as well as client attrition. Recent research has focused on contextual clues in the counseling setting which may influence client perceptions. The effects of counselor attire and the seating arrangement were examined in a counseling analogue…

  10. Isotope and fatty acid trends along continental shelf depth gradients: Inshore versus offshore hydrological influences on benthic trophic functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouvelon, T.; Schaal, G.; Grall, J.; Pernet, F.; Perdriau, M.; A-Pernet, E. J.; Le Bris, H.

    2015-11-01

    Anthropogenic activities and land-based inputs into the sea may influence the trophic structure and functioning of coastal and continental shelf ecosystems, despite the numerous opportunities and services the latter offer to humans and wildlife. In addition, hydrological structures and physical dynamics potentially influence the sources of organic matter (e.g., terrestrial versus marine, or fresh material versus detrital material) entering marine food webs. Understanding the significance of the processes that influence marine food webs and ecosystems (e.g., terrestrial inputs, physical dynamics) is crucially important because trophic dynamics are a vital part of ecosystem integrity. This can be achieved by identifying organic matter sources that enter food webs along inshore-offshore transects. We hypothesised that regional hydrological structures over wide continental shelves directly control the benthic trophic functioning across the shelf. We investigated this issue along two transects in the northern ecosystem of the Bay of Biscay (north-eastern Atlantic). Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis (SIA) and fatty acid analysis (FAA) were conducted on different complementary ecosystem compartments that include suspended particulate organic matter (POM), sedimentary organic matter (SOM), and benthic consumers such as bivalves, large crustaceans and demersal fish. Samples were collected from inshore shallow waters (at ∼1 m in depth) to more than 200 m in depth on the offshore shelf break. Results indicated strong discrepancies in stable isotope (SI) and fatty acid (FA) compositions in the sampled compartments between inshore and offshore areas, although nitrogen SI (δ15N) and FA trends were similar along both transects. Offshore the influence of a permanently stratified area (described previously as a "cold pool") was evident in both transects. The influence of this hydrological structure on benthic trophic functioning (i.e., on the food sources available for

  11. The Influence of Family Factors on the Executive Functioning of Adult Children of Alcoholics in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning in college aged adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; n = 84) and non-ACOAs (188). We examined whether characteristics of the family environment and family responsibility in one's family of origin were associated with executive functioning above the contribution of ACOA status. ACOAs reported more…

  12. Forms and Functions of Aggression in Adolescent Friendship Selection and Influence: A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Ojanen, Tiina; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive children are known to have friends. However, less is known about the impact of aggression on friendship development and how this can differ for overt and relational (i.e., the forms) and instrumental and reactive (i.e., the functions) aggression. This longitudinal study utilized the forms and functions perspective on aggression to…

  13. Using an Adoption Design to Separate Genetic, Prenatal, and Temperament Influences on Toddler Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leve, Leslie D.; DeGarmo, David S.; Bridgett, David J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    Poor executive functioning has been implicated in children's concurrent and future behavioral difficulties, making work aimed at understanding processes related to the development of early executive function (EF) critical for models of developmental psychopathology. Deficits in EF have been associated with adverse prenatal experiences, genetic…

  14. Influence of Anxiety on the Social Functioning of Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Ransone, Megan L.; Calhoun, Casey D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This investigation examined the contribution of anxiety to the social functioning of children with and without ADHD. Method: Participants were 62 children with ADHD (ages 6-10 years and 68% boys) and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison children. Children's social functioning was measured through parent and teacher reports, observations…

  15. Influence of the duration of breastfeeding on quality of muscle function during mastication in preschoolers: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is some evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding to masticatory function, but no studies have evaluated the influence of breastfeeding duration on the quality of this function. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between duration of breastfeeding and quality of masticatory function in preschoolers. Methods Cross-sectional study nested in a contemporary cohort of 144 randomly selected Brazilian infants. Data on sociodemographic, dietary, and sucking-related parameters were collected shortly after birth and at 7, 30, 60, 120, and 180 days of life. Masticatory function was assessed between the ages of 3 and 5 years, using a standardized procedure involving three foodstuffs of different consistencies, for evaluation of incision, lip competence, masticatory patterns, masticatory movements, and perioral muscle use. The quality of masticatory function was scored, and multiple linear regression was used to test for association between this score and the duration of breastfeeding. Results A positive correlation was found between duration of breastfeeding and masticatory function scores (rs = 0.473; p < 0.001). Children breastfed for at least 12 months had significantly higher average scores, regardless of bottle-feeding or pacifier use. Children who were breastfed for longer were more likely to score satisfactorily across all tested parameters. Conclusions Breastfeeding has a positive impact on mastication. In our sample, duration of breastfeeding was positively associated with the quality of masticatory function at preschool age. PMID:23114410

  16. The influence of the great inequality on the secular disturbing function of the planetary system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musen, P.

    1971-01-01

    This paper derives the contribution by the great inequality to the secular disturbing function of the principal planets. Andoyer's expansion of the planetary disturbing function and von Zeipel's method of eliminating the periodic terms is employed; thereby, the corrected secular disturbing function for the planetary system is derived. The conclusion is drawn that the canonicity of the equations for the secular variation of the heliocentric elements can be preserved if there be retained, in the secular disturbing function, terms only of the second and fourth order relative to the eccentricity and inclinations. The Krylov-Bogoliubov method is suggested for eliminating periodic terms, if it is desired to include the secular perturbations of the fifth and higher order in the heliocentric elements. The additional part of the secular disturbing function derived in this paper can be included in existing theories of the secular effects of principal planets.

  17. Phylogenetic relatedness and leaf functional traits, not introduced status, influence community assembly.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Nathan P; Shue, Jessica; Verrico, Brittany; Erickson, David; Kress, W John; Parker, John D

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate focuses on whether invasive species establish and become abundant by being functionally and phylogenetically distinct from native species, leading to a host of invasion-specific hypotheses of community assembly. Few studies, however, have quantitatively assessed whether similar patterns of phylogenetic and functional similarity explain local abundance of both native and introduced species, which would suggest similar assembly mechanisms regardless of origin. Using a chronosequence of invaded temperate forest stands, we tested whether the occurrence and abundance of both introduced and native species were predicted by phylogenetic relatedness, functional overlap, and key environmental characteristics including forest age. Environmental filtering against functionally and phylogenetically distinct species strongly dictated the occurrence and abundance of both introduced and native species, with slight modifications of these patterns according to forest age. Thus, once functional and evolutionary novelty were quantified, introduced status provided little information about species' presence or abundance, indicating largely similar sorting mechanisms for both native and introduced species. PMID:26649382

  18. Influence of different anesthetic and analgesic methods on early cognitive function of elderly patients receiving non-cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Shuijun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To discuss over influence of two different anesthetic and analgesic methods on early cognitive function of elderly patients who received non-cardiac surgery. Methods: Two hundred and six elderly patients who underwent non-cardiac surgery were selected as research subjects. They were randomly divided into observation group (103 cases) and control group (103 cases). Patients in observation group were given combined spinal and epidural anesthesia and epidural analgesia, while patients in control group adopted general anesthesia and intravenous analgesia. Neurological function test was carried out one day before surgery and on the 7th day after surgery. Moreover, changes of postoperative pain degree, neuropsychological function and cognitive function were observed and compared. Results: On the 7th day after surgery, incidence of cognition impairment in observation group and control group was 48.50% (50/103 cases) and 44.70% (46/103 cases), and difference between groups had no statistical significance. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) Score of observation group was much lower than control group in the 12th, 24th and 48th h after surgery (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis suggested that, short education years and general surgery were independent risk factors for early cognition impairment. Conclusion: About 46.60% elderly patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery developed cognition impairment, but influence of different anesthetic and analgesic methods on incidence of postoperative cognition impairment of elderly patients had no significant difference. PMID:27182242

  19. Influence of the excited states on the electron-energy distribution function in low-pressure microwave argon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yanguas-Gil, A.; Cotrino, J.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.

    2005-07-01

    In this work the influence of the excited states on the electron-energy distribution function has been determined for an argon microwave discharge at low pressure. A collisional-radiative model of argon has been developed taking into account the most recent experimental and theoretical values of argon-electron-impact excitation cross sections. The model has been solved along with the electron Boltzmann equation in order to study the influence of the inelastic collisions from the argon excited states on the electron-energy distribution function. Results show that under certain conditions the excited states can play an important role in determining the shape of the distribution function and the mean kinetic energy of the electrons, deplecting the high-energy tail due to inelastic processes from the excited states, especially from the 4s excited configuration. It has been found that from the populations of the excited states an excitation temperature can be defined. This excitation temperature, which can be experimentally determined by optical emission spectroscopy, is lower than the electron kinetic temperature obtained from the electron-energy distribution function.

  20. The influence of functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular stimulation has been used as one potential rehabilitative treatment option to restore motor function and improve recovery in patients with paresis. Especially stroke patients who often regain only limited hand function would greatly benefit from a therapy that enhances recovery and restores movement. Multiple studies investigated the effect of functional electrical stimulation on hand paresis, the results however are inconsistent. Here we review the current literature on functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients. We discuss the impact of different parameters such as stage after stoke, degree of impairment, spasticity and treatment protocols on the functional outcome. Importantly, we outline the results from recent studies investigating the cortical effects elicited by functional electrical stimulation giving insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for long-term treatment effects. Bringing together the findings from present research it becomes clear that both, treatment outcomes as well as the neurophysiologic mechanisms causing functional recovery, vary depending on patient characteristics. In order to develop unified treatment guidelines it is essential to conduct homogenous studies assessing the impact of different parameters on rehabilitative success. PMID:25276333

  1. Nerve Regeneration: Understanding Biology and Its Influence on Return of Function After Nerve Transfers.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Tessa

    2016-05-01

    Poor functional outcomes are frequent after peripheral nerve injuries despite the regenerative support of Schwann cells. Motoneurons and, to a lesser extent, sensory neurons survive the injuries but outgrowth of axons across the injury site is slow. The neuronal regenerative capacity and the support of regenerating axons by the chronically denervated Schwann cells progressively declines with time and distance of the injury from the denervated targets. Strategies, including brief low-frequency electrical stimulation that accelerates target reinnervation and functional recovery, and the insertion of cross-bridges between a donor nerve and a recipient denervated nerve stump, are effective in promoting functional outcomes after complete and incomplete injuries. PMID:27094884

  2. The influence of cognitive reserve on psychosocial and neuropsychological functioning in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Forcada, Irene; Mur, Maria; Mora, Ester; Vieta, Eduard; Bartrés-Faz, David; Portella, Maria J

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to the hypothesized capacity of an adult brain to cope with brain pathology in order to minimize symptomatology. CR was initially investigated in dementia and acute brain damage, but it is being applied to other neuropsychiatric conditions. The present study aims at examining the fit of this concept to a sample of euthymic bipolar patients compared with healthy controls in order to investigate the role of CR in predicting psychosocial and cognitive outcome in bipolar disorder (BD). The sample included 101 subjects: 52 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for BD type I or II and 49 healthy controls (HC) matched for age and gender. They were all assessed with a cognitive battery tapping into executive and memory functioning. CR was obtained using three different proxies: education-occupation, leisure activities and premorbid IQ. Psychosocial functioning was evaluated by means of the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). MANCOVAs were performed to determine differences in cognitive and functioning variables. Linear regression analyses were carried out to predict neuropsychological and psychosocial outcomes. Euthymic bipolar patients showed worse neuropsychological performance and psychosocial functioning than HC. The linear regression models revealed that CR was significantly predictive of FAST score (β = -0.47, p < 0.0001), Executive Index (β = 0.62, p < 0.0001) and Visual Memory Index (β = 0.44, p = 0.0004), indicating that CR is a significant predictor of cognitive and psychosocial functioning in euthymic bipolar outpatients. Therefore, CR may contribute to functional outcome in BD and may be applied in research and clinical interventions to prevent cognitive and functional impairment. PMID:25172270

  3. The influence of season, photoperiod, and pineal melatonin on immune function.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R J; Demas, G E; Klein, S L; Kriegsfeld, L J

    1995-11-01

    In addition to the well-documented seasonal cycles of mating and birth, there are also significant seasonal cycles of illness and death among many animal populations. Challenging winter conditions (i.e., low ambient temperature and decreased food availability) can directly induce death via hypothermia, starvation, or shock. Coping with these challenges can also indirectly increase morbidity and mortality by increasing glucocorticoid secretion, which can compromise immune function. Many environmental challenges are recurrent and thus predictable; animals could enhance survival, and presumably increase fitness, if they could anticipate immunologically challenging conditions in order to cope with these seasonal threats to health. The annual cycle of changing photoperiod provides an accurate indicator of time of year and thus allows immunological adjustments prior to the deterioration of conditions. Pineal melatonin codes day length information. Short day lengths enhance several aspects of immune function in laboratory studies, and melatonin appears to mediate many of the enhanced immunological effects of photoperiod. Generally, field studies report compromised immune function during the short days of autumn and winter. The conflict between laboratory and field data is addressed with a multifactor approach. The evidence for seasonal fluctuations in lymphatic tissue size and structure, as well as immune function and disease processes, is reviewed. The role of pineal melatonin and the hormones regulated by melatonin is discussed from an evolutionary and adaptive functional perspective. Finally, the clinically significance of seasonal fluctuations in immune function is presented. Taken together, it appears that seasonal fluctuations in immune parameters, mediated by melatonin, could have profound effects on the etiology and progression of diseases in humans and nonhuman animals. An adaptive functional perspective is critical to gain insights into the interaction among

  4. Neighborhood satisfaction, functional limitations, and self-efficacy influences on physical activity in older women

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Katherine S; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Background Perceptions of one's environment and functional status have been linked to physical activity in older adults. However, little is known about these associations over time, and even less about the possible mediators of this relationship. We examined the roles played by neighborhood satisfaction, functional limitations, self-efficacy, and physical activity in a sample of older women over a 6-month period. Methods Participants (N = 137, M age = 69.6 years) completed measures of neighborhood satisfaction, functional limitations, self-efficacy, and physical activity at baseline and again 6 months later. Results Analyses indicated that changes in neighborhood satisfaction and functional limitations had direct effects on residual changes in self-efficacy, and changes in self-efficacy were associated with changes in physical activity at 6 months. Conclusion Our findings support a social cognitive model of physical activity in which neighborhood satisfaction and functional status effects on physical activity are in part mediated by intermediate individual outcomes such as self-efficacy. Additionally, these findings lend support to the position that individual perceptions of both the environment and functional status can have prospective effects on self-efficacy cognitions and ultimately, physical activity behavior. PMID:18304326

  5. The intrahemispheric functional properties of the developing sensorimotor cortex are influenced by maturation

    PubMed Central

    Berchicci, Marika; Tamburro, Gabriella; Comani, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of the functional changes in the sensorimotor cortex has important clinical implications as deviations from normal development can anticipate developmental disorders. The functional properties of the sensorimotor cortex can be characterized through the rolandic mu rhythm, already present during infancy. However, how the sensorimotor network develops from early infancy to adulthood, and how sensorimotor processing contributes to the generation of perceptual-motor coupling remains largely unknown. Here, we analyzed magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data recorded in two groups of infants (11–24 and 26–47 weeks), two groups of children (24–34 and 36–60 months), and a control group of adults (20–39 years), during intermixed conditions of rest and prehension. The MEG sensor array was positioned over the sensorimotor cortex of the contralateral hemisphere. We characterized functional connectivity and topological properties of the sensorimotor network across ages and conditions through synchronization likelihood and segregation/integration measures in an individual mu rhythm frequency range. All functional measures remained almost unchanged during the first year of life, whereas they varied afterwards through childhood to reach adult values, demonstrating an increase of both segregation and integration properties. With age, the sensorimotor network evolved from a more random (infants) to a “small-world” organization (children and adults), more efficient both locally and globally. These findings are in line with prior studies on structural and functional brain development in infants, children and adults. We could not demonstrate any significant change in the functional properties of the sensorimotor cortex in the prehension condition with respect to rest. Our results support the view that, since early infancy, the functional properties of the developing sensorimotor cortex are modulated by maturation. PMID:25741263

  6. Influencing the decline of lung function in COPD: use of pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gladysheva, Ekaterina S; Malhotra, Atul; Owens, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and deadly disease. One of the hallmarks of COPD is an accelerated decline in lung function, as measured by spirometry. Inflammation, oxidative stress and other pathways are hypothesized to be important in this deterioration. Because progressive airflow obstruction is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, a major goal of COPD treatment has been to slow or prevent the accelerated decline in lung function. Until recently, the only known effective intervention was smoking cessation. However, newly reported large clinical trials have shown that commonly used medications may help slow the rate of lung function decline. The effect of these medications is modest (and thus required such large, expensive trials) and to be of clinical benefit, therapy would likely need to start early in the course of disease and be prolonged. Such a treatment strategy aimed at preservation of lung function would need to be balanced against the side effects and costs of prolonged therapy. A variety of newer classes of medications may help target other pathophysiologically important pathways, and could be used in the future to prevent lung function decline in COPD. PMID:20631815

  7. Influence of functionalized nanoparticles on conformational stability of type I collagen for possible biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kandamchira, Aswathy; Selvam, Sangeetha; Marimuthu, Nidhin; Janardhanan, Sreeram Kalarical; Fathima, Nishter Nishad

    2013-12-01

    Collagen-nanoparticle interactions are vital for many biomedical applications including drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using starch template according to our earlier reported procedures were functionalized by treating them with Gum Arabic (GA), a biocompatible polysaccharide, so as to enhance the interaction between nanoparticle surfaces and collagen. Viscosity, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques have been used to study the collagen-nanoparticle interactions. The relative viscosity for collagen-nanoparticle conjugate was found to increase with increase in concentration of the nanoparticle within the concentration range investigated, which is due to the aggregation of protein onto the surface of nanoparticle. The CD spectra for the collagen-nanoparticle at different concentration ratios do not have much variation in the Rpn values (ratio of positive peak intensity over negative peak intensity) after functionalization with GA. The variation of molar ellipticity values for collagen-nanoparticle is due to the glycoprotein present in GA. The collagen triple helical structure is maintained after interaction with nanoparticles. The FTIR spectra of native collagen, Coll-Fs (nanoparticle without functionalization) and Coll-FsG (nanoparticle functionalized with GA) show clearly the amide I, II, III bands, with respect to collagen. The ability of polysaccharide stabilized/functionalized nanoparticles to maintain the collagen properties would help in its biomedical applications. PMID:24094214

  8. Influencing the decline of lung function in COPD: use of pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gladysheva, Ekaterina S; Malhotra, Atul; Owens, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and deadly disease. One of the hallmarks of COPD is an accelerated decline in lung function, as measured by spirometry. Inflammation, oxidative stress and other pathways are hypothesized to be important in this deterioration. Because progressive airflow obstruction is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, a major goal of COPD treatment has been to slow or prevent the accelerated decline in lung function. Until recently, the only known effective intervention was smoking cessation. However, newly reported large clinical trials have shown that commonly used medications may help slow the rate of lung function decline. The effect of these medications is modest (and thus required such large, expensive trials) and to be of clinical benefit, therapy would likely need to start early in the course of disease and be prolonged. Such a treatment strategy aimed at preservation of lung function would need to be balanced against the side effects and costs of prolonged therapy. A variety of newer classes of medications may help target other pathophysiologically important pathways, and could be used in the future to prevent lung function decline in COPD. PMID:20631815

  9. Nanosized titanium dioxide influences copper-induced toxicity during aging as a function of environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Seitz, Frank; Haigis, Ann-Cathrin; Höger, Johanna; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) adsorb co-occurring heavy metals in surface waters, modulating their toxicity for freshwater invertebrates. The processes triggering this interaction may be influenced by several environmental parameters; however, their relative importance remains unclear. The present study assessed the implications of aging on the joint acute toxicity of copper (Cu) and TiO2 -NPs for Daphnia magna over a duration of up to 72 h. The influences of aging duration as well as ionic strength, pH, and presence of different qualities of organic matter during aging were assessed. The results indicated that the presence of TiO2 -NPs often reduced the Cu-induced toxicity for daphnids after aging (albeit with varying extent), which was displayed by up to 3-fold higher EC50 (50% effective concentration) values compared to the absence of TiO2 -NPs. Moreover, the Cu speciation, influenced by the ionic composition and the pH as well as the presence of organic additives in the medium, strongly modulated the processes during aging, with partly limited implications of the aging duration on the ecotoxicological response of D. magna. Nonetheless, the present study underpins the potential of TiO2 -NPs to modify toxicity induced by heavy metals in freshwater ecosystems under various environmental conditions. This pattern, however, needs further verification using heavy metal ions with differing properties in combination with further environmental factors, such as ultraviolet irradiation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1766-1774. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26640248

  10. Influence of hydrostatic pressure on the ductility of copper as a function of its initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure in the interval 0-250 MPa on the deformation properties of copper versus its initial state is studied. After liquid nitrogen storage, the torsion strain to fracture is found to increase when the pressure rises to 200 MPa. As the pressure rises further and reaches 250 MPa, the torsion strain to fracture drops. Preliminary torsion to a strain of 5% in opposition to torsion under pressure makes the pressure dependence of the ultimate strain linear. If the prestrain equals 25%, a rise in the pressure to 150MPa increases the ductility of the material. A further increase in the pressure to 250 MPa changes the ductility insignificantly.